WorldWideScience

Sample records for longer contained-in determination

  1. Determinants of longer job tenure among home care aides: what makes some stay on the job while others leave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Sandra S; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Wardamasky, Sara; Ashley, Alison

    2014-03-01

    An inadequate supply of direct care workers and a high turnover rate in the workforce has resulted in a "care gap" in our long-term care system. As people are increasingly choosing community-based care, retention of home care workers is particularly important. The mixed-method study described herein explored determinants of longer job tenure for home care aides (n = 261). Study participants were followed for 18 months, completing two mail surveys and one telephone interview each. Predictors of longer job tenure included older age, living rurally, lower physical function, higher wages, a greater sense of autonomy on the job, and less frequent feelings of personal accomplishment. Thematic analysis of telephone interviews revealed long-term stayers to be less concerned about low wages and inconsistent hours than those who left their jobs within a year; both groups of workers reported high levels of job satisfaction. Policy implications of study findings are discussed.

  2. Tank farms backlog soil sample and analysis results supporting a contained-in determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    Soil waste is generated from Tank Farms and associated Tank Farms facilities operations. The soil is a mixed waste because it is an environmental media which contains tank waste, a listed mixed waste. The soil is designated with the listed waste codes (FOO1 through F005) which have been applied to all tank wastes. The scope of this report includes Tank Farms soil managed under the Backlog program. The Backlog Tank Farm soil in storage consists of drums and 5 boxes (originally 828 drums). The Backlog Waste Program dealt with 2276 containers of solid waste generated by Tank Farms operations during the time period from 1989 through early 1993. The containers were mismanaged by being left in the field for an extended period of time without being placed into permitted storage. As a corrective action for this situation, these containers were placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) pending additional characterization. The Backlog Waste Analysis Plan (BWAP) (RL 1993) was written to define how Backlog wastes would be evaluated for proper designation and storage. The BWAP was approved in August 1993 and all work required by the BWAP was completed by July 1994. This document presents results of testing performed in 1992 & 1996 that supports the attainment of a Contained-In Determination for Tank Farm Backlog soils. The analytical data contained in this report is evaluated against a prescribed decision rule. If the decision rule is satisfied then the Washington State Department of ecology (Ecology) may grant a Contained-In Determination. A Contained-In Determination for disposal to an unlined burial trench will be requested from Ecology . The decision rule and testing requirements provided by Ecology are described in the Tank Farms Backlog Soil Sample Analysis Plan (SAP) (WHC 1996).

  3. Quality of care and its determinants in longer term mental health facilities across Europe; a cross-sectional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Killaspy, Helen; Cardoso, Graca; White, Sarah; Wright, Christine; Caldas de Almeida, Jose Miguel; Turton, Penny; Taylor, Tatiana L.; Schuetzwohl, Matthias; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A.; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kalisova, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Alexiev, Spiridon; Mezzina, Roberto; Ridente, Pina; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Adamowski, Tomasz; Ploumpidis, Dimitris; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; King, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care (QuIRC) is an international, standardised quality tool for the evaluation of mental health facilities that provide longer term care. Completed by the service manager, it comprises 145 items that assess seven domains of care: living

  4. Water Level Flux in Household Containers in Vietnam - A Key Determinant of Aedes aegypti Population Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Jason A. L.; Clements, Archie C. A.; Nguyen, Yen Thi; Nguyen, Le Hoang; Tran, Son Hai; Le, Nghia Trung; Vu, Nam Sinh; Ryan, Peter A.; Kay, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    We examined changes in the abundance of immature Aedes aegypti at the household and water storage container level during the dry-season (June-July, 2008) in Tri Nguyen village, central Vietnam. We conducted quantitative immature mosquito surveys of 171 containers in the same 41 households, with replacement of samples, every two days during a 29-day period. We developed multi-level mixed effects regression models to investigate container and household variability in pupal abundance. The percentage of houses that were positive for I/II instars, III/IV instars and pupae during any one survey ranged from 19.5–43.9%, 48.8–75.6% and 17.1–53.7%, respectively. The mean numbers of Ae. aegypti pupae per house ranged between 1.9–12.6 over the study period. Estimates of absolute pupal abundance were highly variable over the 29-day period despite relatively stable weather conditions. Most variability in pupal abundance occurred at the container rather than the household level. A key determinant of Ae. aegypti production was the frequent filling of the containers with water, which caused asynchronous hatching of Ae. aegypti eggs and development of cohorts of immatures. We calculated the probability of the water volume of a large container (>500L) increasing or decreasing by ≥20% to be 0.05 and 0.07 per day, respectively, and for small containers (<500L) to be 0.11 and 0.13 per day, respectively. These human water-management behaviors are important determinants of Ae. aegypti production during the dry season. This has implications for choosing a suitable Wolbachia strain for release as it appears that prolonged egg desiccation does not occur in this village. PMID:22911683

  5. Determination of the germanium detector efficiency for measurements of the radionuclide activity contained in a radioactive waste drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas, J.; Gallardo, S.; Ballester, S.; Hoyler, F.

    2006-01-01

    One of the features in the characterization of a drum containing radioactive wastes is to verify the activity of radionuclides contained in the drum. An H.P. Ge detector can be used for this measurement. However, it is necessary to perform an efficiency calibration for all geometries involved. In the framework of a joint project between the Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain) and the Fachbereich Angewandte Naturwissenschaften und Technik (Fachhochschule Aachen, Abteilung Julich, Germany), different configurations for a drum containing radioactive sources have been implemented in the laboratory. A cylindrical drum of 850 mm height, a diameter equal to 560 mm and 3 mm of steel thickness has been used in the experimental measurements. The drum contains a clay ceramic matrix whose chemical composition is 55% SiO 2 , 40% of Al 2 O 3 and 5% of TiO 2 . Several vertical PVC tubes having a diameter of 30 mm are inserted in the drum at different distances from the central axis. In the experiment, a pack of point sources with 133 Ba, 60 Co and 137 Cs is introduced into each one of the tubes. A ring-shape distributed source is generated by rotating the drum around its axis during the measurement. The detector efficiency is determined experimentally for these configurations. On the other hand, a Monte Carlo model, using the M.C.N.P. code, has been developed to simulate the drum, the clay matrix and the PVC tubes. The effect of the drum spinning has been reproduced simulating a ring source with different diameters. The model also includes detailed detector geometry. Using this Monte Carlo model, the detector efficiency is calculated for each configuration implemented in the laboratory. Comparison of results from Monte Carlo simulation and experimental measurements should permit the validation of the M.C.N.P. model. Consequently it will be possible to obtain efficiency curves without experimental measurements. Therefore, these

  6. Working Longer in Good Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R.M. Leijten (Fenna)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Due to an ageing society, an increasing retirement age, and high prevalence of chronic health problems among older persons, it is important to understand how older employees [with health problems] can work for longer and productively, often this is termed ‘sustainable

  7. Longer Lasting Bridge Deck Overlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this report is to determine the most effective method for bridge deck overlay construction and repair by assessing current practices; examining new products and technologies; and reviewing NCHRP (National Cooperative Highway Research...

  8. The benefits of longer fuel cycle lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Longer fuel cycle lengths have been found to increase generation and improve outage management. A study at Duke Power Company has shown that longer fuel cycles offer both increased scheduling flexibility and increased capacity factors

  9. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  10. Impact on environmental qualification from a longer fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanwarwalla, M.H.; Akhtar, S.; Drankhan, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    There is a general trend in the nuclear industry towards longer fuel cycles because of the economic benefits. The economic benefits for increasing the fuel cycle from eighteen to twenty four months is estimated by the industry to be about $5.05 million per unit year based on a two week mid-cycle maintenance outage. Equipment with a unique characteristic may require maintenance and/or inspection more frequently than can be accommodated in a longer cycle. The maintenance and surveillance (M ampersand S) requirements for these equipment need to be reviewed to accommodate a longer cycle and avoid any unplanned outage. ComEd's LaSalle Station is considering a move to a longer fuel cycle. A study was done to determine the impact of a longer fuel cycle on their current environmental qualification (EQ) program, and the feasibility of implementing changes to their program to accommodate a longer fuel cycle. This paper discusses (1) the impact, if any, the longer fuel cycle will have on the maintenance and surveillance requirements of the 50.49 or environmentally qualified equipment at LaSalle Station, (2) the various techniques, i.e., partial testing, performance based monitoring etc., employed to extend the existing maintenance and surveillance requirements, and (3) the estimated economic savings, if any, from the extended M ampersand S interval

  11. Mutations in type 3 reovirus that determine binding to sialic acid are contained in the fibrous tail domain of viral attachment protein sigma1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, J D; Gunn, V L; Wetzel, J D; Baer, G S; Dermody, T S

    1997-03-01

    The reovirus attachment protein, sigma1, determines numerous aspects of reovirus-induced disease, including viral virulence, pathways of spread, and tropism for certain types of cells in the central nervous system. The sigma1 protein projects from the virion surface and consists of two distinct morphologic domains, a virion-distal globular domain known as the head and an elongated fibrous domain, termed the tail, which is anchored into the virion capsid. To better understand structure-function relationships of sigma1 protein, we conducted experiments to identify sequences in sigma1 important for viral binding to sialic acid, a component of the receptor for type 3 reovirus. Three serotype 3 reovirus strains incapable of binding sialylated receptors were adapted to growth in murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells, in which sialic acid is essential for reovirus infectivity. MEL-adapted (MA) mutant viruses isolated by serial passage in MEL cells acquired the capacity to bind sialic acid-containing receptors and demonstrated a dependence on sialic acid for infection of MEL cells. Analysis of reassortant viruses isolated from crosses of an MA mutant virus and a reovirus strain that does not bind sialic acid indicated that the sigma1 protein is solely responsible for efficient growth of MA mutant viruses in MEL cells. The deduced sigma1 amino acid sequences of the MA mutant viruses revealed that each strain contains a substitution within a short region of sequence in the sigma1 tail predicted to form beta-sheet. These studies identify specific sequences that determine the capacity of reovirus to bind sialylated receptors and suggest a location for a sialic acid-binding domain. Furthermore, the results support a model in which type 3 sigma1 protein contains discrete receptor binding domains, one in the head and another in the tail that binds sialic acid.

  12. An approach for longer lifetime MCFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Masaru; Tatsumi, Masahiko; Hayano, Takuro [MCFC Research Association, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    For entering into commercialization of MCFC power plants in the beginning of the 21st century, we will devote to research for increasing lifetime as long as 40,000 hours with cell performance decay rate of 0.25 %/1000hrs as the target in FY 1999. This paper will discuss on our approach for longer lifetime MCFCs through electrolyte-loss management and NiO precipitation management as well as micro-structural control of electrodes and matrix plates. Cell voltage decay rate will be estimated by simulation through series of experiments on accelerated conditions.

  13. Atomic weights: no longer constants of nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Holden, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Many of us were taught that the standard atomic weights we found in the back of our chemistry textbooks or on the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements hanging on the wall of our chemistry classroom are constants of nature. This was common knowledge for more than a century and a half, but not anymore. The following text explains how advances in chemical instrumentation and isotopic analysis have changed the way we view atomic weights and why they are no longer constants of nature

  14. Telomere length is longer in women with late maternal age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagan, Erin; Sun, Fangui; Bae, Harold

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Maternal age at birth of last child has been associated with maternal longevity. The aim of this study was to determine whether older women with a history of late maternal age at last childbirth had a longer leukocyte telomere length than those with maternal age at last childbirth of 29...... died, but were at least 70 years old, were studied. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to determine the association between tertiles of telomere length and maternal age at last childbirth, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS:: Age at birth of the last child...... in the first tertile. CONCLUSIONS:: These findings show an association between longer leukocyte telomere length and a later maternal age at birth of last child, suggesting that extended maternal age at last childbirth may be a marker for longevity....

  15. Live Longer, Work Longer: Making It Happen in the Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vodopivec

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An aging population and the corresponding shrinkage of the labor force will create a significant drag on economic growth and may jeopardize the economic well-being of some of the elderly. Thus working longer is an imperative – but extending working lives has proven difficult, both because workers do not want to work longer and because employers are lukewarm about employing older workers. As measures that can be taken to motivate workers to work longer, the paper proposes providing retirement incentives and attractive, flexible working arrangements. To induce employers to hire old workers, it suggests removing the obstacles imposed by restrictive labor market institutions, an increase in the human capital of workers via life-long learning, and addressing age-discrimination. Chances for extending working lives will also increase as the health of elderly workers is improved.

  16. Children’s Brain Development Benefits from Longer Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elysia Poggi Davis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Disruptions to brain development associated with shortened gestation place individuals at risk for the development of behavioral and psychological dysfunction throughout the lifespan. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the benefit for brain development conferred by increased gestational length exists on a continuum across the gestational age spectrum among healthy children with a stable neonatal course. Neurodevelopment was evaluated with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 100 healthy right-handed six to ten year old children born between 28 and 41 gestational weeks with a stable neonatal course. Data indicate that a longer gestational period confers an advantage for neurodevelopment. Longer duration of gestation was associated with region-specific increases in grey matter density. Further, the benefit of longer gestation for brain development was present even when only full term infants were considered. These findings demonstrate that even modest decreases in the duration of gestation can exert profound and lasting effects on neurodevelopment for both term and preterm infants and may contribute to long-term risk for health and disease.

  17. Aerobic vaginitis: no longer a stranger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Bellen, Gert; Grinceviciene, Svitrigaile; Ruban, Kateryna; Vieira-Baptista, Pedro

    infection, preterm birth and cervical dysplasia. Many other possible pathological associations are currently under investigation. The diagnosis of AV is made using wet mount microscopy, ideally using phase contrast. An AV score is calculated, according to: lactobacillary grade, presence of inflammation, proportion of toxic leucocytes, characteristics of the microflora and presence of immature epithelial cells. To circumvent the hurdle of microscopic investigation, some groups have begun to develop nucleic-acid-based and enzymatic diagnostic tests, but the detailed information obtained with phase contrast microscopy is irreplaceable. The best treatment is not yet fully determined, but it must be tailored according to the microscopic findings and the patient's needs. There is a role for local estrogen therapy, corticosteroids, antimicrobials and probiotics. Further research will reveal more precise data on diagnosis, pathogenesis, management and prevention. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Education and Training: Is There Any Longer a Useful Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Paul; Laurent, John

    1990-01-01

    Although education and training were distinct concepts when Taylorism dominated the workplace, it is no longer appropriate to separate them. Today's highly competitive environment requires the education of a flexible, multiskilled workforce, not training for narrowly defined employment tasks. (SK)

  19. The economic efficiency of allowing longer combination vehicles in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This paper shows the economic efficiency of allowing longer combination vehicles in Texas. First, an : overview of the truck size and weight policies is explained, with an emphasis on those that affect : Texas. Next, LCV operations in other countries...

  20. Working longer in good health [Langer doorwerken in goede gezondheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M

    2015-01-01

    Due to an ageing society, an increasing retirement age, and high prevalence of chronic health problems among older persons, it is important to understand how older employees [with health problems] can work for longer and productively, often this is termed ‘sustainable employability’. This context

  1. The longer term experiences of parent training: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, M; McGilloway, S

    2015-09-01

    Child conduct problems are a major public health priority. Group-based parenting programmes are popular in addressing such problems, but evidence for their longer-term effectiveness is limited. Moreover, process evaluations are rare and little is understood about the key facilitative and inhibitive factors associated with maintaining outcomes in the longer term. This study involved the use of qualitative methods as part of a larger process evaluation to explore the longer-term experiences of parents who participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the Incredible Years Parenting Programme (IYPP) in disadvantaged settings in Ireland. A series of one-to-one in-depth interviews was conducted with parents at 12- (n = 20) and 18-month follow-up (n = 8) and analysed using constructivist grounded theory. Most parents reported positive child behaviour despite several challenges, but a substantial subset reported periods of relapse in positive outcomes. A relapse in child behaviour was linked to relinquishing skills in stressful times, the negative influence of an unsupportive environment, and the perceived ineffectiveness of parenting skills. Resilience in implementing skills despite adversity, and the utilization of available social supports, were associated with the maintenance of positive outcomes. Strengthening resilience and social support capacities may be important factors in maintaining positive longer-term outcomes. Those who design, research and deliver parenting programmes might consider the possibility of including a relapse-prevention module and/or the provision of post-intervention supports for more vulnerable families. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Revisiting Academic Capitalism in Canada: No Longer the Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott

    2010-01-01

    In "Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University" (1997), Slaughter and Leslie found that Canada showed signs of resisting academic capitalism. Changes in postsecondary education funding policies and the emergence of new commercialization initiatives are evidence that Canada is certainly no longer, and…

  3. Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality of sheep without enhancing environmental benefits. ... This experiment was established to compare three intensive rotational grazing strategies (fast rotation [FR], average 57-day rest; slow rotation [SR], average 114-day rest; and flexible grazing [FX], based ...

  4. Issues of using Longer Heavier Vehicles on Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszkova, R.; Heczko, M.; Cepil, J.; Radimsky, M.

    2018-03-01

    Many logistics companies aim to save on freight costs. Recently, not only on Czech roads and on motorways, longer and heavier vehicles that exceed dimensions’ limits appeared. For these vehicles, it is necessary to apply for a special permit, which is, however, much more liberal than the permit for oversized and overweight load transport. This paper informs about checking routes of these vehicles by swept path analysis and finding locations on roads that can generate both safety risks and traffic fluency problems.

  5. Kenya; Ex Post Assessment of Longer-Term Program Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses key findings of the Ex Post Assessment (EPA) of Longer-Term Program Engagement paper for Kenya. This EPA focuses on 1993–2007, when Kenya was engaged in four successive IMF arrangements. Macroeconomic policy design was broadly appropriate, and implementation was generally sound. Growth slowed in the 1990s, but picked up after the 2002 elections, reflecting buoyant global conditions, structural reforms, and a surge of private capital inflows. Monetary policies were complic...

  6. Nuclear power plant life management and longer-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This book, prepared by NEA member country experts, contains data and analyses relevant to nuclear power plant life management and the plants' extended, longer-term operation (LTO). It addresses technical, economic and environmental aspects and provides insights into the benefits and challenges of plant life management and LTO. It will be of interest to policy makers and senior managers in the nuclear power sector and governmental bodies involved in nuclear power programme design and management. The data and information on current trends in nuclear power plant life management will be useful to researchers and analysts working in the field of nuclear energy system assessment. (authors)

  7. Female entrepreneurs in trouble: do their bad loans last longer?

    OpenAIRE

    Juri Marcucci; Paolo Emilio Mistrulli

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the duration of bad loans for a unique data set of sole proprietorships in Italy, finding that bad loans for female firms last longer. However, this result is mainly due to the fact that loans granted to female firms are less frequently written off than those to male ones, suggesting that for banks female firms might be more creditworthy than male firms. These findings are robust to censoring, alternative specifications of the distribution of bad loan duration and other bank-sp...

  8. Sexual intimacy in couples is associated with longer telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza de Baca, Tomás; Epel, Elissa S; Robles, Theodore F; Coccia, Michael; Gilbert, Amanda; Puterman, Eli; Prather, Aric A

    2017-07-01

    High-quality relationships have been shown to be beneficial for physical and mental health. This study examined overall relationship satisfaction and perceived stress as well as daily reports of partner support, partner conflict, and physical intimacy obtained over the course of one week in a sample of 129 high and low stress mothers. Telomere length was examined in whole blood, as well as the two cell subpopulations: peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and granulocytes. Telomerase activity was measured in PBMCs. Analyses revealed no statistically significant associations of telomere length with current relationship satisfaction, daily support or conflict, or perceived stress. In contrast, women who reported any sexual intimacy during the course of the week had significantly longer telomeres measured in whole blood and PBMCs, but not in granulocytes. These relationships held covarying for age, body mass index, perceived stress, the relationship indices, and caregiver status. Sexual intimacy was not significantly related to PBMC telomerase activity. These data provide preliminary data that sexual intimacy is associated with longer telomere length. Future studies investigating these associations are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Longer wait times affect future use of VHA primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Edwin S; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Hernandez, Susan E; Augustine, Matthew R; Nelson, Karin; Fihn, Stephan D; Hebert, Paul L

    2017-07-29

    Improving access to the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is a high priority, particularly given statutory mandates of the Veterans Access, Choice and Accountability Act. This study examined whether patient-reported wait times for VHA appointments were associated with future reliance on VHA primary care services. This observational study examined 13,595 VHA patients dually enrolled in fee-for-service Medicare. Data sources included VHA administrative data, Medicare claims and the Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP). Primary care use was defined as the number of face-to-face visits from VHA and Medicare in the 12 months following SHEP completion. VHA reliance was defined as the number of VHA visits divided by total visits (VHA+Medicare). Wait times were derived from SHEP responses measuring the usual number of days to a VHA appointment with patients' primary care provider for those seeking immediate care. We defined appointment wait times categorically: 0 days, 1day, 2-3 days, 4-7 days and >7 days. We used fractional logistic regression to examine the relationship between wait times and reliance. Mean VHA reliance was 88.1% (95% CI = 86.7% to 89.5%) for patients reporting 0day waits. Compared with these patients, reliance over the subsequent year was 1.4 (p = 0.041), 2.8 (p = 0.001) and 1.6 (p = 0.014) percentage points lower for patients waiting 2-3 days, 4-7 days and >7 days, respectively. Patients reporting longer usual wait times for immediate VHA care exhibited lower future reliance on VHA primary care. Longer wait times may reduce care continuity and impact cost shifting across two federal health programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. [Diabetic neuropathy: therapeutic nihilism is no longer acceptable].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Manfred

    2007-05-21

    The repeatedly expressed doubts about the value of an effective therapy for diabetic neuropathies are no longer acceptable. Today a number of excellent longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, i.e. DCCT, Steno 2, DCCT/EDIC, European Diabetes Prospective Complications Study, are available. The attending physician should make every effort to diagnose diabetic neuropathies as soon as possible with all their multivarious manifestations. Treatment must be promptly, aggressively and multifactorially as described in evidence-based guidelines. In principle, the same risk factors apply to neuropathy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes as for macro-angiopathy and microangiopathy. Therapy focuses on establishing near-normal diabetes and blood pressure control, lipid management, intensive patient education, avoidance of exogenous noxae such as alcohol and nicotine and if necessary, an effective therapy of neuropathic pain. The objective of all diagnostic and preventive efforts must be always to avoid the development of the diabetic neuropathic foot syndrome, which is the most important end stage of somatic and autonomic diabetic neuropathy.

  11. Needle Decompression in Appalachia Do Obese Patients Need Longer Needles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter, Thomas Edward

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Needle decompression of a tension pneumothorax can be a lifesaving procedure. It requires an adequate needle length to reach the chest wall to rapidly remove air. With adult obesity exceeding one third of the United States population in 2010, we sought to evaluate the proper catheter length that may result in a successful needle decompression procedure. Advance Trauma Life Support (ATLS currently recommends a 51 millimeter (mm needle, while the needles stocked in our emergency department are 46 mm. Given the obesity rates of our patient population, we hypothesize these needles would not have a tolerable success rate of 90%. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 91 patient records that had computed tomography of the chest and measured the chest wall depth at the second intercostal space bilaterally. Results: We found that 46 mm needles would only be successful in 52.7% of our patient population, yet the ATLS recommended length of 51 mm has a success rate of 64.8%. Therefore, using a 64 mm needle would be successful in 79% percent of our patient population. Conclusion: Use of longer length needles for needle thoracostomy is essential given the extent of the nation’s adult obesity population. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(6:650-652.

  12. Coalbed methane and tight gas no longer unconventional resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Unconventional gas refers to natural gas contained in difficult-to-produce formations that require special drilling and completion techniques to achieve commercial production. It includes tight gas, coal seams, organic shales, and gas hydrates. Canada's vast unconventional gas resource is becoming an increasingly important part of the country's gas supply. The emergence of unconventional gas production in Canada over the past several years has made the unconventional increasingly conventional in terms of industry activity. It was suggested that in order to realize the potential for unconventional gas in Canada, all stakeholders should engage to ensure the development is environmentally responsible. Unconventional gas accounts for nearly one third of U.S. gas production. It also accounts for nearly 5 Bcf per day and growing. The impetus to this sudden growth has been the gradual and increasing contribution of tight sands and limes to Canadian production, which accounts for more than 4 Bcf per day. Coalbed methane (CBM) is at 0.5 Bcf per day and growing. In response to expectations that CBM will reach 2 to 3 Bcf per day over the next 2 decades, Canadian producers are placing more emphasis on unconventional resource plays, including organic shales and gas hydrates. As such, significant growth of unconventional gas is anticipated. This growth will be facilitated by the adoption of U.S..-developed technologies and new Canadian technologies. It was suggested that research and development will be key to unlocking the unconventional gas potential. It was also suggested that the already existing, strong regulatory structure should continue in order to accommodate this growth in a sustainable manner. figs

  13. Longer breastfeeding is an independent protective factor against development of type 1 diabetes mellitus in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadauskaite-Kuehne, Vaiva; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Padaiga, Zilvinas; Jasinskiene, Edita; Samuelsson, Ulf

    2004-01-01

    Early weaning diet, early introduction of breast milk substitution and cow's milk have been shown to increase the risk of type 1 diabetes later in life. It is also shown that older maternal age, maternal education, preeclampsia, prematurity, neonatal illness and neonatal icterus caused by blood group incompatibility, infections and stress might be risk factors for type 1 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether early nutrition is an independent risk factor for diabetes despite other life events. Data from 517 children (268 boys and 249 girls) in south-east of Sweden and 286 children (133 boys and 153 girls) in Lithuania in the age group of 0 to 15 years with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus were included into analysis. Three age- and sex-matched healthy controls were randomly selected. Response rate in control families in Sweden was 72.9% and in Lithuania 94.8%. Information was collected via questionnaires. Exclusive breastfeeding longer than five months (odds ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.36-0.81) and total breastfeeding longer than 7 (0.56, 0.38-0.84) or 9 months (0.61, 0.38-0.84), breastfeeding substitution that started later than the third month (0.57, 0.33-0.98) among Swedish children 5 to 9 years old and later than the seventh month (0.24, 0.07-0.84) among all Swedish children is protective against diabetes when adjusted for all other above-listed risk factors. In Lithuania, exclusive breastfeeding longer than two months in the age group of 5 to 9 years is protective (0.58, 0.34-0.99) when adjusted for other factors. Longer exclusive and total breastfeeding appears as an independent protective factor against type 1 diabetes. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Do longer consultations improve the management of psychological problems in general practice? A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutton Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological problems present a huge burden of illness in our community and GPs are the main providers of care. There is evidence that longer consultations in general practice are associated with improved quality of care; but this needs to be balanced against the fact that doctor time is a limited resource and longer consultations may lead to reduced access to health care. The aim of this research was to conduct a systematic literature review to determine whether management of psychological problems in general practice is associated with an increased consultation length and to explore whether longer consultations are associated with better health outcomes for patients with psychological problems. Methods A search was conducted on Medline (Ovid databases up to7 June 2006. The following search terms, were used: general practice or primary health care (free text or family practice (MeSH AND consultation length or duration (free text or time factors (MeSH AND depression or psychological problems or depressed (free text. A similar search was done in Web of Science, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library and no other papers were found. Studies were included if they contained data comparing consultation length and management or detection of psychological problems in a general practice or primary health care setting. The studies were read and categories developed to enable systematic data extraction and synthesis. Results 29 papers met the inclusion criteria. Consultations with a recorded diagnosis of a psychological problem were reported to be longer than those with no recorded psychological diagnosis. It is not clear if this is related to the extra time or the consultation style. GPs reported that time pressure is a major barrier to treating depression. There was some evidence that increased consultation length is associated with more accurate diagnosis of psychological problems. Conclusion Further research is needed to

  15. Determining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Andarzian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production in the south of Khuzestan, Iran is constrained by heat stress for late sowing dates. For optimization of yield, sowing at the appropriate time to fit the cultivar maturity length and growing season is critical. Crop models could be used to determine optimum sowing window for a locality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the Cropping System Model (CSM-CERES-Wheat for its ability to simulate growth, development, grain yield of wheat in the tropical regions of Iran, and to study the impact of different sowing dates on wheat performance. The genetic coefficients of cultivar Chamran were calibrated for the CSM-CERES-Wheat model and crop model performance was evaluated with experimental data. Wheat cultivar Chamran was sown on different dates, ranging from 5 November to 9 January during 5 years of field experiments that were conducted in the Khuzestan province, Iran, under full and deficit irrigation conditions. The model was run for 8 sowing dates starting on 25 October and repeated every 10 days until 5 January using long-term historical weather data from the Ahvaz, Behbehan, Dezful and Izeh locations. The seasonal analysis program of DSSAT was used to determine the optimum sowing window for different locations as well. Evaluation with the experimental data showed that performance of the model was reasonable as indicated by fairly accurate simulation of crop phenology, biomass accumulation and grain yield against measured data. The normalized RMSE were 3%, 2%, 11.8%, and 3.4% for anthesis date, maturity date, grain yield and biomass, respectively. Optimum sowing window was different among locations. It was opened and closed on 5 November and 5 December for Ahvaz; 5 November and 15 December for Behbehan and Dezful;and 1 November and 15 December for Izeh, respectively. CERES-Wheat model could be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of sowing date on wheat performance in Khuzestan conditions. Further model evaluations

  16. Internal Medicine Residents Reject ?Longer and Gentler? Training

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal, R. K.; Carreira, F.; Baker, W. A.; Glasheen, J. J.; Crane, L. A.; Miyoshi, T. J.; Prochazka, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    Background Increasing complexity of medical care, coupled with limits on resident work hours, has prompted consideration of extending Internal Medicine training. It is unclear whether further hour reductions and extension of training beyond the current duration of 3?years would be accepted by trainees. Objective We aimed to determine if further work-hour reductions and extension of training would be accepted by trainees and whether resident burnout affects their opinions. Design A postal surv...

  17. Timely bystander CPR improves outcomes despite longer EMS times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwan Jin; Song, Kyoung Jun; Shin, Sang Do; Lee, Kyung Won; Ahn, Ki Ok; Lee, Eui Jung; Hong, Ki Jeong; Ro, Young Sun

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of bystander CPR on clinical outcomes in patients with increasing response time from collapse to EMS response. A population-based observational study was conducted in patients with witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) of presumed cardiac etiology from 2012 to 2014. The time interval from collapse to CPR by EMS providers was categorized into quartile groups: fastest group (bystander CPR and the time interval from collapse to CPR by EMS providers. A total of 15,354 OHCAs were analyzed. Bystander CPR was performed in 8591 (56.0%). Survival to hospital discharge occurred in 1632 (10.6%) and favorable neurological outcome in 996 (6.5%). In an interaction model of bystander CPR, compared to the fastest group, adjusted odds ratios (AORs) (95% CIs) for survival to discharge were 0.89 (0.66-1.20) in the fast group, 0.76 (0.57-1.02) in the late group, and 0.52 (0.37-0.73) in the latest group. For favorable neurological outcome, AORs were 1.12 (0.77-1.62) in the fast group, 0.90 (0.62-1.30) in the late group, 0.59 (0.38-0.91) in the latest group. The survival from OHCA decreases as the ambulance response time increases. The increase in mortality and worsening neurologic outcomes appear to be mitigated in those patients who receive bystander CPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Present status of nuclear containments in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jihong; Hong, Jaekeun; Lee, Byunghoon; Son, Youngho

    2007-01-01

    Since the first nuclear power plant in Korea, Kori unit no.1, was started in commercial service in 1978, 20 units including Kori unit no.1 have been operated and maintained until now in Korea. Recently several units were started to be constructed and also, additionally more than 4 units were planned to be constructed in the near future. The importance of nuclear containments has been always one of the hottest issues for the safety and protection of nuclear power plants until now. At the beginning of nuclear power plants construction in Korea, several typed nuclear containment systems were adopted. For those reasons, various codes, standards, and inspection technologies are applied to nuclear containment systems differently. In this study, the status of inservice inspection performed for the safety and maintenance of nuclear containments in Korea was researched. Overall nuclear containment systems and inspections performed up to recently in Korea including trends, inspection items, periods, and regulations were described briefly. (author)

  19. Immediate and Longer-Term Stressors and the Mental Health of Hurricane Ike Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Tracy, Melissa; Cerdá, Magdalena; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented that individuals exposed to more stressors during disasters and their immediate aftermath (immediate stressors) are at risk of experiencing longer-term postdisaster stressors. Longer-term stressors, in turn, have been found to play a key role in shaping postdisaster psychological functioning. Few studies have simultaneously explored the links from immediate to longer-term stressors, and from longer-term stressors to psychological functioning,...

  20. The rural pipeline to longer-term rural practice: General practitioners and specialists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella M S Kwan

    Full Text Available Rural medical workforce shortage contributes to health disadvantage experienced by rural communities worldwide. This study aimed to determine the regional results of an Australian Government sponsored national program to enhance the Australian rural medical workforce by recruiting rural background students and establishing rural clinical schools (RCS. In particular, we wished to determine predictors of graduates' longer-term rural practice and whether the predictors differ between general practitioners (GPs and specialists.A cross-sectional cohort study, conducted in 2012, of 729 medical graduates of The University of Queensland 2002-2011. The outcome of interest was primary place of graduates' practice categorised as rural for at least 50% of time since graduation ('Longer-term Rural Practice', LTRP among GPs and medical specialists. The main exposures were rural background (RB or metropolitan background (MB, and attendance at a metropolitan clinical school (MCS or the Rural Clinical School for one year (RCS-1 or two years (RCS-2.Independent predictors of LTRP (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] were RB (2.10 [1.37-3.20], RCS-1 (2.85 [1.77-4.58], RCS-2 (5.38 [3.15-9.20], GP (3.40 [2.13-5.43], and bonded scholarship (2.11 [1.19-3.76]. Compared to being single, having a metropolitan background partner was a negative predictor (0.34 [0.21-0.57]. The effects of RB and RCS were additive-compared to MB and MCS (Reference group: RB and RCS-1 (6.58[3.32-13.04], RB and RCS-2 (10.36[4.89-21.93]. Although specialists were less likely than GPs to be in LTRP, the pattern of the effects of rural exposures was similar, although some significant differences in the effects of the duration of RCS attendance, bonded scholarships and partner's background were apparent.Among both specialists and GPs, rural background and rural clinical school attendance are independent, duration-dependent, and additive, predictors of longer-term rural practice. Metropolitan

  1. Using quality scores and longer reads improves accuracy of Solexa read mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Zhenyu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-generation sequencing has the potential to revolutionize genomics and impact all areas of biomedical science. New technologies will make re-sequencing widely available for such applications as identifying genome variations or interrogating the oligonucleotide content of a large sample (e.g. ChIP-sequencing. The increase in speed, sensitivity and availability of sequencing technology brings demand for advances in computational technology to perform associated analysis tasks. The Solexa/Illumina 1G sequencer can produce tens of millions of reads, ranging in length from ~25–50 nt, in a single experiment. Accurately mapping the reads back to a reference genome is a critical task in almost all applications. Two sources of information that are often ignored when mapping reads from the Solexa technology are the 3' ends of longer reads, which contain a much higher frequency of sequencing errors, and the base-call quality scores. Results To investigate whether these sources of information can be used to improve accuracy when mapping reads, we developed the RMAP tool, which can map reads having a wide range of lengths and allows base-call quality scores to determine which positions in each read are more important when mapping. We applied RMAP to analyze data re-sequenced from two human BAC regions for varying read lengths, and varying criteria for use of quality scores. RMAP is freely available for downloading at http://rulai.cshl.edu/rmap/. Conclusion Our results indicate that significant gains in Solexa read mapping performance can be achieved by considering the information in 3' ends of longer reads, and appropriately using the base-call quality scores. The RMAP tool we have developed will enable researchers to effectively exploit this information in targeted re-sequencing projects.

  2. Posterolateral Trajectories Favor a Longer Motor Domain in Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Idit; Marmor-Levin, Odeya; Eitan, Renana; Bergman, Hagai; Israel, Zvi

    2017-10-01

    The clinical outcome of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) who undergo subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is, in part, determined by the length of the electrode trajectory through the motor STN domain, the dorsolateral oscillatory region (DLOR). Trajectory length has been found to correlate with the stimulation-related improvement in patients' motor function (estimated by part III of the United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]). Therefore, it seems that ideally trajectories should have maximal DLOR length. We retrospectively studied the influence of various anatomic aspects of the brains of patients with PD and the geometry of trajectories planned on the length of the DLOR and STN recorded during DBS surgery. We examined 212 trajectories and 424 microelectrode recording tracks in 115 patients operated on in our center between 2010 and 2015. We found a strong correlation between the length of the recorded DLOR and STN. Trajectories that were more lateral and/or posterior in orientation had a longer STN and DLOR pass, although the DLOR/STN fraction length remained constant. The STN target was more lateral when the third ventricle was wider, and the latter correlated with older age and male gender. Trajectory angles correlate with the recorded STN and DLOR lengths, and should be altered toward a more posterolateral angle in older patients and atrophied brains to compensate for the changes in STN location and geometry. These fine adjustments should yield a longer motor domain pass, thereby improving the patient's predicted outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Polythiophenes containing in-chain cobaltabisdicarbollide centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Bruno; Hao, Erhong; Lejeune, Zorabel M; Amuhaya, Edith K; Barrière, Frédéric; Garno, Jayne C; Vicente, M Graça H

    2010-03-01

    New cobalt(III) bis(dicarbollide) complexes covalently linked to two 2-oligothienyl units have been synthesized and electropolymerized in acetonitrile electrolyte in order to produce the corresponding polythiophene films containing in-chain metallic centers. The polymer films electrogenerated from the bithienyl (4b) and terthienyl (4c) derivatives display redox processes attributed to the Co(III)/Co(II) couple at ca. -1.1 V vs SCE and to the p-doping/undoping of the expected quaterthienyl and sexithienyl segments at ca. 0.8 V vs SCE. In contrast, the anodic oxidation of the thienyl (4a) derivative leads to passivation of the electrode surface. As the length of the oligothiophene substituents increases, the metallic and dicarbollide cage carbon atoms contributions in the HOMO decrease dramatically so that the highest occupied frontier orbitals of 4b and 4c can be considered as almost purely oligothiophene-based. From further UV-vis spectroscopy analysis, it is demonstrated that the polymer incorporating the sexithienyl segments is more conjugated than that with the quaterthienyl segments as the absorption maximum for the interband pi-pi* transition was observed at 410 and 448 nm for poly(4b) and poly(4c) respectively. Furthermore, these polymers display a more extended degree of conjugation than the parent oligothiophenes. Such features indicate a significant electronic delocalization through the cobaltabisdicarbollide moiety. Their conducting probe atomic force microscopy characterization indicates that poly(4b) and poly(4c) behave like heavily doped semiconductors rather than pure semiconductors. Mean conductivity values extracted from the current-voltage profiles are 1.4 x 10(-4) and 7.5 x 10(-4) S cm(-1) for poly(4b) and poly(4c), respectively. Such materials are found to be efficient for the electrocatalytic reduction of protons to dihydrogen, as exemplified for poly(4b). The overpotential for hydrogen evolution is significantly decreased by ca. 230 mV with

  4. No longer "if," but "when": the coming abbreviated approval pathway for follow-on biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jeremiah J; David, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abbreviated approval of follow-on biologics involves answering complex scientific, legal, and policy questions. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) asserts that it lacks the statutory authority to approve follow-on versions of biologics licensed under Section 351 of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA). Despite persuasive arguments to the contrary the one hundred and tenth Congress entertained four legislative proposals to give FDA this authority, each markedly different. It is no longer a question of "if," but "when" FDA will receive authority to review and license abbreviated applications for follow-on biologics. Any legislation in the one hundred and eleventh Congress must determine: (1) if FDA should be granted authority to develop an abbreviated pathway through rulemaking or guidance; (2) if human clinical trials should be mandatory or discretionary; (3) the feasibility of interchangeability determinations in light of patient safety concerns; (4) the duration of marketing exclusivity for associated products; (5) which products are eligible for follow-on approval; and (6) the degree to which uniformity is achievable between the FD&C Act and the PHSA. This paper recommends the one hundred and eleventh Congress strike a balance between patient safety, incentives for product innovation, price competition, and the need for a flexible, transparent process that capitalizes on FDA's growing expertise with follow-on biologics approvals under Section 505(b)(2) of the FD&C Act.

  5. Longer-term effects of pine and eucalypt plantations on streamflow

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, DF

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The longer-term effects of afforestation with Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus grandis on streamflows were analyzed using data from two paired-catchment experiments in South Africa. The experiments are rare in that they have been maintained over longer...

  6. Hospital wastes management containing in radioactive refusals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, F.

    1999-01-01

    In large hospitals, featuring a nuclear medicine department, diagnostic examinations and metabolic therapies are performed using an amount of radio drugs per day averaging around some hundreds mCi. Part of these drugs are disposed in the conventional patient related waste and collected within the hospital itself. Before directing the wastes to the disposal, it is necessary verify that they do not contain radioactive materials. This article refers a study on the possibility to perform this verification by means of an automatic radio-metric system, in order to improve the efficiency, the speed and the safety of the control. Measures devoted to determined the minimum detectable activities for the main radionuclides used in the hospitals have been executed, and it has been designed a comprehensive device able to operate automatically, and unattended by any operator, the selection of radioactive refusals [it

  7. [Characteristics of Lactobacillus strains contained in pharmaceuticals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, W; Bucholc, B; Wójcik, B

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which are components of drugs administered orally in cases of intestinal disturbances, or antibiotic--related diarrhea. Biochemical properties, growth behavior, bile tolerance, and survival at low pH of six LAB strains (four strains L. rhamnosus and two L. acidophilus) were studied. The survival at low pH was determined in MRS broth (Difco) acidified to pH 1; 2; 3; and 4. Bile tolerance was tested on MRS broth with 0.3% oxgall (Difco). Between tested strains differences in ability to grow at low pH and survival in bile were observed. Only 0.01% inoculum of all examined strains survived at pH 1. Differences between strains in survival at low pH (pH 2 and pH 3) and tolerance of bile were observed. However, after 2 h incubation at pH 4, 100% of strains stayed alive. Examined strains demonstrated good 3% bile tolerance. All strains met the criteria for probiotic strains: ability to survive at pH 3 and in the presence of bile.

  8. Longer duration of obesity is associated with a reduction in urinary angiotensinogen in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, Manuela; Correia-Costa, Liane; Sousa, Teresa; Cosme, Dina; Schaefer, Franz; Areias, José Carlos; Guerra, António; Afonso, Alberto Caldas; Barros, Henrique; Azevedo, Ana; Albino-Teixeira, António

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to study the impact of obesity on urinary excretion of angiotensinogen (U-AGT) in prepubertal children, focusing on the duration of obesity and gender. Also, we aimed to evaluate whether plasma angiotensinogen (P-AGT) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) play a role in the putative association. Cross-sectional evaluation of 305 children aged 8-9 years (160 normal weight, 86 overweight, and 59 obese). Anthropometric measurements and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were performed. Angiotensinogen (AGT) was determined by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and H 2 O 2 by a microplate fluorometric assay. U-AGT and P-AGT levels were similar across body mass index (BMI) groups and between sexes. However, boys who were overweight/obese since the age of 4 years presented lower levels of U-AGT compared with those of normal weight at the same age. In children who were overweight/obese since the age of 4, urinary H 2 O 2 decreased with P-AGT. A higher duration of obesity was associated with decreased U-AGT in boys, thus reflecting decreased intrarenal activity of the renin-angiotensin system. Also, children with a longer duration of obesity showed an inverse association between urinary H 2 O 2 and P-AGT. Future studies should address whether these results reflect an early compensatory mechanism to limit obesity-triggered renal dysfunction.

  9. The bleeding time may be longer in children than in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J M; Holtkamp, C A; Buchanan, G R

    1990-01-01

    The bleeding time, the most frequently performed test reflecting in vivo platelet function, is the duration of blood flow from a standardized incision on the volar surface of the forearm. Normal values have been determined in adult subjects, but with the exception of neonates, data on the range of bleeding time values in pediatric patients are unavailable. Standard hematology textbooks imply that bleeding time values in children are similar to those of adults. We have reviewed our 9 years of experience with 137 children (mean age 6.5 years) who were referred for diagnostic evaluation of a bleeding disorder but whose history and physical examination were felt by us to be inconsistent with an abnormality of hemostasis. Bleeding time values in these individuals (mean 6.0 min, 95th percentile 9.0 min) were compared with those of 85 normal adult volunteers (mean 4.4 min, 95th percentile 6.5 min). The Simplate-I disposable device and vertical (perpendicular to elbow crease) incision direction were used in both groups. This difference between the pediatric and adult bleeding time values is statistically significant (p less than 0.0001). Neither age nor sex had a significant effect on the pediatric bleeding time measurements. We conclude that the bleeding time, when performed as described, is longer in children than in adults and that pediatric standards for bleeding time should be used in order to avoid a spurious diagnosis of a primary hemostatic disorder in some normal children.

  10. Mammographic breast density in recent and longer-standing ethiopian immigrants to israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklair-Levy, Miri; Segev, Anat; Sella, Tamar; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Zippel, Douglas

    2018-04-23

    High breast density is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer development. Little is known concerning ethnic variations in breast density and its relevant contributing factors. We aimed to study breast density among Ethiopian immigrants to Israel in comparison with Israeli-born women and to determine any effect on breast density of the length of residency in the immigrant population. Mammographic breast density using the BI-RADS system was estimated and compared between 77 women of Ethiopian origin who live in Israel and 177 Israeli-born controls. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratios (OR) for high density (BI-RADS score ≥ 3) vs low density (BI-RADS score density compared with Israeli-born women. Adjustments for various cofounders did not affect the results. Time since immigration to Israel seemed to modify the relationship, with a stronger association for women who immigrated within 2 years prior to mammography (OR:0.07, 95% CI: 0.03-0.17) as opposed to women with a longer residency stay in Israel (OR:0.23, 95% CI:0.10-0.50). Adjustments of various confounders did not alter these findings. Breast density in Ethiopian immigrants to Israel is significantly lower than that of Israeli-born controls. Our study suggests a positive association between time since immigration and breast density. Future studies are required to define the possible effects of dietary change on mammographic density following immigration. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Can You Lengthen Your Life? Researchers Explore How To Stay Healthy Longer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a longer, healthier life. “There’s no question that smoking is a hard habit to break. But data suggest that from the moment you stop smoking, there are health benefits. So it’s worthwhile making ...

  12. Longer combination vehicles : an estimation of their benefits and public perception of their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Longer Combination Vehicles (LCVs) are able to carry more freight than conventional single trailer trucks. As a result, these trucks can increase : efficiencies and benefits for freight movements as less fuel and less labor is used per ton of cargo. ...

  13. Science 101: Why Does It Take Longer to Boil Potatoes at High Altitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2017-01-01

    Why Does It Take Longer to Boil Potatoes at High Altitudes? This column provides background science information for elementary teachers. This month's issue looks at why water boils at different temperatures at different altitudes.

  14. Effect of longer health service provider delays on stage at diagnosis and mortality in symptomatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, P; Raja, E A; Lee, A J; Brewster, D H; Campbell, N C; Gray, N M; Ritchie, L D; Robertson, R; Samuel, L

    2015-06-01

    This study explored whether longer provider delays (between first presentation and treatment) were associated with later stage and poorer survival in women with symptomatic breast cancer. Data from 850 women with symptomatic breast cancer were linked with the Scottish Cancer Registry; Death Registry; and hospital discharge dataset. Logistic regression and Cox survival analyses with restricted cubic splines explored relationships between provider delays, stage and survival, with sequential adjustment for patient and tumour factors. Although confidence intervals were wide in both adjusted analyses, those with the shortest provider delays had more advanced breast cancer at diagnosis. Beyond approximately 20 weeks, the trend suggests longer delays are associated with more advanced stage, but is not statistically significant. Those with symptomatic breast cancer and the shortest presentation to treatment time (within 4 weeks) had the poorest survival. Longer time to treatment was not significantly associated with worsening mortality. Poor prognosis patients with breast cancer are being triaged for rapid treatment with limited effect on outcome. Prolonged time to treatment does not appear to be strongly associated with poorer outcomes for patients with breast cancer, but the power of this study to assess the effect of very long delays (>25 weeks) was limited. Efforts to reduce waiting times are important from a quality of life perspective, but tumour biology may often be a more important determinant of stage at diagnosis and survival outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Immediate and Longer-Term Stressors and the Mental Health of Hurricane Ike Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Tracy, Melissa; Cerdá, Magdalena; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented that individuals exposed to more stressors during disasters and their immediate aftermath (immediate stressors) are at risk of experiencing longer-term postdisaster stressors. Longer-term stressors, in turn, have been found to play a key role in shaping postdisaster psychological functioning. Few studies have simultaneously explored the links from immediate to longer-term stressors, and from longer-term stressors to psychological functioning, however. Additionally, studies have inadequately explored whether postdisaster psychological symptoms influence longer-term stressors. In the current study, we aimed to fill these gaps. Participants (N = 448) were from population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors and completed assessments 2–5 months (Wave 1), 5–9 months (Wave 2) and 14–18 months (Wave 3) postdisaster. Through path analysis, we found that immediate stressors, assessed at Wave 1, were positively associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 stressors, which in turn were positively associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. Wave 2 posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with Wave 3 stressors, and Wave 1 depressive symptoms were positively associated with Wave 2 stressors. The findings suggest that policies and interventions can reduce the impact of disasters on mental health by preventing and alleviating both immediate and longer-term postdisaster stressors. PMID:24343752

  16. Improving performance management for delivering appropriate care for patients no longer needing acute hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Christine; Henry, Effie

    2008-01-01

    The public, providers and policy-makers are interested in a service continuum where care is provided in the appropriate place. Alternate level of care is used to define patients who no longer need acute care but remain in an acute care bed. Our aims were to determine how subacute care and convalescent care should be defined in British Columbia (BC); how these care levels should be aligned with existing legislation to provide more consistent service standards to patients and what reporting requirements were needed for system planning and performance management. A literature review was conducted to understand the international trends in performance management, care delivery models and change management. A Canada-wide survey was carried out to determine the directions of other provinces on the defined issues and a BC survey provided a current state analysis of programming within the five regional health authorities (HAs). A provincial policy framework for subacute and convalescent care has been developed to begin to address the concerns raised and provide a base for performance measurement. The policy has been approved and disseminated to BC HAs for implementation. An implementation plan has been developed and implementation activities have been integrated into the work of existing provincial committees. Evaluation will occur through performance measurement. The benefits anticipated include: clear policy guidance for programme development; improved comparability of performance information for system monitoring, planning and integrity of the national acute care Discharge Abstracting Database; improved efficiency in acute care bed use; and improved equity of access, insurability and quality for patients requiring subacute and convalescent care. While a national reporting system exists for acute care in Canada, this project raises questions about the implications for this system, given the shifting definition of acute care as other care levels emerge. Questions are also

  17. Estimation of effective dose from radionuclides contained in misch metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Etsuko; Aburai, Tamaru; Nisizawa, Kunihide

    2003-01-01

    Radionuclides contained in three kinds of misch metal products and two kinds of ingots were analyzed using a Ge (Li) semiconductor detector. Lanthanum-138 ( 138 La) and several daughter nuclides derived from thorium and uranium series were detected in all samples. All misch metal products and ingots were determined to be radioactive consumer products (RCP), although they have not been regarded as RCP in Japan. 138 La showed the highest nuclide content rate of all the radionuclides, and the lanthanum metal ingots displayed the highest specific activity at 720 mBq·g -1 . The maximum external effective dose was estimated to be at 3.7 mSv when a metal match was carried for 8,760 hours at 1 mm from the skin. The calculated effective dose under some conditions exceeded 10 μSv per year. This value corresponded to the exemption standard proposed by the UK's National Radiological Protection Board. Individuals working with large amounts of RCP should be appropriately protected. (author)

  18. Women live longer than men even during severe famines and epidemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia; Barthold Jones, Julia A; Oksuzyan, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Women in almost all modern populations live longer than men. Research to date provides evidence for both biological and social factors influencing this gender gap. Conditions when both men and women experience extremely high levels of mortality risk are unexplored sources of information. We...... investigate the survival of both sexes in seven populations under extreme conditions from famines, epidemics, and slavery. Women survived better than men: In all populations, they had lower mortality across almost all ages, and, with the exception of one slave population, they lived longer on average than men...

  19. Enhanced performance of hybrid solar cells using longer arms of quantum cadmium selenide tetrapods

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate that enhanced device performance of hybrid solar cells based on tetrapod (TP)-shaped cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles and conjugated polymer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) can be obtained by using longer armed tetrapods which aids in better spatial connectivity, thus decreasing charge hopping events which lead to better charge transport. Longer tetrapods with 10 nm arm length lead to improved power conversion efficiency of 1.12% compared to 0.80% of device having 5 nm short-armed tetrapods:P3HT photoactive blends.

  20. Enhanced performance of hybrid solar cells using longer arms of quantum cadmium selenide tetrapods

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung; Kim, Inho; Gullapalli, Sravani; Wong, Michael S.; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that enhanced device performance of hybrid solar cells based on tetrapod (TP)-shaped cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles and conjugated polymer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) can be obtained by using longer armed tetrapods which aids in better spatial connectivity, thus decreasing charge hopping events which lead to better charge transport. Longer tetrapods with 10 nm arm length lead to improved power conversion efficiency of 1.12% compared to 0.80% of device having 5 nm short-armed tetrapods:P3HT photoactive blends.

  1. Economic comparisons of haul road construction versus forwarding versus longer skid distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Erickson; Curt C. Hassler; Chris B. LeDoux

    1992-01-01

    There currently exists no set of basic guidelines for Appalachian loggers to use in the decision making process for selecting the best way to harvest a tract of timber. Specifically, guidelines are needed for deciding between the alternatives of constructing truck haul roads to access an area or other alternatives such as skidding or forwarding timber longer distances...

  2. Women live longer than men even during severe famines and epidemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia; Barthold Jones, Julia A; Oksuzyan, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Women in almost all modern populations live longer than men. Research to date provides evidence for both biological and social factors influencing this gender gap. Conditions when both men and women experience extremely high levels of mortality risk are unexplored sources of information. We inves...

  3. Genetically predicted longer telomere length is associated with increased risk of B-cell lymphoma subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Lan, Qing; Slager, Susan L; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Teras, Lauren R; Camp, Nicola J; Cerhan, James R; Spinelli, John J; Wang, Sophia S; Nieters, Alexandra; Vijai, Joseph; Yeager, Meredith; Wang, Zhaoming; Ghesquières, Hervé; McKay, James; Conde, Lucia; de Bakker, Paul I W; Cox, David G; Burdett, Laurie; Monnereau, Alain; Flowers, Christopher R; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Giles, Graham G; Melbye, Mads; Gu, Jian; Jackson, Rebecca D; Kane, Eleanor; Purdue, Mark P; Vajdic, Claire M; Albanes, Demetrius; Kelly, Rachel S; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Hutchinson, Amy; Zhi, Degui; Habermann, Thomas M; Link, Brian K; Novak, Anne J; Dogan, Ahmet; Asmann, Yan W; Liebow, Mark; Thompson, Carrie A; Ansell, Stephen M; Witzig, Thomas E; Tilly, Hervé; Haioun, Corinne; Molina, Thierry J; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Glimelius, Bengt; Adami, Hans-Olov; Roos, Göran; Bracci, Paige M; Riby, Jacques; Smith, Martyn T; Holly, Elizabeth A; Cozen, Wendy; Hartge, Patricia; Morton, Lindsay M; Severson, Richard K; Tinker, Lesley F; North, Kari E; Becker, Nikolaus; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; Staines, Anthony; Lightfoot, Tracy; Crouch, Simon; Smith, Alex; Roman, Eve; Diver, W Ryan; Offit, Kenneth; Zelenetz, Andrew; Klein, Robert J; Villano, Danylo J; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Yawei; Holford, Theodore R; Turner, Jenny; Southey, Melissa C; Clavel, Jacqueline; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Angelucci, Emanuele; Di Lollo, Simonetta; Rais, Marco; De Vivo, Immaculata; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Huang, Jinyan; Ma, Baoshan; Ye, Yuanqing; Chiu, Brian C H; Liang, Liming; Park, Ju-Hyun; Chung, Charles C; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Salles, Gilles; Glenn, Martha; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Curtin, Karen; Wu, Xifeng; Smedby, Karin E; de Sanjose, Silvia; Skibola, Christine F; Berndt, Sonja I; Birmann, Brenda M; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from a small number of studies suggests that longer telomere length measured in peripheral leukocytes is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, these studies may be biased by reverse causation, confounded by unmeasured environmental exposures and might

  4. Can longer forest harvest intervals increase summer streamflow for salmon recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mashel Streamflow Modeling Project in the Mashel River Basin, Washington, is using a watershed-scale ecohydrological model to assess whether longer forest harvest intervals can remediate summer low flow conditions that have contributed to sharply reduced runs of spawning Chin...

  5. Evaluation of Information Contained in Drug Advertisement and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Information Contained in Drug Advertisement and Promotion Materials in Nigeria. ... Conclusion: This study reveals that advertising materials used in promoting drugs in Nigeria have incomplete ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. Fetal size in the second trimester is associated with the duration of pregnancy, small fetuses having longer pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen Svein

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventionally, the pregnancy duration is accepted to be 280–282 days. Fetuses determined by ultrasound biometry to be small in early pregnancy, have an increased risk of premature birth. We speculate that the higher rate of preterm delivery in such small fetuses represents a pathological outcome not applicable to physiological pregnancies. Here we test the hypothesis that in low-risk pregnancies fetal growth (expressed by fetal size in the second trimester is itself a determinant for pregnancy duration with the slower growing fetuses having a longer pregnancy. Methods We analysed duration of gestation data for 541 women who had a spontaneous delivery having previously been recruited to a cross-sectional study of 650 low-risk pregnancies. All had a regular menses and a known date of their last menstrual period (LMP. Subjects were examined using ultrasound to determine fetal head circumference (HC, abdominal circumference (AC and femur length (FL at 10–24 weeks of gestation. Length of the pregnancy was calculated from LMP, and birth weights were noted. The effect of fetal size at 10–24 weeks of gestation on pregnancy duration was assessed also when adjusting for the difference between LMP and ultrasound based fetal age. Results Small fetuses (z-score -2.5 at second trimester ultrasound scan had lower birth weights (p Conclusion Fetal size in the second trimester is a determinant of birth weight and pregnancy duration, small fetuses having lower birth weights and longer pregnancies (up to 13 days compared with large fetuses. Our results support a concept of individually assigned pregnancy duration according to growth rates rather than imposing a standard of 280–282 days on all pregnancies.

  7. Pyrometallurgical separation processes of radionuclides contained in the irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cordoba, Guadalupe; Caravaca, Concha; Quinones, Javier; Gonzalez de la Huebra, Angel

    2005-01-01

    Faced with the new options for the high level waste management, the ''Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T)'' of the radio nuclides contained in the irradiated nuclear fuel appear as a promising option from different points of view, such as environmental risk, radiotoxic inventory reduction, economic, etc.. The present work is part of a research project called ''PYROREP'' of the 5th FWP of the EU that studied the feasibility of the actinide separation from the rest of fission products contained in the irradiated nuclear fuel by pyrometallurgical processes with the aim of their transmutation. In order to design these processes it is necessary to determine basic thermodynamic and kinetic data of the radionuclides contained in the nuclear fuel in molten salt media. The electrochemical study of uranium, samarium and molybdenum in the eutectic melt LiCl - KCl has been performed at a tungsten electrode in the temperature range of 450 - 600 deg C in order to obtain these basic properties. (Author)

  8. Working (longer than) 9 to 5: are there cardiometabolic health risks for young Australian workers who report longer than 38-h working weeks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy C; Bucks, Romola S; Paterson, Jessica L; Ferguson, Sally A; Mori, Trevor A; McArdle, Nigel; Straker, Leon; Beilin, Lawrence J; Eastwood, Peter R

    2018-05-01

    The average Australian working week in middle-aged and older workers exceeds government recommendations. Long working weeks are associated with poor health outcomes; however, the relationship between long working weeks and health in young Australian workers is unknown. Data were drawn from the 22-year follow-up of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study in Perth, Western Australia. Information was available from 873 young adults about working hours per week, shift work and sleep duration. Blood samples provided measures of cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors. Almost one-third (32.8%) of young workers reported > 38 h working weeks. This was commonly reported in mining and construction industries for males; health and social assistance, mining and retail trade industries for females. CMR factors including increased waist circumference, higher fasting plasma glucose and reduced HDL cholesterol were associated with > 38 h working weeks. These relationships were not moderated by gender or by BMI for glucose and HDL cholesterol. Total sleep time was significantly lower in both male and female workers reporting > 38 h working weeks, but did not mediate the relationships seen with CMR factors. These findings point to early associations between > 38 h working weeks and CMR risk, and highlight the potential benefit of making young employees aware of the health associations with working arrangements to reduce the longer-term relationships seen with working hours and poor cardiometabolic health in population studies.

  9. Novel thermal annealing methodology for permanent tuning polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings to longer wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospori, A; Marques, C A F; Sagias, G; Lamela-Rivera, H; Webb, D J

    2018-01-22

    The Bragg wavelength of a polymer optical fiber Bragg grating can be permanently shifted by utilizing the thermal annealing method. In all the reported fiber annealing cases, the authors were able to tune the Bragg wavelength only to shorter wavelengths, since the polymer fiber shrinks in length during the annealing process. This article demonstrates a novel thermal annealing methodology for permanently tuning polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings to any desirable spectral position, including longer wavelengths. Stretching the polymer optical fiber during the annealing process, the period of Bragg grating, which is directly related with the Bragg wavelength, can become permanently longer. The methodology presented in this article can be used to multiplex polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings at any desirable spectral position utilizing only one phase-mask for their photo-inscription, reducing thus their fabrication cost in an industrial setting.

  10. Danish travel activities: do we travel more and longer – and to what extent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    Two separate Danish National travel surveys are analysed to outline the amount and extent of national and international travelling during the latest 15-20 years; the national travel survey (TU) describes mainly national daily travel activities, whereas the holiday and business travel survey...... describes national and international travel activities including overnight stay(s). When sampling only respondents with trips above 100 kilometres, they only accounts for around 2% of all daily travel activities, however, this share appears to increase and suggest in general that we do travel longer....... But due to this limited share of trips, the overall impacts of longer distance travelling vanish when considering all daily travel activities. Especially as about 95% of all daily travel destinations range less than 50 kilometres away and in total induce an average trip length of 20 kilometres. If focus...

  11. Targeted treatment trials for tuberous sclerosis and autism: no longer a dream

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Genetic disorders that present with a high incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) offer tremendous potential both for elucidating the underlying neurobiology of ASD and identifying therapeutic drugs and/or drug targets. As a result, clinical trials for genetic disorders associated with ASD are no longer a hope for the future but rather an exciting reality whose time has come. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is one such genetic disorder that presents with ASD, epilepsy, and intellectual...

  12. Processing of semen by density gradient centrifugation selects spermatozoa with longer telomeres for assisted reproduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingling; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Feifei; Zhao, Wanli; Dai, Shanjun; Liu, Jinhao; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Xin, Hang; Niu, Wenbing; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-07-01

    The ends of eukaryotic chromosomes contain specialized chromatin structures called telomeres, the length of which plays a key role in early human embryonic development. Although the effect of sperm preparation techniques on major sperm characteristics, such as concentration, motility and morphology have been previously documented, the possible status of telomere length and its relation with sperm preparation techniques is not well-known for humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of density gradient centrifugation in the selection of spermatozoa with longer telomeres for use in assisted reproduction techniques in 105 samples before and after sperm processing. After density gradient centrifugation, the average telomere length of the sperm was significantly longer (6.51 ± 2.54 versus 5.16 ± 2.29, P average motile sperm rate was significantly higher (77.9 ± 11.8 versus 44.6 ± 11.2, P average DNA fragmentation rate was significantly lower (11.1 ± 5.9 versus 25.9 ± 12.9, P sperm count (rs = 0.58; P sperm with longer telomeres. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexual selection on receptor organ traits: younger females attract males with longer antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tamara L.; Symonds, Matthew R. E.; Elgar, Mark A.

    2017-06-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that female choice may favour the evolution of elaborate male signals. Darwin also suggested that sexual selection can favour elaborate receiver structures in order to better detect sexual signals, an idea that has been largely ignored. We evaluated this unorthodox perspective by documenting the antennal lengths of male Uraba lugens Walker (Lepidoptera: Nolidae) moths that were attracted to experimentally manipulated emissions of female sex pheromone. Either one or two females were placed in field traps for the duration of their adult lives in order to create differences in the quantity of pheromone emissions from the traps. The mean antennal length of males attracted to field traps baited with a single female was longer than that of males attracted to traps baited with two females, a pattern consistent with Darwin's prediction assuming the latter emits higher pheromone concentrations. Furthermore, younger females attracted males with longer antennae, which may reflect age-specific changes in pheromone emission. These field experiments provide the first direct evidence of an unappreciated role for sexual selection in the evolution of sexual dimorphism in moth antennae and raise the intriguing possibility that females select males with longer antennae through strategic emission of pheromones.

  14. LPI Thresholds in Longer Scale Length Plasmas Driven by the Nike Laser*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J.; Oh, J.; Phillips, L.; Afeyan, B.; Seely, J.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C.; Obenschain, S.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E.; Manka, C.

    2010-11-01

    The Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser is an attractive driver for inertial confinement fusion due to its short wavelength (248nm), large bandwidth (1-3 THz), and beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence. Experiments with the Nike KrF laser have demonstrated intensity thresholds for laser plasma instabilities (LPI) higher than reported for other high power lasers operating at longer wavelengths (>=351 nm). The previous Nike experiments used short pulses (350 ps FWHM) and small spots (<260 μm FWHM) that created short density scale length plasmas (Ln˜50-70 μm) from planar CH targets and demonstrated the onset of two-plasmon decay (2φp) at laser intensities ˜2x10^15 W/cm^2. This talk will present an overview of the current campaign that uses longer pulses (0.5-4.0 ns) to achieve greater density scale lengths (Ln˜100-200 μm). X-rays, emission near ^1/2φo and ^3/2φo harmonics, and reflected laser light have been monitored for onset of 2φp. The longer density scale lengths will allow better comparison to results from other laser facilities. *Work supported by DoE/NNSA and ONR.

  15. Avalanching Systems with Longer Range Connectivity: Occurrence of a Crossover Phenomenon and Multifractal Finite Size Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Benella

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many out-of-equilibrium systems respond to external driving with nonlinear and self-similar dynamics. This near scale-invariant behavior of relaxation events has been modeled through sand pile cellular automata. However, a common feature of these models is the assumption of a local connectivity, while in many real systems, we have evidence for longer range connectivity and a complex topology of the interacting structures. Here, we investigate the role that longer range connectivity might play in near scale-invariant systems, by analyzing the results of a sand pile cellular automaton model on a Newman–Watts network. The analysis clearly indicates the occurrence of a crossover phenomenon in the statistics of the relaxation events as a function of the percentage of longer range links and the breaking of the simple Finite Size Scaling (FSS. The more complex nature of the dynamics in the presence of long-range connectivity is investigated in terms of multi-scaling features and analyzed by the Rank-Ordered Multifractal Analysis (ROMA.

  16. Investigation on the status of rare earth elements contained in the powder of spent fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belardi, G.; Ippolito, N.; Piga, L.; Serracino, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Most of rare earth elements are contained in particles of size finer than 7 μm. • Most of Si, K and Na are contained in the coarser size-fractions. • The phases in the size-fractions of the fluorescent powder have been determined. • Europium is contained in yttrium oxide and in vanadium–yttrium oxides. • The crystallo–chemical composition of all the phases has been determined. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the status of rare earth elements (REE) contained in the chemical compounds that make up the powder of spent fluorescent lamps, with a view of their recovery. The status of REE in the as-received powder, as well as in a few size-class fractions of it, has been established. This way, only those size-class fractions containing high REE concentrations can be considered in a recovery process. The investigation has been carried out using particle-size, chemical, TGA/DTA, XRPD, SEM-EDS and EMPA analyses. The last technique enabled to establish the status of REE within the lattice of the chemical compounds present in the powder. The fineness of the as-received powder and the higher REE concentration in the finest size-classes suggest that physical methods of separation should not be used to separate the REE-containing chemical compounds from each other. Leaching methods seem more suitable with a material of such size

  17. Smelling themselves: Dogs investigate their own odours longer when modified in an "olfactory mirror" test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Alexandra

    2017-10-01

    While domestic dogs, Canis familiaris, have been found to be skillful at social cognitive tasks and even some meta-cognitive tasks, they have not passed the test of mirror self-recognition (MSR). Acknowledging the motivational and sensory challenges that might hinder performance, even before the question of self-recognition is broached, this study creates and enacts a novel design extrapolated from the species' natural behaviour. Given dogs' use of olfactory signals in communication, this experiment presents dogs with various canisters for approach and investigation. Each holds an odorous stimulus: in the critical test, either an "olfactory mirror" of the subject - the dog's own urine - or one in which the odour stimulus is modified. By looking at subjects' investigation times of each canister, it is shown that dogs distinguish between the olfactory "image" of themselves when modified: investigating their own odour for longer when it had an additional odour accompanying it than when it did not. Such behaviour implies a recognition of the odour as being of or from "themselves." The ecological validity of this odour presentation is examined by presenting to the subjects odours of other known or unknown dogs: dogs spend longer investigating the odour of other dogs than their own odour. Finally, in a second experiment, subjects spent longer with the modified stimulus than with the modified odour by itself, indicating that novelty alone does not explain the dogs' behavior. This study translates the MSR study for a species whose primary sensory modality is olfaction, and finds both that natural sniffing behaviour can be replicated in the lab and that dogs show more investigative interest in their own odours when modified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Working Less and Living Longer: Long-Term Trends in Working Time and Time Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Ausubel, J.H.; Grubler, A.

    1994-01-01

    Analyses of time series data beginning in the mid-nineteenth century in the industrialized nations, especially in the United Kingdom, show that on average people are working significantly less while living longer. Although the average career length has remained around 40 years, the total lifetime hours worked shrank for an average British worker from 124,000 hours in 1856 to 69,000 in 1981. The fraction of disposable lifetime hours spent working declined from 50% to 20%. The female share of c...

  19. Extending 3D near-cloud corrections from shorter to longer wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Evans, K. Frank; Várnai, Tamás; Wen, Guoyong

    2014-01-01

    Satellite observations have shown a positive correlation between cloud amount and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) that can be explained by the humidification of aerosols near clouds, and/or by cloud contamination by sub-pixel size clouds and the cloud adjacency effect. The last effect may substantially increase reflected radiation in cloud-free columns, leading to overestimates in the retrieved AOT. For clear-sky areas near boundary layer clouds the main contribution to the enhancement of clear sky reflectance at shorter wavelengths comes from the radiation scattered into clear areas by clouds and then scattered to the sensor by air molecules. Because of the wavelength dependence of air molecule scattering, this process leads to a larger reflectance increase at shorter wavelengths, and can be corrected using a simple two-layer model [18]. However, correcting only for molecular scattering skews spectral properties of the retrieved AOT. Kassianov and Ovtchinnikov [9] proposed a technique that uses spectral reflectance ratios to retrieve AOT in the vicinity of clouds; they assumed that the cloud adjacency effect influences the spectral ratio between reflectances at two wavelengths less than it influences the reflectances themselves. This paper combines the two approaches: It assumes that the 3D correction for the shortest wavelength is known with some uncertainties, and then it estimates the 3D correction for longer wavelengths using a modified ratio method. The new approach is tested with 3D radiances simulated for 26 cumulus fields from Large-Eddy Simulations, supplemented with 40 aerosol profiles. The results showed that (i) for a variety of cumulus cloud scenes and aerosol profiles over ocean the 3D correction due to cloud adjacency effect can be extended from shorter to longer wavelengths and (ii) the 3D corrections for longer wavelengths are not very sensitive to unbiased random uncertainties in the 3D corrections at shorter wavelengths. - Highlights:

  20. Economic impact of longer battery life of cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadler F

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fredrik Gadler,1 Yao Ding,2 Nathalie Verin,3 Martin Bergius,4 Jeffrey D Miller,5 Gregory M Lenhart,5 Mason W Russell5 1Department of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Truven Health Analytics, an IBM Company, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Boston Scientific Corporation, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, UK; 4Boston Scientific Nordic AB, Helsingborg, Sweden; 5Truven Health Analytics, an IBM Company, Cambridge, MA, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to quantify the impact that longer battery life of cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D devices has on reducing the number of device replacements and associated costs of these replacements from a Swedish health care system perspective.Methods: An economic model based on real-world published data was developed to estimate cost savings and avoided device replacements for CRT-Ds with longer battery life compared with devices with industry-standard battery life expectancy. Base-case comparisons were performed among CRT-Ds of three manufacturers – Boston Scientific Corporation, St. Jude Medical, and Medtronic – over a 6-year time horizon, as per the available clinical data. As a sensitivity analysis, we evaluated CRT-Ds as well as single-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD-VR and dual-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD-DR devices over a longer 10-year period. All costs were in 2015 Swedish Krona (SEK discounted at 3% per annum.Results: Base-case analysis results show that up to 603 replacements and up to SEK 60.4 million cumulative-associated costs could be avoided over 6 years by using devices with extended ­battery life. The pattern of savings over time suggests that savings are modest initially but increase rapidly beginning in the third year of follow-up with each year’s cumulative savings two to three times the previous year. Evaluating CRT-D, ICD-VR, and ICD-DR devices together over a longer 10-year period, the

  1. Are translations longer than source texts? A corpus-based study of explicitation

    OpenAIRE

    Frankenberg-Garcia, A

    2009-01-01

    Explicitation is the process of rendering information which is only implicit in the source text explicit in the target text, and is believed to be one of the universals of translation (Blum-Kulka 1986, Olohan and Baker 2000, Øverås 1998, Séguinot 1988, Vanderauwera 1985). The present study uses corpus technology to attempt to shed some light on the complex relationship between translation, text length and explicitation. An awareness of what makes translations longer (or shorter) and more expl...

  2. Why does picture naming take longer than word reading? The contribution of articulatory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riès, Stéphanie; Legou, Thierry; Burle, Borís; Alario, F-Xavier; Malfait, Nicole

    2012-10-01

    Since the 19th century, it has been known that response latencies are longer for naming pictures than for reading words aloud. While several interpretations have been proposed, a common general assumption is that this difference stems from cognitive word-selection processes and not from articulatory processes. Here we show that, contrary to this widely accepted view, articulatory processes are also affected by the task performed. To demonstrate this, we used a procedure that to our knowledge had never been used in research on language processing: response-latency fractionating. Along with vocal onsets, we recorded the electromyographic (EMG) activity of facial muscles while participants named pictures or read words aloud. On the basis of these measures, we were able to fractionate the verbal response latencies into two types of time intervals: premotor times (from stimulus presentation to EMG onset), mostly reflecting cognitive processes, and motor times (from EMG onset to vocal onset), related to motor execution processes. We showed that premotor and motor times are both longer in picture naming than in reading, although than in reading, although articulation is already initiated in the latter measure. Future studies based on this new approach should bring valuable clues for a better understanding of the relation between the cognitive and motor processes involved in speech production.

  3. Women live longer than men even during severe famines and epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarulli, Virginia; Barthold Jones, Julia A; Oksuzyan, Anna; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W

    2018-01-23

    Women in almost all modern populations live longer than men. Research to date provides evidence for both biological and social factors influencing this gender gap. Conditions when both men and women experience extremely high levels of mortality risk are unexplored sources of information. We investigate the survival of both sexes in seven populations under extreme conditions from famines, epidemics, and slavery. Women survived better than men: In all populations, they had lower mortality across almost all ages, and, with the exception of one slave population, they lived longer on average than men. Gender differences in infant mortality contributed the most to the gender gap in life expectancy, indicating that newborn girls were able to survive extreme mortality hazards better than newborn boys. Our results confirm the ubiquity of a female survival advantage even when mortality is extraordinarily high. The hypothesis that the survival advantage of women has fundamental biological underpinnings is supported by the fact that under very harsh conditions females survive better than males even at infant ages when behavioral and social differences may be minimal or favor males. Our findings also indicate that the female advantage differs across environments and is modulated by social factors. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  4. A longer climate memory carried by soil freeze–thaw processes in Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Shinji; Yamazaki, Koji

    2012-01-01

    The climate memory of a land surface generally persists for only a few months, but analysis of surface meteorological data revealed a longer-term climate memory carried by soil freeze–thaw processes in Siberia. Surface temperature variability during the snowmelt season corresponds reasonably well with that in the summer of the following year, when most stations show a secondary autocorrelation peak. The surface temperature memory is thought to be stored as variations in the amount of snowmelt water held in the soil, and through soil freezing, which emerges as latent heat variations in the near-surface atmosphere during soil thawing approximately one year later. The ground conditions are dry in the longer-term climate memory regions, such as eastern Siberia, where less snow cover (higher surface air temperature) in spring results in less snowmelt water or lower soil moisture in the summer. Consequently, through soil freezing, it will require less latent heat to thaw in the summer of the following year, resulting in higher surface air temperature. In addition to soil moisture and snow cover, soil freeze–thaw processes can also act as agents of climate memory in the near-surface atmosphere. (letter)

  5. Hyaluronic Acid Injections in Medicare Knee Osteoarthritis Patients Are Associated With Longer Time to Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kevin L; Anderson, Allen F; Niazi, Faizan; Fierlinger, Anke L; Kurtz, Steven M; Altman, Roy D

    2016-08-01

    Few nonoperative treatment options for knee osteoarthritis (OA) are available, but there is ongoing debate about the effectiveness of intra-articular (IA) hyaluronic acid (HA) injections. We investigated whether the formulation of IA HA, or its combined use with IA corticosteroid (CS), may be contributing to some of the reported variation in clinical outcomes. The 5% Part B Medicare data (2005-2012) were used to identify knee OA patients who underwent knee arthroplasty (KA). The time from diagnosis of OA to KA was compared between patients with (HA) and without (no HA) IA HA use, using quantile regression with propensity score adjustment. These were further stratified by type of IA HA. Patient factors associated with time to KA were also assessed using Cox regression. The "HA" cohort was associated with a longer time to KA of 8.7 months (95% confidence interval: 8.3-9.1 months; P injection use. Patients with both IA HA and IA CS had an additional 6.3 months (95% confidence interval: 5.5-7.0 months; P < .001) to KA over those with only IA HA. In a large cohort of elderly patients undergoing KA, there was a significant longer time from diagnosis of OA to KA in those receiving IA HA. It is unclear if the extended time may lead to less KA utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydroxychloroquine Use in Lupus Patients during Pregnancy Is Associated with Longer Pregnancy Duration in Preterm Births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Kroese

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Methods. In SLE pregnancies of a single Dutch center (2000–2015, lupus activity and flares before and during pregnancy and postpartum were assessed using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI/SLEPDAI (SLEDAI adjusted for pregnancy. The association between HCQ use and pregnancy outcomes (early spontaneous abortion, fetal death, and preterm and term live birth was analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE accounting for the occurrence of multiple pregnancies per patient. Analyses were adjusted for antiphospholipid antibody (aPL status. Results. 110 pregnancies (63 mostly Caucasian patients were included, of which, in 30, HCQ was used; overall occurrence of flares was low (non-HCQ group: 5 mild (6.4% and 2 severe (2.6%; HCQ group: 2 mild (6.7% and no severe flares. The HCQ group showed a trend towards lower dosage of prednisone (OR 0.2 (95% CI 0.0–1.4; p=0.10. Pregnancy outcomes were comparable between groups. Among preterm live births, pregnancy duration was significantly longer in HCQ users (2.4 weeks (95% CI 1.0–3.8; p≤0.001. Conclusion. HCQ use was associated with longer pregnancy duration in the vulnerable preterm birth population, underscoring the beneficial effect of HCQ use during pregnancy.

  7. Prospective Memory Deficits in Ecstasy Users: Effects of Longer Ongoing Task Delay Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEINBORN, MICHAEL; WOODS, STEVEN PAUL; NULSEN, CLAIRE; PARK, KATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    Ecstasy use has been associated with neurotoxicity and neurocognitive impairment in a variety of domains, including prospective memory (ProM), which involves the delayed execution of a previously encoded intention in response to a specific cue. The present study adopted the multiprocess theory of ProM to evaluate the hypothesis that ecstasy users would evidence differentially impaired ProM on longer versus shorter ongoing task delays. Ecstasy (n = 31) users, high-risk alcohol users (n = 21) and healthy nonusers (n = 31) completed the short (2-min) and long (15-min) delay ProM scales of the Memory for Intentions Screening Test. Results showed a significant group by ProM delay interaction, such that ecstasy users performed comparably to the comparison groups on short-delay trials, but were impaired on long-delay ProM, particularly for time-based cues. Among the ecstasy users, long-delay ProM was positively associated with risky decision-making, but not with retrospective memory or other aspects of executive functions. These findings suggest that ecstasy users may be particularly susceptible to deficits in strategic target monitoring and maintenance of cue-intention pairings over longer ProM delays. Findings are discussed in the context of their potential everyday functioning (e.g., academic, vocational) and treatment implications for ecstasy users. PMID:22047194

  8. Women live longer than men even during severe famines and epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarulli, Virginia; Barthold Jones, Julia A.; Oksuzyan, Anna; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W.

    2018-01-01

    Women in almost all modern populations live longer than men. Research to date provides evidence for both biological and social factors influencing this gender gap. Conditions when both men and women experience extremely high levels of mortality risk are unexplored sources of information. We investigate the survival of both sexes in seven populations under extreme conditions from famines, epidemics, and slavery. Women survived better than men: In all populations, they had lower mortality across almost all ages, and, with the exception of one slave population, they lived longer on average than men. Gender differences in infant mortality contributed the most to the gender gap in life expectancy, indicating that newborn girls were able to survive extreme mortality hazards better than newborn boys. Our results confirm the ubiquity of a female survival advantage even when mortality is extraordinarily high. The hypothesis that the survival advantage of women has fundamental biological underpinnings is supported by the fact that under very harsh conditions females survive better than males even at infant ages when behavioral and social differences may be minimal or favor males. Our findings also indicate that the female advantage differs across environments and is modulated by social factors. PMID:29311321

  9. Antepartum depression severity is increased during seasonally longer nights: relationship to melatonin and cortisol timing and quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliska, Charles J; Martínez, Luis F; López, Ana M; Sorenson, Diane L; Nowakowski, Sara; Kripke, Daniel F; Elliott, Jeffrey; Parry, Barbara L

    2013-11-01

    Current research suggests that mood varies from season to season in some individuals, in conjunction with light-modulated alterations in chronobiologic indices such as melatonin and cortisol. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of seasonal variations in darkness on mood in depressed antepartum women, and to determine the relationship of seasonal mood variations to contemporaneous blood melatonin and cortisol measures; a secondary aim was to evaluate the influence of seasonal factors on measures of melancholic versus atypical depressive symptoms. We obtained measures of mood and overnight concentrations of plasma melatonin and serum cortisol in 19 depressed patients (DP) and 12 healthy control (HC) antepartum women, during on-going seasonal variations in daylight/darkness, in a cross-sectional design. Analyses of variance showed that in DP, but not HC, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HRSD) scores were significantly higher in women tested during seasonally longer versus shorter nights. This exacerbation of depressive symptoms occurred when the dim light melatonin onset, the melatonin synthesis offset, and the time of maximum cortisol secretion (acrophase) were phase-advanced (temporally shifted earlier), and melatonin quantity was reduced, in DP but not HC. Serum cortisol increased across gestational weeks in both the HC and DP groups, which did not differ significantly in cortisol concentration. Nevertheless, serum cortisol concentration correlated positively with HRSD score in DP but not HC; notably, HC showed neither significant mood changes nor altered melatonin and cortisol timing or quantity in association with seasonal variations. These findings suggest that depression severity during pregnancy may become elevated in association with seasonally related phase advances in melatonin and cortisol timing and reduced melatonin quantity that occur in DP, but not HC. Thus, women who experience antepartum depression may be more susceptible than

  10. Comparison of single questions and brief questionnaire with longer validated food frequency questionnaire to assess adequate fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Amelia; Roberts, Kia; O'Leary, Fiona; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret Anne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a single question (SQ) for fruit and a SQ or five-item questionnaire for vegetable consumption (VFQ) could replace a longer food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to screen for inadequate versus adequate intakes in populations. Participants (109) completed three test screeners: fruit SQ, vegetable SQ, and a five-item VFQ followed by the reference 74-item FFQ (version 2 of the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies [DQESv2]) including 13 fruit and 25 vegetable items. The five-item VFQ asked about intake of salad vegetables, cooked vegetables, white potatoes, legumes, and vegetable juice. The screeners were compared with the reference (DQESv2 FFQ) for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive powers (PPV, NPV) to detect intakes of two or more servings of fruit and three or more servings of vegetables. Relative validity was examined using Bland-Altman statistics. The fruit SQ showed a PPV of 56% and an NPV of 83%. The PPV for the vegetable SQ was 30% and the NPV was 89%. For the five-item VFQ, the PPV was 39% and the NPV was 85%. Bland-Altman plots and linear regression equations showed that although the screener showed good agreement for fruit (unstandardized b1 coefficient = 0.04) for vegetable intake the difference between methods increased at higher intake levels (unstandardized b1 coefficients = -0.3 for the SQ, b1 = -0.6 for five-item VFQ). The fruit SQ and the five-item VFQ are suitable replacements for longer FFQs to detect inadequate intake and assess population mean but not individual intakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Time to pediatric epilepsy surgery is longer and developmental outcomes lower for government compared with private insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Jason S; Dadour, Andrew; Oh, Taemin; Baca, Christine B; Vickrey, Barbara G; Vassar, Stefanie; Sankar, Raman; Salamon, Noriko; Vinters, Harry V; Mathern, Gary W

    2013-07-01

    It is unclear if socioeconomic factors like type of insurance influence time to referral and developmental outcomes for pediatric patients undergoing epilepsy surgery. This study determined whether private compared with state government insurance was associated with shorter intervals of seizure onset to surgery and better developmental quotients for pediatric patients undergoing epilepsy surgery. A consecutive cohort (n = 420) of pediatric patients undergoing epilepsy surgery were retrospectively categorized into those with Medicaid (California Children's Services; n = 91) or private (Preferred Provider Organization, Health Maintenance Organization, Indemnity; n = 329) insurance. Intervals from seizure onset to referral and surgery and Vineland developmental assessments were compared by insurance type with the use of log-rank tests. Compared with private insurance, children with Medicaid had longer intervals from seizure onset to referral for evaluation (log-rank test, P = .034), and from seizure onset to surgery (P = .017). In a subset (25%) that had Vineland assessments, children with Medicaid compared with private insurance had lower Vineland scores presurgery (P = .042) and postsurgery (P = .003). Type of insurance was not associated with seizure severity, types of operations, etiology, postsurgical seizure-free outcomes, and complication rate. Compared with Medicaid, children with private insurance had shorter intervals from seizure onset to referral and to epilepsy surgery, and this was associated with lower Vineland scores before surgery. These findings may reflect delayed access for uninsured children who eventually obtained state insurance. Reasons for the delay and whether longer intervals before epilepsy surgery affect long-term cognitive and developmental outcomes warrant further prospective investigations.

  12. Quantitative determination of impurities contained in the pressure vessel of the Garigliano reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peselli, M.

    1984-01-01

    For dismantling the vessel of the Garigliano power plant, an element of fundamental importance is the evaluation of the γ activity induced in structural materials by neutron activation. With this knowledge, the most adequate cutting techniques, protection system, transport devices and final disposal can be chosen, in order to reduce the risk to both workers and population, taking into account the economical point of views. In this report, the model used for the activity estimation and the obtained results, showing good agreement with some experimental data, are described. The task was performed in the following steps: - measurements of the vessel steel composition, - evaluation of neutron flux affecting the vessel, - evaluation of the activity due to neutron flux, - data inventory from activity measurement performed on in core irradiated vessel specimens, - comparison between measurement and calculation data

  13. The role of nuclear reactor containment in severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The containment is a structural envelope which completely surrounds the nuclear reactor system and is designed to confine the radioactive releases in case of an accident. This report summarises the work of an NEA Senior Group of Experts who have studied the potential role of containment in accidents exceeding design specifications (so-called severe accidents). Some possibilities for enhancing the ability of plants to reduce the risk of significant off-site consequences by appropriate management of the acident have been examined

  14. Obesity Is Associated With More Complications and Longer Hospital Stays After Orthopaedic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Benjamin R; Nahm, Nickolas J; Dolenc, Andrea J; Vallier, Heather A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize relationships between obesity and initial hospital stay, including complications, in patients with multiple system trauma and surgically treated fractures. Prospective, observational. Level 1 trauma center. Three hundred seventy-six patients with an Injury Severity Score greater than 16 and mechanically unstable high-energy fractures of the femur, pelvic ring, acetabulum, or spine requiring stabilization. Data for obese (body mass index ≥ 30) versus nonobese patients included presence of pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, infection, organ failure, and mortality. Days in ICU and hospital, days on ventilator, transfusions, and surgical details were documented. Complications occurred more often in obese patients (38.0% vs. 28.4%, P = 0.03), with more acute renal failure (5.70% vs. 1.38%, P = 0.02) and infection (11.4% vs. 5.50%, P = 0.04). Days in ICU and mechanical ventilation times were longer for obese patients (7.06 vs. 5.25 days, P = 0.05 and 4.92 vs. 2.90 days, P = 0.007, respectively). Mean total hospital stay was also longer for obese patients (12.3 vs. 9.79 days, P = 0.009). No significant differences in rates of mortality, multiple organ failure, or pulmonary complications were noted. Medically stable obese patients were almost twice as likely to experience delayed fracture fixation due to preference of the surgeon and were more likely to experience delay overall (26.0% vs. 16.1%; P = 0.02). Mean time from injury to fixation was 34.9 hours in obese patients versus 23.7 hours in nonobese patients (P = 0.03). Obesity was noted among 42% of our trauma patients. In obese patients, complications occurred more often and hospital and ICU stays were significantly longer. These increases are likely to be associated with greater hospital costs. Surgeon decision to delay procedures in medically stable obese patients may have contributed to these findings; definitive fixation was more likely to be

  15. Testing, Modeling, and Monitoring to Enable Simpler, Cheaper, Longer-lived Surface Caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S. J.; Breckenridge, R. P.; Burns, D. E.

    2003-01-01

    Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone's back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent downward water migration. Some of the hazards will persist indefinitely. As society and regulators have demanded additional proof that caps are robust against more threats and for longer time periods, the caps have become increasingly complex and expensive. As in other industries, increased complexity will eventually increase the difficulty in estimating performance, in monitoring system/component performance, and in repairing or upgrading barriers as risks are managed. An approach leading to simpler, less expensive, longer-lived, more manageable caps is needed. Our project, which started in April 2002, aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late). The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions, improve barrier management, and enable improved solutions for future decisions. We believe it will be possible to develop simpler, longer-lived, less expensive caps that are easier to monitor, manage, and repair. The project is planned to: (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms in times shorter than service life; (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics; (c) develop sensor systems to identify early degradation; and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems. This project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated

  16. Inter-birth interval in zebras is longer following the birth of male foals than after female foals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnier, Florian; Grange, Sophie; Ganswindt, Andre; Ncube, Hlengisizwe; Duncan, Patrick

    2012-07-01

    Mammalian reproductive rates vary among individuals for physiological and environmental reasons. This study aims to determine reproductive rates from an individually monitored population of wild Plains zebras Equus quagga, and to assess the sources of variability in inter-birth intervals. The animals were monitored, where possible, every six months from 2004 to 2011. Thirty nine intervals corresponding to 65 births in 26 mares were identified, using direct observations and faecal steroid monitoring. Mean foaling rate of the population is 0.74 foal/year, and comparable with the literature. There was no significant effect of mother's age, nor of the season of previous birth on the length of inter-birth intervals. Inter-birth interval was significantly longer when the first foal was a male. This finding indicates that additional costs of having a son may delay future reproduction and thus reduce the total number of offspring a mare can have during her lifetime. Individually-based data provide critical information on the determinants of reproductive rates, and are therefore a key to understanding the causes of variations in life-history traits.

  17. Cheaters Are Looked at Longer and Remembered Better than Cooperators in Social Exchange Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Chiappe

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available What information is most salient during social exchange? Our studies assess the relative importance of cheaters and cooperators and whether their importance is affected by amount of resources involved in the exchange. In Experiment 1, participants categorized individuals as cheaters, cooperators, or neither, and rated how important they are to remember using a 7-point scale. In Experiment 2, participants categorized individuals, and then looked at their photos. This was followed by tests of face recognition, and memory for social contract status. Experiment 1 found cheaters were rated more important to remember than cooperators and more so when a greater amount of resources was involved. Experiment 2 found cheaters were looked at longer and people had better memory for their faces and were more likely to remember their social contract status. This suggests the mind evolved to remember information most pertinent in social contract situations.

  18. On the Nonsymmetric Longer Queue Model: Joint Distribution, Asymptotic Properties, and Heavy Traffic Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Knessl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider two parallel queues, each with independent Poisson arrival rates, that are tended by a single server. The exponential server devotes all of its capacity to the longer of the queues. If both queues are of equal length, the server devotes ν of its capacity to the first queue and the remaining 1−ν to the second. We obtain exact integral representations for the joint probability distribution of the number of customers in this two-node network. Then we evaluate this distribution in various asymptotic limits, such as large numbers of customers in either/both of the queues, light traffic where arrivals are infrequent, and heavy traffic where the system is nearly unstable.

  19. Targeted treatment trials for tuberous sclerosis and autism: no longer a dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mustafa

    2012-10-01

    Genetic disorders that present with a high incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) offer tremendous potential both for elucidating the underlying neurobiology of ASD and identifying therapeutic drugs and/or drug targets. As a result, clinical trials for genetic disorders associated with ASD are no longer a hope for the future but rather an exciting reality whose time has come. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is one such genetic disorder that presents with ASD, epilepsy, and intellectual disability. Cell culture and mouse model experiments have identified the mTOR pathway as a therapeutic target in this disease. This review summarizes the advantages of using TSC as model of ASD and the recent advances in the translational and clinical treatment trials in TSC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inpatient cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa: immediate and longer-term effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo eDalle Grave

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa is often successful in restoring body weight, but a high percentage of patients relapse following discharge. The aim of the present study was to establish the immediate and longer-term effects of a novel inpatient program for adolescents that was designed to produce enduring change. Method: Twenty-seven consecutive patients with severe anorexia nervosa were admitted to a 20-week inpatient treatment program based upon enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E. The patients were assessed before and after hospitalization, and six and 12 months later. Results: Twenty-six patients (96% completed the program. In these patients there was a substantial improvement in weight, eating disorder features and general psychopathology that was well maintained at 12-month follow-up. Conclusions: These findings suggest that inpatient CBT-E is a promising approach to the treatment of adolescents with severe anorexia nervosa.

  1. Poststroke Trajectories: The Process of Recovery Over the Longer Term Following Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Rebecca J; Jowett, Adam; Godfrey, Mary; Mellish, Kirste; Young, John; Farrin, Amanda; Holloway, Ivana; Hewison, Jenny; Forster, Anne

    2017-01-01

    We adopted a grounded theory approach to explore the process of recovery experienced by stroke survivors over the longer term who were living in the community in the United Kingdom, and the interacting factors that are understood to have shaped their recovery trajectories. We used a combination of qualitative methods. From the accounts of 22 purposively sampled stroke survivors, four different recovery trajectories were evident: (a) meaningful recovery, (b) cycles of recovery and decline, (c) ongoing disruption, (d) gradual, ongoing decline. Building on the concept of the illness trajectory, our findings demonstrate how multiple, interacting factors shape the process and meaning of recovery over time. Such factors included conception of recovery and meanings given to the changing self, the meanings and consequences of health and illness experiences across the life course, loss, sense of agency, and enacting relationships. Awareness of the process of recovery will help professionals better support stroke survivors.

  2. Studies on irradiated BNFL culture medium for decontamination and longer storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Antaryami; Malodia, P.; Jain, S.K.; Ram Gopal

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of gamma radiation for microbial decontamination and shelf-life extension of culture medium was studied. Changes in total viable count, coliform count and fungal count on exposure to 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy of gamma radiation were examined. The total viable counts were reduced on irradiation. Complete destruction of bacterial and fungal contamination was observed at 20 kGy. Studies were conducted to examine the changes in microbial contamination of the medium during storage. There was no post irradiation proliferation of microorganisms. Also, no significant change in the efficiency of the irradiated culture medium was observed. Thus, irradiation is extremely useful for longer storage and quality-assurance. (author)

  3. Changing Zaire to Congo: the fate of no-longer relevant mnemonic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan; Stiernstedt, Mikael; Öhlund, Maria; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-11-01

    In an ever-changing world there is constant pressure on revising long-term memory, such when people or countries change name. What happens to the old, pre-existing information? One possibility is that old associations gradually are weakened and eventually lost. Alternatively, old and no longer relevant information may still be an integral part of memory traces. To test the hypothesis that old mnemonic information still becomes activated when people correctly retrieve new, currently relevant information, brain activity was measured with fMRI while participants performed a cued-retrieval task. Paired associates (symbol-sound and symbol-face pairs) were first learned during two days. Half of the associations were then updated during the next two days, followed by fMRI scanning on day 5 and also 18 months later. As expected, retrieval reactivated sensory cortex related to the most recently learned association (visual cortex for symbol-face pairs, auditory cortex for symbol-sound pairs). Critically, retrieval also reactivated sensory cortex related to the no-longer relevant associate. Eighteen months later, only non-updated symbol-face associations were intact. Intriguingly, a subset of the updated associations was now treated as though the original association had taken over, in that memory performance was significantly worse than chance and that activity in sensory cortex for the original but not the updated associate correlated (negatively) with performance. Moreover, the degree of "residual" reactivation during day 5 inversely predicted memory performance 18 months later. Thus, updating of long-term memory involves adding new information to already existing networks, in which old information can stay resilient for a long time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Slower Perception Followed by Faster Lexical Decision in Longer Words: A Diffusion Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, Yulia; Froehlich, Eva; Schlickeiser, Ulrike; Hofmann, Markus J; Heekeren, Hauke R; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    Effects of stimulus length on reaction times (RTs) in the lexical decision task are the topic of extensive research. While slower RTs are consistently found for longer pseudo-words, a finding coined the word length effect (WLE), some studies found no effects for words, and yet others reported faster RTs for longer words. Moreover, the WLE depends on the orthographic transparency of a language, with larger effects in more transparent orthographies. Here we investigate processes underlying the WLE in lexical decision in German-English bilinguals using a diffusion model (DM) analysis, which we compared to a linear regression approach. In the DM analysis, RT-accuracy distributions are characterized using parameters that reflect latent sub-processes, in particular evidence accumulation and decision-independent perceptual encoding, instead of typical parameters such as mean RT and accuracy. The regression approach showed a decrease in RTs with length for pseudo-words, but no length effect for words. However, DM analysis revealed that the null effect for words resulted from opposing effects of length on perceptual encoding and rate of evidence accumulation. Perceptual encoding times increased with length for words and pseudo-words, whereas the rate of evidence accumulation increased with length for real words but decreased for pseudo-words. A comparison between DM parameters in German and English suggested that orthographic transparency affects perceptual encoding, whereas effects of length on evidence accumulation are likely to reflect contextual information and the increase in available perceptual evidence with length. These opposing effects may account for the inconsistent findings on WLEs.

  5. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood... process of restoring a flood protection system that was: (i) Constructed using Federal funds; (ii...

  6. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THE SYNTHESIS REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia DUMITRU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the main qualitative features of the information to be included in the synthesis accounting reports. The prerequisites of the paper are the fact that the synthesis financial reports are cardinal documents of all economic entities and the fact that the quality of the information retained in these reports depends on the competitiveness, efficiency and good activity of the economic entities. The conclusion to be reached is that the information contained in the synthesis reports must be opportunity, comparability, intelligibility, verifiability.

  7. How much information is contained in a recurrence plot?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, Marco; Romano, M. Carmen; Kurths, Juergen

    2004-01-01

    Recurrence plots have recently been recognized as a powerful tool for the analysis of data. Not only the visualization of structures of the time series but also the possibility to estimate invariants from them and the possibility to analyze non-stationary data sets are remarkable. However, the question of how much information is encoded in such a two-dimensional and binary representation has not been discussed so far. In this Letter we show that - under some conditions - it is possible to reconstruct an attractor from the recurrence plot, at least topologically. This means that all relevant dynamical information is contained in the plot

  8. Object Categorization in Finer Levels Relies More on Higher Spatial Frequencies and Takes Longer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Matin N; Kheradpisheh, Saeed R; Masquelier, Timothée; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The human visual system contains a hierarchical sequence of modules that take part in visual perception at different levels of abstraction, i.e., superordinate, basic, and subordinate levels. One important question is to identify the "entry" level at which the visual representation is commenced in the process of object recognition. For a long time, it was believed that the basic level had a temporal advantage over two others. This claim has been challenged recently. Here we used a series of psychophysics experiments, based on a rapid presentation paradigm, as well as two computational models, with bandpass filtered images of five object classes to study the processing order of the categorization levels. In these experiments, we investigated the type of visual information required for categorizing objects in each level by varying the spatial frequency bands of the input image. The results of our psychophysics experiments and computational models are consistent. They indicate that the different spatial frequency information had different effects on object categorization in each level. In the absence of high frequency information, subordinate and basic level categorization are performed less accurately, while the superordinate level is performed well. This means that low frequency information is sufficient for superordinate level, but not for the basic and subordinate levels. These finer levels rely more on high frequency information, which appears to take longer to be processed, leading to longer reaction times. Finally, to avoid the ceiling effect, we evaluated the robustness of the results by adding different amounts of noise to the input images and repeating the experiments. As expected, the categorization accuracy decreased and the reaction time increased significantly, but the trends were the same. This shows that our results are not due to a ceiling effect. The compatibility between our psychophysical and computational results suggests that the temporal

  9. How diking affects the longer-term structure and evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent diking episodes along divergent plate boundaries, as at Dabbahu (2005, Afar) or at Bardarbunga (2014, Iceland) , highlight the possibility to have m-wide opening in a short time (days to weeks). This suggests a prominent role of magma enhancing transient plate separations. However, the role of diking on a longer term (> 102 years) and its influence on the structure and the evolution of a divergent plate boundary is still poorly investigated. Here we use field surveys along the oceanic Icelandic and continental Ethiopian plate boundaries, along five eruptive fissures and four rift segments. Field observations have also been integrated with analogue and numerical models of dike emplacement to better understand the effect of dike emplacement at depth and at the surface. Our results show that the dike-fed eruptive fissures are systematically associated with graben structures formed by inward dipping normal faults having throws up to 10 m and commonly propagating downward. Moreover, rift segments (i.e. mature rift zones), despite any asymmetry and repetition, are characterized by the same features as the eruptive fissures, the only difference lying in the larger size (higher fault throws, up to 40 m, and wider deformation zones). Analogue and numerical models of dike intrusion confirm that all the structural features observed along the rift segments may be dike-induced; these features include downward propagating normal faults bordering graben structures, contraction at the base of the hanging walls of the faults and upward propagating faults. Simple calculations based on the deeper structure of the eroded rift segments in eastern and western Iceland also suggest that all the fault slip in the active rift segments may result from diking. These results suggest that the overall deformation pattern of eruptive fissures and rift segments may be explained only by dike emplacement. In a magmatic rift, the regional tectonic stress may rarely be high enough to be

  10. The Efficiency of Infants' Exploratory Play Is Related to Longer-Term Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muentener, Paul; Herrig, Elise; Schulz, Laura

    2018-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we examined the stability of exploratory play in infancy and its relation to cognitive development in early childhood. We assessed infants' (N = 130, mean age at enrollment = 12.02 months, SD = 3.5 months; range: 5–19 months) exploratory play four times over 9 months. Exploratory play was indexed by infants' attention to novelty, inductive generalizations, efficiency of exploration, face preferences, and imitative learning. We assessed cognitive development at the fourth visit for the full sample, and again at age three for a subset of the sample (n = 38). The only measure that was stable over infancy was the efficiency of exploration. Additionally, infants' efficiency score predicted vocabulary size and distinguished at-risk infants recruited from early intervention sites from those not at risk. Follow-up analyses at age three provided additional evidence for the importance of the efficiency measure: more efficient exploration was correlated with higher IQ scores. These results suggest that the efficiency of infants' exploratory play can be informative about longer-term cognitive development. PMID:29904360

  11. Square Helmholtz coil with homogeneous field for magnetic measurement of longer HTS tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamgir, A.K.M. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Building Li Zhai, Room 209, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: alam643@hotmail.com; Fang, J. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Building Li Zhai, Room 209, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gu, C. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Building Li Zhai, Room 209, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Han, Z. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Building Li Zhai, Room 209, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2005-08-01

    Magnetic ac loss measurement of HTS tapes and films at various magnetic field orientations becomes a crucial issue from the view point of measurement precision. In principle, due to tiny loss component and anisotropic properties, longer HTS sample subjected to very good homogeneous field could facilitate the accuracy of this kind of measurement. We investigated field profile of Helmholtz coils with square winding as a magnetizer for HTS tape and films. It is found that square winding exhibits better field-homogeneity than that of conventional circular winding with the similar coil dimensions for ideal condition. Being apart from ideal condition, we investigated field profile of square Helmholtz coil with various combinations of coil parameters and made a conclusion for the best combination based on the field homogeneity and field intensity. The design also provides noise reduction facilities by allowing compact and identical pick up-compensation coil arrangement. In addition, we optimized the final design of Helmholtz coil to compensate the influence of difficulties in square winding on the field distribution. Finally, as small as 0.5% field variation was estimated for 50 mm long sample to be magnetized under a proper combination of fabrication parameters. Investigation of field homogeneity, noise effect and a practical design of square Helmholtz coil as a pick-up coil based magnetizer will be reported.

  12. Development of longer Nd:LGGG crystal for high power laser application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanru; Tian, Hanlin; Zhang, Jian; Mu, Wenxiang; Zhang, Baitao; Jia, Zhitai; He, Jingliang; Tao, Xutang

    2017-11-01

    In order to further improve the Nd3+:(LuxGd1-x)3Ga5O12 (Nd:LGGG) crystal performance in high power laser field, a long Nd:LGGG crystal with dimensions of Φ 23 × 112 mm3 has been grown successfully by the Czochralski (Cz) method for laser rod fabrication. Compared with the normal size LGGG crystals (like 30-50 mm in length), we overcame several difficulties in the growth of longer ones, including crystal cracking by a large longitudinal temperature gradient, spiral growth by a small radial temperature gradient, and growth instability and even constitutional super cooling by Ga2O3 volatilizing continuously. The doping concentrations of Nd3+ and Lu3+ in the as-grown crystal and the crystal optical quality have been measured. The performance of diode-side-pumped Nd:LGGG rod laser has been preliminarily tested for the first time, simply by replacing the Nd:YAG crystal rod inside a commercial laser module. Under an incident pump power of 160 W, the maximum continuous wave output power of 38 W has been obtained, corresponding to an optical-optical conversion efficiency of 23.8% and a slope efficiency of 40.8%, respectively.

  13. 124Iodine: A Longer-Life Positron Emitter Isotope—New Opportunities in Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lucio Cascini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 124Iodine (124I with its 4.2 d half-life is particularly attractive for in vivo detection and quantification of longer-term biological and physiological processes; the long half-life of 124I is especially suited for prolonged time in vivo studies of high molecular weight compounds uptake. Numerous small molecules and larger compounds like proteins and antibodies have been successfully labeled with 124I. Advances in radionuclide production allow the effective availability of sufficient quantities of 124I on small biomedical cyclotrons for molecular imaging purposes. Radioiodination chemistry with 124I relies on well-established radioiodine labeling methods, which consists mainly in nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions. The physical characteristics of 124I permit taking advantages of the higher PET image quality. The availability of new molecules that may be targeted with 124I represents one of the more interesting reasons for the attention in nuclear medicine. We aim to discuss all iodine radioisotopes application focusing on 124I, which seems to be the most promising for its half-life, radiation emissions, and stability, allowing several applications in oncological and nononcological fields.

  14. Suppression of no-longer relevant information in Working Memory: An alpha-power related mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, Claudia; Valdivia, María; Capilla, Almudena; Hinojosa, José Antonio; Campo, Pablo

    2018-03-27

    Selective attention can enhance Working Memory (WM) performance by selecting relevant information, while preventing distracting items from encoding or from further maintenance. Alpha oscillatory modulations are a correlate of visuospatial attention. Specifically, an enhancement of alpha power is observed in the ipsilateral posterior cortex to the locus of attention, along with a suppression in the contralateral hemisphere. An influential model proposes that the alpha enhancement is functionally related to the suppression of information. However, whether ipsilateral alpha power represents a mechanism through which no longer relevant WM representations are inhibited has yet not been explored. Here we examined whether the amount of distractors to be suppressed during WM maintenance is functionally related to alpha power lateralized activity. We measure EEG activity while participants (N = 36) performed a retro-cue task in which the WM load was varied across the relevant/irrelevant post-cue hemifield. We found that alpha activity was lateralized respect to the locus of attention, but did not track post-cue irrelevant load. Additionally, non-lateralized alpha activity increased with post-cue relevant load. We propose that alpha lateralization associated to retro-cuing might be related to a general orienting mechanism toward relevant representation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diminish electrostatic in piezoresponse force microscopy through longer or ultra-stiff tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, A.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.

    2018-05-01

    Piezoresponse Force Microscopy is a powerful but delicate nanoscale technique that measures the electromechanical response resulting from the application of a highly localized electric field. Though mechanical response is normally due to piezoelectricity, other physical phenomena, especially electrostatic interaction, can contribute to the signal read. We address this problematic through the use of longer ultra-stiff probes providing state of the art sensitivity, with the lowest electrostatic interaction and avoiding working in high frequency regime. In order to find this solution we develop a theoretical description addressing the effects of electrostatic contributions in the total cantilever vibration and its quantification for different setups. The theory is subsequently tested in a Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) crystal, a sample with well-defined 0° and 180° domains, using different commercial available conductive tips. We employ the theoretical description to compare the electrostatic contribution effects into the total phase recorded. Through experimental data our description is corroborated for each of the tested commercially available probes. We propose that a larger probe length can be a solution to avoid electrostatic forces, so the cantilever-sample electrostatic interaction is reduced. Our proposed solution has great implications into avoiding artifacts while studying soft biological samples, multiferroic oxides, and thin film ferroelectric materials.

  16. Intellectual maturity and longevity: late-blooming composers and writers live longer than child prodigies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafkamp, Maurits P J; Slaets, Joris P J; van Bodegom, David

    2017-05-30

    Life history theory links human physical and sexual development to longevity. However, there have been no studies on the association of intellectual development with longevity. This observational study investigates the relationship between the onset of intellectual maturity and lifespan through the life histories of composers and creative writers, whose intellectual development can be gauged through their compositions and writings. In these groups we model the relationship between the age at first creative work, and age at death using multilevel regression, adjusting for sex, date of birth, and nationality. Historical biographical records on 1110 musical composers and 1182 creative writers, born in the period 1400 AD through 1915 AD, were obtained from the Oxford Companion to Music and the Oxford Companion to English Literature. Composers and creative writers lived, respectively 0.16 ( p = 0.02) and 0.18 ( p < 0.01) years longer for each later year of age at first work. When completion of the first creative work is interpreted as a proxy for the onset of intellectual maturity in composers and creative writers, our findings indicate that a later onset of intellectual maturity is associated with higher longevity.

  17. Effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused red blood cells in adult ICU patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygård, Sofie L; Jonsson, Andreas B; Madsen, Martin B

    2018-01-01

    on the effects of shorter versus longer storage time of transfused RBCs on outcomes in ICU patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) of randomised clinical trials including adult ICU patients transfused with fresher versus older or standard issue...... blood. RESULTS: We included seven trials with a total of 18,283 randomised ICU patients; two trials of 7504 patients were judged to have low risk of bias. We observed no effects of fresher versus older blood on death (relative risk 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-1.11; 7349 patients; TSA......-adjusted CI 0.93-1.15), adverse events (1.26, 0.76-2.09; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.16-9.87) or post-transfusion infections (1.07, 0.96-1.20; 7332 patients; TSA-adjusted CI 0.90-1.27). The results were unchanged by including trials with high risk of bias. TSA confirmed the results and the required...

  18. Square Helmholtz coil with homogeneous field for magnetic measurement of longer HTS tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, A.K.M.; Fang, J.; Gu, C.; Han, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic ac loss measurement of HTS tapes and films at various magnetic field orientations becomes a crucial issue from the view point of measurement precision. In principle, due to tiny loss component and anisotropic properties, longer HTS sample subjected to very good homogeneous field could facilitate the accuracy of this kind of measurement. We investigated field profile of Helmholtz coils with square winding as a magnetizer for HTS tape and films. It is found that square winding exhibits better field-homogeneity than that of conventional circular winding with the similar coil dimensions for ideal condition. Being apart from ideal condition, we investigated field profile of square Helmholtz coil with various combinations of coil parameters and made a conclusion for the best combination based on the field homogeneity and field intensity. The design also provides noise reduction facilities by allowing compact and identical pick up-compensation coil arrangement. In addition, we optimized the final design of Helmholtz coil to compensate the influence of difficulties in square winding on the field distribution. Finally, as small as 0.5% field variation was estimated for 50 mm long sample to be magnetized under a proper combination of fabrication parameters. Investigation of field homogeneity, noise effect and a practical design of square Helmholtz coil as a pick-up coil based magnetizer will be reported

  19. Aid alignment: a longer term lens on trends in development assistance for health in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierman, Elizabeth; Ssengooba, Freddie; Bennett, Sara

    2013-02-20

    Over the past decade, development assistance for health (DAH) in Uganda has increased dramatically, surpassing the government's own expenditures on health. Yet primary health care and other priorities identified in Uganda's health sector strategic plan remain underfunded. Using data available from the Creditor Reporting System (CRS), National Health Accounts (NHA), and government financial reports, we examined trends in how donors channel DAH and the extent to which DAH is aligned with sector priorities. The study follows the flow of DAH from the donor to the implementing organization, specifying the modality used for disbursing funds and categorizing funds based on program area or support function. Despite efforts to improve alignment through the formation of a sector-wide approach (SWAp) for health in 1999 and the creation of a fund to pool resources for identified priorities, increasingly DAH is provided as short-term, project-based support for disease-specific initiatives, in particular HIV/AIDS. These findings highlight the need to better align external resources with country priorities and refocus attention on longer-term sector-wide objectives.

  20. Longer-Term Mental and Behavioral Health Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya Cross Hansel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mental health issues are a significant concern after technological disasters such as the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill; however, there is limited knowledge about the long-term effects of oil spills. The study was part of a larger research effort to improve understanding of the mental and behavioral health effects of the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill. Data were collected immediately following the spill and the same individuals were resampled again after the second anniversary (n = 314. The results show that mental health symptoms of depression, serious mental illness and posttraumatic stress have not statistically decreased, and anxiety symptoms were statistically equivalent to immediate symptoms. Results also showed that the greatest effect on anxiety is related to the extent of disruption to participants’ lives, work, family, and social engagement. This study supports lessons learned following the Exxon Valdez spill suggesting that mental health effects are long term and recovery is slow. Elevated symptoms indicate the continued need for mental health services, especially for individuals with high levels of disruption resulting in increased anxiety. Findings also suggest that the longer-term recovery trajectories following the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill do not fall within traditional disaster recovery timelines.

  1. An exploration of the longer-term impacts of community participation in rural health services design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Currie, Margaret; Kenny, Amanda; Munoz, Sarah-Anne

    2015-09-01

    This article explores what happened, over the longer term, after a community participation exercise to design future rural service delivery models, and considers perceptions of why more follow-up actions did or did not happen. The study, which took place in 2014, revisits three Scottish communities that engaged in a community participation research method (2008-2010) intended to design rural health services. Interviews were conducted with 22 citizens, healthcare practitioners, managers and policymakers all of whom were involved in, or knew about, the original project. Only one direct sustained service change was found - introduction of a volunteer first responder scheme in one community. Sustained changes in knowledge were found. The Health Authority that part-funded development of the community participation method, through the original project, had not adopted the new method. Community members tended to attribute lack of further impact to low participation and methods insufficiently attuned to the social nuances of very small rural communities. Managers tended to blame insufficient embedding in the healthcare system and issues around power over service change and budgets. In the absence of convincing formal community governance mechanisms for health issues, rural health practitioners tended to act as conduits between citizens and the Health Authority. The study provides new knowledge about what happens after community participation and highlights a need for more exploration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. News from the Library: Microsoft products no longer on sale at the Bookshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2013-01-01

    As you might know, for some time the Bookshop also acted as a point of sale of Microsoft products. Please note that this is no longer the case.   The Swiss distributor of Microsoft software - DirAction AG - provides a website where CERN users can acquire copies of Microsoft software for home use. This website is available in three languages - English, French and German - and accepts payments by credit card or by money transfer from a bank account or PayPal. Should you have any problems or questions relating to this website, you can contact the DirAction Team directly at + 41 43 299 44 00 or using the contact form. Note that the CERN Service Desk will not be able to assist you as this is a service provided by DirAction rather than CERN IT. Please refer to this website for complete information on how to purchase Microsoft products. Your feedback is welcome! Please contact us by e-mail.

  3. Karyotypic changes through dysploidy persist longer over evolutionary time than polyploid changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcial Escudero

    Full Text Available Chromosome evolution has been demonstrated to have profound effects on diversification rates and speciation in angiosperms. While polyploidy has predated some major radiations in plants, it has also been related to decreased diversification rates. There has been comparatively little attention to the evolutionary role of gains and losses of single chromosomes, which may or not entail changes in the DNA content (then called aneuploidy or dysploidy, respectively. In this study we investigate the role of chromosome number transitions and of possible associated genome size changes in angiosperm evolution. We model the tempo and mode of chromosome number evolution and its possible correlation with patterns of cladogenesis in 15 angiosperm clades. Inferred polyploid transitions are distributed more frequently towards recent times than single chromosome gains and losses. This is likely because the latter events do not entail changes in DNA content and are probably due to fission or fusion events (dysploidy, as revealed by an analysis of the relationship between genome size and chromosome number. Our results support the general pattern that recently originated polyploids fail to persist, and suggest that dysploidy may have comparatively longer-term persistence than polyploidy. Changes in chromosome number associated with dysploidy were typically observed across the phylogenies based on a chi-square analysis, consistent with these changes being neutral with respect to diversification.

  4. Longer wings for faster springs - wing length relates to spring phenology in a long-distance migrant across its range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Steffen; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Emmenegger, Tamara; Amrhein, Valentin; Csörgő, Tibor; Gursoy, Arzu; Ilieva, Mihaela; Kverek, Pavel; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Pirrello, Simone; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Salewski, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In migratory birds, morphological adaptations for efficient migratory flight often oppose morphological adaptations for efficient behavior during resident periods. This includes adaptations in wing shape for either flying long distances or foraging in the vegetation and in climate-driven variation of body size. In addition, the timing of migratory flights and particularly the timely arrival at local breeding sites is crucial because fitness prospects depend on site-specific phenology. Thus, adaptations for efficient long-distance flights might be also related to conditions at destination areas. For an obligatory long-distance migrant, the common nightingale, we verified that wing length as the aerodynamically important trait, but not structural body size increased from the western to the eastern parts of the species range. In contrast with expectation from aerodynamic theory, however, wing length did not increase with increasing migration distances. Instead, wing length was associated with the phenology at breeding destinations, namely the speed of local spring green-up. We argue that longer wings are beneficial for adjusting migration speed to local conditions for birds breeding in habitats with fast spring green-up and thus short optimal arrival periods. We suggest that the speed of spring green-up at breeding sites is a fundamental variable determining the timing of migration that fine tune phenotypes in migrants across their range.

  5. Association between unmet needs and quality of life in hospitalised cancer patients no longer receiving anti-cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bužgová, R; Hajnová, E; Sikorová, L; Jarošová, D

    2014-09-01

    Assessing the quality of life and unmet needs of cancer patients is an integral part of palliative care. This cross-sectional study sought to determine whether there is an association between quality of life and unmet needs, anxiety and depression in cancer patients who are no longer receiving anti-cancer treatment. The sample consisted of 93 patients from the oncology department at the University Hospital in Ostrava for whom further cancer treatment had been terminated as ineffective in halting the progression of their cancer. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), the Patient Needs Assessment in Palliative Care (PNAP) questionnaire, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used to collect data. The overall quality of life score was quite low at 46. Most unmet needs were defined in terms of physical, psychological or spiritual needs. Correlations were found between impaired quality of life and lower Karnofsky scores (r = 0.50); increased physical (r = 0.52), psychological (r = 0.44) and spiritual (r = 0.36) needs; and higher levels of anxiety (r = -0.30) and depression (r = -0.68). Effective management of patients' physical (pain, fatigue and depression), psychological and spiritual needs may improve their quality of life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Self-selection contributes significantly to the lower adiposity offaster, longer-distanced, male and female walkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Although cross-sectional studies show active individuals areleaner than their sedentary counterparts, it remains to be determined towhat extent this is due to initially leaner men and women choosing toexercise longer and more intensely (self-selection bias). In this reportwalking volume (weekly distance) and intensity (speed) were compared tocurrent BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at the start of walking (BMIstarting) in20,353 women and 5,174 men who had walked regularly for exercise for 7.2and 10.6 years,respectively. The relationships of BMIcurrent andBMIstarting with distance and intensity were nonlinear (convex). Onaverage, BMIstarting explained>70 percent of the association betweenBMIcurrent and intensity, and 40 percent and 17 percent of theassociation between BMIcurrent and distance in women and men,respectively. Although the declines in BMIcurrent with distance andintensity were greater among fatter than leaner individuals, the portionsattributable to BMIstarting remained relatively constant regardless offatness. Thus self-selection bias accounts for most of the decline in BMIwith walking intensity and smaller albeit significant proportions of thedecline with distance. This demonstration of self-selection is germane toother cross-sectional comparisons in epidemiological research, givenself-selection is unlikely to be limited to weight or peculiar tophysical activity.

  7. Do benefits accrue from longer rotations for students in Rural Clinical Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denz-Penhey, Harriet; Shannon, Susan; Murdoch, Campbell J; Newbury, Jonathon W

    2005-01-01

    areas of need. Clinical benefits: contributions to the clinical team: students in their clinical years want to feel useful and to be allowed to become contributors to the medical care, even as they are learning. A longer rotation allows them to become known to their teachers who are then able to easily assess the type of contribution that is appropriate for their students to undertake. Students then become full participating members of the healthcare team, rather than observing learners. Social benefits: all students with a home base actively participated in a wide range of community activities outside their role as medical students. Those students undertaking short rotations without a home base seldom connected in the same way to any rural community. Evaluation from these two RCS has shown that short rotations are likely to be less optimal than longer rotations for meeting the broader goals of the RCS to build future workforce capacity. Our results suggest that one opportunity to acculturate students into the rural lifestyle is lost when students' placements are insufficiently long for them to put down roots in their community, and to understand how to 'live' there more broadly. Good rural experiences and teaching and learning opportunities are not sufficient in themselves. Students' emotional attachment to rural living comes from experience related to time and the connection to local people that comes as a result of time spent in the community. Students on short rotations do not make that local connection.

  8. Ethnographic Study at a Music Library Found Students Prefer Short Stopovers and Longer Solitary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Daniel

    2014-04-01

    technology. According to data from the flip books, 44% engaged in multitasking, which was therefore significant but not preferred. It was more likely to occur when electronic technology was involved. Patrons were most likely to be present in the library for less than 5 minutes or more than 20 minutes. Patrons who stayed in the library for only a short time were more likely to engage in leisure activities than those who stayed longer, but leisure activities overall were as prevalent as study time. The technology lab and the reference area were the most popular zones. Users stayed in the technology lab and stacks for short times only, whereas the reference area and carrels were favored for long visits. Users engaged in multitasking mostly in the carrels and reference area. Conclusion – The patrons’ preference for solitary study is at odds with academic libraries’ current interest in collaborative learning spaces, but can be explained by the specific nature of music studies (artistic creation is a solitary activity, and is in line with previous ethnographic studies of public libraries. Music students presumably use the technology labs for short visits between classes. They favor the study carrels for longer stays where they can multitask, using their own laptops and iPods. These findings can be used to help redesign the library. Design recommendations include placing the technology lab by the entrance to enable quick coming and going, increasing the number of carrels, placing them in quiet parts of the library, and equipping them with electrical outlets.

  9. Temporal event structure and timing in schizophrenia: preserved binding in a longer "now".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brice; Giersch, Anne; Huron, Caroline; van Wassenhove, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia experience a loss of temporal continuity or subjective fragmentation along the temporal dimension. Here, we develop the hypothesis that impaired temporal awareness results from a perturbed structuring of events in time-i.e., canonical neural dynamics. To address this, 26 patients and their matched controls took part in two psychophysical studies using desynchronized audiovisual speech. Two tasks were used and compared: first, an identification task testing for multisensory binding impairments in which participants reported what they heard while looking at a speaker's face; in a second task, we tested the perceived simultaneity of the same audiovisual speech stimuli. In both tasks, we used McGurk fusion and combination that are classic ecologically valid multisensory illusions. First, and contrary to previous reports, our results show that patients do not significantly differ from controls in their rate of illusory reports. Second, the illusory reports of patients in the identification task were more sensitive to audiovisual speech desynchronies than those of controls. Third, and surprisingly, patients considered audiovisual speech to be synchronized for longer delays than controls. As such, the temporal tolerance profile observed in a temporal judgement task was less of a predictor for sensory binding in schizophrenia than for that obtained in controls. We interpret our results as an impairment of temporal event structuring in schizophrenia which does not specifically affect sensory binding operations but rather, the explicit access to timing information associated here with audiovisual speech processing. Our findings are discussed in the context of curent neurophysiological frameworks for the binding and the structuring of sensory events in time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Longer guts and higher food quality increase energy intake in migratory swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gils, Jan A; Beekman, Jan H; Coehoorn, Pieter; Corporaal, Els; Dekkers, Ten; Klaassen, Marcel; van Kraaij, Rik; de Leeuw, Rinze; de Vries, Peter P

    2008-11-01

    1. Within the broad field of optimal foraging, it is increasingly acknowledged that animals often face digestive constraints rather than constraints on rates of food collection. This therefore calls for a formalization of how animals could optimize food absorption rates. 2. Here we generate predictions from a simple graphical optimal digestion model for foragers that aim to maximize their (true) metabolizable food intake over total time (i.e. including nonforaging bouts) under a digestive constraint. 3. The model predicts that such foragers should maintain a constant food retention time, even if gut length or food quality changes. For phenotypically flexible foragers, which are able to change the size of their digestive machinery, this means that an increase in gut length should go hand in hand with an increase in gross intake rate. It also means that better quality food should be digested more efficiently. 4. These latter two predictions are tested in a large avian long-distance migrant, the Bewick's swan (Cygnus columbianus bewickii), feeding on grasslands in its Dutch wintering quarters. 5. Throughout winter, free-ranging Bewick's swans, growing a longer gut and experiencing improved food quality, increased their gross intake rate (i.e. bite rate) and showed a higher digestive efficiency. These responses were in accordance with the model and suggest maintenance of a constant food retention time. 6. These changes doubled the birds' absorption rate. Had only food quality changed (and not gut length), then absorption rate would have increased by only 67%; absorption rate would have increased by only 17% had only gut length changed (and not food quality). 7. The prediction that gross intake rate should go up with gut length parallels the mechanism included in some proximate models of foraging that feeding motivation scales inversely to gut fullness. We plea for a tighter integration between ultimate and proximate foraging models.

  11. Longer and less overlapping food webs in anthropogenically disturbed marine ecosystems: confirmations from the past.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Saporiti

    Full Text Available The human exploitation of marine resources is characterised by the preferential removal of the largest species. Although this is expected to modify the structure of food webs, we have a relatively poor understanding of the potential consequences of such alteration. Here, we take advantage of a collection of ancient consumer tissues, using stable isotope analysis and SIBER to assess changes in the structure of coastal marine food webs in the South-western Atlantic through the second half of the Holocene as a result of the sequential exploitation of marine resources by hunter-gatherers, western sealers and modern fishermen. Samples were collected from shell middens and museums. Shells of both modern and archaeological intertidal herbivorous molluscs were used to reconstruct changes in the stable isotopic baseline, while modern and archaeological bones of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens, South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis and Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus were used to analyse changes in the structure of the community of top predators. We found that ancient food webs were shorter, more redundant and more overlapping than current ones, both in northern-central Patagonia and southern Patagonia. These surprising results may be best explained by the huge impact of western sealing on pinnipeds during the fur trade period, rather than the impact of fishing on fish populations. As a consequence, the populations of pinnipeds at the end of the sealing period were likely well below the ecosystem's carrying capacity, which resulted in a release of intraspecific competition and a shift towards larger and higher trophic level prey. This in turn led to longer and less overlapping food webs.

  12. Dissemination of English Culture in Chinua Achebe’s No Longer at Ease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Zarrinjooee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Chinua Achebe’s (1930-2013 No Longer at Ease (1960 which depicts the dissemination of English culture in Nigeria and its effects on the life and identity of Obi Okonkwo, the Western educated male protagonist. The focus of this paper is on the dissemination of English culture and submission of Nigerian culture in order to represent the inferiority of Nigerians. Edward Said’s (1935-2003 attempts regarding Orientalism and Frantz Fanon’s (1925-1961 issues relating inferiority of the indigenous people caused by colonization are used in this paper. The colonisers affect the life, mind, culture, and identity of the colonized through various ways such as education, religion, and language. Such effects cause some cultural transformation and changes in language of the colonized people. Moreover, the colonizer through stereotyping the colonized people assumes them as other. Indeed, the colonizer imposes his/her superiority on the natives who try to assimilate themselves with the colonizer. Achebe in his novel shows how this effort causes some binary relation among the characters. The novel shows the difference between two cultures, and Achebe puts emphasis on the superiority of English culture and depicts how colonialism and Western orientalism produce stereotyped images of Nigerians and Obi as corrupt. Consequently, such features have great impressions on the mind of Nigerians, which results in inferiority complex. Such characteristic invites the Nigerians to follow European’s value and forget their own culture, which is resulted in the rejection of native values. Keywords: Binary Relation, Colonization, Cultural Transformation, Cultural Dissemination, Orientalism, Stereotyping

  13. Longer Duration of Urinary Catheterization Increases Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection in PICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Kahoru; Furuichi, Mihoko; Ito, Kenta; Morikawa, Yoshihiko; Watanabe, Ichiro; Shimizu, Naoki; Horikoshi, Yuho

    2018-06-13

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for 30% of healthcare-associated infections. To date, few studies have addressed pediatric catheter-associated urinary tract infection in PICUs. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in relation to the duration of catheterization in the PICU. Retrospective cohort study. PICU at a tertiary children's hospital. Our study was conducted between April 2012 and June 2015 at Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center in Japan. Children in the PICU with an urethral catheter were included. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection cases were defined according to the National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. The patients' demographic data and isolated organisms were reviewed. Duration of catheterization and the catheter-associated urinary tract infection occurrence rate were analyzed. None. Among 1,890 catheterizations, 23 catheter-associated urinary tract infection cases were identified. The overall occurrence rate was 2.35/1,000 catheter-days. Among the patients with catheter-associated urinary tract infection, 13 were boys. The median age was 11 months (interquartile range, 7-35 mo), and the median duration of catheterization was 7 days (interquartile range, 5-12 d). The isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (26.5%), Enterococcus faecalis (17.6%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.8%). Two species were isolated in each of 11 cases (47.8%). Each additional day of catheterization increased the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.10, and odds ratio adjusted for contact precaution status and surgical procedures was 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09). Longer duration of catheterization increased the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection by 5% each day at the PICU. Prompt removal of the urethral catheter is strongly recommended whenever feasible.

  14. The self-management of longer-term depression: learning from the patient, a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Eleni; Cook, Sarah; Thake, Anna; Foster, Alexis; Shaw, Sue; Hutten, Rebecca; Parry, Glenys; Ricketts, Tom

    2015-07-24

    Depression is a common mental health condition now viewed as chronic or long-term. More than 50 % of people will have at least one further episode of depression after their first, and therefore it requires long-term management. However, little is known about the effectiveness of self-management in depression, in particular from the patients' perspective. This study aimed to understand how people with longer-term depression manage the condition, how services can best support self-management and whether the principles and concepts of the recovery approach would be advantageous. Semi-structured in depth interviews were carried out with 21 participants, recruited from a range of sources using maximum variation sampling. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used by a diverse team comprised of service users, practitioners and academics. Four super-ordinate themes were found: experience of depression, the self, the wider environment, self-management strategies. Within these, several prominent sub-themes emerged of importance to the participants. These included how aspects of themselves such as hope, confidence and motivation could be powerful agents; and how engaging in a wide range of chosen activities could contribute to their emotional, mental, physical, social, spiritual and creative wellbeing. Services in general were not perceived to be useful in specifically facilitating self-management. Increased choice and control were needed and a greater emphasis on an individualised holistic model. Improved information was needed about how to develop strategies and locate resources, especially during the first episode of depression. These concepts echoed those of the recovery approach, which could therefore be seen as valuable in aiding the self-management of depression.

  15. Pediatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Learning From Longer Follow Up to Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Costagliola

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE is a rare condition, representing approximately 10% of SLE cases. The aim of this study was to identify variables to improve the diagnostic awareness and management of pSLE patients.Methods: This retrospective study included 25 patients diagnosed with pSLE and followed at the University of Pisa. We collected data about clinical profile at disease onset and during a long-term follow-up, including disease activity, organ damage development, and treatments received.Results: The mean patient age at disease onset was 14.6 ± 1.6 years, and the mean follow-up period was 14.17 ± 8.04 years. The most common initial manifestations were arthritis, malar rash, and cytopenias. The median time to diagnosis since the first symptoms was 6 months, and was significantly longer in patients with hematological onset (54 months. During follow-up, the number of patients with renal involvement showed a significant increase, from 36% at diagnosis to 72.2% after 10 years of disease evolution. Patients who developed chronic organ damage maintained a higher time-averaged disease activity during follow-up and received a significantly higher dose of corticosteroids.Conclusion: Patients with immune cytopenia represent a group deserving strict clinical follow-up for the risk of evolution to SLE. Intense surveillance of renal function, early treatment and steroid-sparing strategies should be strongly considered in the management of pSLE patients.

  16. LONGER-TERM EFFECTIVENESS OF CBT IN TREATMENT OF COMORBID AUD/MDD ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Jack R; Douaihy, Antoine B; Kirisci, Levent; Daley, Dennis C

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a commonly used therapy among persons with major depressive disorder (MDD) and also among those with alcohol use disorders (AUD). However, less is known regarding the efficacy of CBT for treating persons with co-occurring disorders involving both MDD and an AUD. Studies assessing the efficacy of CBT in adolescent populations with co-occurring disorders are particularly sparse, especially studies designed to assess the potential longer-term efficacy of an acute phase trial of CBT therapy in that youthful comorbid population. We recently conducted a first acute phase treatment study involving comorbid AUD/MDD adolescents, which involved the medication fluoxetine as well as manualized CBT therapy. The results of that acute phase study suggested efficacy for CBT therapy but not for fluoxetine for treating the depressive symptoms and the excessive alcohol use of study subjects (Cornelius et al., 2009). The current chapter provides an assessment of the long-term efficacy of CBT for treating comorbid AUD/MDD adolescents, based on results from our own long-term (four-year) follow-up study, which was conducted following the completion of our recent acute phase treatment study. The results of the study suggest long-term efficacy for acute phase CBT/MET therapy for treating both the depressive symptoms and the excessive alcohol use of comorbid AUD/MDD adolescents, but demonstrate no evidence of long-term efficacy for fluoxetine for treating either the depressive symptoms or the excessive alcohol use of that population.

  17. Improved sonothrombolysis from a modified diagnostic transducer delivering impulses containing a longer pulse duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juefei; Xie, Feng; Kumar, Tanmay; Liu, Jinjin; Lof, John; Shi, William; Everbach, E Carr; Porter, Thomas R

    2014-07-01

    Although guided high-mechanical-index (MI) impulses from a diagnostic ultrasound transducer have been used in preclinical studies to dissolve coronary arterial and microvascular thrombi in the presence of intravenously infused microbubbles, it is possible that pulse durations (PDs) longer than that used for diagnostic imaging may further improve the effectiveness of this approach. By use of an established in vitro model flow system, a total of 90 occlusive porcine arterial thrombi (thrombus age: 3-4 h) within a vascular mimicking system were randomized to 10-min treatments with two different PDs (5 and 20 μs) using a Philips S5-1 transducer (1.6-MHz center frequency) at a range of MIs (from 0.2 to 1.4). All impulses were delivered in an intermittent fashion to permit microbubble replenishment within the thrombosed vessel. Diluted lipid-encapsulated microbubbles (0.5% Definity) were infused during the entire treatment period. A tissue-mimicking phantom 5 cm thick was placed between the transducer and thrombosed vessel to mimic transthoracic attenuation. Two 20-MHz passive cavitation detection systems were placed confocal to the insonified vessel to assess for inertial cavitational activity. Percentage thrombus dissolution was calculated by weighing the thrombi before and after each treatment. Percentage thrombus dissolution was significantly higher with a 20-μs PD already at the 0.2 and 0.4 MI therapeutic impulses (54 ± 12% vs. 33 ± 17% and 54 ± 22% vs. 34 ± 17%, p cavitation detection systems detected only low intensities of inertial cavitation. At higher MI settings and 20-μs PDs, percentage thrombus dissolution decreased most likely from high-intensity cavitation shielding of the thrombus. Slightly prolonging the PD on a diagnostic transducer improves the degree of sonothrombolysis that can be achieved without fibrinolytic agents at a lower mechanical index. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc

  18. Against all odds: genocidal trauma is associated with longer life-expectancy of the survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Sagi-Schwartz

    Full Text Available Does surviving genocidal experiences, like the Holocaust, lead to shorter life-expectancy? Such an effect is conceivable given that most survivors not only suffered psychosocial trauma but also malnutrition, restriction in hygienic and sanitary facilities, and lack of preventive medical and health services, with potentially damaging effects for later health and life-expectancy. We explored whether genocidal survivors have a higher risk to die younger than comparisons without such background. This is the first population-based retrospective cohort study of the Holocaust, based on the entire population of immigrants from Poland to Israel (N = 55,220, 4-20 years old when the World War II started (1939, immigrating to Israel either between 1945 and 1950 (Holocaust group or before 1939 (comparison group; not exposed to the Holocaust. Hazard of death - a long-term outcome of surviving genocidal trauma - was derived from the population-wide official data base of the National Insurance Institute of Israel. Cox regression yielded a significant hazard ratio (HR = 0.935, CI (95% = 0.910-0.960, suggesting that the risk of death was reduced by 6.5 months for Holocaust survivors compared to non-Holocaust comparisons. The lower hazard was most substantial in males who were aged 10-15 (HR = 0.900, CI (95% = 0.842-0.962, i.e., reduced by 10 months or 16-20 years at the onset of the Holocaust (HR = 0.820, CI (95% = 0.782-0.859, i.e., reduced by18 months. We found that against all odds genocidal survivors were likely to live longer. We suggest two explanations: Differential mortality during the Holocaust and "Posttraumatic Growth" associated with protective factors in Holocaust survivors or in their environment after World War II.

  19. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  20. About the movement of an ideal fluid contained in an elastic container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraguela Collar, A.

    1990-11-01

    In this paper one considers the linearized problem about the determination of the movement of an ideal heavy fluid contained in an unbounded container with elastic walls. As initial data one knows the movement of the bottom and of the free surface of the fluid and also the strength of certain perturbation enough to take the bottom out of its rest state. One important point to be considered regards the influence of the bottom's geometry on the propagation of superficial waves. This problem has been already studied in other works without considering the elastic properties of the bottom and considering a cylindrical container with bounded section. (author). 8 refs

  1. No longer in suspense: Clarifying the Human Rights Jurisdiction of the SADC Tribunal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses R Phooko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Southern African Development Community Tribunal's (SADC Tribunal decision in the matter of Mike Campbell (Pvt Ltd v Republic of Zimbabwe 2008 SADCT 2 (28 November 2008 demonstrated its ability to utilise the principles contained in the Treaty of the Southern African Development Community when it ruled that it had the power and competency to adjudicate over a human rights case. The aforesaid decision was hailed by many scholars as a progressive judgment in the SADC region that would promote the rule of law and ensure that member states respected their treaty obligations in their own territories. Unfortunately, the same judgment resulted in the suspension of the SADC Tribunal in 2010 because it had purportedly acted beyond its mandate when it adjudicated over a case concerning a human rights dispute. This article investigates whether the SADC Tribunal had jurisdiction to deal with cases involving allegations of human rights violations. In addressing this question, this article will discuss the powers (implied and tacit of international organisations as understood within international law. In addition, the study will ascertain how the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia have dealt with cases that involved disputes concerning a tribunal or an international organisation that was said to have acted beyond its mandate. The study will also make reference to the East African Court of Justice and the Economic Community of West African States Court of Justice as they have also dealt with implied powers when they were confronted with cases concerning human rights abuses. Certain decisions of the SADC Summit of Heads of States or Government (Summit and the Council of Ministers whose roles include the control of functions and/or overseeing the functioning of the SADC will also be referred to in this study.

  2. The longer the better: Sleep-wake patterns during preparation of the World Rowing Junior Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Endler, Stefan; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recovery is essential for high athletic performance, and therefore especially sleep has been identified as a crucial source for physical and psychological well-being. However, due to early-morning trainings, which are general practice in many sports, athletes are likely to experience sleep restrictions. Therefore, this study investigated the sleep-wake patterns of 55 junior national rowers (17.7 ± 0.6 years) via sleep logs and actigraphy during a four-week training camp. Recovery and stress ratings were obtained every morning with the Short Recovery and Stress Scale on a 7-point Likert-type scale ranging from 0 (does not apply at all) to 6 (fully applies). The first training session was scheduled for 6:30 h every day. With two to four training sessions per day, the training load was considerably increased from athletes' home training. Objective sleep measures (n = 14) revealed less total sleep time (TST) in the first two weeks (409.6 ± 19.1 and 416.0 ± 16.3 min), while training volume and intensity were higher. In the second half of the camp, less training sessions were implemented, more afternoons were training free and TSTs were longer (436.3 ± 15.8 and 456.9 ± 25.7 min). A single occasion of 1.5-h delayed bedtime and usual early morning training (6:30 h) resulted in reduced ratings of Overall Recovery (OR) (M = 3.3 ± 1.3) and greater Negative Emotional State (NES) (M = 1.3 ± 1.2, p sleep-offset times were shifted from ~5:30 to ~8:00 h, and each recovery and stress score improved (p sleep and recovery. Intercorrelations of these sleep parameters emphasised the relationship between restful sleep and falling asleep quickly (r = .34, p sleep on subjective recovery measures in the setting of a training camp. Providing the opportunity of extended sleep (and a day off) seems the most simple and effective strategy to enhance recovery and stress-related ratings.

  3. WHEN GROWTH IS NO LONGER THE NORM: TEACHING URBAN DESIGN IN A TIME OF TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Shetty

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, there has been increasing interest in cities that are rapidly losing population, so-called shrinking cities. This is becoming a global phenomenon, with shrinking cities found on every continent. The decline has been attributed variously to changing demographics, suburbanization, postsocialist transformation and deindustrialization. We are just beginning to develop approaches to dealing with shrinkage and its consequences – vacancy, abandonment, and limited public and private resources. However, there is currently little faith in the ability of design-related disciplines to deal with shrinking cities. Some authors argue that disciplines such as architecture, urban design and urban planning have always planned for growth and have reached their limits when dealing with shrinking cities (Oswalt, 2006. Still others suggest that restructuring should be seen as an opportunity (Vey, 2007. This paper challenges the first view and responds to the second by suggesting that design education can and must respond to these new realities. It critically examines a collaborative urban design studio that was part of an attempt to transform a part of a shrinking city in the American ‘rustbelt.’ The city, once a flourishing manufacturing center, is now facing steep economic decline along with the decline of the auto industry. It is also home to a university that is beginning efforts to revitalize neighborhoods adjacent to the campus. The studio, which brought together architecture and urban planning students from two different universities to work on a section of the city including the campus area, suggests possibilities for preparing students to work in an environment where economic growth is no longer the norm. The following lessons emerged: 1 In a shrinking city, urban designers may need to focus less on designing the solids and more on meeting the challenges of the voids. 2 In spite of urban design’s historical bias towards

  4. Fluid Interfaces of Triangular Containers in Reduced Gravity Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttromson, Jayleen; Manning, Robert; Collicott, Steven H.

    2002-01-01

    Capillary dominated fluid dynamics will be examined in a reduced-gravity environment onboard the KC-135; in particular, the behavior of the lower portion of the meniscus in triangular tank geometries. Seven clear acrylic tanks were constructed to view seven angles of the four geometries. Silicon oil with two different viscosities, 2cs and 5cs silicon oil, were used on different days of the flight. Six tanks and one control tank are filled with a certain viscosity fluid for each flight day. During each parabola, three tanks are tested at time. The experimental tanks are exchanged between parabola sets on the KC-135. The 60deg -60deg -60deg control tank is viewed throughout the flight. To gather data, two digital video cameras and one digital still camera are placed perpendicular the viewing surface. To provide a greater contrast in the meniscus, an EL backlighting sheet was used to backlight the tanks. These images and video are then digitized, passed through NASA's mini-tracker software, and compared to a theory published my M. M. Weislogel, "Fluid Interface Phenomena in a Low-Gravity Environment: Recent Results from Drop Tower Experimentation." By focusing on a lower portion of the meniscus and using longer periods of reduced gravity, this experiment may confirm that a stationary point exists on the fluid surface. This information will enable better designing of propellant management devices, especially satellite propellant refilling and gas venting. Also, biological and material processing systems in reduced gravity environments will benefit from this data.

  5. Evaluation of cardiac surgery mortality rates: 30-day mortality or longer follow-up?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siregar, Sabrina; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.; Speekenbrink, Ron G. H.; Versteegh, Michel I. M.; Brandon Bravo Bruinsma, George J.; Bots, Michiel L.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; van Herwerden, Lex A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate early mortality after cardiac surgery and to determine the most adequate follow-up period for the evaluation of mortality rates. Information on all adult cardiac surgery procedures in 10 of 16 cardiothoracic centres in Netherlands from 2007 until 2010 was

  6. Hypothyroidism During Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy Is Associated with Longer Survival in Patients with Advanced Nonthyroidal Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Melissa G; Vyas, Chirag M; Hamnvik, Ole-Petter R; Alexander, Erik K; Larsen, P Reed; Choueiri, Toni K; Angell, Trevor E

    2018-04-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-induced thyroid dysfunction is recognized as a common adverse effect of treatment, but the importance of incident hypothyroidism during TKI therapy remains unclear. This study analyzed the prognostic significance of hypothyroidism during TKI therapy in cancer patients. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with advanced nonthyroidal cancer treated with TKI and available thyroid function testing at three affiliated academic hospitals from 2000 to 2017. Patients with preexisting thyroid disease were excluded. Demographic, clinical, and cancer treatment data were collected. Thyroid status with TKI treatment was determined from thyroid function testing and initiation of thyroid medication, and classified as euthyroid (thyrotropin [TSH] normal), subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH; TSH 5-10 mIU/L, or higher TSH if free thyroxine normal), or overt hypothyroidism (OH; TSH >10 mIU/L, low free thyroxine, or requiring replacement). Multivariate models were used to evaluate the effect of TKI-related hypothyroidism on overall survival (OS). Of 1120 initial patients, 538 remained after exclusion criteria. SCH occurred in 72 (13%) and OH in 144 (27%) patients with TKI therapy. Patients with hypothyroidism had significantly longer OS, with median OS in euthyroid patients of 685 days [confidence interval (CI) 523-851] compared to 1005 days [CI 634-1528] in SCH and 1643 days [CI 1215-1991] in OH patients (p hypothyroid patients (SCH and OH) with TSH >5 and hypothyroidism in cancer patients treated with TKI is associated with significantly improved OS, should not necessitate TKI dose reduction or discontinuation, and may provide independent prognostic information.

  7. Do Not ignore pulmonary hypertension any longer. It’s time to deal with it!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2011-08-01

    tromboembolic attacks in check.Then,It was time of revolution in pulmonary hypertension management,With the emergence of Advanced PH treatment science of medicine became able to seriously deal with  PH.This new strategy were showed to be able preventing mortality in PH patients’(5,Figure1Prostacycline showed that it is possible to enhance PH patients’ chance of survival. Phosphodiasterase inhibitor drugs, which were used for treating impotency for a long time, were demonstrated to be effective for reducing pulmonary pressure. Eventually, endotheline receptors were targeted.By the advent of endothelin receptor blockers such as Brosentan, physicians’ chances of helping PH patients were further improved.Today, with advanced PH treatment, PH is not counted as before and the science of medicine as a failed discipline.It is important to not forgetting PH in patients,especially ill patients or intractable to traditional treatment, in surgery wards or obstetric,pediatric,internal medicine,ICU or CCU wards of hospitals. By timely diagnosis, it will be possible to control  PH patients in an effective way and to enhance their chance of survival.So,It is time now to pay more attention to PH,Don’t ignore it any longer and it’s time to deal with it

  8. Corrosion aspects of steel radioactive waste containers in cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Nick Smart from Serco, UK, gave an overview of the effects of cementitious materials on the corrosion of steel during storage and disposal of various low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. Steel containers are often used as an overpack for the containment of radioactive wastes and are routinely stored in an open atmosphere. Since this is an aerobic and typically humid environment, the steel containers can start to corrode whilst in storage. Steel containers often come into contact with cementitious materials (e.g. grout encapsulants, backfill). An extensive account of different steel container designs and of steel corrosion mechanisms was provided. Steel corrosion rates under conditions buffered by cementitious materials have been evaluated experimentally. The main conclusion was that the cementitious environment generally facilitates the passivation of steel materials. Several general and localised corrosion mechanisms need to be considered when evaluating the performance of steel containers in cementitious environments, and environmental thresholds can be defined and used with this aim. In addition, the consequences of the generation of gaseous hydrogen by the corrosion of carbon steel under anoxic conditions must be taken into account. Discussion of the paper included: Is crevice corrosion really significant in cementitious systems? Crevice corrosion is unlikely in the cementitious backfill considered because it will tend to neutralise any acidic conditions in the crevice. What is the role of microbially-induced corrosion (MIC) in cementitious systems? Microbes are likely to be present in a disposal facility but their effect on corrosion is uncertain

  9. Toxic metals contained in cosmetics: a status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca, Beatrice; Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro; Forte, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The persistence of metals in the environment and their natural occurrence in rocks, soil and water cause them to be present in the manufacture of pigments and other raw materials used in the cosmetic industry. Thus, people can be exposed to metals as trace contaminants in cosmetic products they daily use. Cosmetics may have multiple forms, uses and exposure scenarios, and metals contained in them can cause skin local problems but also systemic effects after their absorption via the skin or ingestion. Even this, cosmetics companies are not obliged to report on this kind of impurities and so consumers have no way of knowing about their own risk. This paper reviewed both the concentration of metals in different types of cosmetics manufactured and sold worldwide and the data on metals' dermal penetration and systemic toxicology. The eight metals of concern for this review were antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). This was because they are banned as intentional ingredients in cosmetics, have draft limits as potential impurities in cosmetics and are known as toxic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-distance travellers stopover for longer: a case study with spoonbills staying in North Iberia

    OpenAIRE

    Navedo , Juan G.; Orizaola , Germán; Masero , José A.; Overdijk , Otto; Sánchez-Guzmán , Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Long-distance migration is widespread among birds, connecting breeding and wintering areas through a set of stopover localities where individuals refuel and/or rest. The extent of the stopover is critical in determining the migratory strategy of a bird. Here, we examined the relationship between minimum length of stay of PVC-ringed birds in a major stopover site and the remaining flight distance to the overwintering area in the Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea l. leucorodia) d...

  11. The unintended consequences of maternity leaves: How agency interventions mitigate the negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideg, Ivona; Krstic, Anja; Trau, Raymond N C; Zarina, Tanya

    2018-06-07

    To support women in the workplace, longer legislated maternity leaves have been encouraged in Scandinavian countries and recently in Canada. Yet, past research shows that longer legislated maternity leaves (i.e., 1 year and longer) may unintentionally harm women's career progress. To address this issue, we first sought to identify one potential mechanism underlying negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves: others' lower perceptions of women's agency. Second, we utilize this knowledge to test interventions that boost others' perceptions of women's agency and thus mitigate negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves. We test our hypotheses in three studies in the context of Canadian maternity leave policies. Specifically, in Study 1, we found that others' lower perceptions of women's agency mediated the negative effects of a longer legislated maternity leave, that is, 1 year (vs. shorter, i.e., 1 month maternity leave) on job commitment. In Study 2, we found that providing information about a woman's agency mitigates the unintended negative effects of a longer legislated maternity leave on job commitment and hireability. In Study 3, we showed that use of a corporate program that enables women to stay in touch with the workplace while on maternity leave (compared to conditions in which no such program was offered; a program was offered but not used by the applicant; and the program was offered, but there was no information about its usage by the applicant) enhances agency perceptions and perceptions of job commitment and hireability. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A holistic approach to healthy ageing: how can people live longer, healthier lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, P C; Carding, S R; Christopher, G; Kuh, D; Langley-Evans, S C; McNulty, H

    2018-06-03

    Although lifespan is increasing, there is no evidence to suggest that older people are experiencing better health in their later years than previous generations. Nutrition, at all stages of life, plays an important role in determining health and wellbeing. A roundtable meeting of UK experts on nutrition and ageing considered key aspects of the diet-ageing relationship and developed a consensus position on the main priorities for research and public health actions that are required to help people live healthier lives as they age. The group consensus highlighted the requirement for a life course approach, recognising the multifactorial nature of the impact of ageing. Environmental and lifestyle influences at any life stage are modified by genetic factors and early development. The response to the environment at each stage of life can determine the impact of lifestyle later on. There are no key factors that act in isolation to determine patterns of ageing and it is a combination of environmental and social factors that drives healthy or unhealthy ageing. Too little is known about how contemporary dietary patterns and sedentary lifestyles will impact upon healthy ageing in future generations and this is a priority for future research. There is good evidence to support change to lifestyle (i.e. diet, nutrition and physical) activity in relation to maintaining or improving body composition, cognitive health and emotional intelligence, immune function and vascular health. Lifestyle change at any stage of life may extend healthy lifespan, although the impact of early changes appears to be greatest. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Service Quality Assessment for NASA's Deep Space Network: No Longer a Luxury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Erik; Wolgast, Paul; Zendejas, Silvino

    2010-01-01

    When NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) was established almost a half century ago, the concept of computer-based service delivery was impractical or infeasible due to the state of information technology As a result, the interface the DSN exposes to its customers tends to be equipment-centric, lacking a clear demarcation between the DSN and the mission operation systems (MOS) of its customers. As the number of customers has continued to increase, the need to improve efficiency and minimize costs has grown. This growth has been the impetus for a DSN transformation from an equipment-forrent provider to a provider of standard services. Service orientation naturally leads to requirements for service management, including proactive measurement of service quality and service levels as well as the efficiency of internal processes and the performance of service provisioning systems. DSN System Engineering has surveyed industry offerings to determine if commercial successes in decision support and Business Intelligence (BI) solutions can be applied to the DSN. A pilot project was initiated, and subsequently executed to determine the feasibility of repurposing a commercial Business Intelligence platform for engineering analysis in conjunction with the platform's intended business reporting and analysis functions.

  14. The role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution in predicting shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Israel; Shulman, Shmuel

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution patterns in shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescent couples. Data were used from 55 couples aged 15-18 years. Partners completed the Romantic Attraction scale and were observed negotiating a disagreement. Three and 6 months later, they were asked to report whether they were still together. Findings indicated that partners' romantic attraction and the tendency to minimize disagreements during interaction predicted shorter relationship maintenance. In contrast, longer relationship maintenance was predicted by partners' capability to resolve conflicts constructively in a positive atmosphere. Findings are embedded and discussed within Fisher's (2004) evolutionary theory of love.

  15. The phosphatidylinositol synthase gene (GhPIS) contributes to longer, stronger, and finer fibers in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Qin; Yue, Fang; Liu, Ruochen; Song, Shuiqing; Li, Xianbi; Ding, Bo; Yan, Xingying; Pei, Yan

    2018-05-11

    Cotton fibers are the most important natural raw material used in textile industries world-wide. Fiber length, strength, and fineness are the three major traits which determine the quality and economic value of cotton. It is known that exogenous application of phosphatidylinositols (PtdIns), important structural phospholipids, can promote cotton fiber elongation. Here, we sought to increase the in planta production of PtdIns to improve fiber traits. Transgenic cotton plants were generated in which the expression of a cotton phosphatidylinositol synthase gene (i.e., GhPIS) was controlled by the fiber-specific SCFP promoter element, resulting in the specific up-regulation of GhPIS during cotton fiber development. We demonstrate that PtdIns content was significantly enhanced in transgenic cotton fibers and the elevated level of PtdIns stimulated the expression of genes involved in PtdIns phosphorylation as well as promoting lignin/lignin-like phenolic biosynthesis. Fiber length, strength and fineness were also improved in the transgenic plants as compared to the wild-type cotton, with no loss in overall fiber yield. Our data indicate that fiber-specific up-regulation of PtdIns synthesis is a promising strategy for cotton fiber quality improvement.

  16. Do more intelligent brains retain heightened plasticity for longer in development? A computational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S C

    2016-06-01

    Twin studies indicate that the heritability of general cognitive ability - the genetic contribution to individual differences - increases with age. Brant et al. (2013) reported that this increase in heritability occurs earlier in development for low ability children than high ability children. Allied with structural brain imaging results that indicate faster thickening and thinning of cortex for high ability children (Shaw et al., 2006), Brant and colleagues argued higher cognitive ability represents an extended sensitive period for brain development. However, they admitted no coherent mechanistic account can currently reconcile the key empirical data. Here, computational methods are employed to demonstrate the empirical data can be reconciled without recourse to variations in sensitive periods. These methods utilized population-based artificial neural network models of cognitive development. In the model, ability-related variations stemmed from the timing of the increases in the non-linearity of computational processes, causing dizygotic twins to diverge in their behavior. These occurred in a population where: (a) ability was determined by the combined small contributions of many neurocomputational factors, and (b) individual differences in ability were largely genetically constrained. The model's explanation of developmental increases in heritability contrasts with proposals that these increases represent emerging gene-environment correlations (Haworth et al., 2010). The article advocates simulating inherited individual differences within an explicitly developmental framework. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Voiding urosonography: the study of the urethra is no longer a limitation of the technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, Carmina; Valera, Alfons; Alguersuari, Anna; Ballesteros, Eva; Riera, Luis; Martin, Cesar; Puig, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Voiding urosonography (VUS) has proved to be a reliable method for the study of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). Early reports considered it inadequate for imaging the male urethra. To determine the usefulness of contrast-enhanced VUS for the study of the urethra. A total of 208 children aged 2 days to 10 years underwent VUS to confirm or exclude VUR for different reasons (n = 150) or for follow-up (n = 58). Patients with unconfirmed suspicion of VUR (99 boys and 51 girls) also underwent VUS for the study of the urethra. Examinations were performed using a harmonic imaging mode specific for contrast (Levovist) enhancement. We used a 6-4-MHz convex probe and a transperineal and/or a transpelvic approach. The neck of the bladder and the entire urethra were visualized in all patients (n = 150). The male urethra was considered normal in 95 boys (95.95%). We diagnosed posterior urethral valves in two patients, diverticulum of the prostatic utricle in one, and diverticulum of the anterior urethra in one. All abnormal cases were confirmed using conventional voiding cystourethrography. VUS can replace voiding cystourethrography as the method of choice for the initial study of suspected VUR in children. (orig.)

  18. Voiding urosonography: the study of the urethra is no longer a limitation of the technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Carmina; Valera, Alfons; Alguersuari, Anna; Ballesteros, Eva; Riera, Luis; Martin, Cesar; Puig, Jordi

    2009-02-01

    Voiding urosonography (VUS) has proved to be a reliable method for the study of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). Early reports considered it inadequate for imaging the male urethra. To determine the usefulness of contrast-enhanced VUS for the study of the urethra. A total of 208 children aged 2 days to 10 years underwent VUS to confirm or exclude VUR for different reasons (n = 150) or for follow-up (n = 58). Patients with unconfirmed suspicion of VUR (99 boys and 51 girls) also underwent VUS for the study of the urethra. Examinations were performed using a harmonic imaging mode specific for contrast (Levovist) enhancement. We used a 6-4-MHz convex probe and a transperineal and/or a transpelvic approach. The neck of the bladder and the entire urethra were visualized in all patients (n = 150). The male urethra was considered normal in 95 boys (95.95%). We diagnosed posterior urethral valves in two patients, diverticulum of the prostatic utricle in one, and diverticulum of the anterior urethra in one. All abnormal cases were confirmed using conventional voiding cystourethrography. VUS can replace voiding cystourethrography as the method of choice for the initial study of suspected VUR in children.

  19. Voiding urosonography: the study of the urethra is no longer a limitation of the technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Carmina; Valera, Alfons; Alguersuari, Anna; Ballesteros, Eva; Riera, Luis; Martin, Cesar; Puig, Jordi [Corporacio Sanitaria Parc Tauli, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, UDIAT-SDI, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    Voiding urosonography (VUS) has proved to be a reliable method for the study of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). Early reports considered it inadequate for imaging the male urethra. To determine the usefulness of contrast-enhanced VUS for the study of the urethra. A total of 208 children aged 2 days to 10 years underwent VUS to confirm or exclude VUR for different reasons (n = 150) or for follow-up (n = 58). Patients with unconfirmed suspicion of VUR (99 boys and 51 girls) also underwent VUS for the study of the urethra. Examinations were performed using a harmonic imaging mode specific for contrast (Levovist) enhancement. We used a 6-4-MHz convex probe and a transperineal and/or a transpelvic approach. The neck of the bladder and the entire urethra were visualized in all patients (n = 150). The male urethra was considered normal in 95 boys (95.95%). We diagnosed posterior urethral valves in two patients, diverticulum of the prostatic utricle in one, and diverticulum of the anterior urethra in one. All abnormal cases were confirmed using conventional voiding cystourethrography. VUS can replace voiding cystourethrography as the method of choice for the initial study of suspected VUR in children. (orig.)

  20. Activation cross sections of longer-lived radionuclides produced in germanium by alpha particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takács, S., E-mail: stakacs@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Atomki, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Takács, M.P.; Ditrói, F. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Atomki, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Aikawa, M. [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Haba, H.; Komori, Y. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    The cross sections of alpha particles induced nuclear reactions on natural germanium were investigated by using the standard stacked foil target technique, the activation method and high resolution gamma spectrometry. Targets with thickness of about 1 μm were prepared from natural Ge by vacuum evaporation onto 25 μm thick polyimide (Kapton) backing foils. Stacks were composed of Kapton-Ge-Ge-Kapton sandwich target foils and additional titanium monitor foils with nominal thickness of 11 μm to monitor the beam parameters using the {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 51}Cr reaction. The irradiations were done with E{sub α} = 20.7 and E{sub α} = 51.25 MeV, I{sub α} = 50 nA alpha particle beams for about 1 h. Direct or cumulative activation cross sections were determined for production of the {sup 72,73,75}Se, {sup 71,72,74,76,78}As, and {sup 69}Ge radionuclides. The obtained experimental cross sections were compared to the results of theoretical calculations taken from the TENDL data library based on the TALYS computer code. A comparison was made with available experimental data measured earlier. Thick target yields were deduced from the experimental cross sections and compared with the data published before.

  1. Exploring the 'permanent forest' paradigm: might renewable commercial forest estates lead to greater net greenhouse abatement over the longer term?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Understanding permanence: A common perception exists which suggests that long term or 'permanent' tree plantings are considered a superior form of (post 1990) carbon sink, and commercial plantations (which allow for harvesting and replanting) are less useful for abatement. However, common to all forms of forest carbon sink is the issue of permanence. None of these are truly permanent stores of carbon because at any point either a fire, disease, harvest or major event can mean part of the carbon store is released. Why then the perceived bias against sink projects which allow for commercial harvesting and replanting? Let's not forget - things are getting hotter: Australian projections for climate change provide plenty of challenges for current and future forest managers. Over the next century many key forest species may have to endure conditions outside their'current growing range. This poses risks for the emergent offsets industry which needs to be actively managed. Simply planting local indigenous species alone may no longer be the only best practice. Think 'true fate of carbon': It is important that our thinking is not constrained by current rules, as these will continually be refined as our knowledge about carbon systems improves over the next century (between now and 2100 there will be 22 post-Kyoto negotiation periods). Our key focus should be in considering the 'true fate' of carbon, and the real contribution to greenhouse abatement. Policy makers need to keep this in mind, and ensure that the entire carbon life cycle is considered in their decision making. 'Standing forest' versus 'Net abatement effect': There are two effective means for forests to achieve genuine greenhouse abatement. One is the carbon sequestered and stored in the 'standing forest', the other is the greenhouse benefit (carbon flow or net abatement effect) of an ongoing and renewable supply of tree based products from the site (wood, fibre, biomass, biofuel), which replace

  2. Exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and longer telomere length in peripheral blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Shegufta Ameer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs through drinking water causes cancer. Alterations in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn and telomere length in blood have been associated with cancer risk. We elucidated if arsenic exposure alters mtDNAcn and telomere length in individuals with different arsenic metabolizing capacity.Methods: We studied two groups in the Salta province, Argentina, one in the Puna area of the Andes (N=264, 89% females and one in Chaco (N=169, 75% females. We assessed arsenic exposure as the sum of arsenic metabolites [iAs, methylarsonic acid (MMA, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA] in urine (U-As using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Efficiency of arsenic metabolism was expressed as percentage of urinary metabolites. MtDNAcn and telomere length were determined in blood by real-time PCR. Results: Median U-As was 196 (5 - 95 percentile: 21 - 537 µg/L in Andes and 80 (5 - 95 percentile: 15 - 1637 µg/L in Chaco. The latter study group had less-efficient metabolism, with higher %iAs and %MMA in urine compared with the Andean group. U-As was significantly associated with increased mtDNAcn (log2 transformed to improve linearity in Chaco (β=0.027 per 100 µg/L, p=0.0085; adjusted for age and sex, but not in Andes (β=0.025, p=0.24. U-As was also associated with longer telomere length in Chaco (β=0.016, p=0.0066 and Andes (β=0.0075, p=0.029. In both populations, individuals with above median %iAs showed significantly higher mtDNAcn and telomere length compared with individuals with below median %iAs. Conclusions: Arsenic was associated with increased mtDNAcn and telomere length, particularly in individuals with less-efficient arsenic metabolism, a group who may have increased risk for arsenic-related cancer.

  3. Does longer duration of breastfeeding prevent childhood asthma in low-income families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ahmed A; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of breastfeeding duration with childhood asthma among low-income families in Karachi, Pakistan. Mothers/caregivers of 200 children with asthma and an equal number of children without asthma were interviewed about breastfeeding duration. Based on the responses, 6 different binary variables were constructed: breastfeeding 3 months or less, 6 months or less, 9 months or less, 12 months or less, 18 months or less, and 24 months or less. Asthma status of the child was determined by clinical examination by a primary care physician. Data was analyzed using multiple logistic regression method, adjusted for age and sex of the child, household income, parental ethnicity, number of older siblings, family history of asthma or hay fever, presence of mold, parental smoking, number of people in the household, and body mass index of the child. The average duration of breastfeeding was 21.4 months (SD = 7.33 months). Breastfeeding for at least 24 months was associated with increased odds of asthma (aOR = 1.77, 95%CI: 0.99, 3.16). Whereas breastfeeding for 12 months or less, and to some extent 18 months or less, was protective against childhood asthma. There was some evidence this protective effect may be delayed in children with a family history of asthma or hay fever. This study found breastfeeding for 12 months or less may have a protective effect against asthma. The protective effect weans down after 18 months, and if continued 24 months or more may place the child at-risk of asthma.

  4. Oxygen no longer plays a major role in Body Size Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, H.; Sachson, W.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    When observing the long-term relationship between atmospheric oxygen and the maximum size in organisms across the Geozoic (~3.8 Ga - present), it appears that as oxygen increases, organism size grows. However, during the Phanerozoic (541 Ma - Present) oxygen levels varied, so we set out to test the hypothesis that oxygen levels drive patterns marine animal body size evolution. Expected decreases in maximum size due to a lack of oxygen do not occur, and instead, body size continues to increase regardless. In the oxygen data, a relatively low atmospheric oxygen percentage can support increasing body size, so our research tries to determine whether lifestyle affects body size in marine organisms. The genera in the data set were organized based on their tiering, motility, and feeding, such as a pelagic, fully-motile, predator. When organisms fill a certain ecological niche to take advantage of resources, they will have certain life modes, rather than randomly selected traits. For example, even in terrestrial environments, large animals have to constantly feed themselves to support their expensive terrestrial lifestyle which involves fairly consistent movement, and the structural support necessary for that movement. Only organisms with access to high energy food sources or large amounts of food can support themselves, and that is before they expend energy elsewhere. Organisms that expend energy frugally when active or have slower metabolisms in comparison to body size have a more efficient lifestyle and are generally able to grow larger, while those who have higher energy demands like predators are limited to comparatively smaller sizes. Therefore, in respect to the fossil record and modern measurements of animals, the metabolism and lifestyle of an organism dictate its body size in general. With this further clarification on the patterns of evolution, it will be easier to observe and understand the reasons for the ecological traits of organisms today.

  5. Mechanistic Evaluation of Motion in Redox-Driven Rotaxanes Reveals Longer Linkers Hasten Forward Escape's and Hinder Backward Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. S.; Share, A. I.; Poulsen, B. L.

    2014-01-01

    temperatures to provide activation enthalpies (Delta H-double dagger) and entropies (Delta S-double dagger). Longer glycol linkers led to modest increases in the forward escape (t(1/2) = 60 to 69 s); though not because of a diffusive walk. The reduced rate of motion backward depended on folded structures...

  6. 77 FR 68873 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of Longer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... ``Benchmark Orders'' Under NASDAQ Rule 4751(f) November 9, 2012. On May 1, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of Longer Period for Commission... proposed rule change to establish various ``Benchmark Orders'' under NASDAQ Rule 4751(f). The proposed rule...

  7. 77 FR 39314 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for Commission Action on Proposed Rule Change To Establish ``Benchmark Orders'' Under NASDAQ Rule 4751(f) June 26, 2012. On May 1, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the...

  8. 42 CFR 60.59 - Records and Federal access after a school is no longer a HEAL school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records and Federal access after a school is no longer a HEAL school. 60.59 Section 60.59 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS HEALTH EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The School § 60.59 Records and Federal...

  9. 76 FR 2732 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of Longer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of Longer Period for Commission.... Introduction On June 18, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``Nasdaq'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with the... change. The Commission may extend the period for issuing an order approving or disapproving the proposed...

  10. 18F-Fluoroacetate - A longer lived acetate analogue for oncology studies with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khezami, Arbia; Ulrich, Eva; Matthies, Alexander; Ezziddin, Samer; Bender, Hans; Biersack, Hans-Juergen; Guhlke, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Aim: 18 F-Fluoroacetate ( 18 Fac) can be considered as a fluoro analogue of 11C-acetate. Thus it may also be useful for oncologic PET studies. Like acetate, fluoroacetate is a substrate of the citric acid cycle, however in contrast to acetate it is an inhibitor of the enzyme Aconitase and thus no further metabolization of fluoroacetate occurs. The aim of this study was the in-vivo evaluation of this tracer with respect to tumor uptake in prostate carcinoma bearing nude mice as well as biodistribution and kinetics. Methods: The synthesis of 18 F-fluoroacetate was performed by using benzyl bromoacetate as precursor. The fluorinated ester was separated by HPLC, followed by basic hydrolysis and purification by use of anion exchange SEP-Pak chromatography. The formulation was performed by rinsing with water and subsequent elution of 18 Fac with sterile PBS-buffer and final sterile filtration. For the biodistribution studies, 3 groups of nude mice were inoculated with the prostate carcinoma cell lines PC3, DU-145 and LnCAP. After tumor growth, the animals were injected with 37-370 KBq of 18 Fac and bio-distributions performed at different times post injection. Results: The rcy of the substitution step was usually > 90%. The HPLC separation of the fluorinated ester and the precursor was performed on a C-18 column. The high UV-absorbance of the benzyl ester allows the determination of the specific activity of the tracer which was always lower than detection limits. Further, the injected animals did not show any signs of intoxication. The biodistribution studies revealed a primary biliary excretion. Regardless which cell line was used, accumulation of 18 Fac in tumor sites was well visible by PET-CT. Tumor to blood ratios increased with time. Conclusion: The synthesis of 18 Fac is straight forward and high radiochemical yields are typically obtained. The high specific activity of 18 F-fluoride allows injections of 18 Fac far below toxic concentrations. In nude

  11. Aging, Economic Insecurity, and Employment: Which Measures Would Encourage Older Workers to Stay Longer in the Labour Market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of aging populations, the question of how to support older workers who want to stay in employment longer is of particular importance, especially from a social justice perspective with regards to income. The challenges faced by organizations and governments are unprecedented. Interesting conclusions can be drawn from our research with regard to these challenges. First of all, the perception of retirement appears more or less unchanged over the years and remains very positive. Consequently, one of the barriers to the employment of older workers may be the image of retirement itself, since it is still perceived as a gift or a right. Secondly, our results confirm that forcing people to stay longer in the labour market is a largely unpopular measure. Consequently, if public retirement plans offer limited income, governments and organizations should adopt a more voluntary approach to encourage older workers to stay in employment longer for a better income. Our results highlight the importance of the sector and type of job in the measures or incentives that could encourage older workers to stay in employment longer. Consequently, governments and organizations will probably have to adopt a contingent approach; i.e., all incentives do not necessarily fit all jobs or all sectors and social justice would require this be taken into account. We identified three sets of measures that could encourage older workers to stay in employment longer, and thus have access to better economic security: the reduction of working time, the flexibility of working time, and the individualization of retirement options and working time. The progressive reduction of their working time appears most interesting to our respondents. These measures appear to favour social justice in terms of income and right to employment at the end of active careers.  

  12. Aging, Economic Insecurity, and Employment: Which Measures Would Encourage Older Workers to Stay Longer in the Labour Market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émilie Genin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of aging populations, the question of how to support older workers who want to stay in employment longer is of particular importance, especially from a social justice perspective with regards to income. The challenges faced by organizations and governments are unprecedented. Interesting conclusions can be drawn from our research with regard to these challenges. First of all, the perception of retirement appears more or less unchanged over the years and remains very positive. Consequently, one of the barriers to the employment of older workers may be the image of retirement itself, since it is still perceived as a gift or a right. Secondly, our results confirm that forcing people to stay longer in the labour market is a largely unpopular measure. Consequently, if public retirement plans offer limited income, governments and organizations should adopt a more voluntary approach to encourage older workers to stay in employment longer for a better income. Our results highlight the importance of the sector and type of job in the measures or incentives that could encourage older workers to stay in employment longer. Consequently, governments and organizations will probably have to adopt a contingent approach; i.e., all incentives do not necessarily fit all jobs or all sectors and social justice would require this be taken into account. We identified three sets of measures that could encourage older workers to stay in employment longer, and thus have access to better economic security: the reduction of working time, the flexibility of working time, and the individualization of retirement options and working time. The progressive reduction of their working time appears most interesting to our respondents. These measures appear to favour social justice in terms of income and right to employment at the end of active careers.  

  13. Adsorption of Zinc Contained in the Poultry Feedstuff onto Clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Šucman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find whether an adsorbent used as an additive in the feed mixtures could influence the concentration of free available zinc. The feed supplement ZeoFeed, which often constitutes a part of animal feed mixtures, mainly for poultry, was used as adsorbent in the amount of 10 g kg-1 of the feed mixture. A substantial part of ZeoFeed is clinoptilolite, a natural form of zeolite. Two sample preparation methods were used for the determination of zinc. The microwave-assisted wet digestion method was used to achieve a complete decomposition of the feed mixture in order to determine the total zinc concentration. The extraction method represented a simplified model of the processes in the digestive fluid tract. The extraction was done under laboratory temperature for 30, 60 and 120 min. Concentrations of zinc both in digests and extracts were determined by the method of the differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The total zinc concentration (mean ± 95% confidence interval in the feed mixture without addition of clinoptilolite was found to be 145 ± 32.0 mg kg-1 and in the feed mixture with added clinoptilolite 146 ± 11.5 mg kg-1. The concentrations of free available zinc were approximately ten times lesser than the total amount. The analysis of extracts showed that no statistically significant differences between concentrations of zinc in extracts without clinoptilolite and with clinoptilolite addition have been found. The extraction time did not affect the extracted amount of zinc significantly. In addition to zinc, also other three trace elements, namely the essential trace element copper and the toxic trace elements cadmium and lead, were measured. However, these data have only preliminary value and need further verification.

  14. Recovering of thorium contained in wastes from Thorium Purification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao Filho, D.; Hespanhol, E.C.B.; Baba, S.; Miranda, L.E.T.; Araujo, J.A. de.

    1992-08-01

    A study has been developed in order to establish a chemical process for recovering thorium from wastes produced at the Thorium Purification Plant of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. The recovery of thorium in this process will be made by means of solvent extraction technique. Solutions of TBP/Varsol were employed as extracting agent during the runs. The influence of thorium concentration in the solution, aqueous phase acidity, volume ratio of the phases, percentage of TBP/Varsol and the contact time of the phases on the extraction of thorium and lanthanides was determined. (author)

  15. Sonographic identification of drug containers in the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzen, G.; Banning, S.; Guenther, R.

    1987-01-01

    A 'body-pack' is a swallowed plastic or rubber container used by drug smugglers to carry drugs. We report our experience in diagnoses of such packs in vivo. We simulated the pack by stuffing a fingerstall of a latex handglove with a mixture of 10% barium powder and flour to render it radiopaque. Eight serial examinations were made. In each series, an adult Alsatian dog was fed upto 10 such 'body-packs'. The passage of these packs through the gastrointestinal tract was followed at 2, 24 and 48 hours postprandially. Immediately after each sonographic localisation of 'body-pack' was made, an X-ray examination of the abdomen in this region was also carried out. Ultrasound correctly determined the position of the 'body-pack' in 20 out of 24 examinations as compared to X-ray results. In 4 cases ultrasound could not confirm the location of the 'pack'. (orig.) [de

  16. Immobilization of calcium sulfate contained in demolition waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroise, J.; Pera, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study undertaken to examine the treatment of demolition waste containing calcium sulfate by means of calcium sulfoaluminate clinker (CSA). The quantity of CSA necessary to entirely consume calcium sulfate was determined. Using infrared spectrometry analysis and X-ray diffraction, it was shown that calcium sulfate was entirely consumed when the ratio between CSA and calcium sulfate was 4. Standard sand was polluted by 4% calcium sulfate. Two solutions were investigated: ·either global treatment of sand by CSA, ·or immobilization of calcium sulfate by CSA, followed by the introduction of this milled mixture in standard sand. Regardless of the type of treatment, swelling was almost stabilized after 28 days of immersion in water

  17. A longer stay for the kissing disease: epidemiology of bacterial tonsillitis and infectious mononucleosis over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, P; Saunders, J; Fenton, J E

    2013-02-01

    Anecdotally, infectious mononucleosis is considered a more severe infection than bacterial tonsillitis, requiring a longer hospital stay. However, there is little in the literature comparing the epidemiology of the two conditions. This study aimed to compare the epidemiology of bacterial tonsillitis and infectious mononucleosis, in particular any differences in the length of in-patient stay. The hospital in-patient enquiry system was used to analyse patients admitted with bacterial tonsillitis and infectious mononucleosis between 1990 and 2009 inclusive. There was a total of 3435 cases over the 20 years: 3064 with bacterial tonsillitis and 371 with infectious mononucleosis. The mean length of stay was 3.22 days for bacterial tonsillitis and 4.37 days for infectious mononucleosis. The median length of stay for each condition was compared using the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test, and a significant difference detected (p mononucleosis have a significantly longer stay in hospital than those with bacterial tonsillitis.

  18. Ionic flotation of uranium contained in industrial phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jdid; Blazy; Bessiere

    1983-01-01

    A new process for uranium recovery from industrial phosphoric acid at 30% of P 2 O 5 is applied by the ionic flotation process. Research is carried out on determination of the nature of ionic species of U in H 3 PO 4 5.5 M and the behavior of reagents from CECA Co. in very acid media. Reagents able to form complexes directly with uranium and stable in phosphoric acid selected are: potassium ethylene diamine tetra (methylene phosphonate) (INIPOL AD32) and sodium dialkyldiphosphonate (34S). Uranium IV, obtained by reduction of uranium VI with iron powder, is precipitated by these reagents. Flotation of the precipitate obtained with INIPOL AD 32 is realized by addition of hexylamino bis (methylene phosphonic acid). A recovery of 80 wt% is obtained. Flotation of the coprecipitate 34S-U(IV) is obtained without any other additions because 34S is a surfactant. Metal recovery is better than 90% and the coprecipitate contains more than 10% U. The process is fast precipitation 10 minutes and flotation 5 minutes and is efficient even at 60 0 C [fr

  19. Does the Longer Application of Anodal-Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Increase Corticomotor Excitability Further? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapour Jaberzadeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1 has been shown to be effective in increasing corticomotor excitability.  Methods: We investigated whether longer applications of a-tDCS coincide with greater increases in corticomotor excitability compared to shorter application of a-tDCS. Ten right-handed healthy participants received one session of a-tDCS (1mA current with shorter (10 min and longer (10+10 min stimulation durations applied to the left M1 of extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR. Corticomotor excitability following application of a-tDCS was assessed at rest with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS elicited motor evoked potentials (MEP and compared with baseline data for each participant.  Results: MEP amplitudes were increased following 10 min of a-tDCS by 67% (p = 0.001 with a further increase (32% after the second 10 min of a-tDCS (p = 0.005. MEP amplitudes remained elevated at 15 min post stimulation compared to baseline values by 65% (p = 0.02.  Discussion: The results demonstrate that longer application of a-tDCS within the recommended safety limits, increases corticomotor excitability with after effects of up to 15 minutes post stimulation.

  20. Does the Longer Application of Anodal-Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Increase Corticomotor Excitability Further? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapour Jaberzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1 has been shown to be effective in increasing corticomotor excitability.Methods: We investigated whether longer applications of a-tDCS coincide with greater increases in corticomotor excitability compared to shorter application of a-tDCS. Ten right-handed healthy participants received one session of a-tDCS(1mA current with shorter (10 min and longer (10+10 min stimulation durationsapplied to the left M1 of extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR. Corticomotorexcitability following application of a-tDCS was assessed at rest with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS elicited motor evoked otentials (MEP and compared with baseline data for each participant.Results: MEP amplitudes were increased following 10 min of a-tDCS by 67%(p = 0.001 with a further increase (32% after the second 10 min of a-tDCS (p = 0.005. MEP amplitudes remained elevated at 15 min post stimulation compared to baseline values by 65% (p = 0.02.Discussion: The results demonstrate that longer application of a-tDCS within the recommended safety limits, increases corticomotor excitability with after effects of up to 15 minutes post stimulation.

  1. A feasibility study on the longer cycle operation of Yonggwang nuclear power plants 3 and 4 NSSS design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Young Joon; Choi, Hae Yoon; Chang, Young Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    A feasible study on the NSSS design safety assessment is performed for a longer cycle operation of Yonggang units 3 and 4. The analysis of the drift errors increased and setting point changed for safety related instrument channels due to the longer refueling interval was done to assess the impact on the operational safety performance and availability of the plant if the refueling interval was extended. In the result of LOCA analysis, even though the Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) is slightly increased due to Pin/Box ratio decrease, the PCT has enough margin and, therefore, it was proven to be acceptable. From the perspective of return-to-power and the pre-trip fuel performance during the transient operation, an impact on the results of an SLB accident analysis were assessed. The overall trend of the longer refueling operation of 18 months is similar to the standard refuel operation of 12 months. The possibility of the return to power during SLB accident condition was estimated, the detailed analysis of the reactor core using the 3-dimensional model methodology is required to confirm the fuel integrity. 11 refs.(Author) .new.

  2. Innovation in health economic modelling of service improvements for longer-term depression: demonstration in a local health community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Jonathan; Kearns, Ben; Brennan, Alan; Parry, Glenys; Ricketts, Thomas; Saxon, David; Kilgarriff-Foster, Alexis; Thake, Anna; Chambers, Eleni; Hutten, Rebecca

    2013-04-26

    The purpose of the analysis was to develop a health economic model to estimate the costs and health benefits of alternative National Health Service (NHS) service configurations for people with longer-term depression. Modelling methods were used to develop a conceptual and health economic model of the current configuration of services in Sheffield, England for people with longer-term depression. Data and assumptions were synthesised to estimate cost per Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Three service changes were developed and resulted in increased QALYs at increased cost. Versus current care, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for a self-referral service was £11,378 per QALY. The ICER was £2,227 per QALY for the dropout reduction service and £223 per QALY for an increase in non-therapy services. These results were robust when compared to current cost-effectiveness thresholds and accounting for uncertainty. Cost-effective service improvements for longer-term depression have been identified. Also identified were limitations of the current evidence for the long term impact of services.

  3. Resolving prokaryotic taxonomy without rRNA: longer oligonucleotide word lengths improve genome and metagenome taxonomic classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Eric B; Raymond, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Oligonucleotide signatures, especially tetranucleotide signatures, have been used as method for homology binning by exploiting an organism's inherent biases towards the use of specific oligonucleotide words. Tetranucleotide signatures have been especially useful in environmental metagenomics samples as many of these samples contain organisms from poorly classified phyla which cannot be easily identified using traditional homology methods, including NCBI BLAST. This study examines oligonucleotide signatures across 1,424 completed genomes from across the tree of life, substantially expanding upon previous work. A comprehensive analysis of mononucleotide through nonanucleotide word lengths suggests that longer word lengths substantially improve the classification of DNA fragments across a range of sizes of relevance to high throughput sequencing. We find that, at present, heptanucleotide signatures represent an optimal balance between prediction accuracy and computational time for resolving taxonomy using both genomic and metagenomic fragments. We directly compare the ability of tetranucleotide and heptanucleotide world lengths (tetranucleotide signatures are the current standard for oligonucleotide word usage analyses) for taxonomic binning of metagenome reads. We present evidence that heptanucleotide word lengths consistently provide more taxonomic resolving power, particularly in distinguishing between closely related organisms that are often present in metagenomic samples. This implies that longer oligonucleotide word lengths should replace tetranucleotide signatures for most analyses. Finally, we show that the application of longer word lengths to metagenomic datasets leads to more accurate taxonomic binning of DNA scaffolds and have the potential to substantially improve taxonomic assignment and assembly of metagenomic data.

  4. Resolving prokaryotic taxonomy without rRNA: longer oligonucleotide word lengths improve genome and metagenome taxonomic classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B Alsop

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotide signatures, especially tetranucleotide signatures, have been used as method for homology binning by exploiting an organism's inherent biases towards the use of specific oligonucleotide words. Tetranucleotide signatures have been especially useful in environmental metagenomics samples as many of these samples contain organisms from poorly classified phyla which cannot be easily identified using traditional homology methods, including NCBI BLAST. This study examines oligonucleotide signatures across 1,424 completed genomes from across the tree of life, substantially expanding upon previous work. A comprehensive analysis of mononucleotide through nonanucleotide word lengths suggests that longer word lengths substantially improve the classification of DNA fragments across a range of sizes of relevance to high throughput sequencing. We find that, at present, heptanucleotide signatures represent an optimal balance between prediction accuracy and computational time for resolving taxonomy using both genomic and metagenomic fragments. We directly compare the ability of tetranucleotide and heptanucleotide world lengths (tetranucleotide signatures are the current standard for oligonucleotide word usage analyses for taxonomic binning of metagenome reads. We present evidence that heptanucleotide word lengths consistently provide more taxonomic resolving power, particularly in distinguishing between closely related organisms that are often present in metagenomic samples. This implies that longer oligonucleotide word lengths should replace tetranucleotide signatures for most analyses. Finally, we show that the application of longer word lengths to metagenomic datasets leads to more accurate taxonomic binning of DNA scaffolds and have the potential to substantially improve taxonomic assignment and assembly of metagenomic data.

  5. CAR: no longer forgotten?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Lanzer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The international community is waking up to the strategic importance of the Central African Republic (CAR in the crisis over Darfur. Will current interest endure long enough to help the people of CARCAR beyond the immediate future?

  6. Who worries lives longer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A list of radioactivity of different foods measured in June-July 1987 in Austria is given. There is also an explanation how the reader can calculate his personal dose ('from nanocuries to millirems'). An additional warning is given to mushroom- and blueberry collectors. (qui)

  7. War No Longer Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    populace. News and social media flooded the world with images of fighting, frequently reporting the destruction and loss of life in small towns and...authors. Superficial comparisons of study results can lead to erroneous conclusions since study parameters are often significantly different...European officers nicknamed American troops “ teenage mutant ninja turtles” because they were required to wear helmets and body armor even in low threat

  8. Ethics: No Longer Optional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveslage, Thomas; D'Angelo, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that publications advisors have sound, practical reasons for addressing ethical decision making. Presents a brief review of the Supreme Court's message in "Hazelwood." Surveys staffs and advisors of award-winning high school newspapers concerning ethical issues facing the student press. Finds that advisors believe ethics to be…

  9. Longer - Faster - Purer

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc

    2013-01-01

    The MR-ToF-MS, a new ion trap, has been integrated into ISOLTRAP, the experiment that performs accurate mass measurements on short-lived nuclides produced at ISOLDE. When used as a mass separator and spectrometer, it extends ISOLTRAP’s experimental reach towards the limits of nuclear stability.   Susanne Kreim, the ISOLTRAP local group leader at CERN in front of a part of the ISOLTRAP device. When mass measurement experiments like ISOLTRAP* are placed in an on-line radioactive ion-beam facility they face a major challenge: the efficient and fast transfer of the nuclide of interest to the location where the mass measurement is performed. The biggest yield of one selected nuclide, without contaminants, needs to be transferred to the set-up as quickly as possible in order to measure its mass with the greatest precision. Recently, the ISOLTRAP collaboration installed a new device that provides a faster separation of isobars.** It has significantly improved ISOLTRAP’s purificat...

  10. Some problems of parametric neutron activation analysis based on the use of radioactive daughters of longer-lived mothers with low mother/daughter half-life ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical and practical aspects of the use of radioactive daughters originated from the decay of longer-lived radioactive mothers in parametric activation analysis, when the ratio: mother half-life to daughter half-life is less than 10, are discussed. The mother-daughter relationships: 47 Ca/ 47 Sc; 95 Zr/ 95 Nb; 140 Ba/ 140 La; 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and 115 Cd/ 115m In are selected as models for the study. The cases when the radionuclide of interest is formed through both direct and indirect routes are also analyzed. As illustrative example, the direct reaction and the reaction chain: 47 Ti(n,p) 47 Sc/ 46 Ca(n,γ) 47 Ca(β - ) 47 Sc are evaluated with respect to the determination of the elements involved and their reciprocal interferences. (author)

  11. Simple transmission Raman measurements using a single multivariate model for analysis of pharmaceutical samples contained in capsules of different colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeojin; Kim, Jaejin; Lee, Sanguk; Woo, Young-Ah; Chung, Hoeil

    2012-01-30

    Direct transmission Raman measurements for analysis of pharmaceuticals in capsules are advantageous since they can be used to determine active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentrations in a non-destructive manner and with much less fluorescence background interference from the capsules themselves compared to conventional back-scattering measurements. If a single calibration model such as developed from spectra simply collected in glass vials could be used to determine API concentrations of samples contained in capsules of different colors rather than constructing individual models for each capsule color, the utility of transmission measurements would be further enhanced. To evaluate the feasibility, transmission Raman spectra of binary mixtures of ambroxol and lactose were collected in a glass vial and a partial least squares (PLS) model for the determination of ambroxol concentration was developed. Then, the model was directly applied to determine ambroxol concentrations of samples contained in capsules of 4 different colors (blue, green, white and yellow). Although the prediction performance was slightly degraded when the samples were placed in blue or green capsules, due to the presence of weak fluorescence, accurate determination of ambroxol was generally achieved in all cases. The prediction accuracy was also investigated when the thickness of the capsule was varied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial: Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness of a System of Longer-Term Stroke Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Anne; Young, John; Chapman, Katie; Nixon, Jane; Patel, Anita; Holloway, Ivana; Mellish, Kirste; Anwar, Shamaila; Breen, Rachel; Knapp, Martin; Murray, Jenni; Farrin, Amanda

    2015-08-01

    We developed a new postdischarge system of care comprising a structured assessment covering longer-term problems experienced by patients with stroke and their carers, linked to evidence-based treatment algorithms and reference guides (the longer-term stroke care system of care) to address the poor longer-term recovery experienced by many patients with stroke. A pragmatic, multicentre, cluster randomized controlled trial of this system of care. Eligible patients referred to community-based Stroke Care Coordinators were randomized to receive the new system of care or usual practice. The primary outcome was improved patient psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12) at 6 months; secondary outcomes included functional outcomes for patients, carer outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. Follow-up was through self-completed postal questionnaires at 6 and 12 months. Thirty-two stroke services were randomized (29 participated); 800 patients (399 control; 401 intervention) and 208 carers (100 control; 108 intervention) were recruited. In intention to treat analysis, the adjusted difference in patient General Health Questionnaire-12 mean scores at 6 months was -0.6 points (95% confidence interval, -1.8 to 0.7; P=0.394) indicating no evidence of statistically significant difference between the groups. Costs of Stroke Care Coordinator inputs, total health and social care costs, and quality-adjusted life year gains at 6 months, 12 months, and over the year were similar between the groups. This robust trial demonstrated no benefit in clinical or cost-effectiveness outcomes associated with the new system of care compared with usual Stroke Care Coordinator practice. URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN 67932305. © 2015 Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.

  13. Practitioner perspectives on strategies to promote longer-term benefits of acupuncture or counselling for depression: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh MacPherson

    Full Text Available Non-pharmacological interventions for depression may help patients manage their condition. Evidence from a recent large-scale trial (ACUDep suggests that acupuncture and counselling can provide longer-term benefits for many patients with depression. This paper describes the strategies practitioners reported using to promote longer-term benefits for their patients.A qualitative sub-study of practitioners (acupuncturists and counsellors embedded in a randomised controlled trial. Using topic guides, data was collected from telephone interviews and a focus group, altogether involving 19 counsellors and 17 acupuncturists. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic content analysis.For longer-term impact, both acupuncturists and counsellors encouraged insight into root causes of depression on an individual basis and saw small incremental changes as precursors to sustained benefit. Acupuncturists stressed the importance of addressing concurrent physical symptoms, for example helping patients relax or sleep better in order to be more receptive to change, and highlighted the importance of Chinese medicine theory-based lifestyle change for lasting benefit. Counsellors more often highlighted the importance of the therapeutic relationship, emphasising the need for careful "pacing" such that the process and tools employed were tailored and timed for each individual, depending on the "readiness" to change. Our data is limited to acupuncture practitioners using the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, and counsellors using a humanistic, non-directive and person-centred approach.Long-term change appears to be an important focus within the practices of both acupuncturists and counsellors. To achieve this, practitioners stressed the need for an individualised approach with a focus on root causes.

  14. Intrauterine inoculation of minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis during diestrus establishes a longer lasting infection compared to vaginal inoculation during estrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Secher, Jan O

    2017-01-01

    Advanced animal models, such as minipigs, are needed for the development of a globally requested human Chlamydia vaccine. Previous studies have shown that vaginal inoculation of sexually mature Göttingen minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis resulted in an infection lasting only 3-5 days. The aim...... resulted in a longer lasting infection (at least 10 days) compared to estrus (3-5 days). Furthermore, we found a significant C. trachomatis specific IFN-γ response in pigs inoculated during estrus correlating with the accelerated clearance of infection in these pigs. These findings suggest...

  15. Workflows and the Role of Images for Virtual 3d Reconstruction of no Longer Extant Historic Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, S.

    2013-07-01

    3D reconstruction technologies have gained importance as tools for the research and visualization of no longer extant historic objects during the last decade. Within such reconstruction processes, visual media assumes several important roles: as the most important sources especially for a reconstruction of no longer extant objects, as a tool for communication and cooperation within the production process, as well as for a communication and visualization of results. While there are many discourses about theoretical issues of depiction as sources and as visualization outcomes of such projects, there is no systematic research about the importance of depiction during a 3D reconstruction process and based on empirical findings. Moreover, from a methodological perspective, it would be necessary to understand which role visual media plays during the production process and how it is affected by disciplinary boundaries and challenges specific to historic topics. Research includes an analysis of published work and case studies investigating reconstruction projects. This study uses methods taken from social sciences to gain a grounded view of how production processes would take place in practice and which functions and roles images would play within them. For the investigation of these topics, a content analysis of 452 conference proceedings and journal articles related to 3D reconstruction modeling in the field of humanities has been completed. Most of the projects described in those publications dealt with data acquisition and model building for existing objects. Only a small number of projects focused on structures that no longer or never existed physically. Especially that type of project seems to be interesting for a study of the importance of pictures as sources and as tools for interdisciplinary cooperation during the production process. In the course of the examination the authors of this paper applied a qualitative content analysis for a sample of 26 previously

  16. Black bears with longer disuse (hibernation) periods have lower femoral osteon population density and greater mineralization and intracortical porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojda, Samantha J; Weyland, David R; Gray, Sarah K; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Drummer, Thomas D; Donahue, Seth W

    2013-08-01

    Intracortical bone remodeling is persistent throughout life, leading to age related increases in osteon population density (OPD). Intracortical porosity also increases with age in many mammals including humans, contributing to bone fragility and fracture risk. Unbalanced bone resorption and formation during disuse (e.g., physical inactivity) also increases intracortical porosity. In contrast, hibernating bears are a naturally occurring model for the prevention of both age-related and disuse osteoporoses. Intracortical bone remodeling is decreased during hibernation, but resorption and formation remain balanced. Black bears spend 0.25-7 months in hibernation annually depending on climate and food availability. We found longer hibernating bears demonstrate lower OPD and higher cortical bone mineralization than bears with shorter hibernation durations, but we surprisingly found longer hibernating bears had higher intracortical porosity. However, bears from three different latitudes showed age-related decreases in intracortical porosity, indicating that regardless of hibernation duration, black bears do not show the disuse- or age-related increases in intracortical porosity which is typical of other animals. This ability to prevent increases in intracortical porosity likely contributes to their ability to maintain bone strength during prolonged periods of physical inactivity and throughout life. Improving our understanding of the unique bone metabolism in hibernating bears will potentially increase our ability to develop treatments for age- and disuse-related osteoporoses in humans. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Associations between longer habitual day napping and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in an elderly Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qu

    Full Text Available Both longer habitual day napping and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD are associated with diabetes and inflammation, but the association between day napping and NAFLD remains unexplored.To investigate the association between the duration of habitual day napping and NAFLD in an elderly Chinese population and to gain insight into the role of inflammatory cytokines in this association.We conducted a series of cross-sectional studies of the community population in Chongqing, China, from 2011 to 2012.Among 6998 participants aged 40 to 75 years, 6438 eligible participants were included in the first study and analyzed to observe the association between day napping duration and NAFLD. In a separate study, 80 non-nappers and 90 nappers were selected to identify the role of inflammatory cytokines in this association. Logistic regression models were used to examine the odds ratios (ORs of day nap duration with NAFLD.Day nappers had a significantly higher prevalence of NAFLD (P1 h of day napping compared with individuals who did not take day naps (all P0.05.Longer day napping duration is associated with a higher prevalence of NAFLD, and inflammatory cytokines may be an essential link between day napping and NAFLD.

  18. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness is Associated with Longer Culprit Lesion and Adverse Outcomes in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Hang; Ng, Wai-Yee; Hau, William; Ho, Hee-Hwa; Tai, Bee-Choo; Chan, Mark Y.; Richards, A. Mark; Tan, Huay-Cheem

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: We assessed whether excessive daytime sleepiness was associated with coronary plaque phenotype and subsequent adverse cardiovascular events. Methods: Prospective cohort study. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) examination of the culprit coronary stenosis was performed. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire was administered, and the patients were divided into 2 groups—(1) sleepier and (2) less sleepy—based on the ESS score. Adverse cardiovascular outcomes were defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, unplanned revascularization, or heart failure admission. Results: One hundred seventeen patients undergoing urgent or non-urgent coronary angiography were recruited. Compared with the less sleepy group (ESS ≤ 10, n = 87), the sleepier group (ESS > 10, n = 30) had higher serum levels of total cholesterol and of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterols (p 10 was associated with longer culprit lesions and future adverse cardiovascular events. Citation: Lee CH; Ng WY; Hau W; Ho HH; Tai BC; Chan MY; Richards AM; Tan HC. Excessive daytime sleepiness is associated with longer culprit lesion and adverse outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(12):1267-1272. PMID:24340288

  19. Associations between longer habitual day napping and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in an elderly Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Deng, Min; Wei, Huili; Deng, Huacong

    2014-01-01

    Both longer habitual day napping and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) are associated with diabetes and inflammation, but the association between day napping and NAFLD remains unexplored. To investigate the association between the duration of habitual day napping and NAFLD in an elderly Chinese population and to gain insight into the role of inflammatory cytokines in this association. We conducted a series of cross-sectional studies of the community population in Chongqing, China, from 2011 to 2012. Among 6998 participants aged 40 to 75 years, 6438 eligible participants were included in the first study and analyzed to observe the association between day napping duration and NAFLD. In a separate study, 80 non-nappers and 90 nappers were selected to identify the role of inflammatory cytokines in this association. Logistic regression models were used to examine the odds ratios (ORs) of day nap duration with NAFLD. Day nappers had a significantly higher prevalence of NAFLD (Pnapping duration was associated in a dose-dependent manner with NAFLD (P trend 1 h of day napping compared with individuals who did not take day naps (all Pnapping duration and NAFLD disappeared (all P>0.05). Longer day napping duration is associated with a higher prevalence of NAFLD, and inflammatory cytokines may be an essential link between day napping and NAFLD.

  20. Intrauterine inoculation of minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis during diestrus establishes a longer lasting infection compared to vaginal inoculation during estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Secher, Jan O; Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Hansen, Mette S; Zakariassen, Hannah; Olsen, Anja W; Andersen, Peter; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2017-06-01

    Advanced animal models, such as minipigs, are needed for the development of a globally requested human Chlamydia vaccine. Previous studies have shown that vaginal inoculation of sexually mature Göttingen minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis resulted in an infection lasting only 3-5 days. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of targeting the upper porcine genital tract by transcervical and transabdominal intrauterine inoculation, compared to previously performed vaginal inoculation. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of the hormonal cycle, estrus vs. diestrus, on the establishment of a C. trachomatis infection in the minipig. Targeting the upper genital tract (transcervical inoculation) resulted in a longer lasting infection (at least 7 days) compared to vaginal inoculation (3-5 days). When comparing intrauterine inoculation during estrus and diestrus, inoculation during diestrus resulted in a longer lasting infection (at least 10 days) compared to estrus (3-5 days). Furthermore, we found a significant C. trachomatis specific IFN-γ response in pigs inoculated during estrus correlating with the accelerated clearance of infection in these pigs. These findings suggest that for implementation of an optimal model of C. trachomatis in minipigs, inoculation should bypass the cervix and preferable be performed during diestrus. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  1. Optional part-time and longer GP training modules in GP practices associated with more trainees becoming GPs - a cohort study in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Lara; Ahrens, Regina; Häuptle, Christian; Goeldlin, Adrian; Streit, Sven

    2018-01-05

    Switzerland, like many other countries, has a shortage of General Practitioners (GPs). Optional GP training modules in GP practices were offered during the at least 5-year GP training program to increase student and trainee interest in becoming a GP. The training modules had not yet been evaluated. We determined how many Swiss GP trainees became practicing GPs after they completed optional training modules, and if longer modules were associated with higher rates of GP specialization. In this population-based cohort study, we included GP trainees who chose an optional GP training module in GP practice, provided by the Foundation to Promote Training in General Practice (WHM) between 2006 and 2015. GP trainees were invited to complete an online survey to assess the primary outcome (becoming a practicing GP by 2016). Data on non-responders was collected via an internet search. We calculated univariate time-to-event curves to become a practicing GP, stratified by trainee's gender, length, part-time training, and number of years after graduation until training modules were completed. We used a multivariate model to adjust for characteristics of participants, training, and satisfaction with training modules. We assessed primary outcome for 351 (92.1%) of 381 former GP trainees who participated in a WHM program between 2006 and 2015. Of these 218 (57%) were practicing GPs by 2016. When focusing on the trainees who had completed training between 2006 and 2010, the rate of practicing GPs was even 73%. Longer (p = 0.018) and part-time training modules (p = 0.003) were associated with higher rates of being a practicing GP. Most (81%) practicing GPs thought their optional GP training module was (very) important in their choice of specialty. GP trainees who spent more time training in a GP practice, or who trained part-time were more likely to become practicing GPs. Most (80%) rated their training module as (very) important in their choice of career, highlighting that

  2. Predictors of current and longer-term patterns of abundance of American pikas (Ochotona princeps) across a leading-edge protected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer-Horner, Lucas; Beever, Erik A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Beil, Mark; Belt, Jami

    2016-01-01

    American pikas (Ochotona princeps) have been heralded as indicators of montane-mammal response to contemporary climate change. Pikas no longer occupy the driest and lowest-elevation sites in numerous parts of their geographic range. Conversely, pikas have exhibited higher rates of occupancy and persistence in Rocky Mountain and Sierra Nevada montane ‘mainlands’. Research and monitoring efforts on pikas across the western USA have collectively shown the nuance and complexity with which climate will often act on species in diverse topographic and climatic contexts. However, to date no studies have investigated habitat, distribution, and abundance of pikas across hundreds of sites within a remote wilderness area. Additionally, relatively little is known about whether climate acts most strongly on pikas through direct or indirect (e.g., vegetation-mediated) mechanisms. During 2007–2009, we collectively hiked >16,000 km throughout the 410,077-ha Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, in an effort to identify topographic, microrefugial, and vegetative characteristics predictive of pika abundance. We identified 411 apparently pika-suitable habitat patches with binoculars (in situ), and surveyed 314 of them for pika signs. Ranking of alternative logistic-regression models based on AICc scores revealed that short-term pika abundances were positively associated with intermediate elevations, greater cover of mosses, and taller forbs, and decreased each year, for a total decline of 68% during the three-year study; whereas longer-term abundances were associated only with static variables (longitude, elevation, gradient) and were lower on north-facing slopes. Earlier Julian date and time of day of the survey (i.e., midday vs. not) were associated with lower observed pika abundance. We recommend that wildlife monitoring account for this seasonal and diel variation when surveying pikas. Broad-scale information on status and abundance determinants of montane mammals, especially

  3. Prenatal Experiences of Containment in the Light of Bion's Model of Container/Contained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of possible proto-experiences of the prenatal child in the context of Bion's model of container/contained. The physical configuration of the embryo/foetus contained in the maternal uterus represents the starting point for an enquiry into the unborn child's possible experiences of its state of being contained in a…

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD among longer-term prison inmates is a prevalent, persistent and disabling disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirvikoski Tatja

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ADHD is a common and disabling disorder, with an increased risk for coexisting disorders, substance abuse and delinquency. In the present study, we aimed at exploring ADHD and criminality. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD among longer-term prison inmates, described symptoms and cognitive functioning, and compared findings with ADHD among psychiatric outpatients and healthy controls. Methods At Norrtälje Prison, we approached 315 male inmates for screening of childhood ADHD by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25 and for present ADHD by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Screener (ASRS-Screener. The response rate was 62%. Further, we assessed 34 inmates for ADHD and coexisting disorders. Finally, we compared findings with 20 adult males with ADHD, assessed at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and 18 healthy controls. Results The estimated prevalence of adult ADHD among longer-term inmates was 40%. Only 2 out of 30 prison inmates confirmed with ADHD had received a diagnosis of ADHD during childhood, despite most needed health services and educational support. All subjects reported lifetime substance use disorder (SUD where amphetamine was the most common drug. Mood and anxiety disorders were present among half of subjects; autism spectrum disorder (ASD among one fourth and psychopathy among one tenth. Personality disorders were common; almost all inmates presented conduct disorder (CD before antisocial personality disorder (APD. Prison inmates reported more ADHD symptoms during both childhood and adulthood, compared with ADHD psychiatric outpatients. Further, analysis of executive functions after controlling for IQ showed both ADHD groups performed poorer than controls on working memory tests. Besides, on a continuous performance test, the ADHD prison group displayed poorer results compared with both other groups. Conclusions This study suggested ADHD to be present among 40% of adult male longer-term prison inmates. Further, ADHD

  5. Tomotherapy archive structure and new software tool for loading and advanced analysis of data contained in it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryczkowski, A.; Piotrowski, T.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The main objective of the study was to analyze the structure of data contained in the archives exported from a tomotherapy treatment planning system. An additional aim was to create an application equipped with a user-friendly interface to enable automatic reading of files and data analysis, also using external algorithms. Analyses had to include image registration, dose deformation and summation. Materials and methods: Files from the archive exported from the tomotherapy treatment planning system (TPS) were analyzed. Two programs were used to analyze the information contained in the archive files: XML Viewer by Mind Fusion Limited and H x D hex editor by Mael Hora. To create an application enabling loading and analyzing the data, Matlab by MathWorks, version R2009b, was used. Results: Archive exported from the TPS is a directory with several files. It contains three types of data: .xml, .img and .sin. Tools available in Matlab offer great opportunities for analysis and transformation of loaded information. Proposed application automates the loading of necessary information and simplifies data handling. Furthermore, the application is equipped with a graphical user interface (GUI). The main application window contains buttons for opening the archives and analyzing the loaded data. Conclusion: The analysis of data contained in the archive exported from the tomotherapy treatment planning system allowed to determine the way and place of saving information of our interest, such as tomography images, structure sets and dose distributions. This enabled us to develop and optimize methods of loading and analyzing this information. (authors)

  6. Exploring the role of daily ‘modality styles’ and urban structure in holidays and longer weekend trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Große, Juliane; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2018-01-01

    comprehensively researched. However, other travel domains (e.g., occasional weekend trips or holidays) have only recently received more attention, despite their environmental impact. The paper investigates whether and how daily travel patterns (‘modality styles’) correspond with non-daily travel behaviour...... in the commuter belt of Greater Copenhagen in spring 2016. First, we identify ‘modality styles’ by grouping the sample based on the respondents’ daily mode choices. Second, we relate the identified modality styles to socio-economic and socio-demographic factors, frequency and mode choice of longer weekend trips...... and holidays, and travel-related attitudes. The results reveal that the urban structure of a residential location (e.g., urban vs. peri-urban) exerts to some extent influence on the constitution of daily modality styles. We found, furthermore, a tendency for more weekend trips and holidays among the urban...

  7. Prespecified candidate biomarkers identify follicular lymphoma patients who achieved longer progression-free survival with bortezomib-rituximab versus rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiffier, Bertrand; Li, Weimin; Henitz, Erin D; Karkera, Jayaprakash D; Favis, Reyna; Gaffney, Dana; Shapiro, Alice; Theocharous, Panteli; Elsayed, Yusri A; van de Velde, Helgi; Schaffer, Michael E; Osmanov, Evgenii A; Hong, Xiaonan; Scheliga, Adriana; Mayer, Jiri; Offner, Fritz; Rule, Simon; Teixeira, Adriana; Romejko-Jarosinska, Joanna; de Vos, Sven; Crump, Michael; Shpilberg, Ofer; Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Cakana, Andrew; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; Mulligan, George; Ricci, Deborah

    2013-05-01

    Identify subgroups of patients with relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma deriving substantial progression-free survival (PFS) benefit with bortezomib-rituximab versus rituximab in the phase III LYM-3001 study. A total of 676 patients were randomized to five 5-week cycles of bortezomib-rituximab or rituximab. The primary end point was PFS; this prespecified analysis of candidate protein biomarkers and genes was an exploratory objective. Archived tumor tissue and whole blood samples were collected at baseline. Immunohistochemistry and genetic analyses were completed for 4 proteins and 8 genes. In initial pairwise analyses, using individual single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypes, one biomarker pair (PSMB1 P11A C/G heterozygote, low CD68 expression) was associated with a significant PFS benefit with bortezomib-rituximab versus rituximab, controlling for multiple comparison corrections. The pair was analyzed under dominant, recessive, and additive genetic models, with significant association with PFS seen under the dominant model (G/G+C/G). In patients carrying this biomarker pair [PSMB1 P11A G allele, low CD68 expression (≤50 CD68-positive cells), population frequency: 43.6%], median PFS was 14.2 months with bortezomib-rituximab versus 9.1 months with rituximab (HR 0.47, P < 0.0001), and there was a significant overall survival benefit (HR 0.49, P = 0.0461). Response rates were higher and time to next antilymphoma therapy was longer in the bortezomib-rituximab group. In biomarker-negative patients, no significant efficacy differences were seen between treatment groups. Similar proportions of patients had high-risk features in the biomarker-positive and biomarker-negative subsets. Patients with PSMB1 P11A (G allele) and low CD68 expression seemed to have significantly longer PFS and greater clinical benefit with bortezomib-rituximab versus rituximab. ©2013 AACR.

  8. Exploring Lactobacillus reuteri DSM20016 as a biocatalyst for transformation of longer chain 1,2-diols: Limits with microcompartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2017-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri metabolises glycerol efficiently to form 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) and 1,3-propanediol (1,3PDO) by the same mechanism as that for 1,2-propanediol (1,2PDO) conversion to propionic acid and propanol via its propanediol utilization (pdu) pathway. Pdu enzymes are encoded by the pdu-operon, which also contain genes encoding the shell proteins of the microcompartment housing the metabolic pathway. In this work the selectivity and kinetics of the reactions catalysed by L. reuteri DSM20016 Pdu enzymes glycerol dehydratase (GDH), 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase (PduQ) and coenzyme-A acylating propionaldehyde dehydrogenase (PduP), produced recombinantly, was investigated against corresponding substrates of different chain lengths. Glycerol dehydratase exhibited activity against C2-C4 polyols, with the highest activity against glycerol and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO). A double mutant of the pduC gene of GDH (PduC-S302A/Q337A) was constructed that displayed lowered activity against glycerol and 1,2PDO but extended the substrate range upto C6-diol. The best substrate for both PduQ and PduP was 3-hydroxypropanal (3HPA), although PduP exhibited nearly 10-fold higher specific activity. The enzymes also showed some activity against C3-C10 aliphatic aldehydes, with PduP having higher relative activity. Subsequently, transformation of polyols using whole cells of L. reuteri containing the wild type- and mutated GDH, respectively, confirmed the reduced activity of the mutant against glycerol and 1,2PDO, but its activity against longer substrates was negligible. In contrast, recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells harboring the GDH variant converted diols with up to C6 carbon chain length to their respective aldehydes, suggesting that the protein shell of the microcompartment in L. reuteri posed a barrier to the passage of longer chain substrate.

  9. Costs and longer-term savings of parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beecham Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conduct disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders in children and may persist into adulthood in about 50% of cases. The costs to society are high and impact many public sector agencies. Parenting programmes have been shown to positively affect child behaviour, but little is known about their potential long-term cost-effectiveness. We therefore estimate the costs of and longer-term savings from evidence-based parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder. Methods A decision-analytic Markov model compares two scenarios: 1 a 5-year old with clinical conduct disorder receives an evidence-based parenting programme; 2 the same 5-year old does not receive the programme. Cost-savings analysis is performed by comparing the probability that conduct disorder persists over time in each scenario, adopting both a public sector and a societal perspective. If the intervention is successful in reducing persistent conduct disorder, cost savings may arise from reduced use of health services, education support, social care, voluntary agencies and from crimes averted. Results Results strongly suggest that parenting programmes reduce the chance that conduct disorder persists into adulthood and are cost-saving to the public sector within 5-8 years under base case conditions. Total savings to society over 25 years are estimated at £16,435 per family, which compares with an intervention cost in the range of £952-£2,078 (2008/09 prices. Conclusions Effective implementation of evidence-based parenting programmes is likely to yield cost savings to the public sector and society. More research is needed to address evidence gaps regarding the current level of provision, longer-term effectiveness and questions of implementation, engagement and equity.

  10. Short sleep duration and longer daytime napping are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui; Lin, Lin; Wang, Zhengyi; Ding, Lin; Huang, Ya; Wang, Po; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Xu, Min; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Chen, Yuhong; Ning, Guang

    2017-09-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported conflicting results on the relationship between short sleep duration and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There are no previous studies investigating the effect of daytime napping on NAFLD. In the present study we examined the associations between NAFLD and both nightly sleep duration and daytime napping in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. This cross-sectional community-based population study was performed on 8559 individuals aged ≥40 years. Sleep duration and the duration of daytime napping were self-reported using a standardized questionnaire; NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography. In this study sample, the overall prevalence of NAFLD was 30.4%. There was an inverse association between sleep duration and the risk of prevalent NAFLD. In multivariate analysis, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prevalent NAFLD for decreasing sleep duration categories (≥9, 8.1-9, 7.1-8, 6.1-7, and ≤6.1 h) were 1.00 (reference), 1.38 (1.13-1.70), 1.32 (1.08-1.61), 1.29 (1.04-1.60), and 1.66 (1.28-2.15), respectively (P trend  = 0.0073). Compared with participants without a daytime napping habit, nap takers with a longer nap duration (>0.5 h) had an increased risk of prevalent NAFLD (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.06-1.41). The associations of sleep duration and daytime napping duration with NAFLD were generally consistent across different categories of age and obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance status. Short sleep duration and longer daytime napping were associated with an increased risk of prevalent NAFLD in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. The use of 137Cs to establish longer-term soil erosion rates on footpaths in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway-Dyer, S J; Walling, D E

    2010-10-01

    There is increasing awareness of the damage caused to valuable and often unique sensitive habitats by people pressure as degradation causes a loss of plant species, disturbance to wildlife, on-site and off-site impacts of soil movement and loss, and visual destruction of pristine environments. This research developed a new perspective on the problem of recreational induced environmental degradation by assessing the physical aspects of soil erosion using the fallout radionuclide caesium-137 ((137)Cs). Temporal sampling problems have not successfully been overcome by traditional research methods monitoring footpath erosion and, to date, the (137)Cs technique has not been used to estimate longer-term soil erosion in regard to sensitive recreational habitats. The research was based on-sites within Dartmoor National Park (DNP) and the South West Coast Path (SWCP) in south-west England. (137)Cs inventories were reduced on the paths relative to the reference inventory (control), indicating loss of soil from the path areas. The Profile Distribution Model estimated longer-term erosion rates (ca. 40 years) based on the (137)Cs data and showed that the combined mean soil loss for all the sites on 'paths' was 1.41 kg m(-2) yr(-1) whereas the combined 'off path' soil loss was 0.79 kg m(-2) yr(-1), where natural (non-recreational) soil redistribution processes occur. Recreational pressure was shown to increase erosion in the long-term, as greater soil erosion occurred on the paths, especially where there was higher visitor pressure. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Is the Rise in the Prevalence of Renal Replacement Therapy at Older Ages the Price for Living Longer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Peters

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRenal replacement therapy (RRT is one of the most expensive in renal medicine. Cross-sectional studies suggest that life expectancy increases in the general population are associated with a higher burden of RRT. This study tests this hypothesis in a prospective setting among people aged 75+ living in Western Europe.MethodsWe gathered sex-specific data for 11 Western European countries in 2005–2014. RRT prevalence on country level was extracted from the ERA-EDTA registry, while data on population size and life expectancy for the 75+ age group came from the Eurostat database. GDP per capita was extracted from the OECD database. To measure the association between RRT prevalence and life expectancy, we performed Poisson regression models separately for each country and for all countries combined. To adjust for confounding, GDP per capita as well as time and country-fixed effects were included.ResultsOur analysis revealed that living longer coincides with rising RRT prevalence at ages 75+ in Western Europe between 2005 and 2014. On average, a 1-year increase in life expectancy was associated with a roughly 20% increase in RRT prevalence [(95% CI 21–23% in men and 19–22% in women]. However, after adjustments for confounding were made, the association became insignificant among women and became weaker among men, falling to a level of 11% [(95% CI 6–17%].ConclusionLiving longer was not necessarily associated with a higher burden of RRT in Western European countries.

  13. Changes in Nutritional and Functional Status in Longer Stay Patients Admitted to a Geriatric Evaluation and Management Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, A; Skliros, E; Graven, C; McIntosh, R; Lasry, C; Newsome, C; Bowie, A

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition and functional decline are common in older inpatients admitted to subacute care settings. However the association between changes in nutritional status and relevant functional outcomes remains under-researched. This study examined changes in nutritional status, function and mobility in patients admitted to a Geriatric Evaluation and Management (GEM) unit who had a length of stay (LOS) longer than 21 days. A prospective, observational study. Two GEM units at St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Australia. Patients admitted to the GEM units who stayed longer than 21 days were included in the study. Patients were assessed on admission and prior to discharge using the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Functional Independence Measure (FIM) motor domain and the Modified Elderly Mobility Scale (MEMS). Fifty-nine patients (Mean age 84.0 ± 7 years) met the required length of stay and were included in the study. Fifty-four per cent (n=32) were malnourished on admission (SGA B/C) and 44% (n=26) were malnourished on discharge. Twenty-two per cent (n=13) improved SGA category, 75% remained stable (n=44) and 3% deteriorated (n=2) from admission to discharge. Total Motor FIM scores significantly increased from admission to discharge in both the improved (pnutritional status groups. Subjects who improved in nutritional status had a significantly higher MEMS score at discharge (pnutritional status at the time of discharge. Improvement in nutritional status was associated with greater improvement in mobility scores. Further studies are required to investigate the effectiveness of nutrition interventions, which will inform models of care aiming to optimise nutritional, functional, and associated clinical outcomes in patients admitted to GEM units.

  14. Analysis of longer period variation of the Kuroshio Current intrusion into the Luzon Strait using rectified wavelet power spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yaochu; Yang, Chenghao; Tseng, Yu-heng; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Huiqun; Chen, Hong

    2017-08-01

    Longer period variation of the Kuroshio into the Luzon Strait (LS) was identified using acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) observations as well as pressure and temperature time series data recorded by two TDs (manufactured by the RBR Ltd.) at mooring station N2 (20°40.441‧N, 120°38.324‧E). The ADCP was deployed at depths of 50-300 m between July 7, 2009 and April 10, 2011, and the TDs at around 340 and 365 m between July 9, 2009 and July 9, 2011. Observations provide strong evidence of longer period variation of the Kuroshio into the LS using the Vector rotary spectra (VRS) and Rectified wavelet power spectra analysis (RWPSA). RWPSA of the observations allowed the identification of two types of dominant periods. The first type, with the strongest power spectral density (PSD), had a dominant period of 112 d and was found throughout the upper 300 m. For example, the maximum PSD for western and northern velocity components time series were 3800 and 3550 at 50 m, respectively. The maximum power spectral density decrease with deeper depths, i.e., the depth dependence of maximum PSD. The 112 d period was also identified in the pressure and temperature time series data, at 340 m and 365 m. Combined RWPSA with VRS and mechanism analysis, it is clear that the occurrence of the most dominant period of 112 d in the upper 300 m is related to the clockwise meandering of the Kuroshio into the LS, which is caused by westward propagating stronger anticyclonic eddies from the interior ocean due to the interaction of Rossby eddies with the Kuroshio. The second type of dominant period, for example a 40 d period, is related to the anticlockwise meandering of the Kuroshio. The final dominant period of 14 d coincides with the fortnightly spring-neap tidal period.

  15. Latitudinal distribution of lanthanides contained in macroalgae in Chile: an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) determination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goecke, Franz; Aránguiz-Acuna, A.; Palacios, M.; Munoz-Muga, P.; Rucki, M.; Vítová, Milada

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2017), s. 2117-2128 ISSN 0921-8971 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cerium * Lanthanum * Rare earth elements Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.616, year: 2016

  16. Effect of buoyancy on fuel containment in an open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putre, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis aimed at determining the scaling laws for the buoyancy effect on fuel containment in an open-cycle gas-core nuclear rocket engine, so conducted that experimental conditions can be related to engine conditions. The fuel volume fraction in a short coaxial flow cavity is calculated with a programmed numerical solution of the steady Navier-Stokes equations for isothermal, variable density fluid mixing. A dimensionless parameter B, called the Buoyancy number, was found to correlate the fuel volume fraction for large accelerations and various density ratios. This parameter has the value B = 0 for zero acceleration, and B = 350 for typical engine conditions.

  17. Reactivity of hydrogen contained in Raney nickel for ethylene hydrogenation studied by means of a tritium tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatani, Daisaku; Takeuchi, Toyosaburo.

    1979-01-01

    Reactivity of hydrogen contained in Raney nickel with ethylene was studied by using a tritium tracer. Hydrogen in Raney nickel was previously labeled with tritium and distinguished from hydrogen introduced during the hydrogenation reaction. The reactivity of the contained hydrogen was determined by measurement of the radioactivity of ethane produced in the hydrogenation. Ethylene reacted with hydrogen in Raney nickel for no supply of hydrogen during the hydrogenation. However, when ethylene was hydrogenated by both hydrogen in Raney nickel and introduced hydrogen, over 99% of the ethylene reacted with the introduced hydrogen and hardly reacted with the contained hydrogen. (author)

  18. 20 CFR 416.986 - Why and when we will find that you are no longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness. 416.986 Section 416.986 Employees' Benefits... Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.986 Why and when we will find that you are no longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness. (a) If your vision does not meet the definition of blindness. If you...

  19. Soil Dissolved Organic Carbon Fluxes are Controlled by both Precipitation and Longer-Term Climate Effects on Boreal Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, E. R.; Ziegler, S. E.; Edwards, K. A.; Bowering, K.

    2017-12-01

    Water acts as a control on the cycling of organic carbon (OC). Forest productivity responses to climate change are linked to water availability while water residence time is a major control on OC loss in aquatic ecosystems. However, controls on the export of terrestrial OC to the aquatic environment remains poorly understood. Transport of dissolved OC (DOC) through soils both vertically to deeper soil horizons and into aquatic systems is a key flux of terrestrial OC, but the climate drivers controlling OC mobilized from soils is poorly understood. We installed zero-tension lysimeters across similar balsam fir forest sites within three regions that span a MAT gradient of 5.2˚C and MAP of 1050-1500 mm. Using soil water collected over all seasons for four years we tested whether a warmer and wetter climate promotes greater DOC fluxes in ecosystems experiencing relatively high precipitation. Variability within and between years was compared to that observed across climates to test the sensitivity of this flux to shorter relative to longer-term climate effects on this flux. The warmest and wettest southern site exhibited the greatest annual DOC flux (25 to 28 g C m-2 y-1) in contrast to the most northern site (8 to 10 g C m -2 y-1). This flux represented 10% of litterfall C inputs across sites and surpassed the DOC export from associated forested headwater streams (1 to 16 g C m-2 y-1) suggesting terrestrial to aquatic interface processing. Historical climate and increased soil C inputs explain the greater DOC flux in the southern region. Even in years with comparable annual precipitation among regions the DOC flux differed by climate region. Furthermore, neither quantity nor form of precipitation could explain inter-annual differences in DOC flux within each region. Region specific relationships between precipitation and soil water flux instead suggest historical climate effects may impact soil water transport efficiency thereby controlling the regional variation in

  20. Policy and programmatic considerations for introducing a longer-acting injectable contraceptive: perspectives of stakeholders from Kenya and Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Kevin; Arcara, Jennet; Rademacher, Kate H; Mackenzie, Caroline; Ngabo, Fidele; Munyambanza, Emmanuel; Wesson, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth E

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: More than 40 million women use injectable contraceptives to prevent pregnancy, and most current or previous injectable users report being satisfied with the method. However, while women may find injectables acceptable, they may not always find them accessible due to stock-outs and difficulties with returning to the clinic for reinjections. FHI 360 is spearheading efforts to develop a longer-acting injectable (LAI) contraceptive that could provide at least 6 months of protection against pregnancy. This article addresses systems-level considerations for the introduction of a new LAI. Methods: We conducted qualitative case studies in Kenya and Rwanda—two countries that have high levels of injectable use but with different service delivery contexts. Between June and September 2012, we conducted in-depth interviews with 27 service providers and 19 policy makers and program implementers focusing on 4 themes: systems-level barriers and facilitators to delivering LAI services; process for introducing an LAI; LAI distribution approaches; and potential LAI characteristics. We also obtained electronic feedback from 28 international family planning opinion leaders. Results: Respondents indicated strong interest in an LAI and thought it would appeal to existing injectable users as well as new family planning clients, both for spacing and for limiting births. Providers appreciated the potential for a lighter workload due to fewer follow-up visits, but they were concerned that fewer visits would also decrease their ability to help women manage side effects. The providers also appreciated the 1-month grace period for follow-up LAI injections; some seemed unaware of the latest international guidance that had increased the grace period from 2 weeks to 4 weeks for the currently available 3-month injectable. The majority of policy makers and program implementers were supportive of letting community health workers provide the method, but many nurses and midwives

  1. Early discharge with tube feeding at home for preterm infants is associated with longer duration of breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerlo-Habing, Z E; Kosters-Boes, E A; Klip, H; Brand, P L P

    2009-07-01

    Mothers of preterm infants are more likely to discontinue breast feeding early than mothers of term infants. We evaluated the effect of early discharge with tube feeding of preterm infants under close supervision by paediatric nurse specialists on the duration of breast feeding. Case-control study. Medium/high-care neonatal unit of a large district general hospital. Preterm infants (paediatric nurse specialists or regular follow-up of preterm infants discharged with oral feeding. Duration of breast feeding assessed by telephone interview 6 months after birth. There were 50 preterm infants in the early discharge group and 78 in the control group. Mothers in the early discharge group continued to breast feed longer than mothers in the control group (log rank test, p = 0.028). Four months after discharge, 63% of preterm infants in the control group were fed formula compared to 36% in the early discharge group (95% CI for difference 9% to 43%, p = 0.04). The relative risk of breast feeding cessation 6 months after birth in the early discharge group compared to the control group was 0.63 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.96). After adjustment for smoking, gestational age and birth weight, this relative risk was 0.67 (95% CI 0.43 to 1.05). Close supervision and follow-up by paediatric nurse specialists of preterm infants discharged early with tube feeding appears to increase duration of breast feeding. A randomised controlled trial to confirm these findings is warranted.

  2. Spatial and temporal variations in landscape evolution: historic and longer-term sediment flux through global catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covault, Jacob A.; Craddock, William H.; Romans, Brian W.; Fildani, Andrea; Gosai, Mayur

    2013-01-01

    Sediment generation and transport through terrestrial catchments influence soil distribution, geochemical cycling of particulate and dissolved loads, and the character of the stratigraphic record of Earth history. To assess the spatiotemporal variation in landscape evolution, we compare global compilations of stream gauge–derived () and cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN)–derived (predominantly 10Be; ) denudation of catchments (mm/yr) and sediment load of rivers (Mt/yr). Stream gauges measure suspended sediment loads of rivers during several to tens of years, whereas CRNs provide catchment-integrated denudation rates at 102–105-yr time scales. Stream gauge–derived and CRN-derived sediment loads in close proximity to one another (temporary storage of sediment in flood plains can provide stream gauge–based sediment loads and denudation rates that are applicable over longer periods than the durations of gauge measurements. The buffering capacity of catchments also has implications for interpreting the stratigraphic record; delayed sediment transfer might complicate the stratigraphic record of external forcings and catchment modification.

  3. A longer-term perspective on human exploitation and management of peat wetlands: the Hula Valley, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Payne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of non-recent human activities on the structure and functioning of wetlands is frequently overlooked. The Hula wetland in northern Israel was exploited for a variety of resources over thousands of years prior to near-total destruction by drainage in the 1950s. These pre-drainage human impacts created a mosaic of anthropogenic habitats which should be considered in attempting to re-create and rehabilitate the wetlands. Here we take an environmental history approach, using the documentary record to identify the numerous ways in which the ecosystem was shaped by human activity. The major traditional activities in the wetland included reed-harvesting, fishing, animal husbandry and limited arable agriculture. The corpus of material examined illustrates that drainage of the wetlands has a longer history than is frequently supposed. Activities such as papyrus harvesting, buffalo husbandry and fishing shaped the ecosystem and their replication may be desirable to re-create lost anthropogenic niches in contemporary conservation management.

  4. Puerarin exhibits greater distribution and longer retention time in neurons than astrocytes in a co-cultured system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yong Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytoestrogen puerarin has been shown to protect neurons and astrocytes in the brain, and is therefore an attractive drug in the treatment of Alzheimer′s disease, Parkinson′s disease and cerebral ischemia. Whether puerarin exhibits the same biological processes in neurons and astrocytes in vitro has rarely been reported. In this study, cortical neurons and astrocytes of newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were separated, identified and co-cultured in a system based on Transwell membranes. The retention time and distribution of puerarin in each cell type was detected by fluorescence spectrophotometry and fluorescence microscope. The concentration of puerarin in both co-cultured and separately cultured neurons was greater than that of astrocytes. Puerarin concentration reached a maximum 20 minutes after it was added. At 60 minutes after its addition, a scant amount of drug was detected in astrocytes; however in both separately cultured and co-cultured neurons, the concentration of puerarin achieved a stable level of about 12.8 ng/mL. The results indicate that puerarin had a higher concentration and longer retention time in neurons than that observed in astrocytes.

  5. Olfactory neuroblastoma: 14-year experience at an Australian tertiary centre and the role for longer-term surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Potter, N; Porceddu, S; Panizza, B

    2017-07-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare sinonasal malignancy, with poorly defined treatment protocols. Management at a tertiary centre was retrospectively evaluated to inform future treatment and follow up. Cases treated with curative intent (2000-2014) were included. Data were collected, and overall and disease-free survival rates were calculated. Eleven cases were identified, with a median follow up of 87 months. One patient was Kadish stage A, one was stage B, eight were stage C and one was stage D. The latter patient underwent chemoradiotherapy alone. The remaining patients proceeded to: endoscopic-assisted wide local excision (n = 2), anterior craniofacial resection (n = 4) or endoscopic craniofacial resection (n = 4). No patients had primary nodal disease or elective neck treatment. One patient had neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Six patients had post-operative radiotherapy; three received adjuvant chemotherapy. Two patients had late cervical node failure, and proceeded to neck dissection and post-operative radiotherapy. Two patients had late local recurrence. Ten-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 68.2 and 46.7 per cent, respectively. Longer-term follow up is supported given the incidence of late regional and local recurrence. Prophylactic treatment of cervical nodes in locally advanced disease is an area for further investigation.

  6. Higher dietary lycopene intake is associated with longer cardiac event-free survival in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Martha; Moser, Debra; Song, Eun Kyeung; Heo, Seongkum; Payne-Emerson, Heather; Dunbar, Sandra B; Pressler, Susan; Lennie, Terry

    2013-08-01

    The antioxidant lycopene may be beneficial for patients with heart failure (HF). Processed tomato products are a major source of lycopene, although they are also high in sodium. Increased sodium intake may counter the positive antioxidant effect of lycopene. This was a prospective study of 212 patients with HF. Dietary intake of lycopene and sodium was obtained from weighted 4-day food diaries. Patients were grouped by the median split of lycopene of 2471 µg/day and stratified by daily sodium levels above and below 3 g/day. Patients were followed for 1 year to collect survival and hospitalization data. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to compare cardiac event-free survival between lycopene groups within each stratum of sodium intake. Higher lycopene intake was associated with longer cardiac event-free survival compared with lower lycopene intake (p = 0.003). The worst cardiac event-free survival was observed in the low lycopene intake group regardless of sodium intake (> 3 g/day HR = 3.01; p = 0.027 and ≤ 3 g/day HR= 3.34; p = 0.023). These findings suggest that increased lycopene intake has the potential to improve cardiac event-free survival in patients with HF independent of sodium intake.

  7. The bachelor's to Ph.D. STEM pipeline no longer leaks more women than men: a 30-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David I; Wai, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    For decades, research and public discourse about gender and science have often assumed that women are more likely than men to "leak" from the science pipeline at multiple points after entering college. We used retrospective longitudinal methods to investigate how accurately this "leaky pipeline" metaphor has described the bachelor's to Ph.D. transition in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in the U.S. since the 1970s. Among STEM bachelor's degree earners in the 1970s and 1980s, women were less likely than men to later earn a STEM Ph.D. However, this gender difference closed in the 1990s. Qualitatively similar trends were found across STEM disciplines. The leaky pipeline metaphor therefore partially explains historical gender differences in the U.S., but no longer describes current gender differences in the bachelor's to Ph.D. transition in STEM. The results help constrain theories about women's underrepresentation in STEM. Overall, these results point to the need to understand gender differences at the bachelor's level and below to understand women's representation in STEM at the Ph.D. level and above. Consistent with trends at the bachelor's level, women's representation at the Ph.D. level has been recently declining for the first time in over 40 years.

  8. Chicks prefer to peck at insect-like elongated stimuli moving in a direction orthogonal to their longer axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Elena; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Rogers, Lesley J

    2009-11-01

    Spontaneous preferences towards possible prey have been little investigated using targets in motion. Preferences of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) to peck at video-images of stimuli representing live insects moving along their longer body axis (i.e. "forwards") or along the shorter body axis (i.e. "sideways") were investigated. Chicks presented with both types of stimulus displayed a significant preference for pecking at stimuli moving sideways. This preference was already present on day 1 post-hatching, and it strengthened on day 6 for those chicks that had experienced pecking at live insects. Head angles used to fixate the stimuli prior to pecking were also analysed and were consistent (i.e. 30 degrees -35 degrees and 60 degrees -65 degrees ) with those reported for fixation of non-edible targets (larger stimuli at a distance). In a first control experiment the same video-presented stimuli were used but the insect's legs were removed to reduce flickering. In a second control experiment, paper-printed images of the whole insect were used. In both cases, the sideways direction of movement was clearly preferred. Overall, our data show that chicks have a spontaneous preference to peck at video-images resembling live insects moving along their shorter body axis. Sideways movement may constitute a crucial signal attracting chicks' attention and enhancing predatory responses possibly because of stronger stimulation of motion detectors.

  9. Longer treatment with alternative non-drug reinforcement fails to reduce resurgence of cocaine or alcohol seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Rusty W; Craig, Andrew R; Browning, Kaitlyn O; Shahan, Timothy A

    2018-04-02

    Provision of alternative non-drug reinforcement is among the most effective methods for treating substance use disorders. However, when alternative reinforcers become unavailable during treatment interruptions or upon cessation of treatment, relapse often occurs. Relapse following the loss of alternative reinforcement is known as resurgence. One factor that could reduce resurgence is longer duration of treatment with alternative reinforcement, but the available data are mixed. Further, the effects of length of treatment have previously only been examined with food seeking. The present experiments directly examined if duration of treatment impacted the magnitude of resurgence of cocaine or alcohol seeking in rats. First, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (Experiment 1) or alcohol (Experiment 2) by performing a target behavior. Second, target behavior was extinguished and performing an alternative behavior produced an alternative non-drug (i.e., food) reinforcer. Finally, resurgence was assessed following removal of alternative reinforcement after either 5 or 20 sessions of treatment. Treatment duration did not differentially affect resurgence of cocaine seeking in Experiment 1 or Alcohol seeking in Experiment 2. These results suggest that extended treatment with alternative non-drug reinforcement may not decrease propensity to relapse. Further, these results may have implications for treatment of substance use disorders and for theories of resurgence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Longer-term effects of ADAS use on speed and headway control in drivers diagnosed with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotzauer, Mandy; Caljouw, Simone R; De Waard, Dick; Brouwer, Wiebo H

    2015-01-01

    An advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) provided information about speed limits, speed, speeding, and following distance. Information was presented to the participants by means of a head-up display. Effects of the information on speed and headway control were studied in a longer-term driving simulator study including 12 repeated measures spread out over 4 weeks. Nine healthy older drivers between the ages of 65 and 82 years and 9 drivers between the ages of 68 and 82 years diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) participated in the study. Within the 4 weeks, groups completed 12 consecutive sessions (10 with ADAS and 2 without ADAS) in a driving simulator. Results indicate an effect of ADAS use on performance. Removing ADAS after short-term exposure led to deterioration of performance in all speed measures in the group of drivers diagnosed with PD. These results suggest that provision of traffic information was utilized by drivers diagnosed with PD in order to control their speed.

  11. HLA-A, -B, and -DR zero-mismatched kidneys shipped to the University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1993-2006: superior graft survival despite longer preservation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingham, William J; Muñoz del Rio, Alejandro; Lorentzen, David; Sollinger, Hans W; Pirsch, John D; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; D'Alessandro, Anthony

    2010-08-15

    To determine the impact at a single center of the United Network for Organ Sharing-mandated sharing program for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A/-B/-DR 0-mismatched (0MM) kidneys, we analyzed the results of 264 kidney transplants from 0MM distant donors between 1993 and 2006, with a follow-up through January 31, 2007. We compared these results with that of concurrent kidneys transplanted from HLA more than 0MM local donors and with shipped more than 0MM kidneys from "payback" donors. Despite a significantly longer preservation time, we found an 11% increase in 8-year graft survival (63% vs. 52%; P0MM donor kidneys. Graft survival of 0MM shipped kidneys at 8 years was significantly better in nonsensitized (or=20% panel reactive antibodies) recipients, who showed an early (2 years) but short-lived benefit. The benefit of receiving a HLA-A, -B, and -DR 0MM shipped kidney remained strong and statistically significant (0.71 relative risk of graft loss vs. local; POrgan Sharing policy restricting mandated sharing of 0MM kidneys to sensitized and pediatric recipients will give greater flexibility to the local organ procurement organization in allocating organs. However, the survival benefit to nonsensitized patients is real and long lasting and will be lost.

  12. The subset of patients with acute heart failure able to secrete relaxin-2 at pregnancy concentrations could have a longer survival: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Òscar; Herrero-Puente, Pablo; Prieto, Belén; García-García, María; García-Hernández, Pablo; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco J; Jacob, Javier; Ríos, José; Romero, Rodolfo; Gil, Víctor; Gayat, Étienne; Llorens, Pere; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2018-05-01

    To investigate how many patients with acute heart failure (AHF) hypersecrete relaxin-2 concentrations similar to those of pregnant women and determine their long-term outcome. In consecutive AHF patients relaxin-2 was quantified by ELISA sandwich method. Patients were divided into pregnancy-like group (PLG, relaxin-2 ≥ 500 pg/mL) and control group (CG, relaxin-2 10 days), combined endpoint (death, rehospitalisation, ED revisit) 30 days after discharge, and 30-day, one-year and three-year death rates. We included 814 patients [81 (SD = 9) years; 53.0% women] followed during 1.9 (SD 2.8) years; 517 (63.5%) died. Twenty patients (2.5%) formed the PLG (median relaxin-2 = 1459 pg/mL; IQR = 1722) and 794 the CG (median = 26; IQR = 44). There was no interaction with variables included on adjustment (age, sex, ischaemic cardiomyopathy, NT-proBNP, glycaemia, and sodium). PLG patients did not have better short-term secondary endpoints, but did show a significantly lower three-year mortality [OR adjusted  = 0.17 (0.05-0.5), p = 0.003]. The small proportion of AHF patients achieving relaxin-2 concentrations similar to those observed in pregnancy may survive longer.

  13. Increased volume of distribution for recombinant activated factor VII and longer plasma-derived factor VII half-life may explain their long lasting prophylactic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Natascha C J; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Holme, Pal Andre; van Kraaij, Marian G J; Laros-van Gorkom, Britta A P; Peyvandi, Flora; van Heerde, Waander L

    2013-08-01

    Prophylaxis with plasma-derived or recombinant activated factor VII is beneficial in severe factor VII deficiency. To understand why prophylactic treatment with both products is efficacious, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study. Ten factor VII deficient patients were treated with either recombinant activated (20 μg/kg) or plasma-derived (25 IU/kg) factor VII in a cross-over design. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed through activated factor VII activity, factor VII clotting activity, and factor VII antigen levels on depicted time points. Factor VII activity half-lifes, determined by non-compartmental and one-compartmental analysis (results in brackets), were shorter for recombinant activated (1.4h; 0.7h) than for plasma-derived factor VII (6.8h; 3.2h); both recombinant activated (5.1h; 2.1h and plasma-derived factor VII (5.8h; 3.2h) resulted in longer half-lives of factor VII antigen. Activated factor VII half-lives (based on activated factor VII activity levels) were significantly higher compared to factor VII clotting activity (1.6h; 0.9h). Volumes of distribution were significantly higher for activated factor VII (236 ml/kg; 175 ml/kg, measured by activated factor VII) as compared to plasma-derived factor VII (206 ml/kg; 64 ml/kg, measured by factor FVII activity), suggesting a plasma- and extracellular fluid distribution for recombinant activated factor VII. Recombinant activated factor VII showed significantly shorter half-lifes than plasma-derived factor VII. Volumes of distribution were significantly higher for treatment with recombinant activated factor VII. The longer half-life for plasma-derived factor VII, compared to recombinant activated factor VII, and the increased volume of distribution for recombinant activated factor VII, compared to plasma-derived factor VII may further elucidate the beneficial effect of prophylactic treatment of both products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Obese motorcycle riders have a different injury pattern and longer hospital length of stay than the normal-weight patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang-Tsung; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-04-14

    The adverse effects of obesity on the physical health have been extensively studied in the general population, but not in motorcycle riders (includes both drivers and pillions). The aim of this study was to compare injury patterns, injury severities, mortality rates, and in-hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) between obese and normal-weight patients who were hospitalized for the treatment of trauma following motorcycle accidents in a level I trauma center. Detailed data of 466 obese adult patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) and 2701 normal-weight patients (25 > BMI ≥18.5 kg/m(2)) who had sustained motorcycle accident-related injuries were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. We used the Pearson's chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and independent Student's t-test to analyze differences between the two groups. Compared to normal-weight motorcycle riders, more obese riders were men and drivers as opposed to pillions. In addition, fewer obese motorcycle riders showed alcohol intoxication. Analyses of the patients' Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores revealed that obese motorcycle riders presented with a higher rate of injury to the thorax, but a lower rate of injury to the face than normal-weight patients. In addition, obese motorcycle riders had a 2.7-fold greater incidence of humeral, 1.9-fold greater incidence of pelvic, and 1.5-fold greater incidence of rib fractures. In contrast, normal-weight motorcycle riders sustained a significantly higher rate of maxillary and clavicle fractures. Obese motorcycle riders had a significant longer in-hospital LOS than normal-weight motorcycle riders did (10.6 days vs. 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.044), with an increase in in-hospital LOS of 0.82 days associated with every 10-unit increase in BMI. No statistically significant differences in Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Trauma

  15. Analysis of Prolonged Hospitalizations (Longer than 7 days: 115 Lung Cancer 
Patients after Video Assistant Thoracic Surgery (VATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang DAI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Thoracoscopic surgery has gradually become the major procedure for lung cancer surgery in our department. Its characteristics are minimal trauma and quick recovery, which make approximately 90% of patients discharge from the hospital after surgery. However, the postoperative complications still happen now and then. We analyzed the patients who had been hospitalized for longer than 7 days after thoracoscopic lung cancer surgery, aiming to summarize the types and risk factors of complications, and improve postoperative safety of patients. Methods The data were come from the prospective database of Thoracic Surgery Unit One in Peking Cancer Hospital, and patients that underwent thoracoscopic pulmonary surgery between Jan. 2010 and Dec. 2014 with length of stay more than 7 days were included in the study. The classifications of the complications were investigated and graded as mild or severe complications according to modified Claviengrading, the relationship between clinical factors and degrees of complications was also analyzed. Results The hospitalization of 115 cases were longer than 7 days after surgery, accounting for 10.3% (115/1,112 of the whole patients that underwent surgery during the same period. Eighty-one cases had mild complications, accounting for 7.3% (81/1,112 of the whole cases that underwent surgery during the same period and 70.4% (81/115 of the cases with prolonged length of stay; the proportions of severe complications in both groups were 3.1% (34/1,112 and 29.6% (34/115, respectively; and the proportions of complications that caused perioperative deaths were 0.18% (2/1112 and 1.7% (2/115, respectively. Among all the postoperative complications, the most common was air leakage for more than 5 days after surgery, with a total of 20 cases (1.8% and 17.4%. The other common complications were: atelectasis (19 cases, 1.7% and 16.5%, pulmonary infection (18 cases, 1.6% and 15.7%, etc. The less common

  16. Policy and programmatic considerations for introducing a longer-acting injectable contraceptive: perspectives of stakeholders from Kenya and Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Kevin; Arcara, Jennet; Rademacher, Kate H; Mackenzie, Caroline; Ngabo, Fidele; Munyambanza, Emmanuel; Wesson, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth E

    2014-10-15

    More than 40 million women use injectable contraceptives to prevent pregnancy, and most current or previous injectable users report being satisfied with the method. However, while women may find injectables acceptable, they may not always find them accessible due to stock-outs and difficulties with returning to the clinic for reinjections. FHI 360 is spearheading efforts to develop a longer-acting injectable (LAI) contraceptive that could provide at least 6 months of protection against pregnancy. This article addresses systems-level considerations for the introduction of a new LAI. We conducted qualitative case studies in Kenya and Rwanda-two countries that have high levels of injectable use but with different service delivery contexts. Between June and September 2012, we conducted in-depth interviews with 27 service providers and 19 policy makers and program implementers focusing on 4 themes: systems-level barriers and facilitators to delivering LAI services; process for introducing an LAI; LAI distribution approaches; and potential LAI characteristics. We also obtained electronic feedback from 28 international family planning opinion leaders. Respondents indicated strong interest in an LAI and thought it would appeal to existing injectable users as well as new family planning clients, both for spacing and for limiting births. Providers appreciated the potential for a lighter workload due to fewer follow-up visits, but they were concerned that fewer visits would also decrease their ability to help women manage side effects. The providers also appreciated the 1-month grace period for follow-up LAI injections; some seemed unaware of the latest international guidance that had increased the grace period from 2 weeks to 4 weeks for the currently available 3-month injectable. The majority of policy makers and program implementers were supportive of letting community health workers provide the method, but many nurses and midwives in Kenya had reservations about the

  17. Plantar pressures are higher in cases with diabetic foot ulcers compared to controls despite a longer stance phase duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Malindu E; Crowther, Robert G; Lazzarini, Peter A; Sangla, Kunwarjit S; Wearing, Scott; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-09-15

    Current international guidelines advocate achieving at least a 30 % reduction in maximum plantar pressure to reduce the risk of foot ulcers in people with diabetes. However, whether plantar pressures differ in cases with foot ulcers to controls without ulcers is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess if plantar pressures were higher in patients with active plantar diabetic foot ulcers (cases) compared to patients with diabetes without a foot ulcer history (diabetes controls) and people without diabetes or a foot ulcer history (healthy controls). Twenty-one cases with diabetic foot ulcers, 69 diabetes controls and 56 healthy controls were recruited for this case-control study. Plantar pressures at ten sites on both feet and stance phase duration were measured using a pre-established protocol. Primary outcomes were mean peak plantar pressure, pressure-time integral and stance phase duration. Non-parametric analyses were used with Holm's correction to correct for multiple testing. Binary logistic regression models were used to adjust outcomes for age, sex and body mass index. Median differences with 95 % confidence intervals and Cohen's d values (standardised mean difference) were reported for all significant outcomes. The majority of ulcers were located on the plantar surface of the hallux and toes. When adjusted for age, sex and body mass index, the mean peak plantar pressure and pressure-time integral of toes and the mid-foot were significantly higher in cases compared to diabetes and healthy controls (p diabetic foot ulcers despite having a longer stance phase duration which would be expected to lower plantar pressure. Whether plantar pressure changes can predict ulcer healing should be the focus of future research. These results highlight the importance of offloading feet during active ulceration in addition to before ulceration.

  18. Growing Lots of Food Very Fast Can Hurt our Water for a Long Time, Longer Than You Might Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

    2016-12-01

    More people arrive here every day, and we keep trying to grow enough food for them to eat. We try to grow more and more by adding things that can hurt our water and our air. We try to keep track of these things that we add, but we don't understand where it all goes. We don't understand how much is in the ground. We don't understand how much is in the water under the ground. We don't understand how long the water will be bad, even after we stop adding things to help grow more food. Many people have tried to stop adding these things, or to stop these things from getting to the water, and they get sad when they have worked hard to do better but the water stays bad. In our work, we try to help people understand how to make the water better, even when they have to grow a lot of food. We have looked at the ground all around where people grow a lot of food, and have found that some of the bad things stay behind in the ground. This means that even when we work hard to make our water good, the things left in the ground might make our water stay bad for a long time. We tried to find out how long it would take to make our water good if we are working our hardest to be better. It will take longer than you might think, maybe three times as many years as you have fingers.

  19. White matter measures are near normal in controlled HIV infection except in those with cognitive impairment and longer HIV duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysique, Lucette A; Soares, James R; Geng, Guangqiang; Scarpetta, Maia; Moffat, Kirsten; Green, Michael; Brew, Bruce J; Henry, Roland G; Rae, Caroline

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to quantify the degree of white matter (WM) abnormalities in chronic and virally suppressed HIV-infected (HIV+) persons while carefully taking into account demographic and disease factors. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted in 40 HIV- and 82 HIV+ men with comparable demographics and life style factors. The HIV+ sample was clinically stable with successful viral control. Diffusion was measured across 32 non-colinear directions with a b-value of 1000 s/mm 2 ; fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps were quantified with Itrack IDL. Using the ENIGMA DTI protocol, FA and MD values were extracted for each participant and in 11 skeleton regions of interest (SROI) from standard labels in the JHU ICBM-81 atlas covering major striato-frontal and parietal tracks. We found no major differences in FA and MD values across the 11 SROI between study groups. Within the HIV+ sample, we found that a higher CNS penetrating antiretroviral treatment, higher current CD4+ T cell count, and immune recovery from the nadir CD4+ T cell count were associated with increased FA and decreased MD (p < 0.05-0.006), while HIV duration, symptomatic, and asymptomatic cognitive impairment were associated with decreased FA and increased MD (p < 0.01-0.004). Stability of HIV treatment and antiretroviral CNS penetration efficiency in addition to current and historical immune recovery were related to higher FA and lower MD (p = 0.04-p < 0.01). In conclusion, WM DTI measures are near normal except for patients with neurocognitive impairment and longer HIV disease duration.

  20. Slower Decline in C-Reactive Protein after an Inflammatory Insult Is Associated with Longer Survival in Older Hospitalised Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barma

    Full Text Available Enhancing biological resilience may offer a novel way to prevent and ameliorate disease in older patients. We investigated whether changes in C-reactive protein (CRP, as a dynamic marker of the acute inflammatory response to diverse stressors, may provide a way to operationalize the concept of resilience in older adults. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether such changes could predict prognosis by identifying which individuals are at greater risk of 6-month mortality.Analysis of prospective, routinely collected datasets containing data on hospitalization, clinical chemistry and rehabilitation outcomes for rehabilitation inpatients between 1999 and 2011. Maximum CRP response during acute illness and CRP recovery indices (time and slope of CRP decay to half maximum, and to <50mg/L if peak values were greater than 50mg/L was derived from biochemistry data. 6-month survival plots were conducted on quartiles of CRP recovery indices. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test univariate and multivariate predictors of 6-month mortality. Covariates included age, sex, number of medications, serum calcium, haemoglobin level, renal function, and the presence of previous myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic heart failure, COPD and diabetes.3723 patients, mean age 84 years, were included. 1535 (41% were male and 733 (20% died during six-month follow-up. The lower an individual's peak CRP reading, and the longer the time taken for their CRP to fall, the better their 6-month survival. The time for CRP to reach half of its maximum value was the best dynamic CRP index of survival (HR 0.93 per week, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.98; p = 0.004; this remained significant even after adjustment for maximum CRP level and covariates listed above.CRP recovery indices are associated with survival in older people; further work is required to explain differences in physiology between patients with a fast and slow CRP recovery.

  1. Resistant Hypertension after Hypertensive Intracerebral Hemorrhage Is Associated with More Medical Interventions and Longer Hospital Stays without Affecting Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojun Hong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHypertension (HTN is the most common cause of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of resistant HTN in patients with ICH.Methods and resultsWe conducted a retrospective study of all consecutive ICH admissions at our medical center from November 2013 to October 2015. The clinical features of patients with resistant HTN (requiring four or more antihypertensive agents to keep systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg were compared with those with responsive HTN (requiring three or fewer agents. Of the 152 patients with hypertensive ICH, 48 (31.6% had resistant HTN. Resistant HTN was independently associated with higher body mass index and proteinuria. Compared to the responsive group, patients with resistant HTN had higher initial blood pressures and greater requirement for ventilator support, hematoma evacuation, hypertonic saline therapy, and nicardipine infusion. Resistant HTN increases length of stay (LOS in the intensive care unit (ICU (4.2 vs 2.1 days; p = 0.007 and in the hospital (11.5 vs 7.0 days; p = 0.003. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the rate of systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and duration of nicardipine infusion were independently associated with LOS in the ICU. There was no significant difference in hematoma expansion and functional outcome at hospital discharge between the two groups.ConclusionResistant HTN in patients with ICH is associated with more medical interventions and longer LOS without effecting outcome at hospital discharge.

  2. A Reanalysis for the Seasonal and Longer-Period Cycles and the Trends in Middle Atmosphere Temperature from the HALOE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsberg, Ellis E.

    2007-01-01

    Previously published analyses for the seasonal and longer-period cycles in middle atmosphere temperature versus pressure (or T(p)) from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) are extended to just over 14 years and updated to properly account for the effects of autocorrelation in its time series of zonally-averaged data. The updated seasonal terms and annual averages are provided, and they can be used to generate temperature distributions that are representative of the period 1991-2005. QBO-like terms have also been resolved and are provided, and they exhibit good consistency across the range of latitudes and pressure-altitudes. Further, exploratory analyses of the residuals from each of the 221 time series have yielded significant 11-yr solar cycle (or SC-like) and linear trend terms at a number of latitudes and levels. The amplitudes of the SC-like terms for the upper mesosphere agree reasonably with calculations of the direct solar radiative effects for T(p). Those SC amplitudes increase by about a factor of 2 from the lower to the upper mesosphere and are also larger at the middle than at the low latitudes. The diagnosed cooling trends for the subtropical latitudes are in the range, -0.5 to -1.0 K/decade, which is in good agreement with the findings from models of the radiative effects on pressure surfaces due to known increases in atmospheric CO2. The diagnosed trends are somewhat larger than predicted with models for the upper mesosphere of the northern hemisphere middle latitudes.

  3. Shorter Versus Longer Shift Durations to Mitigate Fatigue and Fatigue-Related Risks in Emergency Medical Services Personnel and Related Shift Workers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Background: This study comprehensively reviewed the literature on the impact of shorter versus longer shifts on critical and important outcomes for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel and related shift worker groups. Methods: Six databases (e....

  4. Tetranectin positive expression in tumour tissue leads to longer survival in Danish women with ovarian cancer. Results from the 'Malova' ovarian cancer study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeran, Mel C; Rask, Lene; Høgdall, Claus K

    2015-01-01

    of the disease. Using tissue arrays we analysed the expression levels in tissues from 166 women with borderline ovarian tumours (BOTs) and 592 women with ovarian cancer (OC). A panel of three antibodies was used for immunohistochemistry: a polyclonal and two monoclonal antibodies. Serum TN was measured using...... found to imply longer OS (p Kaplan-Meier survival analysis performed on all OC cases showed a significantly longer OS (p = 0...

  5. [Women and acute coronary syndrome with ST elevation: Excess mortality related to longer delays and spontaneous coronary dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamer, H; Motreff, P; Jessen, P; Piquet, M; Haziza, F; Chevalier, B

    2015-12-01

    The outcome of patients with ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been increasingly improving in the general population over the past few decades. However, detailed analysis of the results show that the reduction in mortality rates is higher in males compared to their female counterparts. The excess mortality rate observed in women, though sometimes questioned, has been widely reported in the literature. The higher mortality rate observed in women with ST elevation ACS can be explained by the presence of aggravating clinical factors such as older age, a higher percentage of diabetics, and a higher frequency of cardiogenic shock. Other factors pertaining to patient management seem to negatively impact the outcome. These factors include a lower use of reperfusion strategies, longer time to treatment mainly as a result of diagnostic uncertainty with respect to a disease, which is believed to affect principally the male gender. The doubts that female patients themselves and their families have about the nature of their symptoms are also present in the medical environment but cease to exist in the catheterization laboratory. This is illustrated in the first clinical case that we present here. Coronary reperfusion is the cornerstone of the therapeutic management of MI. In this context, bleeding complications associated with the implemented treatments can also result in an increased mortality rate in this more vulnerable population. When all the factors likely to influence the prognosis are taken into account, excess mortality seems to persist in women, especially in younger patients. As described in the second clinical case, a distinct physio-pathological factor, more frequent in women, could account for this higher mortality rate. Indeed, spontaneous coronary dissection and intramural hematoma are not always easy to diagnose and may not be adequately managed by reperfusion treatments. In addition, these coronary reperfusion strategies are probably not adapted

  6. Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzatto Bruno A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively

  7. Evaluation of alternatives to cautery disbudding of dairy goat kids using physiological measures of immediate and longer-term pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempstead, Melissa N; Waas, Joseph R; Stewart, Mairi; Cave, Vanessa M; Sutherland, Mhairi A

    2018-06-01

    We evaluated alternatives to cautery disbudding of goat kids using physiological measures of immediate and longer-term pain. Fifty Saanen doe kids were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments (n = 10/treatment): (1) cautery disbudding (CAUT), (2) caustic paste disbudding (CASP), (3) liquid nitrogen disbudding (CRYO), (4) clove oil injected into the horn bud (CLOV), or (5) sham disbudding (SHAM). Serum cortisol and haptoglobin concentrations were measured from blood samples collected immediately before treatment (baseline) and at 15, 30, 60, and 120 min and then again at 6 and 24 h post-treatment. An infrared thermography camera was used to take images of the horn buds 24 h pre- and 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment to measure skin temperature. Body weight was measured daily for 1 wk to assess weight change post-treatment. Images of the horn buds were taken at d 1, 2, and 7 and at 6 wk post-treatment to assess tissue damage and wound healing. Mean cortisol concentrations were elevated in CASP kids 1 h post-treatment relative to CAUT kids. Cortisol concentrations of CRYO kids were higher than those of CAUT kids 30 min post-treatment; concentrations for CLOV kids were similar to CAUT kids post-treatment. Mean haptoglobin concentrations were similar across treatments over time; however, CLOV kids had higher concentrations at 24 h post-treatment than all other treatments. Skin temperatures of CASP and CLOV kids were elevated relative to CAUT kids at all time points post-treatment, and all disbudded kids had skin temperatures above those of SHAM kids at 72 h post-treatment. Treatment did not influence weight gain. The CAUT kids had large, open wounds exposing bone; small scabs were still evident 6 wk post-treatment. The CASP kids had red and open, raw wounds that generated large eschars, apparent for up to 6 wk. The CRYO kids had closed, dry wounds initially, but over time lesions appeared that caused open wounds; small scabs were present 6 wk post-treatment. The CLOV kids

  8. Short- and longer-term health-care resource utilization and costs associated with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson BH

    2016-02-01

    .Conclusion: In addition to the substantial costs of the initial hospitalization of an AIS, these costs double within the year following this event. Given the high cost associated with AIS, new interventions reducing either the acute or longer-term burden of AIS are needed. Keywords: acute ischemic stroke, health-care resource utilization, health-care costs, readmissions

  9. The STOP-AB trial protocol: efficacy and safety of discontinuing patient antibiotic treatment when physicians no longer consider it necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llor, Carl; Moragas, Ana; Bayona, Carolina; Cots, Josep M; Molero, José M; Ribas, Joana; Fóthy, Julio Francisco; Gutiérrez, Isabel; Sánchez, Coro; Ortega, Jesús; Arranz, Javier; Botanes, Jenifer; Robles, Purificación

    2017-06-06

    Since 2011, the Spanish Society of Family Medicine has recommended general practitioners (GPs) to ask their patients to stop taking antibiotics when they suspect a viral infection. However, this practice is seldom used because uncertainty about diagnosis, and fear of consequences of discontinuing antibiotic therapy, as well as perceived pressure to continue prescribing antibiotics and potential conflict with patients are more of a concern for GPs than antibiotic resistance. The main objective of this study is to determine whether discontinuation of antibiotic therapy when a GP no longer considers it necessary has any impact on the number of days with severe symptoms. This is a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled clinical trial. The study was conducted in 10 primary care centres in Spain. We included patients from 18 to 75 years of age with uncomplicated acute respiratory tract infections-acute rhinosinusitis, acute sore throat, influenza or acute bronchitis-who had previously taken any dose of antibiotic for antibiotic treatment or to discontinuing antibiotic therapy. A sample size of 240 patients per group was calculated on the basis of a reduction of 1 day in the duration of severe symptoms being a clinically relevant outcome. The primary outcome was the duration of severe symptoms, that is, symptoms scored 5 or 6 by means of validated symptom diaries. Secondary outcomes included antibiotics taken, adverse events, patient satisfaction and complications within the first 3 months. The study was approved by the Ethical Board of Fundació Jordi Gol i Gurina (reference number: 16/093). The findings of this trial will bedisseminated through research conferences and peer-reviewed journals. NCT02900820; pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Perforation of the IVC: Rule Rather Than Exception After Longer Indwelling Times for the Günther Tulip and Celect Retrievable Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durack, Jeremy C.; Westphalen, Antonio C.; Kekulawela, Stephanie; Bhanu, Shiv B.; Avrin, David E.; Gordon, Roy L.; Kerlan, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the incidence, magnitude, and impact upon retrievability of vena caval perforation by Günther Tulip and Celect conical inferior vena cava (IVC) filters on computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Methods: Günther Tulip and Celect IVC filters placed between July 2007 and May 2009 were identified from medical records. Of 272 IVC filters placed, 50 (23 Günther Tulip, 46%; 27 Celect, 54%) were retrospectively assessed on follow-up abdominal CT scans performed for reasons unrelated to the filter. Computed tomography scans were examined for evidence of filter perforation through the vena caval wall, tilt, or pericaval tissue injury. Procedure records were reviewed to determine whether IVC filter retrieval was attempted and successful. Results: Perforation of at least one filter component through the IVC was observed in 43 of 50 (86%) filters on CT scans obtained between 1 and 880 days after filter placement. All filters imaged after 71 days showed some degree of vena caval perforation, often as a progressive process. Filter tilt was seen in 20 of 50 (40%) filters, and all tilted filters also demonstrated vena caval perforation. Transjugular removal was attempted in 12 of 50 (24%) filters and was successful in 11 of 12 (92%). Conclusions: Longer indwelling times usually result in vena caval perforation by retrievable Günther Tulip and Celect IVC filters. Although infrequently reported in the literature, clinical sequelae from IVC filter components breaching the vena cava can be significant. We advocate filter retrieval as early as clinically indicated and increased attention to the appearance of IVC filters on all follow-up imaging studies.

  11. Perforation of the IVC: rule rather than exception after longer indwelling times for the Günther Tulip and Celect retrievable filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durack, Jeremy C; Westphalen, Antonio C; Kekulawela, Stephanie; Bhanu, Shiv B; Avrin, David E; Gordon, Roy L; Kerlan, Robert K

    2012-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the incidence, magnitude, and impact upon retrievability of vena caval perforation by Günther Tulip and Celect conical inferior vena cava (IVC) filters on computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Günther Tulip and Celect IVC filters placed between July 2007 and May 2009 were identified from medical records. Of 272 IVC filters placed, 50 (23 Günther Tulip, 46%; 27 Celect, 54%) were retrospectively assessed on follow-up abdominal CT scans performed for reasons unrelated to the filter. Computed tomography scans were examined for evidence of filter perforation through the vena caval wall, tilt, or pericaval tissue injury. Procedure records were reviewed to determine whether IVC filter retrieval was attempted and successful. Perforation of at least one filter component through the IVC was observed in 43 of 50 (86%) filters on CT scans obtained between 1 and 880 days after filter placement. All filters imaged after 71 days showed some degree of vena caval perforation, often as a progressive process. Filter tilt was seen in 20 of 50 (40%) filters, and all tilted filters also demonstrated vena caval perforation. Transjugular removal was attempted in 12 of 50 (24%) filters and was successful in 11 of 12 (92%). Longer indwelling times usually result in vena caval perforation by retrievable Günther Tulip and Celect IVC filters. Although infrequently reported in the literature, clinical sequelae from IVC filter components breaching the vena cava can be significant. We advocate filter retrieval as early as clinically indicated and increased attention to the appearance of IVC filters on all follow-up imaging studies.

  12. Higher dose rate Gamma Knife radiosurgery may provide earlier and longer-lasting pain relief for patients with trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Y K; Sandhu, Sukhmeet; Miller, Denise; Solberg, Timothy; Dorsey, Jay F; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    in pain interference with activities of daily living. In longer-term follow-up (mean 1.9 years), GKRS with higher dose rates (> 2.0 Gy/min; p = 0.007) and older age in deciles (p = 0.012) were associated with a lower likelihood of recurrence of pain. Prior studies investigating the role of dose rate in Gamma Knife radiosurgical ablation for TN have not used validated outcome tools to measure pain preoperatively. Consequently, differences in pain outcomes have been difficult to measure. By administering pain scales both preoperatively as well as postoperatively, the authors have identified statistically significant differences in pain intensity and pain interference with activities of daily living when comparing higher versus lower dose rates. Radiosurgery with a higher dose rate results in more pain relief at the early follow-up evaluation, and it may result in a lower recurrence rate at later follow-up.

  13. A New Pre-employment Functional Capacity Evaluation Predicts Longer-Term Risk of Musculoskeletal Injury in Healthy Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Legge, Jennifer; Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Peeters, Geeske

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. To determine if a job-specific pre-employment functional assessment (PEFA) predicts musculoskeletal injury risk in healthy mineworkers. Summary of Background Data. Traditional methods of pre-employment screening, including radiography and medical screenings, are not valid predictors of occupational musculoskeletal injury risk. Short-form job-specific functional capacity evaluations are increasing in popularity, despite limited evidence of the...

  14. Enabling rootless Linux containers in multi-user environments. The udocker tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Jorge; David, Mario; Alves, Luis; Martins, Jo ao; Pina, Jo ao [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas (LIP), Lisboa (Portugal); Bagnaschi, Emanuele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Campos, Isabel; Lopez-Garcia, Alvaro; Orviz, Pablo [IFCA, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas-CSIC, Santander (Spain)

    2017-11-15

    Containers are increasingly used as means to distribute and run Linux services and applications. In this paper we describe the architectural design and implementation of udocker a tool to execute Linux containers in user mode and we describe a few practical applications for a range of scientific codes meeting different requirements: from single core execution to MPI parallel execution and execution on GPGPUs.

  15. 40 CFR 1612.3 - Published reports and material contained in the public incident investigation dockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Published reports and material... Published reports and material contained in the public incident investigation dockets. (a) Demands for published investigation reports should be directed to the Office of Congressional and Public Affairs, U.S...

  16. Methods for increasing the biogas potential from the recalcitrant organic matter contained in manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Angelidaki, Irini

    1998-01-01

    The biogas potential of manure could be significantly increased by treatment of the recalcitrant organic matter (biofibers) contained in the manure. Several treatment methods were tested. Mechanical maceration resulted in an average increase of the biogas potential of approx. 17% as shown...

  17. Enabling rootless Linux containers in multi-user environments. The udocker tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Jorge; David, Mario; Alves, Luis; Martins, Jo ao; Pina, Jo ao; Bagnaschi, Emanuele; Campos, Isabel; Lopez-Garcia, Alvaro; Orviz, Pablo

    2017-11-01

    Containers are increasingly used as means to distribute and run Linux services and applications. In this paper we describe the architectural design and implementation of udocker a tool to execute Linux containers in user mode and we describe a few practical applications for a range of scientific codes meeting different requirements: from single core execution to MPI parallel execution and execution on GPGPUs.

  18. 25 CFR 20.404 - What information is contained in a social services assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information is contained in a social services assessment? 20.404 Section 20.404 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.404 What...

  19. 45 CFR 91.18 - Age distinctions contained in HHS regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....18 Section 91.18 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... distinctions contained in a rule or regulation issued by HHS shall be presumed to be necessary to the achievement of a statutory objective of the program or activity to which the rule or regulation applies...

  20. 42 CFR 137.353 - What is contained in a construction project financial report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... financial report? 137.353 Section 137.353 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 137.353 What is contained in a construction project financial report? Construction project financial reports contain information regarding the amount of funds expended during the reporting period, and...

  1. 2015 Annual Report on Security Clearance Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    only have delegated investigative authority over their civilian employee population and therefore, can only report the overall timeliness for that...completed or pending security clearance determinations for government employees and contractors during the preceding fiscal year that have taken longer...Clearance Determinations to Congress. The IAA directs this report to include the number of United States Government (USG) employees who held a

  2. Economic Rationality in Choosing between Short-Term Bad-Health Choices and Longer-Term Good-Health Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Campbell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-contagious, chronic disease has been identified as a global health risk. Poor lifestyle choices, such as smoking, alcohol, drug and solvent abuse, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet have been identified as important factors affecting the increasing incidence of chronic disease. The following focuses on the circumstance affecting the lifestyle or behavioral choices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in remote-/very remote Australia. Poor behavioral choices are the result of endogenous characteristics that are influenced by a range of stressful exogenous variables making up the psychosocial determinants including social disenfranchisement, cultural loss, insurmountable tasks, the loss of volitional control and resource constraints. It is shown that poor behavioral choices can be economically rational; especially under highly stressful conditions. Stressful circumstances erode individual capacity to commit to long-term positive health alternatives such as self-investment in education. Policies directed at removing the impediments and providing incentives to behaviors involving better health choices can lead to reductions in smoking and alcohol consumption and improved health outcomes. Multijurisdictional culturally acceptable policies directed at distal variables relating to the psychosocial determinants of health and personal mastery and control can be cost effective. While the content of this paper is focused on the conditions of colonized peoples, it has broader relevance.

  3. Women who prefer longer penises are more likely to have vaginal orgasms (but not clitoral orgasms): implications for an evolutionary theory of vaginal orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Miller, Geoffrey F; Brody, Stuart

    2012-12-01

    Research indicates that (i) women's orgasm during penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is influenced by fitness-related male partner characteristics, (ii) penis size is important for many women, and (iii) preference for a longer penis is associated with greater vaginal orgasm consistency (triggered by PVI without concurrent clitoral masturbation). To test the hypothesis that vaginal orgasm frequency is associated with women's reporting that a longer than average penis is more likely to provoke their PVI orgasm. Three hundred twenty-three women reported in an online survey their past month frequency of various sexual behaviors (including PVI, vaginal orgasm, and clitoral orgasm), the effects of a longer than average penis on likelihood of orgasm from PVI, and the importance they attributed to PVI and to noncoital sex. Univariate analyses of covariance with dependent variables being frequencies of various sexual behaviors and types of orgasm and with independent variable being women reporting vs. not reporting that a longer than average penis is important for their orgasm from PVI. Likelihood of orgasm with a longer penis was related to greater vaginal orgasm frequency but unrelated to frequencies of other sexual behaviors, including clitoral orgasm. In binary logistic regression, likelihood of orgasm with a longer penis was related to greater importance attributed to PVI and lesser importance attributed to noncoital sex. Women who prefer deeper penile-vaginal stimulation are more likely to have vaginal orgasm, consistent with vaginal orgasm evolving as part of a female mate choice system favoring somewhat larger than average penises. Future research could extend the findings by overcoming limitations related to more precise measurement of penis length (to the pubis and pressed close to the pubic bone) and girth, and large representative samples. Future experimental research might assess to what extent different penis sizes influence women's satisfaction and likelihood

  4. Why do gatherers no longer gather? Stigmatizing processes of consumption of wild edible plants among Chorote Indians from Argentine Chaco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fabián Scarpa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes cultural change related to the consumption of wild edible plants among Chorote Indians from Argentine Chaco, especially the process of construction of prejudices regarding such practices, expressed in the form of symbols of social or religious discredit which has led to their concomitant stigmatization and contempt. The influence of hegemonic agents in the conceptualization of wild edible plants and their utilization practices is here identified and analyzed from observational, exegetical and interpretative points of view. The article specifically discusses if the abandonment of wild edible plant consumption is due to reasons  linked to environmental determinism, to the mere acquisition of new cultural practices, or to socio-religious stigmatization of old food rules among Chorote Indians from Argentine Chaco.

  5. Gradient formula for the O(5) is contained inO(3) chain of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanos, O.; Frank, A.; Moshinsky, M.

    1978-01-01

    It is well known how to expand in spherical harmonics the gradient of a radial function in turn multiplied by a spherical harmonic. This expansion involves the use of the Wigner--Eckart theorem for the familiar O(3) is contained inO(2) chain of groups, and leads to Wigner coefficients in the formula together with reduced matrix elements which are simple first order differential operators in the radial variable. In the present paper we extend the above analysis to the application of the momentum operator π/sub m/ to functions of the collective coordinates α/sub m/, m=2,1,0,-1,-2 associated with quadrupole vibrations. The spherical harmonics are now replaced by the complete but nonorthonormal set of functions chi/sup lambda//sub s/LM, characterized by the irreducible representations lambda,L,M of the O(5) is contained inO(3) is contained inO(2) chain of groups as well as by an extra labelling index s, that were derived in a previous publication. The application of the gradient to a product of a function F (β), β 2 =Σ/sub m/α/sub m/α/sup m/, by chi/sup lambda//sub s/LM requires an extension of the Wigner--Eckart theorem for the nonorthonormal basis. Results similar to the ones mentioned in the previous paragraph are obtained, though, of course, now we will have Wigner coefficients in the O(5) is contained in (3) is contained inO(2) chain which have already been derived and programmed. With the help of the gradient formula we discuss the effect of the operators [π x π]/sup L//sub m/, L=0,2,4, [α x π]/sup L//sub m/, L=1,3 on basis of the O(5) is contained inO(3) chain of groups and indicate some of their applications

  6. The influence of socio-economic characteristics, land use and travel time considerations on mode choice for medium- and longer-distance trips

    OpenAIRE

    Limtanakool, N.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper contributes to the limited number of investigations into the influence of the spatial configuration of land use and transport systems on mode choice for medium- and longer-distance travel (defined here as home-based trips of 50 km and over) in the Netherlands. We have employed data from the 1998 Netherlands National Travel Survey to address the question as to how socioeconomic factors, land use attributes, and travel time affect mode choice for medium- and longer-distance travel, a...

  7. Reasons for and factors associated with issuing sickness certificates for longer periods than necessary: results from a nationwide survey of physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Physicians’ work with sickness certifications is an understudied field. Physicians’ experience of sickness certifying for longer periods than necessary has been previous reported. However, the extent and frequency of such sickness certification is largely unknown. The aims of this study were: a) to explore the frequency of sickness certifying for longer periods than necessary among physicians working in different clinical settings; b) to examine main reasons for issuing sickness certificates for longer periods than necessary; and c) to examine factors associated with unnecessary issued sickness certificates. Methods In 2008, all physicians living and working in Sweden (a total of 36,898) were sent an invitation to participate in a questionnaire study concerning their sick-listing practices. A total of 22,349 (60.6%) returned the questionnaire. In the current study, physicians reporting handling sickness certification consultations at least weekly were included in the analyses, a total of 12,348. Results The proportion of physicians reporting issuing sickness certificates for longer periods than actually necessary varied greatly between different types of clinics, with the highest frequency among those working at: occupational medicine, orthopedic, primary health care, and psychiatry clinics; and lowest among those working in: eye, dermatology, ear/nose/throat, oncology, surgery, and infection clinics. Logistic analyses showed that sickness certifying for longer periods than necessary due to limitations in the health care system was particularly common among physicians working at occupational medicine, orthopedic, and primary health care clinics. Sickness certifying for longer periods than necessary due to patient-related factors was much more common among physicians working at psychiatric clinics. In addition to differences between clinics, frequency of sickness certificates issued for longer periods than necessary varied by age, physicians

  8. Decision Support for Optimal Repositioning of Containers in a Feeder System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Tuljak-Suban

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The transport of empty containers represents a seriousproblem in the fast growing sphere of maritime container transport.The most widespread type of container transport organizationin maritime transport is the hub and spoke mode, whichenables the transport of a great number of containers via largevessels between hub ports, from where feeder ships transport tosmaller ports that thus gravitate to the central hub port. The articlecontains a detailed analysis of the northern Adriatic portsand the feeder connections with the hub ports of the Mediterranean.A two-level VRPPD (Vehicle Routing Problem withPickup and Delivery problem is modelled on a graph, wherethe transport of full containers is privileged over the transport ofempty containers. This enables the simulation of the feeder systemin the n01them Adriatic, meaning that it shows the ship'soperator the movement programme with minimal transportcosts for the superfluous empty containers in the complex of theregular transports of full containers in the feeder system.

  9. Assessment of Loads and Performance of a Containment in a Hypothetical Accident (ALPHA). Facility design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Norihiro; Maruyama, Yu; Kudo, Tamotsu; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Ito, Hideo; Komori, Keiichi; Sonobe, Hisao; Sugimoto, Jun

    1998-06-01

    In the ALPHA (Assessment of Loads and Performance of Containment in Hypothetical Accident) program, several tests have been performed to quantitatively evaluate loads to and performance of a containment vessel during a severe accident of a light water reactor. The ALPHA program focuses on investigating leak behavior through the containment vessel, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core-concrete interaction and FP aerosol behavior, which are generally recognized as significant phenomena considered to occur in the containment. In designing the experimental facility, it was considered to simulate appropriately the phenomena mentioned above, and to cover experimental conditions not covered by previous works involving high pressure and temperature. Experiments from the viewpoint of accident management were also included in the scope. The present report describes design specifications, dimensions, instrumentation of the ALPHA facility based on the specific test objectives and procedures. (author)

  10. "It Takes Longer, but When It Hits You It Hits You!": Videos About Marijuana Edibles on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Stelzer-Monahan, Haley E; Bierut, Tatiana; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A

    2017-05-12

    Interest in marijuana edibles has increased as perceptions of harm from marijuana have decreased. Media and peer influences impact youth substance use, and YouTube is the most popular video-sharing website. No studies have examined the content and accessibility of YouTube videos related to marijuana edibles. To describe the messages conveyed to viewers in YouTube videos about edibles and determine their accessibility to youth. On June 12, 2015, we searched YouTube for videos about marijuana/cannabis/weed edibles. A total of 51 videos were coded for presence of an age restriction, purpose(s) of the videos, consumption of edibles during the video, effects, and safety concerns. Total views across all 51 videos were >9 million. Only 14% (7/51) were restricted to viewers over the age of 18 years. Over half (27/51, 53%) were informative videos, most (20/27, 74%) teaching how to make edibles, and 37% (19/51) were entertaining videos. Someone consumed an edible in 31% (16/51) of the videos, and the type of high was mentioned in 51% (26/51) of the videos, including delayed (18/26, 69%) or intense high (13/26, 50%). Fifty-five percent (28/51) mentioned delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol potency or dosage. Only 10 of these (36%) presented this information specifically as a warning to prevent adverse effects. Conclusions/Importance: Edibles-related videos are easily found on YouTube, often instructing how to bake your own edibles and lacking information needed for safe consumption, and most are not age-restricted. Videos showing how to make edibles or presenting edibles use in an entertaining way that could influence youth to initiate use.

  11. 42 CFR 137.78 - May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one year? 137.78 Section 137.78 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding General § 137.78 May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding...

  12. Longer-term bosentan therapy improves functional capacity in Eisenmenger syndrome : Results of the BREATHE-5 open-label extension study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatzoulis, Michael A.; Beghetti, Maurice; Galie, Nazzareno; Granton, John; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Lauer, Andrea; Chiossi, Eleonora; Landzberg, Michael

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bosentan, an oral endothelin ET(A)/ET(B) receptor antagonist, improves hemodynamics and exercise capacity in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome but longer-term effects are unknown. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of bosentan up to 40 weeks in these patients. METHODS:

  13. Cost-effectiveness of longer-term versus shorter-term provision of antibiotics in patients with persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berende, A.; Nieuwenhuis, L.; Hofstede, H.J.M. ter; Vos, F.J.; Vogelaar, M.L.; Tromp, M.A.; Middendorp, H. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Evers, A.W.M.; Kullberg, B.J.; Adang, E.M.M.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme disease remains controversial. Recently, the PLEASE study did not demonstrate any additional clinical benefit of longer-term versus shorter-term antibiotic treatment. However, the economic impact of the antibiotic strategies has not

  14. Measurement of dabigatran: previously demonstrated Hemoclot® Thrombin Inhibitor assay reagent instability on Sysmex CS-2100i is no longer an issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comuth, Willemijn; Faaborg, Louise; Henriksen, Linda Østervig

    2017-01-01

    hours. Since the reagent composition was unchanged, the increased stability could be due to changed logistics by the supplier, with stock and transfer closer by. Previously demonstrated HTI reagent instability is no longer an issue at our laboratory. The reliability of results of clinical studies...

  15. A systematic review of the international published literature relating to quality of institutional care for people with longer term mental health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, T.L.; Killaspy, H.; Wright, C.; Turton, P.; White, S.; Kallert, T.W.; Schuster, M.; Cervilla, J.A.; Brangier, P.; Raboch, J.; Kalisova, L.; Onchev, G.; Dimitrov, H.; Mezzina, R.; Wolf, Kinou; Wiersma, D.; Visser, E.; Kiejna, A.; Piotrowski, P.; Ploumpidis, D.; Gonidakis, F.; Caldas-de-Almeida, J.; Cardoso, G.; King, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A proportion of people with mental health problems require longer term care in a psychiatric or social care institution. However, there are no internationally agreed quality standards for institutional care and no method to assess common care standards across countries. We aimed to

  16. The influence of socio-economic characteristics, land use and travel time considerations on mode choice for medium- and longer-distance trips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limtanakool, N.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper contributes to the limited number of investigations into the influence of the spatial configuration of land use and transport systems on mode choice for medium- and longer-distance travel (defined here as home-based trips of 50 km and over) in the Netherlands. We have employed data from

  17. Massed versus Spaced Practice in Vocology: Effect of a Short-Term Intensive Voice Training versus a Longer-Term Traditional Voice Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschman, Iris; Van Lierde, Kristiane; Van Puyvelde, Caro; Bostyn, Astrid; Claeys, Sofie; D'haeseleer, Evelien

    2018-01-01

    Background: In contrast with most medical and pharmaceutical therapies, the optimal dosage for voice therapy or training is unknown. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a short-term intensive voice training (IVT) with a longer-term traditional voice training (TVT) on the vocal quality and vocal capacities of vocally healthy…

  18. Quality of Longer Term Mental Health Facilities in Europe : Validation of the Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care against Service Users' Views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Killaspy, Helen; White, Sarah; Wright, Christine; Taylor, Tatiana L.; Turton, Penny; Kallert, Thomas; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A.; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kalisova, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Alexiev, Spiridon; Mezzina, Roberto; Ridente, Pina; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Patryk; Ploumpidis, Dimitris; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Cardoso, Graca; King, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care (QuIRC) is a staff rated, international toolkit that assesses care in longer term hospital and community based mental health facilities. The QuIRC was developed from review of the international literature, an international Delphi exercise

  19. Investigating the Female Subaltern, Colonial Discourse and False Consciousness: A Spivakian Marxist-Postcolonialist Reading of Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart" and "No Longer at Ease"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafaee, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    The present research study attempts to investigate Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart" and "No Longer at Ease" in terms of Gayatri Spivak Marxist-Post colonialist conceptions of subaltern, colonial discourse and false consciousness. In Postmodernist fiction, there is anxiety that historical concerns such as the scale of…

  20. C14–22 n-Alkanes in Soil from the Freetown Layered Intrusion, Sierra Leone: Products of Pt Catalytic Breakdown of Natural Longer Chain n-Alkanes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. W. Bowles

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil above a platinum-group element (PGE-bearing horizon within the Freetown Layered Intrusion, Sierra Leone, contains anomalous concentrations of n-alkanes (CnH2n+2 in the range C14 to C22 not readily attributable to an algal or lacustrine origin. Longer chain n-alkanes (C23 to C31 in the soil were derived from the breakdown of leaf litter beneath the closed canopy humid tropical forest. Spontaneous breakdown of the longer chain n-alkanes to form C14–22 n-alkanes without biogenic or abiogenic catalysts is unlikely as the n-alkanes are stable. In the Freetown soil, the catalytic properties of the PGE (Pt in particular may lower the temperature at which oxidation of the longer chain n-alkanes can occur. Reaction between these n-alkanes and Pt species, such as Pt2+(H2O2(OH2 and Pt4+(H2O2(OH4 can bend and twist the alkanes, and significantly lower the Heat of Formation. Microbial catalysis is a possibility. Since a direct organic geochemical source of the lighter n-alkanes has not yet been identified, this paper explores the theoretical potential for abiogenic Pt species catalysis as a mechanism of breakdown of the longer n-alkanes to form C14–22 alkanes. This novel mechanism could offer additional evidence for the presence of the PGE in solution, as predicted by soil geochemistry.

  1. Who stays, who drops out? Biosocial predictors of longer-term adherence in participants attending an exercise referral scheme in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobi Patrick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise referral schemes are one of the most popular forms of physical activity intervention in primary care in the UK and present an opportunity to better understand the factors related to exercise adherence. But standard schemes tend to be delivered over a short period and so provide information about the factors associated with short-term adherence. This retrospective register-based study of a longer-duration scheme allowed investigation of longer-term adherence. Methods Social, physiological and anthropometric data were extracted from records of a cohort of ERS participants who had enrolled between 01 January and 31 December 2007 (n = 701. Characteristics of adherers and non-adherers were compared and potential predictors of longer-term adherence examined using binomial logistic regression. Results Significant adjusted odds ratios predicting longer-term adherence were found for age and medical condition. For every 10 year increase in age, the odds of people continuing exercise increased by 21.8% (OR = 1.02; CI = 1.00 to 1.04; p = 0.03. Participants referred with orthopaedic (OR = 0.25; CI = 0.07-0.94; p = 0.04, cardiovascular (OR = 0.18; CI = 0.05-0.70; p = 0.01 and other (OR = 0.20; CI = 0.04-0.93; p = 0.04 problems had significantly lower odds of adhering than those with metabolic conditions. Conclusion Improved understanding of the factors that influence adherence to exercise referral schemes will enable providers develop better referral guidance and tailor schemes to better meet participants’ needs. Longer-term schemes offer the opportunity to understand participants’ likelihood of maintaining adherence to exercise.

  2. Inadequacy of 3-month Oswestry Disability Index outcome for assessing individual longer-term patient experience after lumbar spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Anthony L; Chotai, Silky; Devin, Clinton J; Speroff, Theodore; Harrell, Frank E; Nian, Hui; Dittus, Robert S; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Knightly, John J; Glassman, Steven D; Bydon, Mohamad; Archer, Kristin R; Foley, Kevin T; McGirt, Matthew J

    2016-08-01

    MCID at 3 and 12 months. The discordance rates of achieving or not achieving MCID for ODI were in the range of 19% to 27% for all diagnoses and treatments (decompression with and without fusion). The positive and negative predictive value of 3-months ODI to predict 12-month ODI was 86% and 60% for MCID and 82% and 67% for SCB. CONCLUSIONS Based on their findings, the authors conclude the following: 1) Predictive methods for functional outcome based on early patient experience (i.e., baseline and/or 3-month data) should be used to help evaluate the effectiveness of procedures in patient populations, rather than serving as a proxy for long-term individual patient experience. 2) Prospective longitudinal registries need to span at least 12 months to determine the effectiveness of spine care at the individual patient and practitioner level.

  3. Determinants of social inequalities in child mortality in Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Kamau

    Determinants of social inequalities in child mortality in Mozambique: What do we know? What could ... Health inequalities are no longer an issue only for developed countries. In recent years there is ... This review of evidence suggests that if ...

  4. Is Longer Unemployment Rewarded with Longer Job Tenure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohara, Miki; Sasaki, Masaru; Machikita, Tomohiro

    security offices: one includes information about the circumstances of job seekers receiving unemployment insurance, and the other includes information about job seekers applying for jobs. We first show a negative relationship between unemployment duration and the subsequent job duration. Restricting...... the sample to job seekers who changed search behaviors in the final 59 days before expiration of unemployment insurance, we secondly show an even greater negative effect of unemployment duration on the following job duration. The importance lies not only in the duration of unemployment. If job seekers keep...

  5. Effect of pipe rupture loads inside containment in the break exclusionary piping outside containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, G.

    1987-01-01

    The plant design for protection against piping failures outside containment should make sure that fluid system piping in containment penetration areas are designed to meet the break exclusionary provisions contained in the BTP MEB 3-1. According to these provisions, following a piping failure (main steam line) inside containment, the part of the flued head connected to the piping outside containment, should not exceed the ASME Code stress limits for the appropriate load combinations. A finite element analysis has been performed to evaluate the stress level in this area. (orig./HP)

  6. Role of BWR MK I secondary containments in severe accident mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    The recent advent of detailed containment analysis codes such as CONTAIN and MELCOR has facilitated the development of the first large-scale, architectural-based BWR secondary containment models. During the past year ORNL has developed detailed, plant-specific models of the Browns Ferry and Peach Bottom secondary containments, and applied these models in a variety of studies designed to evaluate the role and effectiveness of BWR secondary containments in severe accident mitigation. The topology and basis for these models is discussed, together with some of the emerging insights from these studies

  7. Policies for Positioning Empty Containers in an Inland Multi-depot System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Yun, Won-Young

    2011-01-01

    -container management are as follows: a coordinated (s, S) inventory policy for overseas positioning, (ri, Ri) policy at each depot for inland positioning; and a simple leasing policy with zero lead-time. For inland positioning policy, four different methods are proposed to reposition empty containers between depots....... Customer demands and returning containers in depots and lead-time for positioning from overseas are considered as uncertain factors. The objective is to obtain the optimal policy in order to minimize the expected total cost including inventory holding, overseas positioning, inland positioning and leasing...

  8. MUSIC ALGORITHM FOR LOCATING POINT-LIKE SCATTERERS CONTAINED IN A SAMPLE ON FLAT SUBSTRATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Heping; Ma Fuming; Zhang Deyue

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we consider a MUSIC algorithm for locating point-like scatterers contained in a sample on flat substrate.Based on an asymptotic expansion of the scattering amplitude proposed by Ammari et al.,the reconstruction problem can be reduced to a calculation of Green function corresponding to the background medium.In addition,we use an explicit formulation of Green function in the MUSIC algorithm to simplify the calculation when the cross-section of sample is a half-disc.Numerical experiments are included to demonstrate the feasibility of this method.

  9. Longer-term needs of stroke survivors with communication difficulties living in the community: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective To review and synthesise qualitative literature relating to the longer-term needs of community dwelling stroke survivors with communication difficulties including aphasia, dysarthria and apraxia of speech. Design Systematic review and thematic synthesis. Method We included studies employing qualitative methodology which focused on the perceived or expressed needs, views or experiences of stroke survivors with communication difficulties in relation to the day-to-day management of their condition following hospital discharge. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences and AMED and undertook grey literature searches. Studies were assessed for methodological quality by two researchers independently and the findings were combined using thematic synthesis. Results Thirty-two studies were included in the thematic synthesis. The synthesis reveals the ongoing difficulties stroke survivors can experience in coming to terms with the loss of communication and in adapting to life with a communication difficulty. While some were able to adjust, others struggled to maintain their social networks and to participate in activities which were meaningful to them. The challenges experienced by stroke survivors with communication difficulties persisted for many years poststroke. Four themes relating to longer-term need were developed: managing communication outside of the home, creating a meaningful role, creating or maintaining a support network and taking control and actively moving forward with life. Conclusions Understanding the experiences of stroke survivors with communication difficulties is vital for ensuring that longer-term care is designed according to their needs. Wider psychosocial factors must be considered in the rehabilitation of people with poststroke communication difficulties. Self-management interventions may be appropriate to help this subgroup of stroke survivors manage their

  10. New conceptual copper alloy bearing for diesel engine to achieve longer life under higher load; Diesel engine yo komen`atsu chojumyo jikuuke no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomikawa, T; Oshiro, H; Hashizume, K; Kamiya, S [Taiho Kogyo Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recently, the requirement like higher output, lower fuel consumption and cleaner exhaust gas for automotive engines has been increased. As a result, especially, higher bearing performance is required for diesel engine under a higher unit load and longer period. For this reason, we have developed the new conceptual copper alloy bearing to achieve higher performance under a higher unit load. This paper describes about the performance of this new bearing material. 3 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Expected returns from a tax on nuclear fuel elements in the context of longer service lives of German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondziella, Hendrik; Bruckner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To what extent will the fuel element tax introduced by the German government in combination with the longer service life of nuclear power stations reduce the profits of public utilities? A qualitative assessment suggests that the tax will not equal the full profits. Using an electricity market model, various scenarios can be calculated for an eight-year prolongation of the residual service life of existing nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  12. The hydrogen-storing microporous silica 'Microcluster' reduces acetaldehyde contained in a distilled spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shinya; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2016-12-01

    Acetaldehyde is a detrimental substance produced in alcoholic liquor aging. We assessed an ability of hydrogen-storing microporous silica 'Microcluster' (MC+) to reduce acetaldehyde, as compared with autoclave-dehydrogenated MC+ (MC-). Acetaldehyde was quantified spectrophotometrically by an enzymatic method. Authentic acetaldehyde was treated by MC+ for 20min, and decreased from 43.4ppm to 10.9ppm, but maintained at 49.3ppm by MC-. On the other hand, acetaldehyde contained in a distilled spirit was decreased from 29.5ppm to 3.1ppm at 20min by MC+, but not decreased by MC-. Addition of MC+ or MC- to distilled water without acetaldehyde showed no seeming effect on the quantification used. Accordingly acetaldehyde in a distilled spirit is reduced to ethanol by hydrogen contained in MC+, but not by the silica moiety of MC+. Hydrogen gas of 1.2mL was released for 20min from MC+ of 0.59g in water, resulting in dissolved hydrogen of 1.09ppm and an oxidation- reduction potential of -687.0mV indicative of a marked reducing ability. Thus, MC+ has an ability to reduce acetaldehyde in a distilled spirit due to dissolved hydrogen released from MC+. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analyzer for measuring gas contained in the pore space of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudasik, Mateusz; Skoczylas, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    In the present paper, the authors discussed the functioning of their own analyzer for measuring gas contained in the pore space of high strength rocks. A sample is placed inside a hermetic measuring chamber, and then undergoes impact milling as a result of colliding with the vibrating blade of a knife which is rotationally driven by a high-speed brushless electric motor. The measuring chamber is equipped with all the necessary sensors, i.e. gas, pressure, and temperature sensors. Trial tests involving the comminution of dolomite and anhydrite samples demonstrated that the constructed device is able to break up rocks into grains so fine that they are measured in single microns, and the sensors used in the construction ensure balancing of the released gas. The tests of the analyzer showed that the metrological concept behind it, together with the way it was built, make it fit for measurements of the content and composition of selected gases from the rock pore space. On the basis of the conducted tests of balancing the gases contained in the two samples, it was stated that the gas content of Sample no. 1 was (0.055  ±  0.002) cm3 g-1, and Sample no. 2 contained gas at atmospheric pressure, composed mostly of air.

  14. Association between Phthalate Exposure and the Use of Plastic Containers in Shanghai Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Rui Hua; Zhang, Han; Zhang, Mei Ru; Chen, Jing Si; Wu, Min; Li, Shu Guang; Chen, Bo

    2017-10-01

    Consuming phthalates may be due to the presence of food contact materials, such as plastic containers. In this study, we investigated the association between plastic container use and phthalate exposure in 2,140 Shanghai adults. Participants completed a questionnaire on the frequency of using plastic containers in different scenarios in the previous year (e.g., daily, weekly) and on the consumption of plastic-packaged foods in the previous three days (yes or no). Urinary phthalate metabolites were used to assess the association between phthalate exposure and the use of plastic containers. The metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were the most frequently detected in urine. The results revealed that phthalate exposure was associated with consumption of plastic-packaged breakfast or processed food items in the previous three days. The consumption of these two food items had strong synergistic effects on increasing urinary concentrations of most phthalate metabolites. Our results of plastic-packaged breakfast and processed food may be explained by the use of flexible plastic containers, indicating the importance of risk assessment for the application of flexible plastic containers. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  15. Longer Sleep Duration and Midday Napping Are Associated with a Higher Risk of CHD Incidence in Middle-Aged and Older Chinese: the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liangle; Yang, Handong; He, Meian; Pan, An; Li, Xiulou; Min, Xinwen; Zhang, Ce; Xu, Chengwei; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Jing; Wei, Sheng; Miao, Xiaoping; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2016-03-01

    To analyze the independent and combined relations of sleep duration and midday napping with coronary heart diseases (CHD) incidence along with the underlying changes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese adults. We included 19,370 individuals aged 62.8 years at baseline from September 2008 to June 2010, and they were followed until October 2013. Cox proportional hazards models and general linear models were used for multivariate longitudinal analyses. Compared with sleeping 7- napping > 90 min compared with 1-30 min. When sleep duration and midday napping were combined, individuals having sleep duration ≥ 10 h and midday napping > 90 min were at a greater risk of CHD than those with sleeping 7- napping 1-30 min: the HR was 1.67 (95% CI = 1.04 to 2.66; P for trend = 0.017). In addition, longer sleep duration ≥ 10 h was significantly associated with increases in triglycerides and waist circumference, and a reduction in HDL-cholesterol; while longer midday napping > 90 min was related to increased waist circumference. Both longer sleep duration and midday napping were independently and jointly associated with a higher risk of CHD incidence, and altered lipid profile and waist circumference may partially explain the relationships. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  16. Interference Cancellation Using Replica Signal for HTRCI-MIMO/OFDM in Time-Variant Large Delay Spread Longer Than Guard Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Ida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO are generally known as the effective techniques for high data rate services. In MIMO/OFDM systems, the channel estimation (CE is very important to obtain an accurate channel state information (CSI. However, since the orthogonal pilot-based CE requires the large number of pilot symbols, the total transmission rate is degraded. To mitigate this problem, a high time resolution carrier interferometry (HTRCI for MIMO/OFDM has been proposed. In wireless communication systems, if the maximum delay spread is longer than the guard interval (GI, the system performance is significantly degraded due to the intersymbol interference (ISI and intercarrier interference (ICI. However, the conventional HTRCI-MIMO/OFDM does not consider the case with the time-variant large delay spread longer than the GI. In this paper, we propose the ISI and ICI compensation methods for a HTRCI-MIMO/OFDM in the time-variant large delay spread longer than the GI.

  17. No Longer Have to Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H.; Ritchey, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) once was three separate data centers (NGDC, NODC, and NCDC). In 2015 the three centers merged into NCEI. NCEI has refined the art of long term preservation and stewardship practices throughout the life-cycle of various types of data. NCEI can help you navigate and make the complicated world of preserving your data user-friendly. Using tools at NCEI, data providers can request data to be archived, submit data for archival and create complete International Organization for Standardization (ISO) metadata records with ease. To ensure traceability, Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) are minted for published data sets. The services offered at NCEI follow standards and NOAA directives such as the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) - Reference Model (ISO 14721) to ensure consistent long-term preservation for the Nation's resource of global environmental data for a broad spectrum of users. The implementation of these standards supports the data to be accessible, independently understandable and reproducible in an easy to understand format for all types of users. Insights from combined knowledge of 100+years of various domain and data management and preservation and the tools supporting these functions will be shared.

  18. [Living better or living longer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvy, A

    1987-01-01

    It has been just 2 centuries since France began to struggle seriously against mortality and excess fertility. Life expectancy, which for millenia had been under 30 years at birth, began to increase because of the discovery of effective treatments, improved production and standards of living, and access of large numbers of persons to health care. France, in the 2nd half of the 18th century, became the first country in which fertility regulation was achieved on a wide scale. The failure of England, a country of similar culture, to follow suit until a century later remains unexplained. After World War II, simple and fairly inexpensive means of mortality control, such as vaccines and water purifiers, became widely distributed throughout the developing world. These countries, which traditionally had mortality rates of 35 or 40/1000 and fertility of 40-45/1000, experienced rapid declines in mortality rates while their fertility remained constant or even increased. Because antinatal techniques diffused so much more slowly, the equilibrium of births and deaths was disturbed as rates of increase of 2 or 3% per year became common. Although the inhabitants of poor countries were not concerned, perhaps through ignorance of what was occurring, the rich countries were alarmed by the increase. Their principal objective became to spread contraception in the poor countries. The available methods at the time, however, were none too reliable. When oral contraceptive pills became available, fertility dropped to very low levels in Europe but such factors as cost and illiteracy discouraged use in many underdeveloped countries. Fertility declined in a few insular states such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore even before the appearance of pills. Life expectancies in developing countries except a few in Africa have increased since World War II and are now higher than in Europe at the turn of the century. "Health for all by the year 2000" is an astonishing slogan for a serious organization such as the World Health Organization. Assurance of sufficient care to protect health would be a more realistic goal than the illusory "health for all". Future gains in mortality control will be made primarily in endogenous diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease that prolong life in the retirement years rather than in youth. Thorny moral and economic questions will ensue as health care for the elderly becomes more expensive and as the population ages. Contrary to a widely held belief, aging of the population is due to fertility decline rather than mortality decline. By the year 2000, health care in France may consume a larger part of household income than food. Sterilization of individuals with hereditary diseases, the influence of health care on the balance of payments, and the funding of social security systems are among the issues that will become more pressing in the future.

  19. Chagas Disease: No Longer Exotic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-03

    This podcast is designed to inform health care providers about Chagas disease, diagnosis, and treatment and to assist in identifying infected patients.  Created: 4/3/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 4/8/2008.

  20. Working Longer Makes Students Stronger?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Abstract: Despite much discussion on the role of education policy on school and student performance, we know little about the effects of school spending at the margin on student cognitive achievement beyond the effects of class size. Thus this paper examines the effects of annual ninth grade...... classroom hours in literacy and maths on ninth grade (aged 16) student performance in writing and maths, respectively. Using population data for Denmark in 2003-2006, I exploit unique policy-induced variation in classroom hours.On average, the reform changed classroom hours by 2.2-3.3% in literacy and maths...

  1. 49 CFR 837.3 - Published reports, material contained in the public accident investigation dockets, and accident...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Published reports, material contained in the... OF RECORDS IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 837.3 Published reports, material contained in the public accident... submitted, in writing, to the Public Inquiries Branch. Demands for specific published reports and studies...

  2. 20 CFR 726.103 - Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 726.103 Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. As... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. 726.103 Section 726.103 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT...

  3. Vertices Contained In All Or In No Minimum Semitotal Dominating Set Of A Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Michael A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Let G be a graph with no isolated vertex. In this paper, we study a parameter that is squeezed between arguably the two most important domination parameters; namely, the domination number, γ(G, and the total domination number, γt(G. A set S of vertices in a graph G is a semitotal dominating set of G if it is a dominating set of G and every vertex in S is within distance 2 of another vertex of S. The semitotal domination number, γt2(G, is the minimum cardinality of a semitotal dominating set of G. We observe that γ(G ≤ γt2(G ≤ γt(G. We characterize the set of vertices that are contained in all, or in no minimum semitotal dominating set of a tree.

  4. Simulation-Based Optimization for Storage Allocation Problem of Outbound Containers in Automated Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage allocation of outbound containers is a key factor of the performance of container handling system in automated container terminals. Improper storage plans of outbound containers make QC waiting inevitable; hence, the vessel handling time will be lengthened. A simulation-based optimization method is proposed in this paper for the storage allocation problem of outbound containers in automated container terminals (SAPOBA. A simulation model is built up by Timed-Colored-Petri-Net (TCPN, used to evaluate the QC waiting time of storage plans. Two optimization approaches, based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Genetic Algorithm (GA, are proposed to form the complete simulation-based optimization method. Effectiveness of this method is verified by experiment, as the comparison of the two optimization approaches.

  5. Alkaline degradation of organic materials contained in TRU wastes under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Yoshiki; Banba, Tsunetaka

    2007-09-01

    Alkaline degradation tests for 9 organic materials were conducted under the conditions of TRU waste disposal: anaerobic alkaline conditions. The tests were carried out at 90degC for 91 days. The sample materials for the tests were selected from the standpoint of constituent organic materials of TRU wastes. It has been found that cellulose and plastic solidified products are degraded relatively easily and that rubbers are difficult to degrade. It could be presumed that the alkaline degradation of organic materials occurs starting from the functional group in the material. Therefore, the degree of degradation difficulty is expected to be dependent on the kinds of functional group contained in the organic material. (author)

  6. An examination of source material requirements contained in 10 CFR Part 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, D.; Smith, D.A.; Wiblin, C.

    1992-10-01

    This report identifies issues for consideration for rule-making to update the requirements for source material in 10 CFR Part 40 and examines options for resolving these issues. The contemplated rulemaking is intended to update 10 CFR Part 40 to reflect current radiation protection principles and regulatory practices. It is expected that such an update would make requirements for the control of source material more comparable to those pertaining to byproduct material contained in 10 CFR Part 30. The newer biological data and dose calculation methodology reflected in revised 10 CFR Part 20 will be used in analyses of potential regulatory amendments. This report presents historical background information and discussion on the various issues identified and makes preliminary recommendations concerning needed regulatory changes and approaches to rulemaking

  7. Experimental investigation of the influence of Mo contained in stainless steel on Cs chemisorption behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lemma, F.G.; Nakajima, K., E-mail: nakajima.kunihisa@jaea.go.jp; Yamashita, S.; Osaka, M., E-mail: ohsaka.masahiko@jaea.go.jp

    2017-02-15

    Chemisorption phenomena can affect fission products (FP) retention in a nuclear reactor vessel during a severe accident (SA). Detailed information on the FP chemisorbed deposits, especially for Cs, are important for a rational decommissioning of the reactor following a SA, as for the Fukushima Daiichi Power Station. Moreover the retention of Cs will influence the source term assessment and thus improved models for this phenomenon are needed in SA codes. This paper describes the influence on Cs chemisorption of molybdenum contained in stainless steel (SS) type 316. In our experiments it was observed that Cs-Mo deposits (CsFe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}, Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) were formed together with CsFeSiO{sub 4}, which is the predominant compound formed by chemisorption. The Cs-Mo deposits were found to revaporize from the SS sample at 1000 °C, and thus could contribute to the source term. On the other hand, CsFeSiO{sub 4} will be probably retained in the reactor during a SA due to its stability. - Highlights: • The influence of Mo contained in SS on CsOH chemisorption was investigated. • Cs chemisorbed deposits were submitted to revaporization tests. • CsFeSiO{sub 4} was the main chemisorbed compound and stable at high temperature. • Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} and Cs{sub 4}Fe(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} were the Cs-Mo deposited phases detected. • Cs-Mo deposits re-vaporization can contribute to the accident late stage release.

  8. Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sex-determining system differs considerably among organisms. Even among insect species, the genetic system for sex-determination is highly diversified. In Drosophila melanogaster, somatic sexual differentiation is regulated by a well characterized genetic hierarchy X : A > Sxl > tra/tra2 > dsx and fru. This cascade ...

  9. Vaginal orgasm is associated with vaginal (not clitoral) sex education, focusing mental attention on vaginal sensations, intercourse duration, and a preference for a longer penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2010-08-01

    Evidence was recently provided for vaginal orgasm, orgasm triggered purely by penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), being associated with better psychological functioning. Common sex education and sexual medicine approaches might undermine vaginal orgasm benefits. To examine the extent to which women's vaginal orgasm consistency is associated with (i) being told in childhood or adolescence that the vagina was the important zone for inducing female orgasm; (ii) how well they focus mentally on vaginal sensations during PVI; (iii) greater PVI duration; and (iv) preference for above-average penis length.   In a representative sample of the Czech population, 1,000 women reported their vaginal orgasm consistency (from never to almost every time; only 21.9% never had a vaginal orgasm), estimates of their typical foreplay and PVI durations, what they were told in childhood and adolescence was the important zone for inducing female orgasm, their degree of focus on vaginal sensations during PVI, and whether they were more likely to orgasm with a longer than average penis. The association of vaginal orgasm consistency with the predictors noted above. Vaginal orgasm consistency was associated with all hypothesized correlates. Multivariate analysis indicated the most important predictors were being educated that the vagina is important for female orgasm, being mentally focused on vaginal sensations during PVI, and in some analyses duration of PVI (but not foreplay) and preferring a longer than average penis. Focusing attention on penile-vaginal sensation supports vaginal orgasm and the myriad benefits thereof. Brody S, and Weiss P. Vaginal orgasm is associated with vaginal (not clitoral) sex education, focusing mental attention on vaginal sensations, intercourse duration, and a preference for a longer penis. © 2009 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Quality of longer term mental health facilities in Europe: validation of the quality indicator for rehabilitative care against service users' views.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Killaspy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care (QuIRC is a staff rated, international toolkit that assesses care in longer term hospital and community based mental health facilities. The QuIRC was developed from review of the international literature, an international Delphi exercise with over 400 service users, practitioners, carers and advocates from ten European countries at different stages of deinstitutionalisation, and review of the care standards in these countries. It can be completed in under an hour by the facility manager and has robust content validity, acceptability and inter-rater reliability. In this study, we investigated the internal validity of the QuIRC. Our aim was to identify the QuIRC domains of care that independently predicted better service user experiences of care. METHOD: At least 20 units providing longer term care for adults with severe mental illness were recruited in each of ten European countries. Service users completed standardised measures of their experiences of care, quality of life, autonomy and the unit's therapeutic milieu. Unit managers completed the QuIRC. Multilevel modelling allowed analysis of associations between service user ratings as dependent variables with unit QuIRC domain ratings as independent variables. RESULTS: 1750/2495 (70% users and the managers of 213 units from across ten European countries participated. QuIRC ratings were positively associated with service users' autonomy and experiences of care. Associations between QuIRC ratings and service users' ratings of their quality of life and the unit's therapeutic milieu were explained by service user characteristics (age, diagnosis and functioning. A hypothetical 10% increase in QuIRC rating resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in autonomy. CONCLUSIONS: Ratings of the quality of longer term mental health facilities made by service managers were positively associated with service users' autonomy and experiences of care

  11. Simplifying anemia management in hemodialysis patients: ESAs administered at longer dosing intervals can enhance opportunities to provide patient-focused care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Brigitte; Besarab, Anatole

    2011-08-01

    To review issues and challenges in caring for hemodialysis patients with anemia of chronic kidney disease, specifically focusing on the effects of longer erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) dosing intervals on processes of care. PubMed searches were performed limited to the last 10 years to February 2011, focusing on articles in English that were 'clinical trials,' assessed processes of care, measured associations of hemoglobin (Hb) with outcomes, and explored/analyzed extended dosing intervals of ESAs in hemodialysis patients and recommendations for increasing the quality of care of these patients. Some limitations included the fact that a meta-analysis was not conducted; many studies were associative and therefore unable to prove causality; and none of the clinical trials directly compared the impact of more frequent or less frequent ESA dosing strategies on patient care and outcomes. Progress over the past several decades has been substantial; however, unmet needs remain and there is room for improvement in efficiencies of care. Many patients fail to meet Hb targets, and nephrology professionals' time is consumed with preparing, administering, and monitoring therapy. Direct interaction between patients and care providers has been lost as attention has shifted to 'cost-effective' (not necessarily patient-centered) ways to deliver care. Use of ESAs at longer dosage intervals represents one opportunity to improve efficiency of care. Newer ESAs have been developed for less frequent dosing. Once-monthly dosing decreases time spent administering/monitoring therapy and allows nephrology professionals to provide comprehensive renal care, wherein the patient rather than task-oriented processes becomes the primary focus. A fragmented, uncoordinated care-delivery model heightens the urgency to systematically address issues related to delivery of care and improve efficiencies in anemia management as part of the patient-centered approach. ESAs designed for administration

  12. Do women spend longer on wait lists for coronary bypass surgery? Analysis of a population-based registry in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuramoto Lisa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown patients who are delayed for surgical cardiac revascularization are faced with increased risks of symptom deterioration and death. This could explain the observation that operative mortality among persons undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG is higher among women than men. However, in jurisdictions that employ priority wait lists to manage access to elective cardiac surgery, there is little information on whether women wait longer than men for CABG. It is therefore difficult to ascertain whether higher operative mortality among women is due to biological differences or to delayed access to elective CABG. Methods Using records from a population-based registry, we compared the wait-list time between women and men in British Columbia (BC between 1990 and 2000. We compared the number of weeks from registration to surgery for equal proportions of women and men, after adjusting for priority, comorbidity and age. Results In BC in the 1990s, 9,167 patients aged 40 years and over were registered on wait lists for CABG and spent a total of 136,071 person-weeks waiting. At the time of registration for CABG, women were more likely to have a comorbid condition than men. We found little evidence to suggest that women waited longer than men for CABG after registration, after adjusting for comorbidity and age, either overall or within three priority groups. Conclusion Our findings support the hypothesis that higher operative mortality during elective CABG operations observed among women is not due to longer delays for the procedure.

  13. Quality of longer term mental health facilities in Europe: validation of the quality indicator for rehabilitative care against service users' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killaspy, Helen; White, Sarah; Wright, Christine; Taylor, Tatiana L; Turton, Penny; Kallert, Thomas; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kalisova, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Alexiev, Spiridon; Mezzina, Roberto; Ridente, Pina; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Patryk; Ploumpidis, Dimitris; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel; Cardoso, Graça; King, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care (QuIRC) is a staff rated, international toolkit that assesses care in longer term hospital and community based mental health facilities. The QuIRC was developed from review of the international literature, an international Delphi exercise with over 400 service users, practitioners, carers and advocates from ten European countries at different stages of deinstitutionalisation, and review of the care standards in these countries. It can be completed in under an hour by the facility manager and has robust content validity, acceptability and inter-rater reliability. In this study, we investigated the internal validity of the QuIRC. Our aim was to identify the QuIRC domains of care that independently predicted better service user experiences of care. At least 20 units providing longer term care for adults with severe mental illness were recruited in each of ten European countries. Service users completed standardised measures of their experiences of care, quality of life, autonomy and the unit's therapeutic milieu. Unit managers completed the QuIRC. Multilevel modelling allowed analysis of associations between service user ratings as dependent variables with unit QuIRC domain ratings as independent variables. 1750/2495 (70%) users and the managers of 213 units from across ten European countries participated. QuIRC ratings were positively associated with service users' autonomy and experiences of care. Associations between QuIRC ratings and service users' ratings of their quality of life and the unit's therapeutic milieu were explained by service user characteristics (age, diagnosis and functioning). A hypothetical 10% increase in QuIRC rating resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in autonomy. Ratings of the quality of longer term mental health facilities made by service managers were positively associated with service users' autonomy and experiences of care. Interventions that improve quality of care in these

  14. Longer inter-lead electrical delay is associated with response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with presumed optimal left ventricular lead position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anders; Kronborg, Mads Brix; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde

    2018-01-01

    was defined as ≥15% reduction in LV end-systolic volume at 6 months follow-up. Selecting a practical IED cut-off value of 100 ms, more patients with long IED than patients with short IED responded to CRT (87 vs. 68%; P = 0.004). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, IED ≥100 ms remained associated...... LV lead position. Conclusion: A longer IED was associated with more pronounced LV reverse remodelling response in CRT recipients with a presumed optimal LV lead position concordant or adjacent to the latest mechanically activated non-scarred segment....

  15. Longer-term needs of stroke survivors with communication difficulties living in the community: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Faye; Clarke, David

    2017-10-06

    To review and synthesise qualitative literature relating to the longer-term needs of community dwelling stroke survivors with communication difficulties including aphasia, dysarthria and apraxia of speech. Systematic review and thematic synthesis. We included studies employing qualitative methodology which focused on the perceived or expressed needs, views or experiences of stroke survivors with communication difficulties in relation to the day-to-day management of their condition following hospital discharge. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences and AMED and undertook grey literature searches. Studies were assessed for methodological quality by two researchers independently and the findings were combined using thematic synthesis. Thirty-two studies were included in the thematic synthesis. The synthesis reveals the ongoing difficulties stroke survivors can experience in coming to terms with the loss of communication and in adapting to life with a communication difficulty. While some were able to adjust, others struggled to maintain their social networks and to participate in activities which were meaningful to them. The challenges experienced by stroke survivors with communication difficulties persisted for many years poststroke. Four themes relating to longer-term need were developed: managing communication outside of the home, creating a meaningful role, creating or maintaining a support network and taking control and actively moving forward with life. Understanding the experiences of stroke survivors with communication difficulties is vital for ensuring that longer-term care is designed according to their needs. Wider psychosocial factors must be considered in the rehabilitation of people with poststroke communication difficulties. Self-management interventions may be appropriate to help this subgroup of stroke survivors manage their condition in the longer-term; however, such

  16. Specific imaging characteristic of solitary necrotic nodule of the liver: Marked peripheral rim-like enhancement with internal hypointensity on longer delayed MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jiayang; Yu, Dexin; Ma, Xiangxing; Xiang, Ying; Guo, Lijuan [Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Ji' nan City, Shandong (China); Ma, Xiaoyuan [Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Department of Orthopaedics, Ji' nan City (China)

    2017-09-15

    To obtain specific imaging findings of solitary necrotic nodule of the liver (SNNL) using longer delayed contrast-enhanced MRI and compare them with those of three mimic hepatic diseases. Sixteen patients with SNNL underwent plain and contrast-enhanced triphasic CT and multiphasic MRI with delayed time prolonged to 2 h after contrast bolus injection. Twenty-three patients with mimic lesions including seven with eight HCCs, five with five iCCs and 11 with metastatic lesions served as the control group. Those patients also received plain and multiphasic contrast-enhanced MRI. Imaging features of lesions such as peripheral wash-out time were evaluated. Among the 16 SNNLs, with a prolonged delayed MRI time, the enhancement degree of tumour periphery increased gradually. When it was up to 1 h, all lesions represented moderate/marked peripheral enhancement with internal hypointensity. However, the peripheral wash-out in seven HCCs (87.5%) and all metastatic lesions except three appeared at 10 or 15 min, one iCC (20%) at 30 min and the other lesions at 1 h. Longer MRI with a delayed time of 1-2 h may be useful in diagnosis SNNL, revealing the specific imaging characteristic of SNNL as pronounced peripheral enhancement with internal hypointensity. (orig.)

  17. Longer Nature-Based Rehabilitation May Contribute to a Faster Return to Work in Patients with Reactions to Severe Stress and/or Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Patrik; Pálsdóttir, Anna María; Ottosson, Johan; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2017-10-27

    The global burden of depression and stress-related mental disorders is substantial, and constitutes a major need for effective rehabilitation. Can nature-based rehabilitation help people return to work? To study if the length of a nature-based rehabilitation program affects the outcome with regard to return to work one year after the onset of the program, in a group of patients with long-term reactions to severe stress and/or depression. A prospective, quasi-experimental study comparing results from 8-, 12-, and 24-week periods of rehabilitation. The rehabilitation of 106 participants was carried out by a multimodal rehabilitation team in a specially designed rehabilitation garden. Return to work data were collected before the intervention and one year after the start of rehabilitation. In addition, data were collected regarding self-assessed occupational competence, personal control, and sense of coherence. As many as 68% of the participants returned to work or participated in job training or work-oriented measures, full- or part-time, after one year. Participants with a longer period of rehabilitation reported better results on occupational competence, and were more likely to participate in paid work, full-time or part-time, one year after rehabilitation. Study outcomes indicate that a longer rehabilitation period in a rehabilitation garden increases the possibility of a return to paid work.

  18. Neon soft x-ray emission studies from the UNU-ICTP plasma focus operated with longer than optimal anode length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, M A; Verma, R; Sobhanian, S; Wong, C S; Lee, S; Springham, S V; Tan, T L; Lee, P; Rawat, R S

    2007-01-01

    The UNU-ICTP plasma focus with a significantly longer than conventional anode can still be a reasonably good neon soft x-ray (SXR) source. The highest average neon SXR yield of 3.3 J was achieved at 3 mbar. The time difference between the two first peaks of the voltage probe signal at the radial collapse phase was found to be inversely related to the SXR yield, i.e. the smaller the time difference, the higher the yield and vice versa. The estimation of average current sheath speeds using the shadowgraphic method coupled with laser and focus peak timing signals showed that the average axial rundown speed is similar to the one obtained for the optimal anode length but the average radial compression speed is decreased significantly. The range of pressure for a good neon SXR yield, however, has become much narrower, making efficient plasma focus operation a very sensitive function of the filling gas pressure for longer than the optimal anode length

  19. Adaptations to Short, Frequent Sessions of Endurance and Strength Training Are Similar to Longer, Less Frequent Exercise Sessions When the Total Volume Is the Same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilen, Anders; Hjelvang, Line B; Dall, Niels; Kruse, Nanna L; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2015-11-01

    The hypothesis that the distribution of weekly training across several short sessions, as opposed to fewer longer sessions, enhances maximal strength gain without compromising maximal oxygen uptake was evaluated. Twenty-nine subjects completed an 8-week controlled parallel-group training intervention. One group ("micro training" [MI]: n = 21) performed nine 15-minute training sessions weekly, whereas a second group ("classical training" [CL]: n = 8) completed exactly the same training on a weekly basis but as three 45-minute sessions. For each group, each session comprised exclusively strength, high-intensity cardiovascular training or muscle endurance training. Both groups increased shuttle run performance (MI: 1,373 ± 133 m vs. 1,498 ± 126 m, p ≤ 0.05; CL: 1,074 ± 213 m vs. 1,451 ± 202 m, p training intervention. In conclusion, similar training adaptations can be obtained with short, frequent exercise sessions or longer, less frequent sessions where the total volume of weekly training performed is the same.

  20. Longer Nature-Based Rehabilitation May Contribute to a Faster Return to Work in Patients with Reactions to Severe Stress and/or Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Patrik; Pálsdóttir, Anna María; Ottosson, Johan; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.

    2017-01-01

    The global burden of depression and stress-related mental disorders is substantial, and constitutes a major need for effective rehabilitation. Can nature-based rehabilitation help people return to work? Objective: To study if the length of a nature-based rehabilitation program affects the outcome with regard to return to work one year after the onset of the program, in a group of patients with long-term reactions to severe stress and/or depression. Methods: A prospective, quasi-experimental study comparing results from 8-, 12-, and 24-week periods of rehabilitation. The rehabilitation of 106 participants was carried out by a multimodal rehabilitation team in a specially designed rehabilitation garden. Return to work data were collected before the intervention and one year after the start of rehabilitation. In addition, data were collected regarding self-assessed occupational competence, personal control, and sense of coherence. As many as 68% of the participants returned to work or participated in job training or work-oriented measures, full- or part-time, after one year. Participants with a longer period of rehabilitation reported better results on occupational competence, and were more likely to participate in paid work, full-time or part-time, one year after rehabilitation. Study outcomes indicate that a longer rehabilitation period in a rehabilitation garden increases the possibility of a return to paid work. PMID:29076997

  1. Longer Nature-Based Rehabilitation May Contribute to a Faster Return to Work in Patients with Reactions to Severe Stress and/or Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Grahn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of depression and stress-related mental disorders is substantial, and constitutes a major need for effective rehabilitation. Can nature-based rehabilitation help people return to work? Objective: To study if the length of a nature-based rehabilitation program affects the outcome with regard to return to work one year after the onset of the program, in a group of patients with long-term reactions to severe stress and/or depression. Methods: A prospective, quasi-experimental study comparing results from 8-, 12-, and 24-week periods of rehabilitation. The rehabilitation of 106 participants was carried out by a multimodal rehabilitation team in a specially designed rehabilitation garden. Return to work data were collected before the intervention and one year after the start of rehabilitation. In addition, data were collected regarding self-assessed occupational competence, personal control, and sense of coherence. As many as 68% of the participants returned to work or participated in job training or work-oriented measures, full- or part-time, after one year. Participants with a longer period of rehabilitation reported better results on occupational competence, and were more likely to participate in paid work, full-time or part-time, one year after rehabilitation. Study outcomes indicate that a longer rehabilitation period in a rehabilitation garden increases the possibility of a return to paid work.

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation Is Associated With Longer Local Control After Definitive Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Stage III Nonsquamous Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagishita, Shigehiro; Horinouchi, Hidehito; Katsui Taniyama, Tomoko; Nakamichi, Shinji; Kitazono, Satoru; Mizugaki, Hidenori; Kanda, Shintaro; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Noboru; Sumi, Minako; Shiraishi, Kouya; Kohno, Takashi; Furuta, Koh; Tsuta, Koji; Tamura, Tomohide

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the frequency and clinical significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in patients with potentially curable stage III non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who are eligible for definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Patients and Methods: Between January 2001 and December 2010, we analyzed the EGFR mutational status in consecutive NSCLC patients who were treated by CRT. The response rate, relapse-free survival, 2-year relapse-free rate, initial relapse sites, and overall survival of the patients were investigated. Results: A total of 528 patients received CRT at our hospital during the study period. Of these, 274 were diagnosed as having nonsquamous NSCLC. Sufficient specimens for mutational analyses could be obtained from 198 of these patients. The proportion of patients with EGFR activating mutations was 17%. In addition to the well-known characteristics of patients carrying EGFR mutations (female, adenocarcinoma, and never/light smoker), the proportion of cases with smaller primary lesions (T1/2) was found to be higher in patients with EGFR mutations than in those with wild-type EGFR. Patients with EGFR mutations showed similar response rate, relapse-free survival, and 2-year relapse-free rates as compared to patients with wild-type EGFR. Local relapses as the site of initial relapse occurred significantly less frequently in patients with EGFR mutation (4% vs 21%; P=.045). Patients with EGFR mutations showed longer local control (adjusted hazard ratio 0.49; P=.043). After disease progression, a majority of the patients with EGFR mutations received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (62%), and these patients showed longer postprogression survival than those with wild-type EGFR. Conclusions: Our study is the first to show radiosensitive biology of EGFR-mutated tumors in definitive CRT with curative intent. This finding could serve as a credible baseline estimate of EGFR-mutated population in stage III nonsquamous NSCLC

  3. Selective binding of carotenoids with a shorter conjugated chain to the LH2 antenna complex and those with a longer conjugated chain to the reaction center from Rubrivivax gelatinosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakitani, Yoshinori; Fujii, Ritsuko; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Kurahashi, Masahiro; Koyama, Yasushi; Harada, Jiro; Shimada, Keizo

    2007-06-19

    Rubrivivax gelatinosus having both the spheroidene and spirilloxanthin biosynthetic pathways produces carotenoids (Cars) with a variety of conjugated chains, which consist of different numbers of conjugated double bonds (n), including the C=C (m) and C=O (o) bonds. When grown under anaerobic conditions, the wild type produces Cars for which n = m = 9-13, whereas under semiaerobic conditions, it additionally produces Cars for which n = m + o = 10 + 1, 13 + 1, and 13 + 2. On the other hand, a mutant, in which the latter pathway is genetically blocked, produces only Cars for which n = 9 and 10 under anaerobic conditions and n = 9, 10, and 10 + 1 under semianaerobic conditions. Those Cars that were extracted from the LH2 complex (LH2) and the reaction center (RC), isolated from the wild-type and the mutant Rvi. gelatinosus, were analyzed by HPLC, and their structures were determined by mass spectrometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The selective binding of Cars to those pigment-protein complexes has been characterized as follows. (1) Cars with a shorter conjugated chain are selectively bound to LH2 whereas Cars with a longer conjugated chain to the RC. (2) Shorter chain Cars with a hydroxyl group are bound to LH2 almost exclusively. This rule holds either in the absence or in the presence of the keto group. The natural selection of shorter chain Cars by LH2 and longer chain Cars by the RC is discussed, on the basis of the results now available, in relation to the light-harvesting and photoprotective functions of Cars.

  4. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation Is Associated With Longer Local Control After Definitive Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Stage III Nonsquamous Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagishita, Shigehiro [Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Horinouchi, Hidehito, E-mail: hhorinou@ncc.go.jp [Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Katsui Taniyama, Tomoko; Nakamichi, Shinji; Kitazono, Satoru; Mizugaki, Hidenori; Kanda, Shintaro; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Noboru [Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Sumi, Minako [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Shiraishi, Kouya; Kohno, Takashi [Division of Genome Biology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Furuta, Koh [Department of Clinical Laboratories, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tsuta, Koji [Department of Pathology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tamura, Tomohide [Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the frequency and clinical significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in patients with potentially curable stage III non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who are eligible for definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Patients and Methods: Between January 2001 and December 2010, we analyzed the EGFR mutational status in consecutive NSCLC patients who were treated by CRT. The response rate, relapse-free survival, 2-year relapse-free rate, initial relapse sites, and overall survival of the patients were investigated. Results: A total of 528 patients received CRT at our hospital during the study period. Of these, 274 were diagnosed as having nonsquamous NSCLC. Sufficient specimens for mutational analyses could be obtained from 198 of these patients. The proportion of patients with EGFR activating mutations was 17%. In addition to the well-known characteristics of patients carrying EGFR mutations (female, adenocarcinoma, and never/light smoker), the proportion of cases with smaller primary lesions (T1/2) was found to be higher in patients with EGFR mutations than in those with wild-type EGFR. Patients with EGFR mutations showed similar response rate, relapse-free survival, and 2-year relapse-free rates as compared to patients with wild-type EGFR. Local relapses as the site of initial relapse occurred significantly less frequently in patients with EGFR mutation (4% vs 21%; P=.045). Patients with EGFR mutations showed longer local control (adjusted hazard ratio 0.49; P=.043). After disease progression, a majority of the patients with EGFR mutations received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (62%), and these patients showed longer postprogression survival than those with wild-type EGFR. Conclusions: Our study is the first to show radiosensitive biology of EGFR-mutated tumors in definitive CRT with curative intent. This finding could serve as a credible baseline estimate of EGFR-mutated population in stage III nonsquamous NSCLC.

  5. The pollen of metaphor: Box, cage, and trap as containment in the eighteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Anne

    2016-06-01

    This article uses the concept of "the pollen of metaphor" to discuss three forms of non-human animal containment in the eighteenth century: François Huber's Leaf or Book Hive bee box first described in his Nouvelles Observations sur les Abeilles (1792, English translation 1806), Sarah Trimmer's bird cages in her didactic children's book, Fabulous Histories; Or, The Story of the Robins (1786), and a mouse trap in Anna Letitia Barbauld's 1773 poem, "The Mouse's Petition, found in the trap where he had been confined all night by Dr. Priestley, for the sake of making experiments with different kinds of air." All three works highlight the eighteenth-century art of observation. The inherent commitment to relationships in the observation process suggests that interpreting ocular evidence involves "plausible relations," metaphor and/or "productive analogy." The article teases out subtle differences between the ways that each author uses containments and concludes that while Huber seeks to circumscribe non-human animal behavior within the bounds of 'reasonable' animal husbandry to better serve human needs, Trimmer goes further to connect 'appropriate' non-human animal containment to moral strictures governing humans. Barbauld's intervention using a literate, speaking animal subject confronts such moral governance to argue for equal rights based on principles of true equality rather than what is observed to be 'reasonable' and/or 'moral.' Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of covariance data for chromium, iron and nickel contained in JENDL-3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Soo-Youl; Shibata, Keiichi.

    1998-01-01

    An evaluation has been made for the covariances of neutron cross sections of 52 Cr, 56 Fe, 58 Ni and 60 Ni contained in JENDL-3.2. Reactions considered were the threshold reactions such as (n, 2n), (n, nα), (n, np), (n, p), (n, d), (n, t) and (n, α), the radiative capture reaction above the resonance region, and the inelastic scattering to discrete and continuum levels. Evaluation guidelines and procedures were established during the work. A generalized least-squares fitting code GMA was used in estimating covariances for reactions of which JENDL-3.2 cross sections had been evaluated by taking account of many measured data. For cross sections that had been evaluated by nuclear reaction model calculations, the KALMAN code, which yields covariances of cross sections and of associated model parameters on the basis of the Bayesian statistics, was used in conjunction with reaction model codes EGNASH and CASTHY. The evaluated uncertainties of a few percent to 30% in the cross sections look reasonable, and the correlation matrices show understandable trends. Even though there is no strict way to confirm the validity of the evaluated covariances, tools and procedures adopted in the present work are appropriate for producing covariance files based on JENDL-3.2. The covariances obtained will be compiled into JENDL in the near future. Meanwhile, new sets of optical model and level density parameters were proposed as one of byproducts obtained from the KALMAN calculations. (author)

  7. Pi overlapping ring systems contained in a homogeneous assay: a novel homogeneous assay for antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, David A.

    1993-05-01

    A novel immunoassay, Pi overlapping ring systems contained in a homogeneous assay (PORSCHA), is described. This assay relies upon the change in fluorescent spectral properties that pyrene and its derivatives show with varying concentration. Because antibodies and other biomolecules can bind two molecules simultaneously, they can change the local concentration of the molecules that they bind. This concentration change may be detected spectrally as a change in the fluorescence emission wavelength of an appropriately labeled biomolecule. Several tests of PORSCHA have been performed which demonstrate this principle. For example: with streptavidin as the binding biomolecule and a biotin labeled pyrene derivative, the production of the excimer emitting at 470 nm is observed. Without the streptavidin present, only the monomer emitting at 378 and 390 nm is observed. The ratio of monomer to excimer provides the concentration of unlabeled biotin in the sample. Approximately 1 ng/mL of biotin may be detected with this system using a 50 (mu) l sample (2 X 10-16 moles biotin). The principles behind PORSCHA, the results with the streptavidin/biotin system are discussed and extensions of the PORSCHA concept to antibodies as the binding partner and DNA in homogeneous assays are suggested.

  8. The market-incentive recycling system for waste packaging containers in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor Yunchang, Jeffrey; Chien, Y.-L.; Hsu, Esher

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new market-incentive (MI) system to recycle waste-packaging containers in Taiwan. Since most used packaging containers have no or insufficient market value, the government imposes a combined product charge and subsidy policy to provide enough economic incentive for recycling various kinds of packaging containers, such as iron, aluminum, paper, glass and plastic. Empirical results show that the new MI approach has stimulated and established the recycling market for waste-packaging containers. The new recycling system has provided 18,356 employment opportunities and generated NT$ 6.97 billion in real-production value and NT$ 3.18 billion in real GDP during the 1998 survey year. Cost-effectiveness analysis constitutes the theoretical foundation of the new scheme, whereas data used to compute empirical product charge are from two sources: marketing surveys of internal conventional costs of solid-waste collection, disposal and recycling in Taiwan, and benefit transfer of external environmental costs in the United States. The new recycling policy designed by the authors provides a reasonable solution for solid-waste management in a country with limited land resources such as Taiwan

  9. Design loads, loading combinations and structural acceptance criteria for BWR containments in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, N.W.

    1979-01-01

    The definition of loads, loading combinations, and structural acceptance criteria used for the design and evaluation of BWR containments in the Unites States has become much more comprehensive over the past decade. The Mark I pressure suppression containment vessels were designed for a static design pressure, a design temperature, dead load and static equivalent earthquake. The current Mark III containments are being designed to accommodate many more loads such as safety relief valve discharge loads, and suppression pool hydrodynamic loadings associated with the steam condensation phenomena as well as pressure and temperature transients for a range of pipe break sizes. Consistent with the more comprehensive definition of loads and loading combinations, the ASME Code presently establishes structural acceptance criteria with different margins of safety by the definition of Service Level Assignments A, B, C and D. Acting in a responsible manner, United States utilities are currently evaluating and modifying existing containment vessels to account for the more detailed load definition and structural acceptance criteria. (orig.)

  10. Self-contained in-vacuum in situ thin film stress measurement tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinink, J.; van de Kruijs, R. W. E.; Bijkerk, F.

    2018-05-01

    A fully self-contained in-vacuum device for measuring thin film stress in situ is presented. The stress was measured by measuring the curvature of a cantilever on which the thin film was deposited. For this, a dual beam laser deflectometer was used. All optics and electronics needed to perform the measurement are placed inside a vacuum-compatible vessel with the form factor of the substrate holders of the deposition system used. The stand-alone nature of the setup allows the vessel to be moved inside a deposition system independently of optical or electronic feedthroughs while measuring continuously. A Mo/Si multilayer structure was analyzed to evaluate the performance of the setup. A radius of curvature resolution of 270 km was achieved. This allows small details of the stress development to be resolved, such as the interlayer formation between the layers and the amorphous-to-crystalline transition of the molybdenum which occurs at around 2 nm. The setup communicates with an external computer via a Wi-Fi connection. This wireless connection allows remote control over the acquisition and the live feedback of the measured stress. In principle, the vessel can act as a general metrology platform and add measurement capabilities to deposition setups with no modification to the deposition system.

  11. Kinetics of Natural Detoxification of Hydrogen Cyanide Contained In Retted Cassava Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the kinetics of natural detoxification of hydrogen cyanide contained in retted cassava roots. Retting is traditional fermentation of cassava, performed to soften the roots. During retting, cyanide diffuses into water used for the retting. The fresh cassava roots (bitter and sweet varieties used for this experiment were separately retted at ambient 0 temperature of 30 C. The cyanide content and pH were monitored daily. From the analysis of the experimental results, a first order consecutive rate equation is an adequate tool for explaining the mechanism of HCN reduction (or decay in retted cassava roots. The detoxification constants for the bound cyanide in the bitter and sweet cassava roots were 0.378/day and 0.438/day respectively, while that of the free hydrogen cyanide were 0.63/day and 0.74/day for the bitter and sweet varieties respectively. Cassava tubers from different species cannot be fermented with the same retting condition unless they have same or close functional properties.

  12. Uptake of PCBs contained in marine sediments by the green macroalga Ulva rigida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Donald; Rajic, Ljiljana; Sly, Elizabeth; Meric, Dogus; Sheahan, Thomas

    2014-11-15

    The uptake of PCBs contained in marine sediments by the green macroalga Ulva rigida was investigated in both laboratory and field experiments. Under laboratory conditions, total PCBs (tPCBs) uptake was significantly greater in live vs dead plants. The concentration of tPCB taken up in live plants was greatest in the first 24h (1580 μg kg(-1) dry weight), and then increased at a lower rate from day 2 to 14. Dead plants had a significantly lower tPCB concentration after 24h (609 μg kg(-1) dry weight) and lower uptake rate through day 14. Lesser chlorinated PCB congeners (below 123) made up the majority of PCBs taken up. Congener composition in both laboratory and field experiments was correlated to congener logKow value and sediment content. Field experiments showed that Ulva plants could concentrate PCBs to 3.9 mg kg(-1) in 24h. Thus, U. rigida is capable of removing PCBs in sediments at a rapid rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. TEMPERATURE PREDICTION IN 3013 CONTAINERS IN K AREA MATERIAL STORAGE (KAMS) FACILITY USING REGRESSION METHODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N

    2008-01-01

    3013 containers are designed in accordance with the DOE-STD-3013-2004. These containers are qualified to store plutonium (Pu) bearing materials such as PuO2 for 50 years. DOT shipping packages such as the 9975 are used to store the 3013 containers in the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility at Savannah River Site (SRS). DOE-STD-3013-2004 requires that a comprehensive surveillance program be set up to ensure that the 3013 container design parameters are not violated during the long term storage. To ensure structural integrity of the 3013 containers, thermal analyses using finite element models were performed to predict the contents and component temperatures for different but well defined parameters such as storage ambient temperature, PuO 2 density, fill heights, weights, and thermal loading. Interpolation is normally used to calculate temperatures if the actual parameter values are different from the analyzed values. A statistical analysis technique using regression methods is proposed to develop simple polynomial relations to predict temperatures for the actual parameter values found in the containers. The analysis shows that regression analysis is a powerful tool to develop simple relations to assess component temperatures

  14. Evolution of nuclear reactor containments in India: Addressing the present day challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakodkar, Anil, E-mail: kakodkar@barc.gov.in

    2014-04-01

    Indigenously developed Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) that form the backbone of current stage of nuclear power development in India have seen continuous evolution of their containment systems. This evolution that has taken place over implementation of 18 PHWRs (200/220/540 MWe) has encompassed all aspects of containment design, viz. the structural system, energy management system, radio-activity management and hydrogen management system. As a part of ongoing efforts toward strengthening of safety performance, India is also ready with the design of Advance Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), which represents a technology demonstrator for advanced reactor systems and for thorium utilization. This reactor has a number of improved passive safety features and it is capable of meeting the demanding safety challenges that future reactor system would be expected to meet as a result of emerging expectations in the background of accidents over the past three decades viz. those at Three Mile Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986) and most recently at Fukushima (2011). In this lecture I shall focus on the evolution of nuclear reactor containments in India and highlight the design, associated structural and thermal hydraulics safety assessment made over the years for the improvement of containment performance.

  15. A new concept for improved oil spill containment in open waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethness, E.D. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a new concept for improved oil spill containment in open waters is presented. The proposed system is a combination oil boom and wave barrier. Waveguard International has taken its extensive experience as a designer of floating breakwaters and applied this knowledge into the design of a readily transportable, readily deployable floating oil boom with integrated wave attenuation capabilities as well. The new concept is based on the attenuation of the two major natural causes of oil spill dispersion; first, horizontal dispersion caused by wind shear effects; and second, vertical entrainment into the water column caused by the mixing action of wave motion. The physical encirclement of an oil spill with a floating boom to contain horizontal dispersion is not a new concept. Existing systems, however, work best in calm water and rapidly loose efficiency as waves increase. The proposed system can not only physically surround the spill area, but is as much as 90% effective in stopping the transmission of wave energy. The oil boom thus minimizes vertical mixing of the contained oil slick

  16. In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA can baseline characteristics and early patterns of CPAP usage predict those who are likely to be longer-term users of CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Christopher D; Bratton, Daniel J; Craig, Sonya E; Kohler, Malcolm; Stradling, John R

    2016-02-01

    Long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) usage varies between individuals. It would be of value to be able to identify those who are likely to benefit from CPAP (and use it long term), versus those who would not, and might therefore benefit from additional help early on. First, we explored whether baseline characteristics predicted CPAP usage in minimally symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, a group who would be expected to have low usage. Second, we explored if early CPAP usage was predictive of longer-term usage, as has been shown in more symptomatic OSA patients. The MOSAIC trial was a multi-centre randomised controlled trial where minimally symptomatic OSA patients were randomised to CPAP, or standard care, for 6 months. Here we have studied only those patients randomised to CPAP treatment. Baseline characteristics including symptoms, questionnaires [including the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS)] and sleep study parameters were recorded. CPAP usage was recorded at 2-4 weeks after initiation and after 6 months. The correlation and association between baseline characteristics and 6 months CPAP usage was assessed, as was the correlation between 2 and 4 weeks CPAP usage and 6 months CPAP usage. One hundred and ninety-five patients randomised to CPAP therapy had median [interquartile range (IQR)] CPAP usage of 2:49 (0:44, 5:13) h:min/night (h/n) at the 2-4 weeks visit, and 2:17 (0:08, 4:54) h/n at the 6 months follow-up visit. Only male gender was associated with increased long-term CPAP use (male usage 2:56 h/n, female 1:57 h/n; P=0.02). There was a moderate correlation between the usage of CPAP at 2-4 weeks and 6 months, with about 50% of the variability in long-term use being predicted by the short-term use. In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA, our study has shown that male gender (and not OSA severity or symptom burden) is associated with increased long-term use of CPAP at 6 months. Although, in general, early patterns of CPAP

  17. Risk determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The issue gives a survey of the legal, theological, statistical and health aspects of risk determination. It includes the opinions of physicians, epidemiologists, mathematicians, toxicologists, biologists, theologists and physicists who explain and illustrate the term of risk from their perspective. (orig./DG) [de

  18. Longer reaction time of the fibularis longus muscle and reduced postural control in basketball players with functional ankle instability: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Guzmán-Muñoz, Eduardo; Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann

    2015-08-01

    Motor control evaluation in subjects with functional ankle instability is questionable when both ankles of the same subject are compared (affected vs non-affected). To compare the postural control and reaction time of ankle muscles among: basketball players with FAI (instability group), basketball players without FAI (non-instability group) and healthy non-basketball-playing participants (control group). Case-control study. Laboratory. Instability (n = 10), non-instability (n = 10), and control groups (n = 11). Centre of pressure variables (area, velocity and sway) were measured with a force platform. Reaction time of ankle muscles was measured via electromyography. A one-way ANOVA demonstrated that there were significant differences between the instability and non-instability groups in the fibularis longus (p postural control and longer reaction time of the fibularis and tibialis anterior muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. "Help seniors live better, longer: prevent brain injury": an overview of CDC's education initiative to prevent fall-related TBI among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Kelly; Langlois, Jean A; Mitchko, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among older adults aged 75 and older. Despite this burden, many older adults, their caregivers, and professionals are not aware of the importance of TBI as an outcome of falls among older adults. To address this important public health problem, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the "Help Seniors Live Better, Longer: Prevent Brain Injury" initiative to help raise awareness about methods to prevent, recognize and respond to fall-related TBIs among older adults aged 75 and older. The initiative was launched in March 2008, in collaboration with 26 participating organizations, and included a multipronged outreach strategy to help blanket the country with the messages of the initiative at the national, state, and local levels. Adherence to a logical, comprehensive health-education approach has proven to be highly effective in furthering the initial goals of the project.

  20. Microbially influenced corrosion of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F

    1996-11-01

    An assessment of the potential for microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault is presented. The assessment is based on a consideration of the microbial activity within a disposal vault, the reported cases of MIC of Cu alloys in the literature and the known corrosion behaviour of Cu. Because of the critical role of biofilms in the reported cases of MIC, their formation and properties are discussed in detail. Next, the literature on the MIC of Cu alloys is briefly reviewed. The various MIC mechanisms proposed are critically discussed and the implications for the corrosion of Cu containers considered. In the majority of literature cases, MIC depends on alternating aerated and deaerated environments, with accelerated corrosion being observed when fresh aerated water replaces stagnant water, e.g., the MIC of Cu-Ni heat exchangers in polluted seawater and the microbially influenced pitting of Cu water pipes. Finally, because of the predominance of corrosion by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the MIC literature, the abiotic behaviour of Cu alloys in sulphide solutions is also reviewed. The effect of the evolving environment in a disposal vault on the extent and location of microbial activity is discussed. Biofilm formation on the container surface is considered unlikely throughout the container lifetime, but especially initially when the environmental conditions will be particularly aggressive. Microbial activity in areas of the vault away from the container is possible, however. Corrosion of the container could then occur if microbial metabolic by-products diffuse to the container surface. Sulphide, produced by the action of SRB are considered to be the most likely cause of container corrosion. It is concluded that the only likely form of MIC of Cu containers will result from sulphide produced by SRB diffusing to the container surface. A modelling procedure for predicting the extent of corrosion is

  1. Fecal containment in bedridden patients: economic impact of 2 commercial bowel catheter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal-Vem, Areta; Poulakidas, Stathis; Barnett, Barbara; Conway, Deborah; Culver, Daniel; Ferrari, Michelle; Potenza, Bruce; Koenig, Michael; Mah, John; Majewski, Mary; Morris, Linda; Powers, Jan; Stokes, Elizabeth; Tan, Michael; Salstrom, Sara-Jane; Zaletel, Cindy; Ambutas, Shirley; Casey, Kathleen; Stein, Jayne; DeSane, Mary; Berry, Kathy; Konz, Elizabeth C; Riemer, Michael R; Cullum, Malford E

    2009-05-01

    Fecal contamination is a major challenge in patients in acute/critical care settings that is associated with increased cost of care and supplies and with development of pressure ulcers, incontinence dermatitis, skin and soft tissue infections, and urinary tract infections. To assess the economic impact of fecal containment in bedridden patients using 2 different indwelling bowel catheters and to compare infection rates between groups. A multicenter, observational study was done at 12 US sites (7 that use catheter A, 5 that use catheter B). Patients were followed from insertion of an indwelling bowel catheter system until the patient left the acute/critical care unit or until 29 days after enrollment, whichever came first. Demographic data, frequency of bedding/dressing changes, incidence of infection, and Braden scores (risk of pressure ulcers) were recorded. The study included 146 bedridden patients (76 with catheter A, 70 with catheter B) who had similar Braden scores at enrollment. The rate of bedding/dressing changes per day differed significantly between groups (1.20 for catheter A vs 1.71 for catheter B; P = .004). According to a formula that accounted for personnel resources and laundry cycle costs, catheter A cost $13.94 less per patient per day to use than did catheter B. Catheter A was less likely than was catheter B to be removed during the observational period (P = .03). Observed infection rates were low. Catheter A may be more cost-effective than catheter B because it requires fewer unscheduled linen changes per patient day.

  2. Investigating the Female Subaltern, Colonial Discourse and False Consciousness: A Spivakian Marxist-Postcolonialist Reading of Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Mostafaee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research study attempts to investigate Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease in terms of Gayatri Spivak Marxist-Post colonialist conceptions of subaltern, colonial discourse and false consciousness. In Post-modernist fiction, there is anxiety that historical concerns such as the scale of violence in the Second World War, the Nazi genocide, the paranoiac politics of the Cold War and European colonialism have made fiction a medium for history. Chinua Achebe’s novels, indeed, are manifestation of colonialism and its subsequent impact on the literary text and dominant discourse. In exploring these terms, this dissertation endeavors to closely examine Gayatri Spivak’s concept of subaltern in the Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease. Furthermore, the present paper demonstrates Spivak’s voice to differences: that is, class categorization and marginalized subaltern subjects. By the emergence of colonialism, the significance of social class and social discourse became predominant; therefore, colonial discourses instilled into the social, cultural construction and literary text, particularly novel. In this regard, the investigation of the dominate discourses is pursued, and this helps to show how colonialism resulted in discourse inculcation. The resistant perspective against ruling ideology, as the Italian Marxist political activist, Antonio Gramsci calls it cultural hegemony is presented through language, tradition, and customs. Finally, the study focuses on Marxist concept of false consciousness from the viewpoint of Antonio Gramsci to Louis Althusser. Keywords: Colonial discourse, Subaltern, False Consciousness, Social Class, Change and Tradition, Language, Culture

  3. Longer-term Stream Nitrogen Dynamics after Wildfire and Salvage Harvesting: Implications for Management Concepts based on Trajectories of Post-disturbance Watershed Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.; Bladon, K. D.; Stone, M.; Williams, C.; Martens, A. M.; Wagner, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Biogeochemical processes reflecting interaction of vegetation and hydrology govern long-term export of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon over successional time scales. While management concepts of watershed "recovery" from disturbance back towards pre-disturbance conditions are often considered over much shorter timescales, few studies have directly explored watershed biogeochemical responses to disturbance long enough to directly document the longer-term trajectory of responses to severe land disturbance on nitrogen export. The objectives of this study were to document both the initial magnitude and patterns of longer-term recovery of stream nitrogen after the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire over nine years in front ranges of the Rocky Mountains in south-west Alberta, Canada. The study was conducted in seven instrumented catchments (4-14 km2), including burned, burned and salvage logged, and unburned (reference) conditions since 2004. Total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations and area-normalized yields were greater and more variable in burned and post-fire salvage logged catchments when compared with unburned catchments. Large initial increases in stream TN and NO3- production 1-3 years after both wildfire and post-fire salvage logging declined strongly to levels similar to, or below that of unburned watersheds 4-6 years after the fire, and continued to decline (although more slowly) 7-9 years after the wildfire. Post-fire salvage logging produced lower impacts on TN and NO3- in streams and these effects declined even more rapidly compared to the effects of wildfire alone. These changes closely corresponded to the early trajectory of establishment and rapid juvenile growth of post-fire regenerating forest vegetation in both catchment groups. While the concept of hydrologic recovery from disturbance is both a practical and meaningful concept for integrated landscape management for protection of forest water resources, the benchmark for

  4. 29 CFR 4.51 - Prevailing in the locality determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Prevailing in the locality determinations. 4.51 Section 4.51... Procedures § 4.51 Prevailing in the locality determinations. (a) Information considered. The minimum monetary... benefits contained in collective bargaining agreements where they have been determined to prevail in a...

  5. Microbially influenced corrosion of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    1996-11-01

    An assessment of the potential for microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault is presented. The assessment is based on a consideration of the microbial activity within a disposal vault, the reported cases of MIC of Cu alloys in the literature and the known corrosion behaviour of Cu. Because of the critical role of biofilms in the reported cases of MIC, their formation and properties are discussed in detail. Next, the literature on the MIC of Cu alloys is briefly reviewed. The various MIC mechanisms proposed are critically discussed and the implications for the corrosion of Cu containers considered. In the majority of literature cases, MIC depends on alternating aerated and deaerated environments, with accelerated corrosion being observed when fresh aerated water replaces stagnant water, e.g., the MIC of Cu-Ni heat exchangers in polluted seawater and the microbially influenced pitting of Cu water pipes. Finally, because of the predominance of corrosion by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the MIC literature, the abiotic behaviour of Cu alloys in sulphide solutions is also reviewed. The effect of the evolving environment in a disposal vault on the extent and location of microbial activity is discussed. Biofilm formation on the container surface is considered unlikely throughout the container lifetime, but especially initially when the environmental conditions will be particularly aggressive. Microbial activity in areas of the vault away from the container is possible, however. Corrosion of the container could then occur if microbial metabolic by-products diffuse to the container surface. Sulphide, produced by the action of SRB are considered to be the most likely cause of container corrosion. It is concluded that the only likely form of MIC of Cu containers will result from sulphide produced by SRB diffusing to the container surface. A modelling procedure for predicting the extent of corrosion is

  6. Study of gases contained in an Antarctica glacier; Etude des gaz contenus dans un glacier antarctique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynaud, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-15

    This report presents a study of gases contained in ice samples taken from a drilling 97.8 meters deep in the coastal zone of Adelie Land (Antarctica). Simultaneously, a study has been made of the composition of the atmospheric air and of the gases extracted in situ from the firn. Carbon dioxyde was analysed by means of gas-phase chromatography and argon, oxygen and nitrogen by means of mass spectrometry. The results obtained show that for the most part the oxygen concentration decreases with an increase in the depth of the drilling. The values range from a maximum of 20,83 per cent of the volume at the surface to a minimum of 19,46 per cent of the volume at a depth of 87 meters. The results also show that the distribution of carbon dioxide concentration does not vary with the depth. These concentrations are either in the same range as or lower than the concentration of CO{sub 2} found in atmospheric air. The different results are discussed. (author) [French] Le present travail rend compte d'analyses de gaz contenus dans des echantillons de glace provenant d'un forage de 97,8 m de profondeur, realise dans la zone cotiere de la Terre Adelie (Antarctique). Parallelement, la composition d'air atmospherique et de gaz extraits in situ du neve a ete etudiee. La chromatographie en phase gazeuse a ete utilisee pour analyser le CO{sub 2} et la spectrometrie de masse pour analyser l'argon, l'oxygene et l'azote. Les resultats obtenus indiquent essentiellement le long du forage: - une decroissance de la teneur en oxygene avec la profondeur, les valeurs extremes etant de 20.83 pour cent en volume a la surface et de 19,46 pour cent en volume a - 87 metres, - une repartition des teneurs en CO{sub 2} sans correlation nette avec la profondeur, ces teneurs etant de l'ordre ou inferieures a la teneur atmospherique. Les differents resultats sont discutes. (auteur)

  7. Simultaneous determination of radioactive halogen isotopes and 99Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabai, E.; Vajda, N.; Gaca, P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simplified method for simultaneous determination of radiologically important halogen isotopes and 99 Tc from different types of samples like environmental, biological and waste samples. Due to their long half-lives (longer than 10 5 years) they play important role in the nuclear cycle, especially in environmental monitoring and protection. For a rapid response in the evaluation of 129 I, 36 Cl and 99 Tc contamination levels of these samples it is advantageous to combine the existing individual methods. According to the present procedure, iodine, chlorine and technetium are separated selectively from the same sample aliquot followed by the β spectrometry of the purified fractions. Increased sensitivities can be achieved by neutron activation (NA) especially in the case of 129 I. Our work intends to solve the problem by combining the well-known hot acidic distillation method for iodine separation with the organic extraction process characteristic for technetium separation. The major objective of the work was to separate the disturbing halides from iodine. For this purpose a selective oxidant was applied. For the sample destruction and fractionated distillation an air flow-through installation was used with hot concentrated sulphuric and nitric acids. The trap for iodine contained 3 M NaOH solution. After iodine separation the trap was exchanged for a new one containing the same solution for trapping chlorine or bromine with an addition of 0.01 M KMnO 4 solution as an oxidative agent. As expected, the main part of technetium was contained in the acidic residue after distillation. Tc purification was performed by organic extraction with TBP and TEVA column. (author)

  8. Determination of atmospheric concentrations of xenon radioisotopes. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, K.H.; Panisko, M.E.; Hensley, W.K.; Bowyer, T.W.; Perkins, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    Determination of radioactive xenon concentrations in the atmosphere over a two year period has been performed as part of a research program to develop real-time measurement capabilities. The initial measurements were made to develop, prove, and validate the authors technical approach, while the longer-term measurements are being undertaken to establish natural background concentrations and variability with time. The results reported were made using noble gas fraction (typically 90% Kr and 10% Xe by weight) gas samples obtained from a commercial air-reduction plant in the northeastern US over a two-year interval beginning in the fall of 1993. The concentrated gas samples were typically obtained during a 6--8 hour interval at the commercial reduction plant and were shipped overnight to their laboratory. Analysis was typically completed approximately 24 hours after sampling. The analytical separation process typically took approximately 6 hours and gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were conducted for intervals ranging from 3 to 16 hours. The technical approach involved removal of potentially interfering radon daughter radionuclides using a molecular sieve at room temperature, followed by cryogenic concentration of noble gases using a chilled (-76 C) activated carbon molecular sieve. During initial measurements both molecular sieve materials were contained in 30 foot x 1/4 inch gas chromatography columns for analytical separations. Krypton was separated from Xenon during the analytical procedure by warming the activated carbon molecular sieve to room temperature after initial noble gas concentration and actively pumping it away. Xenon-133 adsorbed to the activated charcoal molecular sieve was then quantified via its 81 keV gamma-ray using initially a p-type intrinsic germanium detector and later a higher efficiency (64% relative to a 3 inch x 3 inch sodium iodide) n-type intrinsic germanium detector

  9. Intermodal Transport and Repositioning of Empty Containers in Central and Eastern Europe Hinterland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolar, Petr; Schramm, Hans-Joachim; Prockl, Günter

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a review of literature dealing with empty container repositioning. This review is interlinked with a qualitative data analysis based on semi-structured interviews with representatives of ocean carriers, which are key actors determining empty container....... By addressing the research questions and conducting the analysis, the authors determine whether empty container repositioning is a problem only concerning equipment allocation by an ocean carrier or requires a collaborative resolution involving various parties engaged in container movements in landlocked...... hinterlands. This article confirms that most existing literature dealing with empty container repositioning ignores the actual dynamics of landlocked hinterlands as well as business practitioners' perspective. The authors' analysis of the empirical research complements and challenges the reviewed research...

  10. Increased left ventricular myocardial extracellular volume is associated with longer cardiopulmonary bypass times, biventricular enlargement and reduced exercise tolerance in children after repair of Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesenkampff, Eugénie; Luining, Wietske; Seed, Mike; Chungsomprasong, Paweena; Manlhiot, Cedric; Elders, Bernadette; McCrindle, Brian W; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars

    2016-10-26

    Unfavorable left ventricular (LV) remodelling may be associated with adverse outcomes after Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair. We sought to assess T1 cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) markers of diffuse LV myocardial fibrosis in children after TOF repair, and associated factors. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, native (=non-contrast) T1 times and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) were quantified in the LV myocardium using CMR. Results were related to ventricular volumes and function, degree of pulmonary regurgitation, as well as surgical characteristics, and exercise capacity. There was no difference in native T1 times or ECV between 31 TOF patients (age at CMR 13.9 ± 2.4 years, 19 male) and 15 controls (age at CMR 13.4 ± 2.6 years, 7 male). Female TOF patients had higher ECVs than males (25.2 ± 2.9 % versus 22.7 ± 3.3 %, p < 0.05). In the patient group, higher native T1 and ECV correlated with higher Z-Scores of right and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes, but not with reduced left and right ventricular ejection fraction or higher pulmonary regurgitation fraction. Longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamp times at surgery correlated with increased native T1 times and ECVs (r = 0.48, p < 0.05 and r = 0.65, p < 0.01, respectively). Maximum workload (percent of predicted for normal) correlated inversely with ECV (r = -0.62, p < 0.05). Higher native T1 times correlated with worse LV longitudinal (r = 0.50, p < 0.05) and mid short axis circumferential strain (r = 0.38, p < 0.05). As compared to controls, TOF patients did not express higher markers of diffuse fibrosis. Longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamp times at surgery as well as biventricular enlargement and reduced exercise tolerance are associated with markers of diffuse myocardial fibrosis after TOF repair. Female patients have higher markers of diffuse myocardial fibrosis than males.

  11. Is Patient Support Program Participation Associated with Longer Persistence and Improved Adherence Among New Users of Adalimumab? A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srulovici, Einav; Garg, Vishvas; Ghilai, Adi; Feldman, Becca; Hoshen, Moshe; Balicer, Ran D; Skup, Martha; Leventer-Roberts, Maya

    2018-05-10

    Adalimumab (ADA) is a medication used in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases. Despite the beneficial effects of ADA, its adherence and persistence rates are low. Patients treated with ADA from Clalit Health Services (CHS) can enroll in AbbVie's patient support program (PSP), which aims to improve ADA adherence and persistence. Therefore, we examine whether PSP participation is associated with a longer persistence and/or an improved adherence to ADA. A real-world retrospective cohort study of all new ADA users from CHS, comparing those enrolled in the offered PSP to those not enrolled. The data regarding PSP users can be tracked using CHS's data warehouse. The index date was defined as the date of the patients' first purchase of ADA occurring between August 1, 2012 and December 31, 2014. The follow-up data were collected at 12, 24, and 36 months. Persistence was assessed using survival analyses of time until discontinuation, and adherence was assessed using medication possession ratio (MPR). There were 1520 patients in the study, 755 (49.7%) of whom were PSP users. PSP users were 54.3% female vs. 51.9% among non-PSP users (p = 0.355) and they were significantly younger than non-PSP users (mean age 42.3 vs. 45.0 years, p = 0.002) The PSP and non-PSP users' persistence was 673 and 574 days, respectively (p users were more likely than the non-PSP users to be persistently taking medication at the 12-month follow-up (57.5% vs. 45.6%, p users compared to the non-PSP users (94.1% vs. 92.9%, p = 0.026). The AbbVie PSP provided to CHS patients was associated with a longer persistence among new users of ADA. It was also associated with significantly higher adherence rate within the first 12 months. AbbVie Inc.

  12. States characterized by the irreducible single row representations of the U(3) is contained in SO(3) and U(4) is contained in Dsup(3/2)[SO(3)] chains of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, T.S.

    1977-01-01

    A new method is applied in order to obtain the irreducible single row representations of the groups under study. For the case U(3) contained in SO(3) also an explicit realization is constructed. The method has the advantage of being simpler than the previously used ones. (author)

  13. A case study of the Australian Plague Locust Commission and environmental due diligence: why mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for environmentally responsible locust control in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Paul G; Walker, Paul W; McRae, Heath; Hamilton, John G

    2005-07-01

    The Australian Plague Locust Commission (APLC) manages locust populations across 2 million square kilometers of eastern Australia using the aerial application of chemical and biological control agents to protect agricultural production. This occurs via a preventative control strategy involving ultralow-volume spray equipment to distribute small droplets of control agent over a target area. The economic costs of, and potential gains stemming from, locust control are well documented. The application of insecticides, however, to fragile arid and semiarid ecosystems is a task that brings with it both real and perceived environmental issues. The APLC is proactive in addressing these issues through a combination of targeted environmental operational research, an ISO-14001-aligned Environmental Management System (EMS), and links with environmental regulatory and research institutions. Increasing due diligence components within Australian environmental legislation dictate that mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for industries to ensure that they meet their environmental obligations. The development of external research links and the formulation of an EMS for locust control have enabled the APLC to identify environmental issues and trends, quantify objective environmental targets and strategies, and facilitate continuous improvement in its environmental performance, while maintaining stakeholder support. This article outlines the environmental issues faced by the APLC, the research programs in place to address these issues, and the procedures in place to incorporate research findings into the organization's operational structure.

  14. Improving the Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Growing Longer ZnO Nanorods on TiO2 Photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-gai Zhai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By increasing the temperature of hydrothermal reactions from 70 to 100°C, vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the TiO2 thin film in the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs as the blocking layer to reduce the electron back recombinations at the TiO2/electrolyte interfaces. The length effects of ZnO nanorods on the photovoltaic performances of TiO2 based DSSCs were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, photoluminescence spectrophotometer, and the photocurrent-voltage measurement. Under the illumination of 100 mW/cm2, the power conversion efficiency of DSSC with ZnO nanorods decorated TiO2 thin film as its photoanode can be increased nearly fourfold from 0.27% to 1.30% as the length of ZnO nanorods increases from 300 to 1600 nm. The enhanced efficiency of DSSC with ZnO nanorods decorated TiO2 thin film as the photoanode can be attributed to the larger surface area and the lower defect density in longer ZnO nanorods, which are in favor of more dye adsorption and more efficient transport in the photoanode.

  15. The potential for extending the spectral range accessible to the european X-ray free electron laser in the direction of longer wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Saldin, E L; Yurkov, M V

    2004-01-01

    The baseline specifications of European XFEL give a range of wavelengths between 0.1 nm and 2 nm. This wavelength range at fixed electron beam energy 17.5 GeV can be covered by operating the SASE FEL with three undulators which have different period and tunable gap. A study of the potential for the extending the spectral range accessible to the XFEL in the direction of longer wavelengths is presented. The extension of the wavelength range to 6 nm would be cover the water window in the VUV region, opening the facility to a new class of experiments. There are at least two possible sources of VUV radiation associated with the X-ray FEL; the "low (2.5 GeV) energy electron beam dedicated" and the " 17.5 GeV spent beam parasitic" (or "after-burner") source modes. The second alternative, "after-burner undulator" is the one we regard as most favorable. It is possible to place an undulator as long as 80 meters after 2 nm undulator. Ultimately, VUV undulator would be able to deliver output power approaching 100 GW. A b...

  16. Longer ice-free seasons increase the risk of nest depredation by polar bears for colonial breeding birds in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Samuel A; Gilchrist, H Grant; Smith, Paul A; Gaston, Anthony J; Forbes, Mark R

    2014-03-22

    Northern polar regions have warmed more than other parts of the globe potentially amplifying the effects of climate change on biological communities. Ice-free seasons are becoming longer in many areas, which has reduced the time available to polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to hunt for seals and hampered bears' ability to meet their energetic demands. In this study, we examined polar bears' use of an ancillary prey resource, eggs of colonial nesting birds, in relation to diminishing sea ice coverage in a low latitude region of the Canadian Arctic. Long-term monitoring reveals that bear incursions onto common eider (Somateria mollissima) and thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) nesting colonies have increased greater than sevenfold since the 1980s and that there is an inverse correlation between ice season length and bear presence. In surveys encompassing more than 1000 km of coastline during years of record low ice coverage (2010-2012), we encountered bears or bear sign on 34% of eider colonies and estimated greater egg loss as a consequence of depredation by bears than by more customary nest predators, such as foxes and gulls. Our findings demonstrate how changes in abiotic conditions caused by climate change have altered predator-prey dynamics and are leading to cascading ecological impacts in Arctic ecosystems.

  17. Longer epilepsy duration and multiple lobe involvement predict worse seizure outcomes for patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy associated with neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Crociati Meguins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the surgical outcomes of temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS and neurocysticercosis (NCC. Methods A retrospective investigation of patients with TLE-HS was conducted in a tertiary center. Results Seventy-nine (62.2%, 37 (29.1%, 6 (4.7%, and 5 (3.9% patients were Engel class I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Fifty-two (71.2% patients with epilepsy durations ≤ 10 years prior to surgery were seizure-free 1 year after the operation compared to 27 (50.0% patients with epilepsy durations > 10 years (p = 0.0121. Forty-three (72.9% patients with three or fewer lobes affected by NCC were seizure-free one year after the operation, and 36 (52.9% patients with more than three involved lobes were seizure-free after surgery (p = 0.0163. Conclusions Longer epilepsy durations and multiple lobe involvement predicted worse seizure outcomes in TLE-HS plus NCC patients.

  18. The Bachelor’s to PhD STEM Pipeline No Longer Leaks More Women Than Men: A 30-Year Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Miller

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For three decades, research and public discourse about women’s underrepresentation in academic science have often focused on the leaky pipeline metaphor. According to this metaphor, women are more likely than men to leave science at multiple points from the beginning of college through academic tenure. We used retrospective longitudinal methods to investigate how accurately this metaphor has described the bachelor’s to PhD pipeline in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM fields in the United States (U.S. since the 1970s. Among STEM bachelor’s degree earners in the 1970s and 1980s, women were less likely than men to later earn a STEM PhD. However, this gender difference closed in the 1990s. Qualitatively similar trends were found across STEM disciplines. The leaky pipeline metaphor therefore partially explains historical gender differences in the U.S., but no longer describes current gender differences in the bachelor’s to PhD transition in STEM. Our results help constrain theories of how various factors contribute to women’s underrepresentation in STEM. Overall, these results point to the need to understand gender differences at the bachelor’s level and below to understand women’s representation in STEM at the PhD level and above.

  19. Investigating the Longer-Term Impact of the CREST Inquiry-Based Learning Programme on Student Self-regulated Processes and Related Motivations: Views of Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moote, Julie

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the impact of participation in the CREativity in Science and Technology (CREST) programme on student self-regulated processes and related motivations. The CREST scheme, a student-run science project managed by the British Science Association, is currently being implemented in schools across the UK to increase student engagement and motivation in science. Through implementing a rigorous quasi-experimental research design using two intervention conditions and one control group with immediate as well as 3-month delayed post-test data, the results documented both the immediate and longer-term positive impact of CREST participation on students' self-reported levels of self-regulation. The present study also investigates changes in teachers' perceptions of students' self-regulated learning through CREST programme participation. Group differences regarding changes in student self-reported self-regulation were not matched when looking at the teacher-reported self-regulated learning results at both immediate post-test and delayed post-test. These discrepancies are discussed in relation to analyses conducted on the other motivational constructs measured.

  20. Short and longer duration effects of protective gloves on hand performance capabilities and subjective assessments in a screw-driving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Iman; Haslegrave, Christine M; Stedmon, Alex W

    2010-12-01

    The study investigated short and longer duration effects of gloves on hand performance capabilities (muscle activity, dexterity, touch sensitivity, finger pinch and forearm torque strength) and subjective assessments of discomfort and ease of manipulation when performing a light assembly task. The independent variables were hand condition with four levels (wearing cotton, nylon or nitrile gloves as well as barehanded) and point of time within the 2 h duration of the task (with measurements taken at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Participants worked with a screwdriver to fit two components together using screws. Wearing gloves significantly increased the muscle activity, pinch strength and discomfort but reduced the dexterity and touch sensitivity. There was also a significant effect of task time on the muscle activity, dexterity, forearm torque strength and touch sensitivity, which indicates that the duration of the task should be an important consideration in glove evaluation studies and in the selection of work gloves. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: It is important to evaluate the effects of gloves on hand performance capabilities in a working context so that job demands can be taken into account and the most appropriate type of glove be chosen for each task. This study gives recommendations regarding the evaluation and use of gloves for screw-driving tasks.

  1. l-Tyrosine Contained in Dietary Supplement by Chemiluminescence Reaction of an Iron-Phthalocyanine Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Ohtomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemiluminescence (CL signal immediately appeared when a hydrogen peroxide solution was injected into an iron-phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (Fe-PTS aqueous solution. Moreover, the CL intensity of Fe-PTS decreased by adding L-tyrosine. Based on these results, the determination of trace amounts of L-tyrosine was developed using the quenching-chemiluminescence. The calibration curve of L-tyrosine was obtained in the concentration range of 2.0×10−7 M to 2.0×10−5 M. Moreover, the relative standard deviation (RSD was 1.63 % (=5 for 2.0×10−6 M L-tyrosine, and its detection limits (3σ were 1.81×10−7 M. The spike and recovery experiments for L-tyrosine were performed using a soft drink. Furthermore, the determination of L-tyrosine was applied to supplements containing various kinds of amino acids. Each satisfactory relative recovery was obtained at 98 to 102%.

  2. Studying the processes relating to oxidation of organic substances contained in the coolant of thermal and nuclear power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodyrev, B. N.; Krichevtsov, A. L.; Sokolyuk, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    A radical-chain mechanism governing thermal-oxidation destruction of organic substances contained in the coolant of thermal and nuclear power stations is considered. Hypotheses on the chemical nature of antioxidation properties of amines are presented. Theoretical conjectures about the fundamental processes through which protective amine films are formed on the surface of metals are suggested.

  3. Inverse eigenvalue problems for Sturm-Liouville equations with spectral parameter linearly contained in one of the boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Guliyev, Namig J.

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Inverse problems of recovering the coefficients of Sturm–Liouville problems with the eigenvalue parameter linearly contained in one of the boundary conditions are studied: 1) from the sequences of eigenvalues and norming constants; 2) from two spectra. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the solvability of these inverse problems are obtained.

  4. Concrete containments in Swedish nuclear power plants. A review of construction and material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Thomas; Silfwerbrand, Johan; Sundquist, Haakan

    2002-12-01

    attention. Current investigation shows that the documentation on the concrete containment structures of the Swedish nuclear power stations is fairly complete after the authors have obtained new information through a survey during 2001 and included these data in the report. The target group of this report are structural engineers and other people interested in knowing how the prestressed concrete containments in the Swedish nuclear power stations are designed, detailed and constructed. Uprising questions regarding the structural behaviour of the containment structures ought to be evaluated by using present material properties and not the data describing the used building materials at the design stage. The aim of this research project is to gain new knowledge on life span questions regarding prestressing steel in concrete structures, partly generally and partly with focus on Swedish nuclear power stations and Swedish bridges. The project covers both bonded and un bonded prestressing steel. This report describes the containment structures for all Swedish nuclear power stations. The information is both given in Chapters 5 through 16 and assembled in tables in Appendix A. The intention is that the documentation shall grow and be supplemented as soon as new information, either new data describing the containment structures or new measuring results, will be obtained or produced within current research project. Design and detailing of prestressed concrete structures are among others based on the knowledge of time-dependent material changes regarding concrete (creep and shrinkage) and prestressing steel (relaxation). The intention is that the following items will treated: general evaluation; testing of prestressing steel and concrete properties; assessment of the risk of a time-dependent increase of brittleness of the prestressing steel; comparisons with codes; modelling of steel relaxation; unidimensional modelling of prestressing losses; regard to elevated temperatures

  5. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  6. Beyond the crisis: building back better mental health care in 10 emergency-affected areas using a longer-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping-Jordan, JoAnne E; van Ommeren, Mark; Ashour, Hazem Nayef; Maramis, Albert; Marini, Anita; Mohanraj, Andrew; Noori, Aqila; Rizwan, Humayun; Saeed, Khalid; Silove, Derrick; Suveendran, T; Urbina, Liliana; Ventevogel, Peter; Saxena, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Major gaps remain - especially in low- and middle-income countries - in the realization of comprehensive, community-based mental health care. One potentially important yet overlooked opportunity for accelerating mental health reform lies within emergency situations, such as armed conflicts or natural disasters. Despite their adverse impacts on affected populations' mental health and well being, emergencies also draw attention and resources to these issues and provide openings for mental health service development. Cases were considered if they represented a low- or middle-income country or territory affected by an emergency, were initiated between 2000 and 2010, succeeded in making changes to the mental health system, and were able to be documented by an expert involved directly with the case. Based on these criteria, 10 case examples from diverse emergency-affected settings were included: Afghanistan, Burundi, Indonesia (Aceh Province), Iraq, Jordan, Kosovo, occupied Palestinian territory, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Timor-Leste. These cases demonstrate generally that emergency contexts can be tapped to make substantial and sustainable improvements in mental health systems. From these experiences, 10 common lessons learnt were identified on how to make this happen. These lessons include the importance of adopting a longer-term perspective for mental health reform from the outset, and focusing on system-wide reform that addresses both new-onset and pre-existing mental disorders. Global progress in mental health care would happen more quickly if, in every crisis, strategic efforts were made to convert short-term interest in mental health problems into momentum for mental health reform.

  7. Delayed hippocampal neuronal death in young gerbil following transient global cerebral ischemia is related to higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the ischemic hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Joo Bae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor p63 is one of p53 family members and plays a vital role as a regulator of neuronal apoptosis in the development of the nervous system. However, the role of p63 in mature neuronal death has not been addressed yet. In this study, we first compared ischemia-induced effects on p63 expression in the hippocampal regions (CA1- 3 between the young and adult gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia. Neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region of young gerbils was significantly slow compared with that in the adult gerbils after transient global cerebral ischemia. p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated young group was significantly low compared with that in the sham-operated adult group. p63 immunoreactivity was apparently changed in ischemic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. In the ischemia-operated adult groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was significantly decreased at 4 days post-ischemia; however, p63 immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated young group was significantly higher than that in the ischemia-operated adult group. At 7 days post-ischemia, p63 immunoreactivity was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. Change patterns of p63 level in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult and young gerbils after ischemic damage were similar to those observed in the immunohistochemical results. These findings indicate that higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the hippocampal CA1 region of the young gerbils after ischemia/reperfusion may be related to more delayed neuronal death compared to that in the adults.

  8. The development of the Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care (QuIRC: a measure of best practice for facilities for people with longer term mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visser Ellen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the progress over recent decades in developing community mental health services internationally, many people still receive treatment and care in institutional settings. Those most likely to reside longest in these facilities have the most complex mental health problems and are at most risk of potential abuses of care and exploitation. This study aimed to develop an international, standardised toolkit to assess the quality of care in longer term hospital and community based mental health units, including the degree to which human rights, social inclusion and autonomy are promoted. Method The domains of care included in the toolkit were identified from a systematic literature review, international expert Delphi exercise, and review of care standards in ten European countries. The draft toolkit comprised 154 questions for unit managers. Inter-rater reliability was tested in 202 units across ten countries at different stages of deinstitutionalisation and development of community mental health services. Exploratory factor analysis was used to corroborate the allocation of items to domains. Feedback from those using the toolkit was collected about its usefulness and ease of completion. Results The toolkit had excellent inter-rater reliability and few items with narrow spread of response. Unit managers found the content highly relevant and were able to complete it in around 90 minutes. Minimal refinement was required and the final version comprised 145 questions assessing seven domains of care. Conclusions Triangulation of qualitative and quantitative evidence directed the development of a robust and comprehensive international quality assessment toolkit for units in highly variable socioeconomic and political contexts.

  9. Has cost containment after the National Health Insurance system been successful? Determinants of Taiwan hospital costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jung-Hua; Chang, Li

    2008-03-01

    Taiwan implemented the National Health Insurance system (NHI) in 1995. After the NHI, the insurance coverage expanded and the quality of healthcare improved, however, the healthcare costs significantly escalated. The objective of this study is to determine what factors have direct impact on the increased costs after the NHI. Panel data analysis is used to investigate changes and factors affecting cost containment at Taipei municipal hospitals from 1990 to 2001. The results show that the expansion of insured healthcare coverage (especially to the elderly and the treatment of more complicated types of diseases), and the increased competition (requiring the growth of new technology and the longer average length of stay) are important driving forces behind the increase of hospital costs, directly influenced by the advent of the NHI. Therefore, policymakers should emphasize health prevention activities and disease management programs for the elderly to improve cost containment. In addition, hospital managers should find ways to improve the hospital efficiency (shorten the LOS) to reduce excess services and medical waste. They also need to better understand their market position and acquire suitable new-tech equipment earlier, to be a leader, not a follower. Finally, policymakers should establish related benchmark indices for what drivers up hospital costs (micro-aspect) and to control healthcare expenditures (macro-level).

  10. Research programme related to the influence of wind on contamination containment in nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, S.; Gelain, T.; Laborde, J.C.; Ricciardi, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DSU/SERAC/LEMAC), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-07-01

    In nuclear industry, the response of a ventilation network to accidental disturbances, either mechanical (fan failure, damper blockage,..) or thermal (fire..) is difficult to evaluate when the network becomes complex. In order to determine and analyze the consequences of these disturbances on the radioactive materials containment, a computer code called SIMEVENT has been developed. However, among the external parameters likely to affect a ventilation network, the wind effect is actually basically modeled, due to a lack of qualified data concerning the wind impact on complex building geometries and the interaction between wind and chimney exhaust. In view of the networks complexity and the facilities diversity, a research program including experimental and model studies has been launched to assess the wind influence on contamination containment. 1. step: improvement of data (2005-2006): The diversity of facilities geometries needs the use of a qualified multi-D code for pressure coefficients Cpi assessment, characterizing the wind effect on building walls and the interaction between wind and chimney exhaust. Different chimney terminals have then been placed in a wind tunnel (the parameters are the incline angle a, the wind velocity U and the air flow in the duct W); for each angle, the evolution of the pressure coefficient versus wind velocity is determined and is characteristic of a chimney terminal geometry. Furthermore, two types of scale-model have been chosen for representing either nuclear power plants (NPP) or plants and laboratories buildings. The different values of wind pressure coefficients have been measured on both scale-models placed in a wind-tunnel. The experimental data obtained are compared with CFD simulations (CFX code), in order to qualify such code for the assessment of pressure coefficient on complex geometries. The results are quite encouraging. 2. step - wind tunnel tests on a ventilated scale model (2007-2009): Wind tunnel tests will be

  11. Research programme related to the influence of wind on contamination containment in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, S.; Gelain, T.; Laborde, J.C.; Ricciardi, L.

    2006-01-01

    In nuclear industry, the response of a ventilation network to accidental disturbances, either mechanical (fan failure, damper blockage,..) or thermal (fire..) is difficult to evaluate when the network becomes complex. In order to determine and analyze the consequences of these disturbances on the radioactive materials containment, a computer code called SIMEVENT has been developed. However, among the external parameters likely to affect a ventilation network, the wind effect is actually basically modeled, due to a lack of qualified data concerning the wind impact on complex building geometries and the interaction between wind and chimney exhaust. In view of the networks complexity and the facilities diversity, a research program including experimental and model studies has been launched to assess the wind influence on contamination containment. 1. step: improvement of data (2005-2006): The diversity of facilities geometries needs the use of a qualified multi-D code for pressure coefficients Cpi assessment, characterizing the wind effect on building walls and the interaction between wind and chimney exhaust. Different chimney terminals have then been placed in a wind tunnel (the parameters are the incline angle a, the wind velocity U and the air flow in the duct W); for each angle, the evolution of the pressure coefficient versus wind velocity is determined and is characteristic of a chimney terminal geometry. Furthermore, two types of scale-model have been chosen for representing either nuclear power plants (NPP) or plants and laboratories buildings. The different values of wind pressure coefficients have been measured on both scale-models placed in a wind-tunnel. The experimental data obtained are compared with CFD simulations (CFX code), in order to qualify such code for the assessment of pressure coefficient on complex geometries. The results are quite encouraging. 2. step - wind tunnel tests on a ventilated scale model (2007-2009): Wind tunnel tests will be

  12. 2D modelling of a UF6 container in a fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    We present some results on 2D thermal modelisation of the behaviour of UF6 in a fire. A cylindrical container is engulfed by a high temperature space where the heat transfer is expected to occur by radiation only. During the first minutes, we assume that the thermal resistance is between the external wall and the UF6 solid, the heat transfer can be split up into three kinds: 1) conduction to solid UF6 through a contact surface. 2) radiative transfer. 3) gas layer with a small heat conductance. This thermal resistance is initially determined by the UF6 filling type, shape and also is time dependant by thermal dilatation effects. On the onset of liquifying the heat transfer increases because of the larger liquid exchange. The liquid and boiling heat flow is then calculated by a model on the basis of classical correlations in vertical cavities. Numerical evaluations have been performed with a finite element model using: ANSYS. With a realistic hypothesis, the effect of the following parameters is estimated: thermal conductivity of UF6 solid, contact surface fraction, UF6 emissivity, gas gap thickness, liquid UF6 wall exchange, solid liquid transition criteria, non condensation factor k. (J.P.N.)

  13. Aluminothermic reduction of Cr2O3 contained in the ash of thermally treated leather waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Wenzel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the viability of utilising ashes with high chromium oxide content, obtained by thermal treatment of footwear leather waste, in the production of low-carbon ferrochromium alloy (Fe-Cr-LC by aluminothermic reduction was investigated. The following key-factors were selected for process modelling: the quantity of aluminium (Al employed in the reaction, the iron amount added, the iron compound (Fe and/or Fe2O3 used, and the chromic acid addition. The process was investigated using a 2(4 full factorial design where the percentage of Cr2O3 reduced was used as the response. Variance analysis was employed to determine the significant effects and to validate the obtained model. The model was useful for finding the optimal operating conditions, including the maximisation of chromium conversion and the gross margin. Both resulted in similar process conditions, with 76.8±12.3% of chromium being reduced to the metallic phase, and 1.65±0.52 USD (kg ash-1 as the gross margin. The qualities of some alloys obtained were investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (SEM/EDS. The results showed that the main problem for these alloys in a standard specification was the P and S content, suggesting that a pre-treatment is required.

  14. [Fatty acids contained in 4 pejibaye palm species, Bactris gasipaes (Palmae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Piedra, M; Blanco-Metzler, A; Mora-Urpí, J

    1995-01-01

    Cooked and uncooked samples from four pejibaye palm races were analyzed to determine the moisture content, ether extract and the content of six fatty acids (C16:0 to C18:3). There was an increase in moisture and a decrease in ether extract (p < 0.05) in the cooked samples in comparison with the uncooked ones. No significant differences were found in fatty acid content between cooked and uncooked samples, but there were differences (p < 0.05) among races concerning the content of four fatty acids. Pejibaye fat is mainly mono-unsaturated (45.6%) and has a low poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (0.5). The fatty acid profile of uncooked pejibaye samples was: oleic acid, 32.6 to 47.8%; palmitic acid, 30.5 to 40.3%; linoleic acid, 11.2 to 21.1%; palmitoleic acid, 5.7 to 7.1%; linoleic acid, 1.5 to 5.5%; and stearic acid, 1.7 to 2.4%.

  15. Influence of calcium carbonate on the decomposition of asbestos contained in end-of-life products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belardi, G.; Piga, L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We characterized end-of-life asbestos-containing materials. • In the range 620–680 °C, calcite and quartz affect decomposition of asbestos. • Hypothesized decomposition reactions match with solid phases revealed by XRD analysis. • TGA of the content of chrysotile gives good results both in air and in nitrogen. - Abstract: Three bearing-asbestos wastes, friction material, vinyl-asbestos (linoleum) and cement-asbestos mainly containing chrysotile were characterized. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRDP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with microanalysis observations and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) were carried out on the materials as received and after heating at 1100 °C in order to observe their structural changes and thermal behaviours. A quantitative determination of chrysotile in the friction material was also carried out. To study the influence of CaCO 3 on the decomposition of asbestos, the three techniques were also applied on the linoleum and cement-asbestos at room temperature and at 1100 °C after leaching of the materials with 1:3 HCl to remove the carbonates present in the wastes. The results show that the presence of CaCO 3 prevents the asbestos to decompose according to the known decomposition reactions and leads to the formation of calcium-silicate compounds. When CaCO 3 is removed by washing with HCl, decomposition of asbestos proceeds according to the expected reactions

  16. [Depyrogenation test regarding inox and glass containers in the preparation of parenteral nutrition mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoinie, A; Vasselon, P; Tall, M-L; Salmon, D; Bréant, V; Diouf, E; Pivot, C; Pirot, F

    2012-09-01

    The preparation of parenteral nutrition mixture (PNM) in an open chamber requires the use of intermediate containers sterile and non-pyrogenic. A sterilization of containers by moist heat in large autoclaves is the suitable method. However, sterilization by moist heat is not a depyrogenation method. In our study, we report the validation of a sterilization and depyrogenation method for containers by dry heat using a convection oven. Sterilization and depyrogenation of material by dry heat have been audited by the reduction of at least three logarithms of original endotoxin rate. The containers were initially artificially contaminated with a suspension of endotoxin for 16 hours. Contaminated containers were placed in an oven with revolving heat at 250 °C for 1 hour. After treatment with dry heat, the residual endotoxin levels in the containers were determined by a kinetic chromogenic method. After treatment with dry heat, the average log reductions of endotoxin levels were respectively, for glass and steel containers, 4.78 ± 0.07 and 4.87 ± 0.03. The present validation study confirms the effectiveness of treatment with dry heat for sterilization and depyrogenation of glass and steel containers. This method of sterilization and depyrogenation meets the microbiological quality requirements for the preparation of MNP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on emission of decomposed chemicals of esters contained in PVC flooring and adhesive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chino, Satoko; Ataka, Yuji [R and D Center, Yoshino Gypsum Co., Ltd., 2-1-1 Kohoku, Adachi-ku, Tokyo, 123-0872 (Japan); Kato, Shinsuke; Seo, Janghoo [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    2-Ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) is sometimes detected in indoor air at relatively high concentrations. The emission mechanism for 2E1H is considered to be that moisture with a high pH in concrete slabs and self-leveling sub-flooring material reacts with di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring and compounds containing the 2-ethyl-1-hexyl group in the adhesive. 2E1H is considered to be one of the causes of odor in indoor air and sick building syndrome, so it is important to clarify the 2E1H emission mechanism for IAQ. However, there are few reports on any experimentation into 2E1H emission by chemical reaction involving building materials. In this study, PVC floorings are attached using various adhesives to a self-leveling sub-flooring material that contains water, and their 2E1H emission rates are measured. Furthermore, the components of the adhesives are determined using chemical analysis. It is found that 2E1H emission rates from the floor are affected by the type of adhesive used. On the other hand, some components in the adhesives may suppress the hydrolysis of esters. The hydrolysis of polymers and residual monomers in the adhesive causes 2E1H emission from the adhesive. (author)

  18. Pyrolysis behavior of different type of materials contained in the rejects of packaging waste sorting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrados, A; De Marco, I; Lopez-Urionabarrenechea, A; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F

    2013-01-01

    In this paper rejected streams coming from a waste packaging material recovery facility have been characterized and separated into families of products of similar nature in order to determine the influence of different types of ingredients in the products obtained in the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis experiments have been carried out in a non-stirred batch 3.5 dm(3) reactor, swept with 1 L min(-1) N(2), at 500°C for 30 min. Pyrolysis liquids are composed of an organic phase and an aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is greater as higher is the cellulosic material content in the sample. The organic phase contains valuable chemicals as styrene, ethylbenzene and toluene, and has high heating value (HHV) (33-40 MJ kg(-1)). Therefore they could be used as alternative fuels for heat and power generation and as a source of valuable chemicals. Pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons but contain high amounts of CO and CO(2); their HHV is in the range of 18-46 MJ kg(-1). The amount of COCO(2) increases, and consequently HHV decreases as higher is the cellulosic content of the waste. Pyrolysis solids are mainly composed of inorganics and char formed in the process. The cellulosic materials lower the quality of the pyrolysis liquids and gases, and increase the production of char. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of the sealing system of an ilw transport container in a 9m regulatory impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievwright, R.W.T.; Gray, I.L.S.; Bernasconi, D.J.; McGuinn, P.; Tso, C.F.

    1998-01-01

    UK Nirex Ltd is developing a range of reusable shielded transport containers (RSTCs) to ensure the safe transport of immobilised intermediate level waste to a future UK deep repository for disposal. The RSTCs use an inset lid for mechanical strength and radiation shielding, but the containment boundary is provided by a separate lid seal member (LSM). The LSM is a semi-flexible steel diaphragm surrounded by a rim which carries a double O-ring seal. The LSM rim is clamped to a flat mating surface on the container body. A finite element model has been developed for an RSTC with a wall thickness of 285 mm, in order to assess its containment performance in 9m regulatory drop tests (IAEA 1996). The challenge was to predict the size of small gaps that might appear between the LSM rim and the RSTC body seal face ; this level of detail would be 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the displacements experienced in the impact zone. The model was first validated against a series of one-third scale model drop tests of the RSTC. The validated model was then analysed for 9m regulatory impacts in the six worst impact attitudes. The behavior of the LSM was assessed for each attitude and the seal face (gaps) between the LSM and the body were determined. Although small gaps of about 0.5 mm are predicted, it is likely that containment would be preserved. (authors)

  20. Experimental Investigation of Electron Cloud Containment in a Nonuniform Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Dense clouds of electrons were generated and studied in an axisymmetric, nonuniform magnetic field created by a short solenoid. The operation of the experiment was similar to that of a low-pressure (approximately 0.000001 Torr) magnetron discharge. Discharge current characteristics are presented as a function of pressure, magnetic field strength, voltage, and cathode end-plate location. The rotation of the electron cloud is determined from the frequency of diocotron waves. In the space charge saturated regime of operation, the cloud is found to rotate as a solid body with frequency close to V sub a/phi sub a where V sub a is the anode voltage and phi suba is the total magnetic flux. This result indicates that, in regions where electrons are present, the magnetic field lines are electrostatic equipotentials (E bar, B bar = 0). Equilibrium electron density distributions suggested by this conditions are integrated with respect to total ionizing power and are found consistent with measured discharge currents.

  1. Experimental investigation of electron cloud containment in a nonuniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eninger, J.E.

    1974-05-01

    Dense clouds of electrons were generated and studied in an axisymmetric, nonuniform magnetic field created by a short solenoid. The operation of the experiment was similar to that of a low-pressure (approximately 0.000001 torr) magnetron discharge. Discharge current characteristics are presented as a function of pressure, magnetic field strength, voltage, and cathode end-plate location. The rotation of the electron cloud is determined from the frequency of diocotron waves. In the space charge saturated regime of operation, the cloud is found to rotate as a solid body with frequency close to V/sub a/phi/sub a/ where V/sub a/ is the anode voltage and phi/sub a/ is the total magnetic flux. This result indicates that, in regions where electrons are present, the magnetic field lines are electrostatic equipotentials (E bar, B bar = 0). Equilibrium electron density distributions suggested by this condition are integrated with respect to total ionizing power and are found consistent with measured discharge currents. (U.S.)

  2. Influence of calcium carbonate on the decomposition of asbestos contained in end-of-life products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belardi, G. [Environmental Geology and GeoEngineering Institute (CNR), Area della ricerca RM1, via Salaria km 29,300, 00016 Monterotondo (Rome) (Italy); Piga, L., E-mail: luigi.piga@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-10

    Highlights: • We characterized end-of-life asbestos-containing materials. • In the range 620–680 °C, calcite and quartz affect decomposition of asbestos. • Hypothesized decomposition reactions match with solid phases revealed by XRD analysis. • TGA of the content of chrysotile gives good results both in air and in nitrogen. - Abstract: Three bearing-asbestos wastes, friction material, vinyl-asbestos (linoleum) and cement-asbestos mainly containing chrysotile were characterized. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRDP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with microanalysis observations and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) were carried out on the materials as received and after heating at 1100 °C in order to observe their structural changes and thermal behaviours. A quantitative determination of chrysotile in the friction material was also carried out. To study the influence of CaCO{sub 3} on the decomposition of asbestos, the three techniques were also applied on the linoleum and cement-asbestos at room temperature and at 1100 °C after leaching of the materials with 1:3 HCl to remove the carbonates present in the wastes. The results show that the presence of CaCO{sub 3} prevents the asbestos to decompose according to the known decomposition reactions and leads to the formation of calcium-silicate compounds. When CaCO{sub 3} is removed by washing with HCl, decomposition of asbestos proceeds according to the expected reactions.

  3. The effect of health payment reforms on cost containment in Taiwan hospitals: the agency theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether the Taiwanese government's implementation of new health care payment reforms (the National Health Insurance with fee-for-service (NHI-FFS) and global budget (NHI-GB)) has resulted in better cost containment. Also, the question arises under the agency theory whether the monitoring system is effective in reducing the risk of information asymmetry. This study uses panel data analysis with fixed effects model to investigate changes in cost containment at Taipei municipal hospitals before and after adopting reforms from 1989 to 2004. The results show that the monitoring system does not reduce information asymmetry to improve cost containment under the NHI-FFS. In addition, after adopting the NHI-GB system, health care costs are controlled based on an improved monitoring system in the policymaker's point of view. This may suggest that the NHI's fee-for-services system actually causes health care resource waste. The GB may solve the problems of controlling health care costs only on the macro side.

  4. Fasting and meal-stimulated residual beta cell function is positively associated with serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and negatively associated with anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines in patients with longer term type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Minh-Long; Kolb, H; Battelino, T

    2013-01-01

    Cytokines may promote or inhibit disease progression in type 1 diabetes. We investigated whether systemic proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines associated differently with fasting and meal-stimulated beta cell function in patients with longer term type 1 diabetes.......Cytokines may promote or inhibit disease progression in type 1 diabetes. We investigated whether systemic proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines associated differently with fasting and meal-stimulated beta cell function in patients with longer term type 1 diabetes....

  5. Calculation of the form of an equilibrium poloidal magnetic field contained in a polytropic star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brundrit, G.B.; Miketinac, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    This program is designed to integrate the exact equations which determine the distribution of the density of a self-gravitating, axisymmetric polytrope of infinite conductivity containing a poloidal magnetic field. In addition, other properties of an equilibrium configuration such as mass, volume and radius are calculated. The program can also provide at very small extra cost the rates of change of the density with respect to changes of the polytropic index n and the parameter lambda which characterizes the poloidal magnetic field. Mathematically, the problem can be formulated as a boundary value problem for three coupled equations, two of which are second order, non-linear, two-dimensional partial differential equations. The solution is obtained numerically by an adaptation of the Stoeckl's finite difference-finite expansion method. In fact, the present program is a major modification of the program TOROID. The numerical scheme developed in the program is valid for all polytropes whose polytropic index n is greater than or equal to one. The other parameter of the theory, lambda, is unrestricted, i.e. the program permits the study of stars whose matnetic energy is a 'sizeable' percentage of their gravitational energy. Also, the program, with minor modifications, could be used for calculating equilibrium configurations of (a) (uniformly or non-uniformly) rotating polytropes pervaded by poloidal magnetic fields or (b) (rotation) polytropes containing poloidal magnetic fields. However, the greatest use of the present program is expected to arise in attempts to construct equilibrium configurations of polytropes containing mixed poloidal toroidal magnetic fields. (Auth.)

  6. Pyrolysis behavior of different type of materials contained in the rejects of packaging waste sorting plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrados, A., E-mail: aitziber.adrados@ehu.es [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, School of Engineering of Bilbao, Alameda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); De Marco, I.; Lopez-Urionabarrenechea, A.; Caballero, B.M.; Laresgoiti, M.F. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, School of Engineering of Bilbao, Alameda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of the influence of materials in the pyrolysis of real plastic waste samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inorganic compounds remain unaltered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components give rise to an increase in char formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components promote the production of aqueous phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components increase CO and CO{sub 2} contents in the gases. - Abstract: In this paper rejected streams coming from a waste packaging material recovery facility have been characterized and separated into families of products of similar nature in order to determine the influence of different types of ingredients in the products obtained in the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis experiments have been carried out in a non-stirred batch 3.5 dm{sup 3} reactor, swept with 1 L min{sup -1} N{sub 2}, at 500 Degree-Sign C for 30 min. Pyrolysis liquids are composed of an organic phase and an aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is greater as higher is the cellulosic material content in the sample. The organic phase contains valuable chemicals as styrene, ethylbenzene and toluene, and has high heating value (HHV) (33-40 MJ kg{sup -1}). Therefore they could be used as alternative fuels for heat and power generation and as a source of valuable chemicals. Pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons but contain high amounts of CO and CO{sub 2}; their HHV is in the range of 18-46 MJ kg{sup -1}. The amount of CO-CO{sub 2} increases, and consequently HHV decreases as higher is the cellulosic content of the waste. Pyrolysis solids are mainly composed of inorganics and char formed in the process. The cellulosic materials lower the quality of the pyrolysis liquids and gases, and increase the production of char.

  7. Investigations for the implementation of catalytic recombiners in large dry containments in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, J.; Tiltmann, M.; Froehmel, T.

    1997-01-01

    During the past few years, several concepts of mitigation have been developed and tested to limit the hydrogen concentrations in the containment atmosphere during the course of a severe accident. Extensive efforts have been given, especially in Germany and Canada, to investigate the use of catalytic recombiners. Based on the outcome of these research efforts in Germany it was recommended by the Reactor Safety Commission (RSK) in June 1994 to implement a hydrogen mitigation system, based on catalytic recombiners in large dry containments of PWR plants. Investigations are carried out at GRS, sponsored by the German Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), to develop basic requirements for the implementation of a catalytic recombiner system in large dry containments. Severe accidents scenarios were calculated with the system code MELCOR to determine the mass- and energy release rates from the primary system into the containment, necessary to prepare the input data for the containment code calculations. A detailed nodalisation of the containment system of a German PWR plant (Konvoi-type) was developed for the code RA-LOC MOD4 to investigate the effectiveness of a catalytic recombiner system which consists of 53 of such devices, being distributed in the complex room arrangement. The effectiveness of such a system is demonstrated by comparing a representative severe accident sequence without and with the catalytic recombination of hydrogen. The results showed, that only in some limited areas in the containment combustible gas mixtures were formed for a limited time span and that at the end of the first day after the onset of the accident the catalytic reaction is limited due to oxygen depletion. The work is still in progress while additional severe accident sequences have to be analyzed to develop some generic guidelines for the implementation of a catalytic recombiner system in large dry containments. (author)

  8. The Terneuzen Birth Cohort. Longer exclusive breastfeeding duration is associated with leaner body mass and a healthier diet in young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Buuren Stef

    2011-05-01

    outcomes was not shown. Conclusions Exclusive BF duration had a significant inverse dose-response relationship with BMI, WC and WHR at young adulthood. BF duration was positively related to a healthier diet at adulthood, but this did not explain the protective effect of BF against body fat. Our results underline the recommendation of the WHO to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months or longer.

  9. A Comparison of the Performance of Advanced Statistical Techniques for the Refinement of Day-ahead and Longer NWP-based Wind Power Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Predictions from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models are the foundation for wind power forecasts for day-ahead and longer forecast horizons. The NWP models directly produce three-dimensional wind forecasts on their respective computational grids. These can be interpolated to the location and time of interest. However, these direct predictions typically contain significant systematic errors ("biases"). This is due to a variety of factors including the limited space-time resolution of the NWP models and shortcomings in the model's representation of physical processes. It has become common practice to attempt to improve the raw NWP forecasts by statistically adjusting them through a procedure that is widely known as Model Output Statistics (MOS). The challenge is to identify complex patterns of systematic errors and then use this knowledge to adjust the NWP predictions. The MOS-based improvements are the basis for much of the value added by commercial wind power forecast providers. There are an enormous number of statistical approaches that can be used to generate the MOS adjustments to the raw NWP forecasts. In order to obtain insight into the potential value of some of the newer and more sophisticated statistical techniques often referred to as "machine learning methods" a MOS-method comparison experiment has been performed for wind power generation facilities in 6 wind resource areas of California. The underlying NWP models that provided the raw forecasts were the two primary operational models of the US National Weather Service: the GFS and NAM models. The focus was on 1- and 2-day ahead forecasts of the hourly wind-based generation. The statistical methods evaluated included: (1) screening multiple linear regression, which served as a baseline method, (2) artificial neural networks, (3) a decision-tree approach called random forests, (4) gradient boosted regression based upon an decision-tree algorithm, (5) support vector regression and (6) analog ensemble

  10. Total cross-sections assessment of neutron reaction with stainless steel SUS-310 contained in various nuclear data files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto

    2002-01-01

    The integral testing of neutron cross-sections for Stainless Steel SUS-310 contained in various nuclear data files have been performed. The shielding benchmark calculations for Stainless Steel SUS-310 has been analysed through ORNL-Broomstick Experiment calculation which performed by MAERKER, R.E. at ORNL - USA ( 1) . Assessment with JENDL-3.1, JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-IV, ENDF/B-VI nuclear data files and data from GEEL have also been carried out. The overall calculation results SUS-310 show in a good agreement with the experimental data, although, underestimate results appear below 3 MeV for all nuclear data files. These underestimation tendencies clearly caused by presented of iron nuclide which more than half in Stainless Steel compound. The total neutron cross-sections of iron nuclide contained in various nuclear data files relatively lower on that energy ranges

  11. Experiences in development, qualification, and use of concrete high-integrity containers in commercial disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Reno, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Disposal of EPICOR prefilters as commercial radioactive wastes is being accomplished by using a first-of-a-kind, reinforced concrete, high-integrity container in lieu of prior in situ solidification of resins before disposal of prefilters. Experiences in developing, testing, certifying, and using high-integrity containers are an untold story worthy of review for the benefit of the nuclear industry at large. The lessons learned in gaining regulatory acceptance of the concrete HIC are discussed

  12. Efficient Ways to Upgrade Docker Containers in Cloud to Support Backward Compatibility : Various Upgrade Strategies to Measure Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    MADALA, SRAVYA

    2016-01-01

    If the present world scenario in telecommunication systems is considered thousands of systems are getting moved into the cloud because of its wide features. This thesis explains the efficient ways to upgrade Docker containers in a way to support backward compatibility. It mainly concerns about the high-availability of systems in the cloud environment during upgrades. Smaller changes can be implemented automatically to some extent. The minor changes can be handled by Apache Avro where schema i...

  13. Duration of Tsunami Generation Longer than Duration of Seismic Wave Generation in the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, S.; Korenaga, M.; Kawaji, K.; Akiyama, S.

    2013-12-01

    ., 2011; Ide at al., 2011; Yagi and Fukahata, 2011; Suzuki et al., 2011). The comparison of two type of moment rate functions, inferred from finite source imaging of tsunami waveforms and seismic waveforms, suggested that there was the time period common to both seismic wave generation and tsunami generation followed by the time period unique to tsunami generation. At this point, we think that comparison of the absolute values of moment rates is not so meaningful between tsunami waveform inversion and seismic waveform inversion, because of general ambiguity of rigidity values of each subfault in the fault region (assuming the rigidity value of 30 GPa of Yoshida et al (2011)). Considering this, the normalized value of moment rate function was also evaluated and it does not change the general feature of two moment rate functions in terms of duration property. Furthermore, the results suggested that tsunami generation process apparently took more time than seismic wave generation process did. Tsunami can be generated even by "extra" motions resulting from many suggested abnormal mechanisms. These extra motions may be attribute to the relatively larger-scale tsunami generation than expected from the magnitude level from seismic ground motion, and attribute to the longer duration of tsunami generation process.

  14. Reward Value Determines Memory Consolidation in Parasitic Wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Fatouros, N.E.; Figueroa, I.A.; Vet, L.E.M.; Smid, H.M.; Huigens, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Animals can store learned information in their brains through a series of distinct memory forms. Short-lasting memory forms can be followed by longer-lasting, consolidated memory forms. However, the factors determining variation in memory consolidation encountered in nature have thus far not been

  15. Building characteristics that determine moisture in 105 Danish homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sofie; Møller, Eva B.; Bräuner, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    location, clothes drying indoors, lack of mechanical ventilation, high social status and spending more time indoors significantly increased the risk of indoor dampness. The variables associated with increased risk of dampness varied according to the method used to determine dampness. Measurements in air...... reflected short term variations in occupant behavior and measurement in material reflected building construction and longer term occupant habits....

  16. A Demonstration Study on Decomposition of Anntibiotics and Endocrine Disrupters Contained in Sewage Effluent by Mobile Electron Beam Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jung, In Ha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    This report described a work plan on advanced sewage treatments focusing on reduction of antibiotics and endocrine disruptors and sterilization by radiation in Korea. It included a demonstration study on decomposition of antibiotics and endocrine disruptor contained in sewage effluent by MEB(Mobile Electron Beam accelerator). According to the KAERI’s national research plan, basic radiation application working on sterilization, decomposition of antibiotics and endocrine disruptor contained in effluent by using radiation were conducted in KAERI’s laboratory for three years. In 2011, a field study on advanced sewage treatment with a MEB was conducted and the results obtained from study played an important role in the acquiring a certification on advanced treatment of sewage effluent by radiation, NET(New Environmental Technology), which is issued by Korea ministry of environment. The field study was carried out over four seasons in order to observe the effect of seasonal temperature changes on decomposition of chemicals contained in effluent of sewage. The major antibiotics and endocrine disruptors with initial concentration of 0.5 mg/l were decomposed completely by the irradiation dose less than 1.5 kGy, and coli form and microorganisms were also sterilized under the same irradiation dose. Toxicity arising by antibiotics on algae was reduced according to irradiation dose. In a future, achievements from the field demonstration study will be transferred to industry. Research on by-products from irradiated antibiotics and toxicity before and after irradiation of antibiotics will be continued in the field with MEB. This information will be useful for the project by radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse, particularly focused on the wastewater containing organic pollutants. (author)

  17. [Mechanism of tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines contained in Yiqi Qingwen Jiedu mixture against influenza immune inflammatory injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Ri; Wang, Cheng-Xiang; Wang, Lan; Zhou, Ping-An; Yin, Ren-Yi; Jiang, Liang-Duo; Wang, Hui-Fang

    2014-10-01

    To observe the impact of tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines contained in Yiqi Qingwen Jiedu mixture on mRNA expression of lung inflammatory cytokines and pulmonary pathological injury of mice infected by influenza virus, in order to discuss the mechanism of tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines against pulmonary immune inflammatory injury of infected mice. In different time phases after mice were infected with influenza virus FM1, the RT-PCR method was adopted to observe the impact of tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines contained in Yiqi Qingwen Jiedu mixture on five inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ, and the changes in pulmonary pathological injury of mice with viral pneumonia after intervention with tonifying qi traditional Chinese medicines. (1) Tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines significantly reduced the mRNA expression of TNF-α at 1-5 d and IL-1 mRNA expression at 7 d, may increase IL-1 mRNA expression in mouse lung at 3 d, significantly reduced IL-6 mRNA expression in mouse lung and increased IL-10 mRNA expression at 3-7 d, and significantly increased IFN-γ mRNA expression at 1 d. (2) Tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines could significantly inhibited and repaired pulmonary immune inflammatory injury of mice infected by FM1, which was most remarkable at 3-7 d after the infection with influenza virus FM1. Tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines contained in Yiqi Qingwen Jiedu mixture could resist pulmonary immune inflammatory injury and repair inflammatory injury by regulating the mRNA expression of imbalance inflammatory cytokines of organisms infected with influenza virus.

  18. A Demonstration Study on Decomposition of Anntibiotics and Endocrine Disrupters Contained in Sewage Effluent by Mobile Electron Beam Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myun Joo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jung, In Ha

    2012-01-01

    This report described a work plan on advanced sewage treatments focusing on reduction of antibiotics and endocrine disruptors and sterilization by radiation in Korea. It included a demonstration study on decomposition of antibiotics and endocrine disruptor contained in sewage effluent by MEB(Mobile Electron Beam accelerator). According to the KAERI’s national research plan, basic radiation application working on sterilization, decomposition of antibiotics and endocrine disruptor contained in effluent by using radiation were conducted in KAERI’s laboratory for three years. In 2011, a field study on advanced sewage treatment with a MEB was conducted and the results obtained from study played an important role in the acquiring a certification on advanced treatment of sewage effluent by radiation, NET(New Environmental Technology), which is issued by Korea ministry of environment. The field study was carried out over four seasons in order to observe the effect of seasonal temperature changes on decomposition of chemicals contained in effluent of sewage. The major antibiotics and endocrine disruptors with initial concentration of 0.5 mg/l were decomposed completely by the irradiation dose less than 1.5 kGy, and coli form and microorganisms were also sterilized under the same irradiation dose. Toxicity arising by antibiotics on algae was reduced according to irradiation dose. In a future, achievements from the field demonstration study will be transferred to industry. Research on by-products from irradiated antibiotics and toxicity before and after irradiation of antibiotics will be continued in the field with MEB. This information will be useful for the project by radiation treatment of wastewater for reuse, particularly focused on the wastewater containing organic pollutants. (author)

  19. Determinants of Critical Infrastructure Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrowska Teresa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the issue of how resources are interpreted in the form of technology reactors that, as a result of unexpected circumstances, turn into pyramidal or avalanche threat dynamics. Counteracting such catastrophic, terrorist, or war situations cannot begin in the face of mass casualties or significant material losses that will require reconstruction and the work of many generations. The decisive factor is the correct long-term operation and management of the economy. The starting point of this article is the concept of resource and structural-functional relationships of resources and all their possible interpretations consistent with the functionalities they play in the human environment, human aggregates, and whole nations. The aim is to draw the reader's attention to the importance (semiotics of qualitative specifications and dynamically changing determinants contained in the material and structural-functional properties of the resources and their channel (information communication.

  20. Radiation induced change in the affinity of a plastic resin to chlorine contained in artificial tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyoshi, Ryoko; Sawamura, Sadashi; Katayama, Meiseki

    1985-01-01

    γ-Radiation curing of a polyacetal resin was attempted in order to eliminate the unsuitable property for the joints of tap water pipes. In the case of non-irradiated resin, almost all available chlorine (AC) contained in usual tap water disappeared. γ-Irradiation of the resin showed an indirect effect on eliminating such a property; that is, a decrease in the amount of AC from artificial tap water (test solution) showed a decrease to JIS (Japan Industrial Standards) level of requirement at certain absorption doses. However, it was also found that the decrease in the amount of AC from the test solution increased with time after γ-irradiation. (author)

  1. Containers in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolumen, S.; Espinosa, R.

    1997-01-01

    The preservation of food by irradiation is promising technology which increases industrial application. Packaging of irradiated foods is an integral part of the process. Judicious selection of the package material for successful trade is essential. In this paper is presented a brief review of important aspects of packaging in food irradiation [es

  2. Longer time-to-pregnancy in spontaneously conceived pregnancies is associated with lower PAPP-A and free β-hCG in first trimester screening for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, I; Uldbjerg, N; Tabor, A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether subfertility, measured as longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP) in spontaneously conceived pregnancies, affects the first trimester levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) and......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether subfertility, measured as longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP) in spontaneously conceived pregnancies, affects the first trimester levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β...

  3. The potential for stress corrosion cracking of copper containers in a Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    1996-09-01

    The potential for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a conceptual Canadian disposal vault has been assessed through a review of the literature and comparison of those environmental factors that cause SCC with the expected disposal environment. Stress-corrosion cracking appears to be an unlikely failure mode for Cu containers in a Canadian disposal vault because of a combination of environmental factors. Most importantly, there is only a relatively short period during which the containers will be undergoing strain when cracking should be possible at all, and then cracking is not expected because of the absence of known SCC agents, such as NH 3 , NO 2 - or organic acids. In addition, other environmental factors will mitigate SCC, namely, the presence of C1 - and its effect on film properties and the limited supply of oxidants. These arguments, to greater or lesser extent, apply to the three major mechanisms proposed for SCC of Cu alloys in aqueous solutions: film-rupture/anodic dissolution, tarnish rupture and film-induced cleavage. Detailed reviews of the SCC literature are presented as Appendices. The literature on the SCC of Cu (>99 wt.% Cu) is reviewed, including studies carried out in a number of countries under nuclear waste disposal conditions. Because of similarities with the behaviour of Cu, the more extensive literature on the SCC of α-brass in ammonia solutions is also reviewed. (author). 140 refs., 3 tabs., 25 figs

  4. Longer Work/Rest Intervals During High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Lead to Elevated Levels of miR-222 and miR-29c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Rolfes, Florian; Schelleckes, Katrin; Mewes, Mirja; Thorwesten, Lothar; Krüger, Michael; Klose, Andreas; Brand, Stefan-Martin

    2018-01-01

    Aim: MicroRNA-222 (miR-222) and miR-29c have been identified as important modulators of cardiac growth and may protect against pathological cardiac remodeling. miR-222 and -29c may thus serve as functional biomarkers for exercise-induced cardiac adaptations. This investigation compared the effect of two workload-matched high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols with different recovery periods on miR-222 and -29c levels. Methods: Sixty-three moderately trained females and males (22.0 ± 1.7 years) fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were randomized into two HIIT groups using sex and exercise capacity. During a controlled 4-week intervention (two sessions/week) a 4 × 30 HIIT group performed 4 × 30 s runs (all-out, 30 s active recovery) and a 8 × 15 HIIT group performed 8 × 15 s runs (all-out, 15 s active recovery). miR-222 and -29c as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA levels were determined during high-intensity running as well as aerobic exercise using capillary blood from earlobes. Performance parameters were assessed using an incremental continuous running test (ICRT) protocol with blood lactate diagnostic and heart rate (HR) monitoring to determine HR recovery and power output at individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Results: At baseline, acute exercise miR-222 and -29c levels were increased only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (both p HIIT group (p HIIT group again no acute effect was observed. However, both HIIT interventions resulted in elevated resting miR-222 and -29c levels (all p 24% in both HIIT groups (both p ≤ 0.0002) speed at IAT was improved by 3.6% only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (p HIIT can induce increased circulating levels of cardiac growth-associated miR-222 and -29c. miR-222 and miR-29c could be useful markers to monitor HIIT response in general and to identify optimal work/rest combinations. PMID:29719514

  5. Longer Work/Rest Intervals During High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Lead to Elevated Levels of miR-222 and miR-29c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Rolfes, Florian; Schelleckes, Katrin; Mewes, Mirja; Thorwesten, Lothar; Krüger, Michael; Klose, Andreas; Brand, Stefan-Martin

    2018-01-01

    Aim: MicroRNA-222 (miR-222) and miR-29c have been identified as important modulators of cardiac growth and may protect against pathological cardiac remodeling. miR-222 and -29c may thus serve as functional biomarkers for exercise-induced cardiac adaptations. This investigation compared the effect of two workload-matched high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols with different recovery periods on miR-222 and -29c levels. Methods: Sixty-three moderately trained females and males (22.0 ± 1.7 years) fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were randomized into two HIIT groups using sex and exercise capacity. During a controlled 4-week intervention (two sessions/week) a 4 × 30 HIIT group performed 4 × 30 s runs (all-out, 30 s active recovery) and a 8 × 15 HIIT group performed 8 × 15 s runs (all-out, 15 s active recovery). miR-222 and -29c as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA levels were determined during high-intensity running as well as aerobic exercise using capillary blood from earlobes. Performance parameters were assessed using an incremental continuous running test (ICRT) protocol with blood lactate diagnostic and heart rate (HR) monitoring to determine HR recovery and power output at individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Results: At baseline, acute exercise miR-222 and -29c levels were increased only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (both p HIIT group ( p HIIT group again no acute effect was observed. However, both HIIT interventions resulted in elevated resting miR-222 and -29c levels (all p 24% in both HIIT groups (both p ≤ 0.0002) speed at IAT was improved by 3.6% only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group ( p HIIT can induce increased circulating levels of cardiac growth-associated miR-222 and -29c. miR-222 and miR-29c could be useful markers to monitor HIIT response in general and to identify optimal work/rest combinations.

  6. Why routine intensive care unit admission after elective open infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm repair is no longer an evidence based practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, David

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Elective open infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) repair is major surgery performed on high-risk patients. Routine ICU admission postoperatively is the current accepted standard of care. Few of these patients actually require a level of care that cannot be provided just as effectively in a surgical high dependency unit (HDU). Our aim was to determine, \\'can high risk patients that will require ICU admission postoperatively be reliably identified preoperatively?\\'. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all elective open infrarenal AAA repairs in our institution over a 3-year period was performed. The Estimation of Physiological Ability and Surgical Stress (E-PASS) model was used as our risk stratification tool for predicting post-operative morbidity. Renal function was also considered as a predictor of outcome, independent of the E-PASS. RESULTS: 80% (n = 16) were admitted to ICU. Only 30% (n = 6) of the total study population necessitated intensive care. There were 9 complications in 7 patients in our study. The E-PASS comprehensive risk score (CRS)\\/Surgical stress score (SSS) were found to be significantly associated with the presence of a complication (p = 0.009)\\/(p = 0.032) respectively. Serum creatinine (p = 0.013) was similarly significantly associated with the presence of a complication. CONCLUSIONS: The E-PASS model possessing increasing external validity is an effective risk stratification tool in safely deciding the appropriate level of post-operative care for elective infrarenal AAA repairs.

  7. Recent insights into Protein Phosphatase 2A structure and regulation: the reasons why PP2A is no longer considered as a lazy passive housekeeping enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although intracellular signal transduction is often portrayed as a protein kinase "domino effect", the counterbalancing function of phosphatases, and thus the control of phosphatase activity, is equally relevant to proper regulation of cellular function. Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A is a widely expressed family of protein phosphatases made of a core dimer, composed of a catalytic (C subunit and a structural (A subunit, in association with a third variable regulatory (B subunit. Although viewed as a constitutive housekeeping enzyme in the past, PP2A is a highly regulated phosphatase and is emerging as an important regulator of multiple cellular processes involving protein phosphorylation. The regulation of PP2A is mainly accomplished by the identity of the regulatory B-type subunit, which determines substrate specificity, subcellular localization and catalytic activity of the PP2A holoenzyme. In agreement with this, recent findings on the structure and post-translational modifications of PP2A emphasize the importance of PP2A holoenzyme composition in its regulation and pleiotropic activities.

  8. Where do people live longer and shorter lives? An ecological study of old-age survival across 4404 small areas from 18 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Krainski, Elias Teixeira; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Pina, Maria de Fátima de

    2016-06-01

    Further increases in life expectancy in high-income countries depend to a large extent on advances in old-age survival. We aimed to characterise the spatial distribution of old-age survival across small areas of Europe, and to identify areas with significantly high or low survivorship. This study incorporated 4404 small areas from 18 European countries. We used a 10-year survival rate to express the proportion of population aged 75-84 years who reached 85-94 years of age (beyond average life expectancy). This metric was calculated for each gender using decennial census data (1991, 2001 and 2011) at small geographical areas. To address problems associated with small areas, rates were smoothed using a Bayesian spatial model. Excursion sets were defined to identify areas with significantly high (>95th centile) and low (exist, suggesting that European social unity is still to be accomplished. These inequalities could arise from a myriad of population health determinants (eg, poverty, unhealthy lifestyles), which merit further study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Activity preferences, lifestyle modifications and re-injury fears influence longer-term quality of life in people with knee symptoms following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie R Filbay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Questions: How do people with knee symptoms describe their quality of life and experiences 5 to 20 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR? What factors impact upon the quality of life of these people? Design: Qualitative study. Participants: Seventeen people with knee symptoms 5 to 20 years after ACLR and high (n = 8 or low (n = 9 quality of life scores were recruited from a cross-sectional study. Methods: Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted and transcribed. The data obtained from the interventions underwent inductive coding and thematic analysis. Results: Four consistent themes emerged from the interviews as common determinants of quality of life following ACLR: physical activity preferences; lifestyle modifications; adaptation and acceptance; and fear of re-injury. All participants described the importance of maintaining a physically active lifestyle and the relationship between physical activity and quality of life. Participants who avoided sport or activity reported experiencing reduced quality of life. Participants who suppressed or overcame re-injury fears to continue sport participation described experiencing a satisfactory quality of life while taking part in sport despite knee symptoms. For some participants, resuming competitive sport resulted in subsequent knee trauma, anterior cruciate ligament re-rupture or progressive deterioration of knee function, with negative impacts on quality of life following sport cessation. Participants who enjoyed recreational exercise often adapted their lifestyle early after ACLR, while others described adapting their lifestyle at a later stage to accommodate knee impairments; this was associated with feelings of acceptance and satisfaction, irrespective of knee symptoms. Conclusion: Activity preferences, lifestyle modifications and fear of re-injury influenced quality of life in people with knee symptoms up to 20 years following ACLR. People with a preference

  10. Longer Work/Rest Intervals During High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT Lead to Elevated Levels of miR-222 and miR-29c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Schmitz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: MicroRNA-222 (miR-222 and miR-29c have been identified as important modulators of cardiac growth and may protect against pathological cardiac remodeling. miR-222 and -29c may thus serve as functional biomarkers for exercise-induced cardiac adaptations. This investigation compared the effect of two workload-matched high-intensity interval training (HIIT protocols with different recovery periods on miR-222 and -29c levels.Methods: Sixty-three moderately trained females and males (22.0 ± 1.7 years fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were randomized into two HIIT groups using sex and exercise capacity. During a controlled 4-week intervention (two sessions/week a 4 × 30 HIIT group performed 4 × 30 s runs (all-out, 30 s active recovery and a 8 × 15 HIIT group performed 8 × 15 s runs (all-out, 15 s active recovery. miR-222 and -29c as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1 mRNA levels were determined during high-intensity running as well as aerobic exercise using capillary blood from earlobes. Performance parameters were assessed using an incremental continuous running test (ICRT protocol with blood lactate diagnostic and heart rate (HR monitoring to determine HR recovery and power output at individual anaerobic threshold (IAT.Results: At baseline, acute exercise miR-222 and -29c levels were increased only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (both p < 0.01, pre- vs. post-exercise. After the intervention, acute exercise miR-222 levels were still increased in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (p < 0.01, pre- vs. post-exercise while in the 8 × 15 HIIT group again no acute effect was observed. However, both HIIT interventions resulted in elevated resting miR-222 and -29c levels (all p < 0.001, pre- vs. post-intervention. Neither of the two miRNAs were elevated at any ICRT speed level at baseline nor follow-up. While HR recovery was improved by >24% in both HIIT groups (both p ≤ 0.0002 speed at IAT was improved by 3.6% only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group

  11. “It Takes Longer, but When It Hits You It Hits You!”: Videos About Marijuana Edibles on YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Melissa J.; Sowles, Shaina J.; Stelzer-Monahan, Haley E.; Bierut, Tatiana; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Interest in marijuana edibles has increased as perceptions of harm from marijuana have decreased. Media and peer influences impact youth substance use, and YouTube is the most popular video-sharing website. No studies have examined the content and accessibility of YouTube videos related to marijuana edibles. Objectives To describe the messages conveyed to viewers in YouTube videos about edibles and determine their accessibility to youth. Methods On June 12, 2015, we searched YouTube for videos about marijuana/cannabis/weed edibles. A total of 51 videos were coded for presence of an age restriction, purpose(s) of the videos, consumption of edibles during the video, effects, and safety concerns. Results Total views across all 51 videos were >9 million. Only 14% (7/51) were restricted to viewers over the age of 18 years. Over half (27/51, 53%) were informative videos, most (20/27, 74%) teaching how to make edibles, and 37% (19/51) were entertaining videos. Someone consumed an edible in 31% (16/51) of the videos, and the type of high was mentioned in 51% (26/51) of the videos, including delayed (18/26, 69%) or intense high (13/26, 50%). Fifty-five percent (28/51) mentioned delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol potency or dosage. Only 10 of these (36%) presented this information specifically as a warning to prevent adverse effects. Conclusions/Importance Edibles-related videos are easily found on YouTube, often instructing how to bake your own edibles and lacking information needed for safe consumption, and most are not age-restricted. Videos showing how to make edibles or presenting edibles use in an entertaining way that could influence youth to initiate use. PMID:28145799

  12. Longer sleep is associated with lower BMI and favorable metabolic profiles in UK adults: Findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D M Potter

    Full Text Available Ever more evidence associates short sleep with increased risk of metabolic diseases such as obesity, which may be related to a predisposition to non-homeostatic eating. Few studies have concurrently determined associations between sleep duration and objective measures of metabolic health as well as sleep duration and diet, however. We therefore analyzed associations between sleep duration, diet and metabolic health markers in UK adults, assessing associations between sleep duration and 1 adiposity, 2 selected metabolic health markers and 3 diet, using National Diet and Nutrition Survey data. Adults (n = 1,615, age 19-65 years, 57.1% female completed questions about sleep duration and 3 to 4 days of food diaries. Blood pressure and waist circumference were recorded. Fasting blood lipids, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, thyroid hormones, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP were measured in a subset of participants. We used regression analyses to explore associations between sleep duration and outcomes. After adjustment for age, ethnicity, sex, smoking, and socioeconomic status, sleep duration was negatively associated with body mass index (-0.46 kg/m2 per hour, 95% CI -0.69 to -0.24 kg/m2, p < 0.001 and waist circumference (-0.9 cm per hour, 95% CI -1.5 to -0.3cm, p = 0.004, and positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.03 mmol/L per hour, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.05, p = 0.03. Sleep duration tended to be positively associated with free thyroxine levels and negatively associated with HbA1c and CRP (p = 0.09 to 0.10. Contrary to our hypothesis, sleep duration was not associated with any dietary measures (p ≥ 0.14. Together, our findings show that short-sleeping UK adults are more likely to have obesity, a disease with many comorbidities.

  13. Frequency of the anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase immunological marker in patients with diabetes duration longer than three years in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carolina Moreira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The anti-GAD (glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody is considered to be an important marker for type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1, with frequency that varies depending on the population studied and the duration of the disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of this autoantibody in a group of patients in southern Brazil with DM1 that had been diagnosed more than three years previously. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group conducted at the Biomedicine Laboratory of Universidade Feevale. METHODS: This study was conducted between June 2007 and December 2008, and 109 individuals were enrolled during this period. Fifty-eight were DM1 patients and 51 were individuals free from DM1 and without any history of diabetes, who constituted the control group. RESULTS: In the DM1 group, the mean age was 27 ± 1.7 years and 50% were men. The mean fasting blood glucose in the DM1 group was 208 ± 15 mg/dl and mean HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin was 8.7 ± 0.25%. In the control group, the mean fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were 82 mg/dl and 5.0% respectively. Thirty-seven individuals with DM1 (63.8% were positive for anti-GAD, and this proportion was significantly larger than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: These results show the high prevalence of anti-GAD in the population of diabetic patients in southern Brazil, thus indicating that the antibody was still present a long time after the disease had been diagnosed.

  14. The role of compliance with PAP use on blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: is longer use a key-factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouloukaki, I; Mermigkis, C; Tzanakis, N; Giannadaki, K; Mauroudi, E; Moniaki, V; Kallergis, E M; Schiza, S E

    2017-02-01

    Scientific data about the effects of positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment on blood pressure (BP) control are continuously increasing; however, they are controversial. We aimed to determine the long-term effects of compliance with PAP therapy on BP in both hypertensive and normotensive patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). One thousand one hundred sixty eight consecutive patients with newly diagnosed OSAHS, who had been recommended PAP therapy, were followed up for a minimum of 2 years. Patients with previous cardiovascular disease were excluded. BP was measured at baseline and after 2 years of PAP treatment. In addition, the correlation between the changes in BP with different levels of PAP compliance was assessed. At the end of the follow-up period, in the hypertensive group of patients (n=586), a significant decrease was shown in systolic (-11.2 mm Hg, P<0.001) and diastolic BP (-4.2 mm Hg, P<0.001). Furthermore, in the patients without hypertension (n=528), a significant decrease was noted both in systolic and diastolic BP (-3.6, P<0.001 and -2.4, P<0.001, respectively). A correlation between the magnitude of change in systolic and diastolic BP and hours of use of PAP (r=0.14, P=0.002 and r=0.1, P=0.025, respectively) was observed in all patients. Long-term use of PAP treatment, as well as increased hours of PAP in patients with OSAHS use showed significant reductions in BP not only in patients with hypertension, but also in normotensive patients. Therefore a significant potential reduction in cardiovascular mortality and morbidity should be expected in these patients.

  15. Why is U.K. medicine no longer a self-regulating profession? The role of scandals involving "bad apple" doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Woods, Mary; Yeung, Karen; Bosk, Charles L

    2011-11-01

    This article identifies the role played by a series of medical scandals in the U.K., occurring from the mid-1990s onwards, in ending a collegial model of self-regulation of the medical profession that had endured for 150 years. The state's original motive in endorsing professional self-regulation was to resolve the principal-agent problem inherent in the doctor-patient relationship. The profession, in return for its self-regulating privileges, undertook to act as a reliable guarantor for the competence and conduct of each of its members. Though sufficient to ensure that most doctors were "good", the collegial model adopted by the profession left it fatally vulnerable to the problem of "bad apples": those unwilling, incapable or indifferent to delivering on their professional commitments and who betrayed the trust of both patients and peers. Weak administrative systems in the NHS failed to compensate for the defects of the collegium in controlling these individuals. The scandals both provoked and legitimised erosion of the profession's self-regulatory power. Though its vulnerability to bad apples had been present since the founding of the 19th century profession, it was the convergence of social and political conditions at a particular historical moment that transformed the scandals into an unstoppable imperative for reform. Huge public anger, the voice permitted to a coalition of critics, shifts in social attitudes, the opportunity presented for imposing standards for accountability, and the increasing ascendancy of pro-interventionist managerialist and political agendas from the early 1990s onwards were all implicated in the response made to scandals and the shape the reforms took. Scandals need to be understood not as simple determinants of change, but as one performative element in a constellation of socially contingent forces and contexts. The new rebalancing of the "countervailing powers" has dislodged the profession as the senior partner in the regulation of

  16. Genetic variants associated with longer telomere length are associated with increased lung cancer risk among never-smoking women in Asia : a report from the female lung cancer consortium in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Seow, Wei Jie; Wang, Zhaoming; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hong, Yun-Chul; Seow, Adeline; Wu, Chen; Hosgood, H Dean; Chen, Kexin; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wen, Wanqing; Cawthon, Richard; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Hu, Wei; Caporaso, Neil E; Park, Jae Yong; Chen, Chien-Jen; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Chang, I-Shou; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Kim, Hee Nam; Chang, Gee-Chen; Bassig, Bryan A; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Fusheng; Yin, Zhihua; An, She-Juan; Qian, Biyun; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Kim, Jin Hee; Gao, Yu-Tang; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Wen-Chang; Klein, Robert J; Chung, Charles C; Oh, In-Jae; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Berndt, Sonja I; Wu, Wei; Chang, Jiang; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Junwen; Zhao, Xueying; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Su, Wu-Chou; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Chen, Yuh-Min; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Pao, William; Kim, Young-Chul; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Su, Jian; Wang, Chih-Liang; Li, Haixin; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Zhao, Zhenhong; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Kohno, Takashi; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ji, Bu-Tian; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Yokota, Jun; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yu, Chong-Jen; Kunitoh, Hideo; Wu, Guoping; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Shiraishi, Kouya; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Wu, Tangchun; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Yi-Long; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Zhou, Baosen; Shin, Min-Ho; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Dongxin; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence from several relatively small nested case-control studies in prospective cohorts shows an association between longer telomere length measured phenotypically in peripheral white blood cell (WBC) DNA and increased lung cancer risk. We sought to further explore this relationship by

  17. Acute symptoms, not rectally administered sucralfate, predict for late radiation proctitis: longer term follow-up of a phase III trial--Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter C; Franklin, C Ian; Poulsen, Michael G; Joseph, David J; Spry, Nigel S; Denham, James W

    2002-10-01

    sucralfate administered rectally as a method for reducing the late toxicity of nonconformal RT for prostate cancer. There appears to be an association between the development of acute and subsequent late toxicity, although the nature of this association remains to be determined.

  18. Acute symptoms, not rectally administered sucralfate, predict for late radiation proctitis: longer term follow-up of a phase III trial--Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Peter C.; Franklin, C. Ian; Poulsen, Michael G.; Joseph, David J.; Spry, Nigel S.; Denham, James W.

    2002-01-01

    : The results of this study do not support the use of sucralfate administered rectally as a method for reducing the late toxicity of nonconformal RT for prostate cancer. There appears to be an association between the development of acute and subsequent late toxicity, although the nature of this association remains to be determined

  19. Ozone-Temperature Diurnal and Longer Term Correlations, in the Lower Thermosphere, Mesosphere and Stratosphere, Based on Measurements from SABER on TIMED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Frank T.; Mayr, Hans G.; Russell, James M., III; Mlynczak, Martin G.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of mutual ozone-temperature variations can provide useful information on their interdependencies relative to the photochemistry and dynamics governing their behavior. Previous studies have mostly been based on satellite measurements taken at a fixed local time in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere. For these data, it is shown that the zonal mean ozone amounts and temperatures in the lower stratosphere are mostly positively correlated, while they are mostly negatively correlated in the upper stratosphere and in the lower mesosphere. The negative correlation, due to the dependence of photochemical reaction rates on temperature, indicates that ozone photochemistry is more important than dynamics in determining the ozone amounts. In this study, we provide new results by extending the analysis to include diurnal variations over 24 hrs of local time, and to larger spatial regimes, to include the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The results are based on measurements by the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite. For mean variations (i.e., averages over local time and longitude) in the MLT, our results show that there is a sharp reversal in the correlation near 80 km altitude, above which the ozone mixing ratio and temperature are mostly positively correlated, while they are mostly negatively correlated below 80 km. This is consistent with the view that above -80 km, effects due to dynamics are more important compared to photochemistry. For diurnal variations, both the ozone and temperature show phase progressions in local time, as a function of altitude and latitude. For temperature, the phase progression is as expected, as they represent migrating tides. For day time ozone, we also find regular phase progression in local time over the whole altitude range of our analysis, 25 to 105 km, at least for low latitudes. This was not previously known, although phase progressions had been noted by us and by others at lower altitudes. For diurnal

  20. Effect of the container in the synthesis of the combustion reaction of ZnAl2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.A.R.; Cavalcanti, L.R.C.; Moura, A.L.S.; Rocha, M.L.; Neto, O.L.A.; Cabral, I.C.; Viana, K.M.S.; Costa, A.C.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work is a study on the influence of the container in the synthesis of the combustion reaction ZnAl 2 O 4 . Products of combustion obtained for both synthesis routes, were broken and sieved in 325 mesh (44μm). The powders resulting from two types of synthesis were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. By means of XRD analysis showed the formation of the main phase of zinc aluminate spinel (Z) as phase the mineral guanine in the two procedures synthesis. By means of SEM analysis showed that in the procedure used the crucible metal zinc aluminate is introduced in the form of smaller agglomerates. Therefore, the container used in the synthesis of combustion influences the microstructure of the material synthesized. (author)

  1. Conceptual design of retrieval systems for emplaced transuranic waste containers in a salt bed depository. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogleman, S.F.

    1980-04-01

    The US Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have jurisdiction over the nuclear waste management program. Design studies were previously made of proposed repository site configurations for the receiving, processing, and storage of nuclear wastes. However, these studies did not provide operational designs that were suitable for highly reliable TRU retrieval in the deep geologic salt environment for the required 60-year period. The purpose of this report is to develop a conceptual design of a baseline retrieval system for emplaced transuranic waste containers in a salt bed depository. The conceptual design is to serve as a working model for the analysis of the performance available from the current state-of-the-art equipment and systems. Suggested regulations would be based upon the results of the performance analyses

  2. Longer dialysis session length is associated with better intermediate outcomes and survival among patients on in-center three times per week hemodialysis: results from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentori, Francesca; Zhang, Jinyao; Li, Yun; Karaboyas, Angelo; Kerr, Peter; Saran, Rajiv; Bommer, Juergen; Port, Friedrich; Akiba, Takashi; Pisoni, Ronald; Robinson, Bruce

    2012-11-01

    Longer dialysis session length (treatment time, TT) has been associated with better survival among hemodialysis (HD) patients. The impact of TT on clinical markers that may contribute to this survival advantage is not well known. Using data from the international Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study, we assessed the association of TT with clinical outcomes using both standard regression analyses and instrumental variable approaches. The study included 37,414 patients on in-center HD three times per week with prescribed TT from 120 to 420 min. Facility mean TT ranged from 214 min in the USA to 256 min in Australia-New Zealand. Accounting for country effects, mortality risk was lower for patients with longer TT {hazard ratio for every 30 min: all-cause mortality: 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-0.97], cardiovascular mortality: 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91-0.98) and sudden death: 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88-0.98)}. Patients with longer TT had lower pre- and post-dialysis systolic blood pressure, greater intradialytic weight loss, higher hemoglobin (for the same erythropoietin dose), serum albumin and potassium and lower serum phosphorus and white blood cell counts. Similar associations were found using the instrumental variable approach, although the positive associations of TT with weight loss and potassium were lost. Favorable levels of a variety of clinical markers may contribute to the better survival of patients receiving longer TT. These findings support longer TT prescription in the setting of in-center, three times per week HD.

  3. Effect of Caffeine Contained in Sports Drink on Hormones Producing Energy Following Sprint Test Performance in Male Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fayiz Abumoh'd

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of caffeine contained in sports drink on hormones producing energy and sprint test performance in male soccer players. Twelve participants (25.97 ± 2.70 y performed the test under thre e conditions (one week apart: caffeine with sports drink (SD-CAF, sports drink (SD, and placebo (PLA. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover protocol, participants performed SD-CAF trial (5 mg/kg of caffeine contained in 300 ml of sports drink 30 minutes prior to sprinting test (7 × 30 m, SD trial (solely 300 ml of sports drink 30 minutes prior to sprinting test, or placebo. Blood analysis indicated significantly higher level of free thyroxine in SD-CAF (21.450 ± 3.048 compared to SD (18.742 ± 1.151 and PLA (16.983 ± 1.783. Similar findings existed regarding insulin (P 0.05. No significant differences were observed between trials in first–fourth repetitions (P > 0.05. Time of fifth-seventh repetitions were significantly lower in SD-CAF compared to SD and PLA (P < 0.05, and were significantly lower in SD than that in PLA (P < 0.05. The time of 7th repetition was (4.331 ± 0.210, 4.610 ± 0.197, 4.81 6 ± 0.171 s for SD-CAF, SD, and PLA, respectively; P < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine interferes hormones that are responsible for producing energy which in turn have a positive effect on repeated sprint bouts.

  4. 75 FR 63856 - Potassium Permanganate From China Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Permanganate From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review... potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4183 (September 2010), entitled Potassium Permanganate from...

  5. Determination of uranium-235 by differential gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suner, A.A.; La Gamma de Batistoni, A.M.G.; Botbol, J.

    1974-12-01

    A method for the determination of U-235 contained in solutions of uranium, by gamma spectrometry with Ge(Li) detector is described. Ra-226 is coprecipitated in BaSO 4 . The activity at 186 keV is measured, substracted by the corresponding of a standard. The detection limit is 1% of increment of U-235 over the standard. (author)

  6. 42 CFR 405.817 - Principles for determining amount in controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principles for determining amount in controversy... the Medicare Part B Program § 405.817 Principles for determining amount in controversy. (a) Individual... may assert that the aggregation principles contained in this subpart may be applied to determine the...

  7. A cross-sectional survey of Aedes aegypti immature abundance in urban and rural household containers in central Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Hans J; Olano, Víctor Alberto; Jaramillo, Juan Felipe; Matiz, María Inés; Sarmiento, Diana; Stenström, Thor Axel; Alexander, Neal

    2017-07-27

    Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue, breeds in domestic water containers. The development of immature mosquitoes in such containers is influenced by various environmental, ecological and socioeconomic factors. Urban and rural disparities in water storage practices and water source supply may affect mosquito immature abundance and, potentially, dengue risk. We evaluated the effect of water and container characteristics on A. aegypti immature abundance in urban and rural areas. Data were collected in the wet season of 2011 in central Colombia from 36 urban and 35 rural containers, which were either mosquito-positive or negative. Immature mosquitoes were identified to species. Data on water and container characteristics were collected from all containers. A total of 1452 Aedes pupae and larvae were collected of which 81% were A. aegypti and 19% A. fluviatilis. Aedes aegypti immatures were found in both urban and rural sites. However, the mean number of A. aegypti pupae was five times higher in containers in the urban sites compared to those in the rural sites. One of the important factors associated with A. aegypti infestation was frequency of container washing. Monthly-washed or never-washed containers were both about four times more likely to be infested than those washed every week. There were no significant differences between urban and rural sites in frequency of washing containers. Aedes aegypti immature infestation was positively associated with total dissolved solids, but negatively associated with dissolved oxygen. Water temperature, total dissolved solids, ammonia, nitrate, and organic matter were significantly higher in urban than in rural containers, which might explain urban-rural differences in breeding of A. aegypti. However, many of these factors vary substantially between studies and in their degree of association with vector breeding, therefore they may not be reliable indices for vector control interventions. Although containers in urban areas

  8. 20 CFR 664.310 - When is dropout status determined, particularly for youth attending alternative schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is dropout status determined... INVESTMENT ACT Out-of-School Youth § 664.310 When is dropout status determined, particularly for youth attending alternative schools? A school dropout is defined as an individual who is no longer attending any...

  9. Longer habitual afternoon napping is associated with a higher risk for impaired fasting plasma glucose and diabetes mellitus in older adults: results from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort of retired workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Weimin; Li, Zhongliang; Wu, Li; Cao, Zhongqiang; Liang, Yuan; Yang, Handong; Wang, Youjie; Wu, Tangchun

    2013-10-01

    Afternoon napping is a common habit in China. We used data obtained from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort to examine if duration of habitual afternoon napping was associated with risks for impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in a Chinese elderly population. A total of 27,009 participants underwent a physical examination, laboratory tests, and face-to-face interview. They were categorized into four groups according to nap duration (no napping, or =90 min). Logistic regression models were used to examine the odds ratios (ORs) of napping duration with IFG and DM. Of the participants, 18,515 (68.6%) reported regularly taking afternoon naps. Those with longer nap duration had considerably higher prevalence of IFG and DM. Napping duration was associated in a dose-dependent manner with IFG and DM (Pnap duration (>60 min; all Pnap duration (>30 min) was associated with increased risk for DM; however, this finding was not significant in the group with a nap duration of 60-90 min. Longer habitual afternoon napping was associated with a moderate increase for DM risk, independent of several covariates. This finding suggests that longer nap duration may represent a novel risk factor for DM and higher blood glucose levels. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Biodiesel Production from Residual Palm Oil Contained in Spent Bleaching Earth by In Situ Trans-Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Fahmil QRM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE is an industrial solid waste of vegetable oil industry that has a high residual oil to be potentialy converted to biodiesel. This study aims at developing a biodiesel production process technology by utilizing residual palm oil contained in SBE and to test the use of hexane in the trans-esterification process. Optimization process was done by using the Response Surface Method (RSM. The variables studied included catalyst concentration and reaction time. On the other hand, the deoiled SBE resulted from biodiesel production was tested as an adsorbent on biodiesel purification after being reactivated. The method used in the biodiesel production included an in situ acid catalysed esterification followed by in situ base catalysed trans-esterification. The results of RSM showed that the optimum process was obtained at NaOH concentration of 1.8% and reaction time of 104.73 minutes, with a predicted response rate of 97.18% and 95.63% for validation results. The use of hexane could also increase the yield of biodiesel which was obtained on the ratio of hexane to methanol of 0.4:1 (volume of hexane: volume of methanol. On the other hand, the reactivated bleaching earth was effective as an adsorbent in biodiesel production, which was still conform with the Indonesian National Standard.

  11. The necessity of repeated assessment of imaging studies contained in medical records in medico-legal opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Borowska-Solonynko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two case reports of living victims, in which imaging studies of the chest conducted at a medical facility were an essential part of the medico-legal opinion. The first case was that of a young male hospitalized due to CT evidence of bilateral rib fractions, who claimed to have been assaulted by police officers. The other case was that of a six week old baby hospitalized due to chest X-ray evidence of right hand side rib fractions. The chest X-ray was performed due to one bruise found on the baby’s forehead and two small bruises on the back, which gave rise to suspicions of child abuse. In both cases, expert witnesses in radiology definitively excluded the presence of any fractures. These cases indicate that a new assessment of imaging studies contained in medical records is needed. Expert opinions based solely on the description of imaging studies may result in grave consequences.

  12. Can hormones contained in mothers' milk account for the beneficial effect of breast-feeding on obesity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Fissore, Maria F; Liguori, Stefania A; Oggero, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    Nutrition and growth during infancy are an emerging issue because of their potential link to metabolic health disorders in later life. Moreover, prolonged breast-feeding appears to be associated with a lower risk of obesity than formula feeding. Human milk is a source of various hormones and growth factors, namely adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), ghrelin, resistin and obestatin, which are involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. These compounds are either not found in commercial milk formulas or their presence is still controversial. Diet-related differences during infancy in serum levels of factors involved in energy metabolism might explain anthropometric differences and also differences in dietary habits between breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants later in life, and may thus have long-term health consequences. In this context, the recent finding of higher leptin levels and lower ghrelin levels in BF than in FF infants suggests that differences in hormonal values together with different protein intake could account for the differences in growth between BF and FF infants both during infancy and later in life. In this review, we examine the data related to hormones contained in mothers' milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity and metabolic-related disorders.

  13. Comparative study on aerosol removal by natural processes in containment in severe accident for AP1000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaohui; Cao, Xinrong; Shi, Xingwei; Yan, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Characteristics of aerosol distribution in containment are obtained. • Aerosol removal by natural processes is comparative studied by two methods. • Traditional rapid assessment method is conservative and can be applied in AP1000 reactor. - Abstract: Focusing on aerosol removal by naturally occurring processes in containment in severe accident for AP1000, integral severe accident code MELCOR and rapid assessment method mentioned in NUREG/CR-6189 are utilized to study aerosol removal by natural processes, respectively. Three typical severe accidents, induced by large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA), small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) and steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), respectively, are selected for the study. The results obtained by two methods were further compared in the following several aspects: efficiency of aerosol removal by natural processes, peak time of aerosol suspended in containment atmosphere, peak amount of aerosol suspended in containment atmosphere, time when aerosol removal efficiency by natural processes is up to 99.9%. It was further concluded that results obtained by rapid assessment with shorter calculation process are more conservative. The analysis results provide reference to assessment method selection of severe accident source term for AP1000 nuclear emergency.

  14. Dietary exposure assessment of pregnant women to bisphenol-A from cans and microwave containers in Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal-Arcas, M; Rivas, A; Granada, A; Monteagudo, C; Murcia, M A; Olea-Serrano, F

    2009-02-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), material for polycarbonate and epoxy resin synthesis, has been detected in canned food, among other food containers. In mammal studies, BPA transferred from mother to fetus, caused abnormality of reproductive organs, and advanced female puberty. BPA from canned food and microwave containers was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Population was cohort of mother-son pairs established at Granada University Hospital. Frequency of food consumption (including canned food) was studied with a semi-quantitative questionnaire. The most frequently consumed products were fish and juice cans, consumed 1-3 times/week by 34.7% and 22.3% of the study population, respectively. The women made little use of polymer microwave containers, 52.8% never using them and 45.9% using them canned foods and drinks by these women means that their exposure was lower than EFSA estimates for the European population. Nevertheless it remains of concern, given the proven undesirable effects of low-level exposure and higher susceptibility of pregnant women.

  15. Electro-removal of H-3 and C-14 contained in scintillation liquid absorbed in soils type Phaeozem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdovinos, V.; Bustos, E.; Monroy G, F.

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the results of electro-removal, an electrochemical treatment in soils contaminated with H-3 and C-14 contained in scintillation liquids absorbed in soils. For this purpose the best electrochemical conditions were used, which are: scintillation liquid Ultima Gold Xr, water (1:1) and 1 m A in the passage of current. The media were characterized before and after of applying the different potentials by various analytical techniques, such as: liquids by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, solids and liquids by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (Ftir) and electrodes by scanning electron microscopy with elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Later standard samples with H-3 and C-14 were prepared and the electrochemical treatment was applied to previously established conditions. After electrochemical treatment the scintillation liquid characterization was performed by gas chromatography and a scintillation counter to see the disintegrations per minute. According to results of Ftir, soils show no deterioration and in the liquid phase the amount of water increases as the applied potential, due to oxidation-reduction reactions where happen modification or mineralization of organic molecules (H 2 O and CO 2 formation). In 4 h of treatment, removal percentages in the liquid phase, were: 53.6% of H-3 and 11.6% of C-14. (Author)

  16. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  17. Underdense radiation sources: Moving towards longer wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, C.A.; Kilkenny, J.D. [General Atomics, San Diego, California (United States); Seely, J.F.; Weaver, J.L. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Feldman, U. [Artep Inc., Ellicott City, MD (United States); Tommasini, R.; Glendinning, S.G.; Chung, H.K.; Rosen, M.; Lee, R.W.; Scott, H.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California (United States); Tillack, M. [U. C. San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Underdense radiation sources have been developed to provide efficient laboratory multi-keV radiation sources for radiography and radiation hardening studies. In these plasmas laser absorption by inverse Bremsstrahlung leads to high x-ray conversion efficiency because of efficient ionization of the low density aerogel or gas targets. Now we performing experiments in the soft x-ray energy regime where the atomic physics models are much more complicated. In recent experiments at the NIKE laser, we have irradiated a Ti-doped SiO{sub 2} aerogel with up to 1650 J of 248 nm wavelength light. The absolute Ti L-shell emission in the 200-800 eV range is measured with a diagnostic that uses a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. We will give an overview of the temporally-resolved absolutely calibrated spectra obtained over a range of conditions. (authors)

  18. Underdense radiation sources: Moving towards longer wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, C.A.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Seely, J.F.; Weaver, J.L.; Feldman, U.; Tommasini, R.; Glendinning, S.G.; Chung, H.K.; Rosen, M.; Lee, R.W.; Scott, H.A.; Tillack, M.

    2006-01-01

    Underdense radiation sources have been developed to provide efficient laboratory multi-keV radiation sources for radiography and radiation hardening studies. In these plasmas laser absorption by inverse Bremsstrahlung leads to high x-ray conversion efficiency because of efficient ionization of the low density aerogel or gas targets. Now we performing experiments in the soft x-ray energy regime where the atomic physics models are much more complicated. In recent experiments at the NIKE laser, we have irradiated a Ti-doped SiO 2 aerogel with up to 1650 J of 248 nm wavelength light. The absolute Ti L-shell emission in the 200-800 eV range is measured with a diagnostic that uses a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. We will give an overview of the temporally-resolved absolutely calibrated spectra obtained over a range of conditions. (authors)

  19. When Mothers Are No Longer Respected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carole

    1997-01-01

    A former childcare worker addresses the connection between social problems plaguing modern life and society's attitudes toward the role of women and mothering. She describes the detrimental effects on children who are placed in day care at an early age and urges that families abandon materialism and work toward improving the quality of their own…

  20. Astronomers no longer in the dark

    CERN Multimedia

    MacMillan, L

    2002-01-01

    In a significant breakthrough, British and US astronomers have begun to pin down the most elusive material in the universe. They have made a map of dark matter - the heavy, invisible stuff that gives the galaxies their shape (1 page).

  1. Nuclear energy and proliferation: A longer perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear power has expanded slowly; and it is largely based on reactors that require no recycle. The original basis for concern about proliferation - that nuclear power would be used very widely and that it would be based on systems that required reprocessing - has been shaken. The present world nuclear energy system, which is small and based on no-recycle reactors, is relatively resistant to proliferation via diversion from power reactors. Though worry about proliferation can never be eliminated, the perceived connection between power and bombs can be slowly reduced. The proposal to link fuel take-back with waste disposal poses a dilemma for the ''nuclear environmental'' activists. This group objects to nuclear power because, in their view, reactor wastes threaten the environment, and because bombs and reactors are connected. Both objections are held, often passionately; it would be difficult to assess which takes primacy. This proposal further breaks the ''Nuclear Connection,'' but at the expense of adding a little to the volume of wastes the United States would have to dispose of. We are in effect saying that the loosening of the nuclear connection through the take-back scheme should take precedence over the tiny environmental burden incurred by the addition of a few percent to the total wastes the U.S. already must dispose of. It is hoped that the nuclear environmental community will recognize this trade-off, and will help create the atmosphere of public understanding necessary if fuel take-back is to be accepted in the United States

  2. Childhood Cancer Survivors Are Living Longer

    Science.gov (United States)

    New data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study suggest that refinements in pediatric cancer treatment over the last few decades have helped to extend the lifespans of many survivors of childhood cancer.

  3. Why and how are we living longer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Thomas B.L.

    2017-01-01

    New Findings: What is the topic of this review? The reasons for the continuing increase in human life expectancy are examined in the light of progress in understanding the physiological basis of ageing. Prospects for further extending the health span – the period free of age-related disability...... and disease – are critically assessed. What advances does it highlight? No active programming directly causes ageing, which instead results as a side effect of how evolution optimises the physiological allocation of resources between growth, reproduction and maintenance. Under pressure of natural selection...... that there is almost certainly no fixed programme for ageing, which is caused instead by the lifelong accumulation of damage. It is becoming evident that the ageing process is much more malleable than we used to think. We need urgently to establish the factors that govern this malleability and to identify...

  4. ATLAS: Adjuvant Tamoxifen Longer Against Shorter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    largely tunaffected by other these 30 000 women during about 10 years of follow-up patient characteristics or treatments. were 21% (SD 3), 29% (SD 2...for both types of mosted to stop part of the eduon y epatient . most of them did stop, part of the reduction in the The right side of figure 4...patient characteristics (e.g. high/ low-risk, ER+/ER-, pre/post-menopausal) recorded at entry. Other trials of tamoxifen duration The Atlas collaboration

  5. The Lilliputians are no longer tiny people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    2004-01-01

    And yet, the U.S. has already lost the battle. So far, U.S. power could count on on its total control of public consciousness in large parts of the world. In its past wars, the millions of Lilliputians sat glued to their TV sets and watched the propaganda broadcasts, identical on all channels. They

  6. Small Proteins Can No Longer Be Ignored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Gisela; Wolf, Yuri I.; Ramamurthi, Kumaran S.

    2014-01-01

    Small proteins, here defined as proteins of 50 amino acids or less in the absence of processing, have traditionally been overlooked due to challenges in their annotation and biochemical detection. In the past several years however, increasing numbers of small proteins have been identified either through the realization that mutations in “intergenic” regions actually are within unannotated small protein genes, or through the discovery that some small, regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) encode small proteins. These insights together with comparative sequence analysis indicate that tens if not hundreds of small proteins are synthesized in a given organism. This review will summarize what has been learned about the functions of several of these bacterial small proteins, most of which act at the membrane, illustrating the astonishing range of processes in which the small proteins act and pointing to several general conclusions. Important questions for future studies of these overlooked proteins also will be discussed. PMID:24606146

  7. ASA24-Kids (no longer available)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASA24-Kids-2014 was released in February 2014 and until March 2017, researchers can register new studies in this version of the ASA24® system. Funding is not currently available for a mobile accessible version for kids, such as ASA24-2016.

  8. Mathematical Heroes--No Longer Unsung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Cynthia E.

    2007-01-01

    The history of Fermat's Last Theorem, recounted in the theatrical piece "Fermat's Last Tango," is a useful vehicle for introducing students to the variety of personalities, processes, and products involved in advanced mathematical investigation. The musical's accessible, informative, and positive portrayal of mathematicians and their work is…

  9. Longer Opening Hours for the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The scientific information service. The CERN library is open 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. So how, you might be wondering, can they improve on that? The answer is in the detail. Although you can already use the library whenever you want, items can only be checked out when the front desk is staffed. A decision taken last week by the Scientific Information Policy Board now means that there will someone at the desk through out CERN's official working hours, with an extra 90 minutes at the end of the day so that people can check out material on their way home. In other words, the library will be open from 8:30 to 19:00, Monday to Friday. The library continues, of course, to be open 24 hours a day, all year round, and services provided via the digital library remain at your disposal day and night: http://library.cern.ch

  10. Lightweight scheduling of elastic analysis containers in a competitive cloud environment: a Docked Analysis Facility for ALICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzano, D.; Blomer, J.; Buncic, P.; Charalampidis, I.; Ganis, G.; Meusel, R.

    2015-12-01

    During the last years, several Grid computing centres chose virtualization as a better way to manage diverse use cases with self-consistent environments on the same bare infrastructure. The maturity of control interfaces (such as OpenNebula and OpenStack) opened the possibility to easily change the amount of resources assigned to each use case by simply turning on and off virtual machines. Some of those private clouds use, in production, copies of the Virtual Analysis Facility, a fully virtualized and self-contained batch analysis cluster capable of expanding and shrinking automatically upon need: however, resources starvation occurs frequently as expansion has to compete with other virtual machines running long-living batch jobs. Such batch nodes cannot relinquish their resources in a timely fashion: the more jobs they run, the longer it takes to drain them and shut off, and making one-job virtual machines introduces a non-negligible virtualization overhead. By improving several components of the Virtual Analysis Facility we have realized an experimental “Docked” Analysis Facility for ALICE, which leverages containers instead of virtual machines for providing performance and security isolation. We will present the techniques we have used to address practical problems, such as software provisioning through CVMFS, as well as our considerations on the maturity of containers for High Performance Computing. As the abstraction layer is thinner, our Docked Analysis Facilities may feature a more fine-grained sizing, down to single-job node containers: we will show how this approach will positively impact automatic cluster resizing by deploying lightweight pilot containers instead of replacing central queue polls.

  11. Circulatory Arrest, Brain Arrest and Death Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam David Shemie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances, particularly in the capacity to support, replace or transplant failing organs, continue to challenge and refine our understanding of human death. Given the ability to reanimate organs before and after death, both inside and outside of the body, through reinstitution of oxygenated circulation, concepts related to death of organs (e.g. cardiac death are no longer valid. This paper advances the rationale for a single conceptual determination of death related to permanent brain arrest, resulting from primary brain injury or secondary to circulatory arrest. The clinical characteristics of brain arrest are the permanent loss of capacity for consciousness and loss of all brainstem functions. In the setting of circulatory arrest, death occurs after the arrest of circulation to the brain rather than death of the heart. Correspondingly, any intervention that resumes oxygenated circulation to the brain after circulatory arrest would invalidate the determination of death.

  12. The methods of cesium-137 determination in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedeonov, L.I.; Krylov, V.N.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    New express procedures of Cs-137 determination in sea water using selective sorbents are described. One of them is based on the use of natural radioactive potassium-40 as internal standard. Another one allows to perform Cs-137 determination without use of any standards, by pumping a certain amount of water through several successive identical cells filled with sorbent. The positive feature of the procedures consists in that it is no longer necessary chemical treatment of samples in Cs-133 determination in the sorbent and sea water. The danger of polution of samples by alkali metals which can be introduced with reactive agents in the process of chemical treatment is reduced to minimum

  13. Assessment of beach and dune erosion and accretion using LiDAR: Impact of the stormy 2013-14 winter and longer term trends on the Sefton Coast, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Kenneth; Blott, Simon J.

    2016-08-01

    An important question for coastal management concerns the importance of individual storms and clusters of storms on longer term beach sediment budgets, beach and dune erosion, and coastal flood risk. Between October 2013 and March 2014 a series of deep Atlantic low pressure systems crossed the Northeast Atlantic, and strong winds, high waves and high water levels affected many coastal areas in the UK and other parts of western Europe. Net dune recession of up to 12.1 m occurred around Formby Point. On 5 December 2013 the highest water level ever recorded at Liverpool (6.22 m ODN) coincided with waves of Hs of 4.55 m and Tp of 9.3 s in Liverpool Bay. Wave trimming of the dune toe occurred along the entire length of the Sefton coast, but significant dune erosion occurred only where the upper beach (between the mean high water spring tide level and the dune toe) was dune system, mostly at Formby Point. However, some parts of the beach to the south of Formby Point gained sediment, indicating net north to south transport over the winter. When considered in a longer term context, the 2013-14 winter represents only a small perturbation on the longer-term coast trend of erosion at Formby Point and progradation to the north and south. Analysis of LiDAR data over a longer time period 1999-2014 indicated upper beach and dune sediment loss of 780 × 103 m3 from the north-central part of Formby Point, with net gains of 806 × 103 m3 and 2116 × 103 m3 in areas to the north and south, respectively. This indicates a net onshore transport of 2142 × 103 m3 from Liverpool Bay towards the coast between Birkdale and Altcar, with a further net total of 210 × 103 m3 transported towards the shore between Altcar and Crosby. In view of the demonstrated value of airborne LiDAR surveys for the quantification of storm impacts and longer term coastal changes, it is recommended that such surveys should be undertaken before and after each winter storm period, covering the area between mean low

  14. Position automatic determination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This book tells of method of position determination and characteristic, control method of position determination and point of design, point of sensor choice for position detector, position determination of digital control system, application of clutch break in high frequency position determination, automation technique of position determination, position determination by electromagnetic clutch and break, air cylinder, cam and solenoid, stop position control of automatic guide vehicle, stacker crane and automatic transfer control.

  15. Variation in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae infestation in artificial containers in Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Soares-da-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dengue is a serious public health problem worldwide, with cases reported annually in tropical and subtropical regions. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762, the main vector of dengue, is a domiciliary species with high dispersal and survival capacities and can use various artificial containers as breeding sites. We assessed potential container breeding sites of A. aegypti in the municipality of Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: In the initial phase, we analyzed 900 properties in 3 neighborhoods during the dry and rainy seasons (August-October 2005 and February-April 2006, respectively. During the second sampling period, September 2006-August 2007, we used 5 assessment cycles for 300 properties in a single neighborhood. RESULTS: During the dry and rainy seasons, water-storage containers comprised 55.7% (n = 1,970 and 48.5% (n = 1,836 of the total containers inspected, and showed the highest productivity of immature A. aegypti; we found 23.7 and 106.1 individuals/container, respectively, in peridomicile sites. In intradomicile sites, water-storage containers were also the most important breeding sites with 86.4% (n = 973 and 85.6% (n = 900 of all containers and a mean of 7.9 and 108.3 individuals/container in the dry and rainy seaso-October 2006 (1,342. The highest number of positives (70 was recorded in May, mostly (94% in storage containers. CONCLUSIONS: Storage containers are the principal and most productive A. aegypti breeding sites and are a major contributing factor to the maintenance of this vector in Caxias.

  16. Variation in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Culicidae) infestation in artificial containers in Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-da-Silva, Joelma; Ibiapina, Sebastiana Silva; Bezerra, Juliana Maria Trindade; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Pinheiro, Valéria Cristina Soares

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem worldwide, with cases reported annually in tropical and subtropical regions. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), the main vector of dengue, is a domiciliary species with high dispersal and survival capacities and can use various artificial containers as breeding sites. We assessed potential container breeding sites of A. aegypti in the municipality of Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil. In the initial phase, we analyzed 900 properties in 3 neighborhoods during the dry and rainy seasons (August-October 2005 and February-April 2006, respectively). During the second sampling period, September 2006-August 2007, we used 5 assessment cycles for 300 properties in a single neighborhood. During the dry and rainy seasons, water-storage containers comprised 55.7% (n = 1,970) and 48.5% (n = 1,836) of the total containers inspected, and showed the highest productivity of immature A. aegypti; we found 23.7 and 106.1 individuals/container, respectively, in peridomicile sites. In intradomicile sites, water-storage containers were also the most important breeding sites with 86.4% (n = 973) and 85.6% (n = 900) of all containers and a mean of 7.9 and 108.3 individuals/container in the dry and rainy seaso-October 2006 (1,342). The highest number of positives (70) was recorded in May, mostly (94%) in storage containers. Storage containers are the principal and most productive A. aegypti breeding sites and are a major contributing factor to the maintenance of this vector in Caxias.

  17. Can we use human judgments to determine the discount rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J

    2000-12-01

    It has been suggested that the long-term discount rate for environmental goods should decrease at longer delays. One justification for this suggestion is that human judgments support it. This article presents an experiment showing that judgments concerning discount rates are internally inconsistent. These results point to potential problems with the use of judgments referenda for determining discount rates in cost-benefit analyses.

  18. Determinants of fertility in Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This examines the fertility trends in Namibia over the past 2 decades .... contraceptive use was small because of the late age at first ..... limited flexibility in terms of maternity leave conditions ... Longer periods in education have increased the.

  19. Longer telomere length in peripheral white blood cells is associated with risk of lung cancer and the rs2736100 (CLPTM1L-TERT polymorphism in a prospective cohort study among women in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lan

    Full Text Available A recent genome-wide association study of lung cancer among never-smoking females in Asia demonstrated that the rs2736100 polymorphism in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15.33 was strongly and significantly associated with risk of adenocarcinoma of the lung. The telomerase gene TERT is a reverse transcriptase that is critical for telomere replication and stabilization by controlling telomere length. We previously found that longer telomere length measured in peripheral white blood cell DNA was associated with increased risk of lung cancer in a prospective cohort study of smoking males in Finland. To follow up on this finding, we carried out a nested case-control study of 215 female lung cancer cases and 215 female controls, 94% of whom were never-smokers, in the prospective Shanghai Women's Health Study cohort. There was a dose-response relationship between tertiles of telomere length and risk of lung cancer (odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0, 1.4 [0.8-2.5], and 2.2 [1.2-4.0], respectively; P trend = 0.003. Further, the association was unchanged by the length of time from blood collection to case diagnosis. In addition, the rs2736100 G allele, which we previously have shown to be associated with risk of lung cancer in this cohort, was significantly associated with longer telomere length in these same study subjects (P trend = 0.030. Our findings suggest that individuals with longer telomere length in peripheral white blood cells may have an increased risk of lung cancer, but require replication in additional prospective cohorts and populations.

  20. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials for the management of limited vertical height in the posterior region: short implants (5 to 8 mm) vs longer implants (> 8 mm) in vertically augmented sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ah; Lee, Chun-Teh; Fu, Martin M; Elmisalati, Waiel; Chuang, Sung-Kiang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to undertake a systematic review with meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the rates of survival, success, and complications of short implants to those of longer implants in the posterior regions. Electronic literature searches were conducted through the MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE databases to locate all relevant articles published between January 1, 1990, and April 30, 2013. Eligible studies were selected based on inclusion criteria, and quality assessments were conducted. After data extraction, meta-analyses were performed. In total, 539 dental implants (265 short implants [length 5 to 8 mm] and 274 control implants [length > 8 mm]) from four RCTs were included. The fixed prostheses of multiple short and control implants were all splinted. The mean follow-up period was 2.1 years. The 1-year and 5-year cumulative survival rates (CSR) were 98.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.8% to 99.5%) and 93.6% (95% CI, 89.8% to 97.5%), respectively, for the short implant group and 98.0% (95% CI, 96.9% to 99.1%) and 90.3% (95% CI, 85.2% to 95.4%), respectively, for the control implant group. The CSRs of the two groups did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference. There were also no statistically significant differences in success rates, failure rates, or complications between the two groups. Placement of short dental implants could be a predictable alternative to longer implants to reduce surgical complications and patient morbidity in situations where vertical augmentation procedures are needed. However, only four studies with potential risk of bias were selected in this meta-analysis. Within the limitations of this meta-analysis, these results should be confirmed with robust methodology and RCTs with longer follow-up duration.

  1. Radionuclides and heavy elements containing in the soil and vegetation in the area of Didmay tailing pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razikov, Z.A.; Yunusov, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this article on the base of carried out investigations authors made conclusion on effectiveness of obtaining of geo botanical methods of territory investigation adjoining to the tailing pits. With the purpose of decreasing of radionuclides and heavy metals concentration in the soil it was determined for this spot the plant-indicators and association which can accumulate radioactive and attendant them chemical elements

  2. Separation and immobilization of Sr and Cs contained in acidic media by using inorganic ion-exchangers. Literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    The present study deals with the survey of inorganic ion-exchangers suitable for separation and immobilization of Sr and Cs contained in acidic high-level liquid waste. The stabilities of published waste forms and their preparation processes were evaluated from the standpoint of conversion of exchangers containing Sr and Cs into appropriate waste forms. The essential results are below. (1) For separation and immobilization of Cs, crystalline silicotitanate seems to be the most promising exchanger. Insoluble ferrocyanides and phosphates are not suitable for immobilization without additives. Mordenite is inexpensive and commercially available but it would dissolve in highly acidic media. (2) For selective separation of Sr, there is no promising exchanger up to now. It is necessary either to modify separation condition or to synthesize a novel exchanger. (3) Soluble salts, glasses and ceramics are proposed as a storage or disposal form of separated Sr and Cs. Ceramics sintered by hot-pressing are favorable waste forms of inorganic ion-exchangers but their leachabilities and thermal conductivities are largely influenced by qualities of products. Crystallinity of a sintered exchanger depends on its composition. Exchanges of low Cs contents are often converted into amorphous materials whose chemical stabilities depend on solubilities of components of exchangers. (4) A new exchanger to be synthesized is crystalline and selective toward Sr and Cs. One meq/g is enough for Sr and Cs capacities, which are restricted by thermal and transmutation effects. Composition of the exchanger should be selected from the point of a scenario of separation and disposal. The solubilities of SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} are low in acidic media and those of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, in disposal circumstances. (5) Future works are optimization of separation scheme including development of exchangers, simplification of

  3. Genome sequence analysis of five Canadian isolates of strawberry mottle virus reveals extensive intra-species diversity and a longer RNA2 with increased coding capacity compared to a previously characterized European isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Basdeo; Dickison, Virginia; Ding, Xinlun; Walker, Melanie; Bernardy, Michael; Bouthillier, Michel; Creelman, Alexa; DeYoung, Robyn; Li, Yinzi; Nie, Xianzhou; Wang, Aiming; Xiang, Yu; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the genome sequence of five isolates of strawberry mottle virus (family Secoviridae, order Picornavirales) from strawberry field samples with decline symptoms collected in Eastern Canada. The Canadian isolates differed from the previously characterized European isolate 1134 in that they had a longer RNA2, resulting in a 239-amino-acid extension of the C-terminal region of the polyprotein. Sequence analysis suggests that reassortment and recombination occurred among the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Canadian isolates are diverse, grouping in two separate branches along with isolates from Europe and the Americas.

  4. Non steady-state model for dry oxidation of nuclear wastes metallic containers in long term interim storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Nathalie; Desgranges, Clara; Poquillon, Dominique; Monceau, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    For high-level nuclear waste containers in long-term interim storage, dry oxidation will be the first and the main degradation mode. The reason is that, for this kind of waste, the temperature on the surface of the containers will be high enough to avoid any condensation phenomena for several years. Even if the scale growth kinetics is expected to be very slow since the temperature will be moderate at the beginning of the storage (around 300 deg. C) and will keep on decreasing, the metal thickness lost by dry oxidation over such a long period must be evaluated with a good reliability. To achieve this goal, modelling of the oxide scale growth is necessary and this is the aim of the dry oxidation studies, performed in the frame of the COCON programme. All existing oxidation models are based on the two main oxidation theories developed by Wagner between the 1930's and 1970's on the one hand, and by Cabrera and Mott in the 1960 and next by Fromhold on the other hand. These used to be associated with high temperature behaviour for Wagner's theory and with low temperature for the second one. Indeed it is certainly more relevant to consider their range of application in terms of the oxide scale thickness rather than in terms of temperature. The question is posed about which theory should an appropriate model rely on. It can be expected that the oxide scale could have a thickness ranging from a few tens of nanometers up to several tens of micrometers depending on temperature and class of alloys chosen. At the present time, low-alloyed steels or carbon steels are considered candidate materials for high-level nuclear waste containers in long term interim storage. For this type of alloys, the scale formed during the dry oxidation stage will be 'rapidly' thick enough to neglect the Mott field. Hence, in a first step, some basic models based on a parabolic rate assumption, that is to say Wagner's model, have been derived from experimental data on iron and on low-alloy steel

  5. Estimation of uncertainties in {sup 1}H, Zr and {sup 238}U nuclear data contained in JENDL-3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi; Nakajima, Yutaka; Fukahori, Tokio; Chiba, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Tsuneo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kawano, Toshihiko

    1996-08-01

    Uncertainties have been estimated for the total, elastic scattering and capture cross sections of {sup 1}H, the capture, (n,2n) reaction and inelastic scattering cross sections of natural Zr, and the inelastic scattering cross sections and resolved resonance parameters of {sup 238}U. Considering the evaluation method taken for each data, standard deviations and correlation matrices were determined in 18 energy structure. (author). 50 refs.

  6. Acute and long-term nutrient-led modifications of gene expression: potential role of SIRT1 as a central co-ordinator of short and longer-term programming of tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, Mark J; Caton, Paul W; Sugden, Mary C

    2010-05-01

    Environmental factors can influence the acute and longer-term risks of developing diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Increasing evidence suggests that these effects can be achieved by modification of metabolic gene expression. These include acute changes in histone methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination and longer-term DNA silencing elicited by DNA methylation. Thus, an increased risk of disease may reflect acute or chronic stable modification of genes that regulate nutrient handling, leading to altered nutrient utilization (increased lipid oxidation at the expense of glucose utilization) and/or changes in the balance between nutrient storage and energy production, thereby favoring the development of obesity. The review addresses the hypothesis that early-life epigenetic programming of gene expression could be mirrored by changes in acute function of nuclear receptors, in particular the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, achieved by enzymes that are more conventionally involved in regulating DNA methylation and post-transcriptional modification of histones. Emphasis is placed on the potential importance of the protein deacetylase sirtuin-1 as a central co-ordinator. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 42 CFR 405.740 - Principles for determining the amount in controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principles for determining the amount in... Reconsiderations and Appeals Under Medicare Part A § 405.740 Principles for determining the amount in controversy... more appellants, the Secretary may assert that the aggregation principles contained in this subpart may...

  8. Inductive flow meter for measuring the speed of flow and gas volume contained in a flow of liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, S.

    1980-01-01

    The speed of flow of the sodium is measured in two closely adjacent flow crossections using pairs of electrodes in the field of two disc-shaped permanent magnets made of AlNiCo 450, by means of measurements of running time of speed fluctuations. The result of the measurement is independent of the temperature of the sensor and the temperature of the sodium. The same arrangement makes it possible to determine the proportion by volume of the fission gas in sodium with a limiting freequency of several kHz. (DG) [de

  9. Evaluation of the Likelihood for Thermal Runaway for Nitrate Salt Containers in Storage at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heatwole, Eric Mann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gunderson, Jake Alfred [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Gary Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-25

    In order to handle and process the existing Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Nitrate Salt drums it is necessary to quantify the risk. One of the most obvious dangers is a repeat of the original violent reaction (2015), which would endanger nearby workers, not only with radioactive contamination, but also with large amounts of heat, dangerous corrosive gases and the physical dangers associated with a bursting drum. If there still existed a high probability of violent reaction, then these drums should only be accessed remotely. The objective of the work reported herein is to determine the likelihood of a similar violent event occurring.

  10. Study of the ruthenium fission-product behavior in the containment, in the case of a nuclear reactor severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Ch.

    2007-03-01

    Ruthenium tetroxide is an extremely volatile and highly radio-toxic species. During a severe accident with air ingress in the reactor vessel, ruthenium oxides may reach the reactor containment building in significant quantities. Therefore, a better understanding of the RuO 4 (g) behaviour in the containment atmosphere is of primary importance for the assessment of radiological consequences, in the case of potential releases of this species into the environment. A RuO 4 (g) decomposition kinetic law was determined. Steam seems to play a catalytic role, as well as the presence of ruthenium dioxide deposits. The temperature is also a key parameter. The nature of the substrate, stainless steel or paint, did not exhibit any chemical affinities with RuO 4 (g). This absence of reactivity was confirmed by XPS analyses, which indicate the presence of the same species in the Ru deposits surface layer whatever the substrates considered. It has been concluded that RuO 4 (g) decomposition corresponds to a bulk gas phase decomposition. The ruthenium re-volatilization phenomenon under irradiation from Ru deposits was also highlighted. An oxidation kinetic law was determined. The increase of the temperature and the steam concentration promote significantly the oxidation reaction. The establishment of Ru behavioural laws allowed making a modelling of the Ru source term. The results of the reactor calculations indicate that the values obtained for 106 Ru source term are closed to the reference value considered currently by the IRSN, for 900 MWe PWR safety analysis. (author)

  11. 25 CFR 1000.163 - Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate other terms and conditions not contained in the model compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions not contained in the model compact? 1000.163 Section 1000.163 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF... Funding Agreements Negotiating A Self-Governance Compact § 1000.163 Can a Tribe/Consortium negotiate other...

  12. Small, but Determined: Technological Determinism in Nanoscience

    OpenAIRE

    Cyrus C.M. Mody

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of technological determinism by historians, sociologists, and philosophers has declined in recent years. Yet understanding this topic is necessary, particularly in examining the dynamics of emerging technologies and their associated research areas. This is especially true of nanotechnology, which, because of its roots in futurist traditions, employs unusual variants on classical determinist arguments. In particular, nanotechnology orients much more strongly to the past and future tha...

  13. Trace recovery of uranium and rare earth contained in phosphates by liquid-liquid extraction in sulfuric attack liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousquet, F.; Foraison, D.; Leveque, A.; Sabot, J.L.

    1980-06-01

    Uranium and rare earths can be recovered in sedimentary phosphates during the wet processing of the ore by sulfuric acid giving raw phosphoric acid at 30 per cent of P 2 O 5 . Practically all the uranium contained and only part of rare earths are put into solution in this treatment. Separation of these elements in the phosphoric solution is obtained by liquid-liquid extraction with alkylphosphoric acids and especially with their mono and di esters. Partition isotherms are determined and counter-current tests are effected. Uranium and rare earths reextraction from these solvents can be simultaneous or separate with aqueous solutions alkaline or containing HF or by antisynergism. Pros and cons of each reextraction process are discussed. In conclusion HDEHP or OPPA are recommended because of availability, stability and hydrodynamic, OPPA less selective with rare earths allows the recovery with uranium of ceric earths, yttrium and yttric earths [fr

  14. MI (2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one) contained in detergents is not detectable in machine washed textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Maja A; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; Aberer, Werner

    2018-01-01

    hazard as a strong contact allergen, the risk depends on exposure. Regarding the risk of exposure levels for the consumer to MI in clothes it can be stated that the use of MI in laundry detergents is safe for the consumer if these products are used according to the instructions in the normal household......Background: European legislation has banned the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) from inclusion in leave-on cosmetics. However, the risk for allergic reactions depends on exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of MI in laundry detergents for household machine washing....... Methods: Different formulations of laundry detergents with commercial MI levels, up to one thousand ppm were used and three different types of clothes were washed in a normal household machine setting one time and 10 times. The level of MI was measured by HPLC. Results: While MI could be retrieved...

  15. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-04-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides (159)Dy, (157)Dy, (155)Dy, (161)Tb, (160)Tb, (156)Tb, (155)Tb, (154m2)Tb, (154m1)Tb, (154g)Tb, (153)Tb, (152)Tb and (151)Tb are reported in the 36-65MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. 1.2.4. Synthesis, crystal structure and thermal stability property of Ni(aze(4,4′ –bipy(H2O based on longer-spanning azelaic acid and 4,4′ -bipyridine ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Song, Feng Ying Bai*, Yan Xie, Yong Heng Xing.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: One new three-dimensional (3D supramolecular longer-spanning azelaic acid (H2aze complex: Ni(aze(4,4′– bipy(H2O (4,4′-bipy = 4,4′-bipyridine has been synthesized using hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, UV spectrum, powder X-ray diffraction, TG analysis and single crystal X–ray diffraction. Structural analysis reveals that the title complex is six-coordinate and connected by the azelaic acid and 4,4′-bipy ligands to generate a 2D planar structure, further linked through the interaction of hydrogen bond of C–H···O to form a 3D supramolecular structure . Supporting information: FT-IR, UV-Vis, X-Ray, Cif file

  17. The effect of selected cereals contained in feed ration on the amino acid composition of cows’ milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Šípalová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of maize replacement in feeding rations on the amino acid content in cows´ milk. Cows were fed total mix ration based on the maize, clover silage and hay. There was a difference in the concentrate of the feeding ration. The first group (fed maize was the control group, another two groups were experimental, one fed wheat and second fed triticale. During six weeks, totally 26 milk samples were taken from dairy cows of Czech Pied breed. Feed groups were preferably balanced in terms of milk yield, stage and number of lactations. The samples of feedstuffs as well as milk were modified for the analysis using acidic and oxidative hydrolyses. The analysis of amino acids content and composition of the sample hydrolysates was performed chromatographically by an AAA 400 analyzer, using Na-citrate buffers and ninhydrin detection. Total nitrogen content was determined according to Kjehldahl and the crude protein of the samples was determined by conversion from the nitrogen content multiplied by appropriate factor. The high content of crude protein in wheat did not influenced composition of milk from dairy cows fed this type of feedstuff. With respect to resulting amino acid content and composition of milk samples, none of the tested grains can be re­com­men­ded as a full-value maize replacement. Each feedstuff is an abundant source of several and ty­pi­cal amino acids in milk. However, triticale (cultivar Kitaro seems to be acceptable replacement of maize owing to better crude protein efficiency, composition and health indicators of milk quality.

  18. Longer duration of homelessness is associated with a lower likelihood of non-detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load among people who use illicit drugs in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Jane; Kennedy, Mary Clare; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; Marshall, Brandon; Parashar, Surita; Montaner, Julio; Milloy, M-J

    2016-11-01

    Homelessness is common among people who use drugs (PWUD) and, for those living with HIV/AIDS, an important contributor to sub-optimal HIV treatment outcomes. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the duration of homelessness and the likelihood of plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) non-detectability among a cohort of HIV-positive PWUD. We used data from the ACCESS study, a long-running prospective cohort study of HIV-positive PWUD linked to comprehensive HIV clinical records including systematic plasma HIV-1 RNA VL monitoring. We estimated the longitudinal relationship between the duration of homelessness and the likelihood of exhibiting a non-detectable VL (i.e., effects modelling. Between May 1996 and June 2014, 922 highly active antiretroviral therapy-exposed participants were recruited and contributed 8188 observations. Of these, 4800 (59%) were characterized by non-detectable VL. Participants reported they were homeless in 910 (11%) interviews (median: six months, interquartile range: 6-12 months). A longer duration of homelessness was associated with lower odds of VL non-detectability (adjusted odds ratio = 0.71 per six-month period of homelessness, 95% confidence interval: 0.60-0.83) after adjustment for age, ancestry, drug use patterns, engagement in addiction treatment, and other potential confounders. Longer durations of episodes of homelessness in this cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users were associated with a lower likelihood of plasma VL non-detectability. Our findings suggest that interventions that seek to promptly house homeless individuals, such as Housing First approaches, might assist in maximizing the clinical and public health benefits of antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS.

  19. Cave age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the age of a cave we have to determine the age of elements which were created at the same moment when the cave was. Usually a cave is dug out by infiltration of acid waters. During this alteration process rocks free some aluminium and potassium ions. In Carlsbad and Lechuguilla caves, scientists have found alunite, this aluminium and potassium sulfate can be dated by using the carbon method of age determination. (A.C.)

  20. A review of challenges to determining and demonstrating efficiency of large fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Francisco Rodriguez y Silva; David E. Calkin; Michael S. Hand

    2017-01-01

    Characterising the impacts of wildland fire and fire suppression is critical information for fire management decision-making. Here, we focus on decisions related to the rare larger and longer-duration fire events, where the scope and scale of decision-making can be far broader than initial response efforts, and where determining and demonstrating efficiency of...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 223 - Guidelines for the Determination of DoD UCNI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information in another document or material is not, or is no longer, DoD UCNI; case-by-case determinations are... description of security system components intended to mitigate the consequences of an accident or act of... construction drawings of a DoD SNM facility showing construction characteristics of building and associated...

  2. 41 CFR 101-39.102-2 - Effective date of determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.102-2 Effective date of determination. Unless a longer time is... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effective date of...

  3. 77 FR 44544 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Utah; Determination of Clean Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... further progress plans, reasonably available control measures, and contingency measures, no longer apply... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Utah; Determination of Clean Data for the 1987 PM 10 Standard... VI. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews Definitions For the purpose of this document, we are giving...

  4. 75 FR 1585 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...] Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically... and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated as events J101 and J163 as regulated... International (FGI) alfalfa events J101 and J163 were no longer considered regulated articles under the...

  5. SIS - Status Determination

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Status Determination dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information related to overfishing, overfished, and approaching overfished...

  6. Determination of cerium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepin, V.V.; Kurbatova, V.I.; Fedorova, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques of cerium determination in steels and alloys are developed. Amperometric method of determination which is based on Ce(4) titration by a solution of double salt of sulfuric Fe(2) and ammonium when cerium amount exceeds 0.01% is suggested. Cerium is oxidated to tetravalent state by KMnO 4 . The elements interfering with the determination (Cr, Ni etc.) are separated by means of deposition. When cerium content exceeds 0.005% in steels and alloys the determination is carried out using photometric method with arsenazo 3 in hydrochloric medium (pH 1.8-2.3). Optimum concentration is 5-50 μg [ru

  7. Degradation process modelization in of metallic drink containers, in soil, in water and in water-soil interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieiro, I.; Trivino, V.; Gutierrez, T.; Munoz, J.; Larrea, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    This study asses the environmental pollution by metal release that takes place during prolonged exposures when metallic drink containers are accidentally settle in the soil in a uncontrolled way, For comparative purposes, the F111 steel and the aluminium alloy 3003, widely used for the fabrication of these containers, are also considered. A experimental design is proposed to simulate the environmental pollution during prolonged exposures. Analytical indicators have been obtained determining the metallic concentration from three types of mediums; water, water in presence of soil, and absorption-adsorption in soil. An analytical methodology has been developed by Atomic Emission Spectrometry with ICP as exciting source (ICP-OES) for metallic quantification. The method was validated using Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) of soil and water and the precision obtained varies from 5.39 to 5.86% and from 5.75 to 6.27%, respectively according to of the element studied. A statistical descriptive study followed by a factorial analysis (linear general model) has been carried out for the treatment of the experimental data packages. The metallic quantification for the three mediums shows that the soil inhibits metallic solubility in water. The process to make packages reduces in both cases their metallic cession. (Author)

  8. Determination of soluble protein contents from RVNRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Manshol Wan Zin; Nurulhuda Othman

    1996-01-01

    This project was carried out to determine the soluble protein contents on RVNRL film vulcanisates, with respect to the RVNRL storage time, gamma irradiation dose absorbed by the latex and the effect of different leaching time and leaching conditions. These three factors are important in the hope to determine the best possible mean of minimizing the soluble protein contents in products made from RVNRL. Within the nine months storage period employed in the study, the results show that, the longer the storage period the less the soluble protein extracted from the film samples. Gamma irradiation dose absorbed by the samples, between 5.3 kGy to 25.2 kGy seems to influence the soluble protein contents of the RVNRL films vulcanisates. The higher the dose the more was the soluble protein extracted from the film samples. At an absorbed dose of 5.3 kGy and 25.2 kGy, the soluble contents were 0. 198 mg/ml and 0.247 mg/ml respectively. At a fixed leaching temperature, the soluble proteins increases with leaching time and at a fixed leaching time, the soluble proteins increases with leaching temperature. ne highest extractable protein contents was determined at a leaching time of 10 minutes and leaching temperature of 90'C The protein analysis were done by using Modified Lowry Method

  9. On flora semantics in house names found in Vidzeme: materials contained in the 1826 counting of souls in Vidzeme province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilga Jansone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On flora semantics in house names found in Vidzeme: materials contained in the 1826 counting of souls in Vidzeme province The information of the counting of souls containing both house names and names of individuals is an essential aspect of historical onomastics. The first counting of souls in Vidzeme took place in 1782 and coincided with the 4th analogous census of the provinces of Russia. Subsequently these took place at irregular intervals, the 5th in 1795, the 6th in 1811, the 7th in 1816, the 8th in 1834, the 9th in 1850, and the final, 10th in 1858. The number of house names entered in the 1826 counting of souls in Vidzeme province (guberna is 14,500, including those of peasant homes that had been separated from another property whilst retaining the same name. House names based on flora (incl. names of mushrooms semantics are listed for 574 dwellings, which represent just about 4% of all house names listed for Vidzeme, providing that repeated house names are counted separately. In case of several manors data is missing (lost for the 1826 census, information for these manors is taken from previous and subsequent censuses. In many instances (279 cases registered house names were based on the names of deciduous trees found in their immediate vicinity: such names comprise 48.6% of all house names of flora semantic origin, i. e., ozols ‘oak-tree’, bērzs ‘birch-tree’, kārkls ‘osier’, liepa ‘linden tree’, kļava ‘maple tree’, apses ‘aspen’, osis ‘ash tree’, alksnis ‘alder’, lazda ‘hazel-tree’, vītols ‘willow’, ieva ‘bird cherry’. Names based on names of conifers are found (35 instances were recorded, or 6.1% of all house names based on flora semantics, i. e., egle ‘spruce tree’, paeglis, kadiķis ‘juniper’, priede ‘pine-tree’. House names based on names of fruit trees and bushes are only occasionally found in Vidzeme, with 8 recorded instances, or 1.4% of all house names based on flora

  10. Study of the retention of radionuclides by ion-exchange resins contained in the circuits of a Pressurized Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gressier, F.

    2008-11-01

    Physico-chemical quality of fluids in nuclear power plant circuits must be maintained in order to limit contamination and dose rate especially when the shutdown takes place. Nevertheless, an optimum between diminishing liquid waste and limiting solid waste production has to be reached, but at affordable costs. Ion-exchange resins of purification circuits are used to fulfill this goal. In this work, different resin types have been characterized (exchange capacity, water and electrolyte sorption) and their selectivity towards Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cs + and Li + cations have been studied. We have shown that the two cation-exchange resins selectivity varies according to the nature and concentrations of their counter-ions. Moreover, flow rate (and thus hydro-kinetics) impact on species retention in a column has been characterized: the more the flow rate, the more the ionic leakage (output concentration divided by input concentration) is fast and the more the output concentration front is spread. A literature revue has enabled to put in light advantages and drawbacks of the models of interest to simulate operations of ion-exchange resins. Thus, the pure end-members mixing model associated to a non-ideality description of the resin phase based on the regular solutions model has been retained for modelling ion-exchange equilibrium. Ion-exchange kinetics has been described by mass transfer coefficients. Using the experimental results to determine model parameters, these last ones have been implemented in a speciation code CHESS, coupled with a hydrodynamic code in HYTEC. On the one hand, equilibrium experiments of ion retention have been simulated and, on the other hand, column retention tests have been modelled. Finally, selectivity variations and hydro-kinetics impacts have been simulated on some test cases so as to demonstrate the importance of taking these into account when simulating ion-exchange resins operations. (author)

  11. Fentanyl and heroin contained in seized illicit drugs and overdose-related deaths in British Columbia, Canada: An observational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Nicholas; Gray, Roger; Goel, Anirudh; Wood, Evan; Buxton, Jane A; Rieb, Launette Marie

    2018-04-01

    Due to the alarming rise in opioid-related overdose deaths, a public health emergency was declared in British Columbia (BC). In this study, we examined the relationship between illicit fentanyl and heroin found in seized drugs and illicit overdose deaths in BC. An observational cross-sectional survey was conducted using BC data from Health Canada's Drug Analysis Service, which analyzes drug samples seized by law enforcement agencies, and non-intentional illicit overdoses from the BC Coroner's Service, from 2000 to 2016. Initial scatter plots and subsequent multivariate regression analysis were performed to describe the potential relationship between seized illicit fentanyl samples and overdose deaths and to determine if this differed from seized heroin and overdose deaths. Fentanyl samples were analyzed for other drug content. Fentanyl is increasingly being found combined with other opioid and non-opioid illicit drugs. Strong positive relationships were found between the number of seized fentanyl samples and total overdose deaths (R2 = 0.97) as well as between seized fentanyl and fentanyl-detected overdose deaths (R2 = 0.99). A positive association was found between the number of seized heroin samples and total overdose deaths (R2 = 0.78). This research contributes to the expanding body of evidence implicating illicit fentanyl use (often combined with heroin or other substances) in overdose deaths in BC. Policy makers and healthcare providers are urged to implement drug treatment and harm reduction strategies for people at risk of overdose associated with current trends in illicit opioid use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Melt processing and property testing of a model system of plastics contained in waste from electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantou, Marianna I; Tarantili, Petroula A; Andreopoulos, Andreas G

    2015-05-01

    In the present research, blending of polymers used in electrical and electronic equipment, i.e. acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer, polycarbonate and polypropylene, was performed in a twin-screw extruder, in order to explore the effect process parameters on the mixture properties, in an attempt to determine some characteristics of a fast and economical procedure for waste management. The addition of polycarbonate in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer seemed to increase its thermal stability. Also, the addition of polypropylene in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer facilitates its melt processing, whereas the addition of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer in polypropylene improves its mechanical performance. Moreover, the upgrading of the above blends by incorporating 2 phr organically modified montmorillonite was investigated. The prepared nanocomposites exhibit greater tensile strength, elastic modulus and storage modulus, as well as higher melt viscosity, compared with the unreinforced blends. The incorporation of montmorillonite nanoplatelets in polycarbonate-rich acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate blends turns the thermal degradation mechanism into a two-stage process. Alternatively to mechanical recycling, the energy recovery from the combustion of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polypropylene blends was recorded by measuring the gross calorific value. Comparing the investigated polymers, polypropylene presents the higher gross calorific value, followed by acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer and then polycarbonate. The above study allows a rough comparative evaluation of various methodologies for treating plastics from waste from electrical and electronic equipment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Calciphylaxis: no longer rare; no longer calciphylaxis? A paradigm shift for wound, ostomy and continence nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeser, Dianne L

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges conventional wisdom that calciphylaxis is a rare condition. Rather, emerging evidence suggests that calciphylaxis is neither rare nor uncommon. In addition, the term calciphylaxis is questioned because misrepresents the underlying etiology of the condition. Multiple researchers and clinicians advocate abandoning the use of the term, but nursing literature has not yet followed suit. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of this condition and associated wounds, and suggests areas for future research. The WOC nurse's role as an educator, leader, researcher, clinical expert, and patient advocate is summarized.

  14. Asteroids mass determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Basic methods for asteroid mass determinations and their errors are discussed. New results and some current developments in the astrometric method are reviewed. New methods and techniques, such as electronic imaging, radar ranging and space probes are becoming important for asteroid mass determinations. Mass and density estimations on rotational properties and possible satelites are also discussed

  15. CATALYTIC KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    acetylchlorophosphonazo(CPApA) by hydrogen peroxide in 0.10 M phosphoric acid. A novel catalytic kinetic-spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of copper based on this principle. Copper(II) can be determined spectrophotometrically ...

  16. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.

    2010-01-01

    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that

  17. ATR confinement leakage determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, P.; Buescher, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    The air leakage rate from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) confinement is an important parameter in estimating hypothesized accidental releases of radiation to the environment. The leakage rate must be determined periodically to assure that the confinement has not degraded with time and such determination is one of the technical safety requirements of ATR operation. This paper reviews the methods of confinement leakage determination and presents an analysis of leakage determination under windy conditions, which can complicate the interpretation of the determined leakage rates. The paper also presents results of analyses of building air exchange under windy conditions. High wind can enhance air exchange and this could increase the release rates of radioisotopes following an accident

  18. Determinants of loan maturity in small business lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of loan maturity of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the context of Visegrad countries: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Poland, and Hungary. The data of instead of for this paper was obtained from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS, which is a joint project of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank. By using a binary logistic model, we have found that loan maturity is shorter for older and mature firms, firms owned by female and firms experiencing a shortage of liquidity. At the same time, we have also found that firms having concentrated ownership structure and more tangible assets can borrow for a longer period. In addition to that, we have found evidence that loan maturity is longer for the firms located closer to a bank branch. We also provide empirical support for the assumption that bank low competition is associated with longer maturity. From the obtained results, we may recommend SMEs to borrow from banks that are within their vicinity since this may increase the maturity of loans. Policy makers are recommended to implement policies so that to alleviate gender-related discrimination and take initiatives to moderate the level of competition at this market.

  19. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer-supplier...... relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...

  20. Why do patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in Brazil stay in hospital for longer periods than in other countries? Prospective evaluation of 30 patients and presentation of possible discharge criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Costa Astur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate a better moment by the medical team and patient to be discharged and relate to possible medical discharge criteria. METHODS: 31 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed patients under similar conditions prospectively evaluated about the possibility of discharge with 24 and 48 hours after surgery and possibles discharges criteria such as pain, range of motion and capacity quadriceps contraction, besides the use of a validated scale to measure the patient's functional independence. RESULTS: 50% and 6.4% of patients prefer remain hospitalized after 24 and 48 hours of surgery, respectively. The average of the visual analogue scale of pain was 2.63 and 1.76 points, and the range of motion of 79º and 86,7º after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. 100% of patients were able to quadriceps contraction in every evaluated moments. CONCLUSION: In Brazil, possible discharged criteria as pain, range of motion, quad contraction and motor independence motor function scale show that anterior cruciate reconstruction reconstructed patients could be discharged after 24 hours of surgery. However, 50% of patients still prefer to remain hospitalized for longer periods.