WorldWideScience

Sample records for longer-period low-mass eclipsing

  1. Modeling the System Parameters of 2M1533+3759: A New Longer-Period Low-Mass Eclipsing sdB+dM Binary

    CERN Document Server

    For, B -Q; Fontaine, G; Drechsel, H; Shaw, J S; Dittmann, J A; Fay, A G; Francoeur, M; Laird, J; Moriyama, E; Morris, M; Rodríguez-López, C; Sierchio, J M; Story, S M; Strom, A; Wang, C; Adams, S M; Bolin, D E; Eskew, M; Chayer, P

    2009-01-01

    We present new photometric and spectroscopic observations for 2M 1533+3759 (= NSVS 07826147). It has an orbital period of 0.16177042 day, significantly longer than the 2.3--3.0 hour periods of the other known eclipsing sdB+dM systems. Spectroscopic analysis of the hot primary yields Teff = 29230 +/- 125 K, log g = 5.58 +/- 0.03 and log N(He)/N(H) = -2.37 +/- 0.05. The sdB velocity amplitude is K1 = 71.1 +/- 1.0 km/s. The only detectable light contribution from the secondary is due to the surprisingly strong reflection effect. Light curve modeling produced several solutions corresponding to different values of the system mass ratio, q(M2/M1), but only one is consistent with a core helium burning star, q=0.301. The orbital inclination is 86.6 degree. The sdB primary mass is M1 = 0.376 +/- 0.055 Msun and its radius is R1 = 0.166 +/- 0.007 Rsun. 2M1533+3759 joins PG0911+456 (and possibly also HS2333+3927) in having an unusually low mass for an sdB star. SdB stars with masses significantly lower than the canonical...

  2. Flare activity on low-mass eclipsing binary GJ 3236*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmelcer, L.; Wolf, M.; Kučáková, H.; Bílek, F.; Dubovský, P.; Hoňková, K.; Vraštil, J.

    2017-04-01

    We report the discovery of optical flares on the very low-mass red-dwarf eclipsing binary GJ 3236 and the results of our 2014-2016 photometric campaign. In total, this binary was monitored photometrically in all filters for about 900 h, which has revealed a flare rate of about 0.06 flares per hour. The amplitude of its flares is the largest among those detected in the V band (∼1.3 mag), R band (∼0.8 mag), I band (∼0.2 mag) and clear band (∼0.5 mag). The light curves of GJ 3236 were analysed and the statistics of detected flare events are presented. The energy released during individual flares was calculated as up to 2.4 × 1027 J and compared with other known active stars. The cumulative distribution of flare energies appears to follow a broken power law. The flare activity of this binary also plays an important role in the precise determination of its physical parameters and evolutionary status.

  3. A new gamma-ray loud, eclipsing low-mass X-ray binary

    CERN Document Server

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Heinke, Craig O; Udalski, Andrzej; Peacock, Mark; Shishkovsky, Laura; Tremou, Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of an eclipsing low-mass X-ray binary at the center of the 3FGL error ellipse of the unassociated Fermi/Large Area Telescope gamma-ray source 3FGL J0427.9-6704. Photometry from OGLE and the SMARTS 1.3-m telescope and spectroscopy from the SOAR telescope have allowed us to classify the system as an eclipsing low-mass X-ray binary (P = 8.8 hr) with a main sequence donor and a neutron star accretor. Broad double-peaked H and He emission lines suggest the ongoing presence of an accretion disk. Remarkably, the system shows shows separate sets of absorption lines associated with the accretion disk and the secondary, and we use their radial velocities to find evidence for a massive (~ 1.8-1.9 M_sun) neutron star primary. In addition to a total X-ray eclipse of duration ~ 2200 s observed with NuSTAR, the X-ray light curve also shows properties similar to those observed among known transitional millisecond pulsars: short-term variability, a hard power-law spectrum (photon index ~ 1.7), and a co...

  4. KOI-126: A Triply-Eclipsing Hierarchical Triple with Two Low-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Joshua A; Ragozzine, Darin; Holman, Matthew J; Quinn, Samuel N; Latham, David W; Buchhave, Lars A; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Cochran, William D; Cote, Miles T; Endl, Michael; Ford, Eric B; Haas, Michael R; Jenkins, Jon M; Koch, David G; Li, Jie; Lissauer, Jack J; MacQueen, Phillip J; Middour, Christopher K; Orosz, Jerome A; Rowe, Jason F; Steffen, Jason H; Welsh, William F; 10.1126/science.1201274

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler spacecraft has been monitoring the light from 150,000 stars in its primary quest to detect transiting exoplanets. Here we report on the detection of an eclipsing stellar hierarchical triple, identified in the Kepler photometry. KOI-126 (A,(B, C)), is composed of a low-mass binary (masses M_B = 0.2413+/-0.0030 M_Sun, M_C = 0.2127+/-0.0026 M_Sun; radii R_B = 0.2543+/-0.0014 R_Sun, R_C = 0.2318+/-0.0013 R_Sun; orbital period P_1 = 1.76713+/-0.00019 days) on an eccentric orbit about a third star (mass M_A = 1.347+/-0.032 M_Sun; radius R_A = 2.0254+/-0.0098 R_Sun; period of orbit around the low-mass binary P_2 = 33.9214+/-0.0013 days; eccentricity of that orbit e_2 = 0.3043+/-0.0024). The low-mass pair probe the poorly sampled fully-convective stellar domain offering a crucial benchmark for theoretical stellar models.

  5. Optical flare activity in the low-mass eclipsing binary GJ 3236

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    Parimucha, Š.; Dubovský, P.; Vaňko, M.; Čokina, M.

    2016-09-01

    We present our observations of the low-mass eclipsing binary GJ 3236. We have analyzed a phased RC light-curve and confirmed previously determined fundamental parameters of the components. We detected evolution of the spot(s) and found that there exists a large spot near a polar region of the primary component and another spot either on the primary or the secondary component. We also observed 7 flare events and determined a flare rate of about 0.1 flares per hour. We observed two high energy, long-term flares with a complex light curve and possibly four weak short-term flaring events. A majority of the flares was detected in the RC filter, which indicate their high energy.

  6. Optical flare activity in the low-mass eclipsing binary GJ~3236

    CERN Document Server

    Parimucha, S; Vanko, M; Cokina, M

    2016-01-01

    We present our observations of the low-mass eclipsing binary GJ~3236. We have analyzed a phased $R_C$ light-curve and confirmed previously determined fundamental parameters of the components. We detected evolution of the spot(s) and found that there exists a large spot near a polar region of the primary component and another spot either on the primary or the secondary component. We also observed 7 flare events and determined a flare rate of about 0.1 flares per hour. We observed two high energy, long-term flares with a complex light curve and possibly four weak short-term flaring events. A majority of the flares was detected in the $R_C$ filter, which indicate their high energy.

  7. Physical Properties of the Low-Mass Eclipsing Binary NSVS 02502726

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk

    2012-01-01

    NSVS 02502726 has been known as a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary that consists of two low-mass stars. We obtained $BVRI$ photometric follow-up observations in 2009 and 2011 to measure improved physical properties of the binary star. Each set of light curves, including the 2008 data given by \\cCakirli et al., was simultaneously analyzed with the previously published radial-velocity curves using the Wilson-Devinney binary code. The conspicuous seasonal light variations of the system are satisfactorily modelled by a two-spot model with one starspot on each component and by changes of the spot parameters with time. Based on 23 eclipse timings calculated from the synthetic model and one ephemeris epoch, an orbital period study of NSVS 02502726 reveals that the period has experienced a continuous decrease of $-5.9\\times10^{-7}$ d yr$^{-1}$ or a sinusoidal variation with a period and semi-amplitude of 2.51 yrs and 0.0011 d, respectively. The timing variations could be interpreted as either the light-travel-...

  8. Physical Properties of the Low-mass Eclipsing Binary NSVS 02502726

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Youn, Jae-Hyuck; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk

    2013-01-01

    NSVS 02502726 has been known as a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary that consists of two low-mass stars. We obtained BVRI photometric follow-up observations in 2009 and 2011 to measure improved physical properties of the binary star. Each set of light curves, including the 2008 data given by Çakirli et al., was simultaneously analyzed with the previously published radial velocity curves using the Wilson-Devinney binary code. The conspicuous seasonal light variations of the system are satisfactorily modeled by a two-spot model with one starspot on each component and by changes of the spot parameters with time. Based on 23 eclipse timings calculated from the synthetic model and one ephemeris epoch, an orbital period study of NSVS 02502726 reveals that the period has experienced a continuous decrease of -5.9 × 10-7 day yr-1 or a sinusoidal variation with a period and semi-amplitude of 2.51 yr and 0.0011 days, respectively. The timing variations could be interpreted as either the light-travel-time effect due to the presence of an unseen third body, or as the combination of this effect and angular momentum loss via magnetic stellar wind braking. Individual masses and radii of both components are determined to be M 1 = 0.689 ± 0.016 M ⊙, M 2 = 0.341 ± 0.009 M ⊙, R 1 = 0.707 ± 0.007 R ⊙, and R 2 = 0.657 ± 0.008 R ⊙. The results are very different from those of Çakirli et al. with the primary's radius (0.674 ± 0.006 R ⊙) smaller the secondary's (0.763 ± 0.007 R ⊙). We compared the physical parameters presented in this paper with current low-mass stellar models and found that the measured values of the primary star are best fitted to a 79 Myr isochrone. The primary is in good agreement with the empirical mass-radius relation from low-mass binaries, but the secondary is oversized by about 85%.

  9. Detection of a very low mass star in an Eclipsing Binary system

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Anandarao, B G; Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of a very low mass star (VLMS) companion to the primary star 1SWASPJ234318.41+295556.5A (J2343+29A), using radial velocity (RV) measurements from the PARAS (PRL Advanced Radial-velocity Abu-sky Search) high resolution echelle spectrograph. The periodicity of the single-lined eclipsing binary (SB1) system, as determined from 20 sets of RV observations from PARAS and 6 supporting sets of observations from SOPHIE data, is found to be 16.953 d as against the 4.24 d period reported from SuperWasp photometry. It is likely that inadequate phase coverage of the transit with SuperWasp photometry led to the incorrect determination of the period for this system. We derive the spectral properties of the primary star from the observed stellar spectra: Teff = 5125 +/- 67 K, [Fe/H] = 0.1 +/- 0.14 and log g = 4.6 +/- 0.14, indicating a K1V primary. Applying the Torres relation to the derived stellar parameters, we estimate a primary mass 0.864 +/- 0.097 M_sun and a radius of 0.854 +/- 0.050 R_sun. We ...

  10. NSVS06507557; a low-mass double-lined eclipsing binary

    CERN Document Server

    Cakirli, O

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of a detailed spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the V=13$^m$.4 low-mass eclipsing binary NSVS 06507557 with an orbital period of 0.515 d. We obtained a series of mid-resolution spectra covering nearly entire orbit of the system. In addition we obtained simultaneous VRI broadband photometry using a small aperture telescope. From these spectroscopic and photometric data we have derived the system's orbital parameters and determined the fundamental stellar parameters of the two components. Our results indicate that NSVS 06507557 consists of a K9 and an M3 pre-main-sequence stars with masses of 0.66$\\pm$0.09 \\Msun and 0.28$\\pm$0.05 \\Msun and radii of 0.60$\\pm$0.03 and 0.44$\\pm$0.02 \\Rsun, located at a distance of 111$\\pm$9 pc. The radius of the less massive secondary component is larger than that of the zero-age main-sequnce star having the same mass. While the radius of the primary component is in agreement with ZAMS the secondary component appers to be larger by abou...

  11. NSVS07394765: A new low-mass eclipsing binary below 0.6 M_sun

    CERN Document Server

    Çakirli, Ö

    2013-01-01

    The multi-color photometric and spectroscopic (based on observations obtained with the T{\\"U}B{\\.I}TAK National Observatory 1.5-meter telescope, which is owned and operated by the T{\\"U}B{\\.I}TAK) observations of the newly discovered eclipsing binary NSVS 07394765 were obtained. The resultant light and radial velocities were analysed and the global parameters of the system: T$_{1}$=3 300 K; T$_{2}$=3 106 K; M$_1$=0.36 M$_{\\odot}$; M$_2$=0.18 M$_{\\odot}$; R$_1$=0.46 R$_{\\odot}$; R$_2$=0.50 R$_{\\odot}$; L$_{1}$=0.030 L$_{\\odot}$; L$_2$=0.026 L$_{\\odot}$; $i=89.2{^\\circ}$; $a=5.97$ R$_{\\odot}$; $d=28$ pc. The chromospheric activity of its components is revealed by strong emission in the H$\\alpha$ line and observed flares. Empirical relations for mass-radius and mass-temperature are derived on the basis of the parameters of known binaries with low-mass dM components.

  12. Detection of a very low mass star in an eclipsing binary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Anandarao, B. G.; Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2016-10-01

    We report the detection of a very low mass star (VLMS) companion to the primary star 1SWASP J234318.41+295556.5A (J2343+29A), using radial velocity (RV) measurements from the PARAS (PRL Advanced Radial-velocity Abu-sky Search) high-resolution echelle spectrograph. The periodicity of the single-lined eclipsing binary (SB1) system, as determined from 20 sets of RV observations from PARAS and 6 supporting sets of observations from SOPHIE data, is found to be 16.953 d as against the 4.24 d period reported from SuperWASP photometry. It is likely that inadequate phase coverage of the transit with SuperWASP photometry led to the incorrect determination of the period for this system. We derive the spectral properties of the primary star from the observed stellar spectra: Teff = 5125 ± 67 K, [Fe/H] = 0.1 ± 0.14 and logg = 4.6 ± 0.14, indicating a K1V primary. Applying the Torres relation to the derived stellar parameters, we estimate a primary mass 0.864_{-0.098}^{+0.097} M⊙ and a radius of 0.854_{-0.060}^{+0.050} R⊙. We combine RV data with SuperWASP photometry to estimate the mass of the secondary, MB = 0.098 ± 0.007 M⊙, and its radius, RB = 0.127 ± 0.007 R⊙, with an accuracy of ˜7 per cent. Although the observed radius is found to be consistent with the Baraffe's theoretical models, the uncertainties on the mass and radius of the secondary reported here are model dependent and should be used with discretion. Here, we establish this system as a potential benchmark for the study of VLMS objects, worthy of both photometric follow-up and the investment of time on high-resolution spectrographs paired with large-aperture telescopes.

  13. The Interior Structure Constants as an Age Diagnostic for Low-Mass, Pre-Main Sequence Detached Eclipsing Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Feiden, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel method for determining the ages of low-mass, pre-main sequence stellar systems using the apsidal motion of low-mass detached eclipsing binaries. The apsidal motion of a binary system with an eccentric orbit provides information regarding the interior structure constants of the individual stars. These constants are related to the normalized stellar interior density distribution and can be extracted from the predictions of stellar evolution models. We demonstrate that low-mass, pre-main sequence stars undergoing radiative core contraction display rapidly changing interior structure constants (greater than 5% per 10 Myr) that, when combined with observational determinations of the interior structure constants (with 5 -- 10% precision), allow for a robust age estimate. This age estimate, unlike those based on surface quantities, is largely insensitive to the surface layer where effects of magnetic activity are likely to be most pronounced. On the main sequence, where age sensitivity is minimal,...

  14. HII 2407: A Low-Mass Eclipsing Binary Revealed by K2 Observations of the Pleiades

    CERN Document Server

    David, Trevor J; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Cody, Ann Marie; Conroy, Kyle; Stassun, Keivan G; Pope, Benjamin; Aigrain, Suzanne; Gillen, Ed; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Barrado, David; Rebull, L M; Isaacson, Howard; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Zhang, Celia; Riddle, Reed L; Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M; Baranec, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The star HII 2407 is a member of the relatively young Pleiades star cluster and was previously discovered to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary. It is newly identified here within $Kepler$/$K2$ photometric time series data as an eclipsing binary system. Mutual fitting of the radial velocity and photometric data leads to an orbital solution and constraints on fundamental stellar parameters. While the primary has arrived on the main sequence, the secondary is still pre-main-sequence and we compare our results for the $M/M_\\odot$ and $R/R_\\odot$ values with stellar evolutionary models. We also demonstrate that the system is likely to be tidally synchronized. Follow-up infrared spectroscopy is likely to reveal the lines of the secondary, allowing for dynamically measured masses and elevating the system to benchmark eclipsing binary status.

  15. Eclipsing binary systems as tests of low-mass stellar evolution theory

    CERN Document Server

    Feiden, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Stellar fundamental properties (masses, radii, effective temperatures) can be extracted from observations of eclipsing binary systems with remarkable precision, often better than 2%. Such precise measurements afford us the opportunity to confront the validity of basic predictions of stellar evolution theory, such as the mass-radius relationship. A brief historical overview of confrontations between stellar models and data from eclipsing binaries is given, highlighting key results and physical insight that have led directly to our present understanding. The current paradigm that standard stellar evolution theory is insufficient to describe the most basic relation, that of a star's mass to its radius, along the main sequence is then described. Departures of theoretical expectations from empirical data, however, provide a rich opportunity to explore various physical solutions, improving our understanding of important stellar astrophysical processes.

  16. Orbital period variation study of the low-mass Algol eclipsing binary AI Draconis

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    Magdy A. Hanna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Orbital period changes for the Algol-type eclipsing binary AI Dra were studied based on the analysis of its observed times of light minimum. The period variation showed cyclic changes in the interval from JD. ≈ 2436000 to JD. ≈ 2447500 and a secular period increase rate (dP/dt = 2.44 × 10−7 d/year starting from JD. ≈ 2448500 up to 2455262, in a time scale equals to 5 × 106 year.

  17. Parameters of two low-mass contact eclipsing binaries near the short-period limit

    CERN Document Server

    Lohr, M E; Norton, A J; Kolb, U C

    2014-01-01

    The two objects 1SWASP J150822.80-054236.9 and 1SWASP J160156.04+202821.6 were initially detected from their SuperWASP archived light curves as candidate eclipsing binaries with periods close to the short-period cut-off of the orbital period distribution of main sequence binaries, at ~0.2 d. Here, using INT spectroscopic data, we confirm them as double-lined spectroscopic and eclipsing binaries, in contact configuration. Following modelling of their visual light curves and radial velocity curves, we determine their component and system parameters to precisions between ~2 and 11%. The former system contains 1.07 and 0.55 M_sun components, with radii of 0.90 and 0.68 R_sun respectively; its primary exhibits pulsations with period 1/6 the orbital period of the system. The latter contains 0.86 and 0.57 M_sun components, with radii of 0.75 and 0.63R_sun respectively.

  18. GJ 3236: a new bright, very low-mass eclipsing binary system discovered by the MEarth observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, Jonathan; Berta, Zachory K; Quinn, Samuel N; Latham, David W; Torres, Guillermo; Blake, Cullen H; Burke, Christopher J; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; Furesz, Gabor; Mink, Douglas J; Nutzman, Philip; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew H; Calkins, Michael L; Falco, Emilio E; Bloom, Joshua S; Starr, Dan L

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of eclipses in GJ 3236, a bright (I = 11.6) very low mass binary system with an orbital period of 0.77 days. Analysis of light- and radial velocity curves of the system yielded component masses of 0.38 +/- 0.02 and 0.28 +/- 0.02 Msol. The central values for the stellar radii are larger than the theoretical models predict for these masses, in agreement with the results for existing eclipsing binaries, although the present 5% observational uncertainties limit the significance of the larger radii to approximately 1 sigma. Degeneracies in the light curve models resulting from the unknown configuration of surface spots on the components of GJ 3236 currently dominate the uncertainties in the radii, and could be reduced by obtaining precise, multi-band photometry covering the full orbital period. The system appears to be tidally synchronized and shows signs of high activity levels as expected for such a short orbital period, evidenced by strong Halpha emission lines in the spectra of both com...

  19. Absolute parameter determination in low-mass eclipsing binaries - Radiative parameters for BH Vir, ZZ UMA and CR CAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, R.; Reglero, V.; Garcia, M.; Fabregat, J.; Bravo, A.; Suso, J.

    1993-01-01

    A new uvby and H-beta monitoring program of low mass eclipsing binaries is currently being carried out in the framework of a 5-yr observational program which also involves radial velocity determinations. The scope of this work is to provide very accurate absolute astrophysical parameters: mass, radius, and effective temperatures, for main-sequence late-type stars. One of the main goals is to improve the mass-luminosity relation in the low and intermediate mass range. A second objective is to perform accurate tests of the most recent grids of evolutionary models. This program is complementary to that currently being implemented by the Copenhagen group. In this contribution we present the photometric preliminary results obtained for three of the systems included in our long-term survey: BH Vir, ZZ UMa, and CR Cas for which primary eclipses have been observed. Particular attention is paid to the determination of reddening, distances, and radiative properties. A more detailed study will be carried out when the light curves and radial velocity measurements are completed.

  20. KIC 1571511B: A Benchmark Low-Mass Star In An Eclipsing Binary System In The Kepler Field

    CERN Document Server

    Ofir, Aviv; Buchhave, Lars; Lacy, Claud H S; Hatzes, Artie P; Fridlund, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    KIC 1571511 is a 14d eclipsing binary (EB) in the Kepler dataset. The secondary of this EB is a very low mass star with a mass of 0.14136 +/- 0.00036 M_sun and a radius of 0.17831 +0.00051/-0.00062 R_sun (statistical errors only). The overall system parameters make KIC 1571511B an ideal "benchmark object": among the smallest, lightest and best-described stars known, smaller even than some known exoplanet. Currently available photometry encompasses only a small part of the total: future Kepler data releases promise to constrain many of the properties of KIC 1571511B to unprecedented level. However, as in many spectroscopic single-lined systems, the current error budget is dominated by the modeling errors of the primary and not by the above statistical errors. We conclude that detecting the RV signal of the secondary component is crucial to achieving the full potential of this possible benchmark object for the study of low mass stars.

  1. MML 53: a new low-mass, pre-main sequence eclipsing binary in the Upper Centarus-Lupus Region discovered by SuperWASP

    CERN Document Server

    Hebb, L; Aigrain, S; Collier-Cameron, A; Hodgkin, S T; Irwin, J M; Maxted, P F L; Pollacco, D; Street, R A; Wilson, D M; Stassun, K G

    2010-01-01

    We announce the discovery of a new low-mass, pre-main sequence eclipsing binary, MML 53. Previous observations of MML 53 found it to be a pre-main sequence spectroscopic multiple associated with the 15-22 Myr Upper Centaurus Lupus cluster. We identify the object as an eclipsing binary for the first time through the analysis of multiple seasons of time series photometry from the SuperWASP transiting planet survey. Re-analysis of a single archive spectrum shows MML 53 to be a spatially unresolved triple system of young stars which all exhibit significant lithium absorption. Two of the components comprise an eclipsing binary with period, P = 2.097891(6) +- 0.000005 and mass ratio, q~0.8. Here, we present the analysis of the discovery data.

  2. Discovery and Precise Characterization by the MEarth Project of LP 661-13, an Eclipsing Binary Consisting of Two Fully Convective Low-mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmann, Jason A; Charbonneau, David; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K; Newton, Elisabeth R; Latham, David W; Latham, Christian A; Esquerdo, Gilbert; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of stellar eclipses in the LP 661-13 system. We present the discovery and characterization of this system, including high resolution spectroscopic radial velocities and a photometric solution spanning two observing seasons. LP 661-13 is a low mass binary system with an orbital period of $4.7043512^{+0.0000013}_{-0.0000010}$ days at a distance of $24.9 \\pm 1.3$ parsecs. LP 661-13A is a $0.30795 \\pm 0.00084$ $M_\\odot$ star while LP 661-13B is a $0.19400 \\pm 0.00034$ $M_\\odot$ star. The radius of each component is $0.3226 \\pm 0.0033$ $R_\\odot$ and $0.2174 \\pm 0.0023$ $R_\\odot$, respectively. We detect out of eclipse modulations at a period slightly shorter than the orbital period, implying that at least one of the components is not rotating synchronously. We find that each component is slightly inflated compared to stellar models, and that this cannot be reconciled through age or metallicity effects. As a nearby eclipsing binary system where both components are near or below the full-conv...

  3. CoRoT 223992193: Investigating the variability in a low-mass, pre-main sequence eclipsing binary with evidence of a circumbinary disk

    CERN Document Server

    Gillen, Edward; Terquem, Caroline; Bouvier, Jerome; Alencar, Silvia H P; Gandolfi, Davide; Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Venuti, Laura; Almeida, Pedro Viana; Micela, Giuseppina; Favata, Fabio; Deeg, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    CoRoT 223992193 is the only known low-mass, pre-main sequence eclipsing binary that shows evidence of a circumbinary disk. The system displays complex photometric and spectroscopic variability over a range of timescales and wavelengths. Using two optical CoRoT runs, and infrared Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m observations (simultaneous with the second CoRoT run), we model the out-of-eclipse light curves. The large scale structure in both CoRoT light curves is consistent with the constructive and destructive interference of starspot signals at two slightly different periods. Using the stellar $v\\sin i$ 's, we infer different rotation periods: the primary is consistent with synchronisation and the secondary is slightly supersynchronous. Comparison of the raw data to the residuals of our spot model in colour-magnitude space indicates additional contributions consistent with variable dust emission and obscuration. We also identify short-duration flux dips preceding secondary eclipse in all three CoRoT and Spitzer ban...

  4. Orbital and Spin Parameter Variations of Partial Eclipsing Low Mass X-ray Binary X 1822-371

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Yi; Hu, Chin-Ping; Yang, Ting-Chang; Su, Yi-Hao

    2016-01-01

    We report our measurements for orbital and spin parameters of X 1822-371 using its X-ray partial eclipsing profile and pulsar timing from data collected by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Four more X-ray eclipse times obtained by the RXTE 2011 observations were combined with historical records to trace evolution of orbital period. We found that a cubic ephemeris likely better describes evolution of the X-ray eclipse times during a time span of about 34 years with a marginal second order derivative of $\\ddot{P}_{orb}=(-1.05 \\pm 0.59) \\times 10^{-19}$ s$^{-1}$. Using the pulse arrival time delay technique, the orbital and spin parameters were obtained from RXTE observations from 1998 to 2011. The detected pulse periods show that the neutron star in X 1822-371 is continuously spun-up with a rate of $\\dot{P}_{s}=(-2.6288 \\pm 0.0095) \\times 10^{-12}$ s s$^{-1}$. Evolution of the epoch of the mean longitude $l=\\pi /2$ (i.e. $T_{\\pi / 2}$) gives an orbital period derivative value consistent with that obtaine...

  5. The doubly eclipsing quintuple low-mass star system 1SWASP J093010.78+533859.5

    CERN Document Server

    Lohr, M E; Gillen, E; Busuttil, R; Kolb, U C; Aigrain, S; McQuillan, A; Hodgkin, S T; González, E

    2015-01-01

    Our discovery of 1SWASP J093010.78+533859.5 as a probable doubly eclipsing quadruple system containing a contact binary with P~0.23 d and a detached binary with P~1.31 d was announced in 2013. Subsequently Koo et al. confirmed the detached binary spectroscopically and identified a fifth set of static spectral lines at its location, corresponding to a further non-eclipsing component of the system. Here we present new spectroscopic and photometric observations, allowing confirmation of the contact binary and improved modelling of all four eclipsing components. The detached binary is found to contain components of masses 0.837(8) and 0.674(7) M_sol, with radii of 0.832(18) and 0.669(18) R_sol and effective temperatures of 5185(-20,+25) and 4325(-15,+20) K respectively, the contact system has masses 0.86(2) and 0.341(11) M_sol, radii of 0.79(4) and 0.52(5) R_sol respectively, and a common T_eff of 4700(50) K. The fifth star is of similar temperature and spectral type to the primaries in the two binaries. Long-ter...

  6. Calibrating convective-core overshooting with eclipsing binary systems. The case of low-mass main-sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, G; Moroni, P G Prada; Degl'Innocenti, S

    2016-01-01

    In a robust statistical way, we quantify the uncertainty that affects the calibration of the overshooting efficiency parameter $\\beta$ that is owing to the uncertainty on the observational data in double-lined eclipsing binary systems. We also quantify the bias that is caused by the lack of constraints on the initial helium content and on the efficiencies of the superadiabatic convection and microscopic diffusion. We adopted a modified grid-based SCEPtER pipeline using as observational constraints the effective temperatures, [Fe/H], masses, and radii of the two stars. In a reference scenario of mild overshooting $\\beta = 0.2$ for the synthetic data, we found both large statistical uncertainties and biases on the estimated $\\beta$. For the first 80% of the MS evolution, $\\beta$ is biased and practically unconstrained in the whole explored range [0.0; 0.4]. In the last 5% of the MS the bias vanishes and the $1 \\sigma$ error is about 0.05. For synthetic data computed with $\\beta = 0.0$, the estimated $\\beta$ is ...

  7. The EBLM project. I. Physical and orbital parameters, including spin-orbit angles, of two low-mass eclipsing binaries on opposite sides of the brown dwarf limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Hebb, L.; Anderson, D. R.; Cargile, P.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Faedi, F.; Gillon, M.; Gomez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Maxted, P.; Naef, D.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Stassun, K.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a series of papers aiming to study the dozens of low-mass eclipsing binaries (EBLM), with F, G, K primaries, that have been discovered in the course of the WASP survey. Our objects are mostly single-line binaries whose eclipses have been detected by WASP and were initially followed up as potential planetary transit candidates. These have bright primaries, which facilitates spectroscopic observations during transit and allows the study of the spin-orbit distribution of F, G, K+M eclipsing binaries through the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. Here we report on the spin-orbit angle of WASP-30b, a transiting brown dwarf, and improve its orbital parameters. We also present the mass, radius, spin-orbit angle and orbital parameters of a new eclipsing binary, J1219-39b (1SWAPJ121921.03-395125.6, TYC 7760-484-1), which, with a mass of 95 ± 2 Mjup, is close to the limit between brown dwarfs and stars. We find that both objects have projected spin-orbit angles aligned with their primaries' rotation. Neither primaries are synchronous. J1219-39b has a modestly eccentric orbit and is in agreement with the theoretical mass-radius relationship, whereas WASP-30b lies above it. Using WASP-South photometric observations (Sutherland, South Africa) confirmed with radial velocity measurement from the CORALIE spectrograph, photometry from the EulerCam camera (both mounted on the Swiss 1.2 m Euler Telescope), radial velocities from the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO's 3.6 m Telescope (prog ID 085.C-0393), and photometry from the robotic 60 cm TRAPPIST telescope, all located at ESO, La Silla, Chile. The data is publicly available at the CDS Strasbourg and on demand to the main author.Tables A.1-A.3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgPhotometry tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/549/A18

  8. CoRoT 223992193: A new, low-mass, pre-main sequence eclipsing binary with evidence of a circumbinary disk

    CERN Document Server

    Gillen, Edward; McQuillan, Amy; Bouvier, Jerome; Hodgkin, Simon; Alencar, Silvia H P; Terquem, Caroline; Southworth, John; Gibson, Neale P; Cody, Ann Marie; Lendl, Monika; Morales-Calderón, Maria; Favata, Fabio; Stauffer, John; Micela, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of CoRoT 223992193, a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary, comprising two pre-main sequence M dwarfs, discovered by the CoRoT space mission during a 23-day observation of the 3 Myr old NGC 2264 star-forming region. Using multi-epoch optical and near-IR follow-up spectroscopy with FLAMES on the Very Large Telescope and ISIS on the William Herschel Telescope we obtain a full orbital solution and derive the fundamental parameters of both stars by modelling the light curve and radial velocity data. The orbit is circular and has a period of $3.8745745 \\pm 0.0000014$ days. The masses and radii of the two stars are $0.67 \\pm 0.01$ and $0.495 \\pm 0.007$ $M_{\\odot}$ and $1.30 \\pm 0.04$ and $1.11 ~^{+0.04}_{-0.05}$ $R_{\\odot}$, respectively. This system is a useful test of evolutionary models of young low-mass stars, as it lies in a region of parameter space where observational constraints are scarce; comparison with these models indicates an apparent age of $\\sim$3.5-6 Myr. The systemic ve...

  9. The G+M eclipsing binary V530 Orionis: a stringent test of magnetic stellar evolution models for low-mass stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Pavlovski, Krešimir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka cesta 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Feiden, Gregory A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Sabby, Jeffrey A. [Physics Department, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL 62026 (United States); Bruntt, Hans [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Clausen, Jens Viggo, E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2014-12-10

    We report extensive photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 6.1 day period, G+M-type detached double-lined eclipsing binary V530 Ori, an important new benchmark system for testing stellar evolution models for low-mass stars. We determine accurate masses and radii for the components with errors of 0.7% and 1.3%, as follows: M {sub A} = 1.0038 ± 0.0066 M {sub ☉}, M {sub B} = 0.5955 ± 0.0022 M {sub ☉}, R {sub A} = 0.980 ± 0.013 R {sub ☉}, and R {sub B} = 0.5873 ± 0.0067 R {sub ☉}. The effective temperatures are 5890 ± 100 K (G1 V) and 3880 ± 120 K (M1 V), respectively. A detailed chemical analysis probing more than 20 elements in the primary spectrum shows the system to have a slightly subsolar abundance, with [Fe/H] = –0.12 ± 0.08. A comparison with theory reveals that standard models underpredict the radius and overpredict the temperature of the secondary, as has been found previously for other M dwarfs. On the other hand, models from the Dartmouth series incorporating magnetic fields are able to match the observations of the secondary star at the same age as the primary (∼3 Gyr) with a surface field strength of 2.1 ± 0.4 kG when using a rotational dynamo prescription, or 1.3 ± 0.4 kG with a turbulent dynamo approach, not far from our empirical estimate for this star of 0.83 ± 0.65 kG. The observations are most consistent with magnetic fields playing only a small role in changing the global properties of the primary. The V530 Ori system thus provides an important demonstration that recent advances in modeling appear to be on the right track to explain the long-standing problem of radius inflation and temperature suppression in low-mass stars.

  10. The EBLM Project I-Physical and orbital parameters, including spin-orbit angles, of two low-mass eclipsing binaries on opposite sides of the Brown Dwarf limit

    CERN Document Server

    Triaud, Amaury H M J; Anderson, David R; Cargile, Phill; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Doyle, Amanda P; Faedi, Francesca; Gillon, Michaël; Chew, Yilen Gomez Maqueo; Hellier, Coel; Jehin, Emmanuel; Maxted, Pierre; Naef, Dominique; Pepe, Francesco; Pollacco, Don; Queloz, Didier; Ségransan, Damien; Smalley, Barry; Stassun, Keivan; Udry, Stéphane; West, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a series of papers aiming to study the dozens of low mass eclipsing binaries (EBLM), with F, G, K primaries, that have been discovered in the course of the WASP survey. Our objects are mostly single-line binaries whose eclipses have been detected by WASP and were initially followed up as potential planetary transit candidates. These have bright primaries, which facilitates spectroscopic observations during transit and allows the study of the spin-orbit distribution of F, G, K+M eclipsing binaries through the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. Here we report on the spin-orbit angle of WASP-30b, a transiting brown dwarf, and improve its orbital parameters. We also present the mass, radius, spin-orbit angle and orbital parameters of a new eclipsing binary, J1219-39b (1SWAPJ121921.03-395125.6, TYC 7760-484-1), which, with a mass of 95 +/- 2 Mjup, is close to the limit between brown dwarfs and stars. We find that both objects orbit in planes that appear aligned with their primaries' equatorial plane...

  11. The Factory and the Beehive. III. PTFEB132.707+19.810, A Low-mass Eclipsing Binary in Praesepe Observed by PTF and K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Douglas, Stephanie T.; Mann, Andrew W.; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Law, Nicholas M.; Covey, Kevin R.; Feiden, Gregory A.; Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard; Gaidos, Eric; Torres, Guillermo; Bakos, Gaspar

    2017-08-01

    Theoretical models of stars constitute the fundamental bedrock upon which much of astrophysics is built, but large swaths of model parameter space remain uncalibrated by observations. The best calibrators are eclipsing binaries in clusters, allowing measurement of masses, radii, luminosities, and temperatures for stars of known metallicity and age. We present the discovery and detailed characterization of PTFEB132.707+19.810, a P = 6.0 day eclipsing binary in the Praesepe cluster (τ ˜ 600-800 Myr [Fe/H] = 0.14 ± 0.04). The system contains two late-type stars (SpT P = M3.5 ± 0.2; SpT S = M4.3 ± 0.7) with precise masses ({M}p=0.3953+/- 0.0020 M ⊙ {M}s=0.2098 +/- 0.0014 M ⊙) and radii ({R}p=0.363+/- 0.008 R ⊙ {R}s=0.272+/- 0.012 R ⊙). Neither star meets the predictions of stellar evolutionary models. The primary has the expected radius but is cooler and less luminous, while the secondary has the expected luminosity but is cooler and substantially larger (by 20%). The system is not tidally locked or circularized. Exploiting a fortuitous 4:5 commensurability between P orb and {P}{rot,{prim}}, we demonstrate that fitting errors from the unknown spot configuration only change the inferred radii by ≲1%-2%. We also analyze subsets of data to test the robustness of radius measurements; the radius sum is more robust to systematic errors and preferable for model comparisons. We also test plausible changes in limb darkening and find corresponding uncertainties of ˜1%. Finally, we validate our pipeline using extant data for GU Boo, finding that our independent results match previous radii to within the mutual uncertainties (2%-3%). We therefore suggest that the substantial discrepancies are astrophysical; since they are larger than those for old field stars, they may be tied to the intermediate age of PTFEB132.707+19.810.

  12. 78 FR 36290 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for Commission Action on Proposed Rule Change Amending NYSE MKT Rule 104--Equities To Codify Certain Traditional... Amendments to Other Rules June 11, 2013. On April 9, 2013, NYSE MKT LLC (the ``Exchange'') filed with...

  13. 77 FR 77152 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for Commission Action on Proposed Rule Change Deleting NYSE MKT Rules 95(c) and (d)--Equities and Related Supplementary Material December 21, 2012. On October 26, 2012, NYSE MKT LLC (the ``Exchange'') filed with...

  14. 77 FR 33013 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for Commission Action on Proposed Rule Change To Add Rules Related to the Clearing of Emerging Markets Sovereign Index Credit Default Swaps May 29, 2012. On April 3, 2012, ICE Clear Credit (``ICC'') filed with...

  15. [Eclipse retinopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Simon; Høgsbro, Malou

    2014-11-10

    Eclipse retinopathy is a condition with macular damage resulting from viewing of a solar eclipse. This case report illustrates how eclipse retinopathy was diagnosed with a delay of more than 30 years. The report also summarises how solar eclipse can be observed without risk of retinal damage.

  16. Low mass integrated cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Low mass on - detec tor cooling systems are being developed and stud ied by the Detector Technology group (PH - DT) in the CERN Physics Department in close collaboration with LHC and non - LHC experiments . Two approaches are currently being investigated. The first approach, for barrel configurations, consists in integrating the cooli ng apparatus in light mechanical structures support ing the detectors. In this case , the thermal management can be achieved either with light cooling pipes and thin plates or with a network of microchannels embedded in thin strips of silicon or polyimide . Both configuratio ns are being investigated in the context of the 2018 upgrade program of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). Moreover, it is also possible to use a s ilicon microchannel cooling device itself as structural support for the detectors and electronics. Such a configur ation has been adopted by the NA62 collaboration for the ir GigaTracKer (GTK) as well as by the LHCb collaboration for the 2018 major upgrade of...

  17. Fundamental properties of low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ribas, I; Jordi, C; Baraffe, I; Chabrier, G; Gallardo, J

    2007-01-01

    Numerous investigations on the fundamental properties of low-mass stars using eclipsing binaries indicate a strong discrepancy between theory and observations that is still awaiting explanation. Current models seem to predict radii for stars less massive than the Sun that are some 10% smaller than observed, while their effective temperatures are some 5% larger. Here we discuss recent new observational data that are relevant to this issue and review the progress made in understanding the origin of the important differences with theoretical calculations. Notably, we provide evidence that stellar activity may be responsible for the mismatch between observations and theory through two different channels: inhibition of convection or effects of a significant starspot coverage. The activity hypothesis is put to a test with observational diagnostics and some of the consequences of the large starspot coverage are evaluated. We conclude that stellar activity likely plays a key role in defining the properties of active ...

  18. Orbiting Clouds of Material at the Keplerian Co-rotation Radius of Rapidly Rotating Low-mass WTTs in Upper Sco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, John; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Jardine, Moira; David, Trevor J.; Rebull, Luisa; Cody, Ann Marie; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Barrado, David; Wolk, Scott; Davenport, James; Pinsonneault, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Using K2 data, we identified 23 very-low-mass members of the ρ Oph and Upper Scorpius star-forming region as having periodic photometric variability not easily explained by well-established physical mechanisms such as star spots, eclipsing binaries, or pulsation. All of these unusual stars are mid-to-late M dwarfs without evidence of active accretion, and with photometric periods generally flare. For the group of stars with these sudden light-curve morphology shifts, we attribute their flux dips as most probably arising from eclipses of warm coronal gas clouds, analagous to the slingshot prominences postulated to explain transient Hα absorption features in AB Doradus and other rapidly rotating late-type stars. For another group of stars with somewhat longer periods, we find the short-duration flux dips to be highly variable on both short and long timescales, with generally asymmetric flux-dip profiles. We believe that these flux dips are due to particulate clouds possibly associated with a close-in planet or resulting from a recent collisional event.

  19. Eclipsing Binary Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, P C C

    2004-01-01

    The first eclipsing binary pulsar, PSR B1957+20, was discovered in 1987. Since then, 13 other eclipsing low-mass binary pulsars have been found, 12 of these are in globular clusters. In this paper we list the known eclipsing binary pulsars and their properties, with special attention to the eclipsing systems in 47 Tuc. We find that there are two fundamentally different groups of eclipsing binary pulsars; separated by their companion masses. The less massive systems (M_c ~ 0.02 M_sun) are a product of predictable stellar evolution in binary pulsars. The systems with more massive companions (M_c ~ 0.2 M_sun) were formed by exchange encounters in globular clusters, and for that reason are exclusive to those environments. This class of systems can be used to learn about the neutron star recycling fraction in the globular clusters actively forming pulsars. We suggest that most of these binary systems are undetectable at radio wavelengths.

  20. Analysis of longer period variation of the Kuroshio Current intrusion into the Luzon Strait using rectified wavelet power spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yaochu; Yang, Chenghao; Tseng, Yu-heng; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Huiqun; Chen, Hong

    2017-08-01

    Longer period variation of the Kuroshio into the Luzon Strait (LS) was identified using acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) observations as well as pressure and temperature time series data recorded by two TDs (manufactured by the RBR Ltd.) at mooring station N2 (20°40.441‧N, 120°38.324‧E). The ADCP was deployed at depths of 50-300 m between July 7, 2009 and April 10, 2011, and the TDs at around 340 and 365 m between July 9, 2009 and July 9, 2011. Observations provide strong evidence of longer period variation of the Kuroshio into the LS using the Vector rotary spectra (VRS) and Rectified wavelet power spectra analysis (RWPSA). RWPSA of the observations allowed the identification of two types of dominant periods. The first type, with the strongest power spectral density (PSD), had a dominant period of 112 d and was found throughout the upper 300 m. For example, the maximum PSD for western and northern velocity components time series were 3800 and 3550 at 50 m, respectively. The maximum power spectral density decrease with deeper depths, i.e., the depth dependence of maximum PSD. The 112 d period was also identified in the pressure and temperature time series data, at 340 m and 365 m. Combined RWPSA with VRS and mechanism analysis, it is clear that the occurrence of the most dominant period of 112 d in the upper 300 m is related to the clockwise meandering of the Kuroshio into the LS, which is caused by westward propagating stronger anticyclonic eddies from the interior ocean due to the interaction of Rossby eddies with the Kuroshio. The second type of dominant period, for example a 40 d period, is related to the anticlockwise meandering of the Kuroshio. The final dominant period of 14 d coincides with the fortnightly spring-neap tidal period.

  1. Accurate Low-Mass Stellar Models of KOI-126

    CERN Document Server

    Feiden, Gregory A; Dotter, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    The recent discovery of an eclipsing hierarchical triple system with two low-mass stars in a close orbit (KOI-126) by Carter et al. (2011) appeared to reinforce the evidence that theoretical stellar evolution models are not able to reproduce the observational mass-radius relation for low-mass stars. We present a set of stellar models for the three stars in the KOI-126 system that show excellent agreement with the observed radii. This agreement appears to be due to the equation of state implemented by our code. A significant dispersion in the observed mass-radius relation for fully convective stars is demonstrated; indicative of the influence of physics currently not incorporated in standard stellar evolution models. We also predict apsidal motion constants for the two M-dwarf companions. These values should be observationally determined to within 1% by the end of the Kepler mission.

  2. Mass-radius relation of low and very low-mass stars revisited with the VLTI

    CERN Document Server

    Demory, B -O; Forveille, T; Queloz, D; Beuzit, J -L; Delfosse, X; Di Folco, E; Kervella, P; Bouquin, J -B Le; Perrier, C

    2009-01-01

    We measured the radii of 7 low and very low-mass stars using long baseline interferometry with the VLTI interferometer and its VINCI and AMBER near-infrared recombiners. We use these new data, together with literature measurements, to examine the luminosity- radius and mass-radius relations for K and M dwarfs. The precision of the new interferometric radii now competes with what can be obtained for double-lined eclipsing binaries. Interferometry provides access to much less active stars, as well as to stars with much better measured distances and luminosities, and therefore complements the information obtained from eclipsing systems. The radii of magnetically quiet late-K to M dwarfs match the predictions of stellar evolution models very well, providing direct confirmation that magnetic activity explains the discrepancy that was recently found for magnetically active eclipsing systems. The radii of the early K dwarfs are well reproduced for a mixing length parameter that approaches the solar value, as qualita...

  3. Low-Mass Diffraction at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkovszky, Laszlo; Lämsä, Jerry; Orava, Risto

    2011-01-01

    The expected resonance structure for the low-mass single diffractive states from a Regge-dual model elaborated paper by the present authors in a previous is predicted. Estimates for the observable low-mass single diffraction dissociation (SDD) cross sections and efficiencies for single diffractive events simulated by PYTHIA 6.2 as a function of the diffractive mass are given.

  4. Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binaries. II. IK Persei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.-Y.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B.; Yang, Y.-G.

    2005-06-01

    BV photometric light curves of the eclipsing binary IK Per were obtained during three nights in 2002 December. The photometric elements were computed using the Wilson-Devinney code. The results reveal that IK Per is an A-type overcontact binary system with a low mass ratio of q=0.17 and a large degree of overcontact of 60%. The asymmetry of the light curves (i.e., the O'Connell effect) is explained by spot models. The observed long-term orbital period decrease [dP/dt=-(2.5+/-0.09)×10-7 days yr-1] is probably influenced by the presence of a third body in the system. The low mass ratio, high degree of overcontact, and secular orbital decrease all indicate that the situation of IK Per resembles those of FG Hya, GR Vir, and AW UMa. Because of the decrease of their orbital periods, the shrinking of the inner and outer critical Roche lobes will lead the common envelopes to overlap more, and finally the systems will evolve into single rapid-rotation stars.

  5. Detached eclipsing binaries with very unequal members - HR 7464

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuricin, G.; Mardirossian, F.; Mezzetti, M.

    1984-06-01

    Waelkens and Rufener's (1983) photoelectric lightcurve (as yet unexplored) of the newly discovered eclipsing binary HR 7464 has been analyzed. The photometric solution presented here reveals that this binary is an A5m + G main sequence detached system, which is particularly remarkable for the great dissimilarity between its members. The frequency of detached eclipsing pairs with very unequal members (i.e., with low mass ratio) is then discussed; some bimodality in the innate mass ratio distribution of close binaries is inferred.

  6. Multiples among detached eclipsing binaries from the ASAS catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Hełminiak, K G; Ratajczak, M; Jordán, A; Espinoza, N; Brahm, R; Kambe, E; Ukita, N

    2015-01-01

    For more than three years now we have been conducting a spectroscopic survey of detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs) from the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) database. Thousands of high-resolution spectra of over 300 systems were secured, and used for radial velocity measurements and spectral analysis. In our sample we found a zoo of multiple systems, such as spectroscopic triples and quadruples, visual binaries with eclipsing components, and circumbinary low-mass companions, including sub-stellar-mass candidates

  7. Orbital period change of the low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748-676

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Kazumi; Dotani, Tadayasu; Nagase, Fumiaki; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Shaham, Jacob

    1992-01-01

    The transient low-mass X-ray binary, EXO 0748-676, discovered with EXOSAT, is known to exhibit eclipses of a 492-s duration with a 3.82-hr period, intensity dips at pre-eclipse phases and type-I X-ray bursts. We observed this source with Ginga in 1989 March, 1990 December, 1991 January, and 1991 August and determined nine eclipse center times. Combining these eclipse center times with the previous result of the EXOSAT observations, we find that the orbital period of this source is not decaying monotonically, contrary to the previously reported suggestion. Instead, it shows a more complex behavior. A quadratic fit to the eclipse data yields a positive rate of change in orbital period with an approximate rate of 0.9 x 10 exp 7/yr, although the EXOSAT observations made in 1985 do not fit this trend. A sinusoidal function gives a better fit to the observed orbital period changes with a period of about 12 yr and an amplitude of about 44 lt-s, although the period is much longer than the observation interval of about 6.5 yr. Possible mechanisms for the orbital period change are discussed.

  8. Low-Mass VOST Valve Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A cylindrical, low-mass, high-efficiency, leak-proof cryogenic valve will be designed using composites and exotic metals. Based upon cryogenically-proven Venturi...

  9. Low-Mass VOST Valve Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two low-mass, linear throttling, high-efficiency, leak-proof cryogenic valves of diameters 1/2" and 4" will be built and tested. Based upon cryogenically-proven...

  10. The Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    1970-01-01

    Instructions for observing the Solar Eclipse on Saturday, March 7, 1970, which will be total along a strip about 85 miles wide along the Atlantic Seaboard. Safety precautions and how to construct a pinhole camera to observe eclipse. (BR)

  11. The Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    1970-01-01

    Instructions for observing the Solar Eclipse on Saturday, March 7, 1970, which will be total along a strip about 85 miles wide along the Atlantic Seaboard. Safety precautions and how to construct a pinhole camera to observe eclipse. (BR)

  12. The G+M eclipsing binary v530 orionis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Guillermo; Lacy, Claud H Sandberg; Pavlovski, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    We report extensive photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 6.1 day period, G+M-type detached double-lined eclipsing binary V530 Ori, an important new benchmark system for testing stellar evolution models for low-mass stars. We determine accurate masses and radii for the components...

  13. The G+M eclipsing binary v530 orionis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Guillermo; Lacy, Claud H Sandberg; Pavlovski, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    We report extensive photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 6.1 day period, G+M-type detached double-lined eclipsing binary V530 Ori, an important new benchmark system for testing stellar evolution models for low-mass stars. We determine accurate masses and radii for the components...

  14. Study of the longer periodic variation of cosmic ray%宇宙线较长周期变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜一帅; 代武春; 周虹君

    2012-01-01

    With the Yangbajing AS'y array, the longer periodic variation is studied. First, cosmic ray flux re- corded and meteorological parameters between 1994 - 2003 are collected and tided. The annual variation of the cosmic ray flux data is obvious. The annual variation of each meteorological parameter likes cosmic ray flux. There is obvious correlation existing between cosmic ray and each meteorological parameter. After the meteorological effect of cosmic ray being corrected by using multianalysis, there is no annual variation of cos- mic ray. Then the cosmic ray flux after corrected is analyzed with wavelet analysis and statistics. It is found that there is no uniform variation of several diurnal. Statistical result of data shows that there are more 4 diur- nal and 6 diurnal variations of the cosmic ray, the next are 5 diurnal, 7 diurnal and 8 diurnal.%利用羊八井ASγ阵列实验数据分析宇宙线的较长周期变化.收集整理Tibet ASγ阵列1994~2003年间记录的宇宙线触发率数据和气象数据,发现这段时间的宇宙线触发率存在明显的年周期变化,气压、室内温度、室外温度与宇宙线触发率有着相似的年变化,存在较强关联;对宇宙线触发率进行多元气象参量修正,修正后的宇宙线触发率不再有明显的年变化;利用小波分析和数学统计方法分析气象修正后的宇宙线触发率,没有发现确定的几日周期.统计结果显示:宇宙线周期变化中4日周期和6日周期较多,其次是5日7、日和8日周期.

  15. Evolution of Low-Mass X-ray Binaries: the Effect of Donor Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are thought to originate from low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The discovery of eclipsing radio MSPs including redbacks and black widows indicates that evaporation of the donor star by the MSP's irradiation takes place during the LMXB evolution. In this work, we investigate the effect of donor evaporation on the secular evolution of LMXBs, considering different evaporation efficiencies and related angular momentum loss. We find that for widening LMXBs, the donor star leaves a less massive white dwarf than without evaporation; for contracting systems, evaporation can speed up the evolution, resulting in dynamically unstable mass transfer and possibly the formation of isolated MSPs.

  16. Evolution of Low-mass X-Ray Binaries: The Effect of Donor Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kun; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-10-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are thought to originate from low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The discovery of eclipsing radio MSPs, including redbacks and black widows, indicates that evaporation of the donor star by the MSP’s irradiation takes place during the LMXB evolution. In this work, we investigate the effect of donor evaporation on the secular evolution of LMXBs, considering different evaporation efficiencies and related angular momentum loss. We find that for widening LMXBs, the donor star leaves a less massive white dwarf than without evaporation; for contracting systems, evaporation can speed up the evolution, resulting in dynamically unstable mass transfer and possibly the formation of isolated MSPs.

  17. The architecture of the hierarchical triple star KOI 928 from eclipse timing variations seen in Kepler photometry

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, J.H.; Quinn, S.N.; Borucki, W. J.; Brugamyer, E.; Bryson, S. T.; Buchhave, L. A.; Cochran, W. D.; Endl, M.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Ford, E. B.; Holman, M. J.; Jenkins, J.; Koch, D.; Latham, D. W.; MacQueen, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a hierarchical triple star system (KIC 9140402) where a low mass eclipsing binary orbits a more massive third star. The orbital period of the binary (4.98829 Days) is determined by the eclipse times seen in photometry from NASA's Kepler spacecraft. The periodically changing tidal field, due to the eccentric orbit of the binary about the tertiary, causes a change in the orbital period of the binary. The resulting eclipse timing variations provide insight into the dynamics and archit...

  18. Calorimetry of low mass Pu239 items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremers, Teresa L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sampson, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Calorimetric assay has the reputation of providing the highest precision and accuracy of all nondestructive assay measurements. Unfortunately, non-destructive assay practitioners and measurement consumers often extend, inappropriately, the high precision and accuracy of calorimetric assay to very low mass items. One purpose of this document is to present more realistic expectations for the random uncertainties associated with calorimetric assay for weapons grade plutonium items with masses of 200 grams or less.

  19. Deep inside low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Charbonnel, Corinne

    2008-01-01

    Low-mass stars exhibit, at all stages of their evolution, the signatures of complex physical processes that require challenging modeling beyond standard stellar theory. In this review, we recall the most striking observational evidences that probe the interaction and interdependence of various transport processes of chemicals and angular momentum in these objects. We then focus on the impact of atomic diffusion, large scale mixing due to rotation, and internal gravity waves on stellar properties on the main sequence and slightly beyond.

  20. Deep inside low-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnel, Corinne; Talon, Suzanne

    2008-10-01

    Low-mass stars exhibit, at all stages of their evolution, the signatures of complex physical processes that require challenging modeling beyond standard stellar theory. In this review, we recall the most striking observational evidences that probe the interaction and interdependence of various transport processes of chemicals and angular momentum in these objects. We then focus on the impact of atomic diffusion, large scale mixing due to rotation, and internal gravity waves on stellar properties on the main sequence and slightly beyond.

  1. 30 Doradus: The Low-Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnecker, H.; Brandl, B.; Brandner, W.; Moneti, A.; Hunter, D.

    We have obtained HST/NICMOS H-band images of the central 1'x1' field around the R136 starburst cluster in the 30 Doradus HII region, in an attempt to reveal the presence (or absence) of a low-mass stellar population (M VIH 3-colour image of the central 30" x 30" area. The result clearly shows unexpected patches of extinction, with one patch only about 5" from the cluster core.

  2. Ultra-low mass drift chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assiro, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Cappelli, L. [Università di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale (Italy); Cascella, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Dipartimento Matematica e Fisica, Università del Salento (Italy); De Lorenzis, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Università del Salento (Italy); Grancagnolo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Ignatov, F. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); L' Erario, A.; Maffezzoli, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Università del Salento (Italy); Miccoli, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Onorato, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Università G. Marconi, Roma (Italy); Perillo, M. [EnginSoft S.p.a., Trento (Italy); Piacentino, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Università G. Marconi, Roma (Italy); Rella, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Università del Salento (Italy); Rossetti, F. [EnginSoft S.p.a., Trento (Italy); Spedicato, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Tassielli, G., E-mail: giovanni.tassielli@le.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lecce (Italy); Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Università G. Marconi, Roma (Italy); and others

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel low mass drift chamber concept, developed in order to fulfill the stringent requirements imposed by the experiments for extremely rare processes, which require high resolutions (order of 100–200 keV/c) for particle momenta in a range (50–100 MeV/c) totally dominated by the multiple scattering contribution. We describe a geometry optimization procedure and a new wiring strategy with a feed-through-less wire anchoring system developed and tested on a drift chamber prototype under completion at INFN-Lecce.

  3. The Frequency of Low-mass Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    O'Toole, S J; Tinney, C G; Butler, R P; Marcy, G W; Carter, B; Bailey, J; Wittenmyer, R A

    2009-01-01

    We report first results from the Anglo-Australian Telescope Rocky Planet Search - an intensive, high-precision Doppler planet search targeting low-mass exoplanets in contiguous 48 night observing blocks. On this run we targeted 24 bright, nearby and intrinsically stable Sun-like stars selected from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search's main sample. These observations have already detected one low-mass planet reported elsewhere (HD16417b), and here we reconfirm the detection of HD4308b. Further, we have Monte-Carlo simulated the data from this run on a star-by-star basis to produce robust detection constraints. These simulations demonstrate clear differences in the exoplanet detectability functions from star to star due to differences in sampling, data quality and intrinsic stellar stability. They reinforce the importance of star-by-star simulation when interpreting the data from Doppler planet searches. The simulations indicate that for some of our target stars we are sensitive to close-orbiting planets as sma...

  4. Methanol emission from low mass protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Maret, S; Tielens, A G G M; Caux, E; Le Floc'h, B; Faure, A; Castets, A; Flower, D R

    2005-01-01

    We present observations of methanol lines in a sample of Class 0 low mass protostars. Using a 1-D radiative transfer model, we derive the abundances in the envelopes. In two sources of the sample, the observations can only be reproduced by the model if the methanol abundance is enhanced by about two order of magnitude in the inner hot region of the envelope. Two other sources show similar jumps, although at a lower confidence level. The observations for the other three sources are well reproduced with a constant abundance, but the presence of a jump cannot be ruled out. The observed methanol abundances in the warm gas around low mass protostars are orders of magnitude higher than gas phase chemistry models predict. Hence, in agreement with other evidences, this suggest that the high methanol abundance reflects recent evaporation of ices due to the heating by the newly formed star. The observed abundance ratios of CH3 OH, H2 CO, and CO are in good agreement with grain surface chemistry models. However, the abs...

  5. THE ABSOLUTE PARAMETERS FOR NSVS 11868841 AND THE OVERSIZED STARS IN LOW-MASS ECLIPSING BINARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ö. Çakirli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se han realizado observaciones espectroscópicas de la binaria eclipsante de baja masa NSV 11868841, y se han derivado las velocidades radiales de ambas componentes. Las masas y radios dererminados son M1 = 0.870 ± 0.074 M¿, M2 = 0.607 ± 0.053 M¿, R1 = 0.983 ± 0.030 R¿, R2 = 0.901 ± 0.026 R¿. Los radios de ambas componentes son, respectivamente, 10% y 57% mayores que los que corresponden a estrellas de la secuencia principal de edad cero y de las mismas masas. Esta discrepancia puede deberse a que ambas estrellas tienen una gran cobertura por manchas. Hemos reunido parámetros absolutos para 21 binarias eclipsantes de doble línea y de baja masa, para comparar sus posiciones en los diagramas masa-radio y masa-temperatura efectiva. Los valores altos de los radios y las bajas temperaturas efectivas encontradas no son debidos a diferencias en metalicidad o en longitud de mezcla. Las discrepancias encontradas para estrellas de baja masa pueden deberse a campos magnéticos que inhiben el transporte convectivo, lo cual propicia una gran cobertura de la superficie estelar por manchas magnéticas.

  6. Maven for Eclipse

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    If you want to learn about Maven and use it from within Eclipse to develop Java projects, this is the book for you. Prior experience in developing Java projects and using the Eclipse IDE is presumed. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced developer, this book will get you up and running quickly, with a hands-on approach.

  7. Boosting low-mass hadronic resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmin, Chase; Whiteson, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Searches for new hadronic resonances typically focus on high-mass spectra due to overwhelming QCD backgrounds and detector trigger rates. We present a study of searches for relatively low-mass hadronic resonances at the LHC in the case that the resonance is boosted by recoiling against a well-measured high-pT probe such as a muon, photon or jet. The hadronic decay of the resonance is then reconstructed either as a single large-radius jet or as a resolved pair of standard narrow-radius jets, balanced in transverse momentum to the probe. We show that the existing 2015 LHC data set of p p collisions with ∫L d t =4 fb-1 should already have powerful sensitivity to a generic Z' model which couples only to quarks, for Z' masses ranging from 20 - 500 GeV /c2 .

  8. Magnetometer Searches for Ultra Low Mass Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romalis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    New spin interactions arise in a variety of extensions to the Standard Model. Well-known spin-dependent effects, such as permanent electric dipole moments and violations of Lorentz and CPT symmetries, have been searched for in many experiments. The existence of low-mass axion-like particles would also generate spin-dependent effects that can be searched for in similar experiments, but often with unique signatures. Since particles with spin also have a magnetic moment, such experiments are automatically sensitive to ordinary magnetic fields and one of the challenges is to eliminate such effects, using for example, two different spin species in a co-magnetometer arrangement. I will describe several past and on-going experiments using co-magnetometers based on nuclear spin-polarized noble gases. These experiments are used to search for both axion-like dark matter and for axion-mediated forces that are independent of dark matter.

  9. Olivier Chesneau's work on low mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Eric, Lagadec

    2015-01-01

    During his too short career, Olivier Chesneau pioneered the study of the circumstellar environments of low mass evolved stars using very high angular resolution techniques. He applied state of the art high angular resolution techniques, such as optical interferometry and adaptive optics imaging, to the the study of a variety of objects, from AGB stars to Planetary Nebulae, via e.g. Born Again stars, RCB stars and Novae. I present here an overview of this work and most important results by focusing on the paths he followed and key encounters he made to reach these results. Olivier liked to work in teams and was very strong at linking people with complementary expertises to whom he would communicate his enthusiasm and sharp ideas. His legacy will live on through the many people he inspired.

  10. Mass Function of Low Mass Dark Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Yahagi, H; Yoshii, Y; Yahagi, Hideki; Nagashima, Masahiro; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2004-01-01

    The mass function of dark halos in a Lambda-dominated cold dark matter (LambdaCDM) universe is investigated. 529 output files from five runs of N-body simulations are analyzed using the friends-of-friends cluster finding algorithm. All the runs use 512^3 particles in the box size of 35 h^{-1}Mpc to 140 h^{-1}Mpc. Mass of particles for 35 h^{-1} Mpc runs is 2.67 times 10^7 h^{-1} M_{solar}. Because of the high mass resolution of our simulations, the multiplicity function in the low-mass range, where the mass is well below the characteristic mass and $\

  11. CFFF low mass flow DCW generator operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineberry, J. T.; Galanga, F. L.; Frazier, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of testing of the low mass flow diagonal conducting sidewall MHD generator in the CFFF is given. These summaries include details of the powered generator tests conducted during the 1985 LMF4 test series. A presentation of experimental generator electrical data collected during these tests is included. The quality of these data is discussed and a review of representative data presentations is made as a means of identifying phenomena associated with coal-fired MHD generators. Unique characteristics of coal slag effects upon electrical performance are seen in the voltage profiles and power characteristics for the generator. Fundamental theoretical analyses of the generator are used to qualify the levels of generator performance that were demonstrated during testing. These analyses are directed at isolating possible sources that have caused performance deficiencies and anomalies seen in the test data.

  12. Boosting low-mass hadronic resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Shimmin, Chase

    2016-01-01

    Searches for new hadronic resonances typically focus on high-mass spectra, due to overwhelming QCD backgrounds and detector trigger rates. We present a study of searches for relatively low-mass hadronic resonances at the LHC in the case that the resonance is boosted by recoiling against a well-measured high-$p_{\\textrm{T}}$ probe such as a muon, photon or jet. The hadronic decay of the resonance is then reconstructed either as a single large-radius jet or as a resolved pair of standard narrow-radius jets, balanced in transverse momentum to the probe. We show that the existing 2015 LHC dataset of $pp$ collisions with $\\int\\mathcal{L}dt = 4\\ \\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ should already have powerful sensitivity to a generic $Z'$ model which couples only to quarks, for $Z'$ masses ranging from 20-500 GeV/c$^2$.

  13. Search for light curve modulations among Kepler candidates. Three very low-mass transiting companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Ribas, A.; Barrado, D.; Merín, B.; Bouy, H.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Light curve modulations in the sample of Kepler planet candidates allows the disentangling of the nature of the transiting object by photometrically measuring its mass. This is possible by detecting the effects of the gravitational pull of the companion (ellipsoidal modulations) and in some cases, the photometric imprints of the Doppler effect when observing in a broad band (Doppler beaming). Aims: We aim to photometrically unveil the nature of some transiting objects showing clear light curve modulations in the phase-folded Kepler light curve. Methods: We selected a subsample among the large crop of Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) based on their chances to show detectable light curve modulations, i.e., close (a< 12 R⋆) and large (in terms of radius, according to their transit signal) candidates. We modeled their phase-folded light curves with consistent equations for the three effects, namely, reflection, ellipsoidal and beaming (known as REB modulations). Results: We provide detailed general equations for the fit of the REB modulations for the case of eccentric orbits. These equations are accurate to the photometric precisions achievable by current and forthcoming instruments and space missions. By using this mathematical apparatus, we find three close-in very low-mass companions (two of them in the brown dwarf mass domain) orbiting main-sequence stars (KOI-554, KOI-1074, and KOI-3728), and reject the planetary nature of the transiting objects (thus classifying them as false positives). In contrast, the detection of the REB modulations and transit/eclipse signal allows the measurement of their mass and radius that can provide important constraints for modeling their interiors since just a few cases of low-mass eclipsing binaries are known. Additionally, these new systems can help to constrain the similarities in the formation process of the more massive and close-in planets (hot Jupiters), brown dwarfs, and very low-mass companions.

  14. Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman Des Jardins, Angela; Berk Knighton, W.; Larimer, Randal; Mayer-Gawlik, Shane; Fowler, Jennifer; Harmon, Christina; Koehler, Christopher; Guzik, Gregory; Flaten, James; Nolby, Caitlin; Granger, Douglas; Stewart, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project is to make the most of the 2017 rare eclipse event in four main areas: public engagement, workforce development, partnership development, and science. The Project is focused on two efforts, both student-led: online live video of the eclipse from the edge of space and the study of the atmospheric response to the eclipse. These efforts, however, involving more than 60 teams across the US, are challenging in many ways. Therefore, the Project is leveraging the NASA Space Grant and NOAA atmospheric science communities to make it a success. The first and primary topic of this poster is the NASA Space Grant supported online live video effort. College and high school students on 48 teams from 31 states will conduct high altitude balloon flights from 15-20 locations across the 8/21/2017 total eclipse path, sending live video and images from near space to a national website. Video and images of a total solar eclipse from near space are fascinating and rare. It’s never been done live and certainly not in a network of coverage across a continent. In addition to the live video to the web, these teams are engaged in several other science experiments as secondary payloads. We also briefly highlight the eclipse atmospheric science effort, where about a dozen teams will launch over one hundred radiosondes from across the 2017 path, recording an unprecedented atmospheric data sample. Collected data will include temperature, density, wind, humidity, and ozone measurements.

  15. Accretion Disks around Young Low Mass Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola D´Alessio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, it has become clear that almost half of the low mass pre-main sequence stars are surrounded by disks, which are responsible for the observed infrared and optical-UV excess emission. The characterization of the structure of circumstellar disks is a crucial step towards understanding the early stellar evolution and planet formation. The thesis summarized here presents physical models of the detailed structure of accretion disks surrounding T Tauri stars. The disks are assumed to be in steady state, in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, and with a turbulent viscosity described by the alpha-prescription. We consider different heating mechanisms: viscous dissipation, heating by cosmic rays and radioactive decay, irradiation by the central star or irradiation by an infalling envelope. The energy is transported in the vertical direction by radiation, convection and the turbulent flux. Give n the disk structure, we calculate its emission by integrating the radiative transfer equation for an arbitrary orientation of the disk relative to the line of sight. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs and images are compared with observations, and disk properties can be inferred or constrained.

  16. Atmospheric changes from solar eclipses

    CERN Document Server

    Aplin, Karen; Gray, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews atmospheric changes associated with 44 solar eclipses, beginning with the first quantitative results available, from 1834 (earlier qualitative, accounts also exist). Eclipse meteorology attracted relatively few publications until the total solar eclipse of 16 February 1980, with the 11 August 1999 eclipse producing the most papers. Eclipses passing over populated areas such as Europe, China and India now regularly attract scientific attention, whereas atmospheric measurements of eclipses at remote locations remain rare. Many measurements and models have been used to exploit the uniquely predictable solar forcing provided by an eclipse. In this paper we compile the available publications and review a sub-set of them chosen on the basis of importance and novelty. Beyond the obvious reduction in incoming solar radiation, atmospheric cooling from eclipses can induce dynamical changes. Observations and meteorological modelling provide evidence for the generation of a local eclipse circulation ...

  17. Atmospheric changes from solar eclipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, K L; Scott, C J; Gray, S L

    2016-09-28

    This article reviews atmospheric changes associated with 44 solar eclipses, beginning with the first quantitative results available, from 1834 (earlier qualitative accounts also exist). Eclipse meteorology attracted relatively few publications until the total solar eclipse of 16 February 1980, with the 11 August 1999 eclipse producing the most papers. Eclipses passing over populated areas such as Europe, China and India now regularly attract scientific attention, whereas atmospheric measurements of eclipses at remote locations remain rare. Many measurements and models have been used to exploit the uniquely predictable solar forcing provided by an eclipse. In this paper, we compile the available publications and review a subset of them chosen on the basis of importance and novelty. Beyond the obvious reduction in incoming solar radiation, atmospheric cooling from eclipses can induce dynamical changes. Observations and meteorological modelling provide evidence for the generation of a local eclipse circulation that may be the origin of the 'eclipse wind'. Gravity waves set up by the eclipse can, in principle, be detected as atmospheric pressure fluctuations, though theoretical predictions are limited, and many of the data are inconclusive. Eclipse events providing important early insights into the ionization of the upper atmosphere are also briefly reviewed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  18. The effect of starspots on eclipse timings of binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, C A

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the effects that starspots have on the light curves of eclipsing binaries and in particular how they may affect the accurate measurement of eclipse timings. Concentrating on systems containing a low-mass main-sequence star and a white dwarf, we find that if starspots exhibit the Wilson depression they can alter the times of primary eclipse ingress and egress by several seconds for typical binary parameters and starspot depressions. In addition, we find that the effect on the eclipse ingress/egress times becomes more profound for lower orbital inclinations. We show how it is possible, in principle, to determine estimates of both the binary inclination and depth of the Wilson depression from light curve analysis The effect of depressed starspots on the O-C diagrams of eclipsing systems is also investigated. It is found that the presence of starspots will introduce a `jitter' in the O-C residuals and can cause spurious orbital period changes to be observed. Despite this, we show that the period ca...

  19. Eclipses and the Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, K. D.; Yau, K. K.

    2000-12-01

    Like returns of Halley's comet the Olympic games occur periodically, though not as regularly in antiquity. Dates were also imprecise due to the chaotic calendars in use. Reported sightings of comets and eclipses can be used with game dates to help fix ancient events. However some reported darkening of the sun, e.g., after Julius Caesar's murder in 44 BC, was due to volcanic eruptions. A red comet, visible in daylight, first appeared during the games that year. It was also seen from China and Korea (Pang, Sciences 31, 30). Phlegon's ``Olympiads" (2nd century) says that Christ's crucifixion was in the 4th year of the 202nd Olympiad (AD 29-33), when a total solar eclipse occurred in the 6th hour. Only the Nov. 24, AD 29 eclipse over Asia Minor can match that, and Joel's prophecy (Acts 2, 14-21) that ``the sun will be turned to darkness and moon to blood." However it conflicts with ``the first day of Passover," as recorded by Mathew, Mark and Luke, i.e., full moon in early spring. Humphreys and Waddington (Nature 306, 743) have suggested meteorological darkening and the April 3, AD 33 lunar eclipse instead. Schaefer has questioned the eclipse's visibility from Jerusalem (31.46N, 35.14E). The six computations he cited gave dissimilar answers due to the imprecise rates of the secular lunar acceleration, and lengthening of the day used (Q.Jl.R.astr.Soc. 31, 53). Lunar laser ranging has since fixed the former at -26"/cen2. Analysis of ancient Chinese solar eclipse records, e.g., the April 21, 899 BC and April 4, AD 368 ``double dawns" over Zheng, has given us a delta T (in sec) = 30t2, where t is centuries before 1800 (Pang, Yau and Chou, in ``Dynamics of Ice Age Earth: A Modern Perspective," 1998). Our computations show that the moon rose over Jerusalem, with 1/3 still in the umbra and the rest in penumbra. Holdover meteorological darkening with long absorption air mass could have help reddened the moon also. Finally the first ``eclipse season" (the Aug. 21 lunar, and

  20. Eclipse A Brief Introduction of 2008 Solar Eclipse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 solar total eclipse starts from North of Canada,passes through Greenland,Arctic,Novosibirsk and North of China.This is the first solar total eclipse in China in the 21st centary.Date and time:August 1,2008,11:00 UT Eclipse site in China:Altay,Hami (Xinjiang),Jiuquan,Lanzhou (Gansu), Xi’an(Shanxi)

  1. SPECTRAL ECLIPSE TIMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbs-Dixon, Ian [Department of Physics, NYU Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 129188 Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 (United States); Deming, Drake [NASA Astrobiology Institute Virtual Planet Laboratory (United States)

    2015-12-10

    We utilize multi-dimensional simulations of varying equatorial jet strength to predict wavelength-dependent variations in the eclipse times of gas-giant planets. A displaced hot spot introduces an asymmetry in the secondary eclipse light curve that manifests itself as a measured offset in the timing of the center of eclipse. A multi-wavelength observation of secondary eclipse, one probing the timing of barycentric eclipse at short wavelengths and another probing at longer wavelengths, will reveal the longitudinal displacement of the hot spot and break the degeneracy between this effect and that associated with the asymmetry due to an eccentric orbit. The effect of time offsets was first explored in the IRAC wavebands by Williams et al. Here we improve upon their methodology, extend to a broad range of wavelengths, and demonstrate our technique on a series of multi-dimensional radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of HD 209458b with varying equatorial jet strength and hot-spot displacement. Simulations with the largest hot-spot displacement result in timing offsets of up to 100 s in the infrared. Though we utilize a particular radiative hydrodynamical model to demonstrate this effect, the technique is model independent. This technique should allow a much larger survey of hot-spot displacements with the James Webb Space Telescope than currently accessible with time-intensive phase curves, hopefully shedding light on the physical mechanisms associated with thermal energy advection in irradiated gas giants.

  2. Eclipsing Binary Update, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    Contents: 1. Wrong again! The elusive period of DHK 41. 2. Stars observed and not observed. 3. Eclipsing binary chart information. 4. Eclipsing binary news and notes. 5. A note on SS Arietis. 6. Featured star: TX Ursae Majoris.

  3. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  4. Discovery of a Bright, Extremely Low-Mass White Dwarf in a Close Double Degenerate System

    CERN Document Server

    Vennes, S; Kawka, A; Nemeth, P; Skinner, J N; Pigulski, A; Steslicki, M; Kolaczkowski, Z; Srodka, P; 10.1088/2041-8205/737/1/L16

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of a bright (V ~ 13.7), extremely low-mass white dwarf in a close double degenerate system. We originally selected GALEX J171708.5+675712 for spectroscopic follow-up among a group of white dwarf candidates in an ultraviolet-optical reduced proper-motion diagram. The new white dwarf has a mass of 0.18 M_solar and is the primary component of a close double degenerate system (P=0.246137 d, K_1 = 288 km/s) comprising a fainter white dwarf secondary with M_2 ~ 0.9 M_solar. Light curves phased with the orbital ephemeris show evidence of relativistic beaming and weaker ellipsoidal variations. The light curves also reveal secondary eclipses (depth ~ 8 mmag) while the primary eclipses appear partially compensated by the secondary gravitational deflection and are below detection limits. Photospheric abundance measurements show a nearly solar composition of Si, Ca, and Fe (0.1-1 solar), while the normal kinematics suggest a relatively recent formation history. Close binary evolutionary scenarios ...

  5. The low-mass classic Algol-type binary UU Leo revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui

    2013-12-01

    New multi-color photometry of the eclipsing binary UU Leo, acquired from 2010 to 2013, was carried out by using the 60-cm and 85-cm telescopes at the Xinglong station, which is administered by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. With the updated Wilson-Devinney code, the photometric solution was derived from BVR light curves. The results imply that UU Leo is a semi-detached Algol-type binary, with a mass ratio of q = 0.100(±0.002). The change in orbital period was reanalyzed based on all available eclipsing times. The O - C curve could be described by an upward parabola superimposed on a quasi-sinusoidal curve. The period and semi-amplitudes are Pmod = 54.5(±1.1) yr and A = 0.0273d(±0.0015d), which may be attributed to the light-time effect via the presence of an invisible third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt = +4.64(±0.14) × 10-7d yr-1, which may be interpreted by the conserved mass being transferred from the secondary to the primary. With mass being transferred, the low-mass Algol-type binary UU Leo may evolve into a binary system with a main sequence star and a helium white dwarf.

  6. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  7. The effect of starspots on the radii of low-mass pre-main sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, R J

    2014-01-01

    A polytropic model is used to investigate the effects of dark photospheric spots on the evolution and radii of magnetically active, low-mass (M<0.5Msun), pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. Spots slow the contraction along Hayashi tracks and inflate the radii of PMS stars by a factor of (1-beta)^{-N} compared to unspotted stars of the same luminosity, where beta is the equivalent covering fraction of dark starspots and N \\simeq 0.45+/-0.05. This is a much stronger inflation than predicted by the models of Spruit & Weiss (1986) for main sequence stars with the same beta, where N \\sim 0.2 to 0.3. These models have been compared to radii determined for very magnetically active K- and M-dwarfs in the young Pleiades and NGC 2516 clusters, and the radii of tidally-locked, low-mass eclipsing binary components. The binary components and ZAMS K-dwarfs have radii inflated by \\sim 10 per cent compared to an empirical radius-luminosity relation that is defined by magnetically inactive field dwarfs with interferometrica...

  8. 1927: a British eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, R. A.

    1999-06-01

    The total solar eclipse of 1927 June 29 was the first to be seen over the British mainland for 203 years. It caused nationwide excitement, induced mass population movement to the towns, villages, moorlands and offshore waters of Wales and the north of England, and severely tested the country's transport and communication systems.

  9. Nature of eclipsing pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Khechinashvili, D; Gil, J; Khechinashvili, David; Melikidze, George; Gil, Janusz

    2000-01-01

    We present a model for pulsar radio eclipses in some binary systems, and test this model for PSRs B1957+20 and J2051-0827. We suggest that in these binaries the companion stars are degenerate dwarfs with strong surface magnetic fields. The magnetospheres of these stars are permanently infused by the relativistic particles of the pulsar wind. We argue that the radio waves emitted by the pulsar split into the eigenmodes of the electron-positron plasma as they enter the companion's magnetosphere and are then strongly damped due to cyclotron resonance with the ambient plasma particles. Our model explains in a natural way the anomalous duration and behavior of radio eclipses observed in such systems. In particular, it provides stable, continuous, and frequency-dependent eclipses, in agreement with the observations. We predict a significant variation of linear polarization both at eclipse ingress and egress. In this paper we also suggest several possible mechanisms of generation of the optical and $X$-ray emission ...

  10. Genetic Algoritm Eclipse Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevin, A. V.

    In this paper we analyse capabilities of eclipse mapping technique, based on genetic algorithm optimization. To model of accretion disk we used the "fire-flies" conception. This model allows us to reconstruct the distribution of radiating medium in the disk using less number of free parameters than in other methods. Test models show that we can achieve good approximation without optimizing techniques.

  11. Parallel Eclipse Project Checkout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Thomas M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Powell, Mark W.; Bachmann, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Parallel Eclipse Project Checkout (PEPC) is a program written to leverage parallelism and to automate the checkout process of plug-ins created in Eclipse RCP (Rich Client Platform). Eclipse plug-ins can be aggregated in a feature project. This innovation digests a feature description (xml file) and automatically checks out all of the plug-ins listed in the feature. This resolves the issue of manually checking out each plug-in required to work on the project. To minimize the amount of time necessary to checkout the plug-ins, this program makes the plug-in checkouts parallel. After parsing the feature, a request to checkout for each plug-in in the feature has been inserted. These requests are handled by a thread pool with a configurable number of threads. By checking out the plug-ins in parallel, the checkout process is streamlined before getting started on the project. For instance, projects that took 30 minutes to checkout now take less than 5 minutes. The effect is especially clear on a Mac, which has a network monitor displaying the bandwidth use. When running the client from a developer s home, the checkout process now saturates the bandwidth in order to get all the plug-ins checked out as fast as possible. For comparison, a checkout process that ranged from 8-200 Kbps from a developer s home is now able to saturate a pipe of 1.3 Mbps, resulting in significantly faster checkouts. Eclipse IDE (integrated development environment) tries to build a project as soon as it is downloaded. As part of another optimization, this innovation programmatically tells Eclipse to stop building while checkouts are happening, which dramatically reduces lock contention and enables plug-ins to continue downloading until all of them finish. Furthermore, the software re-enables automatic building, and forces Eclipse to do a clean build once it finishes checking out all of the plug-ins. This software is fully generic and does not contain any NASA-specific code. It can be applied to any

  12. Eclipse of epsilon Aurigae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2009-07-01

    The bright, long-period, eclipsing binary star epsilon Aurigae is predicted to begin its next eclipse late July or early August of 2009. Epsilon Aurigae is now past solar conjunction and has reappeared as a morning object. All observers -- both visual and instrumental -- are encouraged to contribute observations of the eclipse during the next two years, beginning immediately for morning observers. Observations are urgently requested right now because it is less likely to be observed in the morning, and the eclipse will begin within the next month. The AAVSO is participating in a global campaign to record this eclipse as part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 celebrations, organized by the Citizen Sky project (http://www.citizensky.org). For experienced visual observers, please observe this star on a weekly basis, using charts available via VSP from the AAVSO website. For novice visual observers, we recommend participating in this observing program by following the Citizen Sky 10-Star tutorial program, which provides a simple training experience in variable star observing. Photoelectric observers belonging to the AAVSO PEP-V program may submit data as usual via the WebObs feature of the AAVSO website Blue&Gold section. Photoelectric observers may also contribute reduced observations in all filters (including infrared J- and H-bands) directly to the AAVSO via WebObs. Observers using wide-field CCD and DSLR systems are also encouraged to participate; avoid saturating the star. For those with narrower-field systems (D Jeffrey Hopkins are co-leading the precision photometry efforts.

  13. The EBLM project. III. A Saturn-size low-mass star at the hydrogen-burning limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Boetticher, Alexander; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Queloz, Didier; Gill, Sam; Lendl, Monika; Delrez, Laetitia; Anderson, David R.; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Faedi, Francesca; Gillon, Michaël; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Jehin, Emmanuël; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Martin, David V.; Pepe, Francesco; Pollacco, Don; Ségransan, Damien; Smalley, Barry; Udry, Stéphane; West, Richard

    2017-08-01

    We report the discovery of an eclipsing binary system with mass-ratio q ˜ 0.07. After identifying a periodic photometric signal received by WASP, we obtained CORALIE spectroscopic radial velocities and follow-up light curves with the Euler and TRAPPIST telescopes. From a joint fit of these data we determine that EBLM J0555-57 consists of a sun-like primary star that is eclipsed by a low-mass companion, on a weakly eccentric 7.8-day orbit. Using a mass estimate for the primary star derived from stellar models, we determine a companion mass of 85 ± 4 MJup (0.081 M⊙) and a radius of 0.84+ 0.14-0.04RJup (0.084 R⊙) that is comparable to that of Saturn. EBLM J0555-57Ab has a surface gravity log g2 =5.50+ 0.03-0.13 and is one of the densest non-stellar-remnant objects currently known. These measurements are consistent with models of low-mass stars. The photometry tables and radial velocities are only available at the CDS and on demand via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/L6

  14. Orbital periods of cataclysmic variables identified by the SDSS. IX. NTT photometry of eight eclipsing and three magnetic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, John; Gaensicke, B T; Copperwheat, C M

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of eclipses and the first orbital period measurements for four cataclysmic variables, plus the first orbital period measurements for one known eclipsing and two magnetic systems. SDSS J093537.46+161950.8 exhibits 1-mag deep eclipses with a period of 92.245 min. SDSS J105754.25+275947.5 has short and deep eclipses and an orbital period of 90.44 min. Its light curve has no trace of a bright spot and its spectrum is dominated by the white dwarf component, suggesting a low mass accretion rate and a very low-mass and cool secondary star. CSS J132536+210037 shows 1-mag deep eclipses each separated by 89.821 min. SDSS J075653.11+085831.8 shows 2-mag deep eclipses on a period of 197.154 min. CSS J112634-100210 is an eclipsing dwarf nova identified in the Catalina Real Time Transit Survey, for which we measure a period of 111.523 min. SDSS J092122.84+203857.1 is a magnetic system with an orbital period of 84.240 min; its light curve is a textbook example of cyclotron beaming. A period of 158.72...

  15. The puzzling orbital period evolution of the low mass X-ray binary AX J1745.6-2901

    CERN Document Server

    Ponti, G; Munoz-Darias, T; Stella, L; Nandra, K

    2015-01-01

    The orbital period evolution of X-ray binaries provides fundamental clues to understanding mechanisms of angular momentum loss from these systems. We present an X-ray eclipse timing analysis of the transient low mass X-ray binary AX J1745.6-2901. This system shows full eclipses and thus is one of the few objects for which accurate orbital evolution studies using this method can be carried out. We report on XMM-Newton and ASCA observations covering 30 complete X-ray eclipses spanning an interval of more than 20 years. We improve the determination of the orbital period to a relative precision of $2\\times10^{-8}$, two orders of magnitudes better than previous estimates. We determine, for the first time, a highly significant rate of decrease of the orbital period $\\dot{P}_{orb}=-4.03\\pm0.32\\times10^{-11}$~s/s. This is at least one order of magnitude larger than expected from conservative mass transfer and angular momentum losses due to gravitational waves and magnetic breaking, and might result from non-conservat...

  16. The formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that ~60% of all stars (including brown dwarfs) have masses below 0.2Msun. Currently, there is no consensus on how these objects form. I will briefly review the four main theories for the formation of low-mass objects: turbulent fragmentation, ejection of protostellar embryos, disc fragmentation, and photo-erosion of prestellar cores. I will focus on the disc fragmentation theory and discuss how it addresses critical observational constraints, i.e. the low-mass initial mass function, the brown dwarf desert, and the binary statistics of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. I will examine whether observations may be used to distinguish between different formation mechanisms, and give a few examples of systems that strongly favour a specific formation scenario. Finally, I will argue that it is likely that all mechanisms may play a role in low-mass star and brown dwarf formation.

  17. Low-Mass Planar Photonic Imaging Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a revolutionary electro-optical (EO) imaging sensor concept that provides a low-mass, low-volume alternative to the traditional bulky optical telescope...

  18. Physical Parameter Eclipse Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Vrielmann, S

    2000-01-01

    The tomographic method "Physical Parameter Eclipse Mapping" is a tool to reconstruct spatial distributions of physical parameters (like temperatures and surface densities) in accretion discs of cataclysmic variables. After summarizing the method, we apply it to multi-colour eclipse light curves of various dwarf novae and nova-likes like VZ Scl, IP Peg in outburst, UU Aqr, V2051 Oph and HT Cas in order to derive the temperatures (and surface densities) in the disc, the white dwarf temperature, the disc size, the effective temperatures and the viscosities. The results allows us to establish or refine a physical model for the accretion disc. Our maps of HT Cas and V2051 Oph, for example, indicate that the (quiescent) disc must be structured into a cool, optically thick inner disc sandwiched by hot, optically thin chromospheres. In addition, the disc of HT Cas must be patchy with a covering factor of about 40% caused by magnetic activity in the disc.

  19. Star Formation Modes in Low-Mass Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gallagher, J S

    2001-01-01

    Low-mass disk galaxies with well-organized structures are relatively common in low density regions of the nearby Universe. They display a wide range in levels of star formation activity, extending from sluggishly evolving `superthin' disk systems to nearby starbursts. Investigations of this class of galaxy therefore provides opportunities to test and define models of galactic star formation processes. In this paper we briefly explore characteristics of examples of quiescent and starbursting low-mass disk galaxies.

  20. Cajal on solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triarhou, Lazaros C; del Cerro, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    An impression that sculpted a lasting memory on the mind of the great neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal, an 8-year-old boy at the time, was the total solar eclipse of 18 July 1860. This short article provides a translation of the relevant passage, found in a 1933 Buenos Aires schoolbook, and places the celestial event at the crossroads of neuroscience, astronomy and literature.

  1. Total eclipses of the sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirker, J B

    1980-12-19

    Total eclipses of the sun offer research opportunities in a variety of sciences. Some of the advances in solar physics resulting from eclipse observations are discussed. Experiments at the total eclipse of 16 February 1980 in India are also described. These included a test of general relativity, studies in coronal physics, investigations of solar prominences, diameter measurements, a search for interplanetary dust, a study of the gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere, and experiments on the biological effects on animals and humans.

  2. Solar Eclipses Observed from Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Aspects of the solar corona are still best observed during totality of solar eclipses, and other high-resolution observations of coronal active regions can be observed with radio telescopes by differentiation of occultation observations, as we did with the Jansky Very Large Array for the annular solar eclipse of 2012 May 20 in the US. Totality crossing Antarctica included the eclipse of 2003 November 23, and will next occur on 2021 December 4; annularity crossing Antarctica included the eclip...

  3. Total eclipses of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Zirker, Jack B

    2014-01-01

    Eclipses have captured attention and sparked curiosity about the cosmos since the first appearance of humankind. Having been blamed for everything from natural disasters to the fall of kings, they are now invaluable tools for understanding many celestial as well as terrestrial phenomena. This clear, easy-to-understand guide explains what causes total eclipses and how they can be used in experiments to examine everything from the dust between the planets to general relativity. A new chapter has been added on the eclipse of July 11, 1991 (the great Hawaiian eclipse). Originally published in 19

  4. Implementation of Bessel's method for solar eclipses prediction in the WRF-ARW model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montornes, Alex; Codina, Bernat; Zack, John W.; Sola, Yolanda

    2016-05-01

    Solar eclipses are predictable astronomical events that abruptly reduce the incoming solar radiation into the Earth's atmosphere, which frequently results in non-negligible changes in meteorological fields. The meteorological impacts of these events have been analyzed in many studies since the late 1960s. The recent growth in the solar energy industry has greatly increased the interest in providing more detail in the modeling of solar radiation variations in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models for the use in solar resource assessment and forecasting applications. The significant impact of the recent partial and total solar eclipses that occurred in the USA (23 October 2014) and Europe (20 March 2015) on solar power generation have provided additional motivation and interest for including these astronomical events in the current solar parameterizations.Although some studies added solar eclipse episodes within NWP codes in the 1990s and 2000s, they used eclipse parameterizations designed for a particular case study. In contrast to these earlier implementations, this paper documents a new package for the Weather Research and Forecasting-Advanced Research WRF (WRF-ARW) model that can simulate any partial, total or hybrid solar eclipse for the period 1950 to 2050 and is also extensible to a longer period. The algorithm analytically computes the trajectory of the Moon's shadow and the degree of obscuration of the solar disk at each grid point of the domain based on Bessel's method and the Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses provided by NASA, with a negligible computational time. Then, the incoming radiation is modified accordingly at each grid point of the domain.This contribution is divided in three parts. First, the implementation of Bessel's method is validated for solar eclipses in the period 1950-2050, by comparing the shadow trajectory with values provided by NASA. Latitude and longitude are determined with a bias lower than 5 x 10-3 degrees (i

  5. Discovery of a Faint Eclipsing Binary GSC 02265-01456

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. F. Guo; K. Li; S. M. Hu; Y. G. Jiang; D. Y. Gao; X. Chen

    2015-09-01

    When observing the transiting extrasolar planets, we found a new eclipsing binary named GSC 02265-01456. The and c observations were carried out for this binary. The photometric light curves of the two bands were simultaneously analyzed using the W–D code. The solutions show that GSC 02265-01456 is an extremely low mass ratio ( = 0.087) overcontact binary system with a contact degree of = 82.5%. The difference between the two maxima of the light curve can be explained by a dark spot on the primary component.

  6. Annular and Total Solar Eclipses of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, J.

    2008-01-01

    While most NASA eclipse bulletins cover a single eclipse, this publication presents predictions for two solar eclipses during 2010. This has required a different organization of the material into the following sections. Section 1 -- Eclipse Predictions: The section consists of a general discussion about the eclipse path maps, Besselian elements, shadow contacts, eclipse path tables, local circumstances tables, and the lunar limb profile. Section 2 -- Annular Solar Eclipse of 2010 Ja n 15: The section covers predictions and weather prospects for the annular eclipse. Section 3 -- Total Solar Eclipse of 2010 Jul 11: The se ction covers predictions and weather prospects for the total eclipse. Section 4 -- Observing Eclipses: The section provides information on eye safety, solar filters, eclipse photography, and making contact timings from the path limits. Section 5 -- Eclipse Resources: The final section contains a number of resources including information on the IAU Working Group on Eclipses, the Solar Eclipse Mailing List, the NASA eclipse bulletins on the Internet, Web sites for the two 2010 eclipses, and a summary identifying the algorithms, ephemerides, and paramete rs used in the eclipse predictions.

  7. The Low-mass Populations in OB Associations

    CERN Document Server

    Briceño, C; Sherry, W; Mamajek, E; Mathieu, R; Walter, F; Zinnecker, H; Briceno, Cesar; Preibisch, Thomas; Sherry, William; Mamajek, Eric; Mathieu, Robert; Walter, Frederick; Zinnecker, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Low-mass stars 0.1 ~< M ~< 1 Msun) in OB associations are key to addressing some of the most fundamental problems in star formation. The low-mass stellar populations of OB associations provide a snapshot of the fossil star-formation record of giant molecular cloud complexes. Large scale surveys have identified hundreds of members of nearby OB associations, and revealed that low-mass stars exist wherever high-mass stars have recently formed. The spatial distribution of low-mass members of OB associations demonstrate the existence of significant substructure ("subgroups"). This "discretized" sequence of stellar groups is consistent with an origin in short-lived parent molecular clouds within a Giant Molecular Cloud Complex. The low-mass population in each subgroup within an OB association exhibits little evidence for significant age spreads on time scales of ~10 Myr or greater, in agreement with a scenario of rapid star formation and cloud dissipation. The Initial Mass Function (IMF) of the stellar popula...

  8. Integration of BETA with Eclipse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Enevoldsen, Mads Brøgger

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents language interoperability issues appearing in order to implement support for the BETA language in the Java-based Eclipse integrated development environment. One of the challenges is to implement plug-ins in BETA and be able to load them in Eclipse. In order to do this, some form...

  9. Io Eclipse Montage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    New Horizons took this montage of images of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io, glowing in the dark of Jupiter's shadow, as the Pluto-bound spacecraft sped through the Jupiter system on Feb. 27, 2007. (A): In this picture from the Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), dark blotches and straight lines are artifacts. The brightest spots (including the volcanoes Pele [P] and East Girru [EG]) are incandescent lava from active volcanoes. The more diffuse glows, and the many faint spots, are from gas in the plumes and atmosphere, glowing due to bombardment by plasma in Jupiter's magnetosphere, in a display similar to the Earth's aurorae. (B): The same image with a latitude/longitude grid, showing that the cluster of faint spots is centered near longitude 0 degrees, the point on Io that faces Jupiter. The image also shows the locations of the plumes seen in sunlit images (indicated by red diamonds), which glow with auroral emission in eclipse. (C): Simulated sunlit view of Io with the same geometry, based on sunlit LORRI images. (D): A combination of the sunlit image (in cyan) and the eclipse image (in red), showing that all point-like glows in the eclipse image arise from dark volcanoes in the eclipse image. (E): This infrared image, at a wavelength of 2.3 microns, obtained by New Horizons Linear Etalon Spectral Imaging Array (LEISA) an hour after the LORRI image, showing thermal emission from active volcanoes. Elongation of the hot spots is an artifact. (F): Combined visible albedo (cyan) and LEISA thermal emission (red) image, showing the sources of the volcanic emission. That most of the faint point-like glows near longitude zero, seen in visible light in images A, B, and D, do not appear in the infrared view of volcanic heat radiation, is one reason scientists believe that these glows are due to auroral emission, not heat radiation. This image appears in the Oct. 12, 2007, issue of Science magazine, in a paper by John Spencer, et al.

  10. The Thermal Pulses of Very-Low-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gautschy, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Very-low-mass stars can develop secularly unstable hydrogen-burning shells late in their life. Since the thermal pulses that go along are driven at the bottoms of very shallow envelopes, the stars' luminosities and effective temperatures react strongly during a pulse cycle. Towards the end of the Galaxy's stelliferous era, the hydrogen-shell flashing very-low-mass single stars should inflict an intricate light-show performed by the large population of previously inconspicuous dim stars. Unfortunately, this natural spectacle will discharge too late for mankind to indulge in. Not all is hopeless, though: In the case of close binary-star evolution, hydrogen-shell flashes of mass-stripped, very-low mass binary components can develop in a fraction of a Hubble time. Therefore, the Galaxy should be able put forth a few candidates that are going to evolve through a H-shell flash in a humanity-compatible time frame.

  11. The Triply Eclipsing Hierarchical Triple Star KIC002856960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Park, Byeong-Gon; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius

    2013-02-01

    In a recent study, Armstrong et al. presented an eclipsing binary star of about 6.2 hr period with transit-like tertiary signals occurring every 204.2 days in the Kepler public data of KIC002856960 and proposed three possible hierarchical structures: (AB)b, (AB)C, and A(BC). We analyzed the Kepler light curve by including a third light source and one starspot on each binary component. The results represent that the close eclipsing pair is in a low-mass eccentric-orbit, detached configuration. Based on 123 eclipse timings calculated from the Wilson-Devinney binary model, a period study of the close binary reveals that the orbital period has experienced a sinusoidal variation with a period and a semi-amplitude of 205 ± 2 days and 0.0021 ± 0.0002 days, respectively. The period variation would be produced by the light-travel-time effect due to a gravitationally bound third body with a minimum mass of M 3sin i 3 = 0.76 M ⊙ in an eccentric orbit of e 3 = 0.61. This is consistent with the presence of third light found in our light curve solution and the tertiary signal of 204.2 day period most likely arises from the K-type star crossed by the close eclipsing binary. Then, KIC002856960 is a triply eclipsing hierarchical system, A(BC), consisting of a close binary with two M-type dwarfs and a more massive K-type component. The presence of the third star may have played an important role in the formation and evolution of the close pair, which may ultimately evolve into a contact system by angular momentum loss.

  12. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role as provider and protector within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the moon blocking the sun.

  13. Retinopathy after solar eclipse, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, L; Sharma, N; Tewari, H K; Gupta, S

    1996-01-01

    Visual damage following direct sighting of the solar eclipse is a well established clinical entity. In spite of warnings in the media, a number of people attempted to observe the solar eclipse. Consequently, some developed visual damage. Twenty-one patients were referred to the Solar Eclipse Cell at our centre. Their demographic and clinical features were evaluated. Foveal findings correlated with the duration of exposure and frequency of watching the eclipse. Six patients had used protective devices for viewing the eclipse. More than 47% eyes had discernible fundus lesions. Lasting visual damage can follow a solar retinal burn with little or no protection from the viewing devices. Prevention remains the best treatment and there is a need to educate the public in this regard.

  14. Direct search for low mass dark matter particles with CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, J. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cease, H.; Diehl, H.T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Estrada, J., E-mail: estrada@fnal.gov [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Flaugher, B.; Harrison, N.; Jones, J.; Kilminster, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Molina, J. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (FIUNA), Asuncion (Paraguay); Smith, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Schwarz, T. [University of California at Davis, CA (United States); Sonnenschein, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-05-15

    A direct dark matter search is performed using fully-depleted high-resistivity CCD detectors. Due to their low electronic readout noise (R.M.S. {approx}7 eV) these devices operate with a very low detection threshold of 40 eV, making the search for dark matter particles with low masses ({approx}5 GeV) possible. The results of an engineering run performed in a shallow underground site are presented, demonstrating the potential of this technology in the low mass region.

  15. Benchmark low-mass objects in Moving Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burningham B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to compile a sample of ultracool dwarfs that will serve as benchmarks for testing theoretical formation and evolutionary models, we selected low-mass cool (>M7 objects that are potentially members of five known young Moving Groups in the solar neighbourhood. We have studied the kinematics of the sample, finding that 49 targets belong to the young disk area, from which 36 are kinematic member of one of the five moving groups under study. Some of the identified low-mass members have been spectroscopically characterised (Teff, log g and confirmed as young members through a detailed study of age indicators.

  16. Why do patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in Brazil stay in hospital for longer periods than in other countries? Prospective evaluation of 30 patients and presentation of possible discharge criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Costa Astur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate a better moment by the medical team and patient to be discharged and relate to possible medical discharge criteria. METHODS: 31 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed patients under similar conditions prospectively evaluated about the possibility of discharge with 24 and 48 hours after surgery and possibles discharges criteria such as pain, range of motion and capacity quadriceps contraction, besides the use of a validated scale to measure the patient's functional independence. RESULTS: 50% and 6.4% of patients prefer remain hospitalized after 24 and 48 hours of surgery, respectively. The average of the visual analogue scale of pain was 2.63 and 1.76 points, and the range of motion of 79º and 86,7º after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. 100% of patients were able to quadriceps contraction in every evaluated moments. CONCLUSION: In Brazil, possible discharged criteria as pain, range of motion, quad contraction and motor independence motor function scale show that anterior cruciate reconstruction reconstructed patients could be discharged after 24 hours of surgery. However, 50% of patients still prefer to remain hospitalized for longer periods.

  17. The Total Solar Eclipse, March 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William H.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the circumstances of the total and partial solar eclipse of March 7, 1970 in certain American cities. Also discussed are (1) a classroom demonstration of the cause of solar eclipses, (2) techniques for safely observing the eclipse, and (3) what to observe during the eclipse. Bibliography. (LC)

  18. Detection and Analysis of Solar Eclipse

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We propose an algorithm that can be used by amateur astronomers to analyze the images acquired during solar eclipses. The proposed algorithm analyzes the image, detects the eclipse and produces results for parameters like magnitude of eclipse, eclipse obscuration and the approximate distance between the Earth and the Moon.

  19. SS 433: Stationary lines and primary eclipses

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, M G

    2015-01-01

    Some stationary lines in the emission spectra of SS 433 are eclipsed, but most are not. Lines attributed to a circumbinary disk are not eclipsed, but double in relative intensity during primary eclipse. A C II doublet is eclipsed and Doppler shifts over two periods yield an orbital speed of 176 +/- 13 km/s.

  20. The Total Solar Eclipse, March 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William H.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the circumstances of the total and partial solar eclipse of March 7, 1970 in certain American cities. Also discussed are (1) a classroom demonstration of the cause of solar eclipses, (2) techniques for safely observing the eclipse, and (3) what to observe during the eclipse. Bibliography. (LC)

  1. Origin of the hot gas in low-mass protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Kempen, T. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; Herczeg, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. "Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) is a Herschel key programme aimed at understanding the physical and chemical structure of young stellar objects (YSOs) with a focus on water and related species. Methods. The low-mass protostar HH 46 was observed with the Photodetector Ar...

  2. Low-Mass, Low-Power Hall Thruster System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pote, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing an electric propulsion system capable of producing 20 mN thrust with input power up to 1,000 W and specific impulse ranging from 1,600 to 3,500 seconds. The key technical challenge is the target mass of 1 kg for the thruster and 2 kg for the power processing unit (PPU). In Phase I, Busek Company, Inc., developed an overall subsystem design for the thruster/cathode, PPU, and xenon feed system. This project demonstrated the feasibility of a low-mass power processing architecture that replaces four of the DC-DC converters of a typical PPU with a single multifunctional converter and a low-mass Hall thruster design employing permanent magnets. In Phase II, the team developed an engineering prototype model of its low-mass BHT-600 Hall thruster system, with the primary focus on the low-mass PPU and thruster. The goal was to develop an electric propulsion thruster with the appropriate specific impulse and propellant throughput to enable radioisotope electric propulsion (REP). This is important because REP offers the benefits of nuclear electric propulsion without the need for an excessively large spacecraft and power system.

  3. On the development of low mass shaking force balanced manipulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Herder, Justus Laurens; Lenarcic, Jadran; Stanisic, Michael M.

    2010-01-01

    Whenever mechanisms have to run at high speeds, dynamic balancing (shaking force and shaking moment balancing) becomes an important issue to reduce machine vibrations. This article considers Fischer’s method of principal vectors for shaking force balancing with low mass addition. A method based on l

  4. Luminosity functions for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Bodenheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the luminosity function for low-mass objects to constrain the stellar initial mass function at the low-mass end is reported. The ways in which luminosity functions for low-mass stars are affected by star formation histories, brown dwarf and premain-sequence cooling rates and main-sequence mass luminosity relations, and the IMF are examined. Cooling rates and the mass-luminosity relation are determined through a new series of evolutionary calculations for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in the range 0.05-0.50 solar mass. Model luminosity functions are constructed for specific comparison with the results of four recent observational surveys. The likelihood that the stellar mass function in the solar neighborhood is increasing at masses near the bottom of the main sequence and perhaps at lower masses is confirmed. In the most optimistic case, brown dwarfs contribute half of the local missing disk mass. The actual contribution is likely to be considerably less.

  5. Origin of the hot gas in low-mass protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Kempen, T. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; Herczeg, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. "Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) is a Herschel key programme aimed at understanding the physical and chemical structure of young stellar objects (YSOs) with a focus on water and related species. Methods. The low-mass protostar HH 46 was observed with the Photodetector...

  6. Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. XI. V1191 Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.; Soonthornthum, B.; He, J. J.; Liu, L.

    2011-10-01

    Complete CCD photometric light curves in BV(RI) c bands obtained on one night in 2009 for the short-period close-binary system V1191 Cygni are presented. A new photometric analysis with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Van Hamme code shows that V1191 Cyg is a W-type overcontact binary system and suggests that it has a high degree of overcontact (f = 68.6%) with very low mass ratio, implying that it is at the late stage of overcontact evolution. The absolute parameters of V1191 Cyg are derived using spectroscopic and photometric solutions. Combining new determined times of light minimum with others published in the literature, the period change of the binary star is investigated. A periodic variation, with a period of 26.7 years and an amplitude of 0.023 days, was discovered to be superimposed on a long-term period increase (dP/dt = +4.5(± 0.1) × 10-7 days yr-1). The cyclic period oscillation may be caused by the magnetic activity cycles of either of the components or the light-time effect due to the presence of a third body with a mass of m 3 = 0.77 M sun and an orbital radius of a 3 = 7.6 AU, when this body is coplanar to the orbit of the eclipsing pair. The secular orbital period increase can be interpreted as a mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With the period increases, V1191 Cyg will evolve from its present low mass ratio, high filled overcontact state to a rapidly rotating single star when its orbital angular momentum is less than three times the total spin angular momentum. V1191 Cyg is too blue for its orbital period and it is an unusual W-type overcontact system with such a low mass ratio and high fill-out overcontact configuration, which is worth monitoring continuously in the future.

  7. Variability in young very low mass stars: two surprises from spectrophotometric monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhinova, I.; Scholz, A.; Eislöffel, J.

    2016-05-01

    We present simultaneous photometric and spectroscopic observations of seven young and highly variable M dwarfs in star-forming regions in Orion, conducted in four observing nights with FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph2 at European Southern Observatory/VLT. All seven targets show significant photometric variability in the I band, with amplitudes between 0.1-0.8 mag, The spectra, however, remain remarkably constant, with spectral type changes less than 0.5 subtypes. Thus, the brightness changes are not caused by veiling that `fills in' absorption features. Three objects in the σ Ori cluster (age ˜3 Myr) exhibit strong Hα emission and Hα variability, in addition to the continuum variations. Their behaviour is mostly consistent with the presence of spots with temperature of ˜300 K above the photosphere and filling factors between 0.2-0.4, in contrast to typical hotspots observed in more massive stars. The remaining targets near ɛ Ori, likely to be older, show eclipse-like light curves, no significant Hα activity and are better represented by variable extinction due to circumstellar material. Interestingly, two of them show no evidence of infrared excess emission. Our study shows that high-amplitude variability in young very low mass stars can be caused by different phenomena than in more massive T Tauri stars and can persist when the disc has disappeared and accretion has ceased.

  8. Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. XIII. DZ Piscium with Intrinsic Light Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhang, L.-Y.; Dai, H.-F.; Soonthornthum, B.

    2013-08-01

    New multi-color photometry for the eclipsing binary DZ Psc was performed in 2011 and 2012 using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Station of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated Wilson-Devinney (W-D) code, we deduced two sets of photometric solutions. The overcontact degree is f = 89.7(± 1.0)%, identifying DZ Psc as a deep, low mass ratio overcontact binary. The asymmetric light curves (i.e., LC2 in 2012) were modeled by a hot spot on the primary star. Based on all of the available light minimum times, we discovered that the orbital period of DZ Psc may be undergoing a secular period increase with a cyclic variation. The modulated period and semi-amplitude of this oscillation are P mod = 11.89(± 0.19) yr and A = 0.0064(± 0.0006) days, which may be possibly attributed to either cyclic magnetic activity or light-time effect due to the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt=+7.43(+/- 0.17)\\times 10^{-7}{\\,days\\, yr^{-1}}, which may be interpreted as conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transferring, DZ Psc will finally merge into a rapid-rotation single star when J spin/J orb > 1/3.

  9. EVOLUTION OF TRANSIENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES TO REDBACK MILLISECOND PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Kun; Li, Xiang-Dong, E-mail: lixd@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2015-11-20

    Redback millisecond pulsars (MSPs; hereafter redbacks) are a subpopulation of eclipsing MSPs in close binaries. The formation processes of these systems are not clear. The three pulsars showing transitions between rotation- and accretion-powered states belong to both redbacks and transient low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), suggesting a possible evolutionary link between them. Through binary evolution calculations, we show that the accretion disks in almost all LMXBs are subject to the thermal-viscous instability during certain evolutionary stages, and the parameter space for the disk instability covers the distribution of known redbacks in the orbital period—companion mass plane. We accordingly suggest that the abrupt reduction of the mass accretion rate during quiescence of transient LMXBs provides a plausible way to switch on the pulsar activity, leading to the formation of redbacks, if the neutron star has been spun up to be an energetic MSP. We investigate the evolution of redbacks, taking into account the evaporation feedback, and discuss its possible influence on the formation of black widow MSPs.

  10. Low-mass stellar and substellar companions to sdB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Geier, S; Bruenner, P; Nagel, K; Schaffenroth, V; Heuser, C; Heber, U; Drechsel, H; Edelmann, H; Koen, C; O'Toole, S J; Morales-Rueda, L

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that besides stellar companions, substellar objects in close orbits may be able to trigger mass loss in a common envelope phase and form hot subdwarfs. In an ongoing project we search for close substellar companions combining time resolved high resolution spectroscopy with photometry. We determine the fraction of as yet undetected radial velocity variable systems from a sample of 27 apparently single sdB stars to be 16%. We discovered low-mass stellar companions to the He-sdB CPD-20 1123 and the pulsator KPD 0629-0016. The brown dwarf reported to orbit the eclipsing binary SDSS J0820+0008 could be confirmed by an analysis of high resolution spectra taken with UVES. Reflection effects have been detected in the light curves of the known sdB binaries CPD-64 481 and BPS CS 22169-0001. The inclinations of these systems must be much higher than expected and the most likely companion masses are in the substellar regime. Finally, we determined the orbit of the sdB binary PHL 457, which has a ver...

  11. BEER Analysis of Kepler and CoRoT Light Curves. IV. Discovery of Four New Low-mass White-Dwarf Companions in the Kepler Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigler, S.; Kull, I.; Mazeh, T.; Kiefer, F.; Latham, D. W.; Bloemen, S.

    2015-12-01

    We report the discovery of four short-period eclipsing systems in the Kepler light curves, consisting of an A-star primary and a low-mass white dwarf (WD) secondary (dA+WD)—KIC 4169521, KOI-3818, KIC 2851474, and KIC 9285587. The systems show BEaming, Ellipsoidal and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations together with primary and secondary eclipses. These add to the 6 Kepler and 18 WASP short-period eclipsing dA+WD binaries that were previously known. The light curves, together with follow-up spectroscopic observations, allow us to derive the masses, radii, and effective temperatures of the two components of the four systems. The orbital periods, of 1.17-3.82 days, and WD masses, of 0.19-0.22 M⊙, are similar to those of the previously known systems. The WD radii of KOI-3818, KIC 2851474, and KIC 9285587 are 0.026, 0.035, and 0.026 R⊙, respectively, the smallest WD radii derived so far for short-period eclipsing dA+WD binaries. These three binaries extend the previously known population to older systems with cooler and smaller WD secondaries. KOI-3818 displays evidence for a fast-rotating primary and a minute but significant eccentricity, ˜1.5 × 10-3. These features are probably the outcome of the mass-transfer process.

  12. BEER ANALYSIS OF KEPLER AND CoRoT LIGHT CURVES. IV. DISCOVERY OF FOUR NEW LOW-MASS WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS IN THE KEPLER DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faigler, S.; Kull, I.; Mazeh, T.; Kiefer, F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Latham, D. W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bloemen, S. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. BOX 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-12-10

    We report the discovery of four short-period eclipsing systems in the Kepler light curves, consisting of an A-star primary and a low-mass white dwarf (WD) secondary (dA+WD)—KIC 4169521, KOI-3818, KIC 2851474, and KIC 9285587. The systems show BEaming, Ellipsoidal and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations together with primary and secondary eclipses. These add to the 6 Kepler and 18 WASP short-period eclipsing dA+WD binaries that were previously known. The light curves, together with follow-up spectroscopic observations, allow us to derive the masses, radii, and effective temperatures of the two components of the four systems. The orbital periods, of 1.17–3.82 days, and WD masses, of 0.19–0.22 M{sub ⊙}, are similar to those of the previously known systems. The WD radii of KOI-3818, KIC 2851474, and KIC 9285587 are 0.026, 0.035, and 0.026 R{sub ⊙}, respectively, the smallest WD radii derived so far for short-period eclipsing dA+WD binaries. These three binaries extend the previously known population to older systems with cooler and smaller WD secondaries. KOI-3818 displays evidence for a fast-rotating primary and a minute but significant eccentricity, ∼1.5 × 10{sup −3}. These features are probably the outcome of the mass-transfer process.

  13. BEER analysis of Kepler and CoRoT light curves: IV. Discovery of four new low-mass white-dwarf companions in the Kepler data

    CERN Document Server

    Faigler, Simchon; Mazeh, Tsevi; Kiefer, Flavien; Latham, David W; Bloemen, Steven

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of four short-period eclipsing systems in the Kepler light curves, consisting of an A-star primary and a low-mass white-dwarf (WD) secondary (dA+WD) - KIC 4169521, KOI-3818, KIC 2851474 and KIC 9285587. The systems show BEaming, Ellipsoidal and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations together with primary and secondary eclipses. These add to the 6 Kepler, and 18 WASP, previously known short-period eclipsing dA+WD binaries. The light curves together with follow-up spectroscopic observations allow us to derive the masses, radii and effective temperatures of the two components of the four systems. The orbital periods, of 1.17-3.82 d, and WD masses, of 0.19-0.22 Msun, are similar to those of the previously known systems. The WD radii of KOI-3818, KIC 2851474, and KIC 9285587 are 0.026, 0.035 and 0.026 Rsun, respectively, the smallest WD radii derived so far for short-period eclipsing dA+WD binaries. These three binaries extend the previously known population to older systems with cooler and sm...

  14. Getting started with Eclipse Juno

    CERN Document Server

    Durelli, Vinicius H S; Teixeira, Rafael Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Written as a concise yet practical guide that details the main features which are usually required by a programmer who makes use of the Eclipse platform, this book covers Eclipse 3.8 in a way that is accessible to the Java novice and expert alike. The reader is guided through a series of hands-on examples that introduce Eclipse and some of its plugins.The primary audience for this book are the Java programmers. This book has been written in a way that it is accessible both to beginners and advanced Java programmers alike. Also, if you are a seasoned Java developer who has been using another ID

  15. The Triply Eclipsing Hierarchical Triple Star KIC002856960

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jae Woo; Lee, Chung-Uk; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Park, Byeong-Gon; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    In a recent study, Armstrong et al. presented an eclipsing binary star of about 6.2 h period with transit-like tertiary signals occurring every 204.2 d in the {\\it Kepler} public data of KIC002856960 and proposed three possible hierarchical structures: (AB)b, (AB)C, and A(BC). We analyzed the {\\it Kepler} light curve by including a third light source and one starspot on each binary component. The results represent that the close eclipsing pair is in a low-mass eccentric-orbit, detached configuration. Based on 123 eclipse timings calculated from the Wilson-Devinney binary model, a period study of the close binary reveals that the orbital period has experienced a sinusoidal variation with a period and a semi-amplitude of 205$\\pm$2 d and 0.0021$\\pm$0.0002 d, respectively. The period variation would be produced by the light-travel-time effect due to a gravitationally-bound third body with a minimum mass of $M_3 \\sin i_3$=0.76 M$_\\odot$ in an eccentric orbit of $e_3$=0.61. This is consistent with the presence of t...

  16. Long-term orbital period behaviour of low mass ratio contact binaries GR Vir and FP Boo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćetinkaya, Halil; Soydugan, Faruk

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated orbital period variations of two low mass ratio contact binaries GR Vir and FP Boo based on published minima times. From the O-C analysis, it was found that FP Boo indicates orbital period decrease while the period of GR Vir is increasing. Mass transfer process was used to explain increase and decrease in the orbital periods. In the O-C diagrams of both systems periodic variations also exist. Cyclic changes can be explained as being the result of a light-travel time effect via a third component around the eclipsing binaries. In order to interpret of cyclic orbital period changes for GR Vir, which has late-type components, possible magnetic activity cycles of the components have been also considered.

  17. Orbital View of Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) crew members were able to document a rare occurrence. The dark area near the center of the frame is actually a shadow cast by the moon during the total solar eclipse of December 4, 2002. The shadow obscures an area of cloud cover. The Station, with three Expedition Six crew members aboard, was over the Indian Ocean at the time of the eclipse.

  18. Heliophysics at total solar eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2017-08-01

    Observations during total solar eclipses have revealed many secrets about the solar corona, from its discovery in the 17th century to the measurement of its million-kelvin temperature in the 19th and 20th centuries, to details about its dynamics and its role in the solar-activity cycle in the 21st century. Today's heliophysicists benefit from continued instrumental and theoretical advances, but a solar eclipse still provides a unique occasion to study coronal science. In fact, the region of the corona best observed from the ground at total solar eclipses is not available for view from any space coronagraphs. In addition, eclipse views boast of much higher quality than those obtained with ground-based coronagraphs. On 21 August 2017, the first total solar eclipse visible solely from what is now United States territory since long before George Washington's presidency will occur. This event, which will cross coast-to-coast for the first time in 99 years, will provide an opportunity not only for massive expeditions with state-of-the-art ground-based equipment, but also for observations from aloft in aeroplanes and balloons. This set of eclipse observations will again complement space observations, this time near the minimum of the solar activity cycle. This review explores the past decade of solar eclipse studies, including advances in our understanding of the corona and its coronal mass ejections as well as terrestrial effects. We also discuss some additional bonus effects of eclipse observations, such as recreating the original verification of the general theory of relativity.

  19. Eclipse mapping of accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Raymundo

    2000-01-01

    The eclipse mapping method is an inversion technique that makes use of the information contained in eclipse light curves to probe the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs. In this review I present the basics of the method and discuss its different implementations. I summarize the most important results obtained to date and discuss how they have helped to improve our understanding of accretion physics, from testing the theoretical radial brightness temperature dist...

  20. Dynamical corotation torques on low-mass planets

    CERN Document Server

    Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan

    2014-01-01

    We study torques on migrating low-mass planets in locally isothermal discs. Previous work on low-mass planets generally kept the planet on a fixed orbit, after which the torque on the planet was measured. In addition to these static torques, when the planet is allowed to migrate it experiences dynamical torques, which are proportional to the migration rate and whose sign depends on the background vortensity gradient. We show that in discs a few times more massive than the Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, these dynamical torques can have a profound impact on planet migration. Inward migration can be slowed down significantly, and if static torques lead to outward migration, dynamical torques can take over, taking the planet beyond zero-torque lines set by saturation of the corotation torque in a runaway fashion. This means the region in non-isothermal discs where outward migration is possible can be larger than what would be concluded from static torques alone.

  1. Old star clusters: Bench tests of low mass stellar models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaris M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Old star clusters in the Milky Way and external galaxies have been (and still are traditionally used to constrain the age of the universe and the timescales of galaxy formation. A parallel avenue of old star cluster research considers these objects as bench tests of low-mass stellar models. This short review will highlight some recent tests of stellar evolution models that make use of photometric and spectroscopic observations of resolved old star clusters. In some cases these tests have pointed to additional physical processes efficient in low-mass stars, that are not routinely included in model computations. Moreover, recent results from the Kepler mission about the old open cluster NGC6791 are adding new tight constraints to the models.

  2. The different baryonic Tully-Fisher relations at low masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Chris B.; Santos-Santos, Isabel; Stinson, Greg

    2016-06-01

    We compare the Baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR) of simulations and observations of galaxies ranging from dwarfs to spirals, using various measures of rotational velocity Vrot. We explore the BTFR when measuring Vrot at the flat part of the rotation curve, Vflat, at the extent of H I gas, Vlast, and using 20 per cent (W20) and 50 per cent (W50) of the width of H I line profiles. We also compare with the maximum circular velocity of the parent halo, V_max^DM, within dark matter only simulations. The different BTFRs increasingly diverge as galaxy mass decreases. Using Vlast one obtains a power law over four orders of magnitude in baryonic mass, with slope similar to the observed BTFR. Measuring Vflat gives similar results as Vlast when galaxies with rising rotation curves are excluded. However, higher rotation velocities would be found for low-mass galaxies if the cold gas extended far enough for Vrot to reach a maximum. W20 gives a similar slope as Vlast but with slightly lower values of Vrot for low-mass galaxies, although this may depend on the extent of the gas in your galaxy sample. W50 bends away from these other relations towards low velocities at low masses. By contrast, V_max^DM bends towards high velocities for low-mass galaxies, as cold gas does not extend out to the radius at which haloes reach V_max^DM. Our study highlights the need for careful comparisons between observations and models: one needs to be consistent about the particular method of measuring Vrot, and precise about the radius at which velocities are measured.

  3. Empirical L-M, R-M, and M-Teff relations for main-sequence stars: Components of close binary systems and low-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorda, S. Yu.; Svechnikov, M. A.

    1999-08-01

    A new catalog of photometric, geometric, and absolute elements of 112 detached main-sequence eclipsing variables with known photometric and spectroscopic orbital elements has been combined with speckle-interferometry data for low-mass stars to yield new mass-luminosity, mass-radius, and mass-spectrum relations: M_bol = 4.46 - 9.52 - (lg M > -0.4), M_bol = 6.18 - 5.91 lg M (lg M 0.14), lg R = 0.10 + 1.03 lg M (lg M 3.6), and lg M = - 29.4 + 8.2 lg T_eff (lg T_eff masses and radii used are accurate to 2-3 and 2-4%, respectively; the errors for low-mass stars are larger by factors of 3-4. The coefficients in the relations were derived using linear least squares fitting with corrections for noise in the independent variable.

  4. Formation and composition of planets around very low mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Alibert, Yann

    2016-01-01

    The recent detection of planets around very low mass stars raises the question of the formation, composition and potential habitability of these objects. We use planetary system formation models to infer the properties, in particular their radius distribution and water content, of planets that may form around stars ten times less massive than the Sun. Our planetary system formation and composition models take into account the structure and evolution of the protoplanetary disk, the planetary mass growth by accretion of solids and gas, as well as planet-planet, planet-star and planet-disk interactions. We show that planets can form at small orbital period in orbit about low mass stars. We show that the radius of the planets is peaked at about 1 rearth and that they are, in general, volatile rich especially if proto-planetary discs orbiting this type of stars are long-lived. Close-in planets orbiting low-mass stars similar in terms of mass and radius to the ones recently detected can be formed within the framewo...

  5. Photometry and H$alpha$ studies of a Low Mass Ratio Overcontact binary ASAS J082243+1927.0

    CERN Document Server

    Sriram, K; Rao, P Vivekananda

    2014-01-01

    Both high precision CCD photometric and H$alpha$ line studies are presented for an overcontact binary ASAS J082243+1927.0. The light curve exhibits a total eclipse at secondary minima along with an O'Connell effect. The light curve was modeled using the Wilson Devinney code and the best solution provides the mass ratio q = 0.106 and fill-out factor f = 72%. These parameters indicate that the system is a low mass ratio overcontact binary with a high degree of geometrical contact. The H alpha line equivalent width varied at different phases and it is found that the line is possibly filled-in at secondary minima. From a small sample of overcontact binaries, we found a correlation between the orbital period and H alpha line equivalent width of the primary component. Based on a sample of high filling factor and low mass ratio contact binaries, a mass ratio cut-off is observed at q = 0.085 in mass ratio - period plane. It was observed that below q $\\le$ 0.085, period decreases with an increase in q and above it, pe...

  6. A Long-Period Totally Eclipsing Binary Star at the Turnoff of the Open Cluster NGC 6819 Discovered with Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Brogaard, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of the totally eclipsing long-period (P = 771.8 d) binary system WOCS 23009 in the old open cluster NGC 6819 that contains both an evolved star near central hydrogen exhaustion and a low-mass (0.45 Msun) star. This system was previously known to be a single-lined spectros......We present the discovery of the totally eclipsing long-period (P = 771.8 d) binary system WOCS 23009 in the old open cluster NGC 6819 that contains both an evolved star near central hydrogen exhaustion and a low-mass (0.45 Msun) star. This system was previously known to be a single......-lined spectroscopic binary, but the discovery of an eclipse near apastron using data from the Kepler space telescope makes it clear that the system has an inclination that is very close to 90 degrees. Although the secondary star has not been identified in spectra, the mass of the primary star can be constrained using...... other eclipsing binaries in the cluster. The combination of total eclipses and a mass constraint for the primary star allows us to determine a reliable mass for the secondary star and radii for both stars, and to constrain the cluster age. Unlike well-measured stars of similar mass in field binaries...

  7. A Long-Period Totally Eclipsing Binary Star at the Turnoff of the Open Cluster NGC 6819 Discovered with Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Brogaard, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of the totally eclipsing long-period (P = 771.8 d) binary system WOCS 23009 in the old open cluster NGC 6819 that contains both an evolved star near central hydrogen exhaustion and a low-mass (0.45 Msun) star. This system was previously known to be a single-lined spectros......We present the discovery of the totally eclipsing long-period (P = 771.8 d) binary system WOCS 23009 in the old open cluster NGC 6819 that contains both an evolved star near central hydrogen exhaustion and a low-mass (0.45 Msun) star. This system was previously known to be a single......-lined spectroscopic binary, but the discovery of an eclipse near apastron using data from the Kepler space telescope makes it clear that the system has an inclination that is very close to 90 degrees. Although the secondary star has not been identified in spectra, the mass of the primary star can be constrained using...... other eclipsing binaries in the cluster. The combination of total eclipses and a mass constraint for the primary star allows us to determine a reliable mass for the secondary star and radii for both stars, and to constrain the cluster age. Unlike well-measured stars of similar mass in field binaries...

  8. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  9. Eclipse RCP入门

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚

    2005-01-01

    Eclipse的插件机制更是提供了一种令人耳目一新的开发方式。现在国内做Eclipse插件的渐渐多了,并且很多用SWT/JFace和插件方式来开发应用项目中的界面。这时将插件用于应用类项目的就有些不爽:插件要依赖Eclipse运行,而这些项目在部需要程序更象一个传统的应用程序,如果表面上看起和Eclipse一点关系也没有那就最好了。而Eclipse3.0之后便解决了RCP的这个问题。本文作者通过一个开发实例,介绍了一些RCP所特有的东西。

  10. Modeling Transiting Circumstellar Disks: Characterizing the Newly Discovered Eclipsing Disk System OGLE LMC-ECL-11893

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Erin L; Pecaut, Mark J; Quillen, Alice C; Moolekamp, Fred; Bell, Cameron P M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the unusual eclipsing star OGLE LMC-ECL-11893 (OGLE J05172127-6900558) in the Large Magellanic Cloud recently reported by Dong et al. 2014. The eclipse period for this star is 468 days, and the eclipses exhibit a minimum of ~1.4 mag, preceded by a plateau of ~0.8 mag. Spectra and optical/IR photometry are consistent with the eclipsed star being a lightly reddened B9III star of inferred age ~150 Myr and mass of ~4 solar masses. The disk appears to have an outer radius of ~0.2 AU with predicted temperatures of ~1100-1400 K. We model the eclipses as being due to either a transiting geometrically thin dust disk or gaseous accretion disk around a secondary object; the debris disk produces a better fit. We speculate on the origin of such a dense circumstellar dust disk structure orbiting a relatively old low-mass companion, and on the similarities of this system to the previously discovered EE Cep.

  11. Where are the Low-mass Population III Stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Sudo, Kae; Yokoi, Shingo; Hasegawa, Kenji; Tominaga, Nozomu; Susa, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    We study the number and the distribution of low-mass Population III (Pop III) stars in the Milky Way. In our numerical model, hierarchical formation of dark matter minihalos and Milky-Way-sized halos are followed by a high-resolution cosmological simulation. We model the Pop III formation in H2 cooling minihalos without metal under UV radiation of the Lyman-Werner bands. Assuming a Kroupa initial mass function (IMF) from 0.15 to 1.0 M ⊙ for low-mass Pop III stars, as a working hypothesis, we try to constrain the theoretical models in reverse by current and future observations. We find that the survivors tend to concentrate on the center of halo and subhalos. We also evaluate the observability of Pop III survivors in the Milky Way and dwarf galaxies, and constraints on the number of Pop III survivors per minihalo. The higher latitude fields require lower sample sizes because of the high number density of stars in the galactic disk, the required sample sizes are comparable in the high- and middle-latitude fields by photometrically selecting low-metallicity stars with optimized narrow-band filters, and the required number of dwarf galaxies to find one Pop III survivor is less than 10 at <100 kpc for the tip of red giant stars. Provided that available observations have not detected any survivors, the formation models of low-mass Pop III stars with more than 10 stars per minihalo are already excluded. Furthermore, we discuss the way to constrain the IMF of Pop III stars at a high mass range of ≳10 M ⊙.

  12. Necessary actions in order to reduce the probability for a region being without power supply for a longer period; Tiltak for aa redusere sannsynligheten for at et omraade er stroemloest over lang tid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulsberg, Helge; Gaaserud, Oeystein; Loneland, Knut; Kristensen, Roar

    2009-07-01

    In January 2007 the inhabitants of the municipality of Steigen in Nordland county experienced a protracted power failure in the main power supply. A storm led to a breakdown on one of the two power supply lines which serve the region. The remaining power line turned out to be in such a bad condition that it did not stand up to the increased load. In November 2007 an excavator caused serious damage to the power distribution network in Oslo. The railways in the Eastern central region of Norway including Oslo came to a total halt. Critical societal functions were cut off from data communication for 10 hours. Both cases aroused considerable media interest and clearly demonstrated society's dependency of a reliable power supply. During the summer of 2007 NVE Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate initiated the establishment of a joint project group, with representatives from Statnett SF (the main national grid owner and operator), the Directorate for Civil Defence and Emergency Planning and NVE. The objective was to analyse and assess the need for relevant improvement in procedures, guidance and regulations, in order to reduce the possibility of a similar incident, meaning a region without power supply over a longer period. The procedure project has a main limitation where it meets with the responsibilities of the power network suppliers. The basis for the project activities are the Energy Act and the Act on Supervision of Electricity Installations and Networks with further regulations. The project will sum up conditions and elements which are of vital importance when it comes to reduce the possibility of an extensive power failure: The correct and solid planning of the plants; The control during the construction process and after the finalization; The systematic control and implementation of maintenance and refurbishment; The updating of the plants in order to ensure delivery quality and safety level; Develop risk and vulnerability analyses for extreme

  13. Optimisation of low-mass drift chambers for HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabatos, C.; Karig, W.; Muentz, C.; Steigerwald, A.; Stroth, J.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Zentek, A.; Bethge, K. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.; Glonti, L.; Smykov, L.; Zanewsky, Yu. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR), 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Bokemeyer, H.; Koenig, W.; Stelzer, H.; Zumbruch, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    1998-07-21

    A set of low-mass drift chambers designed for the tracking of di-electrons in the HADES spectrometer is presented. Short radiation length is ensured by using a Helium-based gas mixture and aluminium cathode wires, whereas the acceptance is maximised by limiting the width of the side frames of the detectors. The measured performance of these devices, which improves with increasing concentration of quencher gas, is shown and discussed. Position resolutions down to 70 {mu}m have been obtained under stable operation. Long-term gain stability is also reported. (orig.)

  14. Optimisation of low-mass drift chambers for HADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabatos, C.; Karig, W.; Müntz, C.; Steigerwald, A.; Stroth, J.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Zentek, A.; Bethge, K.; Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.; Glonti, L.; Smykov, L.; Zanewsky, Yu; Bokemeyer, H.; Koenig, W.; Stelzer, H.; Zumbruch, P.

    A set of low-mass drift chambers designed for the tracking of di-electrons in the HADES spectrometer is presented. Short radiation length is ensured by using a Helium-based gas mixture and aluminium cathode wires, whereas the acceptance is maximised by limiting the width of the side frames of the detectors. The measured performance of these devices, which improves with increasing concentration of quencher gas, is shown and discussed. Position resolutions down to 70 μm have been obtained under stable operation. Long-term gain stability is also reported.

  15. Compact Stars in low-mass X-ray binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein, Sk. Monowar; Molla, Sajahan; Jafry, Md. Abdul Kayum; Kalam, Mehedi

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model for compact stars in low-mass X-ray binaries(LMXBs) namely KS 1731-260, EXO 1745-248 and 4U 1608-52. Here we investigate the physical phenomena of a compact star in the LMXBs. Using our model, we have calculated central density, surface density, mass(M) and red-shift for the above mentioned compact stars, which is very much consistent with the reported data. We also obtain the possible equation of state(EOS) of the stars which is physically acceptable.

  16. A low mass pixel detector upgrade for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kaestli, Hans-Christian

    2010-01-01

    and commissioning of the present pixel detector, we intend to upgrade the whole pixel detector in 2015. The main focus is on lowering the material budget and adding more tracking points. We will present the design of a new low mass pixel system consisting of 4 barrel layers and 3 end cap disks on each side. The design comprises of thin detector modules and a lightweight mechanical support structure using CO2 cooling. In addition, large efforts have been made to move material from the services out of the tracking regi...

  17. High and low mass Axion Haloscopes at UWA

    CERN Document Server

    McAllister, Ben T; Ivanov, Eugene N; Tobar, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    We consider the design of a haloscope experiment (ORGAN) to probe for axions at 26.6 GHz. The motivation for this search is to perform the first direct test of a result which claims a possible axion signal at this frequency. There are many technical issues and optimisations that must be considered in the design of a high mass axion haloscope. We discuss the current status of the ORGAN experiment, as well as its future. We also discuss low mass axion haloscopes employing lumped 3D LC resonators.

  18. Formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Hennebelle, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    These lectures attempt to expose the most important ideas, which have been proposed to explain the formation of stars with particular emphasis on the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We first describe the important physical processes which trigger the collapse of a self-gravitating piece of fluid and regulate the star formation rate in molecular clouds. Then we review the various theories which have been proposed along the years to explain the origin of the stellar initial mass f...

  19. Young stars of low mass in the Gum nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J. A.; Heyer, Mark H.

    1989-01-01

    Observations are presented for four recently formed stars in the vicinity of the Gum nebula which are heavily obscured by surrounding dust and are associated with small reflection nebulae. HH46 is the only currently active star of the sample, and it is found to have a spectral type in the range of late G-early K, with superimposed emission lines of H-alpha, Ca II, Fe I, Fe II, and weak He I at near zero velocities. It is suggested that the observed scenario of low-mass stars in an older massive star environment may be analogous to the circumstances surrounding the birth of the sun.

  20. Total Solar Eclipse--A Caribbean Adventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Steven; Tunstall, Louisa; Tunstall, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Describes the experiences of two high school students who traveled to the Caribbean island of Curacao to view a total solar eclipse and prepare methods for teaching classmates about the eclipse the following school year. (Author/WRM)

  1. Total Solar Eclipse--A Caribbean Adventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Steven; Tunstall, Louisa; Tunstall, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Describes the experiences of two high school students who traveled to the Caribbean island of Curacao to view a total solar eclipse and prepare methods for teaching classmates about the eclipse the following school year. (Author/WRM)

  2. The Quiescent X-Ray Properties of the Accreting Millisecond X-Ray Pulsar and Eclipsing binary Swift J1749.4-2807

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Degenaar; A. Patruno; R. Wijnands

    2012-01-01

    Swift J1749.4-2807 is a transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary that contains an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar spinning at 518 Hz. It is the first of its kind that displays X-ray eclipses, which holds significant promise to precisely constrain the mass of the neutron star. We report on a s

  3. Io in Eclipse 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This image of Io eclipsed by Jupiter's shadow is a combination of several images taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) between 09:35 and 09:41 Universal Time on February 27, 2007, about 28 hours after the spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter. North is at the top of the image. In the darkness, only glowing hot lava, auroral displays in Io's tenuous atmosphere and the moon's volcanic plumes are visible. The brightest points of light in the image are the glow of incandescent lava at several active volcanoes. The three brightest volcanoes south of the equator are, from left to right, Pele, Reiden and Marduk. North of the equator, near the disk center, a previously unknown volcano near 22 degrees north, 233 degrees west glows brightly. (The dark streak to its right is an artifact.) The edge of Io's disk is outlined by the auroral glow produced as intense radiation from Jupiter's magnetosphere bombards the atmosphere. The glow is patchy because the atmosphere itself is patchy, being denser over active volcanoes. At the 1 o'clock position the giant glowing plume from the Tvashtar volcano rises 330 kilometers (200 miles) above the edge of the disk, and several smaller plumes are also visible as diffuse glows scattered across the disk. Bright glows at the edge of Io on the left and right sides of the disk mark regions where electrical currents connect Io to Jupiter's magnetosphere. New Horizons was 2.8 million kilometers (1.7 million miles) from Io when this picture was taken, and the image is centered at Io coordinates 2 degrees south, 238 degrees west. The image has been heavily processed to remove scattered light from Jupiter, but some artifacts remain, including a horizontal seam where two sets of frames were pieced together. Total exposure time for this image was 56 seconds.

  4. Pruning The ELM Survey: Characterizing Candidate Low-mass White Dwarfs through Photometric Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Keaton J.; Gianninas, A.; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Kilic, Mukremin; Montgomery, M. H.; Castanheira, B. G.; Vanderbosch, Z.; Winget, K. I.; Brown, Warren R.

    2017-02-01

    We assess the photometric variability of nine stars with spectroscopic Teff and log g values from the ELM Survey that locates them near the empirical extremely low-mass (ELM) white dwarf instability strip. We discover three new pulsating stars: SDSS J135512.34+195645.4, SDSS J173521.69+213440.6, and SDSS J213907.42+222708.9. However, these are among the few ELM Survey objects that do not show radial velocity (RV) variations that confirm the binary nature expected of helium-core white dwarfs. The dominant 4.31 hr pulsation in SDSS J135512.34+195645.4 far exceeds the theoretical cut-off for surface reflection in a white dwarf, and this target is likely a high-amplitude δ Scuti pulsator with an overestimated surface gravity. We estimate the probability to be less than 0.0008 that the lack of measured RV variations in four of eight other pulsating candidate ELM white dwarfs could be due to low orbital inclination. Two other targets exhibit variability as photometric binaries. Partial coverage of the 19.342 hr orbit of WD J030818.19+514011.5 reveals deep eclipses that imply a primary radius >0.4 R⊙—too large to be consistent with an ELM white dwarf. The only object for which our time series photometry adds support to ELM white dwarf classification is SDSS J105435.78‑212155.9, which has consistent signatures of Doppler beaming and ellipsoidal variations. We conclude that the ELM Survey contains multiple false positives from another stellar population at Teff ≲ 9000 K, possibly related to the sdA stars recently reported from SDSS spectra.

  5. Eclipse Editor for MARC Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Dimić Surla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Editing bibliographic data is an important part of library information systems. In this paper we discuss existing approaches in developing of user interface for editing MARC records. There are two basic approaches, screen forms that support entering bibliographic data without knowledge of the MARC structure and direct editing of MARC records that is shown on the screen. The main result presented in the paper is Eclipse editor for MARC records that fully supports editing of MARC records. It is written in Java as Eclipse plug-in so it is platform-independent. It can be extended for using with any data store. At the end, the paper presents Rich Client Platform application made of MARC editor plug-in which can be used outside of Eclipse. The practical application of the results is integration of created Rich Client Platform application in BISIS library information system.

  6. Bent by baryons: the low mass galaxy-halo relation

    CERN Document Server

    Sawala, Till; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Furlong, Michelle; Jenkins, Adrian; McCarthy, Ian G; Qu, Yan; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The relation between galaxies and dark matter halos is of vital importance for evaluating theoretical predictions of structure formation and galaxy formation physics. We show that the widely used method of abundance matching based on dark matter only simulations fails at the low mass end because two of its underlying assumptions are broken: only a small fraction of low mass (below 10^9.5 solar masses) halos host a visible galaxy, and halos grow at a lower rate due to the effect of baryons. In this regime, reliance on dark matter only simulations for abundance matching is neither accurate nor self-consistent. We find that the reported discrepancy between observational estimates of the halo masses of dwarf galaxies and the values predicted by abundance matching does not point to a failure of LCDM, but simply to a failure to account for baryonic effects. Our results also imply that the Local Group contains only a few hundred observable galaxies in contrast with the thousands of faint dwarfs that abundance matchi...

  7. SETI Observations of Low Mass Stars at the SETI Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Gerald R.

    2017-05-01

    Are planets orbiting low-mass stars suitable for the development of life? Observations in the near future, including radio, will help to assess whether atmospheres do persist over long timescales for planets orbiting nearby M dwarfs, and clarify the nature of the radiation that penetrates to the surface of these planets. These are important ingredients for assessing planetary habitability, yet the question of habitability can be answered only with the positive measurement of an unambiguous biosignature. Radio and optical SETI observations capable of detecting technological activities of intelligent inhabitants could provide the most compelling evidence for the habitability of exoplanets orbiting M dwarfs. In this presentation we shall consider what information can be gleaned from our observations so far. The SETI Institute is currently undertaking a large survey of 20,000 low mass stars that is now about 30% complete. The frequency coverage on each star is about 450 MHz bandwidth (per star) over a range of selected frequencies from 1-10 GHz. From these observations we derive quantitative results relating to the probability that M dwarfs are actually inhabited.

  8. Low-mass stars: Open problems all along their evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heners N.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although low-mass stars have a comparatively simple structure, current stellar models are far from reproducing them accurately. In light of the observational progress, in particular of asteroseismology, the deficits of the theory of stellar structure and evolution become increasingly evident, and can no longer be hidden under the carpet of observational errors. In my brief review I will discuss a number of obvious problems of the models, which are mainly – and not surprisingly so – connected with convective and other mixing processes. They begin already on the pre-main sequence and continue throughout the complete evolution. In addition to the deficits in the treatment of physical processes I will also address our difficulties in obtaining completely satisfying agreement between different numerical codes. It will be shown that this concerns already the main sequence evolution of low-mass stars without a convective core. Keeping this in mind, it is no surprise that models for stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch differ widely.

  9. Where are the low mass Pop III stars ?

    CERN Document Server

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Yokoi, Shingo; Hasegawa, Kenji; Tominaga, Nozomu; Susa, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    We study the number and the distribution of low mass Pop III stars in the Milky Way. In our numerical model, hierarchical formation of dark matter minihalos and Milky Way sized halos are followed by a high resolution cosmological simulation, which can predict the spatial distribution of Pop III survivors in the Milky Way. We model the Pop III formation in H$_2$ cooling minihalos without metal under UV radiation of the Lyman-Werner bands. Assuming a Kroupa IMF from 0.15 to 1.0 Msun for low mass Pop III stars, as a working hypothesis, we try to constrain the theoretical models in reverse by current and future observations. We find that the number of survivors is proportional to the halo mass and the number of Pop III per minihalo. Thus, the distribution of survivors reflects that of dark matter and the survivors tend to concentrate on the center of halo and subhalos. We also evaluate the observability of Pop III survivors in the Milky Way and dwarf galaxies, and constraints on the number of Pop III survivors pe...

  10. Fast migration of low-mass planets in radiative discs

    CERN Document Server

    Pierens, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Low-mass planets are known to undergo Type I migration and this process must have played a key role during the evolution of planetary systems. Analytical formulae for the disc torque have been derived assuming that the planet evolves on a fixed circular orbit. However, recent work has shown that in isothermal discs, a migrating protoplanet may also experience dynamical corotation torques that scale with the planet drift rate. The aim of this study is to examine whether dynamical corotation torques can also affect the migration of low-mass planets in non-isothermal discs. We performed 2D radiative hydrodynamical simulations to examine the orbital evolution outcome of migrating protoplanets as a function of disc mass. We find that a protoplanet can enter a fast migration regime when it migrates in the direction set by the entropy-related horseshoe drag and when the Toomre stability parameter is less than a threshold value below which the horseshoe region contracts into a tadpole-like region. In that case, an un...

  11. Powerful Winds from Low-Mass Stars: V374 Peg

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Opher, M; Donati, J -F; Gombosi, T I

    2010-01-01

    The rapid rotation (P=0.44 d) of the M dwarf V374Peg (M4) along with its intense magnetic field point toward magneto-centrifugal acceleration of a coronal wind. In this work, we investigate the structure of the wind of V374Peg by means of 3D magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) numerical simulations. For the first time, an observationally derived surface magnetic field map is implemented in MHD models of stellar winds for a low mass star. We show that the wind of V374Peg deviates greatly from a low-velocity, low-mass-loss rate solar-type wind. We find general scaling relations for the terminal velocities, mass-loss rates, and spin-down times of highly magnetized M dwarfs. In particular, for V374Peg, our models show that terminal velocities across a range of stellar latitudes reach ~(1500-2300) n_{12}^{-1/2} km/s, where n_{12} is the coronal wind base density in units of 10^{12} cm^{-3}, while the mass-loss rates are about 4 x 10^{-10} n_{12}^{1/2} Msun/yr. We also evaluate the angular-momentum loss of V374Peg, which p...

  12. Modeling water emission from low-mass protostellar envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    van Kempen, T A; Van Dishoeck, E F; Hogerheijde, M R; Jørgensen, J K

    2008-01-01

    Within low-mass star formation, water vapor plays a key role in the chemistry and energy balance of the circumstellar material. The Herschel Space Observatory will open up the possibility to observe water lines originating from a wide range of excitation energies.Our aim is to simulate the emission of rotational water lines from envelopes characteristic of embedded low-mass protostars. A large number of parameters that influence the water line emission are explored: luminosity, density,density slope and water abundances.Both dust and water emission are modelled using full radiative transfer in spherical symmetry. The temperature profile is calculated for a given density profile. The H2O level populations and emission profiles are in turn computed with a non-LTE line code. The results are analyzed to determine the diagnostic value of different lines, and are compared with existing observations. Lines can be categorized in: (i) optically thick lines, including ground-state lines, mostly sensitive to the cold ou...

  13. A spectral differential characterization of low-mass companions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubchik Y.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach with which the dynamical mass of low-mass companions around cool stars can be found. In order to discover companions to late-type stars the stellar spectrum is removed. For this we substract two spectra obtained at different orbital phases from each other in order to discover the companion spectrum in the difference spectrum in which the companion lines appear twice (positive and negative signal. The resulting radial velocity difference of these two signals provides the true mass of the companion. For our test case GJ1046, an M2V dwarf with a low-mass companion that most likely is a brown dwarf we select the CO line region in the K-band. We show that the dynamical mass of a faint companion to an M dwarf can be determined using our spectral differential technique. Only if the companion rotates rapidly and has a small radial velocity amplitude due to a high mass, does blending occur for all lines so that our approach fails. In addition to determining the companion mass, we restore the single companion spectrum from the difference spectrum using singular value decomposition.

  14. Formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Hennebelle, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    These lectures attempt to expose the most important ideas, which have been proposed to explain the formation of stars with particular emphasis on the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We first describe the important physical processes which trigger the collapse of a self-gravitating piece of fluid and regulate the star formation rate in molecular clouds. Then we review the various theories which have been proposed along the years to explain the origin of the stellar initial mass function paying particular attention to four models, namely the competitive accretion and the theories based respectively on stopped accretion, MHD shocks and turbulent dispersion. As it is yet unsettled whether the brown dwarfs form as low-mass stars, we present the theory of brown dwarfs based on disk fragmentation stressing all the uncertainties due to the radiative feedback and magnetic field. Finally, we describe the results of large scale simulations performed to explain the collapse and fragmentation of molecular cl...

  15. Formation of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebelle, P.

    2012-11-01

    These lectures attempt to expose the most important ideas, which have been proposed to explain the formation of stars with particular emphasis on the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We first describe the important physical processes which trigger the collapse of a self-gravitating piece of fluid and regulate the star formation rate in molecular clouds. Then we review the various theories which have been proposed along the years to explain the origin of the stellar initial mass function paying particular attention to four models, namely the competitive accretion and the theories based respectively on stopped accretion, MHD shocks and turbulent dispersion. As it is yet unsettled whether the brown dwarfs form as low-mass stars, we present the theory of brown dwarfs based on disk fragmentation stressing all the uncertainties due to the radiative feedback and magnetic field. Finally, we describe the results of large scale simulations performed to explain the collapse and fragmentation of molecular clouds.

  16. Record-Breaking Eclipsing Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    A new record holder exists for the longest-period eclipsing binary star system: TYC-2505-672-1. This intriguing system contains a primary star that is eclipsed by its companion once every 69 years with each eclipse lasting several years!120 Years of ObservationsIn a recent study, a team of scientists led by Joseph Rodriguez (Vanderbilt University) characterizes the components of TYC-2505-672-1. This binary star system consists of an M-type red giant star that undergoes a ~3.45-year-long, near-total eclipse with a period of ~69.1 years. This period is more than double that of the previous longest-period eclipsing binary!Rodriguez and collaborators combined photometric observations of TYC-2505-672-1 by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) with a variety of archival data, including observations by the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) network and historical data from the Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard (DASCH) program.In the 120 years spanned by these observations, two eclipses are detected: one in 1942-1945 and one in 2011-2015. The authors use the observations to analyze the components of the system and attempt to better understand what causes its unusual light curve.Characterizing an Unusual SystemObservations of TYC-2505-672-1 plotted from 1890 to 2015 reveal two eclipses. (The blue KELT observations during the eclipse show upper limits only.) [Rodriguez et al. 2016]By modeling the systems emission, Rodriguez and collaborators establish that TYC-2505-672-1 consists of a 3600-K primary star thats the M giant orbited by a small, hot, dim companion thats a toasty 8000 K. But if the companion is small, why does the eclipse last several years?The authors argue that the best model of TYC-2505-672-1 is one in which the small companion star is surrounded by a large, opaque circumstellar disk. Rodriguez and collaborators suggest that the companion could be a former red giant whose atmosphere was stripped from it, leaving behind

  17. Necessary actions in order to reduce the probability for a region being without power supply for a longer period; Tiltak for aa redusere sannsynligheten for at et omraade er stroemloest over lang tid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulsberg, Helge; Gaaserud, Oeystein; Loneland, Knut; Kristensen, Roar

    2009-07-01

    In January 2007 the inhabitants of the municipality of Steigen in Nordland county experienced a protracted power failure in the main power supply. A storm led to a breakdown on one of the two power supply lines which serve the region. The remaining power line turned out to be in such a bad condition that it did not stand up to the increased load. In November 2007 an excavator caused serious damage to the power distribution network in Oslo. The railways in the Eastern central region of Norway including Oslo came to a total halt. Critical societal functions were cut off from data communication for 10 hours. Both cases aroused considerable media interest and clearly demonstrated society's dependency of a reliable power supply. During the summer of 2007 NVE Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate initiated the establishment of a joint project group, with representatives from Statnett SF (the main national grid owner and operator), the Directorate for Civil Defence and Emergency Planning and NVE. The objective was to analyse and assess the need for relevant improvement in procedures, guidance and regulations, in order to reduce the possibility of a similar incident, meaning a region without power supply over a longer period. The procedure project has a main limitation where it meets with the responsibilities of the power network suppliers. The basis for the project activities are the Energy Act and the Act on Supervision of Electricity Installations and Networks with further regulations. The project will sum up conditions and elements which are of vital importance when it comes to reduce the possibility of an extensive power failure: The correct and solid planning of the plants; The control during the construction process and after the finalization; The systematic control and implementation of maintenance and refurbishment; The updating of the plants in order to ensure delivery quality and safety level; Develop risk and vulnerability analyses for extreme

  18. Eclipse plugin development by example beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Blewitt, Alex

    2013-01-01

    A Beginner's Guide following the ""by Example"" approach. There will be 5-8 major examples that will be used in the book to develop advanced plugins with the Eclipse IDE.This book is for Java developers who are familiar with Eclipse as a Java IDE and are interested in learning how to develop plug-ins for Eclipse. No prior knowledge of Eclipse plug-in development or OSGi is necessary, although you are expected to know how to create, run, and debug Java programs in Eclipse.

  19. GMRT discovery of PSR J1544+4937, an eclipsing black-widow pulsar identified with a Fermi LAT source

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, B; Ray, P S; Gupta, Y; Bhattacharya, D; Romani, R W; Ransom, S M; Ferrara, E C; Wolff, M T; Camilo, F; Cognard, I; Harding, A K; Hartog, P R den; Johnston, S; Keith, M; Kerr, M; Michelson, P F; Parkinson, P M Saz; Wood, D L; Wood, K S

    2013-01-01

    Using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) we performed deep observations to search for radio pulsations in the directions of unidentified Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) gamma-ray sources. We report the discovery of an eclipsing black-widow millisecond pulsar, PSR J1544+4937, identified with the un-cataloged gamma-ray source Fermi J1544.2+4941. This 2.16 ms pulsar is in a 2.9 hours compact circular orbit with a very low-mass companion (Mc > 0.017 Msun). At 322 MHz this pulsar is found to be eclipsing for 13% of its orbit, whereas at 607 MHz the pulsar is detected throughout the low-frequency eclipse phase. Variations in the eclipse ingress phase are observed, indicating a clumpy and variable eclipsing medium. Moreover, additional short-duration absorption events are observed around the eclipse boundaries. Using the radio timing ephemeris we were able to detect gamma-ray pulsations from this pulsar, confirming it as the source powering the gamma-ray emission.

  20. Short period eclipsing binary candidates identified using SuperWASP

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, A J; Evans, T; West, R G; Wheatley, P J; Anderson, D R; Barros, S C C; Butters, O W; Cameron, A Collier; Christian, D J; Enoch, B; Faedi, F; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Holmes, S; Horne, K D; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Parley, N; Pollacco, D; Simpson, E K; Skillen, I; Smalley, B; Southworth, J; Street, R A

    2011-01-01

    We present light curves and periods of 53 candidates for short period eclipsing binary stars identified by SuperWASP. These include 48 newly identified objects with periods <2x10^4 seconds (~0.23d), as well as the shortest period binary known with main sequence components (GSC2314-0530 = 1SWASP J022050.85+332047.6) and four other previously known W UMa stars (although the previously reported periods for two of these four are shown to be incorrect). The period distribution of main sequence contact binaries shows a sharp cut-off at a lower limit of around 0.22d, but until now, very few systems were known close to this limit. These new candidates will therefore be important for understanding the evolution of low mass stars and to allow investigation of the cause of the period cut-off.

  1. Exploring Low-Mass Dark Matter with CRESST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R.; Angloher, G.; Bento, A.; Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; Defay, X.; Erb, A.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Ferreiro Iachellini, N.; Gorla, P.; Gütlein, A.; Hauff, D.; Jochum, J.; Kiefer, M.; Kluck, H.; Kraus, H.; Lanfranchi, J. C.; Loebell, J.; Münster, A.; Pagliarone, C.; Petricca, F.; Potzel, W.; Pröbst, F.; Reindl, F.; Schäffner, K.; Schieck, J.; Schönert, S.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L.; Strandhagen, C.; Tanzke, A.; Trinh Thi, H. H.; Türkoglu, C.; Uffinger, M.; Ulrich, A.; Usherov, I.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Wüstrich, M.; Zöller, A.

    2016-08-01

    The CRESST-II (Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers) experiment, whose second phase has been successfully finished in summer 2015, aims at the direct detection of dark matter particles. The intrinsic radiopurity of CaWO_4 crystals, the capability to reject recoil events from alpha-surface contamination, and the energy threshold were significantly improved compared to previous runs of the experiment. A moderate exposure of 29 kg-days acquired by one ˜ 250 g CaWO_4 detector provides competitive limits on the spin-independent dark matter particle-nucleon cross section and probes a new region of parameter space for dark matter particle masses below 3 GeV/c^2. The potential for low-mass dark matter particle search can be further exploited by a new detector design planned for CRESST-III. We describe the experimental strategy for the near future and give projections for the sensitivity.

  2. Feedback in low-mass galaxies in the early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Dawn K

    2015-07-09

    The formation, evolution and death of massive stars release large quantities of energy and momentum into the gas surrounding the sites of star formation. This process, generically termed 'feedback', inhibits further star formation either by removing gas from the galaxy, or by heating it to temperatures that are too high to form new stars. Observations reveal feedback in the form of galactic-scale outflows of gas in galaxies with high rates of star formation, especially in the early Universe. Feedback in faint, low-mass galaxies probably facilitated the escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies when the Universe was about 500 million years old, so that the hydrogen between galaxies changed from neutral to ionized-the last major phase transition in the Universe.

  3. Star Formation Triggered by Low-Mass Clump Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsionas, Spyridon; Whitworth, Anthony P.

    We investigate by means of high-resolution numerical simulations the phenomenology of star formation triggered by low-velocity collisions between low-mass molecular clumps. The simulations are performed using an SPH code which satisfies the Jeans condition by invoking On-the-Fly Particle Splitting (Kitsionas & Whitworth 2002). The efficiency of star formation appears to increase with increasing clump mass and/or decreasing impact parameter b and/or increasing clump velocity. For bcompressed layers which fragment into filaments that break up into cores. Protostellar objects then condense out of the cores and accrete from them. The resulting accretion rates are comparable to those of Class 0 objects. The densities in the filaments are sufficient that they could be mapped in ammonia or CS line radiation in nearby star formation regions. The phenomenology of star formation observed in our simulations compares rather well with the observed filamentary distribution of young stars in Taurus (Hartmann 2002).

  4. Optimizing Cryogenic Detectors for Low-Mass WIMP Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Q.; Billard, J.; Juillard, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results from a study dedicated to the optimization of cryogenic detectors for low-mass WIMP searches. Considering a data-driven background model from the EDELWEISS-III experiment, and two analysis methods, namely profile likelihood and boosted decision tree, we indentify the main experimental constraints and performances that have to be improved. We found that there is a clear difference in how to optimize the detector setup whether focusing on WIMPs with masses below 5 GeV or above. Finally, in the case of a hundred-kg scale experiment, we discuss the requirements to probe most of the parameter space region delimited by the ultimate neutrino bound below 6 GeV.

  5. Low Mass Printable Devices for Energy Capture, Storage, and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Singer, Christopher E.; Rogers, Jan R.; Schramm, Harry F.; Fabisinski, Leo L.; Lowenthal, Mark; Ray, William J.; Fuller, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy-efficient, environmentally friendly technology that will be presented is the result of a Space Act Agreement between NthDegree Technologies Worldwide, Inc., and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The work combines semiconductor and printing technologies to advance lightweight electronic and photonic devices having excellent potential for commercial and exploration applications. Device development involves three projects that relate to energy generation and consumption: (1) a low-mass efficient (low power, low heat emission) micro light-emitting diode (LED) area lighting device; (2) a low-mass omni-directional efficient photovoltaic (PV) device with significantly improved energy capture; and (3) a new approach to building super-capacitors. These three technologies, energy capture, storage, and usage (e.g., lighting), represent a systematic approach for building efficient local micro-grids that are commercially feasible; furthermore, these same technologies, appropriately replacing lighting with lightweight power generation, will be useful for enabling inner planetary missions using smaller launch vehicles and to facilitate surface operations during lunar and planetary surface missions. The PV device model is a two sphere, light trapped sheet approximately 2-mm thick. The model suggests a significant improvement over current thin film systems. For lighting applications, all three technology components are printable in-line by printing sequential layers on a standard screen or flexographic direct impact press using the three-dimensional printing technique (3DFM) patented by NthDegree. One primary contribution to this work in the near term by the MSFC is to test the robustness of prototype devices in the harsh environments that prevail in space and on the lunar surface. It is anticipated that this composite device, of which the lighting component has passed off-gassing testing, will function

  6. Fast migration of low-mass planets in radiative discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierens, A.

    2015-12-01

    Low-mass planets are known to undergo Type I migration and this process must have played a key role during the evolution of planetary systems. Analytical formulae for the disc torque have been derived assuming that the planet evolves on a fixed circular orbit. However, recent work has shown that in isothermal discs, a migrating protoplanet may also experience dynamical corotation torques that scale with the planet drift rate. The aim of this study is to examine whether dynamical corotation torques can also affect the migration of low-mass planets in non-isothermal discs. We performed 2D radiative hydrodynamical simulations to examine the orbital evolution outcome of migrating protoplanets as a function of disc mass. We find that a protoplanet can enter a fast migration regime when it migrates in the direction set by the entropy-related horseshoe drag and when the Toomre stability parameter is less than a threshold value below which the horseshoe region contracts into a tadpole-like region. In that case, an underdense trapped region appears near the planet, with an entropy excess compared to the ambient disc. If the viscosity and thermal diffusivity are small enough so that the entropy excess is conserved during migration, the planet then experiences strong corotation torques arising from the material flowing across the planet orbit. During fast migration, we observe that a protoplanet can pass through the zero-torque line predicted by static torques. We also find that fast migration may help in disrupting the mean-motion resonances that are formed by convergent migration of embryos.

  7. Close Binaries, Triples, and Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Jason; Zavala, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Observations of the variable radio source b Per (HR1324) are part of an ongoing survey of close binary systems using the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer. Historical observations of b Per include sparse photometric and spectroscopic observations dating back to 1923, clearly showing this object to be a non-eclipsing, single-lined ellipsoidal variable. This is where the story for b Per stopped until recent inclusion of optical interferometric data which led to the detection of a third, long-period component. As the interferometric observations continue to build up so to is the understanding of this binary system, with the modeled orbital parameters pointing to an edge-on orientation that may allow for the detection of an eclipse by the long-period component. These types of eclipse events are quite rare for long-period binaries due to the nearly edge-on orientation required for their detection, leaving open the opportunity for more traditional methods of observation to add to the body of knowledge concerning this understudied system. Here we present the latest observational data of the b Per system along with an introduction to the best fit orbital parameters governing the eclipsing nature of this complex triple-system.

  8. Android development tools for Eclipse

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial aimed at developing Android applications in a practical manner.Android Development Tools for Eclipse is aimed at beginners and existing developers who want to learn more about Android development. It is assumed that you have experience in Java programming and that you have used IDE for development.

  9. Reflected eclipses on circumbinary planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg H.J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A photometric method to detect planets orbiting around shortperiodic binary stars is presented. It is based on the detection of eclipse-signatures in the reflected light of circumbinary planets. Amplitudes of such ’reflected eclipses’ will depend on the orbital configurations of binary and planet relative to the observer. Reflected eclipses will occur with a period that is distinct from the binary eclipses, and their timing will also be modified by variations in the light-travel time of the eclipse signal. For the sample of eclipsing binaries found by the Kepler mission, reflected eclipses from close circumbinary planets may be detectable around at least several dozen binaries. A thorough detection effort of such reflected eclipses may then detect the inner planets present, or give solid limits to their abundance.

  10. Symbolism and discovery: eclipses in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchford, Ian

    2016-09-28

    There is a fascinating tradition of depicting solar eclipses in Western art, although these representations have changed over time. Eclipses have often been an important feature of Christian iconography, but valued as much for their biblical significance as for the splendour of the physical event. However, as Western culture passed through the Renaissance and Enlightenment the depictions of eclipses came to reflect new astronomical knowledge and a thirst for rational learning well beyond the confines of the church and other elites. Artists also played a surprisingly important role in helping scientists in the nineteenth century understand and record the full phenomena of an eclipse, even as the advent of photography also came to solve a number of scientific puzzles. In the most recent century, artists have responded to eclipses with symbolism, abstraction and playfulness.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  11. The Standardisation and Sequencing of Solar Eclipse Images for the Eclipse Megamovie Project

    CERN Document Server

    Krista, Larisza

    2015-01-01

    We present a new tool, the Solar Eclipse Image Standardisation and Sequencing (SEISS), developed to process multi-source total solar eclipse images by adjusting them to the same standard of size, resolution, and orientation. Furthermore, by analysing the eclipse images we can determine the relative time between the observations and order them to create a movie of the observed total solar eclipse sequence. We successfully processed images taken at the 14 November 2012 total solar eclipse that occurred in Queensland, Australia, and created a short eclipse proto-movie. The SEISS tool was developed for the Eclipse Megamovie Project (EMP: https://www.eclipsemegamovie.org), with the goal of processing thousands of images taken by the public during solar eclipse events. EMP is a collaboration among multiple institutes aiming to engage and advance the public interest in solar eclipses and the science of the Sun-Earth connection.

  12. A rocky planet transiting a nearby low-mass star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Dittmann, Jason; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola; Bonfils, Xavier; Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel; Stark, Antony; Stalder, Brian; Bouchy, Francois; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Lovis, Christoph; Mayor, Michel; Neves, Vasco; Pepe, Francesco; Santos, Nuno; Udry, Stéphane; Wunsche, Anael

    2015-12-01

    Results from Kepler indicate that M dwarfs host, on average, at least 1.4 planets between 0.5 and 1.5 Earth radii per star. Yet, the closest small planets known to transit M dwarfs have been too distant to allow Doppler measurements of their masses or spectroscopic studies of their atmospheres. Here, we announce a new planet discovered by the MEarth-South observatory, an Earth-size planet transiting an M dwarf that is only 12 pc away. The density of the planet, determined from radial velocity observations with HARPS, is consistent with an Earth-like rock/iron composition. With an equilibrium temperature of 530K (assuming a Bond albedo of 0.3), this planet is cooler than most other rocky planets with measured densities. Although too hot to be habitable, it is cool enough that it may have retained a substantial atmosphere over its lifetime. Thanks to the star's proximity and its diminutive size of only 1/5th the radius of the Sun, this new world likely provides the first opportunity for our community to spectroscopically examine the atmosphere of a terrestrial exoplanet. We estimate that JWST could secure high signal-to-noise spectra of the planet's atmosphere, both in transmission during transit and in emission at secondary eclipse.

  13. Chromospherically Active Low-Mass Close Binary: KIC 9761199

    CERN Document Server

    Yoldas, Ezgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present the results obtained from KIC 9761199's the photometrical data acquired by the Kepler Mission. The light curve of the system, the sinusoidal variation out-of-eclipses and instant-short term flare events in the entire light curves were analyzed. The temperature of the secondary component was found to be 3891+-1 K, while the mass ratio of the components (q) was found to be 0.69+-0.01, and the orbital inclination (i) was computed as 77.4+-0.1 degrees. The sinusoidal variation is caused by the stellar spots of two active regions separated by about 180 degrees longitudinally located around the latitudes of +47 and +30 degrees. In addition, 94 flares were detected and their parameters were computed. The OPEA model was derived for these flares and its parameters were computed. The Plateau value as saturation level for the active component was found to be 1.951+-0.069 s, while the half-life value was found to be 1014 s. The flare frequency N1 was found to be 0.01351 per hour, while the flare...

  14. The architecture of the hierarchical triple star KOI 928 from eclipse timing variations seen in Kepler photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, J H; Borucki, W J; Brugamyer, E; Bryson, S T; Buchhave, L A; Cochran, W D; Endl, M; Fabrycky, D C; Ford, E B; Holman, M J; Jenkins, J; Koch, D; Latham, D W; MacQueen, P; Mullally, F; Prsa, A; Ragozzine, D; Rowe, J F; Sanderfer, D T; Seader, S E; Short, D; Shporer, A; Thompson, S E; Torres, G; Twicken, J D; Welsh, W F; Windmiller, G

    2011-01-01

    We present a hierarchical triple star system (KIC 9140402) where a low mass eclipsing binary orbits a more massive third star. The orbital period of the binary (4.98829 Days) is determined by the eclipse times seen in photometry from NASA's Kepler spacecraft. The periodically changing tidal field, due to the eccentric orbit of the binary about the tertiary, causes a change in the orbital period of the binary. The resulting eclipse timing variations provide insight into the dynamics and architecture of this system and allow the inference of the total mass of the binary ($0.424 \\pm 0.017 \\text{M}_\\odot$) and the orbital parameters of the binary about the central star.

  15. A New Class of Nascent Eclipsing Binaries with Extreme Mass Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Moe, Maxwell

    2014-01-01

    Early B-type main-sequence (MS) stars (M$_1$ = 5-16 M$_{\\odot}$) with closely orbiting low-mass stellar companions (q = M$_2$/M$_1$ < 0.25) can evolve to produce Type Ia supernovae, low-mass X-ray binaries, and millisecond pulsars. However, the formation mechanism and intrinsic frequency of such close extreme mass-ratio binaries have been debated, especially considering none have hitherto been detected. Utilizing observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy conducted by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, we have discovered a new class of eclipsing binaries in which a luminous B-type MS star irradiates a closely orbiting low-mass pre-MS companion that has not yet fully formed. The primordial pre-MS companions have large radii and discernibly reflect much of the light they intercept from the B-type MS primaries ($\\Delta$I$_{\\rm refl}$ = 0.02-0.14 mag). For the 18 definitive MS + pre-MS eclipsing binaries in our sample with good model fits to the observed light curves, we measure short orbital...

  16. LEO P: AN UNQUENCHED VERY LOW-MASS GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Salzer, John J.; Rhode, Katherine L. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Girardi, Léo, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, INAF, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-20

    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy discovered through the blind H i Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. The H i and follow-up optical observations have shown that Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with active star formation, an underlying older population, and an extremely low oxygen abundance. We have obtained optical imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope to two magnitudes below the red clump in order to study the evolution of Leo P. We refine the distance measurement to Leo P to be 1.62 ± 0.15 Mpc, based on the luminosity of the horizontal branch stars and 10 newly identified RR Lyrae candidates. This places the galaxy at the edge of the Local Group, ∼0.4 Mpc from Sextans B, the nearest galaxy in the NGC 3109 association of dwarf galaxies of which Leo P is clearly a member. The star responsible for ionizing the H ii region is most likely an O7V or O8V spectral type, with a stellar mass ≳25 M{sub ⊙}. The presence of this star provides observational evidence that massive stars at the upper end of the initial mass function are capable of being formed at star formation rates as low as ∼10{sup −5} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The best-fitting star formation history (SFH) derived from the resolved stellar populations of Leo P using the latest PARSEC models shows a relatively constant star formation rate over the lifetime of the galaxy. The modeled luminosity characteristics of Leo P at early times are consistent with low-luminosity dSph Milky Way satellites, suggesting that Leo P is what a low-mass dSph would look like if it evolved in isolation and retained its gas. Despite the very low mass of Leo P, the imprint of reionization on its SFH is subtle at best, and consistent with being totally negligible. The isolation of Leo P, and the total quenching of star formation of Milky Way satellites of similar mass, implies that the local environment dominates the quenching of the Milky Way satellites.

  17. A LONG-PERIOD TOTALLY ECLIPSING BINARY STAR AT THE TURNOFF OF THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6819 DISCOVERED WITH KEPLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Jeffries, Mark W. Jr.; Brewer, Lauren N., E-mail: erics@mintaka.sdsu.edu, E-mail: orosz@sciences.sdsu.edu, E-mail: jeffries@sciences.sdsu.edu [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); and others

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of the totally eclipsing long-period (P = 771.8 days) binary system WOCS 23009 in the old open cluster NGC 6819 that contains both an evolved star near central hydrogen exhaustion and a low-mass (0.45 M {sub Sun }) star. This system was previously known to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary, but the discovery of an eclipse near apastron using data from the Kepler space telescope makes it clear that the system has an inclination that is very close to 90 Degree-Sign . Although the secondary star has not been identified in spectra, the mass of the primary star can be constrained using other eclipsing binaries in the cluster. The combination of the total eclipses and a mass constraint for the primary star allows us to determine a reliable mass for the secondary star and radii for both stars, and to constrain the cluster age. Unlike well-measured stars of similar mass in field binaries, the low-mass secondary is not significantly inflated in radius compared to model predictions. The primary star characteristics, in combination with cluster photometry and masses from other cluster binaries, indicate a best age of 2.62 {+-} 0.25 Gyr, although stellar model physics may introduce systematic uncertainties at the {approx}10% level. We find preliminary evidence that the asteroseismic predictions for red giant masses in this cluster are systematically too high by as much as 8%.

  18. Chemical tracers of episodic accretion in low-mass protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Ruud; Jorgensen, Jes K

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Accretion rates in low-mass protostars can be highly variable in time. Each accretion burst is accompanied by a temporary increase in luminosity, heating up the circumstellar envelope and altering the chemical composition of the gas and dust. This paper aims to study such chemical effects and discusses the feasibility of using molecular spectroscopy as a tracer of episodic accretion rates and timescales. Methods: We simulate a strong accretion burst in a diverse sample of 25 spherical envelope models by increasing the luminosity to 100 times the observed value. Using a comprehensive gas-grain network, we follow the chemical evolution during the burst and for up to 10^5 yr after the system returns to quiescence. The resulting abundance profiles are fed into a line radiative transfer code to simulate rotational spectra of C18O, HCO+, H13CO+, and N2H+ at a series of time steps. We compare these spectra to observations taken from the literature and to previously unpublished data of HCO+ and N2H+ 6-5 from th...

  19. Low mass dimuon production with the ALICE muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Casula, Ester Anna Rita

    Low mass vector meson ($\\rho$, $\\omega$, $\\phi$) production provides key information on the hot and dense state of strongly interacting matter produced in high-energy heavy ion collisions (called Quark Gluon Plasma). Strangeness enhancement is one of the possible signatures of the Quark Gluon Plasma formation and can be accessed through the measurement of $\\phi$ meson production with respect to $\\rho$ and $\\omega$ mesons, while the measurement of the $\\phi$ nuclear modification factor provides a powerful tool to probe the production dynamics and hadronization process in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Vector mesons can be detected through their decays into muon pairs with the ALICE muon spectrometer. This thesis presents the results on the measurement of the $\\phi$ differential cross section, as a function of the transverse momentum, in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76 TeV; the measurement of the $\\phi$ yield and of the nuclear modification factor $R_{pA}$ at forward and backward rapidity, as a function...

  20. Searches for Low Mass Higgs Boson at the Tevatron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sforza Federico

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the result of the searches for a low mass Standard Model Higgs boson performed at the Tevatron pp¯ $par p$ collider (√s = 1.96 TeV by the CDF and D0 experiments with an integrated luminosity of up to 8.5 fb-1. Individual searches are discussed and classified according to their sensitivity. Primary channels rely on the associate production with a vector boson (WH or ZH and the H → bb¯ $H o bar b$ decay channel (favored for MH ≲ 135 GeV/c2. Event selection is based on the leptonic decay of the vector boson and the identification of b–hadron enriched jets. Each individual channel is sensitive, for MH = 115 GeV/c2, to less than 5 times the SM expected cross section and the most sensitive channels can exclude a production cross section of 2.3×σHSM Secondary channels rely on a variety of final states. Although they are from 2 to 5 times less sensitive than any primary channel, they contribute to the Tevatron combination and, in some cases, they pose strong constrains on exotic Higgs boson models.

  1. Model Atmospheres From Very Low Mass Stars to Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Allard, F; Freytag, B

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of brown dwarfs in 1994, and the discovery of dust cloud formation in the latest Very Low Mass Stars (VLMs) and Brown Dwarfs (BDs) in 1996, the most important challenge in modeling their atmospheres as become the understanding of cloud formation and advective mixing. For this purpose, we have developed radiation hydrodynamic 2D model atmosphere simulations to study the formation of forsterite dust in presence of advection, condensation, and sedimentation across the M-L-T VLMs to BDs sequence (Teff = 2800 K to 900 K, Freytag et al. 2010). We discovered the formation of gravity waves as a driving mechanism for the formation of clouds in these atmospheres, and derived a rule for the velocity field versus atmospheric depth and Teff , which is relatively insensitive to gravity. This rule has been used in the construction of the new model atmosphere grid, BT-Settl, to determine the microturbulence velocity, the diffusion coefficient, and the advective mixing of molecules as a function of depth. ...

  2. Structure and evolution of low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Chabrier, Gilles; Baraffe, Isabelle

    1997-01-01

    We present extensive calculations of the structure and the evolution of low-massstars in the range 0.07-0.8 $\\msol$, for metallicities $-2.0\\le \\mh \\le 0.0$. These calculations are based on the most recent description of the microphysics characteristic of these dense and cool objects and on the lattest generation of grainless non-grey atmosphere models. We examine the evolution of the different mechanical and thermal properties of these objects as a function of mass and metallicity. We also demonstrate the inaccuracy of grey models and $T(\\tau)$ relationships under these conditions. We provide detailed tables of the mass-radius-luminosity-effective temperature relations for various ages and metallicities, aimed at calibrating existing or future observations of low-mass stars and massive brown dwarfs. We derive new hydrogen-burning minimum masses, within the afore-mentioned metallicity range. These minimum masses are found to be smaller than previous estimates, a direct consequence of non-grey effects. At last...

  3. Low-mass visual companions to nearby G-dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    Complete census of wide visual companions to nearby G-dwarf stars can be achieved by selecting candidates from the 2MASS Point-Source Catalog and checking their status by second-epoch imaging. Such data are obtained for 124 candidates with separations up to 20", 47 of which are shown to be new physical low-mass stellar companions. A list of visual binaries with G-dwarf primaries is produced by combining newly found companions with historical data. Maximum likelihood analysis leads to the companion frequency of 0.13+-0.015 per decade of separation. The mass ratio is distributed almost uniformly, with a power-law index between -0.4 and 0. The remaining uncertainty in the index is related to modeling of the companion detection threshold in 2MASS. These findings are confirmed by alternative analysis of wider companions in 2MASS, removing the contamination by background stars statistically. Extension of this work will lead to a complete detection of visual companions - a necessary step towards reaching unbiased mu...

  4. A low mass pixel detector upgrade for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kästli, H C

    2010-01-01

    The CMS pixel detector has been designed for a peak luminosity of 10^34cm-2s-1 and a total dose corresponding to 2 years of LHC operation at a radius of 4 cm from the interaction region. Parts of the pixel detector will have to be replaced until 2015. The detector performance will be degraded for two reasons: radiation damage of the innermost layers and the planned increase of the LHC peak luminosity by a factor of 2-3. Based on the experience in planning, constructing and commissioning of the present pixel detector, we intend to upgrade the whole pixel detector in 2015. The main focus is on lowering the material budget and adding more tracking points. We will present the design of a new low mass pixel system consisting of 4 barrel layers and 3 end cap disks on each side. The design comprises of thin detector modules and a lightweight mechanical support structure using CO2 cooling. In addition, large efforts have been made to move material from the services out of the tracking region.

  5. Rotational Velocities of Individual Components in Very Low Mass Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Konopacky, Q M; Fabrycky, D C; Macintosh, B A; White, R J; Barman, T S; Rice, E L; Hallinan, G; Duchene, G

    2012-01-01

    We present rotational velocities for individual components of eleven very low mass (VLM) binaries with spectral types between M7 and L7.5. These results are based on observations taken with the near-infrared spectrograph, NIRSPEC, and the Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO) system. We find that the observed sources tend to be rapid rotators (vsini > 10 km/s), consistent with previous seeing-limited measurements of VLM objects. The two sources with the largest vsini, LP 349-25B and HD 130948C, are rotating at ~30% of their break up speed, and are among the most rapidly rotating VLM objects known. Furthermore, five binary systems, all with orbital semi-major axes <3.5 AU, have component vsini values that differ by greater than 3sigma. To bring the binary components with discrepant rotational velocities into agreement would require the rotational axes to be inclined with respect to each other, and that at least one component is inclined with respect to the orbital plane. Alternatively, each comp...

  6. SHIELD: Comparing Gas and Star Formation in Low Mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Teich, Yaron G; Nims, Elise; Cannon, John M; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Bernstein-Cooper, Elijah Z; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P; Józsa, Gyula I G; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Salzer, John J; Skillman, Evan D; Warren, Steven R; Dolphin, Andrew; Elson, E C; Haurberg, Nathalie; Ott, Jürgen; Saintonge, Amelie; Cave, Ian; Hagen, Cedric; Huang, Shan; Janowiecki, Steven; Marshall, Melissa V; Thomann, Clara M; Van Sistine, Angela

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the relationships between atomic, neutral hydrogen (HI) and star formation (SF) in the 12 low-mass SHIELD galaxies. We compare high spectral (~0.82 km/s/channel) and spatial resolution (physical resolutions of 170 pc - 700 pc) HI imaging from the VLA with H\\alpha and far-ultraviolet imaging. We quantify the degree of co-spatiality between star forming regions and regions of high HI column densities. We calculate the global star formation efficiencies (SFE, $\\Sigma_{\\rm SFR}$ / $\\Sigma_{\\rm HI}$), and examine the relationships among the SFE and HI mass, HI column density, and star formation rate (SFR). The systems are consuming their cold neutral gas on timescales of order a few Gyr. While we derive an index for the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation of N ~ 0.68 $\\pm$ 0.04 for the SHIELD sample as a whole, the values of N vary considerably from system to system. By supplementing SHIELD results with those from other surveys, we find that HI mass and UV-based SFR are strongly correlated over five orders of ma...

  7. The low mass ratio contact binary system V728 Herculis

    CERN Document Server

    Erkan, Naci

    2015-01-01

    We present the orbital period study and the photometric analys of the contact binary system V728 Her. Our orbital period analysis shows that the period of the system increases (dP/dt=1.92x10^-7dyr^-1) and the mass transfer rate from the less massive component to more massive one is 2.51x10^-8M_suny^-1. In addition, an advanced sinusoidal variation in period can be attributed to the light-time effect by a tertiary component or the Applegate mechanism triggered by the secondary component. The simultaneous multicolor BVR light and radial velocity curves solution indicates that the physical parameters of the system are M1=1.8M_sun, M2=0.28M_sun, R1=1.87R_sun, R2=0.82R_sun, L1=5.9L_sun, and L2=1.2L_sun. We discuss the evolutionary status and conclude that V728 Her is a deep (f=81%), low mass ratio (q=0.16) contact binary system.

  8. Tracing Cold HI Gas in Nearby, Low-Mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Steven R; Stilp, Adrienne M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Ott, Juergen; Walter, Fabian; Petersen, Eric A; Koribalski, Baerbel; West, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    We analyze line-of-sight atomic hydrogen (HI) line profiles of 31 nearby, low-mass galaxies selected from the Very Large Array - ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (VLA-ANGST) and The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) to trace regions containing cold (T $\\lesssim$ 1400 K) HI from observations with a uniform linear scale of 200 pc/beam. Our galaxy sample spans four orders of magnitude in total HI mass and nine magnitudes in M_B. We fit single and multiple component functions to each spectrum to isolate the cold, neutral medium given by a low dispersion (<6 km/s) component of the spectrum. Most HI spectra are adequately fit by a single Gaussian with a dispersion of 8-12 km/s. Cold HI is found in 23 of 27 (~85%) galaxies after a reduction of the sample size due to quality control cuts. The cold HI contributes ~20% of the total line-of-sight flux when found with warm HI. Spectra best fit by a single Gaussian, but dominated by cold HI emission (i.e., have velocity dispersions <6 km/s) are found primarily beyon...

  9. Structure and evolution of low-mass Population II stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbán, J.; D'Antona, F.; Mazzitelli, I.

    2000-08-01

    The focus of the present paper is on the detailed description of the internal structures of low mass, population II stars, to clarify some issues about these stellar models and, mainly, their present reliability for observational comparisons. We then explore 1) the role of the local convective model; 2) the differences between "grey" and "non grey" models, and between models in which the photospheric boundary conditions are set at different optical depths (τph = 3 or 100); 3) the role of the equation of state (EoS), both in the atmospheric models and in the interior. One of the major conclusions of the paper is a cautionary note about the usage of the additive volume law in EoS calculations. The dependence of the HR diagram locations and mass luminosity relations on metal and helium content are also discussed. A few comparisons with globular cluster stars show that: 1) general consistency of distance scales and morphologies in the HR diagram is found, when comparing ground based measurements in the Johnson B and V bands and observations in the HST bands; 2) a discrepancy between models and observations may exist for more metal rich clusters; 3) the plausible hypothesis that the mass function in the globular cluster NGC 6397 behaves smoothly until the lower limit of the main sequence poses constraints on the mass-luminosity relation at the lowest end of the main sequence. The evolutionary tracks are available at the WEB location http://www.mporzio.astro.it.

  10. Most Double Degenerate Low Mass White Dwarf Binaries Merge

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Warren R; Kenyon, Scott J; Gianninas, A

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the merger rate of double degenerate binaries containing extremely low mass (ELM) <0.3 Msun white dwarfs in the Galaxy. Such white dwarfs are detectable for timescales of 0.1 Gyr -- 1 Gyr in the ELM Survey; the binaries they reside in have gravitational wave merger times of 0.001 Gyr -- 100 Gyr. To explain the observed distribution requires that most ELM white dwarf binary progenitors detach from the common envelope phase with <1 hr orbital periods. We calculate the local space density of ELM white dwarf binaries and estimate a merger rate of 3e-3/yr over the entire disk of the Milky Way; the merger rate in the halo is 10 times smaller. The ELM white dwarf binary merger rate exceeds by a factor of 40 the formation rate of stable mass transfer AM CVn binaries, marginally exceeds the rate of underluminous supernovae, and is identical to the formation rate of R CrB stars. On this basis, we conclude that ELM white dwarf binaries can be the progenitors of all observed AM CVn and possibly underlum...

  11. Improving PARSEC models for very low mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yang; Bressan, Alessandro; Marigo, Paola; Barbieri, Mauro; Kong, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Many stellar models present difficulties in reproducing basic observational relations of very low mass stars (VLMS), including the mass--radius relation and the optical colour--magnitudes of cool dwarfs. Here, we improve PARSEC models on these points. We implement the T--tau relations from PHOENIX BT-Settl model atmospheres as the outer boundary conditions in the PARSEC code, finding that this change alone reduces the discrepancy in the mass--radius relation from 8 to 5 per cent. We compare the models with multi--band photometry of clusters Praesepe and M67, showing that the use of T--tau relations clearly improves the description of the optical colours and magnitudes. But anyway, using both Kurucz and PHOENIX model spectra, model colours are still systematically fainter and bluer than the observations. We then apply a shift to the above T--tau relations, increasing from 0 at T_eff = 4730 K to ~14% at T_eff = 3160 K, to reproduce the observed mass--radius radius relation of dwarf stars. Taking this experiment...

  12. Evolution of Low-Mass Population III Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Suda, T; Itoh, N; Suda, Takuma; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of low-mass Pop.III of mass 0.8-1.1 Msun is followed from the main sequence to the onset of H mixing into a convective zone driven by the He core flash. We examine the dependence of stellar structure on the adopted input physics and find that consideration of the non-resonant term in the 3-alpha reaction rate is crucial, since the CN cycle is activated when the abundance by number of 12C produced by this reaction is no larger than 10^-11-10^-9. This explains why recent computations of Pop.III do not find a He flash occurring at the bottom of the H-burning shell at the beginning of the H shell burning phase, as first found by Fujimoto et al.(1990) who did not include the non-resonant term in their calculations. We confirm that, if the non-resonant term of the 3-alpha reaction rate is not included in the input physics, the He-H flash in the shell occurs for M >= 1.0 Msun. We also find that the treatment of the EOS for the Coulomb liquid region, where electron conduction and radiation compete, is i...

  13. On the low-mass diskless population of Corona Australis

    CERN Document Server

    Martí, Belén López; Merín, Bruno; Morales-Calderón, María; Bouy, Hervé; Barrado, David; Eislöffel, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    We combine published optical and near-infrared photometry to identify new low-mass candidate members in an area of about 0.64 deg^2 in Corona Australis, using the S-parameter method developed by Comer\\'on et al. (2009). Five new candidate members of the region are selected, with estimated ages between 3 and 15 Myr, and masses between 0.05 and 0.15 M_Sun. Using Spitzer photometry, we confirm that these objects are not surrounded by optically thick disks. However, one of them is found to display excess at 24 micron, thus suggesting it harbours a disk with an inner hole. With an estimated mass of 0.07 M_Sun according to the SED fitting, this is one of the lowest-mass objects reported to possess a transitional disk. Including these new members, the fraction of disks is about 50% among the total Corona Australis population selected by the same criteria, lower than the 70% fraction reported by Sicilia-Aguilar et al. (2008) for this region. Even so, we find a ratio of transitional to primordial disks (45%) very simi...

  14. Double-lined M dwarf eclipsing binaries from Catalina Sky Survey and LAMOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Chien-Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Eclipsing binaries provide a unique opportunity to determine fundamental stellar properties. In the era of wide-field cameras and all-sky imaging surveys, thousands of eclipsing binaries have been reported through light curve classification, yet their basic properties remain unexplored due to the extensive efforts needed to follow them up spectroscopically. In this paper we investigate three M2-M3 type double-lined eclipsing binaries discovered by cross-matching eclipsing binaries from the Catalina Sky Survey with spectroscopically classified M dwarfs from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope survey data release one and two. Because these three M dwarf binaries are faint, we further acquire radial velocity measurements using GMOS on the Gemini North telescope with R∼ 4000, enabling us to determine the mass and radius of individual stellar components. By jointly fitting the light and radial velocity curves of these systems, we derive the mass and radius of the primary and secondary components of these three systems, in the range between 0.28-0.42M_ȯ and 0.29-0.67R_ȯ, respectively. Future observations with a high resolution spectrograph will help us pin down the uncertainties in their stellar parameters, and render these systems benchmarks to study M dwarfs, providing inputs to improving stellar models in the low mass regime, or establishing an empirical mass-radius relation for M dwarf stars.

  15. Discovery of the Eclipsing Detached Double White Dwarf Binary NLTT 11748

    CERN Document Server

    Steinfadt, Justin D R; Shporer, Avi; Bildsten, Lars; Howell, Steve B

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first eclipsing detached double white dwarf (WD) binary. In a pulsation search, the low-mass helium core WD NLTT 11748 was targeted for fast (approx 1-min) differential photometry with the Las Cumbres Observatory's Faulkes Telescope North. Rather than pulsations, we discovered approx 180-s 3-6% dips in the photometry. Subsequent radial velocity measurements of the primary from the Keck telescope found variations with a semi-amplitude K_1 = 271 +/- 3 km/s, and confirmed the dips as eclipses caused by an orbiting WD with a mass M_2 = 0.648-0.771 M_sun for M_1 = 0.1-0.2 M_sun. We detect both the primary and secondary eclipse during the P_orb = 5.64 hr orbit and measure the secondary's brightness to be 3.5 +/- 0.3% of the primary at SDSS-g'. Assuming that the secondary follows the mass-radius relation of a cold C/O WD and including the effects of microlensing in the binary, the primary eclipse yields a primary radius of R_1 = 0.043-0.039 R_sun for M_1 = 0.1-0.2 M_sun; consistent wit...

  16. Eclipse mapping of accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, R

    2000-01-01

    The eclipse mapping method is an inversion technique that makes use of the information contained in eclipse light curves to probe the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs. In this review I present the basics of the method and discuss its different implementations. I summarize the most important results obtained to date and discuss how they have helped to improve our understanding of accretion physics, from testing the theoretical radial brightness temperature distribution and measuring mass accretion rates to showing the evolution of the structure of a dwarf novae disc through its outburst cycle, from isolating the spectrum of a disc wind to revealing the geometry of disc spiral shocks. I end with an outline of the future prospects.

  17. Does the Eclipsing Binary KIC 10935310 Contain a Massively Inflated M Dwarf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Jonathan; Han, Eunkyu; Ding, Jeffrey; O'Neill, Kathleen; Lawrence, Yousef; Klink, Douglas; Muirhead, Philip Steven; Shan, Yutong

    2017-01-01

    Stellar evolution models are known to under-predict the radii of low-mass stars by between 5% and 10%, and there are a number of theoretical explanations for this discrepancy including metallicity and age variations, and magnetic suppression of convection. An eclipsing binary system in the Kepler field has been reported to have stars with masses of 0.68 and 0.34 solar and radii of 0.61 and 0.90 solar, respectively. We investigate this system with a new code under development that uses a Gaussian process technique to account for the out of eclipse light variations. We combine new NIR light curve data with the Kepler data and literature RVs to assess the feasibility that this system contains a hugely inflated M dwarf, or if another explanation of the data is preferred.

  18. Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter Air Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M.; Turner, R. W.; Prusa, J.; Bitzer, R. J.; Finley, S. V.

    1996-01-01

    Decreases in shelter temperature during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complementary conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States are presented, and these provide insights into the temporal and spatial changes in the shelter temperature. The observations indicated near-surface temperature drops of as much as 6 C. Numerical model simulations for this eclipse event, which provide a complementary evaluation of the spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature drops, predict similar decreases. Interrelationships between the temperature drop, degree of solar irradiance reduction, and timing of the peak eclipse are also evaluated for late spring, summer, and winter sun conditions. These simulations suggest that for total eclipses the drops in shelter temperature in midlatitudes can be as high as 7 C for a spring morning eclipse.

  19. Eclipse 2017: Through the eyes of NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Louis; NASA/GSFC Heliophysics Education Consortium

    2016-10-01

    The August 21, 2017 eclipse will be the first time a total solar eclipse has traversed the Continental US since June 8th, 1918. Anticipation y for energy for this eclipse is off the charts. Over 500 million in North America alone will catch the eclipse in either partial or total phase. Parts of South America, Africa, and Europe will see a partial eclipse as well. NASA is planning to take full advantage of this unique celestial event as an education and public engagement opportunity by leveraging its extensive networks of partners, numerous social media platforms, broadcast media, and its significant unique space assets and people to bring the eclipse to America and the world as only NASA can. This talk will outline NASA's education plans in some detail replicating our many Big Events successes including the 2012 Transit of Venus and the MSL/Curiosity landing and show how scientists and the public can get involved.

  20. The eclipse period of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Freiesleben, Ulrik; Krekling, Martin A.; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2000-01-01

    The minimal time between successive initiations on the same origin (the eclipse) in Escherichia coli was determined to be approximately 25-30 min. An inverse relationship was found between the length of the eclipse and the amount of Dam methyltransferase in the cell, indicating that the eclipse...... corresponds to the period of origin hemimethylation. The SeqA protein was absolutely required for the eclipse, and DnaA titration studies suggested that the SeqA protein prevented the binding of multiple DnaA molecules on oriC (initial complex formation). No correlation between the amount of SeqA and eclipse...... length was revealed, but increased SeqA levels affected chromosome partitioning and/or cell division. This was corroborated further by an aberrant nucleoid distribution in SeqA-deficient cells. We suggest that the SeqA protein's role in maintaining the eclipse is tied to a function in chromosome...

  1. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARIES WITH STELLAR COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, D. R.; Matson, R. A.; Guo, Z.; Lester, K. V. [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States); Orosz, J. A. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-1221 (United States); Peters, G. J., E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: rmatson@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: guo@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: lester@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jorosz@mail.sdsu.edu, E-mail: gjpeters@mucen.usc.edu [Space Sciences Center and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1341 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Many short-period binary stars have distant orbiting companions that have played a role in driving the binary components into close separation. Indirect detection of a tertiary star is possible by measuring apparent changes in eclipse times of eclipsing binaries as the binary orbits the common center of mass. Here we present an analysis of the eclipse timings of 41 eclipsing binaries observed throughout the NASA Kepler mission of long duration and precise photometry. This subset of binaries is characterized by relatively deep and frequent eclipses of both stellar components. We present preliminary orbital elements for seven probable triple stars among this sample, and we discuss apparent period changes in seven additional eclipsing binaries that may be related to motion about a tertiary in a long period orbit. The results will be used in ongoing investigations of the spectra and light curves of these binaries for further evidence of the presence of third stars.

  2. INFRARED STUDIES OF EPSILON AURIGAE IN ECLIPSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stencel, Robert E.; Kloppenborg, Brian K.; Wall, Randall E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208 (United States); Hopkins, Jeffrey L. [Hopkins Phoenix Observatory, Phoenix, AZ 85033 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hoard, D. W. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rayner, John; Bus, Schelte; Tokunaga, Alan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Sitko, Michael L.; Bradford, Suellen [Department of Physics, Cincinnati University, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Russell, Ray W.; Lynch, David K. [Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States); Hammel, Heidi; Whitney, Barbara [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Orton, Glenn; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Hora, Joseph L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hinz, Philip; Hoffmann, William, E-mail: rstencel@du.edu [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

    2011-11-15

    We report here on a series of medium resolution spectro-photometric observations of the enigmatic long period eclipsing binary epsilon Aurigae, during its eclipse interval of 2009-2011, using near-infrared spectra obtained with SpeX on the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), mid-infrared spectra obtained with BASS on AOES and IRTF, MIRSI on IRTF, and MIRAC4 on the MMT, along with mid-infrared photometry using MIRSI on IRTF and MIRAC4 on the MMT, plus 1995-2000 timeframe published photometry and data obtained with Denver's TNTCAM2 at WIRO. The goals of these observations included: (1) comparing eclipse depths with prior eclipse data, (2) confirming the re-appearance of CO absorption bands at and after mid-eclipse, associated with sublimation in the disk, (3) seeking evidence for any mid-infrared solid state spectral features from particles in the disk, and (4) providing evidence that the externally irradiated disk has azimuthal temperature differences. IR eclipse depths appear similar to those observed during the most recent (1983) eclipse, although evidence for post-mid-eclipse disk temperature increase is present, due to F star heated portions of the disk coming into view. Molecular CO absorption returned 57 days after nominal mid-eclipse, but was not detected at mid-eclipse plus 34 days, narrowing the association with differentially heated sub-regions in the disk. Transient He I 10830A absorption was detected at mid-eclipse, persisting for at least 90 days thereafter, providing a diagnostic for the hot central region. The lack of solid-state features in Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph, BASS, and MIRAC spectra to date suggests the dominance of large particles (micron-sized) in the disk. Based on these observations, mid-infrared studies out of eclipse can directly monitor and map the disk thermal changes, and better constrain disk opacity and thermal conductivity.

  3. Rotational Velocities of Individual Components in Very Low Mass Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacky, Q. M.; Ghez, A. M.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Macintosh, B. A.; White, R. J.; Barman, T. S.; Rice, E. L.; Hallinan, G.; Duchêne, G.

    2012-05-01

    We present rotational velocities for individual components of 11 very low mass (VLM) binaries with spectral types between M7 and L7.5. These results are based on observations taken with the near-infrared spectrograph, NIRSPEC, and the Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics system. We find that the observed sources tend to be rapid rotators (v sin i > 10 km s-1), consistent with previous seeing-limited measurements of VLM objects. The two sources with the largest v sin i, LP 349-25B and HD 130948C, are rotating at ~30% of their break-up speed, and are among the most rapidly rotating VLM objects known. Furthermore, five binary systems, all with orbital semimajor axes lsim3.5 AU, have component v sin i values that differ by greater than 3σ. To bring the binary components with discrepant rotational velocities into agreement would require the rotational axes to be inclined with respect to each other, and that at least one component is inclined with respect to the orbital plane. Alternatively, each component could be rotating at a different rate, even though they have similar spectral types. Both differing rotational velocities and inclinations have implications for binary star formation and evolution. We also investigate possible dynamical evolution in the triple system HD 130948A-BC. The close binary brown dwarfs B and C have significantly different v sin i values. We demonstrate that components B and C could have been torqued into misalignment by the primary star, A, via orbital precession. Such a scenario can also be applied to another triple system in our sample, GJ 569A-Bab. Interactions such as these may play an important role in the dynamical evolution of VLM binaries. Finally, we note that two of the binaries with large differences in component v sin i, LP 349-25AB and 2MASS 0746+20AB, are also known radio sources.

  4. ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS IN VERY LOW MASS BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Q. M.; Macintosh, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ghez, A. M. [UCLA Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Fabrycky, D. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); White, R. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Barman, T. S. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Rd., Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Rice, E. L. [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Hallinan, G. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Duchene, G., E-mail: macintosh1@llnl.gov, E-mail: konopacky@di.utoronto.ca, E-mail: ghez@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: fabrycky@ucolick.org, E-mail: white@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: barman@lowell.edu, E-mail: erice@amnh.org, E-mail: gh@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: gduchene@berkeley.edu [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B-20, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    We present rotational velocities for individual components of 11 very low mass (VLM) binaries with spectral types between M7 and L7.5. These results are based on observations taken with the near-infrared spectrograph, NIRSPEC, and the Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics system. We find that the observed sources tend to be rapid rotators (v sin i > 10 km s{sup -1}), consistent with previous seeing-limited measurements of VLM objects. The two sources with the largest v sin i, LP 349-25B and HD 130948C, are rotating at {approx}30% of their break-up speed, and are among the most rapidly rotating VLM objects known. Furthermore, five binary systems, all with orbital semimajor axes {approx}<3.5 AU, have component v sin i values that differ by greater than 3{sigma}. To bring the binary components with discrepant rotational velocities into agreement would require the rotational axes to be inclined with respect to each other, and that at least one component is inclined with respect to the orbital plane. Alternatively, each component could be rotating at a different rate, even though they have similar spectral types. Both differing rotational velocities and inclinations have implications for binary star formation and evolution. We also investigate possible dynamical evolution in the triple system HD 130948A-BC. The close binary brown dwarfs B and C have significantly different v sin i values. We demonstrate that components B and C could have been torqued into misalignment by the primary star, A, via orbital precession. Such a scenario can also be applied to another triple system in our sample, GJ 569A-Bab. Interactions such as these may play an important role in the dynamical evolution of VLM binaries. Finally, we note that two of the binaries with large differences in component v sin i, LP 349-25AB and 2MASS 0746+20AB, are also known radio sources.

  5. Resource Letter OSE-1: Observing Solar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Fraknoi, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the available literature, listing selected books, articles, and online resources about scientific, cultural, and practical issues related to observing solar eclipses. It is timely, given that a total solar eclipse will cross the continental United States on August 21, 2017. The next total solar eclipse path crossing the U.S. and Canada will be on April 8, 2024. In 2023, the path of annularity of an annular eclipse will cross Mexico, the United States, and Canada, with partial phases visible throughout those countries.

  6. A NEW CLASS OF NASCENT ECLIPSING BINARIES WITH EXTREME MASS RATIOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Maxwell; Stefano, Rosanne Di, E-mail: mmoe@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-10, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    Early B-type main-sequence (MS) stars (M {sub 1} ≈ 5-16 M {sub ☉}) with closely orbiting low-mass stellar companions (q = M {sub 2}/M {sub 1} < 0.25) can evolve to produce Type Ia supernovae, low-mass X-ray binaries, and millisecond pulsars. However, the formation mechanism and intrinsic frequency of such close extreme mass-ratio binaries have been debated, especially considering none have hitherto been detected. Utilizing observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy conducted by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, we have discovered a new class of eclipsing binaries in which a luminous B-type MS star irradiates a closely orbiting low-mass pre-MS companion that has not yet fully formed. The primordial pre-MS companions have large radii and discernibly reflect much of the light they intercept from the B-type MS primaries (ΔI {sub refl} ≈ 0.02-0.14 mag). For the 18 definitive MS + pre-MS eclipsing binaries in our sample with good model fits to the observed light-curves, we measure short orbital periods P = 3.0-8.5 days, young ages τ ≈ 0.6-8 Myr, and small secondary masses M {sub 2} ≈ 0.8-2.4 M {sub ☉} (q ≈ 0.07-0.36). The majority of these nascent eclipsing binaries are still associated with stellar nurseries, e.g., the system with the deepest eclipse ΔI {sub 1} = 2.8 mag and youngest age τ = 0.6 ± 0.4 Myr is embedded in the bright H II region 30 Doradus. After correcting for selection effects, we find that (2.0 ± 0.6)% of B-type MS stars have companions with short orbital periods P = 3.0-8.5 days and extreme mass ratios q ≈ 0.06-0.25. This is ≈10 times greater than that observed for solar-type MS primaries. We discuss how these new eclipsing binaries provide invaluable insights, diagnostics, and challenges for the formation and evolution of stars, binaries, and H II regions.

  7. Magnetic Inhibition of Convection and the Fundamental Properties of Low-Mass Stars. I. Stars with a Radiative Core

    CERN Document Server

    Feiden, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic fields are hypothesized to inflate the radii of low-mass stars---defined as less massive than 0.8 solar masses---in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). We investigate this hypothesis using the recently introduced magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code. In particular, we focus on stars thought to have a radiative core and convective outer envelope by studying in detail three individual DEBs: UV Psc, YY Gem, and CU Cnc. The results suggest that the stabilization of thermal convection by a magnetic field is a plausible explanation for the observed model-radius discrepancies. However, surface magnetic field strengths required by the models are significantly stronger than those estimated from the observed coronal X-ray emission. Agreement between model predicted surface magnetic field strengths and those inferred from X-ray observations can be found by assuming that the magnetic field sources its energy from convection. This approach makes the transport of heat by convection less efficient and is akin ...

  8. An XMM-Newton view of the dipping low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1710-281

    CERN Document Server

    Younes, G; Sabra, B

    2009-01-01

    (abridged) We analyzed the archived XMM-Newton observation of the poorly studied low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1710-281 performed in 2004 that covered one orbital period of the system (3.8 hr). The source shows dips as well as eclipses, hence it is viewed close to edge-on. We modeled the spectral changes between persistent and dips in the framework of the partial covering model and the ionized absorber approach. The persistent spectrum can be fit by a power law with a photon index of 1.94(+-0.02) affected by absorption from cool material with a hydrogen column density of 0.401(+-0.007)*10^22 cm^-2. The spectral changes from persistent to deep-dipping intervals are consistent with the partial covering of the power-law emission, with the covering fraction increasing from 26% during shallow dipping to 78% during deep dipping. We do not detect any absorption lines from highly ionized species such as FeXXV. The upper-limits we derive on their equivalent width (EW) are not constraining. Despite not detecting any signa...

  9. A Complex Organic Slushy Bathing Low-Mass Protostars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovskaya, Maria; Walsh, Catherine; Visser, Ruud; Harsono, Daniel; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2015-08-01

    Complex organic molecules are ubiquitous companions of young forming stars. They were first observed in hot cores surrounding high-mass protostars [e.g., 1], but have since also been detected in the environs of several low-mass counterparts [e.g., 2]. Recent studies have shown that colder envelopes and positions with impinging outflows may also glow with emission from complex organic species [e.g., 3, 4]. For this meeting, I would like to present physicochemical modeling results on the synthesis of complex organics in an envelope-cavity system that is subject to non-thermal processing. This includes wavelength-dependent radiative transfer calculations with RADMC [5] and a comprehensive gas-grain chemical network [6]. The results show that the morphology of such a system delineates three distinct regions: the cavity wall layer with time-dependent and species-variant enhancements; a torus rich in complex organic ices, but not reflected in gas-phase abundances; and the remaining outer envelope abundant in simpler solid and gaseous molecules. Within the adopted paradigm, complex organic molecules are demonstrated to have unique lifetimes and be grouped into early and late species [7]. Key chemical processes for forming and destroying complex organic molecules will be discussed. In addition, the results of adding newly experimentally verified routes [8] into the existing chemical networks will be shown.[1] Blake G. A., Sutton E. C., Masson C. R., Phillips T. G., 1987, ApJ, 315, 621[2] Jørgensen J. K., Favre C., Bisschop S. E., Bourke T. L., van Dishoeck E. F., Schmalzl M., 2012, ApJ, 757, L4[3] Arce H. G., Santiago-García J., Jørgensen J. K., Tafalla M., Bachiller R., 2008, ApJ, 681, L21[4] Öberg K. I., Bottinelli S., Jørgensen J. K., van Dishoeck E. F., 2010, ApJ, 716, 825[5] Dullemond C. P., Dominik C., 2004, A&A, 417, 159[6] Walsh C., Millar T. J., Nomura H., Herbst E., Widicus Weaver S., Aikawa Y., Laas J. C., Vasyunin A. I., 2014, A&A, 563, A33[7] Drozdovskaya

  10. Terrestrial planets and water delivery around low-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugaro, A.; de Elía, G. C.; Brunini, A.; Guilera, O. M.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Theoretical and observational studies suggest that protoplanetary disks with a wide range of masses could be found around low-mass stars. Aims: We analyze planetary formation processes in systems without gas giants around M3- and M0-type stars of 0.29 M⊙ and 0.5 M⊙, respectively. In particular, we assume disks with masses of 5% and 10% of the mass of the star. Our study focuses on the formation of terrestrial-like planets and water delivery in the habitable zone (HZ). Methods: First, we use a semi-analytical model to describe the evolution of embryos and planetesimals during the gaseous phase. Then, a N-body code is used to analyze the last giant impact phase after the gas dissipation. Results: For M3-type stars, five planets with different properties are formed in the HZ. These planets have masses of 0.072 M⊕, 0.13 M⊕ (two of them), and 1.03 M⊕, and have water contents of 5.9%, 16.7%, 28.6%, and 60.6% by mass, respectively. Then, the fifth planet formed in the HZ is a dry world with 0.138 M⊕. For M0-type stars, four planets are produced in the HZ with masses of 0.28 M⊕, 0.51 M⊕, 0.72 M⊕, and 1.42 M⊕, and they have water contents of 26.7%, 45.8%, 68%, and 50.5% by mass, respectively. Conclusions: M3- and M0-type stars represent targets of interest for the search of exoplanets in the HZ. In fact, the Mars-mass planets formed around M3-type stars could maintain habitable conditions in their early histories. Thus, the search for candidates around young M3-type stars could lead to the detection of planets analogous to early Mars. Moreover, Earth-mass planets should also be discovered around M3-type stars and, sub- and super-Earths should be detected around M0-type stars. Such planets are very interesting since they could maintain habitable conditions for very long.

  11. Miniature Low-Mass Drill Actuated by Flextensional Piezo Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    characteristics of low mass, small size, low power, and low axial loads for sampling.

  12. Paper Moon: Simulating a Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Sean P.; Downing, James P.; Comstock, Jocelyne M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a classroom activity in which a solar eclipse is simulated and a mathematical model is developed to explain the data. Students use manipulative devices and graphing calculators to carry out the experiment and then compare their results to those collected in Koolymilka, Australia, during the 2002 eclipse.

  13. Mastering Eclipse plug-in development

    CERN Document Server

    Blewitt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer who is familiar with the Eclipse plug-in environment, this book covers the advanced concepts that you need to know to achieve true expertise. Prior experience in creating Eclipse plug-ins is assumed for this book.

  14. Paper Moon: Simulating a Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Sean P.; Downing, James P.; Comstock, Jocelyne M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a classroom activity in which a solar eclipse is simulated and a mathematical model is developed to explain the data. Students use manipulative devices and graphing calculators to carry out the experiment and then compare their results to those collected in Koolymilka, Australia, during the 2002 eclipse.

  15. Countdown to the Great American Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulco, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The Great American Total Solar Eclipse (TSE2017) will occur on August 21 this year--the first total solar eclipse in the continental United States since 1979. For many reasons, this is a scientific and educational milestone event of the highest magnitude that should not be missed by any teacher and student whether or not their school is in session…

  16. Mach bands change asymmetrically during solar eclipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John; Diamond, Mark R; Badcock, David R

    2003-01-01

    Observations made during two partial eclipses of the Sun show that the Mach bands on shadows cast by the Sun disappear and reappear asymmetrically as an eclipse progresses. These changes can be explained as due to changes in the shape of the penumbras of shadows as the visible portion of the Sun forms crescents of different orientation.

  17. The eclipse period of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Freiesleben, Ulrik; Krekling, Martin A.; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2000-01-01

    corresponds to the period of origin hemimethylation. The SeqA protein was absolutely required for the eclipse, and DnaA titration studies suggested that the SeqA protein prevented the binding of multiple DnaA molecules on oriC (initial complex formation). No correlation between the amount of SeqA and eclipse...

  18. Get Ready for the Great American Eclipse!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulco, Charles

    2017-01-01

    This year marks 38 years since any part of the continental United States was darkened by the Moon's umbral shadow. During this "eclipse drought," no U.S. residents except those on Hawaii's Big Island in 1991 have had the opportunity to observe totality without traveling abroad. The 2017 Total Solar Eclipse (TSE2017, August 21, 2017) is…

  19. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2008-07-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey ("Theoclymenus's prophecy") to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192-1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250-1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse.

  20. American Solar Eclipses 2017 & 2024

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCanzio, Albert

    2016-06-01

    This research focuses on harnessing the statistical capacity of many available concurrent observers to advance scientific knowledge. By analogy to some Galilean measurement-experiments in which he used minimal instrumentation, this researcher will address the question: How might an individual observer, with a suitably chosen common metric and with widely available, reasonably affordable equipment, contribute to new knowledge from observing the solar eclipse of 2017? Each observer would report data to an institutional sponsor who would analyze these data statistically toward new knowledge about some question currently unsettled in astronomy or in the target field connected with the question which the chosen metric is targeted to address. A subordinate question will be discussed: As a tradeoff between “best question to answer” and “easiest question for observers’ data to answer”, is there an event property and related target question that, with high potential utility and low cost, would be measurable by an observer positioned in the path of totality with minimal or inexpensive equipment and training? (And that, as a statistical sample point, might contribute to new knowledge?) In dialog with the audience, the presenter will suggest some measurables; e.g., solar flares, ground shadow bands, atmospheric metrics, coronal structure, etc., correlated or not with certain other dependent variables. The independent variable would be time in the intervention interval from eclipse contacts 1 -- 4. By the aforementioned analogy, the presenter will review as examples some measurement-experiments conducted or suggested by Galileo; e.g., pendulum laws, Jovian satellite eclipse times, geokinesis as later seen in Bessel's parallactic measurement, and Michelson's measurement of light speed. Because criteria of metrics-determination would naturally include existence of a data-collection-analysis method, this presentation requires dialogue with a critical mass of audience

  1. The lunar eclipse over Merritt Island, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Viewed from Merritt Island, Fla., at 11:25 p.m. EST, the full moon, traveling west to east, is nearly completely in the Earth's shadow, producing a lunar eclipse. Eclipses occur when the Sun, Earth and Moon line up. They are rare because the Moon usually passes above or below the imaginary line connecting Earth and the Sun. The Earth casts a shadow that the Moon can pass through when it does, it is called a lunar eclipse. They can only occur when the moon is 'full.' During a total lunar eclipse the Moon takes on a dark red color because it is being lighted slightly by sunlight passing through the Earth's atmosphere and this light has the blue component preferentially scattered out (this is also why the sky appears blue from the surface of the Earth), leaving faint reddish light to illuminate the Moon during the eclipse.

  2. Total Solar Eclipse of 2002 December 04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    2001-01-01

    On 2002 December 04, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Southern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the South Atlantic, crosses southern Africa and the Indian Ocean, and ends at sunset in southern Australia. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes the southern two thirds of Africa, Antarctica, Indian Ocean and Australia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  3. Total Solar Eclipse of 2008 August 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenak, F.; Anderson, J.

    2007-01-01

    On 2008 August 01, a total eclipse of the Sun is visible from within a narrow corridor that traverses half the Earth. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in northern Canada and extends across Greenland, the Arctic, central Russia, Mongolia, and China. A partial eclipse is seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes northeastern North America, most of Europe and Asia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 308 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  4. Total Solar Eclipse of 2006 March 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenak, F.; Anderson, J.

    2004-01-01

    On 2006 March 29, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses half the Earth. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in Brazil and extends across the Atlantic, northern Africa, and central Asia where it ends at sunset in western Mongolia. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes the northern two thirds of Africa, Europe, and central Asia.Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 350 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  5. Scientific observations at total solar eclipses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jay M.Pasachoff

    2009-01-01

    The occasion of the longest totality of an eclipse in the 18 yr 111/3 d saros cycle leads to taking stock of the scientific value of ground-based eclipse observations in this space age. Though a number of space satellites from the U.S., Europe, Japan, and Russia study the Sun, scientists at eclipses can observe the solar chromosphere and corona at higher spatial resolution, at higher temporal resolution, and at higher spectral resolution than are possible aloft. Furthermore, eclipse expeditions can transport a wide variety of state-of-the-art equipment to the path of totality. Thus, for at least some years to come, solar eclipse observations will remain both scientifically valuable and cost-effective ways to study the outer solar atmosphere.

  6. Effect of solar eclipse on microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Shriyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : A solar eclipse was observed in India on 15 th January, 2010. It was a total eclipse in some parts of the country, while it was a partial eclipse in other parts. Microorganisms play an important role in various phenomena on the earth. This study was undertaken to know the influence of solar eclipse on nature indirectly, by analyzing certain genotypic and phenotypic variations in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Since yeast have similar gene expression as that of humans, investigations were pursued on Candida albicans. Hence the study of the effect of solar eclipse on cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella species, Escherichia coli, and C. albicans was performed in the laboratory. The effect of the total or partial eclipse on the microorganism isolated from clinical isolates was investigated during the time period from 11.15 am to 3.15 pm. Materials and Methods : Cultures of S. aureus, Klebsiella species, and E. coli colonies on nutrient agar slants and broth and C. albicans on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar plates and broth. Slants were exposed to sunlight during eclipse and exposure to normal sunlight at Mangalore, Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka state, India. Results : There was significant change observed during exposure to normal sunlight and eclipse phase. Bacterial colonies showed difference in morphology on smear examination and sensitivity pattern during this study. One fungal species and three bacterial isolates were studied and changes were recorded. Fungal species showed a definite change in their morphology on exposure to sunlight during eclipse observed by stained smear examination from broth, plate, and slant. Conclusion : Present study concludes that blocking of the sun rays during eclipse does not harm prokaryotes and eukaryotes, instead promoted the progeny of predators in the race of better acclimatization and survival in the natural and changing environmental conditions.

  7. Effect of solar eclipse on microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriyan, Amrita; Bhat, Angri M; Nayak, Narendra

    2011-01-01

    A solar eclipse was observed in India on 15(th) January, 2010. It was a total eclipse in some parts of the country, while it was a partial eclipse in other parts. Microorganisms play an important role in various phenomena on the earth. This study was undertaken to know the influence of solar eclipse on nature indirectly, by analyzing certain genotypic and phenotypic variations in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Since yeast have similar gene expression as that of humans, investigations were pursued on Candida albicans. Hence the study of the effect of solar eclipse on cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella species, Escherichia coli,and C. albicans was performed in the laboratory. The effect of the total or partial eclipse on the microorganism isolated from clinical isolates was investigated during the time period from 11.15 am to 3.15 pm. Cultures of S. aureus, Klebsiella species, and E. coli colonies on nutrient agar slants and broth and C. albicans on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates and broth. Slants were exposed to sunlight during eclipse and exposure to normal sunlight at Mangalore, Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka state, India. There was significant change observed during exposure to normal sunlight and eclipse phase. Bacterial colonies showed difference in morphology on smear examination and sensitivity pattern during this study. One fungal species and three bacterial isolates were studied and changes were recorded. Fungal species showed a definite change in their morphology on exposure to sunlight during eclipse observed by stained smear examination from broth, plate, and slant. Present study concludes that blocking of the sun rays during eclipse does not harm prokaryotes and eukaryotes, instead promoted the progeny of predators in the race of better acclimatization and survival in the natural and changing environmental conditions.

  8. Observing Solar Eclipses in the Developing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    The paths of totality of total solar eclipses cross the world, with each spot receiving such a view about every 300 years. The areas of the world from which partial eclipses are visible are much wider. For the few days prior to a total eclipse, the attention of a given country is often drawn toward the eclipse, providing a teachable moment that we can use to bring astronomy to the public's attention. Also, it is important to describe how to observe the partial phases of the eclipse safely. Further, it is important to describe to those people in the zone of totality that it is not only safe but also interesting to view totality. Those who are misled by false warnings that overstate the hazards of viewing the eclipse, or that fail to distinguish between safe and unsafe times for naked-eye viewing, may well be skeptical when other health warnings--perhaps about AIDS or malaria prevention or polio inoculations--come from the authorities, meaning that the penalties for misunderstanding the astronomical event can be severe. Through the International Astronomical Union's Working Group on Solar Eclipses and through the I.A.U.'s Program Group on Public Education at the Times of Eclipses, part of the Commission on Education and Development, we make available information to national authorities, to colleagues in the relevant countries, and to others, through our Websites at http://www.eclipses.info and http://www.totalsolareclipse.net and through personal communication. Among our successes at the 29 March 2006 total solar eclipse was the distribution through a colleague in Nigeria of 400,000 eye-protection filters.

  9. DISCOVERY OF PSR J1227−4853: A TRANSITION FROM A LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY TO A REDBACK MILLISECOND PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Jayanta; Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Stappers, Ben [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Ray, Paul S.; Wolff, Michael; Wood, Kent S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Chengalur, Jayaram N. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune 411 007 (India); Deneva, Julia [NRC Research Associate, resident at Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Camilo, Fernando [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Johnson, Tyrel J. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA, resident at Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Hessels, Jason W. T.; Bassa, Cees G. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Keane, Evan F. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Mail H30, P.O. Box 218, VIC 3122 (Australia); Ferrara, Elizabeth C.; Harding, Alice K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    XSS J12270−4859 is an X-ray binary associated with the Fermi Large Area Telescope gamma-ray source 1FGL J1227.9−4852. In 2012 December, this source underwent a transition where the X-ray and optical luminosity dropped and the spectral signatures of an accretion disk disappeared. We report the discovery of a 1.69 millisecond pulsar (MSP), PSR J1227−4853, at a dispersion measure of 43.4 pc cm{sup −3} associated with this source, using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at 607 MHz. This demonstrates that, post-transition, the system hosts an active radio MSP. This is the third system after PSR J1023+0038 and PSR J1824−2452I showing evidence of state switching between radio MSP and low-mass X-ray binary states. We report timing observations of PSR J1227−4853 with the GMRT and Parkes, which give a precise determination of the rotational and orbital parameters of the system. The companion mass measurement of 0.17–0.46 M{sub ⊙} suggests that this is a redback system. PSR J1227−4853 is eclipsed for about 40% of its orbit at 607 MHz with additional short-duration eclipses at all orbital phases. We also find that the pulsar is very energetic, with a spin-down luminosity of ∼10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1}. We report simultaneous imaging and timing observations with the GMRT, which suggests that eclipses are caused by absorption rather than dispersion smearing or scattering.

  10. Optical Studies of Twenty Longer-Period Cataclysmic Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Thorstensen, John R; Skinner, Julie N

    2010-01-01

    We obtained time-series radial velocity spectroscopy of twenty cataclysmic variable stars, with the aim of determining orbital periods P_orb. All of the stars reported here prove to have P_orb > 3.5 h. For sixteen of the stars, these are the first available period determinations, and for the remaining four (V709 Cas, AF Cam, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133+51) we use new observations to improve the accuracy of previously-published periods. Most of the targets are dwarf novae, without notable idiosyncracies. Of the remainder, three (V709 Cas, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133+51) are intermediate polars (DQ Her stars); one (IPHAS 0345) is a secondary-dominated system without known outbursts, similar to LY UMa; one (V1059 Sgr) is an old nova; and two others (V478 Her and V1082 Sgr) are long-period novalike variables. The stars with new periods are IPHAS 0345 (0.314 d); V344 Ori (0.234 d); VZ Sex (0.149 d); NSVS 1057+09 (0.376 d); V478 Her (0.629 d); V1059 Sgr (0.286 d); V1082 Sgr (0.868 d); FO Aql (0.217 d); V587 Lyr (0.275 d); ...

  11. Binaries discovered by the SPY survey. VI. Discovery of a low mass companion to the hot subluminous planetary nebula central star EGB 5 - a recently ejected common envelope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, S.; Napiwotzki, R.; Heber, U.; Nelemans, G.

    2011-04-01

    Hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) in close binary systems are assumed to be formed via common envelope ejection. According to theoretical models, the amount of energy and angular momentum deposited in the common envelope scales with the mass of the companion. That low mass companions near or below the core hydrogen-burning limit are able to trigger the ejection of this envelope is well known. The currently known systems have very short periods ≃0.1-0.3 d. Here we report the discovery of a low mass companion (M2 > 0.14 M⊙) orbiting the sdB star and central star of a planetary nebula EGB 5 with an orbital period of 16.5 d at a minimum separation of 23 R⊙. Its long period is only just consistent with the energy balance prescription of the common envelope. The marked difference between the short and long period systems will provide strong constraints on the common envelope phase, in particular if the masses of the sdB stars can be measured accurately. Due to selection effects, the fraction of sdBs with low mass companions and similar or longer periods may be quite high. Low mass stellar and substellar companions may therefore play a significant role for the still unclear formation of hot subdwarf stars. Furthermore, the nebula around EGB 5 may be the remnant of the ejected common envelope making this binary a unique system to study this short und poorly understood phase of binary evolution. Based on observations at the Paranal Observatory of the European Southern Observatory for programmes No. 167.H-0407(A) and 71.D-0383(A). Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). Some of the data used in this work were obtained at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) operated by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes (ING).

  12. GMRT DISCOVERY OF PSR J1544+4937: AN ECLIPSING BLACK-WIDOW PULSAR IDENTIFIED WITH A FERMI-LAT SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, B.; Roy, J.; Gupta, Y. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune 411 007 (India); Ray, P. S.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, K. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Bhattacharya, D. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411 007 (India); Romani, R. W.; Den Hartog, P. R.; Kerr, M.; Michelson, P. F. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Cognard, I. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l' Environnement, LPCE UMR 6115 CNRS, F-45071 Orleans Cedex 02 (France); Johnston, S.; Keith, M. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Saz Parkinson, P. M. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wood, D. L. [Praxis Inc., Alexandria, VA 22303 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    Using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, we performed deep observations to search for radio pulsations in the directions of unidentified Fermi-Large Area Telescope {gamma}-ray sources. We report the discovery of an eclipsing black-widow millisecond pulsar, PSR J1544+4937, identified with the uncataloged {gamma}-ray source FERMI J1544.2+4941. This 2.16 ms pulsar is in a 2.9 hr compact circular orbit with a very low mass companion (M{sub c} > 0.017M{sub Sun }). At 322 MHz this pulsar is found to be eclipsing for 13% of its orbit, whereas at 607 MHz the pulsar is detected throughout the low-frequency eclipse phase. Variations in the eclipse ingress phase are observed, indicating a clumpy and variable eclipsing medium. Moreover, additional short-duration absorption events are observed around the eclipse boundaries. Using the radio timing ephemeris we were able to detect {gamma}-ray pulsations from this pulsar, confirming it as the source powering the {gamma}-ray emission.

  13. Phemenological Modeling of Eclipsing Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Andronov, Ivan L; Chinarova, Lidia L

    2016-01-01

    We review the method NAV (New Algol Variable) first introduced in 2012Ap.....55..536A, which uses the locally-dependent shapes of eclipses in an addition to the trigonometric polynomial of the second order (which typically describes the "out-of-eclipse" part of the light curve with effects of reflection, ellipticity and O'Connell). Eclipsing binary stars are believed to show distinct eclipses only if belonging to the EA type. With a decreasing eclipse width, the statistically optimal value of the trigonometric polynomial s (2003ASPC..292..391A) drastically increases from ~2 for elliptic (EL) variables without eclipses, ~6-8 for EW and up to ~30-50 for some EA with narrow eclipses. In this case of large number of parameters, the smoothing curve becomes very noisy and apparent waves (the Gibbs phenomenon) may be seen. The NAV set of the parameters may be used for classification in the GCVS, VSX and similar catalogs. The maximal number of parameters is m=12, which corresponds to s=5, if correcting both the perio...

  14. The solar eclipse: a natural meteorological experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R Giles; Hanna, Edward

    2016-09-28

    A solar eclipse provides a well-characterized reduction in solar radiation, of calculable amount and duration. This captivating natural astronomical phenomenon is ideally suited to science outreach activities, but the predictability of the change in solar radiation also provides unusual conditions for assessing the atmospheric response to a known stimulus. Modern automatic observing networks used for weather forecasting and atmospheric research have dense spatial coverage, so the quantitative meteorological responses to an eclipse can now be evaluated with excellent space and time resolution. Numerical models representing the atmosphere at high spatial resolution can also be used to predict eclipse-related changes and interpret the observations. Combining the models with measurements yields the elements of a controlled atmospheric experiment on a regional scale (10-1000 km), which is almost impossible to achieve by other means. This modern approach to 'eclipse meteorology' as identified here can ultimately improve weather prediction models and be used to plan for transient reductions in renewable electricity generation. During the 20 March 2015 eclipse, UK electrical energy demand increased by about 3 GWh (11 TJ) or about 4%, alongside reductions in the wind and photovoltaic electrical energy generation of 1.5 GWh (5.5 TJ).This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  15. EE Cep observations requested for upcoming eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2014-07-01

    The AAVSO requests observations for the upcoming eclipse of EE Cephei, a long-period eclipsing variable. EE Cep has a period of 2,050 days, and shows strong variations in the eclipse light curve from one event to the next. Observations are needed to study the morphology of the upcoming eclipse, which will be used to better understand the shape of the eclipsing disk and how it precesses. Mid-eclipse is predicted to be August 23, 2014, but the early stages of the eclipse may begin as much as a month earlier. EE Cep is being observed by a number of amateur and professional astronomers using multiple telescopes at multiple wavelengths. Among these is a collaboration (see https://sites.google.com/site/eecep2014campaign/) headed by Cezary Galan at the Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center in Poland; several individual AAVSO observers are already participating in this effort. The AAVSO is not currently a partner in that campaign, but all data submitted to the AAVSO will be publicly available. The AAVSO strongly encourages observers to begin following this star now, and to continue observations into October 2014 at least. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and observations.

  16. Neutron Star Mass-Radius Constraints of the Quiescent Low-mass X-ray Binaries X7 and X5 in the Globular Cluster 47 Tuc

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Özel, Feryal; Güver, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    We present Chandra ACIS-S sub-array observations of the quiescent neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries X7 and X5 in the globular cluster 47 Tuc. The large reduction in photon pile-up compared to previous deep exposures enables a substantial improvement in the spectroscopic determination of the neutron star radius and mass of these neutron stars. Modeling the thermal emission from the neutron star surface with a non-magnetized hydrogen atmosphere and accounting for numerous sources of uncertainties, we obtain for the neutron star in X7 a radius of $R=11.1^{+0.8}_{-0.7}$ km for an assumed stellar mass of $M=1.4$ M$_{\\odot}$ (68% C.L.). We argue, based on astrophysical grounds, that the presence of a He atmosphere is unlikely for this source. Due to eclipses and variable absorption, the quiescent low-mass X-ray binary X5 provides less stringent constraints, leading to a radius of $R=9.6^{+0.9}_{-1.1}$ km, assuming a hydrogen atmosphere and a mass of $M=1.4$ M$_{\\odot}$. When combined with all other existing spec...

  17. Preparing for and Observing the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    I discuss ongoing plans and discussions for EPO and scientific observing of the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse. I discuss aspects of EPO based on my experiences at the 60 solar eclipses I have seen. I share cloud statistics along the eclipse path compiled by Jay Anderson, the foremost eclipse meteorologist. I show some sample observations of composite imagery, of spectra, and of terrestrial temperature changes based on observations of recent eclipses, including 2012 from Australia and 201...

  18. Central Serous Chorioretinopathy after Solar Eclipse Viewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allie Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of central serous chorioretinopathy after solar eclipse viewing. Case Report: A middle-age man developed a sudden-onset unilateral scotoma after viewing a partial solar eclipse in Hong Kong. Fundus examination, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography showed features compatible with central serous chorioretinopathy. The patient was managed conservatively and reevaluated periodically. Serial optical coherence tomographic evaluations demonstrated an initial increase in the amount of subretinal fluid which spontaneously resolved 10 weeks after the onset of symptoms. Conclusion: This case demonstrates the possibility of development of central serous chorioretinopathy following solar eclipse viewing.

  19. Influence of a solar eclipse on twilight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, E H; Hoffmann, M; Volland, H

    1994-07-20

    The morning twilight of the presunrise sky was measured at the Hoher-List Observatory during the total eclipse of 22 July 1990. The location of observation was far away from the central eclipse zone. The luminance showed a deep minimum in twilight during the main phase of the solar eclipse compared with normal conditions. A first order scattering model explains the observations reasonably well and shows that the sky radiation during the first phase of twilight at a location far away from the central umbra depends primarily on the height profile of the air pressure between ~ 100 and 200 km.

  20. Central serous chorioretinopathy after solar eclipse viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allie; Lai, Timothy Y Y

    2010-07-01

    To report a case of central serous chorioretinopathy after solar eclipse viewing. A middle-age man developed a sudden-onset unilateral scotoma after viewing a partial solar eclipse in Hong Kong. Fundus examination, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography showed features compatible with central serous chorioretinopathy. The patient was managed conservatively and reevaluated periodically. Serial optical coherence tomographic evaluations demonstrated an initial increase in the amount of subretinal fluid which spontaneously resolved 10 weeks after the onset of symptoms. This case demonstrates the possibility of development of central serous chorioretinopathy following solar eclipse viewing.

  1. Discovery of an eclipsing dwarf nova in the ancient nova shell Te 11

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, Brent; Littlefair, Stuart P; Warner, Brian; Boffin, Henri M J; Corradi, Romano L M; Jones, David; Motsoaledi, Mokhine; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo; Sabin, Laurence; Santander-García, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    We report on the discovery of an eclipsing dwarf nova (DN) inside the peculiar, bilobed nebula Te 11. Modelling of high-speed photometry of the eclipse finds the accreting white dwarf to have a mass 1.18 M$_\\odot$ and temperature 13 kK. The donor spectral type of M2.5 results in a distance of 330 pc, colocated with Barnard's loop at the edge of the Orion-Eridanus superbubble. The perplexing morphology and observed bow shock of the slowly-expanding nebula may be explained by strong interactions with the dense interstellar medium in this region. We match the DN to the historic nova of 483 CE in Orion and postulate that the nebula is the remnant of this eruption. This connection supports the millennia time scale of the post-nova transition from high to low mass-transfer rates. Te 11 constitutes an important benchmark system for CV and nova studies as the only eclipsing binary out of just three DNe with nova shells.

  2. ULTRACAM photometry of the eclipsing cataclysmic variables XZ Eri and DV UMa

    CERN Document Server

    Feline, W J; Marsh, T R; Brinkworth, C S

    2004-01-01

    We present high-speed, three-colour photometry of the faint eclipsing cataclysmic variables XZ Eri and DV UMa. We determine the system parameters through two techniques: first, timings of the eclipse contact phases of the white dwarf and bright-spot using the derivative of the light curve; and secondly, a parameterized model of the eclipse fitted to the observed light curve by chi-squared minimisation. For both objects, we prefer the latter method, as it is less affected by photon noise and rapid flickering. For XZ Eri we obtain a mass ratio q = 0.1098 +/- 0.0017 and an orbital inclination i = 80.16 +/- 0.09 degrees. For DV UMa we derive figures of q = 0.1506 +/- 0.0009 and i = 84.24 +/- 0.07 degrees. The secondary star in XZ Eri has a very low mass Mr/Msun = 0.0842 +/- 0.0024, placing it close to the upper limit on the mass of a brown dwarf.

  3. The Spitzer 24-micron Photometric Light Curve of the Eclipsing M-dwarf Binary GU Bootis

    CERN Document Server

    von Braun, Kaspar; Ciardi, David; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Hoard, D W; Wachter, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    We present a carefully controlled set of Spitzer 24 \\micron MIPS time series observations of the low mass eclipsing binary star GU Bo\\"otis (GU Boo). Our data cover three secondary eclipses of the system: two consecutive events and an additional eclipse six weeks later. The study's main purpose is the long wavelength characterization of GU Boo's light curve, independent of limb darkening and less sensitive to surface features such as spots. Its analysis allows for independent verification of the results of optical studies of GU Boo. Our mid-infrared results show good agreement with previously obtained system parameters. In addition, the analysis of light curves of other objects in the field of view serves to characterize the photometric stability and repeatability of {\\it Spitzer's} MIPS-24 at flux densities between approximately 300--2,000$\\mu$Jy. We find that the light curve root mean square about the median level falls into the 1--4% range for flux densities higher than 1 mJy.

  4. Total Solar Eclipse of 1997 March 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1995-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from Asia and the Pacific Ocean on 1997 March 9. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in eastern Kazakhstan and travels through Mongolia and eastern Siberia, where it swings northward to end at sunset in the Arctic Ocean. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes eastern Asia, the northern Pacific, and the northwest corner of North America. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 280 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  5. Total Solar Eclipse of 2001 June 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1999-01-01

    On 2001 June 21, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Southern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the South Atlantic, crosses southern Africa and Madagascar, and ends at sunset in the Indian Ocean. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes eastern South America and the southern two thirds of Africa. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 350 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  6. Total Solar Eclipse of 1999 August 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1997-01-01

    On 1999 August 11, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Eastern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the Atlantic and crosses central Europe, the Middle East, and India, where it ends at sunset in the Bay of Bengal. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes northeastern North America, all of Europe, northern Africa, and the western half of Asia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 1400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  7. Fluxon Global Predictions for the 2017 Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, Craig; Lamb, Derek

    2017-08-01

    We present predicted coronal morphologies for the 2017 total solar eclipse, produced using quasi-stationary MHD simulation on a semi-Lagrangian grid with the FLUX code. FLUX uses the "fluxon" approach to ideal MHD: the magnetic field is modeled as a finite-element skeleton of field lines, which experience the familiar magnetic energy density ("pressure") and curvature ("tension") forces. Ongoing and recent work with FLUX enables simulation of solar wind flow and coronal density in the low-beta regime, and permits global 3-D solutions without the use of a supercomputer.Using magnetograms acquired up to one solar rotation before the eclipse, we expect to publish fluxon-derived models 2-3 weeks before the eclipse, and will present those models side-by-side with actual eclipse images to compare the model and actual coronae.

  8. Total solar eclipse of 3 November 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1993-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from the southern half of the Western Hemisphere on 3 November 1994. The path of the Moon's shadow passes through Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Brazil. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include tables of geographic coordinates of the path of totality, local circumstances for hundreds of cities, maps of the path of total and partial eclipse, weather prospects, and the lunar limb profile.

  9. Solar eclipses as an astrophysical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M

    2009-06-11

    Observations of the Sun during total eclipses have led to major discoveries, such as the existence of helium (from its spectrum), the high temperature of the corona (though the reason for the high temperature remains controversial), and the role of magnetic fields in injecting energy into-and trapping ionized gases within-stellar atmospheres. A new generation of ground-based eclipse observations reaches spatial, temporal and spectral-resolution domains that are inaccessible from space and therefore complement satellite studies.

  10. Eclipse plugins for LHCb software development

    CERN Document Server

    Astruc, Gregoire

    2011-01-01

    CERN LHCb Offline team, working on experiments around the LHC particle collider, had a number of tools to assist developers. LHCb projects use a domain-specific structure. Tools are always evolving and some team members started to look for ways to integrate those programs (most of them being CLIs) into more recent programming software like the Eclipse IDE. During this internship, a set of Eclipse plugins was created. They link the LHCb projects concepts to the ones in the IDE.

  11. Modelling secondary eclipses of Kepler exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hambálek Lubomír

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have selected several Kepler objects with potentially the deepest secondary eclipses. By combination of many single phased light-curves (LCs we have produced a smooth LC with a larger SNR and made the secondary eclipses more distinct. This allowed us to measure the depth of primary and secondary minimum with greater accuracy and then to determine stellar and planetary radii by simplex modelling.

  12. [Optical coherence tomography in solar eclipse retinopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-González, C; Reche-Frutos, J; Santos-Bueso, E; Díaz-Valle, D; Benítez-del-Castillo, J M; García-Sánchez, J

    2006-05-01

    We describe the case of a patient suffering from acute visual loss soon after watching a solar eclipse. Optical coherence tomography was the main diagnostic tool used. Solar retinopathy is now an unusual cause of visual loss, although there are still some cases diagnosed, especially after viewing solar eclipses. Optical coherence tomography is suitable for detecting permanent retinal injuries related to solar exposure, with the outer retinal layers being typically affected.

  13. Planets transiting non-eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David V.; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.

    2014-10-01

    The majority of binary stars do not eclipse. Current searches for transiting circumbinary planets concentrate on eclipsing binaries, and are therefore restricted to a small fraction of potential hosts. We investigate the concept of finding planets transiting non-eclipsing binaries, whose geometry would require mutually inclined planes. Using an N-body code we explore how the number and sequence of transits vary as functions of observing time and orbital parameters. The concept is then generalised thanks to a suite of simulated circumbinary systems. Binaries are constructed from radial-velocity surveys of the solar neighbourhood. They are then populated with orbiting gas giants, drawn from a range of distributions. The binary population is shown to be compatible with the Kepler eclipsing binary catalogue, indicating that the properties of binaries may be as universal as the initial mass function. These synthetic systems produce transiting circumbinary planets occurring on both eclipsing and non-eclipsing binaries. Simulated planets transiting eclipsing binaries are compared with published Kepler detections. We find 1) that planets transiting non-eclipsing binaries are probably present in the Kepler data; 2) that observational biases alone cannot account for the observed over-density of circumbinary planets near the stability limit, which implies a physical pile-up; and 3) that the distributions of gas giants orbiting single and binary stars are likely different. Estimating the frequency of circumbinary planets is degenerate with the spread in mutual inclination. Only a minimum occurrence rate can be produced, which we find to be compatible with 9%. Searching for inclined circumbinary planets may significantly increase the population of known objects and will test our conclusions. Their presence, or absence, will reveal the true occurrence rate and help develop circumbinary planet formation theories.

  14. The DEBCat detached eclipsing binary catalogue

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Detached eclipsing binary star systems are our primary source of measured physical properties of normal stars. I introduce DEBCat: a catalogue of detached eclipsing binaries with mass and radius measurements to the 2% precision necessary to put useful constraints on theoretical models of stellar evolution. The catalogue was begun in 2006, as an update of the compilation by Andersen (1991). It now contains over 170 systems, and new results are added on appearance in the refereed literature. DE...

  15. A decreased probability of habitable planet formation around low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Raymond, Sean N; Meadows, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Smaller terrestrial planets ( 0.3 Earth mass habitable planets decreases for low-mass stars for every realistic combination of parameters. This "habitable fraction" is small for stellar masses below a mass in the interval 0.5 to 0.8 Solar masses, depending on disk parameters, an interval that excludes most M stars. Radial mixing and therefore water delivery are inefficient in lower-mass disks commonly found around low-mass stars, such that terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of most low-mass stars are likely to be small and dry.

  16. The solar eclipse: a natural meteorological experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A solar eclipse provides a well-characterized reduction in solar radiation, of calculable amount and duration. This captivating natural astronomical phenomenon is ideally suited to science outreach activities, but the predictability of the change in solar radiation also provides unusual conditions for assessing the atmospheric response to a known stimulus. Modern automatic observing networks used for weather forecasting and atmospheric research have dense spatial coverage, so the quantitative meteorological responses to an eclipse can now be evaluated with excellent space and time resolution. Numerical models representing the atmosphere at high spatial resolution can also be used to predict eclipse-related changes and interpret the observations. Combining the models with measurements yields the elements of a controlled atmospheric experiment on a regional scale (10–1000 km), which is almost impossible to achieve by other means. This modern approach to ‘eclipse meteorology’ as identified here can ultimately improve weather prediction models and be used to plan for transient reductions in renewable electricity generation. During the 20 March 2015 eclipse, UK electrical energy demand increased by about 3 GWh (11 TJ) or about 4%, alongside reductions in the wind and photovoltaic electrical energy generation of 1.5 GWh (5.5 TJ). This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550768

  17. The Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs: A Multi-Wavelength Perspective on Low-Mass Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew; Teich, Yaron; Adams, Elizabeth A.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Salzer, John Joseph; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Elson, Edward C.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Huang, Shan; Janowiecki, Steven; Jozsa, Gyula; Leisman, Luke; Ott, Juergen; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Rhode, Katherine L.; Saintonge, Amelie; Van Sistine, Angela; Warren, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    The “Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs” (SHIELD) is a multiwavelength study of local volume low-mass galaxies drawn from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) catalog. HST/Spitzer joint program GO-12658 revealed the stellar populations of the first 12 SHIELD galaxies (Cannon et al. 2011), allowing accurate distance measurements (McQuinn et al. 2014) and detailed studies of the patterns of recent star formation in each galaxy (McQuinn et al. 2015). These HST and Spitzer images are a critical interpretive benchmark for ground-based optical imaging and spectroscopy (Haurberg et al. 2015), as well as for sensitive VLA HI spectral line imaging of the SHIELD galaxies (McNichols et al. 2016; Teich et al. 2016). These results have furthered our understanding of the evolution of galaxies in a mass regime that was previously only sparsely populated. With the low-redshift ALFALFA catalog now complete, the scope of the SHIELD program has been expanded to include all 82 galaxies that meet distance, line width, and HI flux criteria for being gas-rich, low-mass galaxies. In HST program 13750, images of 18 more SHIELD galaxies have again set the physical scales for supporting HI spectral line imaging with both the VLA and the WSRT (Gordon et al. 2016). Taken as a whole, the ongoing SHIELD program is one of the most comprehensive multiwavelength studies of the physical properties of low-mass galaxies outside of the Local Group.

  18. KIC 11401845: An Eclipsing Binary with Multiperiodic Pulsations and Light-travel Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Kim, Seung-Lee; Koo, Jae-Rim

    2017-02-01

    We report the {\\text{}}{Kepler} photometry of KIC 11401845 displaying multiperiodic pulsations, superimposed on binary effects. Light-curve synthesis shows that the binary star is a short-period detached system with a very low mass ratio of q = 0.070 and filling factors of F1 = 45% and F2 = 99%. Multiple-frequency analyses were applied to the light residuals after subtracting the synthetic eclipsing curve from the observed data. We detected 23 frequencies with signal-to-noise ratios larger than 4.0, of which the orbital harmonics (f4, f6, f9, f15) in the low-frequency domain may originate from tidally excited modes. For the high frequencies of 13.7–23.8 day‑1, the period ratios and pulsation constants are in the ranges of {P}{pul}/{P}{orb}=0.020{--}0.034 and Q = 0.018–0.031 days, respectively. These values and the position on the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram demonstrate that the primary component is a δ Sct pulsating star. We examined the eclipse timing variation of KIC 11401845 from the pulsation-subtracted data and found a delay of 56 ± 17 s in the arrival times of the secondary eclipses relative to the primary eclipses. A possible explanation of the time shift may be some combination of a light-travel-time delay of about 34 s and a very small eccentricity of e\\cos ω < 0.0002. This result represents the first measurement of the Rømer delay in noncompact binaries.

  19. Wireless, Low Mass, High Sensitivity Sensing Sheet for Structural Sensing and Long Term Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs sensor systems to inspect space structures with minimum human interaction. These systems must be highly integrated and self-sufficient, low mass, simple...

  20. Low-mass dark matter search results from full exposure of PandaX-I experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Xiang; Tan, Andy; Chen, Yunhua; Cui, Xiangyi; Fang, Deqing; Fu, Changbo; Giboni, Karl L; Gong, Haowei; Guo, Guodong; He, Ming; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Lei, Siao; Li, Shaoli; Lin, Qing; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Liu, Xiang; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ni, Kaixuan; Pushkin, Kirill; Ren, Xiangxiang; Schubnell, Michael; Shen, Manbing; Shi, Yuji; Stephenson, Scott; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Jiming; Wang, Meng; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xuming; Wang, Zhou; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Mengjiao; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; You, Yinghui; Zeng, Xionghui; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a weakly-interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter search using the full 80.1\\;live-day exposure of the first stage of the PandaX experiment (PandaX-I) located in the China Jin-Ping Underground Laboratory. The PandaX-I detector has been optimized for detecting low-mass WIMPs, achieving a photon detection efficiency of 9.6\\%. With a fiducial liquid xenon target mass of 54.0\\,kg, no significant excess event were found above the expected background. A profile likelihood analysis confirms our earlier finding that the PandaX-I data disfavor all positive low-mass WIMP signals reported in the literature under standard assumptions. A stringent bound on the low mass WIMP is set at WIMP mass below 10\\,GeV/c$^2$, demonstrating that liquid xenon detectors can be competitive for low-mass WIMP searches.

  1. Recent advances in the theoretical modeling of pulsating low-mass He-core white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, A H; Calcaferro, L M; Serenelli, A M; Kepler, S O; Jeffery, C S

    2016-01-01

    Many extremely low-mass (ELM) white-dwarf (WD) stars are currently being found in the field of the Milky Way. Some of these stars exhibit long-period nonradial $g$-mode pulsations, and constitute the class of ELMV pulsating WDs. In addition, several low-mass pre-WDs, which could be precursors of ELM WDs, have been observed to show short-period photometric variations likely due to nonradial $p$ modes and radial modes. They could constitute a new class of pulsating low-mass pre-WD stars, the pre-ELMV stars. Here, we present the recent results of a thorough theoretical study of the nonadiabatic pulsation properties of low-mass He-core WDs and pre-WDs on the basis of fully evolutionary models representative of these stars.

  2. Eclipse Imagery in Mexica Sculpture of Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrath, S.

    Major monuments of the Mexica (Aztec) style are analyzed in terms of possible eclipse imagery. The cycle of monuments linked to the Coyolxauhqui myth are recognized as possible images of historical lunar eclipses. The Bilimek vessel is identified with an historical solar eclipse in 1508. The Calendar Stone is recognized as an image of world cataclysm that may refer to a solar eclipse at the end of the world. In addition, the codices are studied in terms of visual images of eclipses and a pattern linking solar eclipses to the death of a ruler.

  3. Hunting For Eclipses: High Speed Observations of Cataclysmic Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, Liam K; Dhillon, Vik S; Littlefair, Stuart P; Bours, Madelon C P; Breedt, Elme; Butterley, Tim; Chakpor, Anurak; Irawati, Puji; Kerry, Paul; Marsh, Tom R; Parsons, Steven G; Savoury, Chris D J; Wilson, Richard W; Woudt, Patrick A

    2016-01-01

    We present new time-resolved photometry of 74 cataclysmic variables (CVs), 47 of which are eclipsing. 13 of these eclipsing systems are newly discovered. For all 47 eclipsing systems we show high cadence (1-20 seconds) light curves obtained with the high-speed cameras ultracam and ultraspec. We provide new or refined ephemerides, and supply mid-eclipse times for all observed eclipses. We assess the potential for light curve modelling of all 47 eclipsing systems to determine their system parameters, finding 20 systems which appear to be suitable for future study.

  4. Analysis of the Lunar Eclipse Records from the Goryeosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Ahn, Young Sook; Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we study the lunar eclipse records in the Goryeosa (History of the Goryeo Dynasty), an official history book of the Goryeo dynasty (A.D. 918 -- 1392). In the history book, a total of 228 lunar eclipse accounts are recorded, covering the period from 1009 to 1392. However, we find that two accounts are duplications and four accounts correspond to no known lunar eclipses around the dates. For the remaining lunar eclipses, we calculate the magnitude and the time of the eclipse at different phases using the DE406 ephemeris. Of the 222 lunar eclipse accounts, we find that the minimum penumbral magnitude was 0.5583. For eclipses which occurred after midnight, we find that some accounts were recorded on the day before the eclipse, like the astronomical records of the Joseonwangjosillok (Annals of the Joseon Dynasty), while others were on the day of the lunar eclipse. We also find that four accounts show a difference in the Julian dates between this study and that of Ahn et al., even though it is assumed that the Goryeo court did not change the dates in the accounts for lunar eclipses that occurred after midnight. With regard to the contents of the lunar eclipse accounts, we confirm that the accounts recorded as total eclipses are accurate, except for two accounts. However, both eclipses were very close to the total eclipse. We also confirm that all predicted lunar eclipses did occur, although one eclipse happened two days after the predicted date. In conclusion, we believe that this study is very helpful for investigating the lunar eclipse accounts of other periods in Korea, and furthermore, useful for verifying the calendar dates of the Goryeo dynasty.

  5. Coronal activity from the ASAS eclipsing binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Szczygiel, D M; Paczynski, B; Pojmanski, G; Pilecki, B

    2008-01-01

    We combine the catalogue of eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) with the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS). The combination results in 836 eclipsing binaries that display coronal activity and is the largest sample of active binary stars assembled to date. By using the (V-I) colors of the ASAS eclipsing binary catalogue, we are able to determine the distances and thus bolometric luminosities for the majority of eclipsing binaries that display significant stellar activity. A typical value for the ratio of soft X-ray to bolometric luminosity is L_X/L_bol ~ a few x 10^-4, similar to the ratio of soft X-ray to bolometric flux F_X/F_bol in the most active regions of the Sun. Unlike rapidly rotating isolated late-type dwarfs -- stars with significant outer convection zones -- a tight correlation between Rossby number and activity of eclipsing binaries is absent. We find evidence for the saturation effect and marginal evidence for the so-called "super-saturation" phenomena. Our work shows that wide-...

  6. Galilean Satellite Atmospheres and Aurora in Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, Kurt

    Io, Europa, and Ganymede all demonstrate unique displays of auroral and atmospheric emis-sions, and all three routinely pass into Jupiter's shadow. Callisto on the other hand very rarely passes into eclipse by Jupiter, and no auroral emissions have been detected there to date. In eclipse, Io's dayside surface temperature is known to rapidly drop from 120 K to 90 K, which is sufficient to diminish the sublimation component of the atmosphere across most of the surface and possibly results in an atmosphere mostly made directly from volcanos. While surface sputtering by magnetospheric particles is likely the primary source of the icy satel-lite atmospheres for Ganymede and Europa, little observational evidence is available regarding the relative contribution of the smaller sublimation components and potential changes in icy surface temperatures near the sub-solar point in eclipse. Eclipse observations of auroral emis-sions generally have the ability to correlate changes in the atmosphere with changes in surface temperature and/or photochemistry. They also offer the practical advantage of little or no confusion from reflected sunlight. We will review the present auroral observations available for investigating the behavior of Galilean satellite atmospheres in eclipse.

  7. Celestial shadows eclipses, transits, and occultations

    CERN Document Server

    Westfall, John

    2015-01-01

    Much of what is known about the universe comes from the study of celestial shadows—eclipses, transits, and occultations.  The most dramatic are total eclipses of the Sun, which constitute one of the most dramatic and awe-inspiring events of nature.  Though once a source of consternation or dread, solar eclipses now lead thousands of amateur astronomers and eclipse-chasers to travel to remote points on the globe to savor their beauty and the adrenaline-rush of experiencing totality, and were long the only source of information about the hauntingly beautiful chromosphere and corona of the Sun.   Long before Columbus, the curved shadow of the Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse revealed that we inhabit a round world. The rare and wonderful transits of Venus, which occur as it passes between the Earth and the Sun, inspired eighteenth century expeditions to measure the distance from the Earth to the Sun, while the recent transits of 2004 and 2012 were the most widely observed ever--and still produced re...

  8. HST/FOS Eclipse mapping of IP Pegasi in outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Saitô, R; Horne, K

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of a time-resolved eclipse mapping of the dwarf nova IP Pegasi during the decline of its May 1993 outburst from HST/FOS fast spectroscopy covering 3 eclipses in the ultraviolet spectral range.

  9. Broadband Eclipse Spectra of Exoplanets are Featureless

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, C J; Cowan, N B

    2014-01-01

    Spectral retrieval methods leverage features in emission spectra to constrain the atmospheric composition and structure of transiting exoplanets. Most of the observed emission spectra consist of broadband photometric observations at a small number of wavelengths. We compare the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) of blackbody fits and spectral retrieval fits for all planets with eclipse measurements in multiple thermal wavebands, typically hot Jupiters with 2-4 observations. If the published error bars are taken at face value, then eight planets are significantly better fit by a spectral model than by a blackbody. In this under-constrained regime, however, photometric uncertainties directly impact one's ability to constrain atmospheric properties. By considering the handful of planets for which eclipse measurements have been repeated and/or reanalyzed, we obtain an empirical estimate of systematic uncertainties for broadband eclipse depths obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope: sigma_sys = 5E-4. When thi...

  10. The Gaugamela Battle Eclipse: An Archaeoastronomical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcaro, V. F.; Valsecchi, G. B.; Verderame, L.

    A total lunar eclipse occurred during the night preceding the decisive Battle of Gaugamela (20th September 331 BCE), when the Macedonian army, led by Alexander the Great, finally defeated the Persian king Darius and his army. This astronomical event, well known to historians, had a relevant role on the battle outcome. The eclipse was described in detail by Babylonian astronomers, though, unfortunately, the text of their report has only partially been preserved. We have reconstructed the evolution of the phenomenon as it appeared to the observer in Babylonia, by using the positional astronomy code "Planetario V2.0". On the base of this reconstruction we suggest a number of integrations to the lost part of the text, allowing a finer astrological interpretation of the eclipse and of its influence on the mood of the armies that set against each other on the following morning.

  11. Total solar eclipses and how to observe them

    CERN Document Server

    Mobberley, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This is the ultimate, easy-to-read guide for "eclipse-chasers" which includes everything an eclipse chaser needs. It provides a checklist of where to go to see total solar eclipses, for the next 15 years, and includes travel details.

  12. Anticipation of total solar eclipse and suicide incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Rancāns, Elmārs; Vintilă, Mona; Fisher, Maryanne

    2004-09-01

    Around the total solar eclipse of August 11 1999, suicide incidence decreased in Timiş county, Romania, a region crossed by the path of totality and subject to eclipse-trekking, whereas no such decrease was observed in Latvia, where only a partial eclipse was observed. Collective anticipation of a positive event could have a preventive effect on suicide incidence.

  13. 78 FR 30243 - Airworthiness Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... all Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Model EA500 airplanes equipped with Avio, Avio with ETT, or Avio NG 1.0... identified in this proposed AD, contact Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. 26 East Palatine Road, Wheeling,...

  14. ULTRACAM photometry of eclipsing cataclysmic variable stars

    CERN Document Server

    Feline, William James

    2008-01-01

    The accurate determination of the masses of cataclysmic variable stars is critical to our understanding of their origin, evolution and behaviour. Observations of cataclysmic variables also afford an excellent opportunity to constrain theoretical physical models of the accretion discs housed in these systems. In particular, the brightness distributions of the accretion discs of eclipsing systems can be mapped at a spatial resolution unachievable in any other astrophysical situation. This thesis addresses both of these important topics via the analysis of the light curves of six eclipsing dwarf novae, obtained using ULTRACAM, a novel high-speed imaging photometer.

  15. Total solar eclipse of 1995 October 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1994-01-01

    A total eclipse of the sun will be visible from Asia and the Pacific Ocean on 24 Oct. 1995. The path of the moon's shadow begins in the Middle East and sweeps across India, Southeast Asia, and the waters of the Indonesian archipelago before ending at sunset in the Pacific. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality.

  16. Spectropolarimetry of Solar Corona during Solar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhongquan

    2017-08-01

    We present the results from spectropolarimetry of solar corona. These observations were conducted during solar eclipses in 2008 China, 2013 Gabon, and probably 2017 United States of America respectively. From the former two observations, it is shown that the patterns of linear polarization of radiation from the solar corona are very abundant, and the abundance may be related to the complexity of mass motions and magnetic configuration in the corona. And the spectropolarimetry during solar eclipses may open a new window to probe precisely the physical features of the local corona, especially its magnetic configuration.

  17. Living matter: the "lunar eclipse" phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpan, Nikolai N

    2010-01-01

    The present investigations describe a unique phenomenon, namely the phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse", which has been observed and discovered by the author in living substance during the freeze-thawing processes in vivo using temperatures of various intensities and its cryosurgical response in animal experiment. Similar phenomena author has observed in nature, namely the total lunar eclipse and total solar eclipse. In this experimental study 76 animals (mongrel dogs) were investigated. A disc cryogenic probe was placed on the pancreas after the laparotomy. For cryosurgical exposure a temperature range of -40 degrees C, -80 degrees C, -120 degrees C and -180 degrees C was selected in contact with pancreas parenchyma. The freeze-thaw cycle was monitored by intraoperative ultrasound before, during and after cryosurgery. Each cryolesion was observed for one hour after thawing intraoperatively. Immediately after freezing, during the thawing process, the snow-white pancreas parenchyma, frozen hard to an ice block and resembling a full moon with a sharp demarcation line, gradually assumed a ruby-red shade and a hemispherical shape as it grew in size depend on reconstruction vascular circulation from the periphery to the center. This snow-white cryogenic lesion dissolved in the same manner in all animal tissues. The "lunar eclipse" phenomenon contributes to a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of biological tissue damage during low temperature exposure in cryoscience and cryomedicine. Properties of the pancreas parenchyma response during the phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse" provide important insights into the mechanisms of damage and the formation of cryogenic lesion immediately after thawing in cryosurgery. Vascular changes and circulatory stagnation are commonly considered to be the main mechanism of biological tissue injury during low temperature exposure. The phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse" suggests that cryosurgery is the first surgical technique to use

  18. Eclipse Omega数字矩阵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Clear-com公司最新推出的Eclipse Omega6RU数字矩阵内部通讯平台.可通过上面的15个模块插槽.可最多扩充到240个RJ-45端口。这款Eclipse Omega矩阵适用于大规模通讯的产品中。尤其是在多个用户同时操作多个设备的环境下。

  19. The DEBCat detached eclipsing binary catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Detached eclipsing binary star systems are our primary source of measured physical properties of normal stars. I introduce DEBCat: a catalogue of detached eclipsing binaries with mass and radius measurements to the 2% precision necessary to put useful constraints on theoretical models of stellar evolution. The catalogue was begun in 2006, as an update of the compilation by Andersen (1991). It now contains over 170 systems, and new results are added on appearance in the refereed literature. DEBCat is available at: http://www.astro.keele.ac.uk/jkt/debcat/

  20. The First Photometric Study of NSVS 1461538: A New W-subtype Contact Binary with a Low Mass Ratio and Moderate Fill-out Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun-Woo; Kim, Chun-Hwey; Song, Mi-Hwa; Jeong, Min-Ji; Kim, Hye-Young

    2016-09-01

    New multiband BVRI light curves of NSVS 1461538 were obtained as a byproduct during the photometric observations of our program star PV Cas for three years from 2011 to 2013. The light curves indicate characteristics of a typical W-subtype W UMa eclipsing system, displaying a flat bottom at primary eclipse and the O’Connell effect, rather than those of an Algol/ b Lyrae eclipsing variable classified by the northern sky variability survey (NSVS). A total of 35 times of minimum lights were determined from our observations (20 timings) and the SuperWASP measurements (15 ones). A period study with all the timings shows that the orbital period may vary in a sinusoidal manner with a period of about 5.6 yr and a small semiamplitude of about 0.008 day. The cyclical period variation can be interpreted as a light-time effect due to a tertiary body with a minimum mass of 0.71 M⊙. Simultaneous analysis of the multiband light curves using the 2003 version of the WilsonDevinney binary model shows that NSVS 1461538 is a genuine W-subtype W UMa contact binary with the hotter primary component being less massive and the system shows a low mass ratio of q(mc/mh)=3.51, a high orbital inclination of 88.7°, a moderate fill-out factor of 30 %, and a temperature difference of ΔT=412 K. The O’Connell effect can be similarly explained by cool spots on either the hotter primary star or the cool secondary star. A small third-light corresponding to about 5 % and 2 % of the total systemic light in the B and V bandpasses, respectively, supports the third-body hypothesis proposed by the period study. Preliminary absolute dimensions of the system were derived and used to look into its evolutionary status with other W UMa binaries in the mass-radius and mass-luminosity diagrams. A possible evolution scenario of the system was also discussed in the context of the mass vs mass ratio diagram.

  1. Evolutionary implications of the new triple-alpha nuclear reaction rate for low mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dotter, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Context: Ogata et al. (2009; hereafter OKK) presented a theoretical determination of the triple-alpha nuclear reaction rate. Their rate differs from the NACRE rate by many orders of magnitude at temperatures relevant for low mass stars. Aims: We explore the evolutionary implications of adopting the OKK triple-alpha reaction rate in low mass stars and compare the results with those obtained using the NACRE rate. Methods: The triple-alpha reaction rates are compared by following the evolution of stellar models at 1 and 1.5 Msol with Z=0.0002 and Z=0.02. Results: Results show that the OKK rate has severe consequences for the late stages of stellar evolution in low mass stars. Most notable is the shortening--or disappearance--of the red giant phase. Conclusions: The OKK triple-alpha reaction rate is incompatible with observations of extended red giant branches and He burning stars in old stellar systems.

  2. New Light on Dark Stars Red Dwarfs, Low-Mass Stars, Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, I. Neill

    2005-01-01

    There has been very considerable progress in research into low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets during the past few years, particularly since the fist edtion of this book was published in 2000. In this new edtion the authors present a comprehensive review of both the astrophysical nature of individual red dwarf and brown dwarf stars and their collective statistical properties as an important Galactic stellar population. Chapters dealing with the observational properies of low-mass dwarfs, the stellar mass function and extrasolar planets have been completely revised. Other chapters have been significantly revised and updated as appropriate, including important new material on observational techniques, stellar acivity, the Galactic halo and field star surveys. The authors detail the many discoveries of new brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets made since publication of the first edition of the book and provide a state-of-the-art review of our current knowledge of very low-mass stars, brown dwarfs a...

  3. Visual orbit for the low-mass binary Gliese 22 AC from speckle interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Woitas, J; Docobo, J A; Leinert, C; Leinert, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    Based on 14 data points obtained with near-infrared speckle interferometry and covering an almost entire revolution, we present a first visual orbit for the low-mass binary system Gliese 22 AC. The quality of the orbit is largely improved with respect to previous astrometric solutions. The dynamical system mass is 0.592 +- 0.065 solar masses, where the largest part of the error is due to the Hipparcos parallax. A comparison of this dynamical mass with mass-luminosity relations on the lower main sequence and theoretical evolutionary models for low-mass objects shows that both probably underestimate the masses of M dwarfs. A mass estimate for the companion Gliese 22 C indicates that this object is a very low-mass star with a mass close to the hydrogen burning mass limit.

  4. Measuring the Initial Mass Function of Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffries, R D

    2012-01-01

    I review efforts to determine the form and any lower limit to the initial mass function in the Galactic disk, using observations of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the field, young clusters and star forming regions. I focus on the methodologies that have been used and the uncertainties that exist due to observational limitations and to systematic uncertainties in calibrations and theoretical models. I conclude that whilst it is possible that the low-mass IMFs deduced from the field and most young clusters are similar, there are too many problems to be sure; there are examples of low-mass cluster IMFs that appear to be very discrepant and the IMFs for brown dwarfs in the field and young clusters have yet to be reconciled convincingly.

  5. How eclipse time variations, eclipse duration variations, and radial velocities can reveal S-type planets in close eclipsing binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Oshagh, M; Dreizler, S

    2016-01-01

    While about a dozen transiting planets have been found in wide orbits around an inner, close stellar binary (so-called "P-type planets"), no planet has yet been detected orbiting only one star (a so-called "S-type planet") in an eclipsing binary. This is despite a large number of eclipsing binary systems discovered with the Kepler telescope. Here we propose a new detection method for these S-type planets, which uses a correlation between the stellar radial velocities (RVs), eclipse timing variations (ETVs), and eclipse duration variations (EDVs). We test the capability of this technique by simulating a realistic benchmark system and demonstrate its detectability with existing high-accuracy RV and photometry instruments. We illustrate that, with a small number of RV observations, the RV-ETV diagrams allows us to distinguish between prograde and retrograde planetary orbits and also the planetary mass can be estimated if the stellar cross-correlation functions can be disentangled. We also identify a new (though ...

  6. The Diversity of Low-mass Exoplanets Characterized via Transit Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Ford, Eric B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Lissauer, Jack. J.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2016-10-01

    Transit timing variations (TTV) in multi-transiting systems enables precise characterizations of low-mass planets and their orbits. The range of orbital periods and incident fluxes with detailed TTV constraints complements the radial velocity sample for low-mass planets, pushing exoplanet characterization to the regime sub-Earth size planets and out to Mercury-like distances. This has revealed an astonishing diversity in the density of super-Earth mass planets. We summarize these and other contributions to exoplanet science from TTVs.

  7. First detection of a low-mass stellar halo around the young open cluster Eta Chamaeleontis

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Simon J; Bessell, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    We have identified several lithium-rich low-mass (0.08low-mass objects. Candidates were selected on the basis of DENIS and 2MASS photometry, NOMAD astrometry and extensive follow-up spectroscopy.

  8. Kepler Eclipsing Binary Stars. II. 2165 Eclipsing Binaries in the Second Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Slawson, Robert W; Welsh, William F; Orosz, Jerome A; Rucker, Michael; Batalha, Natalie M; Doyle, Laurance R; Engle, Scott G; Conroy, Kyle; Coughlin, Jared; Gregg, Trevor Ames; Fetherolf, Tara; Short, Donald R; Windmiller, Gur; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Howell, Steve B; Jenkins, Jon M; Uddin, Kamal; Mullally, Fergal; Seader, Shawn E; Thompson, Susan E; Sanderfer, Dwight T; Borucki, William; Koch, David

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler Mission provides nearly continuous monitoring of ~156 000 objects with unprecedented photometric precision. Coincident with the first data release, we presented a catalog of 1879 eclipsing binary systems identified within the 115 square degree Kepler FOV. Here, we provide an updated catalog augmented with the second Kepler data release which increases the baseline nearly 4-fold to 125 days. 386 new systems have been added, ephemerides and principle parameters have been recomputed. We have removed 42 previously cataloged systems that are now clearly recognized as short-period pulsating variables and another 58 blended systems where we have determined that the Kepler target object is not itself the eclipsing binary. A number of interesting objects are identified. We present several exemplary cases: 4 EBs that exhibit extra (tertiary) eclipse events; and 8 systems that show clear eclipse timing variations indicative of the presence of additional bodies bound in the system. We have updated the period a...

  9. Photometric Analysis and Period Investigation of the EW Type Eclipsing Binary V441 Lac

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Li; S.-M. Hu; D.-F. Guo; Y.-G. Jiang; D.-Y. Gao; X. Chen

    2016-09-01

    Four color light curves of the EW type eclipsing binary V441Lac were presented and analyzed by the W--D code. It is found that V441Lac is an extremely low mass ratio $(q = 0.093 \\pm 0.001)$ semi-detached binary with the less massive secondary component filling the inner Roche lobe. Two dark spots on the primary component were introduced to explain the asymmetric light curves. By analyzing all times of light minimum, we determined that the orbital period of V441 Lac is continuously increasing at a rate of ${\\rm d}P/{\\rm d}t = 5.874(\\pm 0.007)\\times 10^{--7} {\\rm d yr}^{--1}$. The semidetached Algol type configuration of V441 Lac is possibly formed by a contact configuration destroyed shallow contact binary due to mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one predicted by the thermal relaxation oscillation theory.

  10. Radiation of accretion discs: the eclipses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.

    1984-05-01

    Light curves have been calculated for eclipses of the accretion disc in a cataclysmic binary. The Roche geometry of the cool component was taken into account and the stellar atmospheres were interpolated to provide the local spectrum of the radiation from the disc. The dependence of the light curve on the parameters of the disc is discussed.

  11. The Benchmark Eclipsing Binary V530 Ori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Guillermo; Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Pavlovski, Kresimir

    2015-01-01

    We report accurate measurements of the physical properties (mass, radius, temperature) of components of the G+M eclipsing binary V530 On. The M-type secondary shows a larger radius and a cooler temperature than predicted by standard stellar evolution models, as has been found for many other low...

  12. Spectral irradiance curve calculations for any type of solar eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, A.; Merrill, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    A simple procedure is described for calculating the eclipse function (EF), alpha, and hence the spectral irradiance curve (SIC), (1-alpha), for any type of solar eclipse: namely, the occultation (partial/total) eclipse and the transit (partial/annular) eclipse. The SIC (or the EF) gives the variation of the amount (or the loss) of solar radiation of a given wavelength reaching a distant observer for various positions of the moon across the sun. The scheme is based on the theory of light curves of eclipsing binaries, the results of which are tabulated in Merrill's Tables, and is valid for all wavelengths for which the solar limb-darkening obeys the cosine law: J = sub c (1 - X + X cost gamma). As an example of computing the SIC for an occultation eclipse which may be total, the calculations for the March 7, 1970, eclipse are described in detail.

  13. Towards a Fundamental Understanding of Short Period Eclipsing Binary Systems Using Kepler Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Andrej

    Kepler's ultra-high precision photometry is revolutionizing stellar astrophysics. We are seeing intrinsic phenomena on an unprecedented scale, and interpreting them is both a challenge and an exciting privilege. Eclipsing binary stars are of particular significance for stellar astrophysics because precise modeling leads to fundamental parameters of the orbiting components: masses, radii, temperatures and luminosities to better than 1-2%. On top of that, eclipsing binaries are ideal physical laboratories for studying other physical phenomena, such as asteroseismic properties, chromospheric activity, proximity effects, mass transfer in close binaries, etc. Because of the eclipses, the basic geometry is well constrained, but a follow-up spectroscopy is required to get the dynamical masses and the absolute scale of the system. A conjunction of Kepler photometry and ground- based spectroscopy is a treasure trove for eclipsing binary star astrophysics. This proposal focuses on a carefully selected set of 100 short period eclipsing binary stars. The fundamental goal of the project is to study the intrinsic astrophysical effects typical of short period binaries in great detail, utilizing Kepler photometry and follow-up spectroscopy to devise a robust and consistent set of modeling results. The complementing spectroscopy is being secured from 3 approved and fully funded programs: the NOAO 4-m echelle spectroscopy at Kitt Peak (30 nights; PI Prsa), the 10- m Hobby-Eberly Telescope high-resolution spectroscopy (PI Mahadevan), and the 2.5-m Sloan Digital Sky Survey III spectroscopy (PI Mahadevan). The targets are prioritized by the projected scientific yield. Short period detached binaries host low-mass (K- and M- type) components for which the mass-radius relationship is sparsely populated and still poorly understood, as the radii appear up to 20% larger than predicted by the population models. We demonstrate the spectroscopic detection viability in the secondary

  14. Discovery of the Optical/Ultraviolet/Gamma-ray Counterpart to the Eclipsing Millisecond Pulsar J1816+4510

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, D L; Ransom, S M; Roberts, M S E; Kotulla, R; Archibald, A M; Biwer, C M; Boyles, J; Dartez, L; Day, D F; Ford, A J; Garcia, A; Hessels, J W T; Jenet, F A; Karako, C; Kaspi, V M; Kondratiev, V I; Lorimer, D R; Lynch, R S; McLaughlin, M A; Rohr, M D W; Siemens, X; Stairs, I H; van Leeuwen, J

    2012-01-01

    The energetic, eclipsing millisecond pulsar J1816+4510 was recently discovered in a low-frequency radio survey with the Green Bank Telescope. With an orbital period of 8.7 hr and minimum companion mass of 0.16 Msun it appears to belong to an increasingly important class of pulsars that are ablating their low-mass companions. We report the discovery of the gamma-ray counterpart to this pulsar, and present a likely optical/ultraviolet counterpart as well. Using the radio ephemeris we detect pulsations in the unclassified gamma-ray source 2FGL J1816.5+4511, implying an efficiency of ~25% in converting the pulsar's spin-down luminosity into gamma-rays and adding PSR J1816+4510 to the large number of millisecond pulsars detected by Fermi. The likely optical/UV counterpart was identified through position coincidence (15,000 K it would be among the brightest and hottest of low-mass pulsar companions, and appears qualitatively different from other eclipsing pulsar systems. In particular, current data suggest that it ...

  15. K2 Discovery of Young Eclipsing Binaries in Upper Scorpius: Direct Mass and Radius Determinations for the Lowest Mass Stars and Initial Characterization of an Eclipsing Brown Dwarf Binary

    CERN Document Server

    David, Trevor J; Cody, Ann Marie; Carpenter, John M; Howard, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of three low-mass double-lined eclipsing binaries in the pre-main sequence Upper Scorpius association, revealed by $K2$ photometric monitoring of the region over $\\sim$ 78 days. The orbital periods of all three systems are $<$5 days. We use the $K2$ photometry plus multiple Keck/HIRES radial velocities and spectroscopic flux ratios to determine fundamental stellar parameters for both the primary and secondary components of each system, along with the orbital parameters. We present tentative evidence that EPIC 203868608 is a hierarchical triple system comprised of an eclipsing pair of $\\sim$25 $M_\\mathrm{Jup}$ brown dwarfs with a wide M-type companion. If confirmed, it would constitute only the second double-lined eclipsing brown dwarf binary system discovered to date. The double-lined system EPIC 203710387 is composed of nearly identical M4.5-M5 stars with fundamentally determined masses and radii measured to better than 3% precision ($M_1=0.1169\\pm0.0031 M_\\odot$, $M_2=0.1065\\pm0.0...

  16. On the mass assembly of low-mass galaxies in hydrodynamical simulations of structure formation

    CERN Document Server

    De Rossi, Maria E; Tissera, Patricia B; Gonzalez-Samaniego, Alejandro; Pedrosa, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations are studied in order to analyse generic trends for the stellar, baryonic and halo mass assembly of low-mass galaxies (M_* 2, the overall properties of simulated galaxies are not in large disagreement with those derived from observations.

  17. Revealing the physics of r modes in low-mass X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, W.C.G.; Andersson, N.; Haskell, B.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the astrophysical constraints on the gravitational-wave-driven r-mode instability in accreting neutron stars in low-mass x-ray binaries. We use recent results on superfluid and superconducting properties to infer the core temperature in these neutron stars and show the diversity of the o

  18. Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopy of ices toward low-mass embedded protostars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogert, ACA; Pontoppidan, KM; Lahuis, F; Jorgensen, JK; Augereau, JC; Blake, GA; Brooke, TY; Dullemond, CP; Evans, NJ; Geers, [No Value; Hogerheijde, MR; Kessler-Silacci, J; Knez, C; Morris, P; Noriega-Crespo, A; Schoier, FL; van Dishoeck, EF; Allen, LE; Harvey, PM; Koerner, DW; Mundy, LG; Myers, PC; Padgett, DL; Sargent, AI; Stapelfeldt, KR

    2004-01-01

    Sensitive 5-38 mum Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based 3-5 mum spectra of the embedded low-mass protostars B5 IRS1 and HH 46 IRS show deep ice absorption bands superposed on steeply rising mid-infrared continua. The ices likely originate in the circumstellar envelopes. The CO2 bending mode at 1

  19. The Influence of Environment on the Chemical Evolution in Low-mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yiqing; Peng, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The mean alpha-to-iron abundance ratio ([$\\alpha$/Fe]) of galaxies is sensitive to the chemical evolution processes at early time, and it is an indicator of star formation timescale ($\\tau_{{\\rm SF}}$). Although the physical reason remains ambiguous, there is a tight relation between [$\\alpha$/Fe] and stellar velocity dispersion ($\\sigma$) among massive early-type galaxies (ETGs). However, no work has shown convincing results as to how this relation behaves at low masses. We assemble 15 data sets from the literature and build a large sample that includes 192 nearby low-mass ($18<\\sigma<80$~\\kms) ETGs. We find that the [$\\alpha$/Fe]-$\\sigma$ relation generally holds for low-mass ETGs, except in extreme environments. Specifically, in normal galaxy cluster environments, the [$\\alpha$/Fe]-$\\sigma$ relation and its intrinsic scatter are, within uncertainties, similar for low-mass and high-mass ETGs. However, in the most massive relaxed galaxy cluster in our sample, the zero point of the relation is higher an...

  20. Microlensing discovery of a population of very tight, very low mass binary brown dwarfs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, J.-Y.; Han, C.; Udalski, A.

    2013-01-01

    the discovery via gravitational microlensing of two very low mass, very tight binary systems. These binaries have directly and precisely measured total system masses of 0.025 M ☉ and 0.034 M ☉, and projected separations of 0.31 AU and 0.19 AU, making them the lowest-mass and tightest field BD binaries known...

  1. Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Jenny E

    2012-01-01

    This article documents our ongoing search for the elusive "intermediate-mass" black holes. These would bridge the gap between the approximately ten solar mass "stellar-mass" black holes that are the end-product of the life of a massive star, and the "supermassive" black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses found at the centers of massive galaxies. The discovery of black holes with intermediate mass is the key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes, or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth only hundreds of millions of years after the Big Bang. Here we focus on searches for black holes with masses of 10^4-10^6 solar masses that are found at galaxy centers. We will refer to black holes in this mass range as "low-mass" black holes, since they are at the low-mass end of supermassive black holes. We review the searches for low-mass black holes to date and show tentative evidence, from the number of low-mass black holes that are ...

  2. The role of low-mass star clusters in massive star formation. The Orion Case

    CERN Document Server

    Rivilla, V M; Jimenez-Serra, I; Rodriguez-Franco, A

    2013-01-01

    To distinguish between the different theories proposed to explain massive star formation, it is crucial to establish the distribution, the extinction, and the density of low-mass stars in massive star-forming regions. We analyze deep X-ray observations of the Orion massive star-forming region using the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP) catalog. We studied the stellar distribution as a function of extinction, with cells of 0.03 pc x 0.03 pc, the typical size of protostellar cores. We derived stellar density maps and calculated cluster stellar densities. We found that low-mass stars cluster toward the three massive star-forming regions: the Trapezium Cluster (TC), the Orion Hot Core (OHC), and OMC1-S. We derived low-mass stellar densities of 10^{5} stars pc^{-3} in the TC and OMC1-S, and of 10^{6} stars pc^{-3} in the OHC. The close association between the low-mass star clusters with massive star cradles supports the role of these clusters in the formation of massive stars. The X-ray observations show for ...

  3. The hot core around the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422 : Scoundrels rule!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazaux, S; Tielens, AGGM; Ceccarelli, C; Castets, A; Wakelam, [No Value; Caux, E; Parise, B; Teyssier, D

    2003-01-01

    While warm dense gas is prevalent around low-mass protostars, the presence of complex saturated molecules-the chemical inventory characteristic of hot cores-has remained elusive in such environments. Here we report the results of an IRAM 30 m study of the molecular composition associated with the lo

  4. Catalogue of Galactic low-mass X-ray binaries (Liu+, 2007)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.Z.; van Paradijs, J.A.; van den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new edition of the catalogue of the low-mass X-ray binaries in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. The catalogue contains source name(s), coordinates, finding chart, X-ray luminosity, system parameters, and stellar parameters of the components and other characteristic properties of 18

  5. Low-Mass Active Galactic Nuclei with Rapid X-Ray Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the optical spectroscopic properties of 12 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with candidate low-mass black holes (BHs) selected by Kamizasa et al. through rapid X-ray variability. The high-quality, echellette Magellan spectra reveal broad H$\\alpha$ emission in all the sources, allowing us to estimate robust viral BH masses and Eddington ratios for this unique sample. We confirm that the sample contains low-mass BHs accreting at high rates: the median $M_{\\rm BH} = 1.2\\times 10^6M_\\odot$ and median $L_{\\rm bol}/L_{\\rm Edd}=0.44$. The sample follows the $M_{\\rm BH}-\\sigma_*$ relation, within the considerable scatter typical of pseudobulges, the probable hosts of these low-mass AGNs. Various lines of evidence suggest that ongoing star formation is prevalent in these systems. We propose a new strategy to estimate star formation rates in AGNs hosted by low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies, based on modification of an existing method using the strength of [O II] $\\lambda 3727$, [O III] $\\la...

  6. A Study in Blue: The Baryon Content of Isolated Low Mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bradford, Jeremy D; Blanton, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    We study the baryon content of low mass galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR8), focusing on galaxies in isolated environments where the complicating physics of galaxy-galaxy interactions are minimized. We measure neutral hydrogen (HI) gas masses and line-widths for 148 isolated galaxies with stellar mass between $10^7$ and $10^{9.5} M_{\\odot}$. We compare isolated low mass galaxies to more massive galaxies and galaxies in denser environments by remeasuring HI emission lines from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey 40% data release. All isolated low mass galaxies either have large atomic gas fractions or large atomic gas fractions cannot be ruled out via their upper limits. We measure a median atomic gas fraction of $f_{\\rm gas} = 0.82 \\pm 0.13$ for our isolated low mass sample with no systems below 0.30. At all stellar masses, the correlations between galaxy radius, baryonic mass and velocity width are not significantly affected by environment. Finally, we estimate a median b...

  7. Discovery of an outflow of the very low-mass star ISO 143

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Pohl, A

    2012-01-01

    We discover that the very young very low-mass star ISO143 (M5) is driving an outflow based on spectro-astrometry of forbidden [SII] emission lines at 6716A and 6731A observed in UVES/VLT spectra. ISO143 is only one of a handful of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars (M5-M8) for which an outflow has been detected and that show that the T Tauri phase continues at very low masses. We have found the outflow of ISO143 to be intrinsically asymmetric and the accretion disk to not obscure the outflow, as solely the red outflow component is visible in the [SII] lines. ISO143 is only the third T Tauri object showing a stronger red outflow component in spectro-astrometry, after RW Aur (G5) and ISO217 (M6.25). We show here that including ISO143 two out of seven outflows confirmed in the very low-mass regime (M5-M8) are intrinsically asymmetric. We measure a spatial extension of the outflow in [SII] of up to 200-300 mas (about 30-50 AU) and velocities of up to 50-70 km/s. We detect furthermore line emission of ISO143 in ...

  8. LOW-MASS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH RAPID X-RAY VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Kim, Minjin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-10

    We present a detailed study of the optical spectroscopic properties of 12 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with candidate low-mass black holes (BHs) selected by Kamizasa et al. through rapid X-ray variability. The high-quality, echellette Magellan spectra reveal broad Hα emission in all the sources, allowing us to estimate robust virial BH masses and Eddington ratios for this unique sample. We confirm that the sample contains low-mass BHs accreting at high rates: the median M{sub BH} = 1.2 × 10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙} and median L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} = 0.44. The sample follows the M{sub BH}–σ{sub *} relation, within the considerable scatter typical of pseudobulges, the probable hosts of these low-mass AGNs. Various lines of evidence suggest that ongoing star formation is prevalent in these systems. We propose a new strategy to estimate star formation rates in AGNs hosted by low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies, based on modification of an existing method using the strength of [O ii] λ3727, [O iii] λ5007, and X-rays.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Very low mass objects in ONC (Rodriguez-Ledesma+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ledesma, M. V.; Mundt, R.; Eisloeffel, J.

    2010-01-01

    Table 1 lists the 638 very low mass objects in the Orion Nebula Cluster with magnitudes between 14-21mag in I band for which NIR (JHK) photometry is available. The I band data is from Rodriguez-Ledesma et al. (2009, Cat. ) and JHK data from 2MASS, UKIDSS, and VLT. (1 data file).

  10. Eclipsing binaries observed with the WIRE satellite I. Discovery and photometric analysis of the new bright A0 IV eclipsing binary psi centauri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruntt, Hans; Southworth, J.; Penny, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters, binaries: close, eclipsing, techniques: photometric Udgivelsesdato: Sep.......Stars: fundamental parameters, binaries: close, eclipsing, techniques: photometric Udgivelsesdato: Sep....

  11. The formation of low-mass helium white dwarfs orbiting pulsars: Evolution of low-mass X-ray binaries below the bifurcation period

    CERN Document Server

    Istrate, Alina; Langer, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are generally believed to be old neutron stars (NSs) which have been spun up to high rotation rates via accretion of matter from a companion star in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). However, many details of this recycling scenario remain to be understood. Here we investigate binary evolution in close LMXBs to study the formation of radio MSPs with low-mass helium white dwarf companions (He WDs) in tight binaries with orbital periods P_orb = 2-9 hr. In particular, we examine: i) if such observed systems can be reproduced from theoretical modelling using standard prescriptions of orbital angular momentum losses (i.e. with respect to the nature and the strength of magnetic braking), ii) if our computations of the Roche-lobe detachments can match the observed orbital periods, and iii) if the correlation between WD mass and orbital period (M_WD, P_orb) is valid for systems with P_orb < 2 days. Numerical calculations with a detailed stellar evolution code were used to trace the mass-tra...

  12. Kepler Eclipsing Binary Stars. VIII. Identification of False Positive Eclipsing Binaries and Re-extraction of New Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Abdul-Masih, Michael; Conroy, Kyle; Bloemen, Steven; Boyajian, Tabetha; Doyle, Laurance R; Johnston, Cole; Kostov, Veselin; Latham, David W; Matijevic, Gal; Shporer, Avi; Southworth, John

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has provided unprecedented, nearly continuous photometric data of $\\sim$200,000 objects in the $\\sim$105 deg$^{2}$ field of view from the beginning of science operations in May of 2009 until the loss of the second reaction wheel in May of 2013. The Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog contains information including but not limited to ephemerides, stellar parameters and analytical approximation fits for every known eclipsing binary system in the Kepler Field of View. Using Target Pixel level data collected from Kepler in conjunction with the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog, we identify false positives among eclipsing binaries, i.e. targets that are not eclipsing binaries themselves, but are instead contaminated by eclipsing binary sources nearby on the sky and show eclipsing binary signatures in their light curves. We present methods for identifying these false positives and for extracting new light curves for the true source of the observed binary signal. For each source, we extract three separa...

  13. Search with UVES and XSHOOTER for signatures of the low-mass secondary in the post common-envelope binary AA Dor

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, D; Werner, K; Hauschildt, P H; Kruk, J W

    2015-01-01

    AA Dor is a close, totally eclipsing, post common-envelope binary with an sdOB-type primary and an extremely low-mass secondary, located close to the mass limit of stable central hydrogen burning. Within error limits, it may either be a brown dwarf or a late M-type dwarf. We aim to extract the secondary's contribution to the phase-dependent composite spectra. The spectrum and identified lines of the secondary decide on its nature. In January 2014, we measured the phase-dependent spectrum of AA Dor with XSHOOTER over one complete orbital period. Since the secondary's rotation is presumable synchronized with the orbital period, its surface strictly divides into a day and night side. Therefore, we may obtain the spectrum of its cool side during its transit and of its hot, irradiated side close to its occultation. We developed the Virtual Observatory (VO) tool TLISA to search for weak lines of a faint companion in a binary system. We identified 53 spectral lines of the secondary in the ultraviolet-blue, visual, a...

  14. Properties of the Eclipsing Double-White Dwarf Binary NLTT 11748

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, David L; Walker, Arielle N; Bildsten, Lars; Bours, Madelon C P; Breedt, Elmé; Copperwheat, Chris M; Dhillon, Vik S; Howell, Steve B; Littlefair, Stuart P; Shporer, Avi; Steinfadt, Justin D R

    2013-01-01

    We present high-quality ULTRACAM photometry of the eclipsing detached double-white dwarf binary NLTT 11748. This system consists of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf and an extremely-low mass (1.5 yr, we constrain the masses and radii of both objects in the NLTT 11748 system to a statistical uncertainty of a few percent. However, we find that overall uncertainty in the thickness of the envelope of the secondary carbon/oxygen white dwarf leads to a larger (~13%) systematic uncertainty in the primary He WD's mass. Over the full range of possible envelope thicknesses we find that our primary mass (0.136-0.162 Msun) and surface gravity (log(g)=6.32-6.38; radii are 0.0423-0.0433 Rsun) constraints do not agree with previous spectroscopic determinations. We use precise eclipse timing to detect the Romer delay at 7 sigma significance, providing an additional weak constraint on the masses and limiting the eccentricity to e*cos(omega)= -4e-5 +/- 5e-5. Finally, we use multi-color data to constrain the secondary's effective te...

  15. On the eclipsing binary ELHC 10 with occulting dark disc in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, H. E.; Mennickent, R. E.; Djurašević, G.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Graczyk, D.; Villanova, S.; Barría, D.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the luminous star ELHC 10 located in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), concluding that it is a SB1 long-period eclipsing binary where the main eclipse is produced by an opaque structure hiding the secondary star. For the more luminous component we determine an effective temperature of 6500 ± 250 K, log g = 1.0 ± 0.5 and luminosity 5970 L⊙. From the radial velocities of their photospheric lines, we calculate a mass function of 7.37 ± 0.55 M⊙. Besides Balmer and forbidden N II emission, we find splitting of metallic lines, characterized by strong discrete absorption components, alternatively seen at the blue and red side of the photospheric spectrum. These observations hardly can be interpreted in terms of an structured atmosphere but might reflect mass streams in an interacting binary. The primary shows signatures of s-process nucleosynthesis and might be a low-mass post-asymptotic giant branch star with a rare evolutionary past if the binary is semidetached. The peak separation and constancy of radial velocity in H α suggest that most of the Balmer emission comes from a circumbinary disc.

  16. A 0.24+0.18 Msun double-lined eclipsing binary from the HATSouth survey

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, G; Hartman, J D; Rabus, M; Bakos, G Á; Jordán, A; Brahm, R; Penev, K; Csubry, Z; Mancini, L; Espinoza, N; de Val-Borro, M; Bhatti, W; Ciceri, S; Henning, T; Schmidt, B; Murphy, S J; Butler, R P; Arriagada, P; Shectman, S; Crane, J; Thompson, I; Suc, V; Noyes, R W

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery and characterisation of a new M-dwarf binary, with component masses and radii of M1 = 0.244 -0.003/+0.003 Msun, R1 = 0.261 -0.009/+0.006 Rsun, M2 = 0.179 -0.001/+0.002 Msun, R2 = 0.218 -0.011/+0.007 Rsun, and orbital period of ~4.1 days. The M-dwarf binary HATS551-027 (LP 837-20) was identified as an eclipsing binary by the HATSouth survey, and characterised by a series of high precision photometric observations of the eclipse events, and spectroscopic determinations of the atmospheric parameters and radial velocity orbits. HATS551-027 is one of few systems with both stellar components lying in the fully-convective regime of very low mass stars, and can serve as a test for stellar interior models. The radius of HATS551-027A is consistent with models to 1 sigma, whilst HATS551-027B is inflated by 9% at 2 sigma significance. We measure the effective temperatures for the two stellar components to be Teff,1 = 3190 +/- 100 K and Teff,2 = 2990+/-110 K, both are slightly cooler than theoretic...

  17. On the eclipsing binary ELHC 10 with occulting dark disc in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Garrido, H E; Djurasevic, G; Schmitdtobreick, L; Graczyk, D; Villanova, S; Barría, D

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the luminous star ELHC 10 located in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud, concluding that it is a SB1 long-period eclipsing binary where the main eclipse is produced by an opaque structure hiding the secondary star. For the more luminous component we determine an effective temperature of 6500 $\\pm$ 250 $K$, log\\,g = 1.0 $\\pm$ 0.5 and luminosity 5970 L$_{\\sun}$. From the radial velocities of their photospheric lines we calculate a mass function of 7.37 $\\pm$ 0.55 M$_{\\sun}$. Besides Balmer and forbidden N II emission, we find splitting of metallic lines, characterized by strong discrete absorption components (DACs), alternatively seen at the blue and red side of the photospheric spectrum. These observations hardly can be interpreted in terms of an structured atmosphere but might reflect mass streams in an interacting binary. The primary shows signatures of s-process nucleosynthesis and might be a low-mass post-AGB star with a rare evolutionary past if the binary is semi-detached. The peak sepa...

  18. PSR J1723-2837: An Eclipsing Binary Radio Millisecond Pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, F; Stairs, I H; Kaplan, D L; McLaughlin, M A; Freire, P C C; Burgay, M; Camilo, F; D'Amico, N; Faulkner, A; Kramer, M; Lorimer, D R; Manchester, R N; Possenti, A; Steeghs, D

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of PSR J1723-2837, an eclipsing, 1.86 ms millisecond binary radio pulsar discovered in the Parkes Multibeam survey. Radio timing indicates that the pulsar has a circular orbit with a 15 hr orbital period, a low-mass companion, and a measurable orbital period derivative. The eclipse fraction of ~15% during the pulsar's orbit is twice the Roche lobe size inferred for the companion. The timing behavior is significantly affected by unmodeled systematics of astrophysical origin, and higher-order orbital period derivatives are needed in the timing solution to account for these variations. We have identified the pulsar's (non-degenerate) companion using archival ultraviolet, optical, and infrared survey data and new optical photometry. Doppler shifts from optical spectroscopy confirm the star's association with the pulsar and indicate a pulsar-to-companion mass ratio of 3.3 +/- 0.5, corresponding to a companion mass range of 0.4 to 0.7 Msun and an orbital inclination angle range of between 30 and ...

  19. Using K2 to Investigate Planetary Systems Orbiting Low-Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Charbonneau, David; Schlieder, Joshua E.; K2 CHAI Consortium

    2016-10-01

    The NASA K2 mission is using the repurposed Kepler spacecraft to search for transiting planets in multiple fields along the ecliptic plane. Unlike the original Kepler mission, which stared at a single region of the sky for four years, K2 observes each field for a much shorter timespan of roughly 80 days. While planets in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars would be unlikely to transit even once during an 80-day interval, planets in the habitable zones of faint low-mass stars have much shorter orbital periods and may even transit multiple times during a single K2 campaign. Accordingly, M and K dwarfs are frequently nominated as K2 Guest Observer targets and K2 has already observed significantly more low-mass stars than the original Kepler mission. While the K2 data are therefore an enticing resource for studying the properties and frequency of planetary systems orbiting low-mass stars, many K2 target stars are not well-characterized and some candidate low-mass stars are actually giants or reddened Sun-like stars. We are improving the characterization of K2 planetary systems orbiting low-mass stars by using SpeX on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and TripleSpec on the 200-inch Hale Telescope at Palomar Observatory to acquire near-infrared spectra of K2 target stars. We then employ empirically-based relations to determine the temperatures, radii, luminosities, and metallicities of K2 planet candidate host stars. Refining the stellar parameters allows us to identify astrophysical false positives and better constrain the radii and insolation flux environments of bona fide transiting planets. I will present our resulting catalog of stellar properties and discuss the prospects for using K2 data to investigate whether planet occurrence rates for mid-M dwarfs are similar to those for early-M and late-K dwarfs.

  20. Investigating the Properties of Low-Mass Stars Using Spectra of Wide Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluns, Kyle; West, A. A.; Dhital, S.; Massey, A. P.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a study designed to characterize wide, low-mass (Sun) binaries identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We examine the SDSS database level completeness (for identifying visual binaries) and analyze the pairs that both have individual SDSS spectra. A comprehensive by-eye examination reveals that a significant fraction of the sources within 1" of the primary stellar source are misclassified as duplicate detections and, hence, are omitted from the photometric primary catalog in the SDSS database. This discrepancy has a noticeable effect on estimates of the binary fraction, mass function, luminosity function, and other studies that rely on large, photometric samples of low-mass stars. Due to their coeval nature, binaries with at least one low-mass component are important for calibrating the age-activity relation and the relative metallicity scales. Better defined stellar ages and metallicities allow for a proper analysis of stellar and Galactic evolution using ubiquitous low-mass stars. We constructed a spectroscopic sample of wide binaries, for which there is at least one low-mass component and an individual spectrum for each star. Each binary was verified using measurements of their common proper motions and a chance alignment probability calculated from a six-dimensional model of the Milky Way. The orbital separation of the binary components provides an extra age constraint due to mechanisms that destroy wide binaries during thin-disk dynamical heating. We evaluate the behavior of the magnetic activity in coeval systems, with a specific focus on the dependence of activity on orbital separation and location in the Galactic disk. The preliminary results of our analysis will help calibrate the age-activity relation in M dwarfs. In addition, we calibrate the relative metallicity scale for metal poor K and M dwarfs using a modified index based on TiO and CaH molecular band features.

  1. One, two or three stars? An investigation of an unusual eclipsing binary candidate undergoing dramatic period changes

    CERN Document Server

    Lohr, M E; Kolb, U C; Boyd, D R S

    2013-01-01

    We report our investigation of 1SWASP J234401.81-212229.1, a variable with a 18461.6 s period. After identification in a 2011 search of the SuperWASP archive for main-sequence eclipsing binary candidates near the distribution's short-period limit of approx. 0.20 d, it was measured to be undergoing rapid period decrease in our earlier work, though later observations supported a cyclic variation in period length. Spectroscopic data obtained in 2012 with the Southern African Large Telescope did not, however, support the interpretation of the object as a normal eclipsing binary. Here, we consider three possible explanations consistent with the data: a single-star oblique rotator model in which variability results from stable cool spots on opposite magnetic poles; a two-star model in which the secondary is a brown dwarf; and a three-star model involving a low-mass eclipsing binary in a hierarchical triple system. We conclude that the latter is the most likely model.

  2. Two white dwarfs in ultrashort binaries with detached, eclipsing, likely sub-stellar companions detected by K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S. G.; Hermes, J. J.; Marsh, T. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Littlefair, S. P.; Sahman, D. I.; Ashley, R. P.; Green, M.; Rattanasoon, S.; Dhillon, V. S.; Burleigh, M. R.; Casewell, S. L.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Braker, I. P.; Irawati, P.; Dennihy, E.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.; Bell, Keaton J.; Kilic, Mukremin

    2017-10-01

    Using data from the extended Kepler mission in K2 Campaign 10, we identify two eclipsing binaries containing white dwarfs with cool companions that have extremely short orbital periods of only 71.2 min (SDSS J1205-0242, a.k.a. EPIC 201283111) and 72.5 min (SDSS J1231+0041, a.k.a. EPIC 248368963). Despite their short periods, both systems are detached with small, low-mass companions, in one case a brown dwarf and in the other case either a brown dwarf or a low-mass star. We present follow-up photometry and spectroscopy of both binaries, as well as phase-resolved spectroscopy of the brighter system, and use these data to place preliminary estimates on the physical and binary parameters. SDSS J1205-0242 is composed of a 0.39 ± 0.02 M⊙ helium-core white dwarf that is totally eclipsed by a 0.049 ± 0.006 M⊙ (51 ± 6MJ) brown-dwarf companion, while SDSS J1231+0041 is composed of a 0.56 ± 0.07 M⊙ white dwarf that is partially eclipsed by a companion of mass ≲0.095 M⊙. In the case of SDSS J1205-0242, we look at the combined constraints from common-envelope evolution and brown-dwarf models; the system is compatible with similar constraints from other post-common-envelope binaries, given the current parameter uncertainties, but has potential for future refinement.

  3. Solar Eclipse Computer API: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Lesniak, Michael V.; Bell, Steve

    2016-01-01

    With the total solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 over the continental United States approaching, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) on-line Solar Eclipse Computer can now be accessed via an application programming interface (API). This flexible interface returns local circumstances for any solar eclipse in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party Web sites or applications. For a given year, it can also return a list of solar eclipses that can be used to build a more specific request for local circumstances. Over the course of a particular eclipse as viewed from a specific site, several events may be visible: the beginning and ending of the eclipse (first and fourth contacts), the beginning and ending of totality (second and third contacts), the moment of maximum eclipse, sunrise, or sunset. For each of these events, the USNO Solar Eclipse Computer reports the time, Sun's altitude and azimuth, and the event's position and vertex angles. The computer also reports the duration of the total phase, the duration of the eclipse, the magnitude of the eclipse, and the percent of the Sun obscured for a particular eclipse site. On-line documentation for using the API-enabled Solar Eclipse Computer, including sample calls, is available (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php). The same Web page also describes how to reach the Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day, Phases of the Moon, Day and Night Across the Earth, and Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object services using API calls.For those who prefer using a traditional data input form, local circumstances can still be requested that way at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php. In addition, the 2017 August 21 Solar Eclipse Resource page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php) consolidates all of the USNO resources for this event, including a Google Map view of the eclipse track designed by Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO). Looking further ahead, a

  4. Eclipse Megamovie: Solar Discoveries, Education, and Outreach through Crowdsourcing 2017 Eclipse Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peticolas, L. M.; Hudson, H. S.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Johnson, C.; Zevin, D.; Krista, L. D.; Bender, M.; Mcintosh, S. W.; Konerding, D.; Koh, J.; Pasachoff, J.; Lorimore, B.; Jiang, G.; Storksdieck, M.; Yan, D.; Shore, L.; Fraknoi, A.; Filippenko, A.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2011, a team of solar scientists, eclipse chasers, education and outreach professionals, and film makers have been working to explore the possibility of gathering images from the public during the 2017 eclipse across the United States, to be used for scientific research, education, and enhancing the public's experience of the eclipse. After years of testing the initial ideas, engaging new organizations, and exploring new technologies, our team has developed a blueprint for this project. There are three main goals for this effort: 1. to learn more about the dynamic non-equilibrium processes in the corona and lower atmosphere of the Sun, 2. to educate the public about space physics, 3. provide different levels of engagement opportunities for an interested public, and 4. to understand how these various levels of engagement with a major scientific phenomena allow people to develop deeper personal connections to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). We will meet these goals by training 1000 volunteers to take scientifically valid images and donate the images to this project, while also allowing the general public to share their images as well. During the Aug 21, 2017 eclipse, we will analyze these images in real-time to produce public-generated movies showing the corona of the Sun during totality from thousands of people. These movies will be disseminated in near real-time (on the order of 10s of minutes) to other eclipse programs, news organizations, and to the general public. Meanwhile, images collected during and after the eclipse will be available to scientists and the public for research purposes. To further engage the public, video clips, film, and a documentary will be produced prior and after the event. A science education research team will work alongside the team to understand how the project supports deeper connections to the eclipse experience.

  5. A Closely-Packed System of Low-Mass, Low-Density Planets Transiting Kepler-11

    CERN Document Server

    Lissauer, Jack J; Ford, Eric B; Borucki, William J; Fressin, Francois; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Orosz, Jerome A; Rowe, Jason F; Torres, Guillermo; Welsh, William F; Batalha, Natalie M; Bryson, Stephen T; Buchhave, Lars A; Caldwell, Douglas A; Carter, Joshua A; Charbonneau, David; Christiansen, Jessie L; Cochran, William D; Desert, Jean-Michel; Dunham, Edward W; Fanelli, Michael N; Fortney, Jonathan J; Gautier, Thomas N; Geary, John C; Gilliland, Ronald L; Haas, Michael R; Hall, Jennifer R; Holman, Matthew J; Koch, David G; Latham, David W; Lopez, Eric; McCauliff, Sean; Miller, Neil; Morehead, Robert C; Quintana, Elisa V; Ragozzine, Darin; Sasselov, Dimitar; Short, Donald R; Steffen, Jason H

    2011-01-01

    When an extrasolar planet passes in front of its star (transits), its radius can be measured from the decrease in starlight and its orbital period from the time between transits. Multiple planets transiting the same star reveal more: period ratios determine stability and dynamics, mutual gravitational interactions reflect planet masses and orbital shapes, and the fraction of transiting planets observed as multiples has implications for the planarity of planetary systems. But few stars have more than one known transiting planet, and none has more than three. Here we report Kepler spacecraft observations of a single Sun-like star that reveal six transiting planets, five with orbital periods between 10 and 47 days plus a sixth one with a longer period. The five inner planets are among the smallest whose masses and sizes have both been measured, and these measurements imply substantial envelopes of light gases. The degree of coplanarity and proximity of the planetary orbits imply energy dissipation near the end o...

  6. Solar eclipse effect on geomagnetic induction parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ádám

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The 11 August 1999 total solar eclipse had been studied using a large array of stations in Central Europe (Bencze et al., 2005. According to the result of this study, the amplitudes of the field line resonance (FLR-type pulsations decreased in and around the dark spot by about a factor of 2, and this decrease moved with the velocity of the dark spot in the same direction. This decrease was interpreted as a switch-off of the FLR-type pulsations, due to a change in the eigenperiod of the field line as a consequence of a change in the charged particle distribution along the field line. An effect was also found in the phase of the (magnetic or electric perpendicular components.

    At the Nagycenk (NCK observatory lying in the zone of totality, both magnetic and electric records were available. The magnetotelluric (MT sounding curve computed by the usual method for the eclipse interval (08:00-14:00 UT fits the previously known standard curve extremely well. During the eclipse, however, impedance values in the FLR period range were highly scattered. The scatter remained as long as the eclipse lasted. Coherence values between magnetic and electric components decreased significantly. In contrast, an earlier similar switch-off of the FLR-type activity on the same day did not cause a similar scatter, in spite of a comparably low coherence. Thus, the lack of FLR-type activity disturbed the usual MT connection between the magnetic and electric components during the eclipse.

    The induction vector (tipper, especially its real part, shows a clear effect of the eclipse in the FLR period range (24-29 s, too. Both at NCK and at Bad Bergzabern (BBZ, westernmost station and longest FLR period, a definite decrease in the real tipper was ascertained during the totality. The average direction of the tipper did not change.

    Concerning both parameters, a random effect cannot fully

  7. Kepler Eclipsing Binary Stars. VIII. Identification of False Positive Eclipsing Binaries and Re-extraction of New Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Masih, Michael; Prša, Andrej; Conroy, Kyle; Bloemen, Steven; Boyajian, Tabetha; Doyle, Laurance R.; Johnston, Cole; Kostov, Veselin; Latham, David W.; Matijevič, Gal; Shporer, Avi; Southworth, John

    2016-04-01

    The Kepler mission has provided unprecedented, nearly continuous photometric data of ∼200,000 objects in the ∼105 deg2 field of view (FOV) from the beginning of science operations in May of 2009 until the loss of the second reaction wheel in May of 2013. The Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog contains information including but not limited to ephemerides, stellar parameters, and analytical approximation fits for every known eclipsing binary system in the Kepler FOV. Using target pixel level data collected from Kepler in conjunction with the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog, we identify false positives among eclipsing binaries, i.e., targets that are not eclipsing binaries themselves, but are instead contaminated by eclipsing binary sources nearby on the sky and show eclipsing binary signatures in their light curves. We present methods for identifying these false positives and for extracting new light curves for the true source of the observed binary signal. For each source, we extract three separate light curves for each quarter of available data by optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio, the relative percent eclipse depth, and the flux eclipse depth. We present 289 new eclipsing binaries in the Kepler FOV that were not targets for observation, and these have been added to the catalog. An online version of this catalog with downloadable content and visualization tools is maintained at http://keplerEBs.villanova.edu.

  8. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. IV. A CANDIDATE BROWN DWARF OR LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANION TO HIP 67526

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Peng; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Ma Bo; Wang, Ji [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cargile, Phillip; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Ferreira, Leticia D. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea S/N, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Agol, Eric, E-mail: jpaty@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); and others

    2013-09-15

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695{sup +0.0188}{sub -0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 {+-} 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14{sup +16.65}{sub -16.55} m s{sup -1}. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T{sub eff} = 6004 {+-} 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 {+-} 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 {+-} 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 {+-} 0.09 M{sub Sun} and 0.92 {+-} 0.19 R{sub Sun }. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 {+-} 2.9M{sub Jup}, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 {+-} 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M{sub Sun} at a separation larger than 40 AU.

  9. Very Low Mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from MARVELS. IV. A Candidate Brown Dwarf or Low-mass Stellar Companion to HIP 67526

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Ge, Jian; Cargile, Phillip; Crepp, Justin R.; De Lee, Nathan; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Esposito, Massimiliano; Ferreira, Letícia D.; Femenia, Bruno; Fleming, Scott W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Hebb, Leslie; Lee, Brian L.; Ma, Bo; Stassun, Keivan G.; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P.; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Chang, Liang; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz; Eastman, Jason D.; Ebelke, Garrett; Gary, Bruce; Kane, Stephen R.; Li, Rui; Liu, Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Paegert, Martin; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio X.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shelden Bradley, Alaina C.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Snedden, Stephanie; van Eyken, J. C.; Wan, Xiaoke; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Bo

    2013-09-01

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695^{+0.0188}_{-0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 ± 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14^{+16.65}_{-16.55} m s-1. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T eff = 6004 ± 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 ± 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 ± 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 ± 0.09 M ⊙ and 0.92 ± 0.19 R ⊙. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 ± 2.9M Jup, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 ± 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M ⊙ at a separation larger than 40 AU.

  10. System Geometries and Transit/Eclipse Probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transiting exoplanets provide access to data to study the mass-radius relation and internal structure of extrasolar planets. Long-period transiting planets allow insight into planetary environments similar to the Solar System where, in contrast to hot Jupiters, planets are not constantly exposed to the intense radiation of their parent stars. Observations of secondary eclipses additionally permit studies of exoplanet temperatures and large-scale exo-atmospheric properties. We show how transit and eclipse probabilities are related to planet-star system geometries, particularly for long-period, eccentric orbits. The resulting target selection and observational strategies represent the principal ingredients of our photometric survey of known radial-velocity planets with the aim of detecting transit signatures (TERMS.

  11. Eclipse Mapping: Astrotomography of Accretion Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, Raymundo

    2015-01-01

    The Eclipse Mapping Method is an indirect imaging technique that transforms the shape of the eclipse light curve into a map of the surface brightness distribution of the occulted regions. Three decades of application of this technique to the investigation of the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs around white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables have enriched our understanding of these accretion devices with a wealth of details such as (but not limited to) moving heating/cooling waves during outbursts in dwarf novae, tidally-induced spiral shocks of emitting gas with sub-Keplerian velocities, elliptical precessing discs associated to superhumps, and measurements of the radial run of the disc viscosity through the mapping of the disc flickering sources. This chapter reviews the principles of the method, discusses its performance, limitations, useful error propagation procedures, as well as highlights a selection of applications aimed at showing the possible scientific problems that ha...

  12. Stream eclipse mapping with 'fire-flies'

    CERN Document Server

    Bridge, C M; Cropper, M; Ramsay, G; Hakala, Pasi; Cropper, Mark; Ramsay, Gavin

    2003-01-01

    We apply a new method of eclipse mapping to the light curves of eclipsing polars. The technique aims to locate the bright emission associated with the accretion stream, using a technique that makes the fewest prior assumptions about the location of the accretion stream material. We have obtained data of EP Dra and HU Aqr with the S-Cam 2 superconducting tunnel junction camera using the William Herschel Telescope. The location of emission regions in both systems show that previously assumed trajectories are consistent with those found using our technique. Most of the emission is located in a region where we expect material to be confined to magnetic field lines, particularly for HU Aqr, while there appears to be less emission from where we conventionally expect material to follow a ballistic trajectory from the L1-point.

  13. Radial velocity eclipse mapping of exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolov, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    Planetary rotation rates and obliquities provide information regarding the history of planet formation, but have not yet been measured for evolved extrasolar planets. Here we investigate the theoretical and observational perspective of the Rossiter-McLauglin effect during secondary eclipse (RMse) ingress and egress for transiting exoplanets. Near secondary eclipse, when the planet passes behind the parent star, the star sequentially obscures light from the approaching and receding parts of the rotating planetary surface. The temporal block of light emerging from the approaching (blue-shifted) or receding (red-shifted) parts of the planet causes a temporal distortion in the planet's spectral line profiles resulting in an anomaly in the planet's radial velocity curve. We demonstrate that the shape and the ratio of the ingress-to-egress radial velocity amplitudes depends on the planetary rotational rate, axial tilt and impact factor (i.e. sky-projected planet spin-orbital alignment). In addition, line asymmetrie...

  14. The explanation of eclipses in Greco-Roman antiquity

    CERN Document Server

    Casazza, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The search of a rational explanation of eclipses pervades the beginnings of philosophical and scientific thought. Within this intellectual frame, the knowledge of the "saros cycle" (a cycle of 18 years, 10 or 11 days and 1/3 of a day that separates two successive sun or moon eclipses of similar features), inherited by the Greeks from the Babylonians, favored important theoretical developments in the West. The purpose of this paper is to present, briefly and schematically, a) the ancient theorizations on the causes of eclipses, b) the range of predictability of eclipses in Antiquity, c) the warnings -transmitted by some classical writers- to those who want to observe in naked eyes a solar eclipse, and d) the popular beliefs and social practices upon the occurrence of unexpected eclipses in ancient times.

  15. The 2017 Total Solar Eclipse: Through the Eyes of NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. Alex; Mayo, Louis; Ng, Carolyn; Cline, Troy; Lewis, Elaine; Reed, Shannon; Debebe, Asidesach; Stephenson, Bryan; Odenwald, Sten; Hill, Steele; Wright, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    The August 21, 2017 eclipse will be the first time a total solar eclipse has traversed the Continental US since June 8th, 1918. Anticipation and energy for this eclipse is off the charts! Over 500 million in North America alone will catch the eclipse in either partial or total phase. Parts of South America, Africa, and Europe will see a partial eclipse as well. NASA is planning to take full advantage of this unique celestial event as an education and public engagement opportunity by leveraging its extensive networks of partners, numerous social media platforms, broadcast media, and its significant unique space assets and people to bring the eclipse to America and the world as only NASA can.This talk will outline NASA’s education plans in some detail replicating our many Big Events successes including the 2012 Transit of Venus and the MSL/Curiosity landing and show how scientists and the public can get involved.

  16. Secondary eclipses in the CoRoT light curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmonte Juan Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We identify and characterize secondary eclipses in the original light curves of published CoRoT planets using uniform detection and evaluation criteria. Our analysis is based on a Bayesian statistics: the eclipse search is carried out using Bayesian model selection, and the characterization of the plausible eclipse candidates using Bayesian parameter estimation. We discover statistically significant eclipse events for two planets, CoRoT-6b and CoRoT-11b, and for one brown dwarf, CoRoT-15b. We also find marginally significant eclipse events passing our plausibility criteria for CoRoT-3b, 13b, 18b, and 21b, and confirm the previously published CoRoT-1b and CoRoT-2b eclipses.

  17. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  18. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN YanBen; QIAO OiYuan

    2009-01-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astro-nomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors re-garded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Conse-quently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  19. Hunting for eclipses: high-speed observations of cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, L. K.; McAllister, M. J.; Dhillon, V. S.; Littlefair, S. P.; Bours, M. C. P.; Breedt, E.; Butterley, T.; Chakpor, A.; Irawati, P.; Kerry, P.; Marsh, T. R.; Parsons, S. G.; Savoury, C. D. J.; Wilson, R. W.; Woudt, P. A.

    2017-03-01

    We present new time-resolved photometry of 74 cataclysmic variables (CVs), 47 of which are eclipsing. Thirteen of these eclipsing systems are newly discovered. For all 47 eclipsing systems, we show high cadence (1-20 s) light curves obtained with the high-speed cameras ULTRACAM and ULTRASPEC. We provide new or refined ephemerides, and supply mid-eclipse times for all observed eclipses. We assess the potential for light-curve modelling of all 47 eclipsing systems to determine their system parameters, finding 20 systems that appear to be suitable for future study. Systems of particular interest include V713 Cep, in which we observed a temporary switching-off of accretion; and ASASSN-14mv and CSS111019:233313-155744, which both have orbital periods well below the CV period minimum. The short orbital periods and light-curve shapes suggest that they may be double degenerate (AM CVn) systems or CVs with evolved donor stars.

  20. Annular and Total Solar Eclipses of 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    2002-01-01

    On Saturday, 2003 May 31, an annular eclipse of the Sun will be visible from a broad corridor that traverses the North Atlantic. The path of the Moon's antumbral shadow begins in northern Scotland, crosses Iceland and central Greenland, and ends at sunrise in Baffin Bay (Canada). A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes most of Europe, the Middle East, central and northern Asia, and northwestern North America. The trajectory of the Moon's shadow is quite unusual during this event. The shadow axis passes to the far north where it barely grazes Earth's surface. In fact, the northern edge of the antumbra actually misses Earth so that one path limit is defined by the day/night terminator rather than by the shadow's upper edge. As a result, the track of annularity has a peculiar "D" shape that is nearly 1200 kilometers wide. Since the eclipse occurs just three weeks prior to the northern summer solstice, Earth's northern axis is pointed sunwards by 22.8 deg. As seen from the Sun, the antumbral shadow actually passes between the North Pole and the terminator. As a consequence of this extraordinary geometry, the path of annularity runs from east to west rather than the more typical west to east. The event transpires near the Moon's ascending node in Taurus five degrees north of Aldebaran. Since apogee occurs three days earlier (May 28 at 13 UT), the Moon's apparent diameter (29.6 arc-minutes) is still too small to completely cover the Sun (31.6 arc-minutes) resulting in an annular eclipse.

  1. Calcification of thoracic aorta - solar eclipse sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoble, Abhijeet; Puttarajappa, Chethan

    2008-08-29

    Calcification of thoracic aorta is very common in old people, especially ones with hypertension. This can sometime be visible on plain chest radiograph. We present a case of a male patient who had extensive deposition of calcium in the thoracic aorta. The relationship between aortic calcification and coronary atherosclerosis remains contentious. Computed tomography of the thorax can display this calcification which appears like 'solar eclipse'.

  2. The low-mass X-ray binary-millisecond radio pulsar birthrate problem revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the birthrate problem for low-mass X-ray binaries(LMXBs) and millisecond radio pulsars(MRPs) in this paper.We consider intermediate-mass and low-mass X-ray binaries(I/LMXBs) to be the progenitors of MRPs,and calculate their evolutionary response to the cosmic star formation rate(SFR) both semi-analytically and numerically.With a typical value(1 Gyr) of the LMXB lifetime,one may expect comparable birthrates of LMXBs and MRPs,but the calculated number of LMXBs is an order of magnitude higher than that observed in the Galaxy.Instead,we suggest that the birthrate problem could be solved if most MRPs have evolved from faint to rather than bright LMXBs.The former may have a population of-104 in the Galaxy.

  3. Low mass dimuon production in proton and ion induced interactions at SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, M C; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Astruc, J; Ataian, M R; Baglin, C; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Bellaiche, F G; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Bussière, A; Capony, V; Casagrande, L; Castor, J I; Chambon, T; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Contardo, D; De Falco, A; Dellacasa, G; De Marco, N; Descroix, E; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Ferreira, R; Filippov, S N; Fleuret, F; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Gorodetzky, P; Grigorian, A A; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Guillaud, J P; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kossakowski, R; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Liaud, P; Lourenço, C; MacCormick, M; Macciotta, P; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Mehrabyan, S S; Monteno, M; Mourgues, S; Musso, A; Ohlsson-Malek, F; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Racca, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Ronceux, B; Ropotar, I; Saturnini, P; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Soave, C; Sonderegger, P; Staley, F; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Varela, J; Vercellin, Ermanno; Willis, N

    2000-01-01

    The low mass dimuon spectra collected in p-U collisions by the NA38 experiment significantly exceeds the total cross section expected from previous analysis, done by other experiments. The `excess' events have a harder \\pt\\ distribution than the muon pairs from $\\eta$ and $\\omega$ Dalitz decays, expected to dominate the mass window 0.4--0.65~GeV/$c^2$. We conjecture that the excess events might be due to \\qqbar\\ annihilations, negligible at low \\pt\\ but made visible by the \\mt\\ cut applied in the NA38 data. Taking this assumption to parametrise the p-U spectra, we proceed with the analysis of the S-Cu, S-U and Pb-Pb data, collected by the NA38 and NA50 experiments, where we find that the measured mass spectra does not seem to exceed the expected low mass `cocktail' by more than 20\\,\\%.

  4. Microlensing Discovery of a Population of Very Tight, Very Low-mass Binary Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, J -Y; Udalski, A; Sumi, T; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Bennett, D P; Dominik, M; Beaulieu, J -P; Tsapras, Y; Bozza, V; Abe, F; Bond, I A; Botzler, C S; Chote, P; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Furusawa, K; Itow, Y; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Miyake, N; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Suzuki, K; Sweatman, W L; Suzuki, D; Takino, S; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yock, P C M; Szymański, M K; Kubiak, M; Pietrzyński, G; Soszyński, I; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Poleski, R; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Almeida, L A; DePoy, D L; Dong, Subo; Gorbikov, E; Jablonski, F; Henderson, C B; Hwang, K -H; Janczak, J; Jung, Y -K; Kaspi, S; Lee, C -U; Malamud, U; Maoz, D; McGregor, D; Munoz, J A; Park, B -G; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Shvartzvald, Y; Shin, I -G; Yee, J C; Alsubai, K A; Browne, P; Burgdorf, M J; Novati, S Calchi; Dodds, P; Fang, X -S; Finet, F; Glitrup, M; Grundahl, F; Gu, S -H; Hardis, S; Harpsøe, K; Hinse, T C; Hornstrup, A; Hundertmark, M; Jessen-Hansen, J; Jørgensen, U G; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Liebig, C; Lund, M N; Lundkvist, M; Maier, G; Mancini, L; Mathiasen, M; Penny, M T; Rahvar, S; Ricci, D; Scarpetta, G; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Southworth, J; Surdej, J; Tregloan-Reed, J; Wambsganss, J; Wertz, O; Zimmer, F; Albrow, M D; Bachelet, E; Batista, V; Brillant, S; Cassan, A; Cole, A A; Coutures, C; Dieters, S; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Fouqué, P; Greenhill, J; Kubas, D; Marquette, J -B; Menzies, J W; Sahu, K C; Zub, M; Bramich, D M; Horne, K; Steele, I A; Street, R A

    2013-01-01

    Although many models have been proposed, the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of low-mass brown dwarfs are poorly understood. The multiplicity properties and minimum mass of the brown-dwarf mass function provide critical empirical diagnostics of these mechanisms. We present the discovery via gravitational microlensing of two very low-mass, very tight binary systems. These binaries have directly and precisely measured total system masses of 0.025 Msun and 0.034 Msun, and projected separations of 0.31 AU and 0.19 AU, making them the lowest-mass and tightest field brown-dwarf binaries known. The discovery of a population of such binaries indicates that brown dwarf binaries can robustly form at least down to masses of ~0.02 Msun. Future microlensing surveys will measure a mass-selected sample of brown-dwarf binary systems, which can then be directly compared to similar samples of stellar binaries.

  5. MICROLENSING DISCOVERY OF A POPULATION OF VERY TIGHT, VERY LOW MASS BINARY BROWN DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.-Y.; Han, C. [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Sumi, T. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Dominik, M. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Beaulieu, J.-P. [Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Tsapras, Y. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740B Cortona Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Bozza, V. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Abe, F.; Furusawa, K.; Itow, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H. [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92-019, Auckland 1001 (New Zealand); Chote, P. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Fukui, A. [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; muFUN Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2013-05-10

    Although many models have been proposed, the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of low-mass brown dwarfs (BDs) are poorly understood. The multiplicity properties and minimum mass of the BD mass function provide critical empirical diagnostics of these mechanisms. We present the discovery via gravitational microlensing of two very low mass, very tight binary systems. These binaries have directly and precisely measured total system masses of 0.025 M{sub Sun} and 0.034 M{sub Sun }, and projected separations of 0.31 AU and 0.19 AU, making them the lowest-mass and tightest field BD binaries known. The discovery of a population of such binaries indicates that BD binaries can robustly form at least down to masses of {approx}0.02 M{sub Sun }. Future microlensing surveys will measure a mass-selected sample of BD binary systems, which can then be directly compared to similar samples of stellar binaries.

  6. Can transport peak explain the low-mass enhancement of dileptons at RHIC?

    CERN Document Server

    Akamatsu, Yukinao; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel relation between the low-mass enhancement of dielectrons observed at PHENIX and transport coefficients of QGP such as the charge diffusion constant $D$ and the relaxation time $\\tau_{\\rm J}$. We parameterize the transport peak in the spectral function using the second-order relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics by Israel and Stewart. Combining the spectral function and the full (3+1)-dimensional hydrodynamical evolution with the lattice EoS, theoretical dielectron spectra and the experimental data are compared. Detailed analysis suggests that the low-mass dilepton enhancement originates mainly from the high-temperature QGP phase where there is a large electric charge fluctuation as obtained from lattice QCD simulations.

  7. Can transport peak explain the low-mass enhancement of dileptons at RHIC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Y.; Hamagaki, H.; Hatsuda, T.; Hirano, T.

    2011-12-01

    We propose a novel relation between the low-mass enhancement of dielectrons observed at PHENIX and transport coefficients of QGP such as the charge diffusion constant D and the relaxation time τJ. We parameterize the transport peak in the spectral function using the second-order relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics by Israel and Stewart. Combining the spectral function and the full (3+1)-dimensional hydrodynamical evolution with the lattice EoS, theoretical dielectron spectra and the experimental data are compared. Detailed analysis suggests that the low-mass dilepton enhancement originates mainly from the high-temperature QGP phase where there is a large electric charge fluctuation as obtained from lattice QCD simulations.

  8. Retrieval of Precise Radial Velocities from Near-Infrared High Resolution Spectra of Low Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Peter; Gagné, Jonathan; Furlan, Elise; Bottom, Michael; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; White, Russel; Davison, Cassy; Beichman, Charles; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Johnson, John; Ciardi, David; Wallace, James; Mennesson, Bertrand; von Braun, Kaspar; Vasisht, Gautam; Prato, Lisa; Kane, Stephen; Tanner, Angelle; Crawford, Timothy; Latham, David; Rougeot, Raphaël; Geneser, Claire; Catanzarite, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Given that low-mass stars have intrinsically low luminosities at optical wavelengths and a propensity for stellar activity, it is advantageous for radial velocity (RV) surveys of these objects to use near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. In this work we describe and test a novel RV extraction pipeline dedicated to retrieving RVs from low mass stars using NIR spectra taken by the CSHELL spectrograph at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, where a methane isotopologue gas cell is used for wavelength calibration. The pipeline minimizes the residuals between the observations and a spectral model composed of templates for the target star, the gas cell, and atmospheric telluric absorption; models of the line spread function, continuum curvature, and sinusoidal fringing; and a parameterization of the wavelength solution. The stellar template is derived iteratively from the science observations themselves without a need for separate observations dedicated to retrieving it. Despite limitations from CSHELL's narrow wavelen...

  9. 2D dynamics of the radiation zone of low mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hypolite, Delphine; Rieutord, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The internal rotation of low mass stars all along their evolution is of primary interest when studying their rotational dynamics, internal mixing and magnetic fields generation. In this context, helio- and asteroseismology probe angular velocity gradients deep within solar type stars. Still the rotation of the close center of such stars on the main sequence is hardly detectable and the dynamical interactions of the radiative core with the surface convective envelope is not well understood. Among them, the influence of the differential rotation profile sustained by convection and applied as a boundary condition to the radiation zone may be very important leading to the formation of tachoclines. In the solar convective region, the equator is rotating faster than the pole while numerical simulations predict either a solar or an anti-solar rotation in other low mass stars envelopes depending on their convective Rossby number. In this work, we therefore build for the first time 2D steady hydrodynamical models of l...

  10. Spitzer Space Telescope Observations of Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Stefanie

    2008-01-01

    We present preliminary results from our archival Spitzer Space Telescope program aimed at characterizing the mid-IR properties of compact objects, both isolated and in binary systems, i.e. white dwarfs, X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables, and magnetars. Most of these sources are too faint at mid-IR wavelengths to be observable from the ground, so this study provides the very first comprehensive look at the mid-IR emission of these objects. Here we present our results for the low mass X-ray binaries. We considered all of the systems listed in the most recent catalog of Liu et al. (2007) that have known optical counterparts. The particular goals of our projects encompass: to establish the mid-IR spectral energy distribution, to search for the signatures of jets, circumbinary disks, low mass or planetary companions and debris disks, and to study the local environment of these sources.

  11. The ELM Survey. VII. Orbital Properties of Low Mass White Dwarf Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Warren R; Kilic, Mukremin; Kenyon, Scott J; Prieto, Carlos Allende

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of 15 extremely low mass (5 < log{g} < 7) white dwarf candidates, 9 of which are in ultra-compact double-degenerate binaries. Our targeted ELM Survey sample now includes 76 binaries. The sample has a lognormal distribution of orbital periods with a median period of 5.4 hr. The velocity amplitudes imply that the binary companions have a normal distribution of mass with 0.76 Msun mean and 0.25 Msun dispersion. Thus extremely low mass white dwarfs are found in binaries with a typical mass ratio of 1:4. Statistically speaking, 95% of the white dwarf binaries have a total mass below the Chandrasekhar mass and thus are not Type Ia supernova progenitors. Yet half of the observed binaries will merge in less than 6 Gyr due to gravitational wave radiation; probable outcomes include single massive white dwarfs and stable mass transfer AM CVn binaries.

  12. Inner edge of accretion disks in low mass X-ray binaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向东; 汪珍如

    1995-01-01

    The magnitude of the inner edge of accretion disks in low mass X-ray binaries is controversial in theoretical considerations and observations. Using the inner boundary conditions of accretion disks the inner disk radius has been calculated by taking into account the effect of feedback radiation and the deviation of disk rotation from Keplerian. Results have been applied to the observations and possible interpretations have been proposed for the X-ray spectra and quasiperiodic oscillations.

  13. The statistical challenge of constraining the low-mass IMF in Local Group dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badry, Kareem; Weisz, Daniel R.; Quataert, Eliot

    2017-06-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to explore the statistical challenges of constraining the characteristic mass (mc) and width (σ) of a lognormal sub-solar initial mass function (IMF) in Local Group dwarf galaxies using direct star counts. For a typical Milky Way (MW) satellite (MV = -8), jointly constraining mc and σ to a precision of ≲ 20 per cent requires that observations be complete to ≲ 0.2 M⊙, if the IMF is similar to the MW IMF. A similar statistical precision can be obtained if observations are only complete down to 0.4 M⊙, but this requires measurement of nearly 100× more stars, and thus, a significantly more massive satellite (MV ˜ -12). In the absence of sufficiently deep data to constrain the low-mass turnover, it is common practice to fit a single-sloped power law to the low-mass IMF, or to fit mc for a lognormal while holding σ fixed. We show that the former approximation leads to best-fitting power-law slopes that vary with the mass range observed and can largely explain existing claims of low-mass IMF variations in MW satellites, even if satellite galaxies have the same IMF as the MW. In addition, fixing σ during fitting leads to substantially underestimated uncertainties in the recovered value of mc (by a factor of ˜4 for typical observations). If the IMFs of nearby dwarf galaxies are lognormal and do vary, observations must reach down to ˜mc in order to robustly detect these variations. The high-sensitivity, near-infrared capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope have the potential to dramatically improve constraints on the low-mass IMF. We present an efficient observational strategy for using these facilities to measure the IMFs of Local Group dwarf galaxies.

  14. Supernova enrichment of planetary systems in low-mass star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Rhana B.; Parker, Richard J.

    2017-02-01

    The presence and abundance of short-lived radioisotopes 26Al and 60Fe in chondritic meteorites implies that the Sun formed in the vicinity of one or more massive stars that exploded as supernovae (SNe). Massive stars are more likely to form in massive star clusters (>1000 M⊙) than lower mass clusters. However, photoevaporation of protoplanetary discs from massive stars and dynamical interactions with passing stars can inhibit planet formation in clusters with radii of ˜1 pc. We investigate whether low-mass (50-200 M⊙) star clusters containing one or two massive stars are a more likely avenue for early Solar system enrichment as they are more dynamically quiescent. We analyse N-body simulations of the evolution of these low-mass clusters and find that a similar fraction of stars experience SN enrichment than in high-mass clusters, despite their lower densities. This is due to two-body relaxation, which causes a significant expansion before the first SN even in clusters with relatively low (100 stars pc-3) initial densities. However, because of the high number of low-mass clusters containing one or two massive stars, the absolute number of enriched stars is the same, if not higher than for more populous clusters. Our results show that direct enrichment of protoplanetary discs from SNe occurs as frequently in low-mass clusters containing one or two massive stars (>20 M⊙) as in more populous star clusters (1000 M⊙). This relaxes the constraints on the direct enrichment scenario and therefore the birth environment of the Solar system.

  15. Review of LHC experimental results on low mass bosons in extended two Higgs doublet models

    CERN Document Server

    Aggleton, Robin; Bomark, Nils-Erik; Moretti, Stefano; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire

    2016-01-01

    A number of searches at the LHC looking for low mass ($2m_{\\mu} - 62\\ \\mathrm{GeV}$) bosons in $\\sqrt{s} = 8\\ \\mathrm{TeV}$ data have recently been published. We summarise the most pertinent ones, and look at how their limits affect a variety of supersymmetric models which can give rise to such light bosons: the 2HDM (Types I and II), the NMSSM, and the nMSSM.

  16. The Galactic Distribution of Contact Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, Michael W.; Dorn, Leah; Breitfeld, Abby; Mies, Regan; Avery, Tess

    2017-01-01

    The number of eclipsing contact binaries in different galactic latitudes and longitudes show peak distributions in the number per square degree in two latitudinal zones (-30 degrees to -25 degrees and +25 degrees to +30 degrees) and large fluctuations in longitude (Huang and Wade 1966, ApJ, 143, 146). Semi-detached or detached binaries are largely concentrated in the galactic plane as shown by Paczynski et al. (MNRAS, 368, 1311), different from the distribution of contact eclipsing binaries. The differences in distributions of different types of eclipsing binaries may be related to either distances or interstellar reddening. We will present a method to calculate photometric distances of W Urase Majoris systems (W UMa; used as a proxy for contact binaries) from 2MASS J and K magnitudes and interstellar reddening models (Schlafly and Finkbeiner 2011, ApJ. 737, 103). We compare the distances to those calculated from the period-luminosity-color relationship described by Rucinski (2004, NewAR, 48, 703). The W UMa systems are taken from the General Catalog of Variable Stars.

  17. Solar Eclipses and the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2009-05-01

    Solar eclipses capture the attention of millions of people in the countries from which they are visible and provide a major opportunity for public education, in addition to the scientific research and student training that they provide. The 2009 International Year of Astronomy began with an annular eclipse visible from Indonesia on 26 January, with partial phases visible also in other parts of southeast Asia. On 22 July, a major and unusually long total solar eclipse will begin at dawn in India and travel across China, with almost six minutes of totality visible near Shanghai and somewhat more visible from Japanese islands and from ships at sea in the Pacific. Partial phases will be visible from most of eastern Asia, from mid-Sumatra and Borneo northward to mid-Siberia. Eclipse activities include many scientific expeditions and much ecotourism to Shanghai, Hangzhou, and vicinity. My review article on "Eclipses as an Astrophysical Laboratory" will appear in Nature as part of their IYA coverage. Our planetarium presented teacher workshops and we made a film about solar research. Several new books about the corona or eclipses are appearing or have appeared. Many articles are appearing in astronomy magazines and other outlets. Eclipse interviews are appearing on the Planetary Society's podcast "365 Days of Astronomy" and on National Geographic Radio. Information about the eclipse and safe observation of the partial phases are available at http://www.eclipses.info, the Website of the International Astronomical Union's Working Group on Solar Eclipses and of its Program Group on Public Education at the Times of Eclipses of its Commission on Education and Development. The Williams College Expedition to the 2009 Eclipse in the mountains near Hangzhou, China, is supported in part by a grant from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society. E/PO workshops were supported by NASA.

  18. Fifteen years of solar eclipses - 1986-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenak, Fred

    1986-01-01

    The dates of occurrence and the paths of observability of the three total eclipses and 30 partial eclipses of the sun which will occur over the period 1986-2000 AD are identified. Data are provided for the times and duration of local maxima, the extent of coverage of the solar disk, and the breadth of the footprint of the eclipses on the earth's surface.

  19. TREX-DM: a low background Micromegas-based TPC for low-mass WIMP detection

    CERN Document Server

    Iguaz, F J; Aznar, F; Castel, J F; Cebrian, S; Dafni, T; Garcia, J A; Irastorza, I G; Lagraba, A; Luzon, G; Peiro, A

    2016-01-01

    Dark Matter experiments are recently focusing their detection techniques in low-mass WIMPs, which requires the use of light elements and low energy threshold. In this context, we describe the TREX-DM experiment, a low background Micromegas-based TPC for low-mass WIMP detection. Its main goal is the operation of an active detection mass $\\sim$0.3 kg, with an energy threshold below 0.4 keVee and fully built with previously selected radiopure materials. This work describes the commissioning of the actual setup situated in a laboratory on surface and the updates needed for a possible physics run at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) in 2016. A preliminary background model of TREX-DM is also presented, based on a Geant4 simulation, the simulation of the detector's response and two discrimination methods: a conservative muon/electron and one based on a neutron source. Based on this background model, TREX-DM could be competitive in the search for low-mass WIMPs. In particular it could be sensitive, e.g., to t...

  20. Low-mass pre--main-sequence stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    [Abridged] The stellar Initial Mass Function (IMF) suggests that sub-solar stars form in very large numbers. Most attractive places for catching low-mass star formation in the act are young stellar clusters and associations, still (half-)embedded in star-forming regions. The low-mass stars in such regions are still in their pre--main-sequence (PMS) evolutionary phase. The peculiar nature of these objects and the contamination of their samples by the evolved populations of the Galactic disk impose demanding observational techniques for the detection of complete numbers of PMS stars in the Milky Way. The Magellanic Clouds, the companion galaxies to our own, demonstrate an exceptional star formation activity. The low extinction and stellar field contamination in star-forming regions of these galaxies imply a more efficient detection of low-mass PMS stars than in the Milky Way, but their distance from us make the application of special detection techniques unfeasible. Nonetheless, imaging with the Hubble Space Te...

  1. Environmental Effects on the Metal Enrichment of Low Mass Galaxies in Nearby Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Petropoulou, Vasiliki; Iglesias-Paramo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the chemical history of low-mass star-forming (SF) galaxies in the local Universe clusters Coma, A1367, A779, and A634. The aim of this work is to search for the imprint of the environment on the chemical evolution of these galaxies. Galaxy chemical evolution is linked to the star formation history (SFH), as well as to the gas interchange with the environment, and low-mass galaxies are well known to be vulnerable systems to environmental processes affecting both these parameters. For our study we have used spectra from the SDSS-III DR8. We have examined the mass-metallicity relation of cluster galaxies finding well defined sequences. The slope of these sequences, for galaxies in low-mass clusters and galaxies at large cluster-centric distances, follows the predictions of recent hydrodynamic models. A flattening of this slope has been observed for galaxies located in the core of the two more massive clusters of the sample, principally in Coma, suggesting that the imprint of the cluster e...

  2. The low mass star and sub-stellar populations of the 25 Orionis group

    CERN Document Server

    Downes, Juan José; Mateu, Cecilia; Hernández, Jesús; Vivas, Anna Katherina; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Petr-Gotzens, Monika G; Allen, Lori

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a survey of the low mass star and brown dwarf population of the 25 Orionis group. Using optical photometry from the CIDA Deep Survey of Orion, near IR photometry from the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy and low resolution spectroscopy obtained with Hectospec at the MMT, we selected 1246 photometric candidates to low mass stars and brown dwarfs with estimated masses within $0.02 \\lesssim M/M_\\odot \\lesssim 0.8$ and spectroscopically confirmed a sample of 77 low mass stars as new members of the cluster with a mean age of $\\sim$7 Myr. We have obtained a system initial mass function of the group that can be well described by either a Kroupa power-law function with indices $\\alpha_3=-1.73\\pm0.31$ and $\\alpha_2=0.68\\pm0.41$ in the mass ranges $0.03\\leq M/M_\\odot\\leq 0.08$ and $0.08\\leq M/M_\\odot\\leq0.5$ respectively, or a Scalo log-normal function with coefficients $m_c=0.21^{+0.02}_{-0.02}$ and $\\sigma=0.36\\pm0.03$ in the mass range $0.03\\leq M/M_\\odot\\leq0.8$. From th...

  3. Stochastic Star Formation & Feedback: Mapping Low-Mass Galaxies to Dark Matter Haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Power, Chris; Robotham, Aaron S G; Lewis, Geraint F; Wilkinson, Mark I

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of observed satellite galaxies of the Milky Way (hereafter MW) with dark matter subhaloes in cosmological $N$-body simulations of MW-mass haloes suggest that such subhaloes, if they exist, are occupied by satellites in a stochastic fashion. We examine how inefficient massive star formation and associated supernova feedback in high-redshift progenitors of present-day low-mass subhaloes might contribute to this stochasticity. Using a Monte Carlo approach to follow the assembly histories of present-day low-mass haloes with $10^7 \\lesssim M \\leq 10^{10}$ ${\\rm M}_{\\odot}$, we identify when cooling and star formation is likely to proceed, and observe that haloes with present-day masses $\\lesssim 10^9 {\\rm M}_{\\odot}$ never grow sufficiently massive to support atomic hydrogen line cooling. Noting that the star formation timescale decreases sharply with stellar mass as $t_{\\rm PMS} \\propto m_{\\ast}^{-2.5}$, we argue that, should the conditions for high mass star formation arise in low-mass haloes, the ens...

  4. The HI mass function as a probe of photoionisation feedback on low mass galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Han-Seek; Power, C; Park, Jaehong; Lagos, C d P; Baugh, C M

    2015-01-01

    We explore the galaxy formation physics governing the low mass end of the HI mass function in the local Universe. Specifically, we predict the effects on the HI mass function of varying i) the strength of photoionisation feedback and the redshift of the end of the epoch of reionization, ii) the cosmology, iii) the supernovae feedback prescription, and iv) the efficiency of star formation. We find that the shape of the low-mass end of the HI mass function is most affected by the critical halo mass below which galaxy formation is suppressed by photoionisation heating of the intergalactic medium. We model the redshift dependence of this critical dark matter halo mass by requiring a match to the low-mass end of the HI mass function. The best fitting critical dark matter halo mass decreases as redshift increases in this model, corresponding to a circular velocity of $\\sim 50 \\, {\\rm km \\,s}^{-1}$ at $z=0$, $\\sim 30 \\, {\\rm km\\, s}^{-1}$ at $z \\sim 1$ and $\\sim 12 \\, {\\rm km \\, s}^{-1}$ at $z=6$. We find that an ev...

  5. SHIELD II: AGC 198507 - An Extremely Rare Low-Mass Galaxy Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolina Borg Stevens, Karin; Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Teich, Yaron; SHIELD II Team

    2016-01-01

    The "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs II" ("SHIELD II") is a multiwavelength, legacy-class observational campaign that is facilitating the study of both internal and global evolutionary processes in low-mass dwarf galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. New HST imaging of one of these sample galaxies, AGC 198507, has revealed it to be a very rare interacting system; to our knowledge this is one of only a few known interactions in this extreme mass range. WSRT imaging indicates that the bulk of the HI is associated with the more luminous AGC 198507, while low surface brightness gas extends toward and coincides with the less luminous companion, which is separated by roughly 1.5 kpc from AGC 198507. Here we present new VLA B configuration HI imaging that allows us to localize the HI gas, to examine the rotational dynamics of AGC 198507, and to study the nature of star formation in this unique low-mass interacting system.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant AST-1211683 to JMC at Macalester College, and by NASA through grant GO-13750 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  6. SHIELD: EVLA HI Spectral Line Observations of Low-mass Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazzo, Masao; Ruvolo, Elizabeth; Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew; Teich, Yaron; Adams, Elizabeth A.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Salzer, John Joseph; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Elson, Edward C.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Huang, Shan; Janowiecki, Steven; Jozsa, Gyula; Leisman, Luke; Ott, Juergen; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Rhode, Katherine L.; Saintonge, Amelie; Van Sistine, Angela; Warren, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    The “Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs” (SHIELD) is a multiwavelength study of local volume low-mass galaxies. Using the now-complete Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) source catalog, 82 systems are identified that meet distance, line width, and HI flux criteria for being gas-rich, low-mass galaxies. These systems harbor neutral gas reservoirs smaller than 3x10^7 M_sun, thus populating the faint end of the HI mass function with statistical confidence for the first time. Here we present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array D-configuration HI spectral line observations of 32 previously unobserved galaxies. These low angular resolution (~40" beam) images localize the HI gas; with a few exceptions, the HI gas is co-spatial with the optical centers of the galaxies. These images provide the first glimpse of the neutral interstellar medium in these systems.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant 1211683 to JMC at Macalester College.

  7. Evidence for the rapid formation of low mass early-type galaxies in dense environments

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yiqing; Blakeslee, John; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordán, Andrés; Puzia, Thomas H; Toloba, Elisa; Zhang, Hong-Xin

    2015-01-01

    We explore the environmental dependence of star formation timescales in low mass galaxies using the [$\\alpha$/Fe] abundance ratio as an evolutionary clock. We present integrated [$\\alpha$/Fe] measurements for 11 low mass ($M_\\star \\sim 10^9~M_\\odot$) early-type galaxies (ETGs) with a large range of cluster-centric distance in the Virgo Cluster. We find a gradient in [$\\alpha$/Fe], where the galaxies closest to the cluster center (the cD galaxy, M87) have the highest values. This trend is driven by galaxies within a projected radius of 0.4~Mpc (0.26 times the virial radius of Virgo~A), all of which have super-solar [$\\alpha$/Fe]. Galaxies in this mass range exhibit a large scatter in the [$\\alpha$/Fe]--$\\sigma$ diagram, and do not obviously lie on an extension of the relation defined by massive ETGs. In addition, we find a correlation between [$\\alpha$/Fe] and globular cluster specific frequency ($S_N$), suggesting that low-mass ETGs that formed their stars over a short period of time, were also efficient at f...

  8. Powerful Radio Emission From Low-mass Supermassive Black Holes Favors Disk-like Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J; Xu, D W; Wei, J Y

    2016-01-01

    The origin of spin of low-mass supermassive black hole (SMBH) is still a puzzle at present. We here report a study on the host galaxies of a sample of radio-selected nearby ($z<0.05$) Seyfert 2 galaxies with a BH mass of $10^{6-7} M_\\odot$. By modeling the SDSS $r$-band images of these galaxies through a 2-dimensional bulge+disk decomposition, we identify a new dependence of SMBH's radio power on host bulge surface brightness profile, in which more powerful radio emission comes from a SMBH associated with a more disk-like bulge. This result means low-mass and high-mass SMBHs are spun up by two entirely different modes that correspond to two different evolutionary paths. A low-mass SMBH is spun up by a gas accretion with significant disk-like rotational dynamics of the host galaxy in the secular evolution, while a high-mass one by a BH-BH merger in the merger evolution.

  9. On the Formation of Galactic Black Hole Low-Mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Chen; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are 24 black hole (BH) X-ray binary systems that have been dynamically confirmed in the Galaxy. Most of them are low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) comprised of a stellar-mass BH and a low-mass donor star. Although the formation of these systems has been extensively investigated, some crucial issues remain unresolved. The most noticeable one is that, the low-mass companion has difficulties in ejecting the tightly bound envelope of the massive primary during the spiral-in process. While initially intermediate-mass binaries are more likely to survive the common envelope (CE) evolution, the resultant BH LMXBs mismatch the observations. In this paper, we use both stellar evolution and binary population synthesis to study the evolutionary history of BH LMXBs. We test various assumptions and prescriptions for the supernova mechanisms that produce BHs, the binding energy parameter, the CE efficiency, and the initial mass distributions of the companion stars. We obtain the birthrate and the distribution...

  10. The Interstellar Medium and Star Formation of Nearby, Low-Mass Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Steven Ray

    This thesis presents four different studies of the interstellar medium (ISM) and stellar content of ˜40 nearby (D ≲ 4 Mpc), low-mass galaxies. We aim to address two fundamental questions: "How do stellar processes effect the ISM in low-mass galaxies?" and "What are the local gas conditions which lead to molecular cloud formation?". Much of the data presented here come from our survey the "Very Large Array - Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury" (VLA-ANGST). VLA-ANGST is a targeted atomic hydrogen (H I) emission line survey directed towards 35 low-mass galaxies selected from the ANGST Hubble Space Telescope (HST) galaxy sample of the nearby universe. The VLA-ANGST project is the largest survey of its kind, demanding nearly 600 hours of VLA observing time. This unprecedented amount of observing time gives us data which has long lasting legacy value for its wealth of high resolution and high sensitivity information on the H I gas content and dynamics in a large sample of nearby, low-mass galaxies. H I data from the VLA-ANGST project will be used to explore the interactions between the gas and stellar content as well as trace the underlying dark matter distribution. Combining the H I and HST data with other tracers of recent star formation (e.g., emission processes from far ultraviolet star light, dust in the infrared, and carbon monoxide in the submillimeter) provides a comprehensive census of each galaxy, useful for understanding their evolution. We investigate the role of multiple generations of star formation in the formation of large, kiloparsec scale cavities observed in the global H I distributions of five nearby, low mass galaxies. The small gravitational potential wells of some low-mass galaxies allow the outflow of energy from stellar processes (e.g., winds, supernovae, etc.) to help shape their gas distributions. We find that stellar processes produce ample energy (at least an order of magnitude or more) to have been the dominant

  11. The Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD)

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, John M; Haynes, Martha P; Janowiecki, Steven; Parker, Angela; Salzer, John J; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Engstrom, Eric; Huang, Shan; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Ott, Juergen; Saintonge, Amelie; Skillman, Evan D; Allan, John; Erny, Grace; Fliss, Palmer; Smith, AnnaLeigh

    2011-01-01

    We present first results from the "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs" (SHIELD), a multi-configuration EVLA study of the neutral gas contents and dynamics of galaxies with HI masses in the 10^6-10^7 Solar mass range detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We describe the survey motivation and concept demonstration using VLA imaging of 6 low-mass galaxies detected in early ALFALFA data products. We then describe the primary scientific goals of SHIELD and present preliminary EVLA and WIYN 3.5m imaging of the 12 SHIELD galaxies. With only a few exceptions, the neutral gas distributions of these extremely low-mass galaxies are centrally concentrated. In only 1 system have we detected HI column densities higher than 10^21 cm^-2. Despite this, the stellar populations of all of these systems are dominated by blue stars. Further, we find ongoing star formation as traced by H alpha emission in 10 of the 11 galaxies with H alpha imaging obtained to date. Taken together these results suggest th...

  12. The Coronal Temperatures of Low-Mass Main-Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Johnstone, Colin P

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We study the X-ray emission of low-mass main-sequence stars to derive a reliable general scaling law between coronal temperature and the level of X-ray activity. Methods. We collect ROSAT measurements of hardness ratios and X-ray luminosities for a large sample of stars to derive which stellar X-ray emission parameter is most closely correlated with coronal temperature. We calculate average coronal temperatures for a sample of 24 low-mass main-sequence stars with measured emission measure distributions (EMDs) collected from the literature. These EMDs are based on high-resolution X-ray spectra measured by XMM-Newton and Chandra. Results. We confirm that there is one universal scaling relation between coronal average temperature and surface X-ray flux, Fx, that applies to all low-mass main-sequence stars. We find that coronal temperature is related to Fx by Tcor=0.11 Fx^0.26, where Tcor is in MK and Fx is in erg/s/cm^2.

  13. The coronal temperatures of low-mass main-sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, C. P.; Güdel, M.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We study the X-ray emission of low-mass main-sequence stars to derive a reliable general scaling law between coronal temperature and the level of X-ray activity. Methods: We collect ROSAT measurements of hardness ratios and X-ray luminosities for a large sample of stars to derive which stellar X-ray emission parameter is most closely correlated with coronal temperature. We calculate average coronal temperatures for a sample of 24 low-mass main-sequence stars with measured emission measure distributions (EMDs) collected from the literature. These EMDs are based on high-resolution X-ray spectra measured by XMM-Newton and Chandra. Results: We confirm that there is one universal scaling relation between coronal average temperature and surface X-ray flux, FX, that applies to all low-mass main-sequence stars. We find that coronal temperature is related to FX by T̅cor = 0.11 FX0.26, where T̅cor is in MK and FX is in erg s-1 cm-2.

  14. Probing the circumstellar environments of very young low-mass stars using water masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebey, S.; Vogel, S. N.; Myers, P. C.

    1992-01-01

    The VLA is used to search nearby very young low-mass stars for water maser emission. The sample consists of 26 low-luminosity IRAS sources embedded in dense molecular cores, a class of sources suspected to be newly forming low-mass stars on the order of a few hundred thousand years old. Three sources were detected. High spatial resolution maps show the region of maser emission is generally confined to an area smaller than about 0.5 arcsec near the star, and the velocities of individual components span intervals ranging from 20 to 40 km/s. It is inferred from the fact that the maser velocities are too large to be due to gravitational motions in at least two of the sources that the masers are associated with the winds from the young low-mass stars. A comparison of the high spatial resolution maser data to lower-resolution CO data shows no evidence for higher collimation close to the star; the stellar wind cavity appears to have similar collimation at 10 exp 15 cm as at 10 exp 7 to 10 exp 18 cm.

  15. The nearby eclipsing stellar system delta Velorum. II. First reliable orbit for the eclipsing pair

    CERN Document Server

    Pribulla, T; Kervella, P; Vaňko, M; Stevens, I R; Chini, R; Hoffmeister, V; Stahl, O; Berndt, A; Mugrauer, M; Eiff, M Ammler-von

    2010-01-01

    Context. The nearby multiple system delta Velorum contains a widely detached eclipsing binary and a third component. Aims. The system offers an opportunity to determine the set of fundamental parameters (masses, luminosities, and radii) of three coeval stars with sufficient precision to test models of stellar evolution. Methods. Extensive high-resolution spectroscopy is analyzed by the broadening function technique to provide the first spectroscopic orbit for the eclipsing pair. Simultaneous analysis of the spectroscopic data and the SMEI satellite light curve is performed to provide astrophysical parameters for the components. Modified Roche model assuming eccentric orbit and asynchronous rotation is used. Results. The observations show that components of the eclipsing pair rotate at about 2/3 of the break-up velocity which prevents any chemical peculiarity and results in non-uniform surface brightness. Although the inner orbit is eccentric, no apsidal motion is seen during the SMEI photometric observations....

  16. Educating the Public about the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2017-01-01

    On behalf of the International Astronomical Union's Working Group on Solar Eclipses, I have long worked to bring knowledge about eclipses and how to observe the safely to the people of the various countries from which partial, annular, or total solar eclipses are visible. In 2017, we have first a chance to educate the people of South America on the occasion of the February 26 annular eclipse through southern Chile and Argentina that is partial throughout almost the entire continent (and an eclipse workshop will be held February 22-24 in Esquel, Argentina: http://sion.frm.utn.edu.ar/WDEAII) and then a chance to educate the 300 million people of the United States and others in adjacent countries as far south as northern South America about the glories of totality and how to observe partial phases. Our website, a compendium of links to information about maps, safe observing, science, and more is at http://eclipses.info. We link to important mapping sites at EclipseWise.com, GreatAmericanEclipse.com, and http://xjubier.free.fr/en/site_pages/solar_eclipses/xSE_GoogleMap3.php?Ecl=+20170821&Acc=2&Umb=1&Lmt=1&Mag=1&Max=1, and information about cloudiness statistics at http://eclipsophile.com, as well as simulation sites at https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=4314 and http://eyes.jpl.nasa.gov. The American Astronomical Society's task force on the 2017 eclipse has a website at http://eclipse.aas.org. We are working to disseminate accurate information about how and why to observe the total solar eclipse, trying among other things to head off common misinformation about the hazards of looking at the sun at eclipses or otherwise. About 12 million Americans live within the 70-mile-wide band of totality, and we encourage others to travel into it, trying to make clear the difference between even a 99% partial eclipse and a total eclipse, with its glorious Baily's beads, diamond rings, and totality that on this occasion lasts between 2 minutes and 2 minutes 40 seconds

  17. First Results from the August 21, 2017, Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2017-08-01

    I report on the observations planned and, weather permitting, made from our site in Salem, Oregon, at the August 21, 2017, total solar eclipse. I also give a first report on collaborators' successes, including Megamovie and simultaneous space observations. We also describe our participation in PBS's NOVA on the eclipse that was to be aired on public television on eclipse night. Our eclipse expedition is supported in large part by grants from the Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of NSF and by the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society.

  18. Lunar eclipses: Probing the atmosphere of an inhabited planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz A. García

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Moon's brightness during a lunar eclipse is indicative of the composition, cloudiness and aerosol loading of the Earth's atmosphere. The idea of using lunar eclipse observations to characterize the Earth's atmosphere is not new, but the interest raised by the prospects of discovering Earth-like exoplanets transiting their host stars has brought renewed attention to the method. We review some recent efforts made in the prediction and interpretation of lunar eclipses. We also comment on the contribution of the lunar eclipse theory to the refractive theory of planetary transits.

  19. Total Addiction The Life of an Eclipse Chaser

    CERN Document Server

    Russo, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Seeing a total solar eclipse is often described as a once-in-a-lifetime experience. However, for many who have experienced totality, once-in-a-lifetime is simply not enough. They want more, and are willing to go to great lengths often at great expense to repeat the experience. What is it like to experience totality? What is it about the experience that motivates these eclipse chasers? Is there an eclipse chaser personality? Can eclipse chasing actually be described as an addiction? This book describes the people who dedicate their lives to chasing their dream.

  20. Behavior of Photovoltaic during the Partial Solar Eclipse in Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Rusli, A.; Purnamasari, A.; Abdullah, A. G.; Riza, L. S.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of photovoltaic system during the partial solar eclipse phenomenon of 9 March 2016 in Bandung, Indonesia. In the experimental method, we monitored the impact of the solar eclipse on the photovoltaic system in solar cell system. To qualitatively explain the experimental observations, we compared the behavior of photovoltaic system in the solar eclipse day (9 March 2016) with the two sunny days (8 and 10 March 2016). The experimental results showed that the intensity and electricity power increased along with the solar light irradiation time. However, when there is a solar eclipse phenomenon, the intensity and electricity power is suddenly down.

  1. Cohort profile: Epidemiological Clinicopathological studies in Europe (EClipSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological Clinicopathological Studies in Europe (EClipSE) is the harmonization of neuropathological and longitudinal clinical data from three population-based prospective longitudinal studies of aging. The EClipSE database (Version 1.0) comprises data from the first 970 people who donated their brain at death and this number will increase. EClipSE enables sociodemographic, health, cognitive, and genetic measures collected during life to be related to neuropathology at death, testing hypotheses which require more power than has been previously possible. EClipSE aims to help throw light on relationships between biological, health and psychological factors underlying ageing and the manifestation of clinical dementia.

  2. Instant Eclipse 4 RCP development how-to

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Ram

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks.A concise guide that delivers immediate results with practical recipes on learning practical hints and avoiding pitfalls in Eclipse 4 development.You will find this book useful if you are looking to create cross-platform rich client applications. Eclipse platform is built with Java, so basic knowledge of Java is essential. The focus of this book is to understand the new APIs and concepts of the Eclipse 4 platform. Prior knowledge of basic concepts of the Eclipse framework (plugin, ex

  3. Pulsating low-mass white dwarfs in the frame of new evolutionary sequences. I. Adiabatic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2014-09-01

    Context. Many low-mass white dwarfs with masses M∗/M⊙ ≲ 0.45, including the so-called extremely low-mass white dwarfs (M∗/M⊙ ≲ 0.20 - 0.25), have recently been discovered in the field of our Galaxy through dedicated photometric surveys. The subsequent discovery of pulsations in some of them has opened the unprecedented opportunity of probing the internal structure of these ancient stars. Aims: We present a detailed adiabatic pulsational study of these stars based on full evolutionary sequences derived from binary star evolution computations. The main aim of this study is to provide a detailed theoretical basis of reference for interpreting present and future observations of variable low-mass white dwarfs. Methods: Our pulsational analysis is based on a new set of He-core white-dwarf models with masses ranging from 0.1554 to 0.4352 M⊙ derived by computing the non-conservative evolution of a binary system consisting of an initially 1 M⊙ ZAMS star and a 1.4 M⊙ neutron star. We computed adiabatic radial (ℓ = 0) and non-radial (ℓ = 1,2) p and g modes to assess the dependence of the pulsational properties of these objects on stellar parameters such as the stellar mass and the effective temperature, as well as the effects of element diffusion. Results: We found that for white dwarf models with masses below ~ 0.18 M⊙, g modes mainly probe the core regions and p modes the envelope, therefore pulsations offer the opportunity of constraining both the core and envelope chemical structure of these stars via asteroseismology. For models with M∗ ≳ 0.18 M⊙, on the other hand, g modes are very sensitive to the He/H compositional gradient and therefore can be used as a diagnostic tool for constraining the H envelope thickness. Because both types of objects have not only very distinct evolutionary histories (according to whether the progenitor stars have experienced CNO-flashes or not), but also have strongly different pulsation properties, we propose to

  4. Complex molecules in the hot core of the low-mass protostar NGC 1333 IRAS 4A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottinelli, S; Ceccarelli, C; Lefloch, B; Williams, JP; Castets, A; Caux, E; Cazaux, S; Maret, S; Parise, B; Tielens, AGGM

    2004-01-01

    We report the detection of complex molecules (HCOOCH3, HCOOH, and CH3CN), signposts of a hot core like region, toward the low-mass Class 0 source NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. This is the second low-mass protostar in which such complex molecules have been searched for and reported, the other source being IRAS

  5. Studying Low Mass X-Ray Binaries: Revealing the Optical Counterpart in 1747-214 and Measuring the Masses of the Black Holes in 1859+226 and 1009-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelino, Dawn M.; Tomsick, John A.

    2003-02-01

    Low mass x-ray binaries (LMXBs) contain compact, black hole (BH) or neutron star (NS) primaries, and cool, low-mass secondary stars. A limited number of BHs and NSs have accurate mass measurements. It is important to determine the primary mass of the LMXBs to better understand how BH masses influence their outburst behavior, and to better constrain the NS equations of state. To determine the mass of the primary object we need to measure the orbital inclination, i. We propose to determine i for two BH LMXBs, XTE J1859+226 and GRS 1009-45 (=N Vel 93) through modeling of their ellipsoidal variations. Because most LMXBs are not eclipsing, modeling their light curves is currently the only feasible method for determining the inclination. We will model the light curves with WD98. We also propose to identify the optical counterpart to the NS system EXO 1747-214, in order to begin the process of measuring the NS mass. We have successfully used NOAO facilities and this modeling technique to find accurate BH masses in four LMXBs. In order to expand the sample of known BH and NS systems, we request seven nights on the KPNO and CTIO 4m to obtain optical and infrared data on XTE J1859+226, GRS 1009-45, and EXO 1747-214.

  6. Gravity Effects of Solar Eclipse and Inducted Gravitational Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, H.; Hua, C.; Peng, F.; Hu, K.

    2003-12-01

    During solar eclipses in recent decades, gravity anomalies were observed and difficult to be explained by Newton's gravitational theory. During the solar eclipse of 1995, India scientists Mishra et al. recorded a gravity valley in amplitude of 12 μ Gal; they interpreted that qualitatively as atmospheric effects. During the total solar eclipse of March 1997, we conducted a comprehensive geophysical observation at Mohe geophysical observatory of China (with latitude of 53.490 N and longitude of 122.340 E. From the data we recorded, we found two valleys about 5 to 7 μ Gal. Unnikrishnan et al. inferred this gravity anomaly was caused by the environment changes. We know that the observation had been conducting in a room inside a small building with a stable coal heating system; the temperature variation inside the experimental room was less 10C during the eclipse. Moreover, the measured atmospheric pressure change was less 1hPa during the eclipse. It is reasonable to believe that surrounding environment of the observatory excluded the significant gravity variations caused by temperature, pressure variation and local moving of persons and vehicles. To further study the gravity effects related to solar eclipses, our scientific team took more observations during Zambia total solar eclipse of June 2001 and Australia total solar eclipse of December 2002. After data corrections, we found respectively two gravity anomalies, with 3 to 4μ Gal for Zambia eclipse and 1.5μ Gal for Australia eclipse. As many scientists have pointed out that pressure-gravity factor is lower than 0.3μ Gal/hPa, it means that any gravity anomaly great than 0.5μ Gal could not be inferred as the results of atmospheric pressure change. The two more gravity anomalies recorded during the solar eclipses provided us strong evidences that some gravity anomalies could not simply be inferred as atmospheric pressure change. We have tried to explain those anomalies by the induced gravitational field.

  7. Public Education and Outreach for Observing Solar Eclipses and Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2015-08-01

    The general public is often very interested in observing solar eclipses, with widespread attention from newspapers and other sources often available only days before the events. Recently, the 2012 eclipse's partial phases in Australia and the 2015 eclipse's partial phases throughout Europe as well as western Asia and northern Africa, were widely viewed. The 21 August 2017 eclipse, whose totality will sweep across the Continental United States from northwest to southeast, will have partial phases visible throughout the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Central America, and into South America. The 2019 and 2020 partial phases of total eclipses will be visible throughout South America, and partial phases from annular eclipses will be visible from other parts of the world. The 9 May 2016 transit of Mercury will be best visible from the Western Hemisphere, Europe, and Africa. Many myths and misunderstandings exist about the safety of observing partial phases, and it is our responsibility as astronomers and educators to transmit accurate information and to attempt the widest possible distribution of such information. The Working Group on Public Education at Eclipses and Transits, formerly of Commission 46 on Education and Development and now of New Commission 11, tries to coordinate the distribution of information. In collaboration with the Solar Division's Working Group on Solar Eclipses, their website at http://eclipses.info is a one-stop shop for accurate information on how to observe eclipses, why it is interesting to do so, where they will be visible (with links to online maps and weather statistics), and how encouraging students to observe eclipses can be inspirational for them, perhaps even leading them to realize that the Universe can be understood and therefore renewing the strength of their studies. Links to information about transits of Mercury and Venus are also included.

  8. Very Low Mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars From MARVELS IV: A Candidate Brown Dwarf or Low-Mass Stellar Companion to HIP 67526

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Peng; Cargile, Phillip; Crepp, Justin R; De Lee, Nathan; de Mello, Gustavo F Porto; Esposito, Massimiliano; Ferreira, Letícia D; Femenia, Bruno; Fleming, Scott W; Gaudi, B Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; Hernández, Jonay I González; Hebb, Leslie; Lee, Brian L; Ma, Bo; Stassun, Keivan G; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Chang, Liang; da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci; Eastman, Jason D; Ebelke, Garrett; Gary, Bruce; Kane, Stephen R; Li, Rui; Liu, Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A G; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L C; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Paegert, Martin; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio X; Schneider, Donald P; Bradley, Alaina C Shelden; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Snedden, Stephanie; van Eyken, J C; Wan, Xiaoke; Weaver, Benjamin A; Zhao, Bo

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 years. Our Keplerian fit using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of $90.2695^{+0.0188}_{-0.0187}$ days, an eccentricity of $0.4375 \\pm 0.0040$ and a semi-amplitude of $2948.14^{+16.65}_{-16.55}$ m s$^{-1}$. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature $T_{\\rm{eff}}=6004 \\pm 34$ K, a surface gravity $\\log g$ [cgs] $=4.55 \\pm 0.17$ and a metallicity [Fe/H] $=+0.04 \\pm 0.06$. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. (2010), yields 1.10$\\pm$0.09 $M_{\\sun}$ and 0.92$\\pm$0.19 $R_{\\sun}$. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is $65.0 \\pm 2.9 M_{Jup}$, indicating that it is likely to be either a...

  9. Planets Around Low-Mass Stars (PALMS). V. Age-Dating Low-Mass Companions to Members and Interlopers of Young Moving Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, Brendan P; Liu, Michael C; Schlieder, Joshua E; Mann, Andrew W; Dupuy, Trent J; Hinkley, Sasha; Crepp, Justin R; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W; Flagg, Laura; Weinberger, Alycia J; Aller, Kimberly M; Allers, Katelyn N; Best, William M J; Kotson, Michael C; Montet, Benjamin T; Herczeg, Gregory J; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M; Nielsen, Eric L; Wahhaj, Zahed; Biller, Beth A; Hayward, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared adaptive optics (AO) imaging and spectroscopy of 13 ultracool (>M6) companions to late-type stars (K7-M4.5), most of which have recently been identified as candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMGs; 8-120 Myr) in the literature. The inferred masses of the companions (~10-100 Mjup) are highly sensitive to the ages of the primary stars so we critically examine the kinematic and spectroscopic properties of each system to distinguish bona fide YMG members from old field interlopers. 2MASS J02155892-0929121 C is a new M7 substellar companion (40-60 Mjup) with clear spectroscopic signs of low gravity and hence youth. The primary, possibly a member of the ~40 Myr Tuc-Hor moving group, is visually resolved into three components, making it a young low-mass quadruple system in a compact (1 Gyr) tidally-locked spectroscopic binaries without convincing kinematic associations with any known moving group. The high rate of false positives in the form of old active stars with ...

  10. Eclipse burns: a prospective study of solar retinopathy following the 1999 solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S C; Eke, T; Ziakas, N G

    2001-01-20

    Looking at the sun can cause focal burns to the retina. We prospectively followed up all patients who presented to Eye Casualty of Leicester Royal Infirmary having observed the solar eclipse of August, 1999. 45 patients attended, of whom 20 had visual symptoms and five had visible changes in the retina; four patients were still symptomatic after 7 months.

  11. CHARACTERIZING THE STAR FORMATION OF THE LOW-MASS SHIELD GALAXIES FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Simones, Jacob E. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7900 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Elson, Ed C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Ott, Jürgen, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    The Survey of Hi in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs is an on-going multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies that populate the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. The galaxies were selected from the first ∼10% of the Hi Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey based on their low Hi mass and low baryonic mass. Here, we measure the star formation properties from optically resolved stellar populations for 12 galaxies using a color–magnitude diagram fitting technique. We derive lifetime average star formation rates (SFRs), recent SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions. Overall, the recent SFRs are comparable to the lifetime SFRs with mean birthrate parameter of 1.4, with a surprisingly narrow standard deviation of 0.7. Two galaxies are classified as dwarf transition galaxies (dTrans). These dTrans systems have star formation and gas properties consistent with the rest of the sample, in agreement with previous results that some dTrans galaxies may simply be low-luminosity dwarf irregulars. We do not find a correlation between the recent star formation activity and the distance to the nearest neighboring galaxy, suggesting that the star formation process is not driven by gravitational interactions, but regulated internally. Further, we find a broadening in the star formation and gas properties (i.e., specific SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions) compared to the generally tight correlation found in more massive galaxies. Overall, the star formation and gas properties indicate these very low-mass galaxies host a fluctuating, non-deterministic, and inefficient star formation process.

  12. THEORETICAL LIMITS ON MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTHS IN LOW-MASS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, Matthew K.; Weber, Maria A.; Chabrier, Gilles [Dept of Physics and Astronomy, Stocker Road, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Massey, Angela P., E-mail: browning@astro.ex.ac.uk [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    Observations have suggested that some low-mass stars have larger radii than predicted by 1D structure models. Some theoretical models have invoked very strong interior magnetic fields (of order 1 MG or more) as a possible cause of such large radii. Whether fields of that strength could in principle be generated by dynamo action in these objects is unclear, and we do not address the matter directly. Instead, we examine whether such fields could remain in the interior of a low-mass object for a significant amount of time, and whether they would have any other obvious signatures. First, we estimate the timescales for the loss of strong fields by magnetic buoyancy instabilities. We consider a range of field strengths and simple morphologies, including both idealized flux tubes and smooth layers of field. We confirm some of our analytical estimates using thin flux tube magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the rise of buoyant fields in a fully convective M-dwarf. Separately, we consider the Ohmic dissipation of such fields. We find that dissipation provides a complementary constraint to buoyancy: while small-scale, fibril fields might be regenerated faster than they rise, the dissipative heating associated with such fields would in some cases greatly exceed the luminosity of the star. We show how these constraints combine to yield limits on the internal field strength and morphology in low-mass stars. In particular, we find that for stars of 0.3 solar masses, no fields in flux tubes stronger than about 800 kG are simultaneously consistent with both constraints.

  13. Evidence for Cluster to Cluster Variations in Low-mass Stellar Rotational Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Carl T.; Pinsonneault, Marc; Terndrup, Donald M.

    2016-12-01

    The concordance model for angular momentum evolution postulates that star-forming regions and clusters are an evolutionary sequence that can be modeled with assumptions about protostar-disk coupling, angular momentum loss from magnetized winds that saturates in a mass-dependent fashion at high rotation rates, and core-envelope decoupling for solar analogs. We test this approach by combining established data with the large h Per data set from the MONITOR project and new low-mass Pleiades data. We confirm prior results that young low-mass stars can be used to test star-disk coupling and angular momentum loss independent of the treatment of internal angular momentum transport. For slow rotators, we confirm the need for star-disk interactions to evolve the ONC to older systems, using h Per (age 13 Myr) as our natural post-disk case. There is no evidence for extremely long-lived disks as an alternative to core-envelope decoupling. However, our wind models cannot evolve rapid rotators from h Per to older systems consistently, and we find that this result is robust with respect to the choice of angular momentum loss prescription. We outline two possible solutions: either there is cosmic variance in the distribution of stellar rotation rates in different clusters or there are substantially enhanced torques in low-mass rapid rotators. We favor the former explanation and discuss observational tests that could be used to distinguish them. If the distribution of initial conditions depends on environment, models that test parameters by assuming a universal underlying distribution of initial conditions will need to be re-evaluated.

  14. Current Advances in the Computational Simulation of the Formation of Low-Mass Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, R I; Inutsuka, S; Padoan, P; Tomisaka, K

    2005-10-24

    Developing a theory of low-mass star formation ({approx} 0.1 to 3 M{sub {circle_dot}}) remains one of the most elusive and important goals of theoretical astrophysics. The star-formation process is the outcome of the complex dynamics of interstellar gas involving non-linear interactions of turbulence, gravity, magnetic field and radiation. The evolution of protostellar condensations, from the moment they are assembled by turbulent flows to the time they reach stellar densities, spans an enormous range of scales, resulting in a major computational challenge for simulations. Since the previous Protostars and Planets conference, dramatic advances in the development of new numerical algorithmic techniques have been successfully implemented on large scale parallel supercomputers. Among such techniques, Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics have provided frameworks to simulate the process of low-mass star formation with a very large dynamic range. It is now feasible to explore the turbulent fragmentation of molecular clouds and the gravitational collapse of cores into stars self-consistently within the same calculation. The increased sophistication of these powerful methods comes with substantial caveats associated with the use of the techniques and the interpretation of the numerical results. In this review, we examine what has been accomplished in the field and present a critique of both numerical methods and scientific results. We stress that computational simulations should obey the available observational constraints and demonstrate numerical convergence. Failing this, results of large scale simulations do not advance our understanding of low-mass star formation.

  15. Project Report ECLIPSE: European Citizenship Learning Program for Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardelli, Olga

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a European project, the Comenius ECLIPSE project (European Citizenship Learning in a Programme for Secondary Education) developed by six European partners coordinated by the University of Trento in the years 2011-2014. ECLIPSE (co-financed by the EACEA--Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency) aims at developing,…

  16. Capsicum Annuum L. Midnight Creeper and Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA, ARS announces the release of two new pepper cultivars 06C84 (trademarked as Midnight Creeper) and 07C114-1 (trademarked as Solar Eclipse). Midnight Creeper and Solar Eclipse are intended for ornamental applications. Midnight Creeper’s prostrate spreading indeterminate growth habit, black f...

  17. Absolute dimensions of eclipsing binaries XXVII. V1130 tauri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens Viggo; Olsen, E, H.; Helt, B. E.

    2010-01-01

    stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: individual: V1130¿Tau / binaries: eclipsing / techniques: photometric / techniques: radial velocities Udgivelsesdato: 17 Feb.......stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: individual: V1130¿Tau / binaries: eclipsing / techniques: photometric / techniques: radial velocities Udgivelsesdato: 17 Feb....

  18. The penumbral Moon's eclipse form 16 september 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotaru, Adrian; Pteancu, Mircea; Zaharia, Cristian

    2016-10-01

    The web page represents circumstances and photographs from the Moon's partial/penumbral eclipse from 16 September 2016 obtained from few various places in Romania (East Europe). A part of photographs give the maximum phase of the Eclipse, while another give the reddened Moon.

  19. Long-term variability of low-mass X-ray binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippova E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider modulations of mass captured by the compact object from the companion star’s stellar wind in Low Mass X-ray Binaries with late type giants. Based on 3D simulations with two different hydrodynamic codes used Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches – the SPH code GADGET and the Eulerian code PLUTO, we conclude that a hydrodynamical interaction of the wind matter within a binary system even without eccentricity results in variability of the mass accretion rate with characteristic time-scales close to the orbital period. Observational appearances of this wind might be similar to that of an accretion disc corona/wind.

  20. Variable Low-Mass X-ray Binaries in Early-Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sivakoff, Gregory R; Juett, Adrienne M; Sarazin, Craig L; Irwin, Jimmy A

    2007-01-01

    As the Chandra X-ray Observatory mission matures, increasing numbers of nearby galaxies are being observed multiple times, sampling the variability of extragalactic X-ray binaries on timescales extending from seconds to years. We present results on luminous low-mass X-ray binaries from several early-type galaxies. We show that instantaneous LMXB luminosity functions of early-type galaxies do not significantly change between observations; a relatively low fraction of sources are strongly variable on <~ 5 yr timescales. We discuss the implications that a relatively small number of transient LMXBs are being discovered in early-type galaxies.

  1. Accretion disc atmospheres and winds in low-mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Trigo, M Díaz

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, X-ray spectroscopy has enabled a wealth of discoveries of photoionised absorbers in X-ray binaries. Studies of such accretion disc atmospheres and winds are of fundamental importance to understand accretion processes and possible feedback mechanisms to the environment. In this work, we review the current observational state and theoretical understanding of accretion disc atmospheres and winds in low-mass X-ray binaries, focusing on the wind launching mechanisms and on the dependence on accretion state. We conclude with issues that deserve particular attention.

  2. Stellar models for very low mass main sequence stars the role of model atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Brocato, E; Castellani, V

    1997-01-01

    We present Very Low Mass stellar models as computed including non-grey model atmospheres for selected assumptions about the star metallicities. The role of atmospheres is discussed and the models are compared with models based on the Eddington approximation and with similar models appeared in the recent literature. Theoretical predictions concerning both the HR diagram location and the mass-luminosity relation are presented and discussed in terms of expectations in selected photometric bands. Comparison with available observational data concerning both galactic globular clusters and dwarfs in the solar neighborhood reveals a satisfactory agreement together with the existence of some residual mismatches.

  3. The spectra of accretion discs in low-mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, R R

    1995-01-01

    We present self-consistent models for the radiative transfer in Shakura-Sunyaev accretion discs in bright low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB). Our calculations include the full effects of incoherent Compton scattering and the vertical temperature structure within the disc, as well as the effects of Doppler blurring and gravitational redshift. We find that the observed X-ray spectra are well fit by exponentially cutoff power-law models. The difference between the observed total spectrum and our calculated disc spectrum should reveal the spectrum of the disc/neutron star boundary layer and other emitting regions considered to be present in LMXB.

  4. CubeSat mechanical design: creating low mass and durable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Gilbert; Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    This paper considers the mechanical design of a low-mass, low-cost spacecraft for use in a multi-satellite sensing constellation. For a multi-spacecraft mission, aggregated small mass and cost reductions can have significant impact. One approach to mass reduction is to make cuts into the structure, removing material. Stress analysis is used to determine the level of material reduction possible. Focus areas for this paper include determining areas to make cuts to ensure that a strong shape remains, while considering the comparative cost and skill level of each type of cut. Real-world results for a CubeSat and universally applicable analysis are presented.

  5. Formation and Detection of Earth Mass Planets around Low Mass Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Ryan; Laughlin, Greg

    2009-01-01

    We investigate an in-situ formation scenario for Earth-mass terrestrial planets in short-period, potentially habitable orbits around low-mass stars (M_star < 0.3 M_sun). We then investigate the feasibility of detecting these Earth-sized planets. Our simulations of terrestrial planet formation follow the growth of planetary embryos in an annular region around a fiducial M7 primary. Our simulations couple a semi-analytic model to a full N-body integration to follow the growth from ~3x10^21 g to...

  6. New Results for Two Optically Faint Low Mass X-Ray Binary Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wachter, Stefanie

    1997-01-01

    We present optical photometry of the low mass X-ray binary systems GX 349+2 and Ser X-1. Extensive VRI photometry of the faint optical counterpart (V=18.4) to GX 349+2 reveals a period of 22.5 +/- 0.1 h and half-amplitude 0.2 mag. This result confirms and extends our previously reported 22 h period. No color change is detected over the orbit, although the limits are modest. We also report the discovery of two new variable stars in the field of GX 349+2, including a probable W UMa system. Ser ...

  7. Shockingly low water abundances in Herschel/PACS observations of low-mass protostars in Perseus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karska, A.; Kristensen, L. E.; Dishoeck, E. F. van

    2014-01-01

    Protostars interact with their surroundings through jets and winds impacting on the envelope and creating shocks, but the nature of these shocks is still poorly understood. Our aim is to survey far-infrared molecular line emission from a uniform and significant sample of deeply-embedded low......-mass young stellar objects in order to characterize shocks and the possible role of ultraviolet radiation in the immediate protostellar environment. Herschel/PACS spectral maps of 22 objects in the Perseus molecular cloud were obtained as part of the `William Herschel Line Legacy' survey. Line emission from...

  8. RZ Cassiopeia: Eclipsing Binary with Pulsating Component

    CERN Document Server

    Golovin, A

    2007-01-01

    We report time-resolved VR-band CCD photometry of the eclipsing binary RZ Cas obtained with 38-cm Cassegrain telescope at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory during July 2004 - October 2005. Obtained lightcurves clearly demonstrates rapid pulsations with the period about 22 minutes. Periodogram analysis of such oscillations also is reported. On the 12, January, 2005 we observed rapid variability with higher amplitude (~0.^m 1) that, perhaps, may be interpreted as high-mass-transfer-rate event and inhomogeneity of accretion stream. Follow-up observations (both, photometric and spectroscopic) of RZ Cas are strictly desirable for more detailed study of such event.

  9. Apsidal motion in eclipsing binary GG Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilan, E.; Bulut, I.

    2016-03-01

    The study of apsidal motion in binary stars with eccentric orbit is well known as an important source of information for the stellar internal structure as well as the possibility of verification of general relativity. In this study, the apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary GG Ori (P = 6.631 days, e = 0.22) has been analyzed using the times of minimum light taken from the literature and databases and the elements of apsidal motion have been computed. The method described by Giménez and García-Pelayo (1983) has been used for the apsidal motion analysis.

  10. Oh Glorious Geometry: Eclipses, Transits, and Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical objects are like a grand clockwork in the sky; they follow steady patterns in time. However, these bright objects we see are not just points of light but have finite dimensions and thus can get in each other's way. As a result, some stars puzzle us by brightening or dimming, or the Sun can frighten us by going out unexpectedly when something else blocks its light. There is nothing unusual about these eclipses, occultations, or transits—they are demonstrations of simple physics—and we take some for granted, like the rotation of Earth moving us into darkness each night. The periodic dimming of a bright star worried mankind for millennia and helped give astronomy a shove. And unexpected events, like a solar or lunar eclipse, can inspire awe and change the course of history. Now that we can observe through telescopes and travel by proxy throughout the solar system, we find the universe is rife with shadow and light shows. Those taking place within our solar system have been useful to astronomy (like the recent transits of Venus or the ever-present eclipses of the Jovian satellites), and were of considerable popular interest, allowing us to think beyond the confines of Earth. Now we detect distant exoplanets transiting their parent stars, announcing the presence of other solar systems in our corner of the Galaxy and changing the discussion about life elsewhere in the universe from mere speculation to plausible possibility. Distant galaxies can make visible ever-further galaxies by forming Einstein rings, allowing us to see behind them and make the structure of the universe more evident. This paper will discuss these phenomena, from those visible easily on Earth to those that can now be seen for the first time from probes in space. We will also discuss how this has expanded popular knowledge of the universe we live in. This paper is illustrated by a number of examples ranging from eclipses and transits throughout the solar system and the nearby stars to

  11. SDSS J105754.25+275947.5: a period-bounce eclipsing cataclysmic variable with the lowest-mass donor yet measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, M. J.; Littlefair, S. P.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Bochinski, J.; Bours, M. C. P.; Breedt, E.; Hardy, L. K.; Hermes, J. J.; Kengkriangkrai, S.; Kerry, P.; Parsons, S. G.; Rattanasoon, S.

    2017-05-01

    We present high-speed, multicolour photometry of the faint, eclipsing cataclysmic variable (CV) SDSS J105754.25+275947.5. The light from this system is dominated by the white dwarf. Nonetheless, averaging many eclipses reveals additional features from the eclipse of the bright spot. This enables the fitting of a parametrized eclipse model to these average light curves, allowing the precise measurement of system parameters. We find a mass ratio of q = 0.0546 ± 0.0020 and inclination i = 85.74 ± 0.21°. The white dwarf and donor masses were found to be Mw = 0.800 ± 0.015 M⊙ and Md = 0.0436 ± 0.0020 M⊙, respectively. A temperature Tw = 13300 ± 1100 K and distance d = 367 ± 26 pc of the white dwarf were estimated through fitting model atmosphere predictions to multicolour fluxes. The mass of the white dwarf in SDSS 105754.25+275947.5 is close to the average for CV white dwarfs, while the donor has the lowest mass yet measured in an eclipsing CV. A low-mass donor and an orbital period (90.44 min) significantly longer than the period minimum strongly suggest that this is a bona fide period-bounce system, although formation from a white dwarf/brown dwarf binary cannot be ruled out. Very few period-minimum/period-bounce systems with precise system parameters are currently known, and as a consequence the evolution of CVs in this regime is not yet fully understood.

  12. On the Eclipse of Thales, Cycles and Probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Querejeta, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    According to classical tradition, Thales of Miletus predicted the total solar eclipse that took place on 28 May 585 BCE. Even if some authors have flatly denied the possibility of such a prediction, others have struggled to find cycles which would justify the achievement of the philosopher. Some of the proposed cycles have already been refuted, but two of them, namely those of Willy Hartner and Dirk Couprie, remain unchallenged. This paper presents some important objections to these two possibilities, based on the fact that these authors do not list all the eclipses potentially visible by their criteria. In addition, any explanation based on cycles will need to face the complex problem of visibility (smallest observable eclipse, weather...). The present article also includes a statistical study on the predictability of solar eclipses for a variety of periods, similar to that performed by Willy Hartner for lunar eclipses, resulting in lower probabilities in the solar case (and percentages depend on the chosen ...

  13. Magnetic inhibition of convection and the fundamental properties of low-mass stars. III. A consistent 10 Myr age for the Upper Scorpius OB association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiden, Gregory A.

    2016-09-01

    When determining absolute ages of identifiably young stellar populations, results strongly depend on which stars are studied. Cooler (K, M) stars typically yield ages that are systematically younger than warmer (A, F, G) stars by a factor of two. I explore the possibility that these age discrepancies are the result of magnetic inhibition of convection in cool young stars by using magnetic stellar evolution isochrones to determine the median age of the Upper Scorpius subgroup of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association. A median age of 10 Myr consistent across spectral types A through M is found, except for a subset of F-type stars that appear significantly older. Agreement is shown for ages derived from the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram and from the empirical mass-radius relationship defined by eclipsing multiple-star systems. Surface magnetic field strengths required to produce agreement are approximately 2.5 kG and are predicted from a priori estimates of thermal equipartition values. A region in the HR diagram is identified that plausibly connects stars whose structures are weakly influenced by the presence of magnetic fields with those whose structures are strongly influenced by magnetic fields. The models suggest that this region is characterized by stars with rapidly thinning outer convective envelopes where the radiative core mass is greater than 75% of the total stellar mass. Furthermore, depletion of lithium predicted from magnetic models appears in better agreement with observed lithium equivalent widths than predictions from non-magnetic models. These results suggest that magnetic inhibition of convection plays an important role in the early evolution of low-mass stars and that it may be responsible for noted age discrepancies in young stellar populations.

  14. Detecting the Companions and Ellipsoidal Variations of RS CVn Primaries. II. o Draconis, a Candidate for Recent Low-mass Companion Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M.; Monnier, John D.; Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Korhonen, Heidi; Latham, David W.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Williamson, Michael H.; Baron, Fabien; ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Che, Xiao; Harmon, Robert O.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Scott, Nicholas J.; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Turner, Nils H.

    2015-08-01

    To measure the stellar and orbital properties of the metal-poor RS CVn binary o Draconis (o Dra), we directly detect the companion using interferometric observations obtained with the Michigan InfraRed Combiner at Georgia State University's Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array. The H-band flux ratio between the primary and secondary stars is the highest confirmed flux ratio (370 ± 40) observed with long-baseline optical interferometry. These detections are combined with radial velocity data of both the primary and secondary stars, including new data obtained with the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph on the Tillinghast Reflector at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory and the 2 m Tennessee State University Automated Spectroscopic Telescope at Fairborn Observatory. We determine an orbit from which we find model-independent masses and ages of the components ({M}A=1.35+/- 0.05 {M}⊙ , {M}B=0.99+/- 0.02 {M}⊙ , system age = 3.0\\mp 0.5 Gyr). An average of a 23-year light curve of o Dra from the Tennessee State University Automated Photometric Telescope folded over the orbital period newly reveals eclipses and the quasi-sinusoidal signature of ellipsoidal variations. The modeled light curve for our system's stellar and orbital parameters confirm these ellipsoidal variations due to the primary star partially filling its Roche lobe potential, suggesting most of the photometric variations are not due to stellar activity (starspots). Measuring gravity darkening from the average light curve gives a best-fit of β =0.07+/- 0.03, a value consistent with conventional theory for convective envelope stars. The primary star also exhibits an anomalously short rotation period, which, when taken with other system parameters, suggests the star likely engulfed a low-mass companion that had recently spun-up the star.

  15. Student artistry sparks eclipse excitement on Maui: NSO/DKIST EPO for the 2016 Partial Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Thomas A.; Penn, Matthew J.; Armstrong, James

    2016-05-01

    Local creativity and artistry is a powerful resource that enhances education programs and helps us generate excitement for science within our communities. In celebration of the 2016 Solar Eclipse, the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and its Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) project were pleased to engage with students across Maui County, Hawai`i, via the 2016 Maui Eclipse Art Contest. With the help of the Maui Economic Development Board and the University of Hawai'is Institute for Astronomy, we solicited art entries from all K-12 schools in Maui County approximately 6 months prior to the eclipse. Along with divisional prizes, a grand prize was selected by a panel of local judges, which was subsequently printed on 25,000 solar eclipse viewing glasses and distributed to all Maui students. We found that the impact of a locally-sourced glasses design cannot be understated. Overall, the success of this program relied upon reaching out to individual teachers, supplying educational flyers to all schools, and visiting classrooms. On the day of the eclipse, all of the art entries were prominently displayed during a community eclipse viewing event at Kalama Beach Park in Kihei, HI, that was co-hosted by NSO and the Maui Science Center. This eclipse art contest was integral to making local connections to help promote science education on Maui, and we suggest that it could be adapted to the solar community's EPO activities for the upcoming 2017 Great American Solar Eclipse.

  16. The baryonic mass assembly of low-mass halos in a Lambda-CDM Universe

    CERN Document Server

    De Rossi, Maria E; Tissera, Patricia B; Gonzalez-Samaniego, Alejandro; Pedrosa, Susana

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the dark, gas, and stellar mass assembly histories of low-mass halos (Mvir ~ 10^10.3 - 10^12.3 M_sun) identified at redshift z = 0 in cosmological numerical simulations. Our results indicate that for halos in a given present-day mass bin, the gas-to-baryon fraction inside the virial radius does not evolve significantly with time, ranging from ~0.8 for smaller halos to ~0.5 for the largest ones. Most of the baryons are located actually not in the galaxies but in the intrahalo gas; for the more massive halos, the intrahalo gas-to-galaxy mass ratio is approximately the same at all redshifts, z, but for the least massive halos, it strongly increases with z. The intrahalo gas in the former halos gets hotter with time, being dominant at z = 0, while in the latter halos, it is mostly cold at all epochs. The multiphase ISM and thermal feedback models in our simulations work in the direction of delaying the stellar mass growth of low-mass galaxies.

  17. TREX-DM: a low background Micromegas-based TPC for low mass WIMP detection

    CERN Document Server

    Iguaz, F J; Aznar, F; Castel, J F; Cebrian, S; Dafni, T; Garcia, J A; Gomez, H; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Irastorza, I G; Lagraba, A; Luzon, G; Peiro, A; Rodriguez, A

    2015-01-01

    Dark Matter experiments are recently focusing their detection techniques in low-mass WIMPs, which requires the use of light elements and low energy threshold. In this context, we present the TREX-DM experiment, a low background Micromegas-based TPC for low-mass WIMP detection. Its main goal is the operation of an active detection mass $\\sim$0.300 kg, with an energy threshold below 0.4 keVee and fully built with previously selected radiopure materials. This article describes the actual setup, the first results of the comissioning in Ar+2\\%iC$_4$H$_{10}$ at 1.2 bar and the future updates for a possible physics run at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in 2016. A first background model is also presented, based on Geant4 simulations and a muon/electron discrimination method. In a conservative scenario, TREX-DM could be sensitive to DAMA/LIBRA and other hints of positive WIMPs signals, with some space for improvement with a neutron/electron discrimination method or the use of other light gases.

  18. Pulsating low-mass white dwarfs in the frame of new evolutionary sequences: II. Nonadiabatic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, Alejandro H

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass ($M_{\\star}/M_{\\sun} \\lesssim 0.45$) white dwarfs, including the so called extremely low-mass white dwarfs (ELM, $M_{\\star}/M_{\\sun } \\lesssim 0.18-0.20$), are being currently discovered in the field of our Galaxy through dedicated photometric surveys. The fact that some of them pulsate opens the unparalleled chance for sounding their interiors. We present a detailed nonadiabatic pulsational analysis of such stars based on a new set of He-core white-dwarf models with masses ranging from $0.1554$ to $0.4352 M_{\\sun}$ derived by computing the non-conservative evolution of a binary system consisting of an initially $1 M_{\\sun}$ ZAMS star and a $1.4 M_{\\sun}$ neutron star. We have computed nonadiabatic radial modes and nonradial g and p modes to assess the dependence of the pulsational stability properties of these objects with stellar parameters such as the stellar mass, the effective temperature, and the convective efficiency. We found that a dense spectrum of unstable radial modes and nonradial g and ...

  19. Investigating the low-mass slope and possible turnover in the LMC IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Mario

    2014-10-01

    We propose to derive the Initial Mass Function (IMF) of the field population of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) down to 0.2 solar masses, probing the mass regime where the characteristic IMF turnover is observed in our Galaxy. The power of the HST, using the WFC3 IR channel, is necessary to obtain photometric mass estimates for the faint, cool, dwarf stars with masses below the expected IMF turnover point. Only by probing the IMF down to such masses, it will be possible to clearly distinguish between a bottom-heavy or bottom-light IMF in the LMC. Recent studies, using the deepest available observations for the Small Magellanic Cloud, cannot find clear evidence of a turnover in the IMF for this galaxy, suggesting a bottom-heavy IMF in contrast to the Milky Way. A similar study of the LMC is needed to confirm a possible dependence of the low-mass IMF with galactic environment. Studies of giant ellipticals have recently challenged the picture of a universal IMF, and suggest an enviromental dependence of the IMF, with the most massive galaxies having a larger fraction of low mass stars and no IMF turnover. A study of possible IMF variations from resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies is of great importance in sheding light on this issue. Our simple approach, using direct evidence from basic star counts, is much less prone to systematic errors with respect to studies of more distant objects which have to rely on the observations of integrated properties.

  20. A Pulsation Search Among Young Brown Dwarfs and Very Low Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cody, Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, Palla & Baraffe proposed that brown dwarfs (BDs) and very low mass stars (VLMSs; <0.1 solar masses) may be unstable to radial oscillations during the pre-main-sequence deuterium burning phase. With associated periods of 1-4 hours, this potentially new class of pulsation offers unprecedented opportunities to probe the interiors and evolution of low-mass objects in the 1-15 million year age range. Following up on reports of short-period variability in young clusters, we designed a high-cadence photometric monitoring campaign to search for deuterium-burning pulsation among a sample of 348 BDs and VLMSs in the four young clusters $\\sigma$ Orionis, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, and Upper Scorpius. In the resulting light curves we achieved sensitivity to periodic signals of amplitude several millimagnitudes, on timescales from 15 minutes to two weeks. Despite the exquisite data quality, we failed to detect any periodicities below seven hours. We conclude that D-burning pulsations are not able to grow to obs...

  1. A pulsation search among young brown dwarfs and very-low-mass stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, Ann Marie; Hillenbrand, Lynne A., E-mail: amc@ipac.caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astrophysics, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    In 2005, Palla and Baraffe proposed that brown dwarfs (BDs) and very-low-mass stars (VLMSs; < 0.1 solar masses) may be unstable to radial oscillations during the pre-main-sequence deuterium burning phase. With associated periods of one to four hours, this potentially new class of pulsation offers unprecedented opportunities to probe the interiors and evolution of low-mass objects in the 1-15 million year age range. Following up on reports of short-period variability in young clusters, we designed a high-cadence photometric monitoring campaign to search for deuterium-burning pulsation among a sample of 348 BDs and VLMSs in the four young clusters σ Orionis, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, and Upper Scorpius. In the resulting light curves we achieved sensitivity to periodic signals of amplitude several millimagnitudes, on timescales from 15 minutes to two weeks. Despite the exquisite data quality, we failed to detect any periodicities below seven hours. We conclude that D-burning pulsations are not able to grow to observable amplitudes in the early pre-main sequence. In spite of the nondetection, we did uncover a rich set of variability behavior—both periodic and aperiodic—on day to week timescales. We present new compilations of variable sources from our sample, as well as three new candidate cluster members in Chamaeleon I.

  2. Spatially resolved atomic and molecular emission from the very low-mass star IRS54

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, R Garcia; Weigelt, G; Nisini, B; Antoniucci, S

    2013-01-01

    Molecular outflows from very low-mass stars (VLMSs) and brown dwarfs (BDs) have been studied very little, and only a few objects have been directly imaged. Using VLT SINFONI K-band observations, we spatially resolved, for the first time, the H2 emission around IRS54, a ~0.1-0.2 Msun Class I source. The molecular emission shows a complex structure delineating a large outflow cavity and an asymmetric molecular jet. In addition, new [FeII] VLT ISAAC observations at 1.644um allowed us to discover the atomic jet counterpart which extends down to the central source. The outflow structure is similar to those found in low-mass Class I young stellar objects (YSOs) and Classical TTauri stars (CTTSs). However, its Lacc/Lbol ratio is very high (~80%), and the derived mass accretion rate is about one order of magnitude higher than in objects with similar mass, pointing to the young nature of the investigated source.

  3. Direct evidence of hierarchical assembly at low masses from isolated dwarf galaxy groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierwalt, S.; Liss, S. E.; Johnson, K. E.; Patton, D. R.; Privon, G. C.; Besla, G.; Kallivayalil, N.; Putman, M.

    2017-01-01

    The demographics of dwarf galaxy populations have long been in tension with predictions from the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) paradigm 1-4 . If primordial density fluctuations were scale-free as predicted, dwarf galaxies should themselves host dark-matter subhaloes 5 , the most massive of which may have undergone star formation resulting in dwarf galaxy groups. Ensembles of dwarf galaxies are observed as sate­llites of more massive galaxies 6-9 , and there is observational 10 and theoretical 11 evidence to suggest that these satellites at redshift z = 0 were captured by the massive host halo as a group. However, the evolution of dwarf galaxies is highly susceptible to environment 12-14 , making these satellite groups imperfect probes of ΛCDM in the low-mass regime. Here we report one of the clearest examples yet of hierarchical structure formation at low masses: using deep multi-wavelength data, we identify seven isolated, spectroscopically confirmed groups of only dwarf galaxies. Each group hosts three to five known members, has a baryonic mass of ~4.4 × 109 to 2 × 1010 solar masses (M ⊙), and requires a mass-to-light ratio of <100 to be gravitationally bound. Such groups are predicted to be rare theoretically and found to be rare observationally at the current epoch, and thus provide a unique window into the possible formation mechanism of more massive, isolated galaxies.

  4. A High-Precision NIR Survey for RV Variable Low-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gagné, Jonathan; Gao, Peter; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Furlan, Elise; Davison, Cassy; Tanner, Angelle; Henry, Todd J; Riedel, Adric R; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Latham, David; Bottom, Michael; White, Russel; Mills, Sean; Beichman, Chas; Johnson, John A; Ciardi, David R; Wallace, Kent; Mennesson, Bertrand; von Braun, Kaspar; Vasisht, Gautam; Prato, Lisa; Kane, Stephen R; Mamajek, Eric E; Walp, Bernie; Crawford, Timothy J; Rougeot, Raphaël; Geneser, Claire S; Catanzarite, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a precise near-infrared (NIR) radial velocity (RV) survey of 32 low-mass stars with spectral types K2-M4 using CSHELL at the NASA IRTF in the $K$-band with an isotopologue methane gas cell to achieve wavelength calibration and a novel iterative RV extraction method. We surveyed 14 members of young ($\\approx$ 25-150 Myr) moving groups, the young field star $\\varepsilon$ Eridani as well as 18 nearby ($<$ 25 pc) low-mass stars and achieved typical single-measurement precisions of 8-15 m s$^{-1}$ with a long-term stability of 15-50 m s$^{-1}$. We obtain the best NIR RV constraints to date on 27 targets in our sample, 19 of which were never followed by high-precision RV surveys. Our results indicate that very active stars can display long-term RV variations as low as $\\sim$ 25-50 m s$^{-1}$ at $\\approx$ 2.3125 $\\mu$m, thus constraining the effect of jitter at these wavelengths. We provide the first multi-wavelength confirmation of GJ 876 bc and independently retrieve orbital parameters...

  5. Theoretical constraints on properties of low-mass neutron stars from EOS of inner crust matters

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    By employing four typical equation of states (EOSs) of the inner crust matters, the constraint on properties of low-mass neutron stars are theoretically investigated. Based on the well known fact that there is a big gap between the neutron stars and white dwarfs in the mass-radius sequence of compact stars, here we explicitly point out the forbidden region for the central density and stellar radius to form a compact stars, that is, there is no compact star in the nature having central density in the region from about $10^{12}~kg/m^3$ to $10^{17}~kg/m^3$, and there is also no compact star having a radius in the region from about 400 km to 2000 km. It is found that for a low-mass neutron star with central densities at subnuclear densities, the stellar mass is mainly determined by the softness of the EOS at the higher density region ($ > 10^{16}~\\textrm{kg.m}^{-3}$) while the stellar radius is dependent on the softness of the EOS at lower density region ($ < 10^{16}~\\textrm{kg.m}^{-3}$). For a stable neutron ...

  6. A Uniformly Selected Sample of Low-mass Black Holes in Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xiao-Bo; Yuan, Weimin; Wang, Ting-Gui; Fan, Xiaohui; Zhou, Hongyan; Jiang, Ning

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted a systematic search of low-mass black holes (BHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with broad Halpha emission lines, aiming at building a homogeneous sample that is more complete than previous ones for fainter, less highly accreting sources. For this purpose, we developed a set of elaborate, automated selection procedures and applied it uniformly to the Fourth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Special attention is given to AGN--galaxy spectral decomposition and emission-line deblending. We define a sample of 309 type 1 AGNs with BH masses in the range $8 \\times 10^4$--$2 \\times 10^6$ \\msun (with a median of $1.2 \\times 10^6$ solar mass), using the virial mass estimator based on the broad Halpha line. About half of our sample of low-mass BHs differs from that of Greene & Ho, with 61 of them discovered here for the first time. Our new sample picks up more AGNs with low accretion rates: the Eddington ratios of the present sample range from $<~0.01$ to ~1, with 30% below 0.1. ...

  7. Detection of C3O in the low-mass protostar Elias 18

    CERN Document Server

    Palumbo, M E; Siringo, C; Trigilio, C

    2008-01-01

    We have performed new laboratory experiments which gave us the possibility to obtain an estimate of the amount of carbon chain oxides (namely C3O2, C2O, and C3O) formed after irradiation (with 200 keV protons) of pure CO ice, at 16 K. The analysis of laboratory data indicates that in dense molecular clouds, when high CO depletion occurs, an amount of carbon chain oxides as high as 2-3x10^-3 with respect to gas phase carbon monoxide can be formed after ion irradiation of icy grain mantles. Then we have searched for gas phase C2O and C3O towards ten low-mass young stellar objects. Among these we have detected the C3O line at 38486.891 MHz towards the low-mass protostar Elias 18. On the basis of the laboratory results we suggest that in dense molecular clouds gas phase carbon chain oxides are formed in the solid phase after cosmic ion irradiation of CO-rich icy mantles and released to the gas phase after desorption of icy mantles. We expect that the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), thanks to its high sensi...

  8. Asteroseismic test of rotational mixing in low-mass white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Istrate, A G; Gianninas, A; Grassitelli, L; Marchant, P; Tauris, T M; Langer, N

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the recent discovery of pulsations in mixed-atmosphere (He/H), extremely low-mass white dwarf precursors (ELM proto-WDs) to test the proposition that rotational mixing is a fundamental process in the formation and evolution of low-mass helium core white dwarfs. Rotational mixing has been shown to be a mechanism able to compete efficiently against gravitational settling, thus accounting naturally for the presence of He, as well as traces of metals such as Mg and Ca, typically found in the atmospheres of ELM proto-WDs. Here we investigate whether rotational mixing can maintain a sufficient amount of He in the deeper driving region of the star, such that it can fuel, through HeII-HeIII ionization, the observed pulsations in this type of stars. Using state-of-the-art evolutionary models computed with MESA, we show that rotational mixing can indeed explain qualitatively the very existence and general properties of the known pulsating, mixed-atmosphere ELM proto-WDs. Moreover, such objects are very likel...

  9. Pulsating low-mass white dwarfs in the frame of new evolutionary sequences: I. Adiabatic properties

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, A H

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of pulsations in some low-mass white dwarfs, including the so-called extremely low-mass white dwarfs, has opened the unprecedented opportunity of probing the internal structure of these ancient stars. We present a detailed adiabatic pulsational study of these stars based on a new set of He-core white-dwarf models with masses ranging from $0.1554$ to $0.4352 M_{\\odot}$ derived by computing the non-conservative evolution of a binary system consisting of an initially $1 M_{\\odot}$ ZAMS star and a $1.4 M_{\\odot}$ neutron star. We computed adiabatic radial ($\\ell= 0$) and non-radial ($\\ell= 1, 2$) $p$ and $g$ modes to assess the dependence of the pulsational properties of these objects on stellar parameters such as the stellar mass and the effective temperature, as well as the effects of element diffusion. We found that for white dwarf models with masses below $\\sim 0.18 M_{\\odot}$, $g$ modes mainly probe the core regions and $p$ modes the envelope, therefore pulsations offer the opportunity of const...

  10. Supernova enrichment of planetary systems in low-mass star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, Rhana B

    2016-01-01

    The presence and abundance of short lived radioisotopes (SLRs) $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe in chondritic meteorites implies that the Sun formed in the vicinity of one or more massive stars that exploded as supernovae (SNe). Massive stars are more likely to form in massive star clusters ($>$1000 M$_{\\odot}$) than lower mass clusters. However, photoevaporation of protoplanetary discs from massive stars and dynamical interactions with passing stars can inhibit planet formation in clusters with radii of $\\sim$1 pc. We investigate whether low-mass (50 - 200 M$_{\\odot}$) star clusters containing one or two massive stars are a more likely avenue for early Solar system enrichment as they are more dynamically quiescent. We analyse $N$-body simulations of the evolution of these low-mass clusters and find that a similar fraction of stars experience supernova enrichment than in high mass clusters, despite their lower densities. This is due to two-body relaxation, which causes a significant expansion before the first supernov...

  11. Low mass enhanced probability of pion in hadronic matter due to its Landau cut contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sabyasachi

    2015-01-01

    In the real-time thermal field theory, the pion self-energy at finite temperature and density is evaluated where the different mesonic and baryonic loops are considered. The interactions of pion with the other mesons and baryons in the medium are governed by the effective hadronic Lagrangian densities whose effective strength of coupling constants have been determined from the experimental decay widths of the mesons and baryons. The detail branch cut structures of these different mesonic and baryonic loops are analyzed. The Landau cut contributions of different baryon and meson loops become only relevant around the pion pole and it is completely appeared in presence of medium. The in-medium spectral function of pion has been plotted for different values of temperature, baryon chemical potential as well as three momentum of the pion. A noticeable low mass probability in pion spectral function promise to contribute in the low mass dilepton enhancement via indirect modification of $\\rho$ self-energy for $\\pi\\pi$...

  12. Discovery of a Wide Low-mass Binary System in Upper Scorpius

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2005-01-01

    Using the near-infrared spectrometer SpeX and its slit-viewing camera at the IRTF, I have resolved a low-mass member of the Upper Scorpius OB association into a double star. From K-band images of the pair, DENIS-P J161833.2-251750.4 A and B, I measure a separation of 0.96" and a magnitude difference of dK=0.42 mag. I present resolved 0.8-2.5 micron spectroscopy of the two objects, both of which exhibit signatures of youth in the shape of their H- and K-band continua, demonstrating that both are members of Upper Scorpius rather than field stars. In addition, through a comparison to optically-classified pre-main-sequence objects, I derive a spectral type near M5 for each component, corresponding to a mass of ~0.15 Msun with the evolutionary models of Chabrier and Baraffe. The probability that this pair is composed of unrelated M-type members of Upper Scorpius is ~10^-5. When added to the recent discoveries of other wide, easily disrupted low-mass binaries, this new system further establishes that the formation ...

  13. Abundance ratios of red giants in low mass ultra faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    François, P; Bonifacio, P; Bidin, C Moni; Geisler, D; Sbordone, L

    2015-01-01

    Low mass dwarf spheroidal galaxies are key objects for our understanding of the chemical evolution of the pristine Universe and the Local Group of galaxies. Abundance ratios in stars of these objects can be used to better understand their star formation and chemical evolution. We report on the analysis of a sample of 11 stars belonging to 5 different ultra faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies (UfDSph) based on X-Shooter spectra obtained at the VLT. Medium resolution spectra have been used to determine the detailed chemical composition of their atmosphere. We performed a standard 1D LTE analysis to compute the abundances. Considering all the stars as representative of the same population of low mass galaxies, we found that the [alpha/Fe] ratios vs [Fe/H] decreases as the metallicity of the star increases in a way similar to what is found for the population of stars belonging to dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The main difference is that the solar [alpha/Fe] is reached at a much lower metallicity for the UfDSph than the ...

  14. ALMA and VLA Observations: Evidence for Ongoing Low-mass Star Formation near Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Cotton, W.; Wardle, M.; Royster, M. J.; Kunneriath, D.; Roberts, D. A.; Wootten, A.; Schödel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Using the VLA, we recently detected a large number of protoplanetary disk (proplyd) candidates lying within a couple of light years of the massive black hole Sgr A*. The bow-shock appearance of proplyd candidates point toward the young massive stars located near Sgr A*. Similar to Orion proplyds, the strong UV radiation from the cluster of massive stars at the Galactic center is expected to photoevaporate and photoionize the circumstellar disks around young, low mass stars, thus allowing detection of the ionized outflows from the photoionized layer surrounding cool and dense gaseous disks. To confirm this picture, ALMA observations detect millimeter emission at 226 GHz from five proplyd candidates that had been detected at 44 and 34 GHz with the VLA. We present the derived disk masses for four sources as a function of the assumed dust temperature. The mass of protoplanetary disks from cool dust emission ranges between 0.03 - 0.05 M⊙. These estimates are consistent with the disk masses found in star forming sites in the Galaxy. These measurements show the presence of on-going star formation with the implication that gas clouds can survive near Sgr A* and the relative importance of high vs low-mass star formation in the strong tidal and radiation fields of the Galactic center.

  15. Lost in secular evolution: the case of a low mass classical bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Kanak

    2015-01-01

    The existence of a classical bulge in disk galaxies holds important clue to the assembly history of galaxies. Finding observational evidence of very low mass classical bulges particularly in barred galaxies including our Milky Way, is a challenging task as the bar driven secular evolution might bring significant dynamical change to these bulges alongside the stellar disk. Using high-resolution N-body simulation, we show that if a cool stellar disk is assembled around a non-rotating low-mass classical bulge, the disk rapidly grows a strong bar within a few rotation time scales. Later, the bar driven secular process transform the initial classical bulge into a flattened rotating stellar system whose central part also have grown a bar-like component rotating in sync with the disk bar. During this time, a boxy/peanut (hereafter, B/P) bulge is formed via the buckling instability of the disk bar and the vertical extent of this B/P bulge being slightly higher than that of the classical bulge, it encompasses the whol...

  16. A Hybrid Scenario for the Formation of Brown Dwarfs and Very Low Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Shantanu

    2012-01-01

    We present a calculation of protostellar disk formation and evolution in which gaseous clumps (essentially, the first Larson cores formed via disk fragmentation) are ejected from the disk during the early stage of evolution. This is a universal process related to the phenomenon of ejection in multiple systems of point masses. However, it occurs in our model entirely due to the interaction of compact, gravitationally-bound gaseous clumps and is free from the smoothing-length uncertainty that is characteristic of models using sink particles. Clumps that survive ejection span a mass range of 0.08--0.35 $M_\\odot$, and have ejection velocities $0.8 \\pm 0.35$ km s$^{-1}$, which are several times greater than the escape speed. We suggest that, upon contraction, these clumps can form substellar or low-mass stellar objects with notable disks, or even close-separation very-low-mass binaries. In this hybrid scenario, allowing for ejection of clumps rather than finished protostars/proto--brown-dwarfs, disk formation and ...

  17. Evidence for Cluster to Cluster Variations in Low-Mass Stellar Rotational Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, Carl T; Terndrup, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    A concordance model for angular momentum evolution has been developed by multiple investigators. This approach postulates that star forming regions and clusters are an evolutionary sequence which can be modeled with assumptions about the coupling between protostars and accretion disks, angular momentum loss from magnetized winds that saturates in a mass-dependent fashion at high rotation rates, and core-envelope decoupling for solar analogs. We test this approach by combining established data with the large h Per dataset from the MONITOR project and new low-mass Pleiades data. We confirm prior results that young low-mass stars can be used to test star-disk coupling and angular momentum loss independent of the treatment of internal angular momentum transport. For slow rotators, we confirm the need for star-disk interactions to evolve the ONC to older systems, using h Per (age 13~Myr) as our natural post-disk case. Further interactions are not required to evolve slow rotators from h Per to older systems, implyi...

  18. S-process in low-mass extremely metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, Monique A; Weiss, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor low-mass stars experience an ingestion of protons into the helium-rich layer during the core He-flash, resulting in the production of neutrons through the reactions ^{12}C(p,\\gamma)^{13}N(\\beta)^{13}C(\\alpha,n)^{16}O. This is a potential site for the production of s-process elements in extremely metal-poor stars not occurring in more metal-rich counterparts. Observationally, the signatures of s-process elements in the two most iron deficient stars observed to date, HE1327-2326 & HE0107-5240, still await for an explanation. We investigate the possibility that low-mass EMP stars could be the source of s-process elements observed in extremely iron deficient stars, either as a result of self-enrichment or in a binary scenario as the consequence of a mass transfer episode. We present evolutionary and post-processing s-process calculations of a 1Msun stellar model with metallicities Z=0, 10^{-8} and 10^{-7}. We assess the sensitivity of nucleosynthesis results to uncertainties in the input ...

  19. High-J CO survey of low-mass protostars observed with Herschel-HIFI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yıldız, U. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2013-01-01

    derived from single-temperature fits to the Ju = 2-10 integrated intensities are ~70 K, 48 K and 37 K, respectively, with no significant difference between Class 0 and Class I sources and no trend with Menv or Lbol. Thus, in contrast to the continuum SEDs, the spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) do...... probe has not yet been explored due to the lack of high-J CO observations. Aims: The aim is to constrain the physical characteristics (excitation, kinematics, column density) of the warm gas in low-mass protostellar envelopes using spectrally resolved Herschel data of CO and compare those...... with the colder gas traced by lower excitation lines. Methods: Herschel-HIFI observations of high-J lines of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O (up to Ju = 10, Eu up to 300 K) are presented toward 26 deeply embedded low-mass Class 0 and Class I young stellar objects, obtained as part of the Water In Star-forming regions...

  20. Characterizing the Star Formation of the Low-Mass SHIELD Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dolphin, Andrew E; Skillman, Evan D; Haynes, Martha P; Simones, Jacob E; Salzer, John J; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Elson, Ed C; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Ott, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD) is an on-going multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies that populate the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. The galaxies were selected from the first ~10% of the HI ALFALFA survey based on their low HI mass and low baryonic mass. Here, we measure the star-formation properties from optically resolved stellar populations for 12 galaxies using a color-magnitude diagram fitting technique. We derive lifetime average star-formation rates (SFRs), recent SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions. Overall, the recent SFRs are comparable to the lifetime SFRs with mean birthrate parameter of 1.4, with a surprisingly narrow standard deviation of 0.7. Two galaxies are classified as dwarf transition galaxies (dTrans). These dTrans systems have star-formation and gas properties consistent with the rest of the sample, in agreement with previous results that some dTrans galaxies may simply...

  1. Infrared Observations of Hot Gas and Cold Ice Toward the Low Mass Protostar Elias 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogert, A. C. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Ceccarelli, C.; Boonman, A. M. S.; vanDishoeck, E. F.; Keane, J. V.; Whittet, D. C. B.; deGraauw, T.

    2000-01-01

    We have obtained the full 1-200 micrometer spectrum of the low luminosity (36 solar luminosity Class I protostar Elias 29 in the rho Ophiuchi molecular cloud. It provides a unique opportunity to study the origin and evolution of interstellar ice and the interrelationship of interstellar ice and hot core gases around low mass protostars. We see abundant hot CO and H2O gas, as well as the absorption bands of CO, CO2, H2O and "6.85 micrometer" ices. We compare the abundances and physical conditions of the gas and ices toward Elias 29 with the conditions around several well studied luminous, high mass protostars. The high gas temperature and gas/solid ratios resemble those of relatively evolved high mass objects (e.g. GL 2591). However, none of the ice band profiles shows evidence for significant thermal processing, and in this respect Elias 29 resembles the least evolved luminous protostars, such as NGC 7538 : IRS9. Thus we conclude that the heating of the envelope of the low mass object Elias 29 is qualitatively different from that of high mass protostars. This is possibly related to a different density gradient of the envelope or shielding of the ices in a circumstellar disk. This result is important for our understanding of the evolution of interstellar ices, and their relation to cometary ices.

  2. HD 98800: An Opportunity to Measure True Masses for Low-Mass PMS Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderblom, David

    1999-07-01

    HD 98800 became interesting when IRAS found it to have a large infrared excess, indicating a substantial dust disk. But ``HD 98800'' is, in fact, a quadruple system consisting of four K and M stars, and its Hipparcos parallax has now shown that this is a pre-main sequence system. The four stars are in two visible objects, each of which is a spectroscopic binary with a period of about one year. In particular, the Ba-Bb pair is an SB2 with an estimated semi-major axis of about 20 milliarcsec. In TRANS mode, FGS1R can cleanly resolve the Ba-Bb pair and can determine the relative orbit and luminosities for the two components. POS mode observations lead to an absolute orbit and a more precise parallax than is currently available. In this program we propose to follow the HD 98800 Ba-Bb pair over the course of a full orbit during Cycle 8. The combination of FGS1R-TRANS and FGS1R-POS observations will provide gravitational masses for two low-mass PMS stars. In addition, the co nstraints of coevality and knowled ge of the astrophysical properties of the components {temperatures, luminosities, composition} make these observations a crucial test of our models of pre-main sequence evolution. These may be the first true masses determined for low-mass PMS objects, and so can provide a fundamental test of PMS evolutionary tracks.

  3. A Radio Search For Pulsar Companions To SDSS Low-Mass White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Agueros, Marcel A; Silvestri, Nicole M; Kleinman, S J; Anderson, Scott F; Liebert, James W

    2009-01-01

    We have conducted a search for pulsar companions to 15 low-mass white dwarfs (LMWDs; M < 0.4 M_Sun) at 820 MHz with the NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT). These LMWDs were spectroscopically identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and do not show the photometric excess or spectroscopic signature associated with a companion in their discovery data. However, LMWDs are believed to evolve in binary systems and to have either a more massive WD or a neutron star as a companion. Indeed, evolutionary models of low-mass X-ray binaries, the precursors of millisecond pulsars (MSPs), produce significant numbers of LMWDs (e.g., Benvenuto & De Vito 2005), suggesting that the SDSS LMWDs may have neutron star companions. No convincing pulsar signal is detected in our data. This is consistent with the findings of van Leeuwen et al. (2007), who conducted a GBT search for radio pulsations at 340 MHz from unseen companions to eight SDSS WDs (five are still considered LMWDs; the three others are now classified as "...

  4. Sensitive Limits on the Water Abundance in Cold Low Mass Molecular Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Bergin, E A; Bergin, Edwin A.; Snell, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    We present SWAS observations of water vapor in two cold star-less clouds, B68 and Core D in rho Ophiuchus. Sensitive non-detections of the 1(10)-1(01) transition of o-H2O are reported for each source. Both molecular cores have been previously examined by detailed observations that have characterized the physical structure. Using these rather well defined physical properties and a Monte-Carlo radiation transfer model we have removed one of the largest uncertainties from the abundance calculation and set the lowest water abundance limit to date in cold low-mass molecular cores. These limits are < 3 x 10^{-8} (relative to H2) and < 8 x 10^{-9} in B68 and rho Oph D, respectively. Such low abundances confirm the general lack of ortho-water vapor in cold (T < 20 K) cores. Provided that the ortho/para ratio of water is not near zero, these limits are well below theoretical predictions and appear to support the suggestion that most of the water in dense low-mass cores is frozen onto the surfaces of cold dust...

  5. Steep-Spectrum Radio Emission from the Low-Mass Active Galactic Nucleus GH 10

    CERN Document Server

    Wróbel, J M; Ho, L C; Ulvestad, J S

    2008-01-01

    GH 10 is a broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN) energized by a black hole of mass 800,000 Solar masses. It was the only object detected by Greene et al. in their Very Large Array (VLA) survey of 19 low-mass AGNs discovered by Greene & Ho. New VLA imaging at 1.4, 4.9, and 8.5 GHz reveals that GH 10's emission has an extent of less than 320 pc, has an optically-thin synchrotron spectrum with a spectral index -0.76+/-0.05, is less than 11 percent linearly polarized, and is steady - although poorly sampled - on timescales of weeks and years. Circumnuclear star formation cannot dominate the radio emission, because the high inferred star formation rate, 18 Solar masses per year, is inconsistent with the rate of less than 2 Solar masses per year derived from narrow Halpha and [OII] 3727 emission. Instead, the radio emission must be mainly energized by the low-mass black hole. GH 10's radio properties match those of the steep-spectrum cores of Palomar Seyfert galaxies, suggesting that, like those Seyferts, t...

  6. MASSIVE: A Bayesian analysis of giant planet populations around low-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannier, J.; Delorme, P.; Lagrange, A. M.; Borgniet, S.; Rameau, J.; Schlieder, J. E.; Gagné, J.; Bonavita, M. A.; Malo, L.; Chauvin, G.; Bonnefoy, M.; Girard, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Direct imaging has led to the discovery of several giant planet and brown dwarf companions. These imaged companions populate a mass, separation and age domain (mass >1 MJup, orbits > 5 AU, age planetary formation models. Methods: We observed 58 young and nearby M-type dwarfs in L'-band with the VLT/NaCo instrument and used angular differential imaging algorithms to optimize the sensitivity to planetary-mass companions and to derive the best detection limits. We estimate the probability of detecting a planet as a function of its mass and physical separation around each target. We conduct a Bayesian analysis to determine the frequency of substellar companions orbiting low-mass stars, using a homogenous sub-sample of 54 stars. Results: We derive a frequency of for companions with masses in the range of 2-80 MJup, and % for planetary mass companions (2-14 MJup), at physical separations of 8 to 400 AU for both cases. Comparing our results with a previous survey targeting more massive stars, we find evidence that substellar companions more massive than 1 MJup with a low mass ratio Q with respect to their host star (Q 2 MJup might be independent from the mass of the host star.

  7. Complete nucleosynthesis calculations for low-mass stars from NuGrid

    CERN Document Server

    Pignatari, Marco; Bennett, Michael; Diehl, Steven; Fryer, Christopher L; Hirschi, Raphael; Hungerford, Aimee; Magkotsios, Georgios; Rockefeller, Gabriel; Timmes, Francis X; Young, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Many nucleosynthesis and mixing processes of low-mass stars as they evolve from the Main Sequence to the thermal-pulse Asymptotic Giant Branch phase (TP-AGB) are well understood (although of course important physics components, e.g. rotation, magnetic fields, gravity wave mixing, remain poorly known). Nevertheless, in the last years presolar grain measurements with high resolution have presented new puzzling problems and strong constraints on nucleosynthesis processes in stars. The goal of the NuGrid collaboration is to present uniform yields for a large range of masses and metallicities, including low$-$mass stars and massive stars and their explosions. Here we present the first calculations of stellar evolution and high-resolution, post-processing simulations of an AGB star with an initial mass of 2 M_sun and solar-like metallicity (Z=0.01), based on the post-processing code PPN. In particular, we analyze the formation and evolution of the radiative 13C-pocket between the 17th TP and the 18th TP. The s-proc...

  8. Low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity LHC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonella, Laura

    2013-10-15

    Reducing material in silicon trackers is of major importance for a good overall detector performance, and poses severe challenges to the design of the tracking system. To match the low mass constraints for trackers in High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity, dedicated technological developments are required. This dissertation presents three technologies to design low mass hybrid pixel detectors for the high luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The work targets specifically the reduction of the material from the detector services and modules, with novel powering schemes, flip chip and interconnection technologies. A serial powering scheme is prototyped, featuring a new regulator concept, a control and protection element, and AC-coupled data transmission. A modified flip chip technology is developed for thin, large area Front-End chips, and a via last Through Silicon Via process is demonstrated on existing pixel modules. These technologies, their developments, and the achievable material reduction are discussed using the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector as a case study.

  9. On the helium flash in low-mass Population III Red Giant stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schlattl, H; Salaris, M; Weiss, A

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of initially metal-free, low-mass Red Giant stars through the He core flash at the tip of the Red Giant Branch. The low entropy barrier between the helium- and hydrogen-rich layers enables a penetration of the helium flash driven convective zone into the inner tail of the extinguishing H-burning shell. As a consequence, protons are mixed into high-temperature regions triggering a H-burning runaway. The subsequent dredge-up of matter processed by He and H burning enriches the stellar surface with large amounts of helium, carbon and nitrogen. Extending previous results by Hollowell et al. (1990) and Fujimoto et al. (2000), who claimed that the H-burning runaway is an intrinsic property of extremely metal-poor low-mass stars, we found that its occurrence depends on additional parameters like the initial composition and the treatment of various physical processes. We perform some comparisons between predicted surface chemical abundances and observational measurements for extremely met...

  10. Low Mass Blood Peptides Discriminative of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Severity: A Quantitative Proteomic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasinger, Valerie C; Yau, Yunki; Duo, Xizi; Zeng, Ming; Campbell, Beth; Shin, Sean; Luber, Raphael; Redmond, Diane; Leong, Rupert W L

    2016-01-01

    Breakdown of the protective gut barrier releases effector molecules and degradation products into the blood stream making serum and plasma ideal as a diagnostic medium. The enriched low mass proteome is unexplored as a source of differentiators for diagnosing and monitoring inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity, that is less invasive than colonoscopy. Differences in the enriched low mass plasma proteome (Peptides differentiating controls from IBD originate from secreted phosphoprotein 24 (SPP24, p = 0.000086, 0.009); whereas those in remission and healthy can be differentiated in UC by SPP24 (p = 0.00023, 0.001), α-1-microglobulin (AMBP, p = 0.006) and CD by SPP24 (p = 0.019, 0.05). UC and CD can be differentiated by Guanylin (GUC2A, p = 0.001), and Secretogranin-1 (CHGB p = 0.035). Active and quiescent disease can also be differentiated in UC and CD by CHGB (p ≤ 0.023) SPP24 (p ≤ 0.023) and AMBP (UC p = 0.046). Five peptides discriminating IBD activity and severity had very little-to-no correlation to erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, white cell or platelet counts. Three of these peptides were found to be binding partners to SPP24 protein alongside other known matrix proteins. These proteins have the potential to improve diagnosis and evaluate IBD activity, reducing the need for more invasive techniques. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002821.

  11. Multi-fibre optical spectroscopy of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in Upper Sco

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Hambly, N C

    2011-01-01

    We have obtained multi-fibre intermediate-resolution optical spectroscopy of 94 photometric and proper motion selected low-mass star and brown dwarf candidates in Upper Sco with AAT/AAOmega. We have estimated the spectral types and measured the equivalent widths of youth and gravity diagnostic features to confirm the spectroscopic membership of about 95% of the candidates extracted from 6.5 square degrees in Upper Sco. We also detect lithium in the spectra with the highest signal-to-noise, consolidating our conclusions about their youth. Furthermore, we derive an estimate of our selections using spectroscopic data obtained for a large number of stars falling into the instrument's field-of-view. We have estimated the effective temperatures and masses for each new spectroscopic member using the latest evolutionary models available for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Combining the current optical spectroscopy presented here with near-infrared spectroscopy obtained for the faintest photometric candidates, we con...

  12. Kepler Eclipsing Binary Stars. VII. The Catalog of Eclipsing Binaries Found in the Entire Kepler Data-Set

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, Brian; Prša, Andrej; Abdul-Masih, Michael; Kochoska, Angela; Matijevič, Gal; Hambleton, Kelly; Barclay, Thomas; Bloemen, Steven; Boyajian, Tabetha; Doyle, Laurance R; Fulton, B J; Hoekstra, Abe Johannes; Jek, Kian; Kane, Stephen R; Kostov, Veselin; Latham, David; Mazeh, Tsevi; Orosz, Jerome A; Pepper, Joshua; Quarles, Billy; Ragozzine, Darin; Shporer, Avi; Southworth, John; Stassun, Keivan; Thompson, Susan E; Welsh, William F; Agol, Eric; Derekas, Aliz; Devor, Jonathan; Fischer, Debra; Green, Gregory; Gropp, Jeff; Jacobs, Tom; Johnston, Cole; LaCourse, Daryll Matthew; Saetre, Kristian; Schwengeler, Hans; Toczyski, Jacek; Werner, Griffin; Garrett, Matthew; Gore, Joanna; Martinez, Arturo O; Spitzer, Isaac; Stevick, Justin; Thomadis, Pantelis C; Vrijmoet, Eliot Halley; Yenawine, Mitchell; Batalha, Natalie; Borucki, William

    2015-01-01

    The primary Kepler Mission provided nearly continuous monitoring of ~200,000 objects with unprecedented photometric precision. We present the final catalog of eclipsing binary systems within the 105 square degree Kepler field of view. This release incorporates the full extent of the data from the primary mission (Q0-Q17 Data Release). As a result, new systems have been added, additional false positives have been removed, ephemerides and principal parameters have been recomputed, classifications have been revised to rely on analytical models, and eclipse timing variations have been computed for each system. We identify several classes of systems including those that exhibit tertiary eclipse events, systems that show clear evidence of additional bodies, heartbeat systems, systems with changing eclipse depths, and systems exhibiting only one eclipse event over the duration of the mission. We have updated the period and galactic latitude distribution diagrams and included a catalog completeness evaluation. The to...

  13. The M Dwarf Eclipsing Binary CU Cancri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. E.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Terrell, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    Spectral features, radial velocities, elemental abundance estimates, other spectral data, and BVIC light curves are reported for the double-M dwarf eclipsing binary CU Cancri—a good target for a radius check versus the Zero Age Main Sequence (ZAMS) due to the low component masses and corresponding very slow evolutionary expansion. The estimate of [Fe/H] is about 0.4, although continuum placement and other difficulties due to line crowding introduce the usual uncertainties for red dwarfs. Detection of the Li i λ6707 line was attempted, with an estimated upper limit of 50 mÅ. Spectral and photometric indicators of stellar activity are described and illustrated. Other objectives were to measure the stellar radii via simultaneous velocity and light-curve solutions of earlier and new data while also improving the ephemeris by filling gaps in timewise coverage with the new velocities and eclipse data from the new light curves. The radii from our solutions agree within about 2% with those from Ribas, being slightly larger than expected for most estimates of the ZAMS. Some aspects of the red dwarf radius anomaly are briefly discussed. Evolution tracks show only very slight age-related expansion for masses near those in CU Cnc. Such expansion could be significant if CU Cnc were similar in age to the Galaxy, but then its Galactic velocity components should be representative of Population II, and they are not.

  14. RADIAL VELOCITY ECLIPSE MAPPING OF EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, Nikolay; Sainsbury-Martinez, Felix, E-mail: nikolay@astro.ex.ac.uk [Astrophysics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-20

    Planetary rotation rates and obliquities provide information regarding the history of planet formation, but have not yet been measured for evolved extrasolar planets. Here we investigate the theoretical and observational perspective of the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect during secondary eclipse (RMse) ingress and egress for transiting exoplanets. Near secondary eclipse, when the planet passes behind the parent star, the star sequentially obscures light from the approaching and receding parts of the rotating planetary surface. The temporal block of light emerging from the approaching (blueshifted) or receding (redshifted) parts of the planet causes a temporal distortion in the planet’s spectral line profiles resulting in an anomaly in the planet’s radial velocity curve. We demonstrate that the shape and the ratio of the ingress-to-egress radial velocity amplitudes depends on the planetary rotational rate, axial tilt, and impact factor (i.e., sky-projected planet spin–orbital alignment). In addition, line asymmetries originating from different layers in the atmosphere of the planet could provide information regarding zonal atmospheric winds and constraints on the hot spot shape for giant irradiated exoplanets. The effect is expected to be most-pronounced at near-infrared wavelengths, where the planet-to-star contrasts are large. We create synthetic near-infrared, high-dispersion spectroscopic data and demonstrate how the sky-projected spin axis orientation and equatorial velocity of the planet can be estimated. We conclude that the RMse effect could be a powerful method to measure exoplanet spins.

  15. PX Andromedae superhumps and variable eclipse depth

    CERN Document Server

    Stanishev, V; Boffin, H M J; Genkov, V

    2002-01-01

    Results of a photometric study of the SW Sex novalike PX And are presented. The periodogram analysis of the observations obtained in October 2000 reveals the presence of three signals with periods of 0.142, 4.8 and 0.207 days. The first two periods are recognized as "negative superhumps" and the corresponding retrograde precession period of the accretion disk. The origin of the third periodic signal remains unknown. The observations in September-October 2001 point only to the presence of "negative superhumps" and possibly to the precession period. The origin of the "negative superhumps" is discussed and two possible mechanisms are suggested. All light curves show strong flickering activity and power spectra with a typical red noise shape. PX And shows eclipses with highly variable shape and depth. The analysis suggests that the eclipse depth is modulated with the precession period and two possible explanations of this phenomenon are discussed. An improved orbital ephemeris is also determined: T_min[HJD]=49238...

  16. Spitzer Secondary Eclipses of WASP-18b

    CERN Document Server

    Nymeyer, Sarah; Hardy, Ryan A; Stevenson, Kevin B; Campo, Christopher J; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, William C; Britt, Christopher B T; Cubillos, Patricio; Hellier, Coel; Gillon, Michael; Maxted, Pierre F L; Hebb, Leslie; Wheatley, Peter J; Pollacco, Don; Anderson, David

    2010-01-01

    The transiting exoplanet WASP-18b was discovered in 2008 by the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP) project. The \\textit{Spitzer}\\ Exoplanet Target of Opportunity Program observed secondary eclipses of WASP-18b using \\textit{Spitzer}'s Infrared Array Camera (IR\\ AC) in the 3.6-{\\micron} and 5.8-{\\micron} bands on 2008 December 20, and in the 4.5-{\\micron} and 8.0-{\\micron} bands on 2008 Dece\\ mber 24. We report eclipse depths of \\math{0.31\\pm{0.02}, 0.38\\pm{0.03}, 0.41\\pm{0.02}, 0.43\\pm{0.03}\\%}, and brightness temperatu\\ res of 2920 \\pm {90}, 3150 \\pm {130}, 3040 \\pm {130} and 2960 \\pm {130} K, respectively. WASP-18b is one of the hottest planets ye\\ t discovered - as hot as an M-class star. The planet's pressure-temperature profile features a thermal inversion. The observation\\ s also require WASP-18b to have near-zero albedo and almost no redistribution of energy from the day-side to the night side of the \\ planet.

  17. Eclipse Mapping: Astrotomography of Accretion Discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Raymundo

    The Eclipse Mapping Method is an indirect imaging technique that transforms the shape of the eclipse light curve into a map of the surface brightness distribution of the occulted regions. Three decades of application of this technique to the investigation of the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs around white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables have enriched our understanding of these accretion devices with a wealth of details such as (but not limited to) moving heating/cooling waves during outbursts in dwarf novae, tidally-induced spiral shocks of emitting gas with sub-Keplerian velocities, elliptical precessing discs associated to superhumps, and measurements of the radial run of the disc viscosity through the mapping of the disc flickering sources. This chapter reviews the principles of the method, discusses its performance, limitations, useful error propagation procedures, as well as highlights a selection of applications aimed at showing the possible scientific problems that have been and may be addresses with it.

  18. 75 FR 39472 - Airworthiness Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Model EA500 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eclipse Aerospace... directive (AD) for certain Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. (Eclipse) Model EA500 airplanes. This proposed AD would... proposed AD, contact Eclipse Aerospace, Incorporated, 2503 Clark Carr Loop, SE., Albuquerque, New...

  19. PSR J1723–2837: AN ECLIPSING BINARY RADIO MILLISECOND PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Fronefield [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin and Marshall College, P.O. Box 3003, Lancaster, PA 17604 (United States); Lyne, Andrew G. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Stairs, Ingrid H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kaplan, David L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); McLaughlin, Maura A.; Lorimer, Duncan R. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Freire, Paulo C. C.; Kramer, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Burgay, Marta; D' Amico, Nichi; Possenti, Andrea [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Poggio dei Pini, I-09012 Capoterra (Italy); Camilo, Fernando [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Faulkner, Andrew [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thompson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Manchester, Richard N. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Steeghs, Danny, E-mail: fcrawfor@fandm.edu [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-10

    We present a study of PSR J1723–2837, an eclipsing, 1.86 ms millisecond binary radio pulsar discovered in the Parkes Multibeam survey. Radio timing indicates that the pulsar has a circular orbit with a 15 hr orbital period, a low-mass companion, and a measurable orbital period derivative. The eclipse fraction of ∼15% during the pulsar's orbit is twice the Roche lobe size inferred for the companion. The timing behavior is significantly affected by unmodeled systematics of astrophysical origin, and higher-order orbital period derivatives are needed in the timing solution to account for these variations. We have identified the pulsar's (non-degenerate) companion using archival ultraviolet, optical, and infrared survey data and new optical photometry. Doppler shifts from optical spectroscopy confirm the star's association with the pulsar and indicate a pulsar-to-companion mass ratio of 3.3 ± 0.5, corresponding to a companion mass range of 0.4 to 0.7 M{sub ☉} and an orbital inclination angle range of between 30° and 41°, assuming a pulsar mass range of 1.4-2.0 M{sub ☉}. Spectroscopy indicates a spectral type of G for the companion and an inferred Roche-lobe-filling distance that is consistent with the distance estimated from radio dispersion. The features of PSR J1723–2837 indicate that it is likely a 'redback' system. Unlike the five other Galactic redbacks discovered to date, PSR J1723–2837 has not been detected as a γ-ray source with Fermi. This may be due to an intrinsic spin-down luminosity that is much smaller than the measured value if the unmeasured contribution from proper motion is large.

  20. PSR J1723-2837: An Eclipsing Binary Radio Millisecond Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Fronefield; Lyne, Andrew G.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Kaplan, David L.; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Freire, Paulo C. C.; Burgay, Marta; Camilo, Fernando; D'Amico, Nichi; Faulkner, Andrew; Kramer, Michael; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Manchester, Richard N.; Possenti, Andrea; Steeghs, Danny

    2013-10-01

    We present a study of PSR J1723-2837, an eclipsing, 1.86 ms millisecond binary radio pulsar discovered in the Parkes Multibeam survey. Radio timing indicates that the pulsar has a circular orbit with a 15 hr orbital period, a low-mass companion, and a measurable orbital period derivative. The eclipse fraction of ~15% during the pulsar's orbit is twice the Roche lobe size inferred for the companion. The timing behavior is significantly affected by unmodeled systematics of astrophysical origin, and higher-order orbital period derivatives are needed in the timing solution to account for these variations. We have identified the pulsar's (non-degenerate) companion using archival ultraviolet, optical, and infrared survey data and new optical photometry. Doppler shifts from optical spectroscopy confirm the star's association with the pulsar and indicate a pulsar-to-companion mass ratio of 3.3 ± 0.5, corresponding to a companion mass range of 0.4 to 0.7 M ⊙ and an orbital inclination angle range of between 30° and 41°, assuming a pulsar mass range of 1.4-2.0 M ⊙. Spectroscopy indicates a spectral type of G for the companion and an inferred Roche-lobe-filling distance that is consistent with the distance estimated from radio dispersion. The features of PSR J1723-2837 indicate that it is likely a "redback" system. Unlike the five other Galactic redbacks discovered to date, PSR J1723-2837 has not been detected as a γ-ray source with Fermi. This may be due to an intrinsic spin-down luminosity that is much smaller than the measured value if the unmeasured contribution from proper motion is large.

  1. The solar eclipse of 2017 where and how to best view it

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    On Monday, August 21, 2017, there will be a solar eclipse of the sun visible from large parts of North America, from Oregon across to South Carolina. It will be the first total eclipse visible from mainland US since 1979, and there will not be a significant total eclipse in Europe until 2026. For many westerners, therefore, 2017 is the best opportunity for decades to view a solar eclipse.Preparation is key to successfully observing an eclipse. This guide to the 2017 eclipse tells you the best places and exact times to see the eclipse (including detailed maps), as well as lots of tips on the be

  2. Two new pulsating low-mass pre-white dwarfs or SX Phoenicis stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, M. A.; Kanaan, A.; Córsico, A. H.; Kepler, S. O.; Althaus, L. G.; Koester, D.; Sánchez Arias, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The discovery of pulsations in low-mass stars opens an opportunity to probe their interiors and determine their evolution by employing the tools of asteroseismology. Aims: We aim to analyse high-speed photometry of SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and SDSS J173001.94+070600.25 and discover brightness variabilities. In order to locate these stars in the Teff - log g diagram, we fit optical spectra (SDSS) with synthetic non-magnetic spectra derived from model atmospheres. Methods: To carry out this study, we used the photometric data we obtained for these stars with the 2.15 m telescope at CASLEO, Argentina. We analysed their light curves and applied the discrete Fourier transform (FT) to determine the pulsation frequencies. Finally, we compare both stars in the Teff - log g diagram, with two known pre-white dwarfs and seven pulsating pre-ELM white dwarf stars, δ Scuti, and SX Phe stars Results: We report the discovery of pulsations in SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and SDSS J173001.94+070600.25. We determine their effective temperature and surface gravity to be Teff = 7972 ± 200 K, log g = 4.25 ± 0.5 and Teff = 7925 ± 200 K, log g = 4.25 ± 0.5, respectively. With these parameters, these new pulsating low-mass stars can be identified with either ELM white dwarfs (with ~0.17 M⊙) or more massive SX Phe stars. We identified pulsation periods of 3278.7 and 1633.9 s for SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and a pulsation period of 3367.1 s for SDSS J173001.94+070600.25. These two new objects, together with those of Maxted et al. (2013, 2014), indicate the possible existence of a new instability domain towards the late stages of evolution of low-mass white dwarf stars, although their identification with SX Phe stars cannot be discarded. Visiting Astronomer, Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  3. Stellar or Non-Stellar Light? Determining Near-Infrared Contamination in Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Gelino, Dawn M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Thomas E. Harrison

    2009-01-01

    Low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) systems are comprised of a low-mass, K or M dwarflike star orbiting a compact object. Stellar black hole masses and their distributions are important inputs for binary evolution and supernova models. Currently, the main limiting factor in determining accurate black hole masses in LMXBs is the uncertainty of the orbital inclination angle due to an unknown amount of contaminating light in the near infrared. If present, this light dilutes the ellipsoidal variations o...

  4. Eclipse journeys to the dark side of the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Frank

    2017-01-01

    On August 21st, over one hundred million people will gather across the USA to witness the most-watched total solar eclipse in history. Eclipse: Journeys to the Dark Side of the Moon, by popular science author Frank Close, describes the spellbinding allure of this beautiful natural phenomenon. The book explains why eclipses happen, reveals their role in history, literature and myth, and introduces us to eclipse chasers, who travel with ecstatic fervor to some of the most inaccessible places on the globe. The book also includes the author's quest to solve a 3000-year-old mystery: how did the moon move backward during a total solar eclipse, as claimed in the Book of Joshua? Eclipse is also the story of how a teacher inspired the author, aged eight, to pursue a career in science and a love affair with eclipses that has taken him to a war zone in the Western Sahara, the South Pacific, and the African bush. The tale comes full circle with another eight-year old boy - the author's grandson - at the 2017 great Americ...

  5. The collapse of Io's primary atmosphere in Jupiter eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Constantine C. C.; Spencer, John R.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel A.; Richter, Matthew J.

    2016-08-01

    Volcanic outgassing due to tidal heating is the ultimate source of a tenuous SO2 atmosphere around Jupiter's moon Io. The question of whether SO2 frost on the surface plays a part, and to what degree, in maintaining Io's atmosphere with the constant volcanic outgassing is still debated. It is believed that for a sublimation-supported atmosphere, the primary atmosphere should collapse during eclipses by Jupiter, as the SO2 vapor pressure is strongly coupled to the temperature of the ice on the surface. No direct observations of Io's atmosphere in eclipse have previously been possible, due to the simultaneous need for high spectral and time sensitivity, as well as a high signal-to-noise ratio. Here we present the first ever high-resolution spectra at 19 µm of Io's SO2 atmosphere in Jupiter eclipse from the Gemini telescope. The strongest atmospheric band depth is seen to dramatically decay from 2.5 ± (0.08)% before the eclipse to 0.18 ± (0.16)% after 40 min in eclipse. Further modeling indicates that the atmosphere has collapsed shortly after eclipse ingress, implying that the atmosphere of Io has a strong sublimation-controlled component. The atmospheric column density—from pre-eclipse to in-eclipse—drops by a factor of 5 ± 2.

  6. Five Millennium Catalog of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "FiveMillenniumCanonofLunarEclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  7. Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original 648-page publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Lunar Eclipse parameter, gamma, eclipse magnitude, geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude), and the circumstances at greatest eclipse (i.e., Sun altitude and azimuth, path width, and central line duration). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  8. Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)-Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses. "It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse(latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  9. The origin of single low-mass WDs: another problem that consequential angular momentum loss in CVs might solve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorotovic, M.; Schreiber, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    Low-mass helium-core white dwarfs (WDs) with masses below 0.5 M_{⊙} are known to be formed in binary star systems but unexpectedly, a significant fraction of them seems to be single. On the other hand, in cataclysmic variables (CVs), a large number of low-mass WD primary stars is predicted but not observed. We recently showed that the latter problem can be solved if consequential angular momentum loss causes especially CVs with low-mass WDs to merge and form single stars. Here we simulate the population of single WDs resulting from single-star evolution and from binary star mergers taking into account these new merging CVs. We show that according to the revised model of CV evolution, merging CVs might be the dominant channel leading to the formation of low-mass single WDs and that the predicted relative numbers are consistent with observations. This can be interpreted as further evidence for the revised model of CV evolution we recently suggested. This model includes consequential angular momentum loss that increases with decreasing WD mass and might not only explain the absence of low-mass WD primaries in CVs but also the existence of single low-mass WDs.

  10. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R G; Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A

    2016-09-28

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  11. Improved limits on interactions of low-mass spin-0 dark matter from atomic clock spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnik, Y. V.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Low-mass (sub-eV) spin-0 dark matter particles, which form a coherently oscillating classical field ϕ =ϕ0cos(mϕt ) , can induce oscillating variations in the fundamental constants through their interactions with the standard model sector. We calculate the effects of such possible interactions, which may include the linear interaction of ϕ with the Higgs boson, on atomic and molecular transitions. Using recent atomic clock spectroscopy measurements, we derive limits on the linear interaction of ϕ with the Higgs boson, as well as its quadratic interactions with the photon and light quarks. For the linear interaction of ϕ with the Higgs boson, our derived limits improve on existing constraints by up to 2-3 orders of magnitude.

  12. Innovative low-mass cooling systems for the ALICE ITS Upgrade detector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez Marzoa, Manuel

    The Phase-1 upgrade of the LHC to full design luminosity, planned for 2019 at CERN, requires the modernisation of the experiments around the accelerator. The Inner Tracking System (ITS), the innermost detector at the ALICE experiment, will be upgraded by replacing the current apparatus by new silicon pixels arranged in 7 cylindrical layers. Each layer is composed by multiple independent modules, named staves, which provide mechanical support and cooling to the chips. This thesis aims to develop and validate experimentally an ultra-lightweight stave cooling system for the ITS Upgrade. The moderate thermal requirements, with a nominal power density of 0.15 W/cm^2 and a maximum chip temperature of 30ºC, are counterweighted by extreme low-mass restrictions, obliging to resort to lightweight, non-metallic materials, such as carbon fibre-reinforced polymers and plastics. Novel lightweight stave concepts were developed and experimentally validated, meeting the thermal requirements with minimal material inventory. T...

  13. Probing the Inner 200 AU of Low-Mass Protostars with the Submillimeter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, J. K.; Bourke, T. L.; Di Francesco, J.; Lee, C.-F.; Myers, P. C.; Ohashi, N.; Schoeier, F. L.; Takakuwa, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Wilner, D. J.; Zhang, Q.

    2005-12-01

    We present high angular resolution (1"; 200 AU) observations from a large program studying deeply embedded low-mass protostars (class 0 objects) with the Submillimeter Array. In total 9 different sources have been observed in a wide variety of lines of common molecular species together with continuum. The observations are interpreted on basis of detailed dust and line radiative transfer models. The continuum observations resolve the innermost regions of the protostellar envelopes and place strong constraints on the presence and properties of their circumstellar disks. The line observations reveal the complex structure of these sources, for example, the chemical and dynamical variations throughout the envelopes and the importance of the outflows on both. The research of JKJ was supported by NASA Origins Grant NAG5-13050. The Submillimeter Array is a joint project between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics.

  14. Experimental study on pressure and temperature distributions for low mass flux steam jet in subcooled water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN JunJie; WU XinZhuang; CHONG DaoTong

    2009-01-01

    A low mass flux steam jet in subcooled water was experimentally investigated. The transition of flow pattern from stable jet to condensation oscillation was observed at relatively high water temperature. The axial total pressures, the axial and radial temperature distributions were measured in the jet region. The results indicated that the pressure and temperature distributions were mainly influenced by the water temperature. The correlations corrected with water temperature were given to predict the dimen-sionless axial pressure peak distance and axial temperature distributions in the jet region, the results showed s good agreement between the predictions and experiments. Moreover, the self-similarity property of the radial temperature was obtained, which agreed well with Gauss distribution. In present work, all the dimensionless properties were mainly dependent on the water temperature but weakly on the nozzle size under a certain steam mass flux.

  15. Dust Heating by Low-mass Stars in Massive Galaxies at z<1

    CERN Document Server

    Kajisawa, M; Taniguchi, Y; Kobayashi, M A R; Ichikawa, T; Fukui, Y

    2015-01-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging data and multi-wavelength photometric catalog, we investigated the dust temperature of passively evolving and star-forming galaxies at 0.2 10^{10} Msun have a relatively high dust temperature of Tdust > 20 K, for which the formation efficiency of molecular hydrogen on the surface of dust grains in the diffuse ISM is expected to be very low from the laboratory experiments. The fraction of passively evolving galaxies strongly depends on the expected dust temperature at all redshifts and increases rapidly with increasing the temperature around Tdust ~ 20 K. These results suggest that the dust heating by low-mass stars in massive galaxies plays an important role for the continuation of their passive evolution, because the lack of the shielding effect of the molecular hydrogen on the UV radiation can prevent the gas cooling and formation of new stars.

  16. Catalogue of cataclysmic binaries, low-mass X-ray binaries and related objects (Seventh edition)

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, H

    2003-01-01

    The catalogue lists coordinates, apparent magnitudes, orbital parameters, and stellar parameters of the components and other characteristc properties of 472 cataclysmic binaries, 71 low-mass X-ray binaries and 113 related objects with known or suspected orbital periods together with a comprehensive selection of the relevant recent literature. In addition the catalogue contains a list of references to published finding charts for 635 of the 656 objects, and a cross-reference list of alias object designations. Literature published before 1 January 2003 has, as far as possible, been taken into account. All data can be accessed via the dedicated catalogue webpage at http://www.mpa-garching.mpg.de/RKcat/ (MPA) and http://physics.open.ac.uk/RKcat/ (OU). We will update the information given on the catalogue webpage regularly, initially every six months.

  17. A Large Hubble Space Telescope Survey of Low-Mass Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benneke, Björn; Crossfield, Ian; Knutson, Heather; Lothringer, Joshua; McCullough, Peter R.; Dragomir, Diana; Morley, Caroline; Kempton, Eliza

    2016-10-01

    The discovery of short-period planets with masses and radii between Earth and Neptune was one of the biggest surprises in the brief history of exoplanet science. From the Kepler mission, we know that these "super-Earths" or "sub-Neptunes" orbit at least 40% of stars, likely representing the most common outcome of planet formation. Despite this ubiquity, we know little about their typical compositions and formation histories. In this talk, we will shed new light on these worlds by presenting the multiple the main results from our 124-orbit HST transit spectroscopy survey to probe the chemical compositions of low-mass exoplanets. We will report on multiple molecular detections. Our unprecedented HST survey provides the first comprehensive look at this intriguing new class of planets by covering seven planets ranging from 1 Neptune mass and temperatures close to 2000K to a 1 Earth-mass planet near the habitable zone of its host star.

  18. Angular momentum transport efficiency in post-main sequence low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Spada, F; Arlt, R; Deheuvels, S

    2016-01-01

    Context. Using asteroseismic techniques, it has recently become possible to probe the internal rotation profile of low-mass (~1.1-1.5 Msun) subgiant and red giant stars. Under the assumption of local angular momentum conservation, the core contraction and envelope expansion occurring at the end of the main sequence would result in a much larger internal differential rotation than observed. This suggests that angular momentum redistribution must be taking place in the interior of these stars. Aims. We investigate the physical nature of the angular momentum redistribution mechanisms operating in stellar interiors by constraining the efficiency of post-main sequence rotational coupling. Methods. We model the rotational evolution of a 1.25 Msun star using the Yale Rotational stellar Evolution Code. Our models take into account the magnetic wind braking occurring at the surface of the star and the angular momentum transport in the interior, with an efficiency dependent on the degree of internal differential rotati...

  19. Low Mass Ions in Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry of 1-Methoxy-5-aminotetrazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soo Gyeong; Bae, Kwang Tae; Goh, Eun Mee; Bae, Se Won [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ik-Soo [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The development of novel energetic molecules (EMs) with high power, good safety features, great chemical stability, and environmentally less harmful nature is of great interest in the satellite launcher, missile warhead, ammunition, and pyrotechnic researches. Recently, many researchers have focused on aromatic nitrogen heterocycles such as pyrazole, imidazole, triazole, tetrazole, and pentazole as promising candidates to replace the current EMs used in civilian and military applications. We performed MALDI and LDI experiments with energetic tetrazole derivatives which were of great interest for the application of high performance explosives and fast burning propellants. Particularly, LDI experiments provided low mass ion peaks from decomposition of MAT, which were useful to analyze decomposition mechanism of tetrazoles at TOF MS in high vacuum. The LDI experiments showed various decomposed ion products, which implied several decomposition mechanisms including the detachment of side function groups and the fragmentation of tetrazole ring. The high-level DFT calculations also supported the peaks obtained from LDI experiments.

  20. A Low-Mass Drift Chamber System for the HADES-Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrmann, F.; Bethge, K.; Enghardt, W.; Fateev, O.; Garabatos, C.; Grosse, E.; Muentz, C.; Karig, W.; Koenig, W.; Smykov, L.; Sobiella, M.; Steigerwald, A.; Stelzer, H.; Stroth, J.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Zanewsky, Y.; Zentek, A.

    1998-11-01

    A new high resolution (Δ M/M < 1%) and high acceptance (45%) di-electron spectrometer (HADES) has been designed to investigate in-medium properties of hadrons. For tracking of all charged particles (in particular with sufficient resolution for electrons) a system of 24 low-mass drift chambers (Helium based counting gas and Aluminum field and cathode wires), arranged in four tracking planes, is used. Design aspects of the chambers are reported. Results of performance optimization using various prototype detectors are discussed, including results of an ageing test. Stable operation in the high-multiplicity environment of heavy ion collisions, and a spatial resolution of 70 μ m(σ) over 80% of a cell have been demonstrated in two beam experiments.