WorldWideScience

Sample records for long-term work capacity

  1. Computer Simulations of Developmental Change: The Contributions of Working Memory Capacity and Long-Term Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Gobet, Fernand; Pine, Julian M.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing working memory (WM) capacity is often cited as a major influence on children's development and yet WM capacity is difficult to examine independently of long-term knowledge. A computational model of children's nonword repetition (NWR) performance is presented that independently manipulates long-term knowledge and WM capacity to determine…

  2. Working Memory Capacity and Recall from Long-Term Memory: Examining the Influences of Encoding Strategies, Study Time Allocation, Search Efficiency, and Monitoring Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash

    2016-01-01

    The relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and recall from long-term memory (LTM) was examined in the current study. Participants performed multiple measures of delayed free recall varying in presentation duration and self-reported their strategy usage after each task. Participants also performed multiple measures of WMC. The results…

  3. Episodic Long-Term Memory of Spoken Discourse Masked by Speech: What Is the Role for Working Memory Capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorqvist, Patrik; Ronnberg, Jerker

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether working memory capacity (WMC) modulates the effects of to-be-ignored speech on the memory of materials conveyed by to-be-attended speech. Method: Two tasks (reading span, Daneman & Carpenter, 1980; Ronnberg et al., 2008; and size-comparison span, Sorqvist, Ljungberg, & Ljung, 2010) were used to measure individual…

  4. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care: Sexuality, long term care, capacity assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literatur...

  5. The long-term power purchase: Recovery of capacity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    As electric utilities increase their reliance on the long-term power purchase as an alternative to utility-owned generation, the appropriate rate treatment of the costs established in the purchase agreement assumes growing importance. In the November 9, 1989, issue, the authors examined the recent trend among state regulators to treat the long-term purchase in a manner similar to the addition by a utility of a new plant, including a full-scale prudence review. This installment will review recent rulings on the related issue of rate recovery of long-term capacity costs through the fuel cost adjustment clause

  6. The long-term outlook for nuclear capacity in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1979-04-01

    This report derives three estimates of long-term nuclear growth in Ontario for use in strategy studies of alternate nuclear fuel cycles. The low and high estimates encompass the full range of possible long-term nuclear growth rates. The middle, or base growth, estimate represents the nuclear growth pattern which seems at the present time most likely to occur. For the base growth estimate, nuclear capacity in Ontario reaches 31 GWe in 2000, grows to 175 GWe by 2060, and then remains constant. For the high growth estimate, the capacity in 2000 is 33 GWe, and climbs continuously to 833 GWe by the year 2100. (auth)

  7. Long-Term Environmental Research Programs - Evolving Capacity for Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term forestry, watershed, and ecological research sites have become critical, productive nodes for environmental science research and in some cases for work in the social sciences and humanities. The Forest Service's century-old Experimental Forests and Ranges and the National Science Foundation's 28- year-old Long-Term Ecological Research program have been remarkably productive in both basic and applied sciences, including characterization of acid rain and old-growth ecosystems and development of forest, watershed, and range management systems for commercial and other land use objectives. A review of recent developments suggests steps to enhance the function of collections of long-term research sites as interactive science networks. The programs at these sites have evolved greatly, especially over the past few decades, as the questions addressed, disciplines engaged, and degree of science integration have grown. This is well displayed by small, experimental watershed studies, which first were used for applied hydrology studies then more fundamental biogeochemical studies and now examination of complex ecosystem processes; all capitalizing on the legacy of intensive studies and environmental monitoring spanning decades. In very modest ways these collections of initially independent sites have functioned increasingly as integrated research networks addressing inter-site questions by using common experimental designs, being part of a single experiment, and examining long-term data in a common analytical framework. The network aspects include data sharing via publicly-accessible data-harvester systems for climate and streamflow data. The layering of one research or environmental monitoring network upon another facilitates synergies. Changing climate and atmospheric chemistry highlight a need to use these networks as continental-scale observatory systems for assessing the impacts of environmental change on ecological services. To better capitalize on long-term

  8. Reduced volume and increased training intensity elevate muscle Na+/K+ pump {alpha}2-subunit expression as well as short- and long-term work capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Gunnarsson, Thomas Petursson; Wendell, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    was unaltered, but the 3-K (3,000 m) time was reduced (Pexpression and performance remained unaltered in CON. The present data suggest that both short- and long-term......% reduction in the amount of training but including speed endurance training consisting of 6-12 30-s sprint runs 3-4 times a week (SET, n=12) or a control group (CON, n=5), which continued the endurance training (about 55 km(.)wk(-1)). For SET the expression of the muscle Na(+)/K(+) pump alpha2-subunit was 68...

  9. Massive Memory Revisited: Limitations on Storage Capacity for Object Details in Visual Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Corbin A.; Yassa, Michael A.; Egeth, Howard E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The…

  10. Working memory, long-term memory and language processing : issues and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Collette, Fabienne; Van der Linden, Martial; Poncelet, Martine

    2000-01-01

    We examined different views of the relationships between working memory, long-term memory and language processing : working memory considered as a gateway between sensory input and long-term memory or rather as a workspace; working memory considered as not strictly tied to any particular cognitive system (and consequently viewed as separated from the language system) or rather as drawing on the operation and storage capacities of a subset of components involved in language processing. It is a...

  11. Massive memory revisited: Limitations on storage capacity for object details in visual long-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Corbin A.; Yassa, Michael A.; Egeth, Howard E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The results reveal that while VLTM representations are typically sufficient to support performance when the procedure probes gist-based information, they...

  12. Long-term need for new generating capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Merrill, E.T.

    1987-03-01

    Electricity demand should continue to grow at about the same rate as GNP, creating a need for large amounts of new generating capacity by the year 2000. Only coal and nuclear at this time have the abundant domestic resources and assured technology to meet this need. However, large increase in both coal and nuclear usage will not be acceptable to society without solutions to many of the problems that now deter their increased usage. For coal, the problems center around the safety and environmental impacts of increased coal mining and coal combustion. For nuclear the problems center around reactor safety, radioactive waste disposal, financial risk, and nuclear materials safeguards. The fuel requirements and waste generation for coal plants are orders of magnitude greater than for nuclear. Technology improvements and waste management practices must be pursued to mitigate environmental and safety impacts from electricity generation. 26 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs

  13. Nursing Work in Long-Term Care: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montayre, Jed; Montayre, Jasmine

    2017-11-01

    Evidence suggests that delivery of good nursing care in long-term care (LTC) facilities is reflected in nurses' descriptions of the factors and structures that affect their work. Understanding the contemporary nature of nursing work in aged care will influence policies for improving current work structures in this practice setting. The current review aims to present a contemporary perspective of RNs' work in LTC facilities. A comprehensive search and purposeful selection of the literature was conducted using CINAHL, PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Nine studies were eligible for review. Common themes revealed that nursing work in aged care settings is characterized by RNs providing indirect care tasks-primarily care coordination, engaging in non-nursing activities, and having an expanded and overlapping role. As care providers, aged care RNs do not always provide direct care as part of their nursing work. The scope of RN work beyond its clinical nature or performance of non-nursing tasks adds complexity in clarifying RN work roles in aged care. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(11), 41-49.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Working Memory Influences on Long-Term Memory and Comprehension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radvansky, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    .... This study looked at how comprehension and memory processing at the mental model level is related to traditional measures of working memory capacity, including the word span, reading span, operation...

  15. Redesigning nursing work in long-term care environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, L M; O'Brien-Pallas, L

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a highly statistically oriented argument for examining work attitudes and activities among three groups of caregivers [RNs, RPNs, and HCAs] working in long-term care. The investigators used both work sampling, written surveys, and interviews with a sample of 46 caregivers in a large university-affiliated LTC facility in Toronto, Canada. While RNs stated their strong affinity for direct patient care activities, they perform the lowest percentage of direct care, chiefly due to their accountability for planning and coordinating the care provided by others. The HCAs who provided the bulk of direct patient care "valued it the least," apparently finding little gratification with this aspect of their role. This study suggests that there is a need to examine and clarify work roles and perceptions for all caregivers as part of any work redesign process. A higher level of RN involvement in direct patient care activities, along with "attention to enhancing the importance" of these activities for staff employed in the HCA role, could be beneficial.

  16. Long-Term Orientation and Educational Performance. Working Paper 174

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlio, David; Giuliano, Paola; Özek, Umut; Sapienza, Paola

    2017-01-01

    We use remarkable population-level administrative education and birth records from Florida to study the role of Long-Term Orientation on the educational attainment of immigrant students living in the US. Controlling for the quality of schools and individual characteristics, students from countries with long-term oriented attitudes perform better…

  17. Summary for working group B on long-term stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 36 workshop participants attended at least one session of the Long-Term Stability working group. We avoided turning these sessions into a specialized seminar series by meeting in two subgroups, loosely labeled Analysis and Diffusion ampersand Tracking, so that working discussions among a reasonably small number of people were possible. Nonetheless, no attempt is made to categorize the 13 group B papers according to original subgroup. A similar workshop, the Workshop on Accelerator Orbit and Particle Tracking Problems, was held almost exactly 10 years ago at Brookhaven. It is interesting to see how many of the participants in the photograph of that workshop appear again in the photograph at the front of these proceedings. Fortunately, it is not correct to infer that little progress has been made in the last decade, nor that the average age of the participants has increased significantly. Rather, the recent photograph has many more, younger, faces than its predecessor. This attests to the ongoing interest and vigorous activity in an area of central importance to accelerator physics

  18. Physical capacity and risk for long-term sickness absence: a prospective cohort study among 8664 female health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Andersen, Lars Louis; Clausen, Thomas; Strøyer, Jesper; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    To assess the prospective associations between self-reported physical capacity and risk of long-term sickness absence among female health care workers. Female health care workers answered a questionnaire about physical capacity and were followed in a national register of sickness absence lasting for two or more consecutive weeks during 1-year follow-up. Using Cox regression hazard ratio analyses adjusted for age, smoking, body mass index, physical workload, job seniority, psychosocial work conditions, and previous sickness absence, we modeled risk estimates for sickness absence from low and medium physical capacity. Low and medium aerobic fitness, low muscle strength, low flexibility, and low overall physical capacity significantly increased the risk for sickness absence with 20% to 34% compared with health care workers with high capacity. Low physical capacity increases the risk of long-term sickness absence among female health care workers.

  19. Intergranular Cracking as a Major Cause of Long-Term Capacity Fading of Layered Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wolf, Mark; Karki, Khim; Yu, Young-Sang; Stach, Eric A; Cabana, Jordi; Chapman, Karena W; Chupas, Peter J

    2017-06-14

    Capacity fading has limited commercial layered Li-ion battery electrodes to NCA) electrode change after capacity fade following months of slow charge-discharge. The changes in the reactions that underpin energy storage after long-term cycling directly correlate to the capacity loss; heterogeneous reaction kinetics observed during extended cycles quantitatively account for the capacity loss. This reaction heterogeneity is ultimately attributed to intergranular fracturing that degrades the connectivity of subsurface grains within the polycrystalline NCA aggregate.

  20. Working memory, long-term memory, and medial temporal lobe function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance in patients with MTL lesions on tasks with short retention intervals, or no retention interval, and neuroimaging findings with similar tasks have been interpreted to mean that the MTL is sometimes needed for working memory and possibly even for visual perception itself. We present a reappraisal of this interpretation. Our main conclusion is that, if the material to be learned exceeds working memory capacity, if the material is difficult to rehearse, or if attention is diverted, performance depends on long-term memory even when the retention interval is brief. This fundamental notion is better captured by the terms subspan memory and supraspan memory than by the terms short-term memory and long-term memory. We propose methods for determining when performance on short-delay tasks must depend on long-term (supraspan) memory and suggest that MTL lesions impair performance only when immediate memory and working memory are insufficient to support performance. In neuroimaging studies, MTL activity during encoding is influenced by the memory load and correlates positively with long-term retention of the material that was presented. The most parsimonious and consistent interpretation of all the data is that subspan memoranda are supported by immediate memory and working memory and are independent of the MTL. PMID:22180053

  1. Passive Double-Sensory Evoked Coherence Correlates with Long-Term Memory Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Anna; Mortensen, Erik L; Osler, Merete; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Memory correlates with the difference between single and double-sensory evoked steady-state coherence in the gamma range (Δ C ).The correlation is most pronounced for the anterior brain region (Δ C A ).The correlation is not driven by birth size, education, speed of processing, or intelligence.The sensitivity of Δ C A for detecting low memory capacity is 90%. Cerebral rhythmic activity and oscillations are important pathways of communication between cortical cell assemblies and may be key factors in memory. We asked whether memory performance is related to gamma coherence in a non-task sensory steady-state stimulation. We investigated 40 healthy males born in 1953 who were part of a Danish birth cohort study. Coherence was measured in the gamma range in response to a single-sensory visual stimulation (36 Hz) and a double-sensory combined audiovisual stimulation (auditive: 40 Hz; visual: 36 Hz). The individual difference in coherence (Δ C ) between the bimodal and monomodal stimulation was calculated for each subject and used as the main explanatory variable. Δ C in total brain were significantly negatively correlated with long-term verbal recall. This correlation was pronounced for the anterior region. In addition, the correlation between Δ C and long-term memory was robust when controlling for working memory, as well as a wide range of potentially confounding factors, including intelligence, length of education, speed of processing, visual attention and executive function. Moreover, we found that the difference in anterior coherence (Δ C A ) is a better predictor of memory than power in multivariate models. The sensitivity of Δ C A for detecting low memory capacity is 92%. Finally, Δ C A was also associated with other types of memory: verbal learning, visual recognition, and spatial memory, and these additional correlations were also robust enough to control for a range of potentially confounding factors. Thus, the Δ C is a predictor of memory

  2. Long term governance for radioactive waste management. Final report of Cowan2 - work package 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Th.; Schieber, C.; Lavele, S.

    2006-12-01

    This report aims at identifying key features for the long term governance of radioactive waste. It is proposed by the COWAN2 Work Package 4 the purpose of which was to identify, discuss and analyse the institutional, ethical, economic and legal considerations raised by long term radioactive waste storage or disposal on the three interrelated issues of: responsibility and ownership of radioactive waste on the long term, continuity of local dialogue between stakeholders and monitoring of radioactive waste management facilities, and compensation and sustainable development. The aim is also to propose guidelines in order to better address long term issues in decision-making processes and start long term governance

  3. Long term governance for radioactive waste management. Final report of Cowan2 - work package 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Th.; Schieber, C.; Lavele, S.

    2006-12-15

    This report aims at identifying key features for the long term governance of radioactive waste. It is proposed by the COWAN2 Work Package 4 the purpose of which was to identify, discuss and analyse the institutional, ethical, economic and legal considerations raised by long term radioactive waste storage or disposal on the three interrelated issues of: responsibility and ownership of radioactive waste on the long term, continuity of local dialogue between stakeholders and monitoring of radioactive waste management facilities, and compensation and sustainable development. The aim is also to propose guidelines in order to better address long term issues in decision-making processes and start long term governance

  4. The influence of flood frequency, riparian vegetation and threshold on long-term river transport capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croissant, Thomas; Lague, Dimitri; Davy, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Climate fluctuations at geological timescales control the capacity of rivers to transport sediment with consequences on geochemical cycles, sedimentary basins dynamics and sedimentation/tectonics interactions. While the impact of differential friction generated by riparian vegetation has been studied for individual flood events, its impact on the long-term sediment transport capacity of rivers, modulated by the frequency of floods remains unknown. Here, we investigate this effect on a simplified river-floodplain configuration obeying observed hydraulic scaling laws. We numerically integrate the full-frequency magnitude distribution of discharge events and its impact on the transport capacity of bedload and suspended material for various level of vegetation-linked differential friction. We demonstrate that riparian vegetation by acting as a virtual confinement of the flow i) increases significantly the instantaneous transport capacity of the river independently of the transport mode and ii) increases the long term bedload transport rates as a function of discharge variability. Our results expose the dominance of flood frequency rather than riparian vegetation on the long term sediment transport capacity. Therefore, flood frequency has to be considered when evaluating long-term bedload transport capacity while floodplain vegetation is important only in high discharge variability regimes. By comparing the transport capacity of unconfined alluvial rivers and confined bedrock gorges, we demonstrate that the latter always presents the highest long term transport capacity at equivalent width and slope. The loss of confinement at the transition between bedrock and alluvial river must be compensated by a widening or a steepening of the alluvial channel to avoid infinite storage. Because steepening is never observed in natural system, we compute the alluvial widening factor value that varies between 3 to 11 times the width of the bedrock channel depending on riparian

  5. Visual working memory is more tolerant than visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurgin, Mark W; Flombaum, Jonathan I

    2018-05-07

    Human visual memory is tolerant, meaning that it supports object recognition despite variability across encounters at the image level. Tolerant object recognition remains one capacity in which artificial intelligence trails humans. Typically, tolerance is described as a property of human visual long-term memory (VLTM). In contrast, visual working memory (VWM) is not usually ascribed a role in tolerant recognition, with tests of that system usually demanding discriminatory power-identifying changes, not sameness. There are good reasons to expect that VLTM is more tolerant; functionally, recognition over the long-term must accommodate the fact that objects will not be viewed under identical conditions; and practically, the passive and massive nature of VLTM may impose relatively permissive criteria for thinking that two inputs are the same. But empirically, tolerance has never been compared across working and long-term visual memory. We therefore developed a novel paradigm for equating encoding and test across different memory types. In each experiment trial, participants saw two objects, memory for one tested immediately (VWM) and later for the other (VLTM). VWM performance was better than VLTM and remained robust despite the introduction of image and object variability. In contrast, VLTM performance suffered linearly as more variability was introduced into test stimuli. Additional experiments excluded interference effects as causes for the observed differences. These results suggest the possibility of a previously unidentified role for VWM in the acquisition of tolerant representations for object recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rath...

  7. Passive Double-Sensory Evoked Coherence Correlates with Long-Term Memory Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Horwitz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSMemory correlates with the difference between single and double-sensory evoked steady-state coherence in the gamma range (ΔC.The correlation is most pronounced for the anterior brain region (ΔCA.The correlation is not driven by birth size, education, speed of processing, or intelligence.The sensitivity of ΔCA for detecting low memory capacity is 90%.Cerebral rhythmic activity and oscillations are important pathways of communication between cortical cell assemblies and may be key factors in memory. We asked whether memory performance is related to gamma coherence in a non-task sensory steady-state stimulation. We investigated 40 healthy males born in 1953 who were part of a Danish birth cohort study. Coherence was measured in the gamma range in response to a single-sensory visual stimulation (36 Hz and a double-sensory combined audiovisual stimulation (auditive: 40 Hz; visual: 36 Hz. The individual difference in coherence (ΔC between the bimodal and monomodal stimulation was calculated for each subject and used as the main explanatory variable. ΔC in total brain were significantly negatively correlated with long-term verbal recall. This correlation was pronounced for the anterior region. In addition, the correlation between ΔC and long-term memory was robust when controlling for working memory, as well as a wide range of potentially confounding factors, including intelligence, length of education, speed of processing, visual attention and executive function. Moreover, we found that the difference in anterior coherence (ΔCA is a better predictor of memory than power in multivariate models. The sensitivity of ΔCA for detecting low memory capacity is 92%. Finally, ΔCA was also associated with other types of memory: verbal learning, visual recognition, and spatial memory, and these additional correlations were also robust enough to control for a range of potentially confounding factors. Thus, the ΔC is a predictor of memory

  8. Work-related determinants of return to work of employees on long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, M; Krol, B; Groothoff, JW

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study is to identify work-related determinants of return to work (RTW) of employees who are on long-term sickness absence. Method. The study was based on a sample of 926 employees on sickness absence ( maximum duration of 12 weeks). The employees filled out a baseline

  9. Associations of work ability with frequent and long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenbomer, A.; Groothoff, J. W.; van Rhenen, W.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    Background Reduced work ability is related to long-term sickness absence. The relationship between work ability and frequent sickness absence has not previously been investigated. It is important to distinguish between frequent and long-term sickness absence as they are outcomes of different

  10. Predicting long-term sickness absence and early retirement pension from self-reported work ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sell, Lea; Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market.......The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market....

  11. Returning long-term Sick-Listed to Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    The Danish policy towards work-disabled persons seems to comprise contradictory forces. On the one hand, the state seeks to enhance labour market integration of work-disabled persons through vocational rehabilitation. On the other hand, lax job protection legislation makes it easy for employers...

  12. Effects of Long-term Fertilization on Potassium Fixation Capacity in Brown Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Yue; Gao, Tianyi; Yang, Jinfeng; Han, Xiaori

    2018-01-01

    This study concentrated on the research of features of fixation. The objective of this study was to provide theoretical foundation of rational application of potassium fertilizer along with improving fertilizer availability ratio. A 32 years long-term experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fertilizer application on potassium changes and the factors affecting K fixation on brown soil by simulation in laboratory. When the concentration of exogenous potassium was in range of 400∼4000 mg·kg-1, potassium fixation capacity increased along with the rise of concentration of exogenous potassium, whereas K fixation rate reduced; Compared with no-potassium fertilizer, application of potassium fertilizer and organic fertilizer reduced soil potassium fixation capacity. Potassium rate and fixation-release of potassium character in soil should be taken into comprehensive consideration for rational fertilization to maintain or improve soil fertility for increasing potassium fertilizers efficiency in agriculture.

  13. Access to long-term capacity for electric interconnections: towards a single European set of rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    Guaranteeing firmness of interconnection capacity (or compensating curtailments based on the daily market prices) is a key element to the design of the integrated European electricity market. However, although the European energy regulators are on the way to reaching a consensus on the target to be met in terms of firmness, there is less consensus on how this target can be reached, which means the two following key questions will have to be duly addressed: - How can we improve confidence in the daily price references used to compensate interconnection capacity holders in cases of curtailment? - How can we encourage transmission system operators to allocate a maximum of financially firm capacity, at a lesser cost for network users? In the short-term, in the absence of appropriate incentive mechanisms to maximise capacity, the regulators have no other choice but to guarantee transmission system operators that costs related to firmness of capacity allocated at the different time frames will be covered. In this perspective, transitory solutions can be implemented by regulators in order to limit the risk borne by network users (for example, by introducing caps on price differentials and/or on the budget available for compensating curtailments). The choices in terms of capacity and how it is distributed between the different time frames (daily, monthly, annual and multi-annual) are also important decision variables, as these could limit the risk borne by network users. In such, as they are responsible for guaranteeing the interests of network users, the regulators should decide what level of capacity should be made available to the market. This decision should be taken in close collaboration with the network operators, who have all the expertise needed in terms of calculating capacity. Finally, on the interconnections where a market-coupling mechanism exists, the regulators should ask the transmission system operators to allocate the long-term interconnection capacity in

  14. Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance

  15. Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Hardevel, F.; de Graaf, R.; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.; Beekman, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance

  16. Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.; Beekman, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance

  17. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rather encouraging regarding the existence of both decay and capacity limits. Working memory has been conceived and defined in three different, slightly discrepant ways: as short-term memory applied to cognitive tasks, as a multi-component system that holds and manipulates information in short-term memory, and as the use of attention to manage short-term memory. Regardless of the definition, there are some measures of memory in the short term that seem routine and do not correlate well with cognitive aptitudes and other measures (those usually identified with the term "working memory") that seem more attention demanding and do correlate well with these aptitudes. The evidence is evaluated and placed within a theoretical framework depicted in Fig. 1.

  18. Visual working memory buffers information retrieved from visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Keisuke; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2017-05-16

    Human memory is thought to consist of long-term storage and short-term storage mechanisms, the latter known as working memory. Although it has long been assumed that information retrieved from long-term memory is represented in working memory, we lack neural evidence for this and need neural measures that allow us to watch this retrieval into working memory unfold with high temporal resolution. Here, we show that human electrophysiology can be used to track information as it is brought back into working memory during retrieval from long-term memory. Specifically, we found that the retrieval of information from long-term memory was limited to just a few simple objects' worth of information at once, and elicited a pattern of neurophysiological activity similar to that observed when people encode new information into working memory. Our findings suggest that working memory is where information is buffered when being retrieved from long-term memory and reconcile current theories of memory retrieval with classic notions about the memory mechanisms involved.

  19. Joint association of sleep problems and psychosocial working conditions with registered long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E. H.; Larsen, Ann D.; Thorsen, Sannie V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep problems and adverse psychosocial working conditions are associated with increased risk of long-term sickness absence. Because sleep problems affect role functioning they may also exacerbate any effects of psychosocial working conditions and vice versa. We examined whether sleep...... problems and psychosocial working conditions interact in their associations with long-term sickness absence. Methods: We linked questionnaire data from participants to two surveys of random samples of the Danish working population (N=10 752) with registries on long-term sick leave during five years after...... questionnaire response. We defined sleep problems by self-reported symptoms and/or register data on hypnotics purchases of hypnotics. Psychosocial working conditions included quantitative and emotional demands, influence, supervisor recognition and social support, leadership quality, and social support from...

  20. Work and family: associations with long-term sick-listing in Swedish women – a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandmark Hélène

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of Swedish women who are long-term sick-listed is high, and twice as high as for men. Also the periods of sickness absence have on average been longer for women than for men. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between factors in work- and family life and long-term sick-listing in Swedish women. Methods This case-control study included 283 women on long-term sick-listing ≥90 days, and 250 female referents, randomly chosen, living in five counties in Sweden. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with odds ratios were calculated to estimate the associations between long-term sick-listing and factors related to occupational work and family life. Results Long-term sick-listing in women is associated with self-reported lack of competence for work tasks (OR 2.42 1.23–11.21 log reg, workplace dissatisfaction (OR 1.89 1.14–6.62 log reg, physical workload above capacity (1.78 1.50–5.94, too high mental strain in work tasks (1.61 1.08–5.01 log reg, number of employers during work life (OR 1.39 1.35–4.03 log reg, earlier part-time work (OR 1.39 1.18–4.03 log reg, and lack of influence on working hours (OR 1.35 1.47–3.86 log reg. A younger age at first child, number of children, and main responsibility for own children was also found to be associated with long-term sick-listing. Almost all of the sick-listed women (93% wanted to return to working life, and 54% reported they could work immediately if adjustments at work or part-time work were possible. Conclusion Factors in work and in family life could be important to consider to prevent women from being long-term sick-listed and promote their opportunities to remain in working life. Measures ought to be taken to improve their mobility in work life and control over decisions and actions regarding theirs lives.

  1. Visual long-term memory has a massive storage capacity for object details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A; Oliva, Aude

    2008-09-23

    One of the major lessons of memory research has been that human memory is fallible, imprecise, and subject to interference. Thus, although observers can remember thousands of images, it is widely assumed that these memories lack detail. Contrary to this assumption, here we show that long-term memory is capable of storing a massive number of objects with details from the image. Participants viewed pictures of 2,500 objects over the course of 5.5 h. Afterward, they were shown pairs of images and indicated which of the two they had seen. The previously viewed item could be paired with either an object from a novel category, an object of the same basic-level category, or the same object in a different state or pose. Performance in each of these conditions was remarkably high (92%, 88%, and 87%, respectively), suggesting that participants successfully maintained detailed representations of thousands of images. These results have implications for cognitive models, in which capacity limitations impose a primary computational constraint (e.g., models of object recognition), and pose a challenge to neural models of memory storage and retrieval, which must be able to account for such a large and detailed storage capacity.

  2. Vocabulary learning in primary school children: working memory and long-term memory components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Sergio; Camba, Roberta

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate which working memory and long-term memory components predict vocabulary learning. We used a nonword learning paradigm in which 8- to 10-year-olds learned picture-nonword pairs. The nonwords varied in length (two vs. four syllables) and phonology (native sounding vs. including one Russian phoneme). Short, phonologically native nonwords were learned best, whereas learning long nonwords leveled off after a few presentation cycles. Linear structural equation analyses showed an influence of three constructs-phonological sensitivity, vocabulary knowledge, and central attentional resources (M capacity)-on nonword learning, but the extent of their contributions depended on specific characteristics of the nonwords to be learned. Phonological sensitivity predicted learning of all nonword types except short native nonwords, vocabulary predicted learning of only short native nonwords, and M capacity predicted learning of short nonwords but not long nonwords. The discussion considers three learning processes-effortful activation of phonological representations, lexical mediation, and passive associative learning-that use different cognitive resources and could be involved in learning different nonword types.

  3. Modulation of working memory updating: Does long-term memory lexical association matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuso, Caterina; Palladino, Paola

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how working memory updating for verbal material is modulated by enduring properties of long-term memory. Two coexisting perspectives that account for the relation between long-term representation and short-term performance were addressed. First, evidence suggests that performance is more closely linked to lexical properties, that is, co-occurrences within the language. Conversely, other evidence suggests that performance is linked more to long-term representations which do not entail lexical/linguistic representations. Our aim was to investigate how these two kinds of long-term memory associations (i.e., lexical or nonlexical) modulate ongoing working memory activity. Therefore, we manipulated (between participants) the strength of the association in letters based on either frequency of co-occurrences (lexical) or contiguity along the sequence of the alphabet (nonlexical). Results showed a cost in working memory updating for strongly lexically associated stimuli only. Our findings advance knowledge of how lexical long-term memory associations between consonants affect working memory updating and, in turn, contribute to the study of factors which impact the updating process across memory systems.

  4. Can we throw information out of visual working memory and does this leave informational residue in long-term memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh Monette Maxcey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Can we entirely erase a temporary memory representation from mind? This question has been addressed in several recent studies that tested the specific hypothesis that a representation can be erased from visual working memory based on a cue that indicated that the representation was no longer necessary for the task. In addition to behavioral results that are consistent with the idea that we can throw information out of visual working memory, recent neurophysiological recordings support this proposal. However, given the infinite capacity of long-term memory, it is unclear whether throwing a representation out of visual working memory really removes its effects on memory entirely. In this paper we advocate for an approach that examines our ability to erase memory representations from working memory, as well as possible traces that those erased representations leave in long-term memory.

  5. Predicting long-term sickness absence and early retirement pension from self-reported work ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sell, L.; Bultmann, U.; Rugulies, R.; Villadsen, E.; Faber, A.; Sogaard, K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market. Methods Data on work ability were retrieved from a representative cohort study of Danish wage earners and linked with a

  6. Administrative Circular No. 22B (Rev. 2) - Compensation for hours of long-term shift work

    CERN Multimedia

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 22B (Rev. 2) entitled "Compensation for hours of long-term shift work",  approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 22 March 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208538.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 22B (Rev. 1) also entitled "Compensation for hours of long-term shift work" of March 2011. This document contains minor changes to reflect the new career structure. This circular will enter into force on 1st September 2016.

  7. The short- and long-term consequences of directed forgetting in a working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festini, Sara B; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A

    2013-01-01

    Directed forgetting requires the voluntary control of memory. Whereas many studies have examined directed forgetting in long-term memory (LTM), the mechanisms and effects of directed forgetting within working memory (WM) are less well understood. The current study tests how directed forgetting instructions delivered in a WM task influence veridical memory, as well as false memory, over the short and long term. In a modified item recognition task Experiment 1 tested WM only and demonstrated that directed forgetting reduces false recognition errors and semantic interference. Experiment 2 replicated these WM effects and used a surprise LTM recognition test to assess the long-term effects of directed forgetting in WM. Long-term veridical memory for to-be-remembered lists was better than memory for to-be-forgotten lists-the directed forgetting effect. Moreover, fewer false memories emerged for to-be-forgotten information than for to-be-remembered information in LTM as well. These results indicate that directed forgetting during WM reduces semantic processing of to-be-forgotten lists over the short and long term. Implications for theories of false memory and the mechanisms of directed forgetting within working memory are discussed.

  8. Annual coral bleaching and the long-term recovery capacity of coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; Grottoli, Andréa G; Levas, Stephen J; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D; Baumann, Justin H; Matsui, Yohei; Warner, Mark E

    2015-11-22

    Mass bleaching events are predicted to occur annually later this century. Nevertheless, it remains unknown whether corals will be able to recover between annual bleaching events. Using a combined tank and field experiment, we simulated annual bleaching by exposing three Caribbean coral species (Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides and Orbicella faveolata) to elevated temperatures for 2.5 weeks in 2 consecutive years. The impact of annual bleaching stress on chlorophyll a, energy reserves, calcification, and tissue C and N isotopes was assessed immediately after the second bleaching and after both short- and long-term recovery on the reef (1.5 and 11 months, respectively). While P. divaricata and O. faveolata were able to recover from repeat bleaching within 1 year, P. astreoides experienced cumulative damage that prevented full recovery within this time frame, suggesting that repeat bleaching had diminished its recovery capacity. Specifically, P. astreoides was not able to recover protein and carbohydrate concentrations. As energy reserves promote bleaching resistance, failure to recover from annual bleaching within 1 year will likely result in the future demise of heat-sensitive coral species. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Annual coral bleaching and the long-term recovery capacity of coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; Grottoli, Andréa G.; Levas, Stephen J.; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D.; Baumann, Justin H.; Matsui, Yohei; Warner, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Mass bleaching events are predicted to occur annually later this century. Nevertheless, it remains unknown whether corals will be able to recover between annual bleaching events. Using a combined tank and field experiment, we simulated annual bleaching by exposing three Caribbean coral species (Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides and Orbicella faveolata) to elevated temperatures for 2.5 weeks in 2 consecutive years. The impact of annual bleaching stress on chlorophyll a, energy reserves, calcification, and tissue C and N isotopes was assessed immediately after the second bleaching and after both short- and long-term recovery on the reef (1.5 and 11 months, respectively). While P. divaricata and O. faveolata were able to recover from repeat bleaching within 1 year, P. astreoides experienced cumulative damage that prevented full recovery within this time frame, suggesting that repeat bleaching had diminished its recovery capacity. Specifically, P. astreoides was not able to recover protein and carbohydrate concentrations. As energy reserves promote bleaching resistance, failure to recover from annual bleaching within 1 year will likely result in the future demise of heat-sensitive coral species. PMID:26582020

  10. How to correct for long-term externalities of large-scale wind power development by a capacity mechanism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Finon, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term security of supply in electricity markets in the presence of large-scale wind power development. The success of recent renewable promotion schemes adds a new dimension to ensuring long-term security of supply: it necessitates designing second-best policies to prevent large-scale wind power development from distorting long-run equilibrium prices and investments in conventional generation and in particular in peaking units. We rely upon a long-term simulation model which simulates electricity market players' investment decisions in a market regime and incorporates large-scale wind power development in the presence of either subsidized or market driven development scenarios. We test the use of capacity mechanisms to compensate for long-term effects of large-scale wind power development on prices and reliability of supply. The first finding is that capacity mechanisms can help to reduce the social cost of large scale wind power development in terms of decrease of loss of load probability. The second finding is that, in a market-based wind power deployment without subsidy, wind generators are penalised for insufficient contribution to the long term system's reliability. - Highlights: • We model power market players’ investment decisions incorporating wind power. • We examine two market designs: an energy-only market and a capacity mechanism. • We test two types of wind power development paths: subsidised and market-driven. • Capacity mechanisms compensate for the externalities of wind power developments

  11. Creature comforts: personal communities, pets and the work of managing a long-term condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Helen L; Rogers, Anne; Kapadia, Dharmi; Pilgrim, Jack; Reeves, David; Vassilev, Ivaylo

    2013-06-01

    To explore in the context of peoples' personal social networks, the contribution that pets make to 'the work' associated with the management of long-term conditions. Mixed methods survey with nested parallel qualitative study; 300 participants were drawn from diabetes and chronic heart disease registers of General Practices across Greater Manchester in the North West of England. Notions of 'work' were used to describe the illness and everyday activities associated with chronic illness. Nineteen percent of participants identified at least one pet within their network. Pets contributed mostly to managing emotions (emotional work), to enhancing a sense of self identity (biographical work) and to a lesser extent practical tasks (everyday work). There were indicators that pets mediated relationships for people living with a long-term condition through very weak ties with others in domestic and community settings. The findings suggest that pets have unique qualities and are not simply substitutes for human relationships in long-term condition management. The study has potential implications for furthering a social contextual analysis of chronic illness, the understanding of relationships, and the meaning and the role of companion animals in long-term condition management.

  12. Working Memory, Long-Term Memory, and Medial Temporal Lobe Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance…

  13. Vocabulary Learning in Primary School Children: Working Memory and Long-Term Memory Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Sergio; Camba, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate which working memory and long-term memory components predict vocabulary learning. We used a nonword learning paradigm in which 8- to 10-year-olds learned picture-nonword pairs. The nonwords varied in length (two vs. four syllables) and phonology (native sounding vs. including one Russian phoneme). Short,…

  14. Long-term impact on work and private life after Guillain-Barre syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernsen, RAJAM; de Jager, AEJ; Schmitz, PIM; van der Meche, FGA

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the long-term impact of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) on work and private life of patients and their partners. Methods: Three to six years after the onset of GBS 150 patients who participated in the Dutch Guillain-Barre trial received a questionnaire specifically drafted for

  15. Psychosocial work environment and mental health-related long-term sickness absence among nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corné A.M.; van Hoffen, Marieke F.A.; Waage, Siri; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Twisk, Jos W R; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Moen, Bente E.; Pallesen, Ståle

    Purpose: We investigated which job demands and job resources were predictive of mental health-related long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in nurses. Methods: The data of 2059 nurses were obtained from the Norwegian survey of Shift work, Sleep and Health. Job demands (psychological demands, role

  16. Neural bases of orthographic long-term memory and working memory in dysgraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Brenda; Purcell, Jeremy; Hillis, Argye E; Capasso, Rita; Miceli, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Spelling a word involves the retrieval of information about the word's letters and their order from long-term memory as well as the maintenance and processing of this information by working memory in preparation for serial production by the motor system. While it is known that brain lesions may selectively affect orthographic long-term memory and working memory processes, relatively little is known about the neurotopographic distribution of the substrates that support these cognitive processes, or the lesions that give rise to the distinct forms of dysgraphia that affect these cognitive processes. To examine these issues, this study uses a voxel-based mapping approach to analyse the lesion distribution of 27 individuals with dysgraphia subsequent to stroke, who were identified on the basis of their behavioural profiles alone, as suffering from deficits only affecting either orthographic long-term or working memory, as well as six other individuals with deficits affecting both sets of processes. The findings provide, for the first time, clear evidence of substrates that selectively support orthographic long-term and working memory processes, with orthographic long-term memory deficits centred in either the left posterior inferior frontal region or left ventral temporal cortex, and orthographic working memory deficits primarily arising from lesions of the left parietal cortex centred on the intraparietal sulcus. These findings also contribute to our understanding of the relationship between the neural instantiation of written language processes and spoken language, working memory and other cognitive skills. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The attribution of work environment in explaining gender differences in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Holte, Kari Anne; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    . Conclusion Differences in psychosocial work environments in terms of emotional demands, reward at work, management quality and role conflicts, explained roughly 30% of women's excess long-term sickness absence risk. Assuming women and men had identical working conditions would leave the larger part......Objectives To identify differences in risk of long-term sickness absence between female and male employees in Denmark and to examine to what extent differences could be explained by work environment factors. Methods A cohort of 5026 employees (49.1% women, mean age 40.4 years; 50.9% men, mean age....... Results 298 workers (5.9%) received sickness absence compensation for 8 weeks or more. Women had an excess risk of 37% compared to men, when adjusting for age, family status and socio-economic position. Physical work environment exposures could not explain this difference, whereas differences...

  18. Improved work ability and return to work following vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation of subjects on long-term sick leave

    OpenAIRE

    Braathen, Tore; Veiersted, Kaj Bo; Heggenes, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for patients on long-term sick leave with respect to their work ability and return to work. Methods: A multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was administered to an intervention group of 183 patients on long-term sick leave (mean 12.2 months). Effects of the treatment were compared with a control group (n = 96) recruited from the national sickness insurance record of patients on sick leave of 6??2 month...

  19. A Realistic View of Long-Term Middle East Production Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsam Bakhtiari, Ali [National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), Tehran (Iran)

    2003-07-01

    The Middle East is a unique landmass bridging the continents of Europe, Africa and Asia. It now consists of fifteen major countries and one neutral zone. Four of these countries (Afghanistan, Israel, Jordan and Lebanon) are practically devoid of commercial oil resources. And the other eleven jointly control oil reserves estimated by Colin Campbell at 805 bnb (42% of world total) -- made up of 758 bnb discovered and 47 bnb yet-to-find. These eleven countries, which produced on average 20.8 mb/d and 19.3 mb/d in 2001 and 2002 respectively, can be subdivided into three categories: (i) the low producers (4 countries); (ii) the mid-size producers (4 countries); and (iii) the three large producers (Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia). In order to investigate the Middle East's long-term production capacity, the forecasts and scenarios developed by the following experts or institutions were reviewed: (a) Dr. Campbell; (b) the major international institutions (IEA, EIA, OPEC); (c) the major oil companies; (d) the major international banks; (e) the specialised press; (f) prominent economists and consultants; (g) the simulations of the 'World Oil Production Capacity' (WOCAP) model. The most significant results were derived from Dr. Campbell's predictions and the WOCAP model. Both of these show Middle Eastern producers going through a long 'bumpy plateau' between 2003 and 2020 with a gradual ramping down during the second decade. WOCAP's simulations for each of the large three producers are presented and analysed. All in all, the Middle Eastern countries, which produce nearly a third of global crude oil, will continue to play a major role on the global oil stage, a role that, with time, can only tend to become more predominant. And although the region's oil represents over 40% of global reserves and roughly two-thirds of proved reserves, there are limits to its output. For those believing that for Middle East oil 'the sky's the limit

  20. Relationships among leadership practices, work environments, staff communication and outcomes in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Cranley, Lisa; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Pachis, Jaime

    2010-11-01

    To examine the role that work relationships have on two long-term care outcomes: job satisfaction and turnover intention. It is easy to overlook the impact that human relations have in shaping work environments that are conducive to organizational effectiveness. Employee job satisfaction and retention are important organizational outcomes. Six hundred and seventy-five nursing and other staff from 26 long-term care facilities were surveyed about their work environments, work group relationships, observed leadership practices, organizational support, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Higher job satisfaction was associated with lower emotional exhaustion burnout, higher global empowerment, higher organizational support, higher psychological empowerment, stronger work group cohesion and higher personal accomplishment. Higher turnover intention was associated with lower job satisfaction, higher emotional exhaustion burnout, more outside job opportunities, weaker work group cohesion, lower personal accomplishment and higher depersonalization. No relationship was found between leadership practices and job satisfaction or turnover intention. Stronger work group relationships, stronger sense of personal accomplishment and lower emotional exhaustion have direct effects on increasing job satisfaction and lowering turnover intention. To retain long-term care staff, attention should be paid to fostering positive work group cohesion, supporting and acknowledging staff accomplishments and minimizing staff burnout. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. How to correct long-term system externality of large scale wind power development by a capacity mechanism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Finon, Dominique

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term security of supply in electricity markets in the presence of large-scale wind power development. The success of renewable promotion schemes adds a new dimension to ensuring long-term security of supply. It necessitates designing second-best policies to prevent large-scale wind power development from distorting long-run equilibrium prices and investments in conventional generation and in particular in peaking units. We rely upon a long-term simulation model which simulates electricity market players' investment decisions in a market regime and incorporates large-scale wind power development either in the presence of either subsidised wind production or in market-driven development. We test the use of capacity mechanisms to compensate for the long-term effects of large-scale wind power development on the system reliability. The first finding is that capacity mechanisms can help to reduce the social cost of large scale wind power development in terms of decrease of loss of load probability. The second finding is that, in a market-based wind power deployment without subsidy, wind generators are penalized for insufficient contribution to the long term system's reliability. (authors)

  2. Neutrophil superoxide-anion generating capacity in chronic smoking: effect of long-term alpha-tocopherol therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tits, van L.; Waart, de F.; Hak-Lemmers, H.L.M.; Graaf, de J.; Demacker, P.N.; Stalenhoef, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether long-term alpha-tocopherol therapy in chronic smoking affects superoxide generating capacity of neutrophils ex vivo. To this purpose, we randomly assigned 128 male chronic smokers (37 21 pack years of smoking) to treatment with placebo (n = 64) or alpha-tocopherol (400 IU

  3. Impact of Prosthesis-Patient Mismatch on Long-term Functional Capacity After Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit-Eisenmann, H.; Epailly, E.; Velten, M.; Radojevic, J.; Eisenmann, B.; Kremer, H.; Kindo, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis on exercise capacity remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term impact of PPM after mechanical AVR on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). METHODS: The study

  4. Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Sanne M; Spijker, Jan; Licht, Carmilla M M; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2015-06-01

    This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance behaviour and depressive mood). We included healthy controls, subjects with a history of - and current anxiety and/or depressive disorders with a paid job (n=1632). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to diagnose anxiety and depressive disorders and to assess course trajectories at baseline, over 2 and 4 years. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II and the Health and Labour Questionnaire Short Form were used to measure work disability and absenteeism. Symptom dimensions were measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire and the Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology. A history of - and current anxiety and/or depressive disorders were associated with increasing work disability and absenteeism over 4 years, compared to healthy controls. Long-term work disability and absenteeism were most prominent in comorbid anxiety-depressive disorder, followed by depressive disorders, and lowest in anxiety disorders. A chronic course, anxiety arousal and depressive mood were strong predictors for long-term work disability while baseline psychiatric status, a chronic course and depressive mood were strong predictors for long-term work absenteeism. Results cannot be generalized to other anxiety disorders, such as obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and specific phobias. Self-reported measures of work disability and absenteeism were used. Our results demonstrate that depressive syndromes and symptoms have more impact on future work disability and absenteeism than anxiety, implying that prevention of depression is of major importance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Marketing and social work--synergy in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, L M; Bufano, J T

    1985-08-01

    The concept of marketing is new to the long-term care industry. Limited financial resources dictate that administrators investigate ways to supplement marketing staff. St. John's Home in Rochester, New York, has focused attention on the way in which social work can enhance the effectiveness of the marketing program. Presented here is the role of social work in the marketing mix: product, place, price, promotion, and public relations.

  6. Employability and work ability: returning to the labour market after long-term absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Staffan; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse how people who return to the labour market after long-term sickness absenteeism and subsequent job loss differ in employability, work ability, health, educational level, age, and gender, compared to those who do not. The cohort consisted of 191 individuals, 20 men and 171 women, whose employment was terminated because they had not been able to return to their regular work after taking a long-term sick leave and rehabilitation measures. This study is based on a postal questionnaire sent out to a cohort of previous employees in a Swedish municipality in 2008. At the time of the survey, 39% of the respondents had returned to the labour market and the remaining 61% had not. Return to the labour market after a long-term sick leave was positively associated with male gender, young age, and work ability, i.e. the ability to work with respect to health and work-related demands. Employability, educational level, and health were not significantly associated with a return to the labour market. In the discourse on employability, work ability is often neglected even though it is a central aspect of an individual's ability to obtain new employment.

  7. Effect of the Danish return-to-work program on long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Otto M; Aust, Birgit; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    participant receiving ordinary sickness benefit management (OSM). Study participants were working-age adults receiving long-term (≥8 weeks or more) benefits, included regardless of reason for sickness absence or employment status. Each beneficiary was followed-up for a maximum period of 52 weeks. Cox......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Danish return-to-work (RTW) program on long-term sickness absence in a randomized controlled trial in three municipalities. METHODS: The intervention group comprised 1948 participants while the control group comprised 1157...... proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for return to work (RTW) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: The intervention effect differed significantly between the municipalities (P=0.00005). In one municipality (M2) the intervention resulted in a statistically significant...

  8. Long-term pitch memory for music recordings is related to auditory working memory precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon Lm; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2018-04-01

    Most individuals have reliable long-term memories for the pitch of familiar music recordings. This pitch memory (1) appears to be normally distributed in the population, (2) does not depend on explicit musical training and (3) only seems to be weakly related to differences in listening frequency estimates. The present experiment was designed to assess whether individual differences in auditory working memory could explain variance in long-term pitch memory for music recordings. In Experiment 1, participants first completed a musical note adjustment task that has been previously used to assess working memory of musical pitch. Afterward, participants were asked to judge the pitch of well-known music recordings, which either had or had not been shifted in pitch. We found that performance on the pitch working memory task was significantly related to performance in the pitch memory task using well-known recordings, even when controlling for overall musical experience and familiarity with each recording. In Experiment 2, we replicated these findings in a separate group of participants while additionally controlling for fluid intelligence and non-pitch-based components of auditory working memory. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that participants could not accurately judge the pitch of unfamiliar recordings, suggesting that our method of pitch shifting did not result in unwanted acoustic cues that could have aided participants in Experiments 1 and 2. These results, taken together, suggest that the ability to maintain pitch information in working memory might lead to more accurate long-term pitch memory.

  9. Joint association of multimorbidity and work ability with risk of long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Mortensen, Ole Steen

    2017-01-01

    at baseline. The fully adjusted model showed an association between number of chronic diseases and risk of LTSA. This association was stronger among employees with poor work ability (either physical or mental). Compared to employees with no diseases and good physical work ability, the risk estimate for LTSA...... with LTSA appears to be additive. Conclusions: Poor work ability combined with ≥1 chronic diseases is associated with high risk of long-term sickness absence in the general working population. Initiatives to improve or maintain work ability should be highly prioritized to secure sustainable employability...

  10. Associations between Depressive State and Impaired Higher-Level Functional Capacity in the Elderly with Long-Term Care Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Soshiro; Hayashi, Chisato; Sugiura, Keiko; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Depressive state has been reported to be significantly associated with higher-level functional capacity among community-dwelling elderly. However, few studies have investigated the associations among people with long-term care requirements. We aimed to investigate the associations between depressive state and higher-level functional capacity and obtain marginal odds ratios using propensity score analyses in people with long-term care requirements. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on participants aged ≥ 65 years (n = 545) who were community dwelling and used outpatient care services for long-term preventive care. We measured higher-level functional capacity, depressive state, and possible confounders. Then, we estimated the marginal odds ratios (i.e., the change in odds of impaired higher-level functional capacity if all versus no participants were exposed to depressive state) by logistic models using generalized linear models with the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) for propensity score and design-based standard errors. Depressive state was used as the exposure variable and higher-level functional capacity as the outcome variable. The all absolute standardized differences after the IPTW using the propensity scores were functional capacity.

  11. Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugin, Fiona; Metz, Andreas J.; Stauffer, Madlaina; Wolf, Martin; Jenni, Oskar G.; Huber, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily), while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training) and long-term effects (after 2-6 months) in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls). The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task) did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training. PMID:25671082

  12. Automatic and controlled processing in sentence recall: The role of long-term and working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Baddeley, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    Immediate serial recall is better for sentences than word lists presumably because of the additional support that meaningful material receives from long-term memory. This may occur automatically, without the involvement of attention, or may require additional attentionally demanding processing. For example, the episodic buffer model (Baddeley, 2000) proposes that the executive component of working memory plays a crucial role in the formation of links between different representational formats...

  13. Making Markets in Long-Term Care: Or How a Market Can Work by Being Invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grit, Kor; Zuiderent-Jerak, Teun

    2017-09-01

    Many Western countries have introduced market principles in healthcare. The newly introduced financial instrument of "care-intensity packages" in the Dutch long-term care sector fit this development since they have some characteristics of a market device. However, policy makers and care providers positioned these instruments as explicitly not belonging to the general trend of marketisation in healthcare. Using a qualitative case study approach, we study the work that the two providers have done to fit these instruments to their organisations and how that enables and legitimatises market development. Both providers have done various types of work that could be classified as market development, including creating accounting systems suitable for markets, redefining public values in the context of markets, and starting commercial initiatives. Paradoxically, denying the existence of markets for long-term care and thus avoiding ideological debates on the marketisation of healthcare has made the use of market devices all the more likely. Making the market invisible seems to be an operative element in making the market work. Our findings suggest that Dutch long-term care reform points to the need to study the 'making' rather than the 'liberalising' of markets and that the study of healthcare markets should not be confined to those practices that explicitly label themselves as such.

  14. Work characteristics and return to work in long-term sick-listed employees with depressive symptoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, J.J.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Taris, T.W.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the relations between work characteristics, depressive symptoms and duration until full return to work (RTW) among long-term sick-listed employees. This knowledge may add to the development of effective interventions and prevention, especially since work

  15. Work characteristics and return to work in long-term sick-listed employees with depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, Jenny; Koppes, L.L.J.; Taris, A.W.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the relations between work characteristics, depressive symptoms and duration until full return to work (RTW) among long-term sick-listed employees. This knowledge may add to the development of effective interventions and prevention, especially since work

  16. Work Characteristics and Return to Work in Long-Term Sick-Listed Employees with Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, J.J.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Taris, T.W.; Blonk, R.WE.B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the relations between work characteristics, depressive symptoms and duration until full return to work (RTW) among long-term sick-listed employees. This knowledge may add to the development of effective interventions and prevention, especially since work

  17. Do psychosocial working conditions modify the effect of depressive symptoms on long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarsbech, Pernille U.; Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Rikke Voss

    2013-01-01

    , but not psychosocial working conditions, predicted LTSA. Psychosocial working conditions did not statistically significantly modify the effect of depressive symptoms on LTSA. Conclusions: Psychosocial working conditions did not modify the effect of depressive symptoms on LTSA. The results, however, need......Background: The objective of this study was to investigate whether work unit-levels of psychosocial working conditions modify the effect of depressive symptoms on risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Methods: A total of 5,416 Danish female eldercare workers from 309 work units were surveyed...... using questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and psychosocial working conditions. LTSA was derived from a national register. We aggregated scores of psychosocial working conditions to the work unit-level and conducted multi-level Poisson regression analyses. Results: Depressive symptoms...

  18. Effects of treadmill exercise intensity on spatial working memory and long-term memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Gong-Wu

    2016-03-15

    Moderate exercise promotes learning and memory. Most studies mainly focused on memory exercise effects of in the ageing and patients. There is lack of quantitative research about effect of regular exercise intensity on different memory types in normal subjects. Present study investigated the effects of different intensities of treadmill exercise on working memory and long-term memory. Fifty female Wistar rats were trained by T-maze delayed spatial alternation (DSA) task with 3 delays (10s, 60s and 300s). Then they got a 30min treadmill exercise for 30days in 4 intensities (control, 0m/min; lower, 15m/min; middle, 20m/min, and higher, 30m/min). Then animals were tested in DSA, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tasks. 1. Exercise increased the neuronal density of hippocampal subregions (CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus) vs. naïve/control. 2. In DSA task, all groups have similar baseline, lower intensity improved 10s delay accuracy vs. baseline/control; middle and higher intensities improved 300s delay accuracy vs. baseline/control. 3. In water maze learning, all groups successfully found the platform, but middle intensity improved platform field crossing times vs. control in test phase. Present results suggested that treadmill exercise can improve long-term spatial memory and working memory; lower intensity benefits to short-term delayed working memory, and middle or higher intensity benefits to long-term delayed working memory. There was an inverted U dose-effect relationship between exercise intensity and memory performance, but exercise -working memory effect was impacted by delay duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Joint association of multimorbidity and work ability with risk of long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Due Jakobsen, Markus; Mortensen, Ole Steen

    2017-01-01

    with LTSA appears to be additive. Conclusions: Poor work ability combined with ≥1 chronic diseases is associated with high risk of long-term sickness absence in the general working population. Initiatives to improve or maintain work ability should be highly prioritized to secure sustainable employability......, disability pension, immigration, or death) was performed to estimate the joint association of chronic diseases and work ability in relation to physical and mental demands of the job with the prospective risk for LTSA (defined as ≥6 consecutive weeks during 2-year follow-up) among 10 427 wage earners from...... the general working population (2010 Danish Work Environment Cohort Study). Control variables were age, gender, psychosocial work environment, smoking, leisure physical activity, body mass index, job group, and previous LTSA. Results: Of the 10 427 respondents, 56.8% had experienced ≥1 chronic disease...

  20. Natural analogues and evidence of long-term isolation capacity of clays occurring in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvegnu, F.; Brondi, A.; Polizzano, C.

    1988-01-01

    This work concerns the results of the studies conducted at many sites in Italy aimed at collecting information on natural evidences of the isolation capacity of clay. Field observations allow to get the opportunity to know directly or infer the evolutive geological processes which are of concern for the waste disposal problems. As a major advantage such observations concern natural phenomena acting at the same, or at a greater, time-space scale involved in the geological disposal of wastes. The explored situations regard the secondary permeability of clay, detected by means of natural tracers (Hg, He, hydrothermal and geothermal fluids, ....) at the ground surface or directly studied in deep civilian tunnels. Another treated topic is the meaning of the oxido-reduction front as a control factor of the physico-chemical environment of clay as well as of the radionuclides migration. The mechanical and thermal effects which accompany the intrusion of a subvolcanic body within clay represent an extreme worst case for a comparison of the effects on clay due to heat developed by radionuclide decay. Finally the case of a fossil forest maintained almost inaltered by the clay cover for over 1,500,000 years is described. All the results of the geological researches point univocally to an almost total and long lasting isolation capacity of clay formations

  1. Visual long-term memory has a massive storage capacity for object details

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.; Oliva, Aude

    2008-01-01

    One of the major lessons of memory research has been that human memory is fallible, imprecise, and subject to interference. Thus, although observers can remember thousands of images, it is widely assumed that these memories lack detail. Contrary to this assumption, here we show that long-term memory is capable of storing a massive number of objects with details from the image. Participants viewed pictures of 2,500 objects over the course of 5.5 h. Afterward, they were shown pairs of images an...

  2. Long-term symptomatic, functional, and work outcomes of carpal tunnel syndrome among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanoff, Bradley; Gardner, Bethany T; Strickland, Jaime R; Buckner-Petty, Skye; Franzblau, Alfred; Dale, Ann Marie

    2016-05-01

    The long-term outcomes of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) including symptoms, functional status, work disability, and economic impact are unknown. We conducted a retrospective study of 234 active construction workers with medical claims for CTS and 249 workers without CTS claims; non-cases were matched on age, trade, and insurance eligibility. We conducted telephone interviews with cases and non-cases and collected administrative data on work hours. Compared to non-cases, CTS cases were more likely to report recurrent hand symptoms, decreased work productivity/quality, decreased performance of physical work demands, and greater functional limitations. Surgical cases showed larger improvements on multiple outcomes than non-surgical cases. Minimal differences in paid work hours were seen between cases and non-cases in the years preceding and following CTS claims. Persistent symptoms and functional impairments were present several years after CTS diagnosis. Long-term functional limitations shown by this and other studies indicate the need for improved prevention and treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Role of Long-Term Memory in a Test of Visual Working Memory: Proactive Facilitation but No Proactive Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Awh, Edward; Sutterer, David W.

    2017-01-01

    We report 4 experiments examining whether associations in visual working memory are subject to proactive interference from long-term memory (LTM). Following a long-term learning phase in which participants learned the colors of 120 unique objects, a working memory (WM) test was administered in which participants recalled the precise colors of 3…

  4. Work values and their association with burnout/work engagement among nurses in long-term care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yumiko; Igarashi, Ayumi; Noguchi-Watanabe, Maiko; Takai, Yukari; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko

    2018-05-01

    To examine burnout and work engagement among nurses in Japanese long-term care hospitals and their relation to nurses' and organisational work values, and nurse-organisation congruence of such values. Nursing managers must help improve nurses' well-being; however, no research has considered strategies to improve staff outcomes in long-term care hospitals. We propose that individual nurse's work values and the congruence of these values with those of their organisations may influence burnout and work engagement. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of nurses in long-term care hospitals. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of nurses' work values and nurse-organisation congruence in these values on burnout and work engagement. Higher individual intrinsic and altruistic work values were associated with improvements in nurses' burnout and work engagement. Nurse-organisation non-congruence in altruistic values was associated with lower work engagement, whereas that of intrinsic work values was not associated with either outcome variable. Promoting intrinsic and altruistic work values among nurses could be effective for improving both burnout and work engagement. Opportunities such as case conferences could foster intrinsic and altruistic work values through the review of good care practices and communication between managers/colleagues about feelings and thoughts. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Long-term and within-day variability of working memory performance and EEG in individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevins, Alan; McEvoy, Linda K; Smith, Michael E; Chan, Cynthia S; Sam-Vargas, Lita; Baum, Cliff; Ilan, Aaron B

    2012-07-01

    Assess individual-subject long-term and within-day variability of a combined behavioral and EEG test of working memory. EEGs were recorded from 16 adults performing n-back working memory tasks, with 10 tested in morning and afternoon sessions over several years. Participants were also tested after ingesting non-prescription medications or recreational substances. Performance and EEG measures were analyzed to derive an Overall score and three constituent sub-scores characterizing changes in performance, cortical activation, and alertness from each individual's baseline. Long-term and within-day variability were determined for each score; medication effects were assessed by reference to each individual's normal day-to-day variability. Over the several year period, the mean Overall score and sub-scores were approximately zero with standard deviations less than one. Overall scores were lower and their variability higher in afternoon relative to morning sessions. At the group level, alcohol, diphenhydramine and marijuana produced significant effects, but there were large individual differences. Objective working memory measures incorporating performance and EEG are stable over time and sensitive at the level of individual subjects to interventions that affect neurocognitive function. With further research these measures may be suitable for use in individualized medical care by providing a sensitive assessment of incipient illness and response to treatment. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that adaptation to a fat-rich carbohydrate-poor diet results in lower resting muscle glycogen content and a higher rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared with a carbohydrate-rich diet. The net effect of such an adaptation could potentially be a sparing of muscle...... glycogen, and because muscle glycogen storage is coupled to endurance performance, it is possible that adaptation to a high-fat diet potentially could enhance endurance performance. Therefore, the first issue in this review is to critically evaluate the available evidence for a potential endurance...... performance enhancement after long-term fat-rich diet adaptation. Attainment of optimal performance is among other factors dependent also on the quality and quantity of the training performed. When exercise intensity is increased, there is an increased need for carbohydrates. On the other hand, consumption...

  7. Comfort Care Rounds: a staff capacity-building initiative in long-term care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickson-Griffiths, Abigail; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Brazil, Kevin; McAiney, Carrie; Crawshaw, Diane; Turner, Mickey; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a pilot evaluation of Comfort Care Rounds (CCRs)--a strategy for addressing long-term care home staff's palliative and end-of-life care educational and support needs. Using a qualitative descriptive design, semistructured individual and focus group interviews were conducted to understand staff members' perspectives and feedback on the implementation and application of CCRs. Study participants identified that effective advertising, interest, and assigning staff to attend CCRs facilitated their participation. The key barriers to their attendance included difficulty in balancing heavy workloads and scheduling logistics. Interprofessional team member representation was sought but was not consistent. Study participants recognized the benefits of attending; however, they provided feedback on how the scheduling, content, and focus could be improved. Overall, study participants found CCRs to be beneficial to their palliative and end-of-life care knowledge, practice, and confidence. However, they identified barriers and recommendations, which warrant ongoing evaluation. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. rhEPO Enhances Cellular Anti-oxidant Capacity to Protect Long-Term Cultured Aging Primary Nerve Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huqing; Fan, Jiaxin; Chen, Mengyi; Yao, Qingling; Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Guilian; Wu, Haiqin; Yu, Xiaorui

    2017-08-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) may protect the nervous system of animals against aging damage, making it a potential anti-aging drug for the nervous system. However, experimental evidence from natural aging nerve cell models is lacking, and the efficacy of EPO and underlying mechanism of this effect warrant further study. Thus, the present study used long-term cultured primary nerve cells to successfully mimic the natural aging process of nerve cells. Starting on the 11th day of culture, cells were treated with different concentrations of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). Using double immunofluorescence labeling, we found that rhEPO significantly improved the morphology of long-term cultured primary nerve cells and increased the total number of long-term cultured primary cells. However, rhEPO did not improve the ratio of nerve cells. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to measure nerve cell activity and showed that rhEPO significantly improved the activity of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Moreover, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) double immunofluorescence labeling flow cytometry revealed that rhEPO reduced the apoptotic rate of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) immunohistochemistry staining showed that rhEPO significantly reduced the aging rate of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Immunochemistry revealed that rhEPO enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) abundance and reduced the intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA) level. In addition, this effect depended on the dose, was maximized at a dose of 100 U/ml and was more pronounced than that of vitamin E. In summary, this study finds that rhEPO protects long-term cultured primary nerve cells from aging in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of this effect may be associated with the enhancement of the intracellular anti

  9. A probabilistic quantitative risk assessment model for the long-term work zone crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qiang; Weng, Jinxian; Qu, Xiaobo

    2010-11-01

    Work zones especially long-term work zones increase traffic conflicts and cause safety problems. Proper casualty risk assessment for a work zone is of importance for both traffic safety engineers and travelers. This paper develops a novel probabilistic quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model to evaluate the casualty risk combining frequency and consequence of all accident scenarios triggered by long-term work zone crashes. The casualty risk is measured by the individual risk and societal risk. The individual risk can be interpreted as the frequency of a driver/passenger being killed or injured, and the societal risk describes the relation between frequency and the number of casualties. The proposed probabilistic QRA model consists of the estimation of work zone crash frequency, an event tree and consequence estimation models. There are seven intermediate events--age (A), crash unit (CU), vehicle type (VT), alcohol (AL), light condition (LC), crash type (CT) and severity (S)--in the event tree. Since the estimated value of probability for some intermediate event may have large uncertainty, the uncertainty can thus be characterized by a random variable. The consequence estimation model takes into account the combination effects of speed and emergency medical service response time (ERT) on the consequence of work zone crash. Finally, a numerical example based on the Southeast Michigan work zone crash data is carried out. The numerical results show that there will be a 62% decrease of individual fatality risk and 44% reduction of individual injury risk if the mean travel speed is slowed down by 20%. In addition, there will be a 5% reduction of individual fatality risk and 0.05% reduction of individual injury risk if ERT is reduced by 20%. In other words, slowing down speed is more effective than reducing ERT in the casualty risk mitigation. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Job Demands-Resources, exhaustion and work engagement in a long-term care institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, P M; Neri, L; Campanini, P; Francioli, L; Camerino, D; Punzi, S; Fichera, G P; Costa, G

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we aimed at testing the main hypotheses of the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R) in a sample of employees (n = 205, mainly healthcare workers) of a long-term care institution located in Northern Italy. Hierarchical linear regression analyses show that almost all job demands considered were significantly associated with higher general psycho-physical exhaustion (beta ranging from 0.14 to 0.29), whereas more unfavourable scores in all job resources were associated with lower work engagement (from -0.27 to -0.51). However, also significant cross-over associations were observed, mainly between job resources and exhaustion, with effect sizes comparable with those found for the relationships between job demands and exhaustion. Hence, our study only partially supports the JD-R model. Implications of results for work-related stress management are finally discussed.

  11. Non Temporal Determinants of Bilingual Memory Capacity: The Role of Long-Term Representations and Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chincotta, Dino; Underwood, Geoffrey

    1998-01-01

    Examined the view that the variation in bilingual short-term memory capacity is determined by differential rates of subvocal rehearsal between the languages. Auditory memory span and articulation time were measured for three bilingual groups who spoke Finnish at home and Swedish at school, and either Finnish of Swedish in both the home and the…

  12. Postencephalitic amnesia with long term-working memory impairment: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Baldivia

    Full Text Available Abstract Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE is an inflammation of the brain parenchyma caused by virus, leading to focal necrosis in medial temporal lobes, hippocampal complex and basal forebrain. Cognitively, HSVE is associated to many dysfunctions which vary according to the extent of the lesion. Episodic memory impairment is the most common sequelae following HSVE episodes, although others can occur. The aim of this case report was to describe the cognitive profile of a 42 year-old man who had extensive bilateral damage to the medial temporal lobe, insular bilateral and orbitofrontal cortices due to HSVE. Severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia, naming deficits, perseverative behaviors and confabulations were observed on neuropsychological assessment. We discussed the concept of long term-working memory based on this evaluation. These cognitive impairments corroborated HSVE previous findings in the literature.

  13. [Effects of a long-term intervention in a work cafeteria on employee vegetable intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Akemi; Yoshita, Katsushi; Fukumura, Tomoe; Tanaka, Taichiro; Tamaki, Junko; Takebayashi, Toru; Kusaka, Yukinori; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Yamato, Hiroshi; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects on employee vegetable intake of a long-term intervention in an employee work cafeteria. The subjects were approximately 1,200 employees (aged 19-61 years) of an industrial company in Fukui prefecture. We promoted the intake of typical Japanese style meals that combined three elements (staple foods, main dishes and vegetable dishes) to increase vegetables intake. We displayed all items on the menus of the employee cafeteria using three colors (yellow, red and green to denote three elements) to indicate healthy food choices for the maintenance of a healthy food environment. We advised employees to choose meals containing the three elements at the time of payment, for nutritional education (appropriate portion choice: APC). We evaluated the ratio of APC at the same time. To calculate the mean daily intake per person, we carried out a questionnaire survey similar to the "semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire" and asked about the frequency and approximate intake of vegetables. The APC was 63.5% after one year of intervention, significantly increased to 82.1% after two years (p breakfast (p < 0.001), lunch (p < 0.001) and dinner (p = 0.011), and from vegetable juice (p = 0.030) significantly increased after three years of intervention. The consumption of pickles significantly decreased after three years of intervention (p = 0.009). It was estimated that the vegetable intake of men increased from 167.3 to 184.6 g, and that of women from 157.9 to 187.7 g. Employee estimated vegetable intake was significantly increased and that of pickles was significantly decreased by a long-term intervention (three years) in the employee work cafeteria.

  14. Long-term sedentary work and the risk of subsite-specific colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Terry; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane; Bull, Fiona

    2011-05-15

    Research suggests that sedentary behavior may increase the risk of some chronic diseases. The aims of the study were to examine whether sedentary work is associated with colorectal cancer and to determine whether the association differs by subsite. A total of 918 cases and 1,021 controls participated in a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia in 2005-2007. Data were collected on lifestyle, physical activity, and lifetime job history. The estimated effects of sedentary work on the risk of cancers of the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum were analyzed by using multinomial logistic regression. Compared with participants who did not spend any time in sedentary work, participants who spent 10 or more years in sedentary work had almost twice the risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio = 1.94, 95% confidence interval: 1.28, 2.93) and a 44% increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio = 1.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 2.18). This association was independent of recreational physical activity and was seen even among the most recreationally active participants. Sedentary work was not associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. These results suggest that long-term sedentary work may increase the risk of distal colon cancer and rectal cancer.

  15. Passive Double-Sensory Evoked Coherence Correlates with Long-Term Memory Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, Anna; Mortensen, Erik L.; Osler, Merete; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Memory correlates with the difference between single and double-sensory evoked steady-state coherence in the gamma range (ΔC). The correlation is most pronounced for the anterior brain region (ΔC A ). The correlation is not driven by birth size, education, speed of processing, or intelligence. The sensitivity of ΔC A for detecting low memory capacity is 90%. Cerebral rhythmic activity and oscillations are important pathways of communication between cortical cell assemblies and may ...

  16. Aerobic exercise capacity at long-term follow-up after paediatric allogeneic haematopoietic SCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S; Uhlving, H H; Buchvald, F

    2014-01-01

    Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), a measure of aerobic exercise capacity, predicts mortality and morbidity in healthy and diseased individuals. Our aim was to determine VO2peak years after paediatric allogeneic haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) and to identify associations with baseline patient and donor...... type or GvHD were found. Although causes for reduced VO2peak may be multiple, our findings stress the need to focus on physical activity post HSCT to prevent lifestyle diseases and improve quality of life....

  17. Electrophysiological indices of altered working memory processes in long-term ecstasy users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulsen, Claire; Fox, Allison; Hammond, Geoff

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of light long-term ecstasy consumption on verbal short-term and working memory and to identify the cognitive processes contributing to task performance. Electroencephalogram was recorded while ecstasy users (N = 11), polydrug users (N = 13), and non-users (N = 13) completed forward and backward serial recognition tasks designed to engage verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory, respectively. All three groups displayed significantly lower digit-backward span than digit-forward span with ecstasy users displaying the greatest difference. The parietally distributed P3b was significantly smaller in the digits backward task than in the digits forward task in non-ecstasy-using controls. Ecstasy users did not show the reduced P3b component in the backward task that was seen in both non-ecstasy-using control groups. Ecstasy users' performance was suppressed more by the concurrent processing demands of the working memory task than that of the non-ecstasy-using controls. Non-ecstasy-using controls showed differential event-related potential wave forms in the short-term and working memory tasks, and this pattern was not seen in the ecstasy users. This is consistent with a reduction in the cognitive resources allocated to processing in working memory in ecstasy users. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Computerized working memory training has positive long-term effect in very low birthweight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewaldt, Kristine Hermansen; Skranes, Jon; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Lähaugen, Gro C C

    2016-02-01

    Working memory deficits are frequently found in children born preterm and have been linked to learning disabilities, and cognitive and behavioural problems. Our aim was to evaluate if a computerized working memory training program has long-term positive effects on memory, learning, and behaviour in very-low-birthweight (VLBW) children at age 5 to 6 years. This prospective, intervention study included 20 VLBW preschool children in the intervention group and 17 age-matched, non-training VLBW children in the comparison group. The intervention group trained with the Cogmed JM working memory training program daily for 5 weeks (25 training sessions). Extensive neuropsychological assessment and parental questionnaires were performed 4 weeks after intervention and at follow-up 7 months later. For most of the statistical analyses, general linear models were applied. At follow-up, higher scores and increased or equal performance gain were found in the intervention group than the comparison group on memory for faces (p=0.012), narrative memory (p=0.002), and spatial span (p=0.003). No group differences in performance gain were found for attention and behaviour. Computerized working memory training seems to have positive and persisting effects on working memory, and visual and verbal learning, at 7-month follow-up in VLBW preschool children. We speculate that such training is beneficial by improving the ability to learn from the teaching at school and for further cognitive development. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  19. Long-term mortality risk in individuals with permanent work-related impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Marshall, Heather K; Tompa, Emile; Wang, Ying; Liao, Qing

    2014-07-11

    Recent estimates indicate that at least one in five activity-limiting injuries occurs at work. Of individuals who suffer these injuries approximately 10% experience some degree of functional impairment. We were interested in investigating long-term mortality risk in individuals with permanent impairment from work injury and to examine whether work disability is a significant explanatory factor. We used a retrospective matched cohort methodology to examine differences in mortality rates between individuals with permanent impairment from a work injury and a group of non-injured controls over a 19-year period. We used a sample of impaired workers to investigate the impact of work disability on mortality risk using percentage of earnings recovery after injury as the key proxy measure. All analyses were stratified by sex. Permanent impairment from a work injury was predictive of premature mortality in both male and female claimants, though the risk was slightly higher among women. Work disability was a key explanatory factor in the rate of death among impaired workers, the effects being more pronounced in men. We also found that higher impairment level was associated with mortality in men but not in women. The study demonstrates the impact of permanent work-related impairment on longevity and identifies work disability as an important determinant of mortality risk. Given the disconnect between impairment ratings derived from standard diagnostic tools and labour-market activity after accident, more research is needed on the specific factors that contribute to work disability, particularly those related to psycho-social health and well-being.

  20. Passive Double-Sensory Evoked Coherence Correlates with Long-Term Memory Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Anna; Mortensen, Erik L.; Osler, Merete

    2017-01-01

    -task sensory steady-state stimulation. We investigated 40 healthy males born in 1953 who were part of a Danish birth cohort study. Coherence was measured in the gamma range in response to a single-sensory visual stimulation (36 Hz) and a double-sensory combined audiovisual stimulation (auditive: 40 Hz; visual...... found that the difference in anterior coherence (ΔCA ) is a better predictor of memory than power in multivariate models. The sensitivity of ΔCA for detecting low memory capacity is 92%. Finally, ΔCA was also associated with other types of memory: verbal learning, visual recognition, and spatial memory...

  1. Physical work environment risk factors for long term sickness absence: prospective findings among a cohort of 5357 employees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2006-01-01

    employees interviewed in 2000 about their physical work environment, and various covariates were followed for 18 months in a national sickness absence register. Outcome measurements Cox regression analysis was performed to assess risk estimates for physical risk factors in the work environment and onset......OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of physical work environment on long term sickness absence and to investigate interaction between physical and psychosocial risk factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study of long term sickness absence among employees in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 5357...... of long term sickness absence, defined as receiving sickness absence compensation for eight consecutive weeks or more. RESULTS: 348 participants (6.9%) developed long term sickness absence during follow-up. Of these, 194 (55.7%) were women and 154 (44.3%) were men. For both female and male employees, risk...

  2. Stability and buffering capacity of the geosphere for long-term isolation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Most experts worldwide agree that radioactive waste disposal in engineered facilities, or repositories, located in appropriate formations deep underground, provide a suitable waste management option for protecting humans and the environment now and. in the future. An NEA workshop was organised on 9-11 December 2003 in Braunschweig, Germany, devoted specifically to argillaceous settings for deep geological repositories. The workshop brought together scientists from academic institutions, engineers from various research institutions or companies, consultants, regulatory authorities and national waste management organisations to establish the scientific basis for stability and buffering capacity of deep geological waste management systems. The present report synthesizes the main outcomes of that workshop and presents a compilation of the related abstracts. (author)

  3. Work Characteristics and Return to Work in Long-Term Sick-Listed Employees with Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijs, Jenny J J M; Koppes, Lando L J; Taris, Toon W; Blonk, Roland W B

    2017-12-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the relations between work characteristics, depressive symptoms and duration until full return to work (RTW) among long-term sick-listed employees. This knowledge may add to the development of effective interventions and prevention, especially since work characteristics can be subjected to interventions more easily than many disorder-related or personal factors. Methods this prospective cohort study with a two-year follow-up employs a sample of 883 Dutch employees who had been sick-listed for at least 13 weeks at baseline, who filled out three questionnaires: at 19 weeks, 1 and 2 years after the start of sick leave. The dependent measure was duration until full RTW. Results not working (partially) at baseline, low decision authority, high psychological demands, low supervisor support and low RTW self-efficacy were related to more depressive symptoms. The duration until full RTW was longer for employees with depressive symptoms. Low physical exertion, high RTW self-efficacy, working partially at baseline, being married or cohabiting, and young age were related to less time until full RTW. Other work characteristics appeared no independent predictors of RTW. Conclusions although the role of job demands and job resources in the RTW process is limited for long-term sick-listed employees with depressive symptoms, a few work characteristics are prognostic factors of full RTW. Focus on these elements in the selection or development of interventions may be helpful in preventing sickness absence, and in supporting long-term sick-listed employees towards full RTW.

  4. Rejuvenation capacity of red blood cells in additive solutions over long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erin K; Dumont, Deborah F; Baker, Sharry; Dumont, Larry J

    2011-07-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for 42-day storage with the use of additive solutions (ASs). However, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in the RBCs decline over this time. These constituents may be restored by treatment with rejuvenation (REJ) solutions. This study was done to assess the response capability of RBCs from 30 to 120 days of storage in three FDA-licensed RBC storage solutions after incubation with a rejuvenating solution of pyruvate, inosine, phosphate, and adenine. Three units each of RBCs in approved AS (AS-1 [Adsol, Fenwal, Inc.], AS-3 [Nutricel, Medsep Corp.], and AS-5 [Optisol, Terumo Corp.]) were stored under standard conditions at 1 to 6°C for up to 120 days. Aliquots (4 mL) on Days 30, 42, 60, 80, 100, and 120 (± 2 days) were REJ by incubating with Rejuvesol (Encyte Corp.). Control untreated and REJ aliquots were extracted using perchloric acid and stored at -80°C until assayed for 2,3-DPG and ATP. RBCs responded to REJ by increasing DPG and ATP contents. The response declined linearly at 0.070 ± 0.008 µmol DPG/g hemoglobin (Hb)/day and 0.035 ± 0.004 µmol ATP/g Hb/day with no differences between ASs. We conclude that Rejuvesol is able to restore ATP and 2,3-DPG levels in RBCs stored up to 120 days in AS. The response diminishes as storage time increases. This rejuvenation (REJ) capability does not seem useful for routine assessment of RBC anabolic capacity in research programs, but may be useful to the investigator when studying unique and novel treatment methods. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. Optimizing the Long-Term Capacity Expansion and Protection of Iraqi Oil Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    remotely using only a computer and a high-speed internet connection. I only wish that the Navy as a whole were as receptive to telecommuting as you...INTRODUCTION Formula for success: Rise early, work hard , strike oil. Jean Paul Getty (1892-1976), American Industrialist and Founder of the Getty...In truth , Iraq has neglected its lifeblood industry for far too long and requires a capital expansion and security plan - as well as the financial

  6. Impact of Prosthesis-Patient Mismatch on Long-term Functional Capacity After Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Eisenmann, Hélène; Epailly, Eric; Velten, Michel; Radojevic, Jelena; Eisenmann, Bernard; Kremer, Hélène; Kindo, Michel

    2016-12-01

    The impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis on exercise capacity remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term impact of PPM after mechanical AVR on maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ). The study included 75 patients who had undergone isolated mechanical AVR for aortic stenosis with normal left ventricular (LV) function between 1994 and 2012. Their functional capacity was evaluated on average 4.6 years after AVR by exercise testing, including measurement of their VO 2max , and by determining their New York Heart Association functional class and Short Form-36 score. Two groups were defined by measuring the patients' indexed effective orifice area (iEOA) by transthoracic echocardiography: a PPM group (iEOA < 0.85 cm 2 /m 2 ) and a no-PPM group (iEOA ≥ 0.85 cm 2 /m 2 ). PPM was present in 37.0% of the patients. The percentage of the predicted VO 2max achieved was significantly lower in the PPM group (86.7 ± 19.5% vs 97.5 ± 23.0% in the no-PPM group; P = 0.04). Compared with the no-PPM group, the PPM group contained fewer patients in New York Heart Association functional class I and their mean Short Form-36 physical component summary score was significantly lower. The mean transvalvular gradient was significantly higher in the PPM group than in the no-PPM group (P < 0.001). Systolic and diastolic function and LV mass had normalized in both groups. PPM is associated in the long term with moderate but significant impairment of functional capacity, despite optimal LV reverse remodelling and normalization of LV systolic and diastolic function. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Working Less and Living Longer: Long-Term Trends in Working Time and Time Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Ausubel, J.H.; Grubler, A.

    1994-01-01

    Analyses of time series data beginning in the mid-nineteenth century in the industrialized nations, especially in the United Kingdom, show that on average people are working significantly less while living longer. Although the average career length has remained around 40 years, the total lifetime hours worked shrank for an average British worker from 124,000 hours in 1856 to 69,000 in 1981. The fraction of disposable lifetime hours spent working declined from 50% to 20%. The female share of c...

  8. Media multitasking and memory: Differences in working memory and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncapher, Melina R; K Thieu, Monica; Wagner, Anthony D

    2016-04-01

    Increasing access to media in the 21st century has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of media multitasking (simultaneous use of multiple media streams). Such behavior is associated with various cognitive differences, such as difficulty filtering distracting information and increased trait impulsivity. Given the rise in media multitasking by children, adolescents, and adults, a full understanding of the cognitive profile of media multitaskers is imperative. Here we investigated the relationship between chronic media multitasking and working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) performance. Four key findings are reported (1) heavy media multitaskers (HMMs) exhibited lower WM performance, regardless of whether external distraction was present or absent; (2) lower performance on multiple WM tasks predicted lower LTM performance; (3) media multitasking-related differences in memory reflected differences in discriminability rather than decision bias; and (4) attentional impulsivity correlated with media multitasking behavior and reduced WM performance. These findings suggest that chronic media multitasking is associated with a wider attentional scope/higher attentional impulsivity, which may allow goal-irrelevant information to compete with goal-relevant information. As a consequence, heavy media multitaskers are able to hold fewer or less precise goal-relevant representations in WM. HMMs' wider attentional scope, combined with their diminished WM performance, propagates forward to yield lower LTM performance. As such, chronic media multitasking is associated with a reduced ability to draw on the past--be it very recent or more remote--to inform present behavior.

  9. The effects of refreshing and elaboration on working memory performance, and their contributions to long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Lea M; Singmann, Henrik; Oberauer, Klaus

    2018-03-19

    Refreshing and elaboration are cognitive processes assumed to underlie verbal working-memory maintenance and assumed to support long-term memory formation. Whereas refreshing refers to the attentional focussing on representations, elaboration refers to linking representations in working memory into existing semantic networks. We measured the impact of instructed refreshing and elaboration on working and long-term memory separately, and investigated to what extent both processes are distinct in their contributions to working as well as long-term memory. Compared with a no-processing baseline, immediate memory was improved by repeating the items, but not by refreshing them. There was no credible effect of elaboration on working memory, except when items were repeated at the same time. Long-term memory benefited from elaboration, but not from refreshing the words. The results replicate the long-term memory benefit for elaboration, but do not support its beneficial role for working memory. Further, refreshing preserves immediate memory, but does not improve it beyond the level achieved without any processing.

  10. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  11. Administrative circulars No. 22A (rev. 1) – Award of additional periods of membership in the Pensions Fund for long-term shift work and No. 22B (rev. 1) – Compensation for long-term shift work hours

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Administrative Circulars No. 22A (Rev. 1) entitled "Award of additional periods of membership in the Pension Fund for long-term shift work" and No. 22B (Rev.1) entitled “Compensation for long-term shift work hours”, adopted following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 21 September 2010 and entering into force on 1 March 2011, are available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp They cancel and replace Administrative Circulars No. 22A and 22B entitled "Award of additional periods of membership in the Pension Fund to shift workers (Early Departure)” and “Duration and special compensation for shift work” of January 2000. This new version clarifies, in particular, the compensation of effective long-term shift work hours. Department Head Office  

  12. Complete loss of insulin secretion capacity in type 1A diabetes patients during long-term follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Sae; Imagawa, Akihisa; Kozawa, Junji; Fukui, Kenji; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2017-10-16

    Patients with type 1 diabetes are classified into three subtypes in Japan: acute onset, fulminant and slowly progressive. Acute-onset type 1 diabetes would be equivalent to type 1A diabetes, the typical type 1 diabetes in Western countries. The insulin secretion capacity in Japanese patients with long-standing type 1A diabetes is unclear. The aim of the present study was to clarify the course of endogenous insulin secretion during long-term follow up and the factors associated with residual insulin secretion in patients with acute-onset type 1 diabetes (autoimmune). We retrospectively investigated endogenous insulin secretion capacity in 71 patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for acute-onset type 1 diabetes (autoimmune) in Japan. To assess the residual insulin secretion capacity, we evaluated randomly measured C-peptide levels and the results of glucagon stimulation test in 71 patients. In the first year of disease, the child- and adolescent-onset patients had significantly more in residual insulin secretion than the adult-onset patients (34 patients in total). C-peptide levels declined more rapidly in patients whose age of onset was ≤18 years than in patients whose age of onset was ≥19 years. Endogenous insulin secretion capacity stimulated by glucagon was completely lost in almost all patients at >15 years after onset (61 patients in total). Most patients with acute-onset type 1 diabetes (autoimmune) completely lose their endogenous insulin secretion capacity during the disease duration in Japan. Age of onset might affect the course of insulin secretion. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. The Effects of Valence and Arousal on Associative Working Memory and Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Heiko C.; Rijpkema, Mark; Fernández, Guillén; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Emotion can either facilitate or impair memory, depending on what, when and how memory is tested and whether the paradigm at hand is administered as a working memory (WM) or a long-term memory (LTM) task. Whereas emotionally arousing single stimuli are more likely to be remembered, memory for the relationship between two or more component parts (i.e., relational memory) appears to be worse in the presence of emotional stimuli, at least in some relational memory tasks. The current study investigated the effects of both valence (neutral vs. positive vs. negative) and arousal (low vs. high) in an inter-item WM binding and LTM task. Methodology/Principal Findings A five-pair delayed-match-to-sample (WM) task was administered. In each trial, study pairs consisted of one neutral picture and a second picture of which the emotional qualities (valence and arousal levels) were manipulated. These pairs had to be remembered across a delay interval of 10 seconds. This was followed by a probe phase in which five pairs were tested. After completion of this task, an unexpected single item LTM task as well as an LTM task for the pairs was assessed. As expected, emotional arousal impaired WM processing. This was reflected in lower accuracy for pairs consisting of high-arousal pictures compared to pairs with low-arousal pictures. A similar effect was found for the associative LTM task. However, the arousal effect was modulated by affective valence for the WM but not the LTM task; pairs with low-arousal negative pictures were not processed as well in the WM task. No significant differences were found for the single-item LTM task. Conclusions/Significance The present study provides additional evidence that processes during initial perception/encoding and post-encoding processes, the time interval between study and test and the interaction between valence and arousal might modulate the effects of “emotion” on associative memory. PMID:23300724

  14. Long-term Impact of Bile Duct Injury on Morbidity, Mortality, Quality of Life, and Work Related Limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Klaske A. C.; de Reuver, Philip R.; van Dieren, Susan; van Delden, Otto M.; Rauws, Erik A.; Busch, Olivier R.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Gouma, Dirk J.

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of long-term comprehensive outcome of multimodality treatment of bile duct injury (BDI) in terms of morbidity, mortality, quality of life (QoL), survival, and work related limitations. The impact of BDI on work ability is scarcely investigated. BDI patients referred to a tertiary center

  15. Linking Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: A Computational Model of the Learning of New Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Gobet, Fernand; Pine, Julian M.

    2007-01-01

    The nonword repetition (NWR) test has been shown to be a good predictor of children's vocabulary size. NWR performance has been explained using phonological working memory, which is seen as a critical component in the learning of new words. However, no detailed specification of the link between phonological working memory and long-term memory…

  16. Optimization of Highway Work Zone Decisions Considering Short-Term and Long-Term Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    year when rehabilitation is conducted c0 vph Maximum discharge rate without work zone cw vph Maximum discharge rate with work zone CT $/project...vehicle class Q(t) vph Time-varying traffic flow volume Qp,max vph Maximum allowed diverted volume q(t) veh Time-varying number of vehicles in queue...and road capacity=1600 vph . Unlike single-regime Greenshield’s model, the traffic flow model converted from CORSIM car-following logic is multi

  17. Automatic and Controlled Processing in Sentence Recall: The Role of Long-Term and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, E.; Lambon Ralph, M.A.; Baddeley, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    Immediate serial recall is better for sentences than word lists presumably because of the additional support that meaningful material receives from long-term memory. This may occur automatically, without the involvement of attention, or may require additional attentionally demanding processing. For example, the episodic buffer model (Baddeley,…

  18. Reconstructing the long-term cosmic ray intensity: linear relations do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mursula

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available It was recently suggested (Lockwood, 2001 that the cosmic ray intensity in the neutron monitor energy range is linearly related to the coronal source flux, and can be reconstructed for the last 130 years using the long-term coronal flux estimated earlier. Moreover, Lockwood (2001 reconstructed the coronal flux for the last 500 years using a similar linear relation between the flux and the concentration of cosmogenic 10 Be isotopes in polar ice. Here we show that the applied linear relations are oversimplified and lead to unphysical results on long time scales. In particular, the cosmic ray intensity reconstructed by Lockwood (2001 for the last 130 years has a steep trend which is considerably larger than the trend estimated from observations during the last 65 years. Accordingly, the reconstructed cosmic ray intensity reaches or even exceeds the local interstellar cosmic ray flux around 1900. We argue that these unphysical results obtained when using linear relations are due to the oversimplified approach which does not take into account the complex and essentially nonlinear nature of long-term cosmic ray modulation in the heliosphere. We also compare the long-term cosmic ray intensity based on a linear treatment with the reconstruction based on a recent physical model which predicts a considerably lower cosmic ray intensity around 1900.Key words. Interplanetary physics (cosmic rays; heliopause and solar wind termination – Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (time variations, secular and long-term

  19. Making Markets in Long-Term Care: Or How a Market Can Work by Being Invisible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Grit (Kor); T. Zuiderent-Jerak (Teun)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMany Western countries have introduced market principles in healthcare. The newly introduced financial instrument of “care-intensity packages” in the Dutch long-term care sector fit this development since they have some characteristics of a market device. However, policy makers and care

  20. Interviews for the assessment of long-term incapacity for work: a study on adherence to protocols and principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Wout E. L.; Wind, Haije; van Dijk, Frank J. H.; Willems, Han H. B. M.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Social insurance assessments for long-term incapacity for work are performed by Social Insurance Physicians (SIPs) who rely on interviews with claimants as an important part of the process. These interviews, however, are susceptible to bias. For that reason, in the Netherlands

  1. Shortened version of the work ability index to identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Lianne S.; Bultmann, Ute; Heymans, Martijn W.; Joling, Catelijne I.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Work Ability Index (WAI) identifies non-sicklisted workers at risk of future long-term sickness absence (LTSA). The WAI is a complicated instrument and inconvenient for use in large-scale surveys. We investigated whether shortened versions of the WAI identify non-sicklisted workers

  2. Effort-Reward Imbalance at Work and Risk of Long-Term Sickness Absence in the Danish Workforce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Bultmann, Ute; Aust, Birgit; Burr, Hermann; Rugulies, Reiner

    Objective: To examine whether effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work predicts onset of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in a representative sample of the Danish workforce. Methods: We measured effort, reward, ERI, and covariates with self-administered questionnaires in a sample of

  3. Distinct neural correlates of associative working memory and long-term memory encoding in the medial temporal lobe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann, H.C.; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a role for the hippocampus not only in long-term memory (LTM) but also in relational working memory (WM) processes, challenging the view of the hippocampus as being solely involved in episodic LTM. However, hippocampal involvement reported in some neuroimaging studies

  4. Similarities and Differences between Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: Evidence from the Levels-of-Processing Span Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nathan S.; Myerson, Joel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Hale, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments compared the effects of depth of processing on working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) using a levels-of-processing (LOP) span task, a newly developed WM span procedure that involves processing to-be-remembered words based on their visual, phonological, or semantic characteristics. Depth of processing had minimal effect on…

  5. Rehabilitation Using High-Intensity Physical Training and Long-Term Return-to-Work in Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Karin M.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; van de Wouw, Agnès J.; Houterman, Saskia; Schep, Goof

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Due to large and increasing numbers of cancer survivors, long-term cancer-related health issues have become a major focus of attention. This study examined the relation between a high-intensity physical rehabilitation program and return-to-work in cancer survivors who had received

  6. Stress enhances fear by forming new synapses with greater capacity for long-term potentiation in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvrathan, Aparna; Bennur, Sharath; Ghosh, Supriya; Tomar, Anupratap; Anilkumar, Shobha; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2014-01-05

    Prolonged and severe stress leads to cognitive deficits, but facilitates emotional behaviour. Little is known about the synaptic basis for this contrast. Here, we report that in rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress, long-term potentiation (LTP) and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated synaptic responses are enhanced in principal neurons of the lateral amygdala, a brain area involved in fear memory formation. This is accompanied by electrophysiological and morphological changes consistent with the formation of 'silent synapses', containing only NMDARs. In parallel, chronic stress also reduces synaptic inhibition. Together, these synaptic changes would enable amygdalar neurons to undergo further experience-dependent modifications, leading to stronger fear memories. Consistent with this prediction, stressed animals exhibit enhanced conditioned fear. Hence, stress may leave its mark in the amygdala by generating new synapses with greater capacity for plasticity, thereby creating an ideal neuronal substrate for affective disorders. These findings also highlight the unique features of stress-induced plasticity in the amygdala that are strikingly different from the stress-induced impairment of structure and function in the hippocampus.

  7. Work-unit social capital and long-term sickness absence: a prospective cohort study of 32 053 hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Eszter; Clark, Alice Jessie; Jensen, Johan Høy; Lange, Theis; Bonde, Jens Peter; Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Rugulies, Reiner; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Hansen, Åse Marie; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2018-06-06

    There is a lack of studies investigating social capital at the workplace level in small and relatively homogeneous work-units. The aim of the study was to investigate whether work-unit social capital predicts a lower risk of individual long-term sickness absence among Danish hospital employees followed prospectively for 1 year. This study is based on the Well-being in HospitAL Employees cohort. The study sample consisted of 32 053 individuals nested within 2182 work-units in the Capital Region of Denmark. Work-unit social capital was measured with an eight-item scale covering elements of trust, justice and collaboration between employees and leaders. Social capital at the work-unit level was computed as the aggregated mean of individual-level social capital within each work-unit. Data on long-term sickness absence were retrieved from the employers' payroll system and were operationalised as ≥29 consecutive days of sickness absence. We used a 12-point difference in social capital as the metric in our analyses and conducted two-level hierarchical logistic regression analysis. Adjustments were made for sex, age, seniority, occupational group and part-time work at the individual level, and work-unit size, the proportion of female employees and the proportion of part-time work at the work-unit level. The OR for long-term sickness absence associated with a 12-point higher work-unit social capital was 0.73 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.78). Further, we found an association between higher work-unit social capital and lower long-term sickness absence across quartiles of social capital: compared with the lowest quartile, the OR for long-term sickness absence in the highest quartile was 0.51 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.60). Our study provides support for work-unit social capital being a protective factor for individual long-term sickness absence among hospital employees in the Capital Region of Denmark. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  8. Differences in the verbal fluency, working memory and executive functions in alcoholics: Short-term vs. long-term abstainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska-Domagała, Katarzyna; Jabłkowska-Górecka, Karolina; Mokros, Łukasz; Koprowicz, Jacek; Pietras, Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess differences in verbal fluency, working memory and executive functions in two subgroups of alcohol-dependent patients, those undergoing short-term abstinence (STA) and those undergoing long-term abstinence (LTA), and to compare the level of cognitive functions in patients after long-term abstinence with healthy subjects. The study group consisted of 106 alcohol-dependent patients (53 immediately after drinking at least 3 days and 53 after at least one-year abstinence). The control group comprised 53 subjects, whose age, sex and education levels matched those of the patients in the experimental group. The dependence intensity was assessed using SADD and MAST scales. The neuropsychological assessment was based on the FAS Test, Stroop Test and TMT A&B Test. The results obtained for alcohol-dependent patients revealed significant disturbances of cognitive functions. Such results indicate the presence of severe frontal cerebral cortex dysfunctions. Frontal cortex dysfunctions affecting the verbal fluency and working memory subsystems and the executive functions also persisted during long-term abstinence periods. No significant correlations between the duration of dependence, quantity of alcohol consumed and efficiency of the working memory and executive functions were observed in alcohol-dependent subjects after short-term or long-term abstinence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Case management after long-term absence from work in China: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dan; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Luo, Xiaoyuan; Liang, Youxin; He, Yonghua

    2011-03-01

    Return-to-work (RTW) after occupational injuries is an important and challenging issue. Case managers are expected to play a vital role in successful RTW. In China, RTW intervention is in its early phase and requires further research and practice. This case report describes Mr. H's RTW process for illustrating the work of a case management team in China. Suggestions on developing and optimizing the process in China are given. After 9 years of absence from work due to severe burn injuries at work, Mr. H was referred for RTW interventions. Mr. H received social and occupational rehabilitation services of 3 months, and the following workplace visits and work trials. After the job placement, the case manager continued the liaison with the worker and employer. Mr. H showed positive changes in occupational and social adjustment after the case management interventions. This was reflected from the shift from the contemplation to action stage on the Lam Assessment of Stages of Employment Readiness. Despite he did not show significant changes on functional capacity and fear avoidance beliefs, Mr. H passed the job credential test and was offered a maintenance technician position at a new company. Both the worker and the employer were satisfied with the outcome of the case management. The RTW interventions carried out by the case managers appeared to be effective within the Chinese system. The results suggested that professional training of case managers, RTW-related policies and technological standards, early integrated interventions should be further developed in China. Disability Adjustment Group Therapy and RTW Support Groups perhaps are useful approaches in workers' returning to work.

  10. Understanding and building upon effort to return to work for people with long-term disability and job loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, S L; MacEachen, E; Nedelec, B

    2015-01-01

    Effort is a concept that underlies programs assisting people with work disability to re-enter the labour force. During re-entry, attention is paid to the effort invested by the worker with an injury. However, for those with chronic work disability, the motivation to return to work (RTW) may be questioned by benefit service providers and healthcare professionals. The objective of this paper is to describe the efforts made by people with long term work-disability to regain a foothold on the labour market. This phenomenological study explored the meaning of work for people with long-term work disability and job loss. Twenty-seven interviews were conducted with nine participants. A thematic analysis was completed of the collected data. A key finding of this study is the variety and degree of effort exerted by participants to regain employment, despite time away from the workplace and system barriers. Effort was exerted to retain pre-accident employment; to obtain new work following job loss; and, to remain in a new job. This study suggests that if the RTW effort of people with long-term work disability is not fully acknowledged or supported, this population will remain unemployed where their strengths as competent, experienced workers will continue to be wasted.

  11. Working memory training is associated with long term attainments in math and reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina eSöderqvist

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Training working memory (WM using computerized programs has been shown to improve functions directly linked to WM such as following instructions and attention. These functions influence academic performance, which leads to the question of whether WM training can transfer to improved academic performance. We followed the academic performance of two age-matched groups during two years. As part of the curriculum in grade 4 (age 9-10, all students in one classroom (n = 20 completed Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT whereas children in the other classroom (n = 22 received education as usual. Performance on nationally standardized tests in math and reading comprehension was used as outcome measures at baseline and two years later. At baseline both classes were normal/high performing according to national standards. At grade 6, reading comprehension had improved to a significantly greater extent for the training group compared to the control group (medium effect size, Cohen’s d = 0.66, p = 0.045. For math performance the same pattern was observed with a medium effect size (Cohen’s d = 0.58 reaching statistical trend levels (p = 0.091. Moreover, the academic attainments were found to correlate with the degree of improvements during training (p-values 1 year effects of WM training on academic performance. We found performance on both reading and math to be positively impacted after completion of CWMT. Since there were no baseline differences between the groups, the results may reflect an influence on learning capacity, with improved WM leading to a boost in students’ capacity to learn. This study is also the first to investigate the effects of CWMT on academic performance in typical or high achieving students. The results suggest that WM training can help optimize the academic potential of high performers.

  12. Modeling the Effects of Trait Diversity on Short-term Adaptive Capacity and Long-term Productivity of Phytoplankton Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. L.; Vallina, S. M.; Merico, A.

    2016-02-01

    We examine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function (BEF) in a model phytoplankton community, using two recently developed mechanisms for sustaining diversity. The Trait Diffusion (TD) formulation represents the maintenance of diversity via endogenous mechanisms, such as inter-generational trait plasticity and rapid evolution. The 'Kill-the-Winner' (KTW) formulation for grazing sustains prey biodiversity via the exogenous mechanism of active prey switching. We implement both TD and KTW in a continuous trait-distribution model using simplified size-scalings to define a gleaner-opportunist trade-off for a phytoplankton community. By simulating semi-continuous culture experiments with periodic external dilutions, we test the dynamic response of the phytoplankton community to different scenarios of pulsed nutrient supply. We quantify the short-term Adaptive Capacity (AC) of the community by the specific growth rate averaged over the first 3 days of perturbations, and the Long-term Productivity (LP) by its average over the entire 120 day period of perturbations. When either the frequency or intensity of pulses is low, both AC and LP tend to decrease with diversity (and vice versa). Trait diversity has more impact on AC, particularly for pulses of high frequency or intensity, for which it tends to increase gradually at first, then steeply, and then to saturate with increasing diversity. For pulses of moderate intensity and frequency, increasing trait diversity from low to moderate levels leads to a trade-off between enhancing AC while slightly decreasing LP. Ultimately, we find that sustaining diversity increases the speed at which the phytoplankton community changes its composition in terms of size and hence nutrient acquisition traits, which may have implications for the transfer of productivity through the foodweb.

  13. Detection of delirium and its symptoms by nurses working in a long term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Philippe; Richard, Sylvie; McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Belzile, Eric

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the ability of nurses to recognize delirium and its symptoms and to investigate the factors associated with undetected delirium. A prospective, observational study with repeated measurements over a 6-month period. Seven long term care settings in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada. Residents aged 65 and older, with or without dementia, admitted to long term care (not respite care) and able to communicate in English or French. Delirium and its symptoms were assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method. Ratings of delirium by nurses based on their observations during routine care were compared with delirium ratings by trained research assistants based on a one-time formal structured evaluation (Confusion Assessment Method and Mini Mental State Examination). This procedure was repeated for 10 delirium symptoms. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The method of generalized estimating equations was used to identify factors associated with undetected delirium. Research assistants identified delirium in 43 (21.3%) of the 202 residents. Nurses identified delirium in 51% of the cases identified by the research assistants. However, for cases without delirium according to the research assistants, nurses identified 90% of them correctly. Detection rates for delirium symptoms ranged from 25% to 66.7%. Undetected delirium was associated with lower number of depressive symptoms manifested by the resident. Detection of delirium is a major issue for nurses. Strategies to improve nurse recognition of delirium could well reduce adverse outcomes for this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-reported work ability in long-term breast cancer survivors. A population-based questionnaire study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Jensen, Anette Jung; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst

    2013-01-01

    to understand the work problems experienced by cancer survivors, including their ability to work. The aim of this study was to determine whether the ability of long-term breast cancer survivors to work was different from that of a cancer-free control group.......Although up to 80% of women can return to work after treatment for breast cancer, maintaining an affiliation to the labour market may be a challenge, as shown by the fact that the risks for unemployment and early retirement are increased in the years after treatment of cancer. It is important...

  15. Rehabilitation using high-intensity physical training and long-term return-to-work in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Karin M; de Boer, Angela G E M; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; van de Wouw, Agnès J; Houterman, Saskia; Schep, Goof

    2012-06-01

    Due to large and increasing numbers of cancer survivors, long-term cancer-related health issues have become a major focus of attention. This study examined the relation between a high-intensity physical rehabilitation program and return-to-work in cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy. The intervention group, consisting of 72 cancer survivors from one hospital (8 men and 64 women, mean age 49 years), followed an 18-weeks rehabilitation program including strength and interval training, and home-based activities. An age-matched control group, consisting of 38 cancer survivors (9 men and 29 women), was recruited from two other hospitals. They received only standard medical care. All subjects were evaluated during a telephone interview on employment issues, conducted at ±3 years after diagnosis. The main outcomes were change in working hours per week and time until return-to-work. Patients in the intervention group showed significant less reduction in working hours per week [-5.0 h/week vs. -10.8 h/week (P = .03)]. Multivariate analyses showed that the training intervention, the age of patients, and the number of working hours pre-diagnosis could explain the improvement in long-term participation at work. Time until (partial) return-to-work was 11.5 weeks for the intervention group versus 13.2 weeks for the control group (P = .40). On long-term follow-up, 78% of the participants from the intervention group versus 66% from the control group had returned to work on the pre-diagnosis level of working hours (P = .18). Rehabilitation using high-intensity physical training is useful for working patients to minimize the decreased ability to work resulting from cancer and its treatment.

  16. Return to work from long-term sick leave: a six-year prospective study of the importance of adjustment latitudes at work and home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellve, Lotta; Fallman, Sara L; Ahlstrom, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the long-term importance of adjustment latitude for increased work ability and return to work among female human service workers on long-term sick leave. A cohort of female human service workers on long-term sick leave (>60 days) was given a questionnaire four times (0, 6, 12, 60 months). Linear mixed models were used for longitudinal analysis of the repeated measurements of work ability and return to work. Having a higher level of adjustment latitude was associated with both increased work ability and return to work. Adjustments related to work pace were strongly associated with increased work ability, as were adjustments to the work place. Having individual opportunities for taking short breaks and a general acceptance of taking short breaks were associated with increased work ability. At home, a higher level of responsibility for household work was related to increased work ability and return to work. Individuals with possibilities for adjustment latitude, especially pace and place at work, and an acceptance of taking breaks had greater increased work ability over time and a greater work ability compared with individuals who did not have such opportunities. This study highlights the importance of opportunities for adjustment latitude at work to increase work ability and return to work among female human service workers who have been on long-term sick leave. The results support push and pull theories for individual decision-making on return to work.

  17. Recent life stress exposure is associated with poorer long-term memory, working memory, and self-reported memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Doty, Dominique; Shields, Rebecca H; Gower, Garrett; Slavich, George M; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-11-01

    Although substantial research has examined the effects of stress on cognition, much of this research has focused on acute stress (e.g. manipulated in the laboratory) or chronic stress (e.g. persistent interpersonal or financial difficulties). In contrast, the effects of recent life stress on cognition have been relatively understudied. To address this issue, we examined how recent life stress is associated with long-term, working memory, and self-reported memory in a sample of 142 healthy young adults who were assessed at two time points over a two-week period. Recent life stress was measured using the newly-developed Stress and Adversity Inventory for Daily Stress (Daily STRAIN), which assesses the frequency of relatively common stressful life events and difficulties over the preceding two weeks. To assess memory performance, participants completed both long-term and working memory tasks. Participants also provided self-reports of memory problems. As hypothesized, greater recent life stress exposure was associated with worse performance on measures of long-term and working memory, as well as more self-reported memory problems. These associations were largely robust while controlling for possible confounds, including participants' age, sex, and negative affect. The findings indicate that recent life stress exposure is broadly associated with worse memory. Future studies should thus consider assessing recent life stress as a potential predictor, moderator, or covariate of memory performance.

  18. Assessing the associative deficit of older adults in long-term and short-term/working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tina; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2012-09-01

    Older adults exhibit a deficit in associative long-term memory relative to younger adults. However, the literature is inconclusive regarding whether this deficit is attenuated in short-term/working memory. To elucidate the issue, three experiments assessed younger and older adults' item and interitem associative memory and the effects of several variables that might potentially contribute to the inconsistent pattern of results in previous studies. In Experiment 1, participants were tested on item and associative recognition memory with both long-term and short-term retention intervals in a single, continuous recognition paradigm. There was an associative deficit for older adults in the short-term and long-term intervals. Using only short-term intervals, Experiment 2 utilized mixed and blocked test designs to examine the effect of test event salience. Blocking the test did not attenuate the age-related associative deficit seen in the mixed test blocks. Finally, an age-related associative deficit was found in Experiment 3, under both sequential and simultaneous presentation conditions. Even while accounting for some methodological issues, the associative deficit of older adults is evident in short-term/working memory.

  19. Long-term effects of frequent cannabis use on working memory and attention: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Gerry; Kahn, Rene S; Van Den Brink, Wim; Van Ree, Jan M; Ramsey, Nick F

    2006-04-01

    Excessive use of cannabis may have long-term effects on cognitive abilities. Mild impairments have been found in several cognitive domains, particularly in memory and attention. It is not clear, however, whether these effects also occur with moderate, recreational use of cannabis. Furthermore, little is known about underlying brain correlates. The aim of this study is to assess brain function in frequent but relatively moderate cannabis users in the domains of working memory and selective attention. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine verbal working memory and visuo-auditory selective attention in ten frequent cannabis users (after 1 week of abstinence) and ten non-using healthy controls. Groups were similar in age, gender and estimated IQ. Cannabis users and controls performed equally well during the working memory task and the selective attention task. Furthermore, cannabis users did not differ from controls in terms of overall patterns of brain activity in the regions involved in these cognitive functions. However, for working memory, a more specific region-of-interest analysis showed that, in comparison to the controls, cannabis users displayed a significant alteration in brain activity in the left superior parietal cortex. No evidence was found for long-term deficits in working memory and selective attention in frequent cannabis users after 1 week of abstinence. Nonetheless, frequent cannabis use may affect brain function, as indicated by altered neurophysiological dynamics in the left superior parietal cortex during working memory processing.

  20. Associations of long-term shift work with waking salivary cortisol concentration and patterns among police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Violanti, John M; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Andrew, Michael E; Miller, Diane B

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether long-term shift work is associated with both the total hormonal secretion after awakening and the pattern of the cortisol levels during the first hour following awakening, among 65 randomly selected police officers who represent a high stress occupation. Dominant shift (Day, Afternoon, or Midnight) was ascertained using daily payroll records of each participant's work activities during the 6-8 yrs prior to saliva sampling. Four salivary samples were collected at 15 min intervals upon first awakening. After accounting for potential confounders, salivary cortisol concentrations averaged across all four time points and total area under the curve differed significantly across shift with midnight shift workers showing suppressed awakening cortisol response relative to the afternoon and day shift. The percent of hours worked on midnight shift was inversely correlated with total awakening cortisol output. In contrast, the pattern of cortisol secretion during the first hour following waking appeared not to be affected as no significant interaction effect was found between time since awakening and shift work. The results show that long-term midnight shift work is associated with decreased absolute mean level and total volume of cortisol released over the waking period.

  1. Associations of Long-term Shift Work with Waking Salivary Cortisol Concentration and Patterns among Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    FEKEDULEGN, Desta; BURCHFIEL, Cecil M.; VIOLANTI, John M.; HARTLEY, Tara A.; CHARLES, Luenda E.; ANDREW, Michael E.; MILLER, Diane B.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether long-term shift work is associated with both the total hormonal secretion after awakening and the pattern of the cortisol levels during the first hour following awakening, among 65 randomly selected police officers who represent a high stress occupation. Dominant shift (Day, Afternoon, or Midnight) was ascertained using daily payroll records of each participant’s work activities during the 6–8 yrs prior to saliva sampling. Four salivary samples were collected at 15 min intervals upon first awakening. After accounting for potential confounders, salivary cortisol concentrations averaged across all four time points and total area under the curve differed significantly across shift with midnight shift workers showing suppressed awakening cortisol response relative to the afternoon and day shift. The percent of hours worked on midnight shift was inversely correlated with total awakening cortisol output. In contrast, the pattern of cortisol secretion during the first hour following waking appeared not to be affected as no significant interaction effect was found between time since awakening and shift work. The results show that long-term midnight shift work is associated with decreased absolute mean level and total volume of cortisol released over the waking period. PMID:23047078

  2. The role of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in individual differences in long-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Felten, Andrea; Markett, Sebastian; Fischer, Luise; Winkel, Katja; Cooper, Andrew; Reuter, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in diverse memory processes and is strongly expressed in the hippocampus. The hippocampus itself is a key structure involved in the processing of information from short-term to long-term memory. Due to the putative role of BDNF in memory consolidation, a prominent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the BDNF gene (BDNF Val66Met) was investigated in the context of long-term memory performance. N=138 students were presented with 40 words from 10 categories, each consisting of eight words such as 'fruits' or 'vehicles' in a memory recognition task (specifically the Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm). Recognition performance was analyzed 25 min after the initial presentation of the word list and subsequently 1 week after the initial presentation. Overall, individual long-term memory performance immediately after learning the word list (T1) and performance 1 week later (T2) did not differ on the basis of the BDNF SNP, but an interaction effect of BDNF Val66Met by time-of-recall was found: Carriers of the Met66+ variant showed the strongest decline in hit rate performance over time.

  3. Self-reported work ability in long-term breast cancer survivors. A population-based questionnaire study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Jensen, Anette Jung; Rugulies, Reiner; Christensen, Jane; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Johansen, Christoffer; Huitfeldt Madsen, Ida Elisabeth; Dalton, Susanne O

    2013-02-01

    Although up to 80% of women can return to work after treatment for breast cancer, maintaining an affiliation to the labour market may be a challenge, as shown by the fact that the risks for unemployment and early retirement are increased in the years after treatment of cancer. It is important to understand the work problems experienced by cancer survivors, including their ability to work. The aim of this study was to determine whether the ability of long-term breast cancer survivors to work was different from that of a cancer-free control group. In this population-based cross-sectional questionnaire study, 776 breast cancer survivors were matched with 1552 cancer-free women. Women with breast cancer diagnosed in 1997-2000 were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and the cancer-free controls were sampled from the Central Population Registry. Work ability was measured from a single question on the 'work ability index'. Furthermore, the questionnaire contained questions on socioeconomic factors, health-related factors and factors related to the workplace. The overall response rate was 57% (493 survivors and 830 controls). After exclusions, the study population consisted of 170 survivors and 391 controls. Women with a diagnosis of breast cancer who had survived at least five years and had returned to work reported significantly poorer work ability than cancer-free controls. In models with adjustment for socioeconomic factors, health-related factors and support at work, the factors most strongly associated with impaired work ability were low income, fatigue and little help and support from a supervisor. Our findings indicate that the work ability of long-term breast cancer survivors who are disease-free and back in work is impaired in comparison with that of cancer-free women.

  4. Is a Long Term Work in Automotive Industry a Risk Factor for Renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and Methods: In a historical cohort study, workers of automotive industry who worked in production and had low exposure to metal fumes were selected and divided to three groups with 5–10, 11–20, and 21–30 years work duration. risk factors for renal diseases were collected and analyzed with SPSS using ...

  5. A framework and a measurement instrument for sustainability of work practices in long-term care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Slaghuis (Sarah); M.M.H. Strating (Mathilde); R.A. Bal (Roland); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In health care, many organizations are working on quality improvement and/or innovation of their care practices. Although the effectiveness of improvement processes has been studied extensively, little attention has been given to sustainability of the changed work practices

  6. The Long-Term Health Implications of Marital Disruption: Divorce, Work Limits, and Social Security Disability Benefits Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Kenneth A; Tamborini, Christopher R; Reznik, Gayle L

    2015-10-01

    We provide new evidence on the long-term impact of divorce on work disability among U.S. men. Using data from the 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation linked to U.S. Social Security Administration records, we assess the relationship between divorce and subsequent self-reports of work limitations and the receipt of federal disability benefits. The examination of self-reports and administrative records of medically qualified benefits provides dual confirmation of key relationships. We compare men who experienced a marital dissolution between 1975 and 1984 with continuously married men for 20 years following divorce using fixed-effects and propensity score matching models, and choose a sample to help control for selection into divorce. On average, we find that divorce is not associated with an increased probability of self-reported work limitations or receipt of disability benefits over the long run. However, among those who do not remarry, we do find that divorce increases men's long-term probability of both self-reported work limitations and federal disability benefit receipt. Lack of marital resources may drive this relationship. Alternative estimates that do not control for selection into divorce demonstrate that selection bias can substantially alter findings regarding the relationship between marital status changes and subsequent health.

  7. The mitigating influence of volunteer work on risk of long-term unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovski, Erik; Dencker-Larsen, Sofie; Holm, Anders

    In addition to benefiting others, volunteer work is argued to supply volunteers themselves with skills, reputation, and social connections that increase overall employability. We test this hypothesized link between volunteer work and employability with a high-quality 2012 Danish survey sample of 1......,796 individuals of working age. The survey data is linked to administrative registers with individual level data on unemployment. A combination of detailed controls, lagged dependent variables, and instrumental variable regression is used in order to determine cause and effect. Our findings show that volunteers...

  8. Is a Long Term Work in Automotive Industry a Risk Factor for Renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Mar-Apr 2015 | Vol 5 | Issue 2 |. 103 ... Assadi: Long‑term work in the automotive industry and risk of renal dysfunction. 104 ..... and psychosocial approaches to global management of the.

  9. Screening instruments for predicting return to work in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, A-M H; Stapelfeldt, C M; Nielsen, C V

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple somatic symptoms are common and may cause prolonged sickness absence (SA) and unsuccessful return to work (RTW). Aims: To compare three instruments and their predictive and discriminative abilities regarding RTW. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study of participants recruited...

  10. Measuring Child Work and Residence Adjustments to Parents'Long-Term Care Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Stern

    1996-01-01

    This article estimates the effects of various parent and child characteristics on the choice of care arrangements of the parent, taking inot account the potential endogeneity of some of the child chararcteristics. Three equations are estimated: a care choice equation, a child location equation, and a child work equation. Results suggest a hieracrchy of family decision making; child locations affect the care decision, which affect child work decisions. The results also question previous resear...

  11. Shift work at young age is associated with elevated long-term cortisol levels and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, Laura; van Kruysbergen, Rulanda G P M; de Jong, Frank H; Koper, Jan W; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2011-11-01

    The incidence of obesity and other features of the metabolic syndrome is increased in shift workers. This may be due to a misalignment between the internal circadian rhythm and the behavioral rhythm. The stress hormone cortisol could play a role in this phenomenon because it is secreted in a circadian rhythm, and long-term elevated cortisol leads to components of the metabolic syndrome. We compared cortisol levels in scalp hair of shift and day workers to study changes in long-term cortisol due to shift work. Hair samples were collected from 33 shift workers and 89 day workers. Cortisol was extracted from the hair samples with methanol, and cortisol levels were measured using ELISA. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Shift workers had higher hair cortisol levels than day workers: 47.32 pg/mg hair [95% confidence interval (CI) = 38.37-58.21] vs. 29.72 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 26.18-33.73) (P cortisol levels were present only in younger shift workers: 48.53 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 36.56-64.29) vs. 26.42 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 22.91-30.55) (P cortisol and BMI were positively correlated (β = 0.262; P = 0.005). Shift work at a young adult age is associated with elevated long-term cortisol levels and increased BMI. Elevated cortisol levels and BMI may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk found in shift workers.

  12. Attention, Working Memory, and Long-Term Memory in Multimedia Learning: An Integrated Perspective Based on Process Models of Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models of multimedia learning such as the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer 2009) or the Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller 1999) are based on different cognitive models of working memory (e.g., Baddeley 1986) and long-term memory. The current paper describes a working memory model that has recently gained popularity in basic…

  13. Is a long term work in automotive industry a risk factor for renal dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Seyedeh Negar

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of renal system can cause renal failure; therefore screening is necessary especially in workers who are exposed to harmful materials. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hazardous exposures are non-occupational and occupational risk factors for renal diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of working in automotive industry on renal function in Iran. In a historical cohort study, workers of automotive industry who worked in production and had low exposure to metal fumes were selected and divided to three groups with 5-10, 11-20, and 21-30 years work duration. risk factors for renal diseases were collected and analyzed with SPSS using one-way ANOVA, correlation coefficient and with P automotive Industry with low exposure to toxic metals and solvents has no significant effect on GFR, creatinine clearance, uric acid, and mean blood pressure.

  14. Long-term effects of psychosocial factors of home and work on biomarkers of stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Kristiansen, Jesper; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    LF/HF. In work, lack of control was associated with low LnTP, and lack of support was associated with an increased LnLF/HF ratio. For men, high social status was associated with low LnTP, low LnHF and high LnCortisol. Greater number of hours spent doing housework was associated with both low LnLF/HF and low Ln...

  15. Long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders is associated with individual features and psychosocial work conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Silvestre da Silva-Junior

    Full Text Available Sickness absence is a socioeconomic global burden. In Brazil, mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefits payments. The aim of the present study was to compare factors associated with long-term sickness absence between workers who claimed social benefits due to mental disorders or by other causes. We investigated individual features and occupational characteristics. In addition, we evaluated psychosocial factors at work assessed by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI models, and whether they were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders (LTSA-MD.The present case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. The sample (n = 385 included workers on sick leave for more than 15 days. Cases were the participants with disabling psychiatric illnesses, and controls were the ones with other disabling diseases. Interviews were conducted to assess individual features (sociodemographic data, health habits/lifestyle, health conditions and occupational characteristics. The participants' perception of exposure to dimensions of the DCS and ERI models was also recorded. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between independent variables and LTSA-MD.All the regression analyses showed that LTSA-MD was associated with female sex, self-reported white skin color, higher education level, high tobacco consumption, high alcohol intake, two or more comorbidities, exposure to violence at work, high job strain and low social support at work, effort-reward imbalance and high overcommitment to work. LTSA-MD was associated with separate and combined DCS and ERI stress models.Individual features and work conditions were associated with LTSA-MD. Combined analysis of stress models showed that psychosocial factors at work were significantly associated with LTSA-MD. Resourceful use of this information may contribute to the implementation of preventive

  16. Long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders is associated with individual features and psychosocial work conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Junior, João Silvestre da; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2014-01-01

    Sickness absence is a socioeconomic global burden. In Brazil, mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefits payments. The aim of the present study was to compare factors associated with long-term sickness absence between workers who claimed social benefits due to mental disorders or by other causes. We investigated individual features and occupational characteristics. In addition, we evaluated psychosocial factors at work assessed by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models, and whether they were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders (LTSA-MD). The present case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. The sample (n = 385) included workers on sick leave for more than 15 days. Cases were the participants with disabling psychiatric illnesses, and controls were the ones with other disabling diseases. Interviews were conducted to assess individual features (sociodemographic data, health habits/lifestyle, health conditions) and occupational characteristics. The participants' perception of exposure to dimensions of the DCS and ERI models was also recorded. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between independent variables and LTSA-MD. All the regression analyses showed that LTSA-MD was associated with female sex, self-reported white skin color, higher education level, high tobacco consumption, high alcohol intake, two or more comorbidities, exposure to violence at work, high job strain and low social support at work, effort-reward imbalance and high overcommitment to work. LTSA-MD was associated with separate and combined DCS and ERI stress models. Individual features and work conditions were associated with LTSA-MD. Combined analysis of stress models showed that psychosocial factors at work were significantly associated with LTSA-MD. Resourceful use of this information may contribute to the implementation of preventive actions and

  17. Sex work involvement among women with long-term opioid injection drug dependence who enter opioid agonist treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Kirsten; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Guh, Daphne; Marsh, David C; Brissette, Suzanne; Schechter, Martin T

    2012-01-25

    Substitution with opioid-agonists (e.g., methadone) has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic long-term opioid dependency. Survival sex work, very common among injection drug users, has been associated with poor Opioid Agonist Treatment (OAT) engagement, retention and response. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine factors associated with engaging in sex work among long-term opioid dependent women receiving OAT. Data from a randomized controlled trial, the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI), conducted in Vancouver and Montreal (Canada) between 2005-2008, was analyzed. The NAOMI study compared the effectiveness of oral methadone to injectable diacetylmorphine or injectable hydromorphone, the last two on a double blind basis, over 12 months. A research team, independent of the clinic services, obtained outcome evaluations at baseline and follow-up (3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months). A total 53.6% of women reported engaging in sex work in at least one of the research visits. At treatment initiation, women who were younger and had fewer years of education were more likely to be engaged in sex work. The multivariate logistic generalized estimating equation regression analysis determined that psychological symptoms, and high illicit heroin and cocaine use correlated with women's involvement in sex work during the study period. After entering OAT, women using injection drugs and engaging in sex work represent a particularly vulnerable group showing poorer psychological health and a higher use of heroin and cocaine compared to women not engaging in sex work. These factors must be taken into consideration in the planning and provision of OAT in order to improve treatment outcomes. NCT00175357.

  18. Sex work involvement among women with long-term opioid injection drug dependence who enter opioid agonist treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchand Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution with opioid-agonists (e.g., methadone has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic long-term opioid dependency. Survival sex work, very common among injection drug users, has been associated with poor Opioid Agonist Treatment (OAT engagement, retention and response. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine factors associated with engaging in sex work among long-term opioid dependent women receiving OAT. Methods Data from a randomized controlled trial, the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI, conducted in Vancouver and Montreal (Canada between 2005-2008, was analyzed. The NAOMI study compared the effectiveness of oral methadone to injectable diacetylmorphine or injectable hydromorphone, the last two on a double blind basis, over 12 months. A research team, independent of the clinic services, obtained outcome evaluations at baseline and follow-up (3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Results A total 53.6% of women reported engaging in sex work in at least one of the research visits. At treatment initiation, women who were younger and had fewer years of education were more likely to be engaged in sex work. The multivariate logistic generalized estimating equation regression analysis determined that psychological symptoms, and high illicit heroin and cocaine use correlated with women's involvement in sex work during the study period. Conclusions After entering OAT, women using injection drugs and engaging in sex work represent a particularly vulnerable group showing poorer psychological health and a higher use of heroin and cocaine compared to women not engaging in sex work. These factors must be taken into consideration in the planning and provision of OAT in order to improve treatment outcomes. Trial Registration NCT00175357.

  19. A framework and a measurement instrument for sustainability of work practices in long-term care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaghuis Sarah S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In health care, many organizations are working on quality improvement and/or innovation of their care practices. Although the effectiveness of improvement processes has been studied extensively, little attention has been given to sustainability of the changed work practices after implementation. The objective of this study is to develop a theoretical framework and measurement instrument for sustainability. To this end sustainability is conceptualized with two dimensions: routinization and institutionalization. Methods The exploratory methodological design consisted of three phases: a framework development; b instrument development; and c field testing in former improvement teams in a quality improvement program for health care (N teams = 63, N individual = 112. Data were collected not until at least one year had passed after implementation. Underlying constructs and their interrelations were explored using Structural Equation Modeling and Principal Component Analyses. Internal consistency was computed with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. A long and a short version of the instrument are proposed. Results The χ2- difference test of the -2 Log Likelihood estimates demonstrated that the hierarchical two factor model with routinization and institutionalization as separate constructs showed a better fit than the one factor model (p Conclusions The theoretical framework offers a valuable starting point for the analysis of sustainability on the level of actual changed work practices. Even though the two dimensions routinization and institutionalization are related, they are clearly distinguishable and each has distinct value in the discussion of sustainability. Finally, the subscales conformed to psychometric properties defined in literature. The instrument can be used in the evaluation of improvement projects.

  20. A Phenomenological Study of the Work Environment in Long-Term Care Facilities for the Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sandy Pin Pin; Yeung, Cheryl Chi Yan; Lee, Joseph Kok Long

    2018-05-01

    Attempts to meet the increasing demand for long-term care (LTC) services have been hindered by acute staff shortages and high turnover. Distinct from previous studies, a descriptive phenomenological approach with van Kaam's controlled explication method was adopted in this study, to delineate how attributes of the LTC work environment shape the workforce crisis. Individual interviews were conducted with 40 LTC workers from 10 facilities in Hong Kong. The results suggest that the work environment in LTC facilities is not only characterized by organization- and job-related attributes that influence staff outcomes but also is a socially constructed concept with derogatory connotations that can influence staff recruitment and retention. Concerted efforts from facility administrators and policy makers are needed to improve the quality of the work environment. Future initiatives should focus on developing a vision and strategic plan to facilitate the rise of the LTC sector as a profession.

  1. Work reintegration after long-term sick leave: domains of influence on co-workers' ability to be supportive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Labriola, Merete; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Larsen, Eva Ladekjær

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify domains of influence on co-workers' ability to be supportive of returning worker during the work reintegration (WR) process. An ethnographic study design was chosen involving fieldwork at four different workplaces, at an emergency care service, a waste disposal company and at two nursing homes. Qualitative methods for inquiry were used including participant observation, individual- and group interviews of 30 participants. Data were coded and analysed according to a grounded theory approach. Four themes were identified related to domains of influence on co-workers' ability to be supportive of returning worker during the WR process: (1) organisation of work and level of interaction; (2) disruption of work routines, (3) relationship with returning worker and (4) attitudes towards sick leave. The WR process after long-term sick leave is not only influenced by the WR's arrangements made, but also by the co-workers' responses to the process. Work arrangements not only affect the returning worker's ability to return-to-work (RTW) successfully, but also the co-workers' ability to be supportive and their ability to take active part in the process. Implications for Rehabilitation The process of WR after long-term sick leave involves interaction with co-workers. Domains of influence is in the co-workers' perspective influencing their ability to be supportive during reintegration of a returning worker. Future WR management could benefit from integrating the conditions for co-worker support. We encourage co-workers to be involved in the RTW planning, monitoring and evaluation with particular focus on how the WR arrangements are influencing their work and their ability to be supportive.

  2. Long-term military work outcomes in soldiers who become mental health casualties when deployed on operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Norman; Fear, Nicola T; Jones, Margaret; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil

    2010-01-01

    little is known about longer term military work outcomes in UK military personnel who develop mental health problems when operationally deployed. Deployed Field Mental Health Teams (FMHTs) who support them follow the principles of "Forward Psychiatry," aiming to treat psychiatric casualties close to the front line to maximize operational effectiveness and occupational retention. to examine the short- and long-term military work outcomes in soldiers deployed to Iraq between 2003 and 2007 who were referred to the FMHT. FMHT clinical records were linked to occupational records with 825 resulting matches. 71.6% of the referred soldiers with a documented short-term military work outcome returned to their operational unit, and 73.5% of those who had a documented long-term military work outcome served on for a period in excess of two years. Adjusting for potential confounders, a shorter service length and removal from the operational theatre were both strongly associated with premature discharge; however, it was not possible to determine the severity of the presenting mental health problem and assess whether this impacted outcome. the results of this study support the use of the Forward Psychiatry principles in achieving good short-term military work outcomes. Utilizing these principles, three-quarters of those referred to the FMHT were returned to their deployed unit and approximately three-quarters of those assessed by the FMHT remained in service two years after referral. We suggest that these are positive work outcomes; however, being evacuated out of the operational environment and having a short service length were both associated with premature discharge, though we were unable to examine the role of illness severity.

  3. Long-term effects of psychosocial factors of home and work on biomarkers of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Kristiansen, Jesper; Hansen, Ase Marie

    2011-02-01

    The current study analyzed the relationship between psychosocial factors measured at baseline and heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary cortisol measured at baseline and again, six years later. In 2002 and 2008, measurements of HRV and salivary cortisol at three time points were obtained from 70 healthy participants (48 women and 22 men). The associations between the psychosocial factors measured in 2002 and the dependent variables, HRV and salivary cortisol measured in 2002 and 2008, were examined using a series of repeated measures ANCOVAs. The dependent variables were as follows: the logarithmically transformed levels of total power (LnTP), high frequency power (LnHF), the ratio between low and high frequency power (LnLF/HF) and salivary cortisol (LnCortisol). For women, high social status was associated with high LnTP, high LnHF, and low LnLF/HF. In work, lack of control was associated with low LnTP, and lack of support was associated with an increased LnLF/HF ratio. For men, high social status was associated with low LnTP, low LnHF and high LnCortisol. Greater number of hours spent doing housework was associated with both low LnLF/HF and low LnCortisol, whereas a large imbalance between effort and reward was associated with low LnTP and high LnCortisol. Despite the small sample size, this study demonstrated that psychosocial factors impact levels of activity in the allostatic systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Detroit Works Long-Term Planning Project: Engagement Strategies for Blending Community and Technical Expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni L. Griffin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, civic leaders, community stakeholders, and residents came together to release Detroit Future City: 2012 Detroit Strategic Framework Plan, a guiding blueprint for transforming Detroit from its current state of population loss and excessive vacancy into a model for the reinvention of post-industrial American cities. Three years prior, the U.S. Census had reported that the city had lost 24% of its population over the last decade and had experienced a 20% increase in vacant and abandoned property, bringing total vacancy to roughly the size of Manhattan. In addition to physical and economic challenges, Detroiters had also acknowledged significant barriers to effective civic engagement. Foremost among these barriers were a profound sense of immobilization, planning fatigue, and a general perception of cynicism about planning and engagement efforts. These challenges were compounded by historic racial dynamics and tension. This case study elaborates on the comprehensive and innovative civic engagement executed in a citywide planning process called the Detroit Works Project, which took place from late 2010 through late 2012. For the citywide planning process to be successful and sustainable, civic leaders and project funders committed to a planning initiative that would be different from previous efforts, in large part because the “owners” of the process would be diverse and inclusive across all community sectors. The case study, written by three of the key consultants from the project, describes four key civic engagement strategies deployed in the creation of the strategic framework: (1 addressing profound challenges of culture, race, and politics by deliberately building trust; (2 elevating community expertise by fostering a sense of ownership of the process; (3 blending technical and community expertise; and (4 viewing civic engagement as an ongoing two-way conversation rather than a series of large-scale episodic events. This

  5. Short-Term and Working Memory Impairments in Early-Implanted, Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users Are Independent of Audibility and Speech Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AuBuchon, Angela M; Pisoni, David B; Kronenberger, William G

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether early-implanted, long-term cochlear implant (CI) users display delays in verbal short-term and working memory capacity when processes related to audibility and speech production are eliminated. Twenty-three long-term CI users and 23 normal-hearing controls each completed forward and backward digit span tasks under testing conditions that differed in presentation modality (auditory or visual) and response output (spoken recall or manual pointing). Normal-hearing controls reproduced more lists of digits than the CI users, even when the test items were presented visually and the responses were made manually via touchscreen response. Short-term and working memory delays observed in CI users are not due to greater demands from peripheral sensory processes such as audibility or from overt speech-motor planning and response output organization. Instead, CI users are less efficient at encoding and maintaining phonological representations in verbal short-term memory using phonological and linguistic strategies during memory tasks.

  6. TRIXcell+, a new long-term boar semen extender containing whey protein with higher preservation capacity and litter size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. van den Berg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It was the aim of the present study to test whey as protective protein for the sperm cell in the long-term boar semen preservation medium TRIXcell. Analyses of sperm cell motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA indicated that the whey protein Porex has a similar protective effect as bovine serum albumin (BSA in maintaining viability of stored boar sperm. Boar sperm diluted in TRIXcell+ maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60% for 10 days, while swine sperm diluted in the semen preservation medium Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60% for 3-5 days for most boars. To test the on-farm fertility performance of TRIXcell+ compared to BTS, inseminations were started on 35 commercial pig production farms in the summer of 2006. During the period of July 2006 until July 2012 for each farm and each calendar year the mean farrowing rate and litter size for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and stored for 3-5 days was found higher than that of semen stored for 1-2 days in BTS. Based on data gained from a total of 583.749 sows inseminated through the years 2006-2012, the mean farrowing rate for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 90.4 ± 4.0 and 87.9 ± 3.6, respectively, which is not significantly different. Based on the same data, the mean total number of piglets born alive for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 14.2 ± 0.7 and 13.6 ± 0.6, respectively, which is significantly different. We conclude that whey protein can effectively be used in the long-term preservation medium TRIXcell resulting in a higher litter size.

  7. TRIXcell+, a new long-term boar semen extender containing whey protein with higher preservation capacity and litter size

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, B.M.; Reesink, J.; Reesink, W.

    2014-01-01

    It was the aim of the present study to test whey as protective protein for the sperm cell in the long-term boar semen preservation medium TRIXcell. Analyses of sperm cell motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) indicated that the whey protein Porex has a similar protective effect as bovine serum albumin (BSA) in maintaining viability of stored boar sperm. Boar sperm diluted in TRIXcell+ maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60%) for 10 days, while swine sperm diluted in the semen preservation medium Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60%) for 3-5 days for most boars. To test the on-farm fertility performance of TRIXcell+ compared to BTS, inseminations were started on 35 commercial pig production farms in the summer of 2006. During the period of July 2006 until July 2012 for each farm and each calendar year the mean farrowing rate and litter size for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and stored for 3-5 days was found higher than that of semen stored for 1-2 days in BTS. Based on data gained from a total of 583.749 sows inseminated through the years 2006-2012, the mean farrowing rate for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 90.4 ± 4.0 and 87.9 ± 3.6, respectively, which is not significantly different. Based on the same data, the mean total number of piglets born alive for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 14.2 ± 0.7 and 13.6 ± 0.6, respectively, which is significantly different. We conclude that whey protein can effectively be used in the long-term preservation medium TRIXcell resulting in a higher litter size. PMID:26623335

  8. Approaches for predicting long-term sickness absence. Re: Schouten et al. "Screening manual and office workers for risk of long-term sickness absence: cut-off points for the Work Ability Index".

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amelsvoort, Ludovic Gpm; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, I Jmert

    2015-05-01

    We read with much interest the article of Schouten et al (1) on identifying workers with a high risk for future long-term sickness absence using the Work Ability Index (WAI). The ability to identify high-risk workers might facilitate targeted interventions for such workers and, consequently, can reduce sickness absence levels and improve workers' health. Earlier studies by both Tamela et al (2), Kant et al (3), and Lexis et al (4) have demonstrated that such an approach, based on the identification of high-risk workers and a subsequent intervention, can be effectively applied in practice to reduce sickness absence significantly. The reason for our letter on Schouten et al's article is twofold. First, by including workers already on sick leave in a study predicting long-term sick leave will result in an overestimation of the predictive properties of the instrument and biased predictors, especially when also the outcome of interest is included as a factor in the prediction model. Second, we object to the use of the term "screening" when subjects with the condition screened for are included in the study. Reinforced by the inclusion of sickness absence in the prediction model, including workers already on sick leave will shift the focus of the study findings towards the prediction of (re)current sickness absence and workers with a below-average return-to-work rate, rather than the identification of workers at high risk for the onset of future long-term sickness absence. The possibilities for prevention will shift from pure secondary prevention to a mix of secondary and tertiary prevention. As a consequence, the predictors of the model presented in the Schouten et al article can be used as a basis for tailoring neither preventive measures nor interventions. Moreover, including the outcome (sickness absence) as a predictor in the model, especially in a mixed population including workers with and without the condition (on sick leave), will result in biased predictors and

  9. Relationships between work outcomes, work attitudes and work environments of health support workers in Ontario long-term care and home and community care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Whitney; Laporte, Audrey; Perreira, Tyrone; Ginsburg, Liane; Dass, Adrian Rohit; Deber, Raisa; Baumann, Andrea; Cranley, Lisa; Bourgeault, Ivy; Lum, Janet; Gamble, Brenda; Pilkington, Kathryn; Haroun, Vinita; Neves, Paula

    2018-03-22

    Our overarching study objective is to further our understanding of the work psychology of Health Support Workers (HSWs) in long-term care and home and community care settings in Ontario, Canada. Specifically, we seek novel insights about the relationships among aspects of these workers' work environments, their work attitudes, and work outcomes in the interests of informing the development of human resource programs to enhance elder care. We conducted a path analysis of data collected via a survey administered to a convenience sample of Ontario HSWs engaged in the delivery of elder care over July-August 2015. HSWs' work outcomes, including intent to stay, organizational citizenship behaviors, and performance, are directly and significantly related to their work attitudes, including job satisfaction, work engagement, and affective organizational commitment. These in turn are related to how HSWs perceive their work environments including their quality of work life (QWL), their perceptions of supervisor support, and their perceptions of workplace safety. HSWs' work environments are within the power of managers to modify. Our analysis suggests that QWL, perceptions of supervisor support, and perceptions of workplace safety present particularly promising means by which to influence HSWs' work attitudes and work outcomes. Furthermore, even modest changes to some aspects of the work environment stand to precipitate a cascade of positive effects on work outcomes through work attitudes.

  10. Efficiency of overhead ceiling lifts in reducing musculoskeletal injury among carers working in long-term care institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Fast, Catherine; Hennessy, Stephanie; Kidd, Catherine; Yassi, Annalee

    2008-05-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted in three long-term care facilities to evaluate the effectiveness and cost benefit of overhead lifts in reducing the risk of musculoskeletal injury among healthcare workers. Analysis of injury trends spanning 6 years before intervention (1996-2001) and 4 years after intervention (2002-2005) found a significant and sustained decrease in workers' compensation claims per number of beds and in working days lost per bed. The payback period was estimated under various assumptions and varied from 6.3 to 6.2 years if only direct claim-cost savings were included, and from 2.06 to 3.20 years when indirect savings were added. The significant reductions in injury rates and compensation claims support intervention with overhead ceiling lifts. A more comprehensive evaluation of such programmes should incorporate in the analysis important variables such as staffing ratios, job stresses, injury reporting systems and compensation policies during the study period.

  11. Screening manual and office workers for risk of long-term sickness absence: cut-off points for the Work Ability Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.S.; Joling, C.I.; van der Gulden, J.W.J.; Heymans, M.W.; Bultmann, U.; Roelen, C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the Work Ability Index (WAI) as a tool to screen for risk of different durations of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) among manual and office workers.

  12. The times they are a-changing: Self-directed long-term services and supports and gerontological social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciegaj, Mark; Hooyman, Nancy R; Mahoney, Kevin J; DeLuca, Casey

    2018-03-05

    The Partnerships for Person-Centered (PC) and Participant-Directed (PD) Long-Term Services and Supports (LTSS) Project (Partnerships Project) was a three-year effort funded by the New York Community Trust to develop and implement social work curriculum that would better prepare students for the changing practice demands of the aging and disability services network for self-directed LTSS (SD-LTSS). This article first describes the growth of SD-LTSS and the need for trained social workers on this service delivery model. The paper then describes the Partnerships Project that involved schools of social work along and aging and disability network organization partners in nine states. This description includes the major activities of the project including the creation of SD-LTSS competencies for social work education, the infusion of these competencies in beginning and advanced social work classes, and student assessment of their attainment of these competencies. This article then discusses the challenges to institutionalizing such curricular changes within social work programs and the need for a national strategy to train social workers for the demands of SD-LTSS.

  13. Barriers and enablers to returning to work from long-term sickness absence: Part I-A quantitative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Belinda J; Brown, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in the United Kingdom labor market has become a major health issue in recent years. In contrast to short-term sickness absence, rates for LTSA have been on the increase. This paper, part 1 of a two-part paper, identifies individual domain barriers to returning to work (RTW) from LTSA across the work disability timeline in the UK labor market. This is a retrospective cohort study of 6,246 workers from an occupationally diverse Police Force within the UK using a large administrative database. A series of chi-squared analyses were conducted to analyze the between and within group associations. Next, multiple logistic regression analyses using the Enter method were performed to develop a predictive model for RTW and Absence Phase. Findings substantiated the presence of individual domain barriers to RTW and predictors of RTW outcome and established the absence phase specificity of a number of risk factors of prolonged work disability. In particular, injury/illness especially mental ill health (MIH), physical job demands, sex, and number of episodes of LTSA are significant individual domain barriers to RTW and represent important risk factors for prolonged work disability. Duration of work disability is associated with medical diagnosis, especially MIH, physical job demands, sex, and number of LTSA episodes. Findings also support the importance of using the outcome measure of absence phase of risk factors in addition to RTW outcome. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Desire, longing and vanity: emotions behind successful return to work for women on long-term sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrberg, Y; Landstad, B J; Bergroth, A; Ekholm, J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify situations and phenomena that have simplified returning to work for women on long-term sick leave. Seven women who were exposed to a relatively large number of risk factors that normally are associated with difficulties in returning to work. In-depth interviews with qualitative content analysis. The analysis indicated four main categories of factors: The Individual, Interactions, Surrounding Resources, and Situations. In each of the main categories structural factors exist and it appears that these have been of significant importance to the women in their return to work. These are presented as Key Factors and they are: clarification of--and the need for--support in the personal process of change; desire, longing, and vanity; respectful interactions between the individual and people in her surroundings; the structure and content of the rehabilitation clinic; the importance of the perceived reality; and the individual's sense of control during the work related rehabilitation process. The results mostly revealed phenomena that have been indicated and described in earlier research studies. However, emotions such as desire, longing and vanity as motivation and driving forces behind a return to work have not been earlier described.

  15. Spatial, contextual and working memory are not affected by the absence of mossy fiber long-term potentiation and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensbroek, R.A.; Kamal, A.; Baars, A.M.; Verhage, M.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    The mossy fibers of the hippocampus display NMDA-receptor independent long-term plasticity. A number of studies addressed the role of mossy fiber long-term plasticity in memory, but have provided contrasting results. Here, we have exploited a genetic model, the rab3A null-mutant, which is

  16. Vascular flow reserve as a link between long-term blood pressure level and physical performance capacity in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian B; Damkjær, Mads; Hald, Bjørn O

    2016-01-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is surprisingly similar across different species of mammals, and it is, in general, not known which factors determine the arterial pressure level. Mammals often have a pronounced capacity for sustained physical performance. This capacity depends on the vasculature...... having a flow reserve that comes into play as tissue metabolism increases. We hypothesize that microvascular properties allowing for a large vascular flow reserve is linked to the level of the arterial pressure.To study the interaction between network properties and network inlet pressure, we developed...

  17. Long Term Effects of Different Training Modalities on Power, Speed, Skill and Anaerobic Capacity in Young Male Basketball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Balčiūnas, Mindaugas; Stonkus, Stanislovas; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12), general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11) and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12). The power endurance model was based in basketbal...

  18. Long Term Effects of Different Training Modalities on Power, Speed, Skill and Anaerobic Capacity in Young Male Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balčiūnas, Mindaugas; Stonkus, Stanislovas; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12), general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11) and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12). The power endurance model was based in basketball game external structure whereas the general endurance model was based in continuous actions that frequently occur during the basketball game. The training models were used for 16 weeks in sessions conducted 3 times a week during 90 minutes each in the competition period. The following tests were performed: 20 m speed run, Squat jump, Countermovement jump, Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST), 2 min. shooting test and the Shuttle ball-dribbling test. A 3×2 repeated measures ANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences in the 20 m speed run, Squat jump and Countermovement jump (p > 0.05). On the other hand, RAST showed significant increases in PE, with greater increases during the 5th and 6th runs. The PE training model also produced a significant improvement in the shuttle ball-dribbling test (48.7 ± 1.5 in the pretest, 45.5 ± 1.3 in the posttest, p training modalities were able to maintain initial values of speed and power, however, the anaerobic capacity and skill increased only in the players from the power endurance group. Therefore, the power endurance training (intermittent high intensity exercise) may be more beneficial to prepare junior players according to the game cardiovascular and metabolic specific determinants. Key Points Power endurance training produced significant increases in anaerobic capacity during the competition period. Power endurance training did not have a detrimental effect on power or speed performance during the competition

  19. Long term effects of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in young male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balčiūnas, Mindaugas; Stonkus, Stanislovas; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12), general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11) and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12). The power endurance model was based in basketball game external structure whereas the general endurance model was based in continuous actions that frequently occur during the basketball game. The training models were used for 16 weeks in sessions conducted 3 times a week during 90 minutes each in the competition period. The following tests were performed: 20 m speed run, Squat jump, Countermovement jump, Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST), 2 min. shooting test and the Shuttle ball-dribbling test. A 3×2 repeated measures ANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences in the 20 m speed run, Squat jump and Countermovement jump (p > 0.05). On the other hand, RAST showed significant increases in PE, with greater increases during the 5(th) and 6(th) runs. The PE training model also produced a significant improvement in the shuttle ball-dribbling test (48.7 ± 1.5 in the pretest, 45.5 ± 1.3 in the posttest, p training modalities were able to maintain initial values of speed and power, however, the anaerobic capacity and skill increased only in the players from the power endurance group. Therefore, the power endurance training (intermittent high intensity exercise) may be more beneficial to prepare junior players according to the game cardiovascular and metabolic specific determinants. Key PointsPower endurance training produced significant increases in anaerobic capacity during the competition period.Power endurance training did not have a detrimental effect on power or speed performance during the competition

  20. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TRAINING MODALITIES ON POWER, SPEED, SKILL AND ANAEROBIC CAPACITY IN YOUNG MALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Balciunas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12, general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11 and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12. The power endurance model was based in basketball game external structure whereas the general endurance model was based in continuous actions that frequently occur during the basketball game. The training models were used for 16 weeks in sessions conducted 3 times a week during 90 minutes each in the competition period. The following tests were performed: 20 m speed run, Squat jump, Countermovement jump, Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST, 2 min. shooting test and the Shuttle ball-dribbling test. A 3×2 repeated measures ANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences in the 20 m speed run, Squat jump and Countermovement jump (p > 0.05. On the other hand, RAST showed significant increases in PE, with greater increases during the 5th and 6th runs. The PE training model also produced a significant improvement in the shuttle ball-dribbling test (48.7 ± 1.5 in the pretest, 45.5 ± 1.3 in the posttest, p < 0.05. Globally, our results suggest that both training modalities were able to maintain initial values of speed and power, however, the anaerobic capacity and skill increased only in the players from the power endurance group. Therefore, the power endurance training (intermittent high intensity exercise may be more beneficial to prepare junior players according to the game cardiovascular and metabolic specific determinants

  1. Socio-demographic and work-related risk factors for medium- and long-term sickness absence among Italian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Angelo; Costa, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Few studies investigated determinants of sickness absence in representative samples of the general population, none of which in Italy. Aim of this study was to assess influence and relative importance of socio-demographic and work-related characteristics on medium- and long-term sickness absence in a random sample of Italian workers. Approximately 60,000 workers participating in a national survey in 2007 were interviewed regarding sickness absence during the whole previous week, and on socio-demographics, employment characteristics and exposure to a set of physical and psychosocial hazards in the workplace. The association between sickness absence and potential determinants was estimated by multivariable logistic regression models stratified by gender. From the final multivariate models, in both genders sickness absence was statistically significantly associated with tenure employment, working in larger firms, exposure to risk of injury and to bullying or discrimination and, among employees, with shift work. In males, sickness absence was also associated with lower education, employment in the public administration and with exposure to noise or vibration, whereas among women also with manual work and ergonomic factors. In both genders, the attributable fraction for employment-related characteristics was higher than that for socio-demographic ones. The association with tenure or salaried jobs, and with employment in larger firms or in the public sector suggests that, besides illness, job security is the most important determinant of sickness absence, consistently with the results of previous studies. However, our results indicate that a reduction in exposure to workplace hazards may contribute to reduce absenteeism.

  2. Long-term effect of early-life stress from earthquake exposure on working memory in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Yumei; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Song, Mei; Yu, Lulu; Wang, Lan; Li, Ning; Chen, Qianqian; Li, Yunpeng; Cai, Jiajia; Wang, Xueyi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the long-term effect of 1976 Tangshan earthquake exposure in early life on performance of working memory in adulthood. A total of 907 study subjects born and raised in Tangshan were enrolled in this study. They were divided into three groups according to the dates of birth: infant exposure (3-12 months, n=274), prenatal exposure (n=269), and no exposure (born at least 1 year after the earthquake, n=364). The prenatal group was further divided into first, second, and third trimester subgroups based on the timing of exposure during pregnancy. Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were used to measure the performance of working memory. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influential factors for impaired working memory. The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised scores did not show significant difference across the three groups. Compared with no exposure group, the BVMT-R scores were slightly lower in the prenatal exposure group and markedly decreased in the infant exposure group. When the BVMT-R scores were analyzed in three subgroups, the results showed that the subjects whose mothers were exposed to earthquake in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy had significantly lower BVMT-R scores compared with those in the first trimester. Education level and early-life earthquake exposure were identified as independent risk factors for reduced performance of visuospatial memory indicated by lower BVMT-R scores. Infant exposure to earthquake-related stress impairs visuospatial memory in adulthood. Fetuses in the middle and late stages of development are more vulnerable to stress-induced damage that consequently results in impaired visuospatial memory. Education and early-life trauma can also influence the performance of working memory in adulthood.

  3. Within-couple specialisation in paid work: A long-term pattern? A dual trajectory approach to linking lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Laura Antonia

    2015-06-01

    Research on the division of labour has mainly focussed on transitions between individuals' labour market states during the first years of parenthood. A common conclusion has been that couples specialize--women in unpaid and men in paid work--either due to gender ideologies or a comparative advantage in the labour market. But what happens later in life? The German Socio-Economic Panel now provides researchers with a continuous measure of working hours across decades of couples' lives, enabling a dual trajectory analysis to explore couples' long-term specialisation patterns. I focus on the career trajectories of West German couples, and specifically, due to the relatively low institutional and normative support for female employment during its members' early years, on the 1956-65 female birth cohort. Even in this setting and with a conservative estimate, a surprisingly small number of couples--only a fifth--adopt full specialisation in later life. A sizable proportion--a third--moves into dual full-time employment. This trend is even more common among highly educated couples: half of those couples move into dual full-time employment. I find that highly educated women are not only less likely to permanently specialise but also more likely to try working full-time, possibly because their partners' comparative advantages are lower. But despite high opportunity costs, 45% of highly educated parents never try to pursue a dual career either because of a satiation of material wants or because of low societal support for maternal employment. The latter phenomenon is further underscored by the finding that many couples' increase in working hours occurs only when a youngest child is a teenager. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF AMELIORATIVE WORKS ON SOME SOIL QUALITY PARAMETERS FROM BAIA –MOLDOVA EXPERIMENTAL AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Moca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The soil-climatic conditions from Baia Depression – the hydrographical basin from the extra-Carpathian area of the Moldova River - have frequently determined the presence, under different forms, intensities and periods, of temporary water excess from soil. The underground drainage, as a measure of water excess control, with stagnant character, caused mainly by rainfall amounts registered for 1-5 consecutive days, was firstly arranged in pilot-experimental fields during 1972-1978. We followed the behaviour in exploitation of underground drainage technical solutions, as concerns the functional efficiency of the means of water excess removal and of the improved soil favourableness and/or suitability for crop growing.In order to assess the long-term effects of ameliorating works, applied in 1978 in the drainage field of Baia, on an area of 3.50 ha, we have qualitatively classified and estimated the albic stagnic glossic Luvosoil (S.R.T.S. – 2003, improved and unimproved. Based on this study, we have estimated the present favourableness for crops of the improved soil, as compared to unimproved soil, used as natural grassland, after an exploitation cycle of 30 years (1978- 2008.

  5. Visual memory, the long and the short of it: A review of visual working memory and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurgin, Mark W

    2018-04-23

    The majority of research on visual memory has taken a compartmentalized approach, focusing exclusively on memory over shorter or longer durations, that is, visual working memory (VWM) or visual episodic long-term memory (VLTM), respectively. This tutorial provides a review spanning the two areas, with readers in mind who may only be familiar with one or the other. The review is divided into six sections. It starts by distinguishing VWM and VLTM from one another, in terms of how they are generally defined and their relative functions. This is followed by a review of the major theories and methods guiding VLTM and VWM research. The final section is devoted toward identifying points of overlap and distinction across the two literatures to provide a synthesis that will inform future research in both fields. By more intimately relating methods and theories from VWM and VLTM to one another, new advances can be made that may shed light on the kinds of representational content and structure supporting human visual memory.

  6. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF LONG-TERM ANTIHYPERTENSIVE MONOTHERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AT THE WORK PLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. N. Antropova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare effects of 12-month monotherapy with nebivolol, enalapril and indapamide on blood pressure (BP, left ventricular hypertrophy and quality of life in the locomotive engineers and their assistants with stress-associated hypertension at the work place (HTwp.Material and methods. 96 locomotive engineers (20- 53 y.o and their assistants with HTwp were observed. The patients were randomized to receive nebivolol (1 group, enalapril (2 group or indapamide (3 group. 24-hour BP monitoring, echocardiography and quality of life interview with SF–36 questionnaire were performed at the start and after 12 months of the treatment.Results. Long-term therapy lead to achievement of target BP level, improved quality of life and reduced in left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with HTwp. Nebivolol reduced systolic “BP load” more significantly than indapamide did, exerted favorable influence on circadian BP rhythm and reduced heart rate. Monotherapy with nebivolol showed benefits in effect on quality of life.Conclusion. Nebivolol has some advantages in comparison with indapamide and enalapril in antihypertensive therapy of patients with stress-associated HT.

  7. 'We just do the dirty work': dealing with incontinence, courtesy stigma and the low occupational status of carework in long-term aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostaszkiewicz, Joan; O'Connell, Beverly; Dunning, Trisha

    2016-09-01

    To systematically examine, describe and explain how continence care was determined, delivered and communicated in Australian long aged care facilities. Incontinence is a highly stigmatising condition that affects a disproportionally large number of people living in long-term aged care facilities. Its day-to-day management is mainly undertaken by careworkers. We conducted a Grounded theory study to explore how continence care was determined, delivered and communicated in long-term aged care facilities. This paper presents one finding, i.e. how careworkers in long-term aged care facilities deal with the stigma, devaluation and the aesthetically unpleasant aspects of their work. Grounded theory. Eighty-eight hours of field observations in two long-term aged care facilities in Australia. In addition, in-depth interviews with 18 nurses and careworkers who had experience of providing, supervising or assessment of continence care in any long-term aged care facility in Australia. Occupational exposure to incontinence contributes to the low occupational status of carework in long-term aged care facilities, and continence care is a symbolic marker for inequalities within the facility, the nursing profession and society at large. Careworkers' affective and behavioural responses are characterised by: (1) accommodating the context; (2) dissociating oneself; (3) distancing oneself and (4) attempting to elevate one's role status. The theory extends current understandings about the links between incontinence, continence care, courtesy stigma, emotional labour and the low occupational status of carework in long-term aged care facilities. This study provides insights into the ways in which tacit beliefs and values about incontinence, cleanliness and contamination may affect the social organisation and delivery of care in long-term aged care facilities. Nurse leaders should challenge the stigma and devaluation of carework and careworkers, and reframe carework as 'dignity work'.

  8. Measurements on cation exchange capacity of bentonite in the long-term test of buffer material (LOT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Determination of cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite in the LOT experiment was the topic of this study. The measurements were performed using the complex of copper(II) ion with trietylenetetramine [Cu(trien)] 2+ as the index cation. Testing of the determination method suggested that (i) drying and wetting of the bentonite, and (ii) exchange time affect the obtained result. The real CEC measurements were carried out with the bentonite samples taken from the A2 parcel of the LOT experiment. The CEC values of the LOT samples were compared with those of the reference samples taken from the same bentonite batch before the compaction of the blocks for the experiment. The conclusions drawn have been made on the basis of the results determined with the wet bentonite samples using the direct exchange of two weeks with 0.01 M [Cu(trien)] 2+ solution because this method gave the most complete cation exchange in the CEC measurements. The differences between the samples taken from different places of the A2 parcel were quite small and close to the accuracy of the method. However, it seems that the CEC values of the field experiment are somewhat higher than the CEC of the reference samples and the values of the hot area are higher than those obtained from the low temperature area. It is also obvious that the variation of CEC increases with increasing temperature. (orig.)

  9. Impact of burnout and psychosocial work characteristics on future long-term sickness absence. Prospective results of the Danish PUMA-study among human service workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, KB; Bültmann, Ute

    2010-01-01

    and Job satisfaction) followed up during the proceeding 18 months regarding onset of long-term sickness absence. Questionnaire data regarding burnout and psychosocial factors were aggregated at work unit level. We used Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors and burnout as predictors of long...... work environment, and equally important, the organizations should be attentive to employees with symptoms of burnout......Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation...

  10. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  11. Shortened version of the work ability index to identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Lianne S; Bültmann, Ute; Heymans, Martijn W; Joling, Catelijne I; Twisk, Jos W R; Roelen, Corné A M

    2016-04-01

    The Work Ability Index (WAI) identifies non-sicklisted workers at risk of future long-term sickness absence (LTSA). The WAI is a complicated instrument and inconvenient for use in large-scale surveys. We investigated whether shortened versions of the WAI identify non-sicklisted workers at risk of LTSA. Prospective study including two samples of non-sicklisted workers participating in occupational health checks between 2010 and 2012. A heterogeneous development sample (N= 2899) was used to estimate logistic regression coefficients for the complete WAI, a shortened WAI version without the list of diseases, and single-item Work Ability Score (WAS). These three instruments were calibrated for predictions of different (≥2, ≥4 and ≥6 weeks) LTSA durations in a validation sample of non-sicklisted workers (N= 3049) employed at a steel mill, differentiating between manual (N= 1710) and non-manual (N= 1339) workers. The discriminative ability was investigated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. All three instruments under-predicted the LTSA risks in both manual and non-manual workers. The complete WAI discriminated between individuals at high and low risk of LTSA ≥2, ≥4 and ≥6 weeks in manual and non-manual workers. Risk predictions and discrimination by the shortened WAI without the list of diseases were as good as the complete WAI. The WAS showed poorer discrimination in manual and non-manual workers. The WAI without the list of diseases is a good alternative to the complete WAI to identify non-sicklisted workers at risk of future LTSA durations ≥2, ≥4 and ≥6 weeks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term water stress leads to acclimation of drought sensitivity of photosynthetic capacity in xeric but not riparian Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang-Xi; Medlyn, Belinda E; Prentice, Iain Colin

    2016-01-01

    Experimental drought is well documented to induce a decline in photosynthetic capacity. However, if given time to acclimate to low water availability, the photosynthetic responses of plants to low soil moisture content may differ from those found in short-term experiments. This study aims to test whether plants acclimate to long-term water stress by modifying the functional relationships between photosynthetic traits and water stress, and whether species of contrasting habitat differ in their degree of acclimation. Three Eucalyptus taxa from xeric and riparian habitats were compared with regard to their gas exchange responses under short- and long-term drought. Photosynthetic parameters were measured after 2 and 4 months of watering treatments, namely field capacity or partial drought. At 4 months, all plants were watered to field capacity, then watering was stopped. Further measurements were made during the subsequent 'drying-down', continuing until stomata were closed. Two months of partial drought consistently reduced assimilation rate, stomatal sensitivity parameters (g1), apparent maximum Rubisco activity (V'(cmax)) and maximum electron transport rate (J'(max)). Eucalyptus occidentalis from the xeric habitat showed the smallest decline in V'(cmax) and J'(max); however, after 4 months, V'(cmax) and J'(max) had recovered. Species differed in their degree of V'(cmax) acclimation. Eucalyptus occidentalis showed significant acclimation of the pre-dawn leaf water potential at which the V'(cmax) and 'true' V(cmax) (accounting for mesophyll conductance) declined most steeply during drying-down. The findings indicate carbon loss under prolonged drought could be over-estimated without accounting for acclimation. In particular, (1) species from contrasting habitats differed in the magnitude of V'(cmax) reduction in short-term drought; (2) long-term drought allowed the possibility of acclimation, such that V'(cmax) reduction was mitigated; (3) xeric species showed a

  13. Unwanted sexual attention at work and long-term sickness absence: a follow-up register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogh, Annie; Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Madsen, Ida Elisabeth Huitfeldt; Burr, Hermann

    2016-07-30

    The current understanding of the relationship between unwanted sexual attention at work and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) is limited for three reasons: 1) the under-researched role of unwanted sexual attention perpetrated by individuals outside the work organization; 2) a widespread use of self-reported measures of sickness absence, with an unclear identification of sickness absence episodes of long duration; 3) the cross-sectional design of most existing studies. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the relationship between self-reported unwanted sexual attention at work and subsequent LTSA (≥3 weeks), stratifying by gender and source of exposure (i.e., colleagues, managers and/or subordinates vs. clients/customers/patients). This prospective study is based on a pooled sample of 14,605 employees from three Danish surveys conducted in 2000, 2004 and 2005, providing a total of 19,366 observations. A single questionnaire-based item was used to assess exposure to unwanted sexual attention. The pooled dataset was merged with Danish register data on LTSA. The risk of first-onset episode of LTSA (up to 18 months after baseline) in connection with unwanted sexual attention was examined using Cox proportional hazards models. We estimated Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) adjusted for age, influence at work, work pace, occupational group and mode of data collection. We also adjusted for repeated measures from individual respondents by stratifying the Cox models by wave of survey. Unwanted sexual attention from colleagues, managers and/or subordinates predicted LTSA among men (HR 2.66; 95 % CI 1.42-5.00). Among women, an elevated but non-statistically significant risk of LTSA (HR 1.18; 95 % CI 0.65-2.14) was found. Unwanted sexual attention from clients/customers/patients did not predict LTSA, neither among men nor among women. The findings indicate a significantly elevated risk of LTSA, among men only, in relation to

  14. Unwanted sexual attention at work and long-term sickness absence: a follow-up register-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Hogh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current understanding of the relationship between unwanted sexual attention at work and long-term sickness absence (LTSA is limited for three reasons: 1 the under-researched role of unwanted sexual attention perpetrated by individuals outside the work organization; 2 a widespread use of self-reported measures of sickness absence, with an unclear identification of sickness absence episodes of long duration; 3 the cross-sectional design of most existing studies. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the relationship between self-reported unwanted sexual attention at work and subsequent LTSA (≥3 weeks, stratifying by gender and source of exposure (i.e., colleagues, managers and/or subordinates vs. clients/customers/patients. Methods This prospective study is based on a pooled sample of 14,605 employees from three Danish surveys conducted in 2000, 2004 and 2005, providing a total of 19,366 observations. A single questionnaire-based item was used to assess exposure to unwanted sexual attention. The pooled dataset was merged with Danish register data on LTSA. The risk of first-onset episode of LTSA (up to 18 months after baseline in connection with unwanted sexual attention was examined using Cox proportional hazards models. We estimated Hazard ratios (HR and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI adjusted for age, influence at work, work pace, occupational group and mode of data collection. We also adjusted for repeated measures from individual respondents by stratifying the Cox models by wave of survey. Results Unwanted sexual attention from colleagues, managers and/or subordinates predicted LTSA among men (HR 2.66; 95 % CI 1.42-5.00. Among women, an elevated but non-statistically significant risk of LTSA (HR 1.18; 95 % CI 0.65-2.14 was found. Unwanted sexual attention from clients/customers/patients did not predict LTSA, neither among men nor among women. Conclusions The findings indicate a significantly

  15. Distinct neural correlates of associative working memory and long-term memory encoding in the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Heiko C; Rijpkema, Mark; Fernández, Guillén; Kessels, Roy P C

    2012-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a role for the hippocampus not only in long-term memory (LTM) but also in relational working memory (WM) processes, challenging the view of the hippocampus as being solely involved in episodic LTM. However, hippocampal involvement reported in some neuroimaging studies using "classical" WM tasks may at least partly reflect incidental LTM encoding. To disentangle WM processing and LTM formation we administered a delayed-match-to-sample associative WM task in an event-related fMRI study design. Each trial of the WM task consisted of four pairs of faces and houses, which had to be maintained during a delay of 10 s. This was followed by a probe phase consisting of three consecutively presented pairs; for each pair participants were to indicate whether it matched one of the pairs of the encoding phase. After scanning, an unexpected recognition-memory (LTM) task was administered. Brain activity during encoding was analyzed based on WM and LTM performance. Hence, encoding-related activity predicting WM success in the absence of successful LTM formation could be isolated. Furthermore, regions critical for successful LTM formation for pairs previously correctly processed in WM were analyzed. Results showed that the left parahippocampal gyrus including the fusiform gyrus predicted subsequent accuracy on WM decisions. The right anterior hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus, in contrast, predicted successful LTM for pairs that were previously correctly classified in the WM task. Our results suggest that brain regions associated with higher-level visuo-perceptual processing are involved in successful associative WM encoding, whereas the anterior hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus are involved in successful LTM formation during incidental encoding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neural system for updating object working memory from different sources: sensory stimuli or long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jennifer K; Courtney, Susan M

    2007-11-15

    Working memory (WM) is the active maintenance of currently relevant information so that it is available for use. A crucial component of WM is the ability to update the contents when new information becomes more relevant than previously maintained information. New information can come from different sources, including from sensory stimuli (SS) or from long-term memory (LTM). Updating WM may involve a single neural system regardless of source, distinct systems for each source, or a common network with additional regions involved specifically in sensory or LTM processes. The current series of experiments indicates that a single fronto-parietal network (including supplementary motor area, parietal, left inferior frontal junction, middle frontal gyrus) is active in updating WM regardless of the source of information. Bilateral cuneus was more active during updating WM from LTM than updating from SS, but the activity in this region was attributable to recalling information from LTM regardless of whether that information was to be entered into WM for future use or not. No regions were found to be more active during updating from SS than updating from LTM. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that different regions within this common update network were differentially more correlated with visual processing regions when participants updated from SS, and more correlated with LTM processing regions when participants updated from the contents of LTM. These results suggest that a single neural mechanism is responsible for controlling the contents of WM regardless of whether that information originates from a sensory stimulus or from LTM. This network of regions involved in updating WM interacts with the rest of the brain differently depending on the source of newly relevant information.

  17. Patient and social work factors related to successful placement of long-term psychiatric in-patients from a specialist psychiatric hospital in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, C; Lewis, C

    2011-05-01

    The slow discharge of long-term psychiatry patients from Weskoppies Hospital into the community has not matched the national and international drive towards deinstitutionalisation. This article investigates patient and social work factors related to successful community placement, in the context of limited community care facilities. Thirty-six long-term patients who were successfully placed outside of the hospital during a seven month period were compared to 235 unplaced long-term patients in terms of demographic and clinical variables. Social work services were analysed in terms of which patients received the most interventions, and the most common type of interventions. The most significant patient factors associated with successful placement were: female patients; medium-to-high level of functioning; having involved relatives living far away; a low frequency of behavioural problems (especially of cannabis abuse, verbal or physical aggression, uncontrolled sexual activity), and agitation or restlessness. These patient factors were mirrored in the social work services rendered to the long-term patients during the study period: The recipients were mostly female, in open wards (higher-functioning); and the social services utilised were mostly related to planning for placement and patient support. The lack of community care facilities in the Pretoria area that are able to care for the more difficult long-term psychiatry patients, limits successful placement and increases the burden of hospital based social workers. The problem cannot be resolved at a hospital level and needs to be addressed in the context of provincial and national health departments.

  18. Impact of Burnout and Psychosocial Work Characteristics on Future Long-Term Sickness Absence. Prospective Results of the Danish PUMA Study Among Human Service Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, Karl Bang; Bultmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner; Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Ingelise; Villadsen, Ebbe; Diderichsen, Finn; Kristensen, Tage S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation and

  19. Long-Term Intermittent Work at High Altitude: Right Heart Functional and Morphological Status and Associated Cardiometabolic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Brito

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Living at high altitude or with chronic hypoxia implies functional and morphological changes in the right ventricle and pulmonary vasculature with a 10% prevalence of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH. The implications of working intermittently (day shifts at high altitude (hypobaric hypoxia over the long term are still not well-defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the right cardiac circuit status along with potentially contributory metabolic variables and distinctive responses after long exposure to the latter condition.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 120 healthy miners working at an altitude of 4,400–4,800 m for over 5 years in 7-day commuting shifts was designed. Echocardiography was performed on day 2 at sea level. Additionally, biomedical and biochemical variables, Lake Louise scores (LLSs, sleep disturbances and physiological variables were measured at altitude and at sea level.Results: The population was 41.8 ± 0.7 years old, with an average of 14 ± 0.5 (range 5–29 years spent at altitude. Most subjects still suffered from mild to moderate symptoms of acute mountain sickness (mild was an LLS of 3–5 points, including cephalea; moderate was LLS of 6–10 points (38.3% at the end of day 1 of the shift. Echocardiography showed a 23% mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP >25 mmHg, 9% HAPH (≥30 mmHg, 85% mild increase in right ventricle wall thickness (≥5 mm, 64% mild right ventricle dilation, low pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR and fairly good ventricle performance. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA (OR 8.84 (1.18–66.39; p < 0.05 and insulin (OR: 1.11 (1.02–1.20; p < 0.05 were associated with elevated mPAP and were defined as a cut-off. Interestingly, the correspondence analysis identified association patterns of several other variables (metabolic, labor, and biomedical with higher mPAP.Conclusions: Working intermittently at high altitude involves a distinctive pattern. The most relevant and

  20. Long-Term Intermittent Work at High Altitude: Right Heart Functional and Morphological Status and Associated Cardiometabolic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Julio; Siques, Patricia; López, Rosario; Romero, Raul; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Flores, Karen; Lüneburg, Nicole; Hannemann, Juliane; Böger, Rainer H

    2018-01-01

    Background: Living at high altitude or with chronic hypoxia implies functional and morphological changes in the right ventricle and pulmonary vasculature with a 10% prevalence of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH). The implications of working intermittently (day shifts) at high altitude (hypobaric hypoxia) over the long term are still not well-defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the right cardiac circuit status along with potentially contributory metabolic variables and distinctive responses after long exposure to the latter condition. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 120 healthy miners working at an altitude of 4,400-4,800 m for over 5 years in 7-day commuting shifts was designed. Echocardiography was performed on day 2 at sea level. Additionally, biomedical and biochemical variables, Lake Louise scores (LLSs), sleep disturbances and physiological variables were measured at altitude and at sea level. Results: The population was 41.8 ± 0.7 years old, with an average of 14 ± 0.5 (range 5-29) years spent at altitude. Most subjects still suffered from mild to moderate symptoms of acute mountain sickness (mild was an LLS of 3-5 points, including cephalea; moderate was LLS of 6-10 points) (38.3%) at the end of day 1 of the shift. Echocardiography showed a 23% mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) >25 mmHg, 9% HAPH (≥30 mmHg), 85% mild increase in right ventricle wall thickness (≥5 mm), 64% mild right ventricle dilation, low pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and fairly good ventricle performance. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) (OR 8.84 (1.18-66.39); p Working intermittently at high altitude involves a distinctive pattern. The most relevant and novel characteristics are a greater prevalence of elevated mPAP and HAPH than previously reported at chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH), which is accompanied by subsequent morphological characteristics. These findings are associated with cardiometabolic factors (insulin and ADMA

  1. Long-term effects of frequent cannabis use on working memory and attention: an fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Gerry; Kahn, Rene S.; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M.; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Excessive use of cannabis may have long-term effects on cognitive abilities. Mild impairments have been found in several cognitive domains, particularly in memory and attention. It is not clear, however, whether these effects also occur with moderate, recreational use of cannabis.

  2. Three-dimensional graphene sheets with NiO nanobelt outgrowths for enhanced capacity and long term high rate cycling Li-ion battery anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Waipeng; Zhang, Yingmeng; Key, Julian; Shen, Pei Kang

    2018-03-01

    An efficient synthesis method to grow well attached NiO nanobelts from 3D graphene sheets (3DGS) is reported herein. Ni-ion exchanged resin provides the initial Ni reactant portion, which serves both as a catalyst to form 3DGS and then as a seeding agent to grow the NiO nanobelts. The macroporous structure of 3DGS provides NiO containment to achieve a high cycling stability of up to 445 mAh g-1 after 360 cycles (and >112% capacity retention after 515 cycles) at a high current density of 2 A g-1. With a 26.8 wt.% content of NiO on 3DGS, increases in specific and volumetric capacity were 41.6 and 75.7% respectively over that of 3DGS at matching current densities. Therefore, the seeded growth of NiO nanobelts from 3DGS significantly boosts volumetric capacity, while 3DGS enables high rate long term cycling of the NiO. The high rate cycling stability of NiO on 3DGS can be attributed to (i) good attachment and contact to the large surface of 3DGS, (ii) high electron conductivity and rapid Li-ion transfer (via the interconnected, highly conductive graphitized walls of 3DGS) and (iii) buffering void space in 3DGS to contain volume expansion of NiO during charge/discharge.

  3. What factors are most relevant to the assessment of work ability of employees on long-term sick leave? The physicians' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers-Sánchez, Patricia M; Wind, Haije; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2013-07-01

    To reach insurance physician (IPs) consensus on factors that must be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees who are sick-listed for 2 years. A Delphi study using online questionnaires was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011. One hundred and two insurance physicians reached a consensus on important factors for return to work (RTW) of employees on long-term sick leave; from those factors, the most relevant for the assessment of work ability was determined. From a total of 22 relevant factors considered for the return to work of long-term sick-listed employees, consensus was reached on nine relevant factors that need to be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees on long-term sick leave. Relevant factors that support return to work are motivation, attitude towards RTW, assessment of cognitions and behaviour, vocational rehabilitation in an early stage and instruction for the sick-listed employee to cope with his disabilities. Relevant factors that hinder RTW are secondary gain from illness, negative perceptions of illness, inefficient coping style and incorrect advice of treating physicians regarding RTW. Non-medical personal and environmental factors may either hinder or promote RTW and must be considered in the assessment of the work ability of long-term sick-listed employees. Assessment of work ability should start early during the sick leave period. These factors may be used by IPs to improve the quality of the assessment of the work ability of employees on long-term sick leave.

  4. Educational Needs of Health Care Providers Working in Long-Term Care Facilities with Regard to Pain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Tousignant-Laflamme

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic pain ranges from 40% to 80% in long-term care facilities (LTCF, with the highest proportion being found among older adults and residents with dementia. Unfortunately, pain in older adults is underdiagnosed, undertreated, inadequately treated or not treated at all. A solution to this problem would be to provide effective and innovative interdisciplinary continuing education to health care providers (HCPs.

  5. Long-term risks of kidney living donation: review and position paper by the ERA-EDTA DESCARTES working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, Umberto; Budde, Klemens; Heemann, Uwe; Hilbrands, Luuk; Oberbauer, Rainer; Oniscu, Gabriel C; Pascual, Julio; Schwartz Sorensen, Soren; Viklicky, Ondrej; Abramowicz, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Two recent matched cohort studies from the USA and Norway published in 2014 have raised some concerns related to the long-term safety of kidney living donation. Further studies on the long-term risks of living donation have since been published. In this position paper, Developing Education Science and Care for Renal Transplantation in European States (DESCARTES) board members critically review the literature in an effort to summarize the current knowledge concerning long-term risks of kidney living donation to help physicians for decision-making purposes and for providing information to the prospective live donors. Long-term risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can be partially foreseen by trying to identify donors at risk of developing ‘de novo’ kidney diseases during life post-donation and by predicting lifetime ESRD risk. However, lifetime risk may be difficult to assess in young donors, especially in those having first-degree relatives with ESRD. The study from Norway also found an increased risk of death after living donor nephrectomy, which became visible only after >15 years of post-donation follow-up. However, these findings are likely to be largely the result of an overestimation due to the confounding effect related to a family history of renal disease. DESCARTES board members emphasize the importance of optimal risk–benefit assessment and proper information to the prospective donor, which should also include recommendations on health-promoting behaviour post-donation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term drought modifies the fundamental relationships between light exposure, leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity in leaves of the lychee tree (Litchi chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, Gaëlle; Vandame, Marc; Urban, Laurent

    2008-09-08

    Drought has dramatic negative effects on plants' growth and crop productivity. Although some of the responses and underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, there is increasing evidence that drought may have a negative effect on photosynthetic capacity. Biochemical models of leaf photosynthesis coupled with models of radiation transfer have been widely used in ecophysiological studies, and, more recently, in global change modeling. They are based on two fundamental relationships at the scale of the leaf: (i) nitrogen content-light exposure and (ii) photosynthetic capacity-nitrogen content. Although drought is expected to increase in many places across the world, such models are not adapted to drought conditions. More specifically, the effects of drought on the two fundamental relationships are not well documented. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of a long-term drought imposed slowly on the nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity of leaves similarly exposed to light, from 3-year-old lychee trees cv. Kwaï Mi. Leaf nitrogen and non-structural carbohydrate concentrations were measured along with gas exchanges and the light-saturated rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J(max)) after a 5.5-month-long period of drought. Leaf nitrogen content on a mass basis remained stable, while the leaf mass-to-area ratio (LMA) increased with increasing water stress. Consequently, the leaf nitrogen content on an area basis (N(a)) increased in a non-linear fashion. The starch content decreased, while the soluble sugar content increased. Stomata closed and net assimilation decreased to zero, while J(max) and the ratio J(max)/N(a) decreased with increasing water stress. The drought-associated decrease in photosynthetic capacity can be attributed to downregulation of photosynthetic electron transport and to reallocation of leaf nitrogen content. It is concluded that modeling photosynthesis in drought conditions will require, first, the modeling

  7. Maintenance of smoking cessation in the postpartum period: which interventions work best in the long-term?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Anny; Buttenheim, Alison M

    2014-04-01

    Smoking during pregnancy has been linked to a variety of adverse outcomes for both maternal and child health. Decades of studies have sought to increase cessation antepartum and reduce relapse postpartum. A number of effective interventions exist to significantly reduce smoking rates during pregnancy; however, less is known about how to prevent relapse in the postpartum period. This review investigates interventions to prevent relapse in the long-term postpartum period. We focus specifically on nonspontaneous quitters (individuals who quit smoking as a result of an external intervention) to reveal differences in long-term response to interventions for this population compared to spontaneous quitters. A systematic literature search yielded 32 relevant studies of pharmacological, behavioral, and incentives-based interventions. Results were compiled, analyzed, and compared in order to evaluate success factors in maintaining cessation postpartum. Though intervention groups showed consistently higher quit rates during pregnancy than control groups, none of the intervention types were effective at preventing relapse in the longer-term postpartum period. One study maintained significantly higher abstinence in the longer-term period postpartum using a mix of behavioral and incentives strategies. Additional research in this area is needed to identify optimal intervention strategies to reduce long-term postpartum relapse, particularly for nonspontaneous quitters.

  8. Can the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale be used to screen for risk of long-term sickness absence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; van Hoffen, M. F. A.; Groothoff, J. W.; de Bruin, J.; Schaufeli, W. B.; van Rhenen, W.

    To investigate the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) for their ability to identify non-sicklisted employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). One-year prospective cohort study including 4,921 employees participating

  9. Can the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale be used to screen for risk of long-term sickness absence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A M; van Hoffen, M. F A; Groothoff, J. W.; de Bruin, J.; Schaufeli, W. B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073779563; van Rhenen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the Maslach Burnout Inventory—General Survey (MBI—GS) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) for their ability to identify non-sicklisted employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Methods: One-year prospective cohort study including 4,921

  10. Can the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale be used to screen for risk of long-term sickness absence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; van Hoffen, M. F. A.; Groothoff, J. W.; de Bruin, J.; Schaufeli, W. B.; van Rhenen, W.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) for their ability to identify non-sicklisted employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). One-year prospective cohort study including 4,921 employees participating

  11. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, G. de; Hees, H.L.; Koeter, M.W.; Lagerveld, S.E.; Schene, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and

  12. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Gabe; Hees, Hiske L.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Lagerveld, Suzanne E.; Schene, Aart H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupational physicians'

  13. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: A concept mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, G. de; Hees, H.L.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Lagerveld, S.E.; Schene, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and

  14. Work-Related Demands and Life Satisfaction: The Effects of Engagement and Disengagement among Employed and Long-Term Unemployed People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner, Astrid; Reitzle, Matthias; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2012-01-01

    Social change has accentuated various demands in people's work lives including, for instance, fears of being laid off, anticipated or experienced difficulties in finding a new and/or appropriate job or a lack of security in career planning. The present study on N=1751 employed, short-term unemployed, and long-term (greater than 12 months)…

  15. How Chunks, Long-Term Working Memory and Templates Offer a Cognitive Explanation for Neuroimaging Data on Expertise Acquisition: A Two-Stage Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Alessandro; Gobet, Fernand; Tardieu, Hubert; Nicolas, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Our review of research on PET and fMRI neuroimaging of experts and expertise acquisition reveals two apparently discordant patterns in working-memory-related tasks. When experts are involved, studies show activations in brain regions typically activated during long-term memory tasks that are not observed with novices, a result that is compatible…

  16. Screening manual and office workers for risk of long-term sickness absence : cut-off points for the Work Ability Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Lianne S.; Joling, Catelijne I.; van der Gulden, Joost W. J.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Bultmann, Ute; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the Work Ability Index (WAI) as a tool to screen for risk of different durations of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) among manual and office workers. Methods The prospective study comprised a cohort of 3049 (1710 manual and 1339 office) workers

  17. A Processing Approach to the Working Memory/Long-Term Memory Distinction: Evidence from the Levels-of-Processing Span Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nathan S.; Craik, Fergus I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories suggest that performance on working memory (WM) tasks involves retrieval from long-term memory (LTM). To examine whether WM and LTM tests have common principles, Craik and Tulving's (1975) levels-of-processing paradigm, which is known to affect LTM, was administered as a WM task: Participants made uppercase, rhyme, or…

  18. Differences in predictors of return to work among long-term sick-listed employees with different self-reported reasons for sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, J.J.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Taris, T.W.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The present study aimed to gain insight in the predictors of full return to work (RTW) among employees on long-term sick leave due to three different self-reported reasons for sick leave: physical, mental or comorbid physical and mental problems. This knowledge can be used to develop

  19. Combining garden therapy and supported employment - a method for preparing women on long-term sick leave for working life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidén, Eva; Alstersjö, Karin; Gurné, Frida L; Fransson, Sandra; Bergbom, Ingegerd

    2016-06-01

    Women are overrepresented among the group people suffering from long-term illness. In addition to their illness, suffering long-term sick leave leads to economical restraints as well social distress. There are gaps in our understanding of the challenges these women face. There is also lack of knowledge about how these challenges can be effectively addressed in rehabilitation. This deficiency is problematic from an ethical, justice and a caring perspective. In this study, changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among women on long-term sick leave were investigated during and after participating in a rehabilitation programme combining two validated methods, Garden Therapy and Supported Employment (SE). The study also discusses difficulties in realising research related to vulnerable under-privileged people. From a population of 329 women who had reported their interest to participate, 245 were randomised to the programme. Of these 144 accepted participation in the research project and of these 123 women accepted to answer the SF-36 questionnaire. The participants were between 21 and 62 years with poor physical and mental health. They had received public financial support from 10 years. The SF-36 measurement was carried out at baseline, after completion of Garden Therapy and after completion of SE. The results are based on data of respondents who participated at all the three occasions (n = 52). When comparing HRQoL baseline with the following occasions, the participants' General Health (GH), Vitality (VT), Social Functioning (SF) and mental health had improved significantly. The Four Leaf Clover (FLC) programme could be an appropriate method for reducing socially induced suffering. However, to conduct intervention studies where vulnerable persons are involved, it is off vital importance to consider whether the participants have the strength to complete the intervention. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  20. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  1. Effect of inpatient rehabilitation on quality of life and exercise capacity in long-term lung transplant survivors: a prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Franziska; Neurohr, Claus; Huppmann, Patrick; Zimmermann, Gregor; Leuchte, Hanno; Baumgartner, Rainer; Kenn, Klaus; Sczepanski, Bernd; Hatz, Rudolf; Czerner, Stephan; Frey, Lorenz; Ueberfuhr, Peter; Bittmann, Iris; Behr, Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an inpatient rehabilitation program on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and exercise capacity (EC) in long-term (>1 year after lung transplantation) survivors (LTSs) in comparison to a control group (CG). Sixty LTSs, 4.5 ± 3.2 years after lung transplantation (LTx), were randomly assigned to two equally sized groups that were stratified for gender and underlying disease. Thirty LTSs (age 49 ± 13 years, 13 male and 17 females, 19 double LTxs, 7 BOS Stage ≥ 1) attended an inpatient rehabilitation program (intervention group, IG) for 23 ± 5 days. The CG (age 50 ± 12 years, 13 males and 17 females, 20 double LTxs, 2 BOS Stage ≥ 1) received medical standard therapy (physiotherapy). Patients were evaluated by cardiopulmonary exercise testing, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), SF-36, SGRQ and the Quality of Life Profile for Chronic Diseases questionnaire before and after (18 ± 3 days) the program. The groups were statistically indistinguishable in terms of clinical data. Each treatment group significantly improved their sub-maximal EC (6MWT: IG, 493 ± 90 m vs 538 ± 90 m, p exercise tolerance in LTS. Our study results did not demonstrate a significant benefit of an inpatient over an outpatient exercise program. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The control of single-colour and multiple-colour visual search by attentional templates in working memory and in long-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Grubert, Anna; Carlisle, N.; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The question whether target selection in visual search can be effectively controlled by simultaneous attentional templates for multiple features is still under dispute. We investigated whether multiple-colour attentional guidance is possible when target colours remain constant and can thus be represented in long-term memory but not when they change frequently and have to be held in working memory. Participants searched for one, two, or three possible target colours that were specified by cue ...

  3. [Prognostic prediction of the functional capacity and effectiveness of functional improvement program of the musculoskeletal system among users of preventive care service under long-term care insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Toshimasa; Nakaya, Naoki; Tomata, Yasutake; Aida, Jun; Okubo, Ichiro; Ohara, Satoko; Obuchi, Shuichi; Sugiyama, Michiko; Yasumura, Seiji; Suzuki, Takao; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Functional Improvement Program of the Musculoskeletal System among users of Preventive Care Service under Long-Term Care Insurance. A total of 3,073 subjects were analyzed. We used the prediction formula to estimate the predicted value of the Kihon Checklist after one year, and calculated the measured value minus the predicted value. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the measured value minus predicted value tertiles: the lowest and middle tertile (good-to-fair measured value) and the highest tertile (poor measured value). We used a multiple logistic regression model to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the good-to-fair measured values of the Kihon Checklist after one year, according to the Functional Improvement Program of the Musculoskeletal System. In potentially dependent elderly, the multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CI) of the good-to-fair measured values were 2.4 (1.3-4.4) for those who attended the program eight times or more in a month (vs those who attended it three times or less in a month), 1.3 (1.0-1.8) for those who engaged in strength training using machines (vs those who did not train), and 1.4 (1.0-1.9) for those who engaged in endurance training. In this study, among potentially dependent elderly, those who attended the program eight times or more in a month and those who engaged in strength training using machines or endurance training showed a significant improvement of their functional capacity.

  4. A social work study on effects of pre-marriage relationship on long-term marital status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Esmael Mosavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marriage is one of the most important events of people's lives and when it happens, it could have both positive and negative consequences. There are different types of marriage such as traditional and modern ones. In traditional marriage, there are some marriage arrangements where man and woman can meet and talk for a short time and in case both parties are interested, marriage is initiated. There is also another type of marriage where girl and boy meet each other for a while, in some events, they may have some limited or unlimited relationships, and once they are interested in each other, they may marry each other. This relatively new type of marriage is popular in many western countries but it is still a controversial type of marriage in eastern countries. In this paper, we perform an empirical study on the effect of pre-marriage relationship on long-term marital status. The results indicate that pre-marriage relationship can reduce after marriage conflicts. The people who had pre-marriage had less aggressive behavior compared with the people who did not.

  5. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabe de Vries

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD.Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupational physicians' perspectives on these impeding factors.Nine perceived themes, grouped in three meta-clusters were found that might impede RTW: Person, (personality / coping problems, symptoms of depression and comorbid (health problems, employee feels misunderstood, and resuming work too soon, Work (troublesome work situation, too little support at work, and too little guidance at work and Healthcare (insufficient mental healthcare and insufficient care from occupational physician. All stakeholders regarded personality/coping problems and symptoms of depression as the most important impeding theme. In addition, supervisors emphasized the importance of mental healthcare underestimating the importance of the work environment, while occupational physicians stressed the importance of the lack of safety and support in the work environment.In addition to the reduction of symptoms, more attention is needed on coping with depressive symptoms and personality problems in the work environment support in the work environment and for RTW in mental healthcare, to prevent long term sickness absence.

  6. Perceived impeding factors for return-to-work after long-term sickness absence due to major depressive disorder: a concept mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Gabe; Hees, Hiske L; Koeter, Maarten W J; Lagerveld, Suzanne E; Schene, Aart H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore various stakeholder perspectives regarding factors that impede return-to-work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Concept mapping was used to explore employees', supervisors' and occupational physicians' perspectives on these impeding factors. Nine perceived themes, grouped in three meta-clusters were found that might impede RTW: Person, (personality / coping problems, symptoms of depression and comorbid (health) problems, employee feels misunderstood, and resuming work too soon), Work (troublesome work situation, too little support at work, and too little guidance at work) and Healthcare (insufficient mental healthcare and insufficient care from occupational physician). All stakeholders regarded personality/coping problems and symptoms of depression as the most important impeding theme. In addition, supervisors emphasized the importance of mental healthcare underestimating the importance of the work environment, while occupational physicians stressed the importance of the lack of safety and support in the work environment. In addition to the reduction of symptoms, more attention is needed on coping with depressive symptoms and personality problems in the work environment support in the work environment and for RTW in mental healthcare, to prevent long term sickness absence.

  7. Returning to work - a long-term process reaching beyond the time frames of multimodal non-specific back pain rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Therese; Jensen, Irene; Bergström, Gunnar; Busch, Hillevi

    2015-01-01

    To explore and describe health professionals' experience of working with return to work (RTW) in multimodal rehabilitation for people with non-specific back pain. An interview study using qualitative content analysis. Fifteen participants were interviewed, all were working with multimodal rehabilitation for people with non-specific back pain in eight different rehabilitation units. The participants experienced RTW as a long-term process reaching beyond the time frames of the multimodal rehabilitation (MMR). Their attitudes and, their patients' condition, impacted on their work which focused on psychological and physical well-being as well as participation in everyday life. They often created an action plan for the RTW process, however the responsibility for its realisation was transferred to other actors. The participants described limited interventions in connection with patients' workplaces. Recommended support in the RTW process in MMR comprises the provision of continuous supervision of vocational issues for the health care professionals, the development of guidelines and a checklist for how to work in close collaboration with patients' workplaces and employers, the provision of long-term follow-up in relation to the patients' work, and the development of proper interventions in order to promote transitions between all the different actors involved. Rehabilitation programs targeting return to work (RTW) for people with non-specific back pain needs to include features concretely focusing on vocational issues. Health and RTW is often seen as a linear process in which health comes before RTW. Rehabilitation programs could be tailored to better address the reciprocal relationship between health and work, in which they are interconnected and affect each other. The RTW process is reaching beyond the time frames of the multimodal rehabilitation but further support from the patients are asked for. The rehabilitation programs needs to be designed to provide long-term

  8. Migrants' decision-process shaping work destination choice: the case of long-term care work in the United Kingdom and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Karen; Hussein, Shereen; Ismail, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    Escalating demands for formal long-term care (LTC) result in the reliance on migrant workers in many developed countries. Within Europe, this is currently framed by progressive European immigration policies favouring inter-European mobility. Using the UK and Norway as case studies, this article has two main aims: (1) to document changes in the contribution of European Union (EU) migrants to the LTC sectors in Western Europe, and (2) to gain further understanding of migrants' decision-processes relating to destination and work choices. The UK and Norway provide examples of two European countries with different immigration histories, welfare regimes, labour market characteristics and cultural values, offering a rich comparison platform. The analysis utilizes national workforce datasets and data obtained from migrants working in the LTC sector in the UK and Norway ( n  = 248) and other stakeholders ( n  = 136). The analysis establishes a significant increase in the contribution of EU migrants (particularly from Eastern Europe) to the LTC sector in both the UK and Norway despite their different welfare regimes. The findings also highlight how migrant care workers develop rational decision-processes influenced by subjective perspectives of investments and returns within a context of wider structural migration barriers. The latter includes welfare and social care policies framing the conditions for migrants' individual actions.

  9. Long-Term Expansion in Platelet Lysate Increases Growth of Peripheral Blood-Derived Endothelial-Colony Forming Cells and Their Growth Factor-Induced Sprouting Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasev, Dimitar; van Wijhe, Michiel H; Weijers, Ester M; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Koolwijk, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    Efficient implementation of peripheral blood-derived endothelial-colony cells (PB-ECFCs) as a therapeutical tool requires isolation and generation of a sufficient number of cells in ex vivo conditions devoid of animal-derived products. At present, little is known how the isolation and expansion procedure in xenogeneic-free conditions affects the therapeutical capacity of PB-ECFCs. The findings presented in this study indicate that human platelet lysate (PL) as a serum substitute yields twice more colonies per mL blood compared to the conventional isolation with fetal bovine serum (FBS). Isolated ECFCs displayed a higher proliferative ability in PL supplemented medium than cells in FBS medium during 30 days expansion. The cells at 18 cumulative population doubling levels (CPDL) retained their proliferative capacity, showed higher sprouting ability in fibrin matrices upon stimulation with FGF-2 and VEGF-A than the cells at 6 CPDL, and displayed low β-galactosidase activity. The increased sprouting of PB-ECFCs at 18 CPDL was accompanied by an intrinsic activation of the uPA/uPAR fibrinolytic system. Induced deficiency of uPA (urokinase-type plasminogen activator) or uPAR (uPA receptor) by siRNA technology completely abolished the angiogenic ability of PB-ECFCs in fibrin matrices. During the serial expansion, the gene induction of the markers associated with inflammatory activation such as VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 did not occur or only to limited extent. While further propagation up to 31 CPDL proceeded at a comparable rate, a marked upregulation of inflammatory markers occurred in all donors accompanied by a further increase of uPA/uPAR gene induction. The observed induction of inflammatory genes at later stages of long-term propagation of PB-ECFCs underpins the necessity to determine the right time-point for harvesting of sufficient number of cells with preserved therapeutical potential. The presented isolation method and subsequent cell expansion in platelet lysate

  10. Long-Term Expansion in Platelet Lysate Increases Growth of Peripheral Blood-Derived Endothelial-Colony Forming Cells and Their Growth Factor-Induced Sprouting Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Tasev

    Full Text Available Efficient implementation of peripheral blood-derived endothelial-colony cells (PB-ECFCs as a therapeutical tool requires isolation and generation of a sufficient number of cells in ex vivo conditions devoid of animal-derived products. At present, little is known how the isolation and expansion procedure in xenogeneic-free conditions affects the therapeutical capacity of PB-ECFCs.The findings presented in this study indicate that human platelet lysate (PL as a serum substitute yields twice more colonies per mL blood compared to the conventional isolation with fetal bovine serum (FBS. Isolated ECFCs displayed a higher proliferative ability in PL supplemented medium than cells in FBS medium during 30 days expansion. The cells at 18 cumulative population doubling levels (CPDL retained their proliferative capacity, showed higher sprouting ability in fibrin matrices upon stimulation with FGF-2 and VEGF-A than the cells at 6 CPDL, and displayed low β-galactosidase activity. The increased sprouting of PB-ECFCs at 18 CPDL was accompanied by an intrinsic activation of the uPA/uPAR fibrinolytic system. Induced deficiency of uPA (urokinase-type plasminogen activator or uPAR (uPA receptor by siRNA technology completely abolished the angiogenic ability of PB-ECFCs in fibrin matrices. During the serial expansion, the gene induction of the markers associated with inflammatory activation such as VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 did not occur or only to limited extent. While further propagation up to 31 CPDL proceeded at a comparable rate, a marked upregulation of inflammatory markers occurred in all donors accompanied by a further increase of uPA/uPAR gene induction. The observed induction of inflammatory genes at later stages of long-term propagation of PB-ECFCs underpins the necessity to determine the right time-point for harvesting of sufficient number of cells with preserved therapeutical potential.The presented isolation method and subsequent cell expansion in platelet

  11. Importance of social capital at the workplace for return to work among women with a history of long-term sick leave: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydström, Ingela; Dalheim Englund, Lotta; Dellve, Lotta; Ahlstrom, Linda

    2017-01-01

    The workplace is an essential source of social capital for many people; it provides mutual support and gives meaning to life. However, few prospective studies have thoroughly investigated the importance of aspects of social capital in the workplace. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between aspects of social capital (social support, sense of community, and quality of leadership) at the workplace, and work ability, working degree, and vitality among women with a history of long-term sick leave from human service organizations. A longitudinal cohort study was performed among women with a history of long-term sick leave. The study started in 2005, and the women were followed up at 6 months, 1 year, and 6 years using self-reported questionnaires (baseline n  = 283). Linear mixed models were used for longitudinal analysis of the repeated measurements of prospective degree of work ability, working degree, and vitality. Analyses were performed with different models; the explanatory variables for each model were social support, sense of community, and quality of leadership and time. Social capital in terms of quality of leadership (being good at solving conflicts and giving high priority to job satisfaction), sense of community (co-operation between colleagues) and social support (help and support from immediate superiors and colleagues) increased the women's work ability score (WAS) as well as working degree over time. Additionally, social capital in terms of quality of leadership increased the women's vitality score over time. A sustainable return-to-work process among individuals with a history of long-term sick leave, going in and out of work participation, could be supported with social support, good quality of leadership, and a sense of community at the workplace. The responsibility for the rehabilitation process can not be reduced to an individual problem, but ought to include all stakeholders involved in the process, such as managers

  12. Social networks, work and network-based resources for the management of long-term conditions: a framework and study protocol for developing self-care support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapadia Dharmi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing the effective targeting and promotion of self-care support for long-term conditions requires more of a focus on patient contexts and networks. The aim of this paper is to describe how within a programme of research and implementation, social networks are viewed as being centrally involved in the mobilisation and deployment of resources in the management of a chronic condition. This forms the basis of a novel approach to understanding, designing, and implementing new forms of self-management support. Methods Drawing on evidence syntheses about social networks and capital and the role of information in self-management, we build on four conceptual approaches to inform the design of our research on the implementation of self-care support for people with long-term conditions. Our approach takes into consideration the form and content of social networks, notions of chronic illness work, normalisation process theory (NPT, and the whole systems informing self-management engagement (WISE approach to self-care support. Discussion The translation and implementation of a self-care agenda in contemporary health and social context needs to acknowledge and incorporate the resources and networks operating in patients' domestic and social environments and everyday lives. The latter compliments the focus on healthcare settings for developing and delivering self-care support by viewing communities and networks, as well as people suffering from long-term conditions, as a key means of support for managing long-term conditions. By focusing on patient work and social-network provision, our aim is to open up a second frontier in implementation research, to translate knowledge into better chronic illness management, and to shift the emphasis towards support that takes place outside formal health services.

  13. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  14. The work ability index and single-item question: associations with sick leave, symptoms, and health--a prospective study of women on long-term sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Linda; Grimby-Ekman, Anna; Hagberg, Mats; Dellve, Lotta

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the association between the work ability index (WAI) and the single-item question on work ability among women working in human service organizations (HSO) currently on long-term sick leave. It also examined the association between the WAI and the single-item question in relation to sick leave, symptoms, and health. Predictive values of the WAI, the changed WAI, the single-item question and the changed single-item question were investigated for degree of sick leave, symptoms, and health. This cohort study comprised 324 HSO female workers on long-term (>60 days) sick leave, with follow-ups at 6 and 12 months. Participants responded to questionnaires. Data on work ability, sick leave, health, and symptoms were analyzed with regard to associations and predictability. Spearman correlation and mixed-model analysis were performed for repeated measurements over time. The study showed a very strong association between the WAI and the single-item question among all participants. Both the WAI and the single-item question showed similar patterns of associations with sick leave, health, and symptoms. The predictive value for the degree of sick leave and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was strong for both the WAI and the single-item question, and slightly less strong for vitality, neck pain, both self-rated general and mental health, and behavioral and current stress. This study suggests that the single-item question on work ability could be used as a simple indicator for assessing the status and progress of work ability among women on long-term sick leave.

  15. Visual working memory capacity and the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeneson, Annette; Wixted, John T; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2012-03-07

    Patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage are sometimes impaired at remembering visual information across delays as short as a few seconds. Such impairments could reflect either impaired visual working memory capacity or impaired long-term memory (because attention has been diverted or because working memory capacity has been exceeded). Using a standard change-detection task, we asked whether visual working memory capacity is intact or impaired after MTL damage. Five patients with hippocampal lesions and one patient with large MTL lesions saw an array of 1, 2, 3, 4, or 6 colored squares, followed after 3, 4, or 8 s by a second array where one of the colored squares was cued. The task was to decide whether the cued square had the same color as the corresponding square in the first array or a different color. At the 1 s delay typically used to assess working memory capacity, patients performed as well as controls at all array sizes. At the longer delays, patients performed as well as controls at small array sizes, thought to be within the capacity limit, and worse than controls at large array sizes, thought to exceed the capacity limit. The findings suggest that visual working memory capacity in humans is intact after damage to the MTL structures and that damage to these structures impairs performance only when visual working memory is insufficient to support performance.

  16. Factors affecting the sporulation capacity during long-term storage of the aphid-pathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis grown on broomcorn millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ming-Guang; Hua, Li

    2005-04-15

    Aphid-pathogenic fungus, Pandora neoaphidis, grown on broomcorn millet possesses greater sporulation capacity (C(s)) than aphid cadavers. The most sporulating cultures (32.0x10(4) spores millet(-1) grain) with water content (C(w)) of 48.7% were prepared by incubation at 20 degrees C for 15 days and used to study the effect of temperature and humidity on C(s) during long-term storage. Cultures were sealed with paper to retain ambient humidity, with parafilm for saturated humidity, or kept in 85% and 98% RH chambers. The C(w) and C(s) were monitored during 200-day storage at 5-20 degrees C. The paper-sealed cultures at 5 degrees C, associated with 21-25% of C(w), were best preserved and their 120-day C(s) was similar to that of the fresh cadavers. Consistently or variably high RH at 5 degrees C resulted in significantly higher C(w) and lower C(s) despite longer viability. The regimes at 10 degrees C preserved the cultures for 40 days. The observations fit well to the logistic model C(s)=35.28/{1+exp[-2.36+(-0.003C(w)+0.001C(w)T)t]} (r(2)=0.95) for all regimes of temperature (T) or C(s)=35.55/[1+exp(-2.33+0.001C(w)t)] (r(2)=0.93) at 5 degrees C only. The rate of decline of C(s) of -0.003C(w)+0.001C(w)T or 0.001 C(w) over days (t) highlights the primary effect of C(w). The daily C(s)-decline rates obtained for the best-stored cultures and air-dried cadavers stored at 5 degrees C were surprisingly identical. The results suggest a possible cheap method for preparing and storing large quantities of P. neoaphiodis inocula.

  17. The Control of Single-color and Multiple-color Visual Search by Attentional Templates in Working Memory and in Long-term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, Anna; Carlisle, Nancy B; Eimer, Martin

    2016-12-01

    The question whether target selection in visual search can be effectively controlled by simultaneous attentional templates for multiple features is still under dispute. We investigated whether multiple-color attentional guidance is possible when target colors remain constant and can thus be represented in long-term memory but not when they change frequently and have to be held in working memory. Participants searched for one, two, or three possible target colors that were specified by cue displays at the start of each trial. In constant-color blocks, the same colors remained task-relevant throughout. In variable-color blocks, target colors changed between trials. The contralateral delay activity (CDA) to cue displays increased in amplitude as a function of color memory load in variable-color blocks, which indicates that cued target colors were held in working memory. In constant-color blocks, the CDA was much smaller, suggesting that color representations were primarily stored in long-term memory. N2pc components to targets were measured as a marker of attentional target selection. Target N2pcs were attenuated and delayed during multiple-color search, demonstrating less efficient attentional deployment to color-defined target objects relative to single-color search. Importantly, these costs were the same in constant-color and variable-color blocks. These results demonstrate that attentional guidance by multiple-feature as compared with single-feature templates is less efficient both when target features remain constant and can be represented in long-term memory and when they change across trials and therefore have to be maintained in working memory.

  18. LONG-TERM STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION FOR STUDENTS’ INDEPENDENT WORK IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AS AN EFFECTIVE MEANS OF FUTURE SPECIALIST’S PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mikhaylovna Galishnikova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the development and implementation of a long-term strategy of the organization of independent work of undergraduate and graduate students by means of a foreign language, which allows designing a vector for further professional and personal development of the future specialist. The proposed strategy is based on a four-step approach, providing for the integration of communication means of training and information technology, streamlining effective means and forms of implementation of the independent work and the control, strengthening the relationships between a student and a teacher, the principle of continuity and consistency. The methods of theoretical and empirical studies were used; there were described the stages of the approach, that is the basis of the strategy itself. Based on the stages, the sequence of the controlled independent work systematic elements was defined; its forms and types were grouped and specified. The mastery performance criteria for competence in the discipline “Foreign language” were defined and refined. The authors cite data of the experimental studies proving the positive impact of the implementation of the long-term strategy of the organization of independent work of students on formation of professional foreign language competence.

  19. Long-term effects of obesity on employment and work limitations among U.S. Adults, 1986 to 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunceli, Kaan; Li, Kemeng; Williams, L Keoki

    2006-09-01

    To determine the relationships between BMI and workforce participation and the presence of work limitations in a U.S. working-age population. We used data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a nationwide prospective cohort, to estimate the effect of obesity in 1986 on employment and work limitations in 1999. Individuals were classified into the following weight categories: underweight (BMI or = 30). Using multivariable probit models, we estimated the relationships between obesity and both employment and work disability. All analyses were stratified by sex. After adjusting for baseline sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status, exercise, and self-reported health, obesity was associated with reduced employment at follow-up [men: marginal effect (ME) -4.8 percentage points (pp); p women: ME -5.8 pp; p women, being either overweight or obese was associated with an increase in self-reported work limitations when compared with normal-weight individuals (overweight: ME +3.9 pp; p work limitations was not statistically significant. Obesity appears to result in future productivity losses through reduced workforce participation and increased work limitations. These findings have important implications in the U.S., which is currently experiencing a rise in the prevalence of obesity.

  20. Evaluating the financial cost and impact on long-term pavement performance of expediting Michigan's road construction work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) has been using monetary incentive payments for many : years to accelerate highway construction work, resulting in reduced delays to the traveling public. It was : envisioned that incentive/disincentive...

  1. Can we throw information out of visual working memory and does this leave informational residue in long-term memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Ashleigh Monette Maxcey; Geoffrey F. Woodman

    2014-01-01

    Can we entirely erase a temporary memory representation from mind? This question has been addressed in several recent studies that tested the specific hypothesis that a representation can be erased from visual working memory based on a cue that indicated that the representation was no longer necessary for the task. In addition to behavioral results that are consistent with the idea that we can throw information out of visual working memory, recent neurophysiological recordings support this pr...

  2. The Association Between Self-Assessed Future Work Ability and Long-Term Sickness Absence, Disability Pension and Unemployment in a General Working Population: A 7-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, A; Kjellberg, K; Leijon, O; Punnett, L; Hemmingsson, T

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Work ability is commonly measured with self-assessments, in the form of indices or single items. The validity of these assessments lies in their predictive ability. Prospective studies have reported associations between work ability and sickness absence and disability pension, but few examined why these associations exist. Several correlates of work ability have been reported, but their mechanistic role is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate to what extent individual's own prognosis of work ability predicts labor market participation and whether this was due to individual characteristics and/or working conditions. Methods Self-assessed prognosis of work ability, 2 years from "now," in the Stockholm Public Health Questionnaire (2002-2003) was linked to national registers on sickness absence, disability pension and unemployment up to year 2010. Effects were studied with Cox regression models. Results Of a total of 12,064 individuals 1466 reported poor work ability. There were 299 cases of disability pension, 1466 long-term sickness absence cases and 765 long-term unemployed during follow-up. Poor work ability increased the risk of long-term sickness absence (HR 2.25, CI 95 % 1.97-2.56), disability pension (HR 5.19, CI 95 % 4.07-6.62), and long-term unemployment (HR 2.18, CI 95 % 1.83-2.60). These associations were partially explained by baseline health conditions, physical and (less strongly) psychosocial aspects of working conditions. Conclusions Self-assessed poor ability predicted future long-term sickness absence, disability pension and long-term unemployment. Self-assessed poor work ability seems to be an indicator of future labor market exclusion of different kinds, and can be used in public health monitoring.

  3. Self-rated health as a predictor of return to work among employees on long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, M; Krol, B; Groothoff, JW

    Aims. The aim of the present study is to identify self-rated health predictors of return to work ( RTW) within the study population as a whole as well as in three subgroups, namely musculoskeletal complaints, other physical health complaints, and psychological complaints. Methods. The study was

  4. 78 FR 42588 - Report by the President's Working Group on Financial Markets on the Long-Term Availability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... President's Working Group subsequently submitted a report updating its analysis in 2010 \\9\\ and is required... business; geographic location, including the rating tiers defined by the Insurance Services Office, Inc.; and other relevant characteristics; and (c) Additional specific effects on commerce in the United...

  5. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  6. Filling the Holes: Work Schedulers as Job Crafters of Employment Practice in Long-Term Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Piszczek, Matthew M.; Mcalpine, Kristie L.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Burke, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Although work schedulers serve an organizational role influencing decisions about balancing conflicting stakeholder interests over schedules and staffing, scheduling has primarily been described as an objective activity or individual job characteristic. The authors use the lens of job crafting to examine how schedulers in 26 health care facilities enact their roles as they “fill holes” to schedule workers. Qualitative analysis of interview data suggests that schedulers expand their formal scope and influence to meet their interpretations of how to manage stakeholders (employers, workers, and patients). The authors analyze variations in the extent of job crafting (cognitive, physical, relational) to broaden role repertoires. They find evidence that some schedulers engage in rule-bound interpretation to avoid role expansion. They also identify four types of schedulers: enforcers, patient-focused schedulers, employee-focused schedulers, and balancers. The article adds to the job-crafting literature by showing that job crafting is conducted not only to create meaningful work but also to manage conflicting demands and to mediate among the competing labor interests of workers, clients, and employers. PMID:27721517

  7. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  8. Working and reference memory across the estrous cycle of rat: a long-term study in gonadally intact females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Assunta; Tomaz, Carlos; Arnone, Benedetto; Tavares, Maria Clotilde; Gasbarri, Antonella

    2010-11-12

    The results of many studies conducted over the past two decades suggested a role of estrogen on mammal's ability to learn and remember. In the present paper, we analyzed the influence that the endogenous fluctuation of estrogen, naturally present across the different phases of estrous cycle of female rats, can exert over the performance of tasks utilized to assess memory. In particular, we analyzed the performances in an eight arms radial maze task, dependent upon working memory, and in a water maze (WM) task, dependent upon spatial reference memory. The water maze is aversively motivated by the desire to escape onto a safe platform, whereas the radial arm maze (RAM) is motivated by food reward. The difference in reinforcement may affect the speed of learning, the strategy adopted and the necessity for accurate navigation. Therefore, coherent results obtained through the two different tasks can be due to mnemonic factors. The study was conducted during a long period of time, 14 months, utilizing gonadally intact females, without pharmacological and surgical treatments. In order to evaluate the post-acquisition phase we first trained the animals to reach the criterion in performing tasks, and then we submitted them to experimental phase. Our results show that estrogen can have an effect on memory processes, and that this effect may be different in relation to different kinds of memory. In fact, in our study, estrogen selectively improved working memory, but not reference memory, during post-acquisition performance of a RAM task with four baited and four un-baited arms. Moreover, WM performances showed that estrogen have a negative effect on spatial reference memory. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Short- and long-term changes in perceived work ability after interdisciplinary rehabilitation of chronic musculoskeletal disorders: prospective cohort study among 854 rehabilitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltychev, Mikhail; Laimi, Katri; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the changes in rehabilitants' perceived work ability after rehabilitation for chronic musculoskeletal disorders with respect to the baseline characteristics. Prospective cohort study based on register and repeated survey data. Public sector employees in ten towns and five hospital districts. A total of 854 employees who participated in the rehabilitation programme owing to common chronic musculoskeletal disorders between 1997 and 2009. Interdisciplinary, biopsychosocial, inpatient rehabilitation programme targeting people of working age with common chronic musculoskeletal disorders. The programme was executed in different rehabilitation centres across the country and funded by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Differences in perceived work ability level before and after rehabilitation. Data were derived from repeated surveys on average 2.1 years before rehabilitation, and 1.5 years (short-term follow-up) and 6.0 years (long-term follow-up) after rehabilitation. Before the rehabilitation, perceived work ability was 7.13 (SD 1.84) among the rehabilitants and 7.27 (SD 1.72) in the matched reference population. Among rehabilitants, this figure decreased by 0.82 (95% confidence interval -0.98 to -0.67) in the short-term and by 1.26 (95% confidence interval -1.45 to -1.07) in the long-term follow-up. Only slight differences in steepness of this deterioration were observed between subgroups, created based on the participants' baseline characteristics. Perceived work ability of participants, in an interdisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation programme for common musculoskeletal disorders, deteriorated regardless of any studied pretreatment characteristics. The improvement of work ability may be an unrealistic goal for participants in this type of rehabilitation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Deliberations of working group 5: are waste management institutions set up for achieving confidence over the long term?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.

    2000-01-01

    Working Group 5 started with a presentation providing an overview of recent research on the issue of public acceptance of waste management. It identified a trustworthy and credible organisation as one that could be also described as: Open, innovative, flexible, responsive, and fair. This presentation was followed by a discussion about 'Which re structural requirements for the effective performance of waste management institutions?'; The WG continued then with a round around the table during which it was possible to compile the views of all participants on the question 'What would characterise a organisation that would earn the trust from the stakeholders (a high reliability organisation)?'. In answering this question, each participant was also asked to consider whether there are differences to be noted according to whether the organisation is an implementing one, authority, municipality or a NGO. Most answers concentrated on the implementer's role. It was concluded, however, that many of the items listed below are valid for the other actors and, especially, the authorities. When compiling the list there was a need to structure the answers into 3 groups, which are discussed in this paper: - Organisational aspects. - Mission(s). - Behaviour. (author)

  11. ASSERT: Augmentation Grant on Working Memory Capacity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engle, Randall

    2000-01-01

    .... That work has resulted in numerous publications and conference presentations demonstrating that individuals who score in the bottom quartile on measures of working memory capacity show more errors...

  12. Perceptions of safety and exposure to violence in public places among working age adults with disabilities or long-term health conditions in the UK: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, E; Krnjacki, L; Llewellyn, G; Vaughan, C; Kavanagh, A

    2016-06-01

    To examine perceptions of safety and exposure to violence in public places among working age adults with and without disabilities in the UK and to assess the extent to which any between-group differences may be moderated by gender and socio-economic situation. Cross-sectional study. Secondary analysis of data collected in Wave 3 (2011-13) of Understanding Society. Data were extracted on a subsample of 5069 respondents aged 16 to 64 years (28% of whom had a disability/long-term health condition) who were administered a questionnaire module addressing experiences of harassment. Between-group comparisons were made on four self-reported indicators of safety. Respondents with disabilities/long-term health conditions were significantly more likely to have been attacked (adjusted OR 2.30, 95%CI 1.17-4.50, P condition are at significantly increased risk of exposure to interpersonal violence, particularly if they are living in poverty or are women. As such, there is a clear need to develop interventions that are targeted to the particular circumstances and needs of these high risk groups. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A multi-wave study of organizational justice at work and long-term sickness absence among employees with depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarsbech, Pernille U; Christensen, Karl Bang; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mental health problems are strong predictors of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). In this study, we investigated whether organizational justice at work - fairness in resolving conflicts and distributing work - prevents risk of LTSA among employees with depressive symptoms. METHODS......: In a longitudinal study with five waves of data collection, we examined a cohort of 1034 employees with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms and organizational justice were assessed by self-administered questionnaires and information on LTSA was derived from a national register. Using Poisson regression...... analyses, we calculated rate ratios (RR) for the prospective association of organizational justice and change in organizational justice with time to onset of LTSA. All analyses were sex stratified. RESULTS: Among men, intermediate levels of organizational justice were statistically significantly associated...

  14. Long-term stability of return to work after a workplace-oriented intervention for patients on sick leave for burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Björn; Jönsson, Peter; Österberg, Kai

    2014-08-09

    The period from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s saw a rapid increase in long-term sick leave in Sweden, primarily due to mental illness and often related to job burnout. This led to an urge for effective treatment programs that could prevent the often long sick leaves. In 2010 we presented a newly developed work-place intervention method, showing that 89% of the intervention group had returned to work at a 1.5 year follow-up, compared to 73% of the control group. The main aim of this study was to assess the long-term stability of these promising results. Sick leave registry data from the Regional Social Insurance Office were analyzed for an additional year (50 weeks) beyond the original 1.5 year period (80 weeks). Data from 68 matched pairs of intervention participants (IP) and controls were available. The proportions of participants being on full-time sick leave versus having returned to work to any extent were computed for every 10th week. Generalized estimating equations were used with GROUP (IP versus controls) as between-subjects factor, WEEKS and AGE as covariates, and return-to-work (RTW) as dependent variable. Significant differences (Wald χ2 with α ≤ .05) was followed up with polynomial contrasts. Individual relapses to higher degrees of sick leave (e.g. from 50% to 100%) and whether partial RTW led to later full-time RTW, were also analyzed. The omnibus test over all 130 weeks showed a GROUP*WEEKS interaction effect (p = .02), indicating differential group developments in RTW, though similarly high at week 130 in both groups with 82.4% of the IP and 77.9% of the controls having RTW (p = .22; χ2-test). A significant interaction with age led to separate analyses of the younger and older subgroups, indicating a stable pattern of superior RTW only among younger IP (week 130: 88.6% vs. 69.7%, p = .054; χ2-test). There was no group difference in relapses into increased degree of sick leave. Part-time sick leave did not predict a later

  15. The Working Memory and Dorsolateral Prefrontal-Hippocampal Functional Connectivity Changes in Long-Term Survival Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Tamoxifen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingui; Tao, Longxiang; Li, Jingjing; Wu, Jiaonan; Zhu, Chunyan; Yu, Fengqiong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jingjie; Qiu, Bensheng; Yu, Yongqiang; He, Xiaoxuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Tamoxifen is the most widely used drug for treating patients with estrogen receptor-sensitive breast cancer. There is evidence that breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen exhibit cognitive dysfunction. However, the underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying working memory deficits in combination with functional connectivity changes in premenopausal women with breast cancer who received long-term tamoxifen treatment. Methods: A total of 31 premenopausal women with breast cancer who received tamoxifen and 32 matched healthy control participants were included. The participants completed n-back tasks and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, which measure working memory performance and brain functional connectivity, respectively. A seed-based functional connectivity analysis within the whole brain was conducted, for which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was chosen as the seed region. Results: Our results indicated that the tamoxifen group had significant deficits in working memory and general executive function performance and significantly lower functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with the right hippocampus compared with the healthy controls. There were no significant changes in functional connectivity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex within the whole brain between the tamoxifen group and healthy controls. Moreover, significant correlations were found in the tamoxifen group between the functional connectivity strength of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with the right hippocampus and decreased working memory performance. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may be affected by tamoxifen treatment, supporting an antagonistic role of tamoxifen in the long-term treatment of breast cancer patients. PMID:28177081

  16. Utilisation of strategic communication to create willingness to change work practices among primary care staff: a long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morténius, Helena; Fridlund, Bengt; Marklund, Bertil; Palm, Lars; Baigi, Amir

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the long-term utilisation of strategic communication as a factor of importance when changing work practices among primary care staff. In many health care organisations, there is a gap between theory and practice. This gap hinders the provision of optimal evidence-based practice and, in the long term, is unfavourable for patient care. One way of overcoming this barrier is systematically structured communication between the scientific theoretical platform and clinical practice. This longitudinal evaluative study was conducted among a primary care staff cohort. Strategic communication was considered to be the intervention platform and included a network of ambassadors who acted as a component of the implementation. Measurements occurred 7 and 12 years after formation of the cohort. A questionnaire was used to obtain information from participants. In total, 846 employees (70%) agreed to take part in the study. After 12 years, the 352 individuals (60%) who had remained in the organisation were identified and followed up. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis were used to analyse the data. Continuous information contributed to significant improvements over time with respect to new ideas and the intention to change work practices. There was a statistically significant synergistic effect on the new way of thinking, that is, willingness to change work practices. During the final two years, the network of ambassadors had created a distinctive image for itself in the sense that primary care staff members were aware of it and its activities. This awareness was associated with a positive change with regard to new ways of thinking. More years of practice was inversely associated with willingness to change work practices. Strategic communication may lead to a scientific platform that promotes high-quality patient care by means of new methods and research findings.

  17. How do occupational rehabilitation clinicians approach participants on long-term sick leave in order to facilitate return to work? A focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eftedal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to explore occupational rehabilitation clinicians’ experiences on how to approach their participants on long-term sick leave in order to facilitate return to work (RTW. Methods An exploratory qualitative design was used. Four focus groups were conducted with 29 clinicians working on interdisciplinary inpatient and outpatient occupational rehabilitation teams in Norway. The clinicians shared narratives from clinical practice. Transcripts were analysed, and results were reported by use of systematic text condensation. Results The clinicians used several approaches to facilitate RTW among individuals on sick leave. Three themes emerged as especially important in order to succeed: 1 To get a basic understanding of the participant’s life-world through a mapping process; 2 To build a therapeutic alliance through communication characterised by sensitivity to the participants’ needs and emotional concerns; and 3 To initiate processes of change that increase the possibilities for RTW. Four main areas targetable for change were identified, three directed at the individual and one encompassing the participants’ surroundings. These approaches were: a To increase feelings of confidence and coping; b To increase the participants’ awareness of their own limits; c To challenge inefficient and negative attitudes and thoughts related to the sick-role; and d Close and immediate dialogue with key stakeholders. Conclusions To increase the possibilities for RTW among individuals on long-term sick leave, a thorough mapping process and the construction of a therapeutic alliance are seen as crucial elements in approaches by occupational rehabilitation clinicians. By gaining the participants’ trust and identifying their barriers and possibilities for work, the clinicians can target modifiable factors, especially at the individual level, and obstacles for RTW in their individual surroundings. This study

  18. Impaired long-term memory retention and working memory in sdy mutant mice with a deletion in Dtnbp1, a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Keizo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1: dysbindin-1 gene is a major susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Genetic variations in DTNBP1 are associated with cognitive functions, general cognitive ability and memory function, and clinical features of patients with schizophrenia including negative symptoms and cognitive decline. Since reduced expression of dysbindin-1 has been observed in postmortem brains of patients with schizophrenia, the sandy (sdy mouse, which has a deletion in the Dtnbp1 gene and expresses no dysbindin-1 protein, could be an animal model of schizophrenia. To address this issue, we have carried out a comprehensive behavioral analysis of the sdy mouse in this study. Results In a rotarod test, sdy mice did not exhibit motor learning whilst the wild type mice did. In a Barnes circular maze test both sdy mice and wild type mice learned to selectively locate the escape hole during the course of the training period and in the probe trial conducted 24 hours after last training. However, sdy mice did not locate the correct hole in the retention probe tests 7 days after the last training trial, whereas wild type mice did, indicating impaired long-term memory retention. A T-maze forced alternation task, a task of working memory, revealed no effect of training in sdy mice despite the obvious effect of training in wild type mice, suggesting a working memory deficit. Conclusion Sdy mouse showed impaired long-term memory retention and working memory. Since genetic variation in DTNBP1 is associated with both schizophrenia and memory function, and memory function is compromised in patients with schizophrenia, the sdy mouse may represent a useful animal model to investigate the mechanisms of memory dysfunction in the disorder.

  19. Psychosocial work environment exposures as risk factors for long-term sickness absence among Danish employees: results from DWECS/DREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2005-01-01

    and followed up during the proceeding 1.5 years regarding onset of long-term sickness absence. RESULTS: Long-term sickness absence among female employees was associated with role conflict, low reward, and poor management quality. Demands for hiding emotions and high emotional demands predicted long......-term sickness absence among men. No significant interactions between psychosocial and physical exposures were found for female or male employees. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests a potential for reducing long-term sickness absence through interventions targeted toward reducing role conflict, and improving reward...... and management quality among female employees, and through reducing emotional demands and demands for hiding emotions among male employees....

  20. Long-term effects of psychosocial work stress in midlife on health functioning after labor market exit--results from the GAZEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Sembajwe, Grace; Zins, Marie; Berkman, Lisa; Goldberg, Marcel; Siegrist, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    To study long-term effects of psychosocial work stress in mid-life on health functioning after labor market exit using two established work stress models. In the frame of the prospective French Gazel cohort study, data on psychosocial work stress were assessed using the full questionnaires measuring the demand-control-support model (in 1997 and 1999) and the effort-reward imbalance model (in 1998). In 2007, health functioning was assessed, using the Short Form 36 mental and physical component scores. Multivariate regressions were calculated to predict health functioning in 2007, controlling for age, gender, social position, and baseline self-perceived health. Consistent effects of both work stress models and their single components on mental and physical health functioning during retirement were observed. Effects remained significant after adjustment including baseline self-perceived health. Whereas the predictive power of both work stress models was similar in the case of the physical composite score, in the case of the mental health score, values of model fit were slightly higher for the effort-reward imbalance model (R(2): 0.13) compared with the demand-control model (R²: 0.11). Findings underline the importance of working conditions in midlife not only for health in midlife but also for health functioning after labor market exit.

  1. Long-term Effects of Psychosocial Work Stress in Midlife on Health Functioning After Labor Market Exit—Results From the GAZEL Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembajwe, Grace; Zins, Marie; Berkman, Lisa; Goldberg, Marcel; Siegrist, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To study long-term effects of psychosocial work stress in mid-life on health functioning after labor market exit using two established work stress models. Methods. In the frame of the prospective French Gazel cohort study, data on psychosocial work stress were assessed using the full questionnaires measuring the demand-control-support model (in 1997 and 1999) and the effort–reward imbalance model (in 1998). In 2007, health functioning was assessed, using the Short Form 36 mental and physical component scores. Multivariate regressions were calculated to predict health functioning in 2007, controlling for age, gender, social position, and baseline self-perceived health. Results. Consistent effects of both work stress models and their single components on mental and physical health functioning during retirement were observed. Effects remained significant after adjustment including baseline self-perceived health. Whereas the predictive power of both work stress models was similar in the case of the physical composite score, in the case of the mental health score, values of model fit were slightly higher for the effort–reward imbalance model (R²: 0.13) compared with the demand-control model (R²: 0.11). Conclusions. Findings underline the importance of working conditions in midlife not only for health in midlife but also for health functioning after labor market exit. PMID:22546992

  2. The long-term resistance mechanisms, critical irrigation threshold and relief capacity shown by Eugenia myrtifolia plants in response to saline reclaimed water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Hernández, José Antonio; Álvarez, Sara

    2017-01-01

    water potential, the relative water content of leaves, leaf stomatal conductance, the leaf photosynthetic rate, water-use efficiency and accumulated evapotranspiration in order to limit water loss; and 4) changes in the antioxidant defence mechanisms. These different responses induced oxidative stress...... to different electric conductivities of the treatments. Based on these premises, we studied the long-term effect of three reclaimed water treatments with different saline concentrations on Eugenia myrtifolia plants. We also looked at the ability of these plants to recover when no drainage was applied. The RW...... with the highest electric conductivity (RW3, EC = 6.96 dS m(-1)) provoked a number of responses to salinity in these plants, including: 1) accumulation and extrusion of phytotoxic ions in roots; 2) a decrease in the shoot/root ratio, leaf area, number of leaves; 3) a decrease in root hydraulic conductivity, leaf...

  3. Analysing long term discursive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    which extend beyond the single interaction, for instance negotiations or planning processes, seems to have played a less important role, with studies such as Iedema 2001 and Wodak 2000 as exceptions. These long term processes, however, are central to the constitution and workings of organizations......What do timescales - the notion that processes take place or can be viewed within a shorter or longer temporal range (Lemke 2005) - mean for the analysis of discourse? What are the methodological consequences of analyzing discourse at different timescales? It may be argued that discourse analysis...... in general has favored either the analysis of short term processes such as interviews, discussions, and lessons, or the analysis of non-processual entities such as (multimodal) texts, arguments, discursive repertoires, and discourses (in a Foucaultian sense). In contrast, analysis of long term processes...

  4. The abilities of improved schizophrenia patients to work and live independently in the community: a 10-year long-term outcome study from Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakar Meghana

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outcome of first episode schizophrenia has several determinants. Socioecological factors, particularly living conditions, migration, community and culture, not only affect the level of risk but also the outcome. Mega cities around the world show a unique socioecological condition that has several challenges for mental health. The present study reports on the long-term status of patients with schizophrenia in such a mega city: Mumbai, India. Aim This study aims to reveal the long-term outcome of patients suffering from schizophrenia with special reference to clinical symptoms and social functioning. Methods The cohort for this study was drawn from a 10-year follow-up of first episode schizophrenia. Patients having completed 10 years of consistent treatment after first hospitalisation were assessed on psychopathological and recovery criteria. Clinical as well as social parameters of recovery were evaluated. Descriptive statistics with 95% confidence intervals are provided. Results Of 200 patients recruited at the beginning of this study, 122 patients (61% were present in the city of Mumbai at the end of 10-year follow-up study period. Among 122 available patients, 101 patients (50.5% were included in the assessment at the end of 10-year follow-up study period, 6 patients (3.0% were excluded from the study due to changed diagnosis, and 15 patients (7.5% were excluded due to admission into long-term care facilities. This indicates that 107 out of 122 available patients (87.7% were living in the community with their families. Out of 101 (50.5% patients assessed at the end of 10 years, 61 patients (30.5% showed improved recovery on the Clinical Global Impression Scale, 40 patients (20% revealed no improvement in the recovery, 43 patients (72.9% were able to live independently, and 24 patients (40% were able to find employment. Conclusion With 10 years of treatment, the recovery rate among schizophrenia patients in Mumbai was 30

  5. The abilities of improved schizophrenia patients to work and live independently in the community: a 10-year long-term outcome study from Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amresh Kumar; Stitt, Larry; Thakar, Meghana; Shah, Nilesh; Chinnasamy, Gurusamy

    2009-10-13

    The outcome of first episode schizophrenia has several determinants. Socioecological factors, particularly living conditions, migration, community and culture, not only affect the level of risk but also the outcome. Mega cities around the world show a unique socioecological condition that has several challenges for mental health. The present study reports on the long-term status of patients with schizophrenia in such a mega city: Mumbai, India. This study aims to reveal the long-term outcome of patients suffering from schizophrenia with special reference to clinical symptoms and social functioning. The cohort for this study was drawn from a 10-year follow-up of first episode schizophrenia. Patients having completed 10 years of consistent treatment after first hospitalisation were assessed on psychopathological and recovery criteria. Clinical as well as social parameters of recovery were evaluated. Descriptive statistics with 95% confidence intervals are provided. Of 200 patients recruited at the beginning of this study, 122 patients (61%) were present in the city of Mumbai at the end of 10-year follow-up study period. Among 122 available patients, 101 patients (50.5%) were included in the assessment at the end of 10-year follow-up study period, 6 patients (3.0%) were excluded from the study due to changed diagnosis, and 15 patients (7.5%) were excluded due to admission into long-term care facilities. This indicates that 107 out of 122 available patients (87.7%) were living in the community with their families. Out of 101 (50.5%) patients assessed at the end of 10 years, 61 patients (30.5%) showed improved recovery on the Clinical Global Impression Scale, 40 patients (20%) revealed no improvement in the recovery, 43 patients (72.9%) were able to live independently, and 24 patients (40%) were able to find employment. With 10 years of treatment, the recovery rate among schizophrenia patients in Mumbai was 30.5%. Among the patients, 87.7% of patients lived in the

  6. Variation in Working Memory Capacity and Temporal-Contextual Retrieval from Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillers, Gregory J.; Unsworth, Nash

    2011-01-01

    Unsworth and Engle (2007) recently proposed a model of working memory capacity characterized by, among other things, the ability to conduct a strategic, cue-dependent search of long-term memory. Although this ability has been found to mediate individual variation in a number of higher order cognitive tasks, the component processes involved remain…

  7. The long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on verbal working memory: an fMRI study of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Longo, Carmelinda; A Fried, Peter; Cameron, Ian; M Smith, Andra

    2014-11-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on verbal working memory were investigated in young adults. Participants were members of the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study, a longitudinal study that collected a unique body of information on participants from infancy to young adulthood. This allowed for the measurement of an unprecedented number of potentially confounding drug exposure variables including: prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure and current marijuana, nicotine and alcohol use. Twelve young adults with prenatal nicotine exposure and 13 non-exposed controls performed a 2-Back working memory task while fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses were examined. Despite similar task performance, participants with more prenatal nicotine exposure demonstrated significantly greater activity in several regions of the brain that typically subserve verbal working memory including the middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, the inferior parietal lobe and the cingulate gyrus. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure contributes to altered neural functioning during verbal working memory that continues into adulthood. Working memory is critical for a wide range of cognitive skills such as language comprehension, learning and reasoning. Thus, these findings highlight the need for continued educational programs and public awareness campaigns to reduce tobacco use among pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social participation and subjective well-being of long-term unemployed : why is paid work so hard to substitute for?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruggen, AC; Diener, E; Rahtz, DR

    2000-01-01

    In a study of SWB among 948 Dutch long-term unemployed, the two main questions were (I) do long-term unemployed learn To adjust, i.e. does the negative effect on SWB wear off over unemployment duration?; and (2) does social participation help adjustment and restoration of SWB? The effect of

  9. Working Memory Capacity, Confidence and Scientific Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmadi, Fatheya; Oraif, Fatima

    2009-01-01

    Working memory capacity is now well established as a rate determining factor in much learning and assessment, especially in the sciences. Most of the research has focussed on performance in tests and examinations in subject areas. This paper outlines some exploratory work in which other outcomes are related to working memory capacity. Confidence…

  10. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  11. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  12. Work ability score and future work ability as predictors of register-based disability pension and long-term sickness absence: A three-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Nätti, Jouko

    2018-05-01

    We investigated two single items of the Work Ability Index - work ability score, and future work ability - as predictors of register-based disability pension and long-term sickness absence over a three-year follow-up. Survey responses of 11,131 Finnish employees were linked to pension and long-term (more than 10 days) sickness absence register data by Statistics Finland. Work ability score was divided into poor (0-5), moderate (6-7) and good/excellent (8-10) and future work ability into poor (1-2) and good (3) work ability at baseline. Cox proportional hazard regressions were used in the analysis of disability pension, and a negative binomial model in the analysis of long-term sickness absence. The results were adjusted for several background, work- and health-related covariates. Compared with those with good/excellent work ability scores, the hazard ratios of disability pension after adjusting for all covariates were 9.84 (95% CI 6.68-14.49) for poor and 2.25 (CI 95% 1.51-3.35) for moderate work ability score. For future work ability, the hazard ratio was 8.19 (95% CI 4.71-14.23) among those with poor future work ability. The incidence rate ratios of accumulated long-term sickness absence days were 3.08 (95% CI 2.19-4.32) and 1.59 (95% CI 1.32-1.92) for poor and moderate work ability scores, and 1.51 (95% CI 0.97-2.36) for poor future work ability. The single items of work ability score and future work ability predicted register-based disability pension equally well, but work ability score was a better predictor of register-based long-term sickness absence days than future work ability in a three-year follow-up. Both items seem to be of use especially when examining the risk of poor work ability for disability but also for long sick leave.

  13. Visual Working Memory Capacity and Proactive Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Hartshorne, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. METHODOLOGY/P...

  14. Long-term opioid therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, H; Ekholm, Ola; Sjøgren, P

    2017-01-01

    significantly associated with initiation of L-TOT in individuals with CNCP at baseline. During follow-up, L-TOT in CNCP patients increased the likelihood of negative changes in pain interference with work (OR 9.2; 95% CI 1.9-43.6) and in moderate activities (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.1-12.6). The analysis of all......,145). A nationally representative subsample of individuals (n = 2015) completed the self-administered questionnaire in both 2000 and 2013. Collected information included chronic pain (≥6 months), health behaviour, self-rated health, pain interference with work activities and physical activities. Long-term users were...... individuals indicated a dose-response relationship between longer treatment duration and the risk of experiencing negative changes. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals on L-TOT seemed not to achieve the key goals of opioid therapy: pain relief, improved quality of life and functional capacity. SIGNIFICANCE: Long...

  15. Working memory is not fixed-capacity: More active storage capacity for real-world objects than for simple stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F; Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-07-05

    Visual working memory is the cognitive system that holds visual information active to make it resistant to interference from new perceptual input. Information about simple stimuli-colors and orientations-is encoded into working memory rapidly: In under 100 ms, working memory ‟fills up," revealing a stark capacity limit. However, for real-world objects, the same behavioral limits do not hold: With increasing encoding time, people store more real-world objects and do so with more detail. This boost in performance for real-world objects is generally assumed to reflect the use of a separate episodic long-term memory system, rather than working memory. Here we show that this behavioral increase in capacity with real-world objects is not solely due to the use of separate episodic long-term memory systems. In particular, we show that this increase is a result of active storage in working memory, as shown by directly measuring neural activity during the delay period of a working memory task using EEG. These data challenge fixed-capacity working memory models and demonstrate that working memory and its capacity limitations are dependent upon our existing knowledge.

  16. Long-Term Effectiveness of Stress Management at Work: Effects of the Changes in Perceived Stress Reactivity on Mental Health and Sleep Problems Seven Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Raphael M; Barrech, Amira; Riedel, Natalie; Gündel, Harald; Angerer, Peter; Li, Jian

    2018-02-03

    The reduction of stress reactivity resulting from stress management interventions prevents disorders and improves mental health, however, its long-term sustainability has been little examined. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the effectiveness of a stress management intervention, designed to improve stress reactivity, for mental health and sleep problems seven years later, using longitudinal data from 101 male industrial workers. Linear regressions estimated the adjusted effects of the changes in stress reactivity in general as well as in its six subdimensions (work overload, social conflict, social stress, failure at work, and anticipatory and prolonged reactivity) on depression, anxiety, and sleep problems seven years later. The improvement of the prolonged reactivity had positive effects on depression, anxiety, and sleep problems (unstandardized regression coefficients [ Bs ] ≥ 0.35, all p -values ≤ 0.01). Depression and sleep problems were further improved by a reduction of the reactivity to social conflicts ( Bs ≥ 0.29, p -values stress reactivity resulting from a work stress intervention was effective and generally long-lasting in preventing mental health and sleep problems. The reduction of the prolonged reactivity seems of particular importance and efficient in inhibiting negative stress manifestations.

  17. Neuromuscular adaptations to long-term progressive resistance training translates to improved functional capacity for people with multiple sclerosis and is maintained at follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjolhede, T.; Vissing, K.; de Place, L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progressive resistance training (PRT) is acknowledged to effectively improve muscle strength for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), but diverging results exist regarding whether such improvements translates to improved functional capacity, possibly relating to insufficient duration......: This study was a randomised controlled trial, with a training group and a waitlist group undergoing supervised PRT for 24 weeks initially or after 24 weeks of habitual lifestyle, respectively. Functional capacity, isometric muscle strength of knee extensors and flexors, neural drive and thigh muscle cross......-sectional area was measured at baseline, after 24 and 48 weeks. RESULTS: The training group significantly improved neuromuscular function of the knee extensors and flexors, which translated to improvements in functional capacity. Furthermore, the improved functional capacity was maintained after 24 weeks of self...

  18. The long-term mortality impact of combined job strain and family circumstances: A life course analysis of working American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, Erika L; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Noelke, Clemens; Berkman, Lisa F

    2015-12-01

    Work stress and family composition have been separately linked with later-life mortality among working women, but it is not known how combinations of these exposures impact mortality, particularly when exposure is assessed cumulatively over the life course. We tested whether, among US women, lifelong work stress and lifelong family circumstances would jointly predict mortality risk. We studied formerly working mothers in the US Health and Retirement Study (HRS) born 1924-1957 (n = 7352). We used sequence analysis to determine five prototypical trajectories of marriage and parenthood in our sample. Using detailed information on occupation and industry of each woman's longest-held job, we assigned each respondent a score for job control and job demands. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates by combined job demands, job control, and family status, then modeled hazard ratios for death based on family constellation, job control tertiles, and their combination. Married women who had children later in life had the lowest mortality risks (93/1000). The highest-risk family clusters were characterized by spells of single motherhood (132/1000). Generally, we observed linear relationships between job control and mortality hazard within each family trajectory. But while mortality risk was high for all long-term single mothers, we did not observe a job control-mortality gradient in this group. The highest-mortality subgroup was previously married women who became single mothers later in life and had low job control (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.38,2.63). Studies of associations between psychosocial work characteristics and health might consider heterogeneity of effects by family circumstances. Worksite interventions simultaneously considering both work and family characteristics may be most effective in reducing health risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduced prefrontal activation during working and long-term memory tasks and impaired patient-reported cognition among cancer survivors postchemotherapy compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Apple, Alexandra C; Schroeder, Matthew P; Ryals, Anthony J; Voss, Joel L; Gitelman, Darren; Sweet, Jerry J; Butt, Zeeshan A; Cella, David; Wagner, Lynne I

    2016-01-15

    Patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy have reported cognitive impairments that may last for years after the completion of treatment. Working memory-related and long-term memory-related changes in this population are not well understood. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that cancer-related cognitive impairments are associated with the under recruitment of brain regions involved in working and recognition memory compared with controls. Oncology patients (n = 15) who were receiving adjuvant chemotherapy and had evidence of cognitive impairment according to neuropsychological testing and self-report and a group of age-matched, education group-matched, cognitively normal control participants (n = 14) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants performed a nonverbal n-back working memory task and a visual recognition task. On the working memory task, when 1-back and 2-back data were averaged and contrasted with 0-back data, significantly reduced activation was observed in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for oncology patients versus controls. On the recognition task, oncology patients displayed decreased activity of the left-middle hippocampus compared with controls. Neuroimaging results were not associated with patient-reported cognition. Decreased recruitment of brain regions associated with the encoding of working memory and recognition memory was observed in the oncology patients compared with the control group. These results suggest that there is a reduction in neural functioning postchemotherapy and corroborate patient-reported cognitive difficulties after cancer treatment, although a direct association was not observed. Cancer 2016;122:258-268. © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  20. Working Fluid Stability in Large-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle-Units Using Siloxanes—Long-Term Experiences and Fluid Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias G. Erhart

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The results in this work show the influence of long-term operation on the decomposition of working fluids in eight different organic rankine cycle (ORC power plants (both heat-led and electricity-led in a range of 900 kW el to 2 MW el . All case study plants are using octamethyltrisiloxane (MDM as a working fluid; the facilities are between six to 12 years old. Detailed analyses, including the fluid distribution throughout the cycle, are conducted on one system. All presented fluid samples are analyzed via head space gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS. Besides the siloxane composition, the influence of contaminants, such as mineral oil-based lubricants (and their components, is examined. In most cases, the original working fluid degrades to fractions of siloxanes with a lower boiling point (low boilers and fractions with a higher boiling point (high boilers. As a consequence of the analyses, a new fluid recycling and management system was designed and tested in one case study plant (Case Study #8. Pre-post comparisons of fluid samples prove the effectiveness of the applied methods. The results show that the recovery of used working fluid offers an alternative to the purchase of fresh fluid, since operating costs can be significantly reduced. For large facilities, the prices for new fluid range from € 15 per liter (in 2006 to € 22 per liter (in 2013, which is a large reinvestment, especially in light of filling volumes of 4000 liters to 7000 liters per unit. Using the aforementioned method, a price of € 8 per liter of recovered MDM can be achieved.

  1. Introduction: Long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.

    2003-01-01

    Making a decision upon the right choice of a material appropriate to a given application should be based on taking into account several parameters as follows: cost, standards, regulations, safety, recycling, chemical properties, supplying, transformation, forming, assembly, mechanical and physical properties as well as the behaviour in practical conditions. Data taken from a private communication (J.H.Davidson) are reproduced presenting the life time range of materials from a couple of minutes to half a million hours corresponding to applications from missile technology up to high-temperature nuclear reactors or steam turbines. In the case of deep storage of nuclear waste the time required is completely different from these values since we have to ensure the integrity of the storage system for several thousand years. The vitrified nuclear wastes should be stored in metallic canisters made of iron and carbon steels, stainless steels, copper and copper alloys, nickel alloys or titanium alloys. Some of these materials are passivating metals, i.e. they develop a thin protective film, 2 or 3 nm thick - the so-called passive films. These films prevent general corrosion of the metal in a large range of chemical condition of the environment. In some specific condition, localized corrosion such as the phenomenon of pitting, occurs. Consequently, it is absolutely necessary to determine these chemical condition and their stability in time to understand the behavior of a given material. In other words the corrosion system is constituted by the complex material/surface/medium. For high level nuclear wastes the main features for resolving problem are concerned with: geological disposal; deep storage in clay; waste metallic canister; backfill mixture (clay-gypsum) or concrete; long term behavior; data needed for modelling and for predicting; choice of appropriate solution among several metallic candidates. The analysis of the complex material/surface/medium is of great importance

  2. HOW DO WORK HIERARCHIES AND STRICT DIVISIONS OF LABOUR IMPACT CARE WORKERS' EXPERIENCES OF HEALTH AND SAFETY? CASE STUDIESOF LONG TERM CARE IN TORONTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, I; Daly, T; Armstrong, P; Lowndes, R; Chadoin, M; Naidoo, V

    2016-01-01

    According to the Canadian Health Care Association (1), there are 2,577 long-term care ("LTC") facilities across Canada, with the largest proportion (33.4%) located in Ontario. Most studies focus on residents' health, with less attention paid to the health and safety experiences of staff. Given that the work performed in Ontario LTC facilities is very gendered, increasingly racialized, task-oriented, and with strict divisions of labour, this paper explores in what ways some of these factors impact workers' experiences of health and safety. The study objectives included the following research question: How are work hierarchies and task orientation experienced by staff? This paper draws on data from rapid team-based ethnographies of the shifting division of labour in LTC due to use of informal carers in six non-profit LTC facilities located in Toronto, Ontario. Our method involved conducting observations and key informant interviews (N=167) with registered nurses, registered practical nurses, personal support workers, dietary aides, recreation therapists, families, privately paid companions, students, and volunteers. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. For observations, researchers were paired and covered shifts between 7 a.m. and 11 p.m., as well as into the late night over six days, at each of the six sites. Detailed ethnographic field notes were written during and immediately following observational fieldwork. Our results indicate that employee stress is linked to the experiences of care work hierarchies, task orientation, and strict divisions of labour between and among various staff designations. Findings from this project confirm and extend current research that demonstrates there are challenging working conditions in LTC, which can result in occupational health and safety problems, as well as stress for individual workers.

  3. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  4. Effects of resistance training on body composition and functional capacity among sarcopenic obese residents in long-term care facilities: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shu-Ching; Yang, Rong-Sen; Yang, Rea-Jeng; Chang, Shu-Fang

    2018-01-22

    Aging-related loss of muscle and strength with increased adiposity is prevalent among older people in long-term care (LTC) facilities. Studies have shown that people with sarcopenic obesity (SO) are at high risk of declining physical performance. At present, no interventional studies on residents with SO in nursing homes have been conducted in the literature. The objectives of this study include appraising the changes in body composition and physical performance following resistance training among residents with SO in LTC facilities. This study used a quasiexperimental research design. Residents who are 60 years of age or above and have been living a sedentary lifestyle in LTC facilities for the past 3 months will be eligible for inclusion. The intervention group engaged in chair muscle strength training twice a week for 12 weeks, whereas the control group underwent the usual care. The main variables were physical parameters of being lean and fat, the strength of grip and pinch, and a functional independence measure using descriptive analysis, chi-squared test, t-test, and generalized estimating equation for statistical analysis through SPSS. A total of 64 respondents with SO completed the study. After training, total grip strength (p = 0.001) and total pinch strength (p = 0.014) of the intervention group differed significantly from those of the control group. The right grip strength of the intervention group increased by 1.71 kg (p = 0.003) and the left grip strength improved by 1.35 kg (p = 0.028) compared with baseline values. The self-care scores of the intervention group increased by 2.76 points over baseline scores, particularly for the action of dressing oneself. Although grip strength and self-care scores improved more among those in the intervention group, body fat and skeletal muscle percentages did not differ significantly between the groups after training (p > 0.05). Resistance exercises for elderly residents in LTC facilities

  5. Interacting Memory Systems—Does EEG Alpha Activity Respond to Semantic Long-Term Memory Access in a Working Memory Task?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Berger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Memory consists of various individual processes which form a dynamic system co-ordinated by central (executive functions. The episodic buffer as direct interface between episodic long-term memory (LTM and working memory (WM is fairly well studied but such direct interaction is less clear in semantic LTM. Here, we designed a verbal delayed-match-to-sample task specifically to differentiate between pure information maintenance and mental manipulation of memory traces with and without involvement of access to semantic LTM. Task-related amplitude differences of electroencephalographic (EEG oscillatory brain activity showed a linear increase in frontal-midline theta and linear suppression of parietal beta amplitudes relative to memory operation complexity. Amplitude suppression at upper alpha frequency, which was previously found to indicate access to semantic LTM, was only sensitive to mental manipulation in general, irrespective of LTM involvement. This suggests that suppression of upper EEG alpha activity might rather reflect unspecific distributed cortical activation during complex mental processes than accessing semantic LTM.

  6. Work Package 1B.2 under the European Commission, Integrated Wind Turbine Design (UPWIND): Verification of long-term load measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.

    2011-02-15

    The present report is the final effort of tasks carried out under UPWIND WP1B2 transmission and conversion, which describes: 1) results and recommendations developed in the course of developing the long-term load measurement technique. 2) the hardware details, type of sensors and location, data storage and. 3) data analysis technique to verify design load assumptions. The work is carried out under Contract no 019945 (SES6) 'UPWIND' within the European Commission The interaction between the mechanical and electrical generator subsystems is described rudimentarily, based primarily on HAWC2 simulations below stall of the mechanical system with simple generator and gearbox systems. The electrical system simulations were not carried out as intended in DOW[2], but indications of the conditions for establishing the interaction have been described by measurements and by argument, that this might have an effect as indicated. The hypothesis stating, that the power signal can be utilized as a basic signal for extended analysis of mechanical as well as electrical power signal with static and dynamic features, has been demonstrated on performance and dynamic bandwidth capability. It is however from present analysis obvious that improved signal conditions could be achieved with other mechanical joint solutions than with the present torque signal as measured with the cardan joint. For the reasons mentioned, the comparison with a signal showing the mechanical properties could be improved, with a likely gain on the accuracy as a result. (Author)

  7. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  8. Assessment of capacity loss in low-rate lithium/bromine chloride in thionyl chloride cells by microcalorimetry and long-term discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, E. S.; Meyer, S. M.; Holmes, C. F.

    1990-06-01

    Real-time discharge is one of the few reliable methods available for determining capacities of low-rate cells. The utilization of high energy density lithium batteries in low-rate implantable applications has increased the need for more time-efficient methods of predicting cell longevity since cells have been shown to last in excess of eight years. The relationship between heat dissipation and self-discharge of low-rate lithium/BCX (bromine chloride in thionyl chloride) cells was studied and allows prediction of cell life prior to the availability of real-time data. The method was verified by real-time cell discharge data and provided estimates of delivered capacity within 6 percent of the actual values.

  9. Evaluating long term forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lady, George M. [Department of Economics, College of Liberal Arts, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), and its predecessor organizations, has published projections of U.S. energy production, consumption, distribution and prices annually for over 30 years. A natural issue to raise in evaluating the projections is an assessment of their accuracy compared to eventual outcomes. A related issue is the determination of the sources of 'error' in the projections that are due to differences between the actual versus realized values of the associated assumptions. One way to do this would be to run the computer-based model from which the projections are derived at the time the projected values are realized, using actual rather than assumed values for model assumptions; and, compare these results to the original projections. For long term forecasts, this approach would require that the model's software and hardware configuration be archived and available for many years, possibly decades, into the future. Such archival creates many practical problems; and, in general, it is not being done. This paper reports on an alternative approach for evaluating the projections. In the alternative approach, the model is run many times for cases in which important assumptions are changed individually and in combinations. A database is assembled from the solutions and a regression analysis is conducted for each important projected variable with the associated assumptions chosen as exogenous variables. When actual data are eventually available, the regression results are then used to estimate the sources of the differences in the projections of the endogenous variables compared to their eventual outcomes. The results presented here are for residential and commercial sector natural gas and electricity consumption. (author)

  10. Viral-mediated Zif268 expression in the prefrontal cortex protects against gonadectomy-induced working memory, long-term memory, and social interaction deficits in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossat, Amanda M; Jourdi, Hussam; Wright, Katherine N; Strong, Caroline E; Sarkar, Ambalika; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2017-01-06

    In humans, some males experience reductions in testosterone levels, as a natural consequence of aging or in the clinical condition termed hypogonadism, which are associated with impaired cognitive performance and mood disorder(s). Some of these behavioral deficits can be reversed by testosterone treatment. Our previous work in rats reported that sex differences in the expression of the transcription factor Zif268, a downstream target of testosterone, within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) mediates sex differences in social interaction. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of gonadectomy (GNX) in male rats on mPFC Zif268 expression, mood and cognitive behaviors. We also examined whether reinstitution of Zif268 in GNX rats will correct some of the behavioral deficits observed following GNX. Our results show that GNX induced a downregulation of Zif268 protein in the mPFC, which was concomitant with impaired memory in the y-maze and spontaneous object recognition test, reduced social interaction time, and depression-like behaviors in the forced swim test. Reinstitution of mPFC Zif268, using a novel adeno-associated-viral (AAV) construct, abrogated GNX-induced working memory and long-term memory impairments, and reductions in social interaction time, but not GNX-induced depression-like behaviors. These findings suggest that mPFC Zif268 exerts beneficial effects on memory and social interaction, and could be a potential target for novel treatments for behavioral impairments observed in hypogonadal and aged men with declining levels of gonadal hormones. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Visual working memory capacity and proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshorne, Joshua K

    2008-07-23

    Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. Working memory capacity was probed behaviorally in adult humans both in laboratory settings and via the Internet. Several experiments show that although the effect of proactive interference on visual working memory is significant and can last over several trials, it only changes the capacity estimate by about 15%. This study further confirms the sharp limitations on visual working memory capacity, both in absolute terms and relative to verbal working memory. It is suggested that future research take these limitations into account in understanding differences across a variety of tasks between human adults, prelinguistic infants and nonlinguistic animals.

  12. Visual working memory capacity and proactive interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K Hartshorne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Working memory capacity was probed behaviorally in adult humans both in laboratory settings and via the Internet. Several experiments show that although the effect of proactive interference on visual working memory is significant and can last over several trials, it only changes the capacity estimate by about 15%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study further confirms the sharp limitations on visual working memory capacity, both in absolute terms and relative to verbal working memory. It is suggested that future research take these limitations into account in understanding differences across a variety of tasks between human adults, prelinguistic infants and nonlinguistic animals.

  13. Exploring factors relevant in the assessment of the return-to-work process of employees on long-term sickness absence due to a depressive disorder: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the Return-to-Work (RTW process need to be sufficient in order to optimize the quality of the RTW process. The purpose of this study was to explore factors relevant to Return-to-Work Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with a Depressive Disorder (DD. Method A case of a long-term sick-listed employee with a DD applying for disability benefits was used to gather arguments and grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES. Two focus group meetings were held, consisting of Labor Experts working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Sixteen factors relevant to RTW-ES assessment in a case of DD were found, categorized in the ICF-model under activities (e.g. functional capacity, personal (e.g. competencies, attitude and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship, or categorized under interventions, job accommodations and measures. Conclusions This study shows that 16 factors are relevant in the assessment of RTW-ES in employees sick-listed due to DD. Further research is necessary to expand this knowledge to other health conditions, and to investigate the impact of these results on the quality of the RTW-ES assessment.

  14. Working memory training improves visual short-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarb, Hillary; Nail, Jayde; Schumacher, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    Since antiquity, philosophers, theologians, and scientists have been interested in human memory. However, researchers today are still working to understand the capabilities, boundaries, and architecture. While the storage capabilities of long-term memory are seemingly unlimited (Bahrick, J Exp Psychol 113:1-2, 1984), working memory, or the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in memory, seems to have stringent capacity limits (e.g., Cowan, Behav Brain Sci 24:87-185, 2001). Individual differences, however, do exist and these differences can often predict performance on a wide variety of tasks (cf. Engle What is working-memory capacity? 297-314, 2001). Recently, researchers have promoted the enticing possibility that simple behavioral training can expand the limits of working memory which indeed may also lead to improvements on other cognitive processes as well (cf. Morrison and Chein, Psychol Bull Rev 18:46-60 2011). However, initial investigations across a wide variety of cognitive functions have produced mixed results regarding the transferability of training-related improvements. Across two experiments, the present research focuses on the benefit of working memory training on visual short-term memory capacity-a cognitive process that has received little attention in the training literature. Data reveal training-related improvement of global measures of visual short-term memory as well as of measures of the independent sub-processes that contribute to capacity (Awh et al., Psychol Sci 18(7):622-628, 2007). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit irrelevant information within and between trials is enhanced via n-back training allowing for selective improvement on untrained tasks. Additionally, we highlight a potential limitation of the standard adaptive training procedure and propose a modified design to ensure variability in the training environment.

  15. Long-term potentiation and memory processes in the psychological works of Sigmund Freud and in the formation of neuropsychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centonze, D; Siracusano, A; Calabresi, P; Bernardi, G

    2005-01-01

    Far from disproving the model of mind functioning proposed by psychoanalysis, the recent advances in neuropsychiatrical research confirmed the crucial ideas of Sigmund Freud. The hypothesis that the origin of mental illnesses lies in the impossibility for a subject to erase the long-term effects of a remote adverse event is in tune with the view that several psychiatric disturbances reflect the activation of aberrant unconscious memory processes. Freud's insights did not stop here, but went on to describe in an extremely precise manner the neural mechanisms of memory formation almost a century before the description of long-term synaptic potentiation.

  16. Can the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale be used to screen for risk of long-term sickness absence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, C A M; van Hoffen, M F A; Groothoff, J W; de Bruin, J; Schaufeli, W B; van Rhenen, W

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) for their ability to identify non-sicklisted employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). One-year prospective cohort study including 4,921 employees participating in occupational health surveys in the period 2008-2010. The MBI-GS and UWES were part of the health survey questionnaire and LTSA in the year following the health survey was retrieved from an occupational health register. Associations of baseline MBI-GS and UWES scores with LTSA during 1-year follow-up were stratified by the cause (mental, musculoskeletal, and other somatic illness) of LTSA. Discrimination was assessed by the area (AUC) under the receiver operating characteristic curve and considered practically useful for AUC ≥0.75. During 1-year follow-up, 103 employees (2%) had LTSA due to mental (N = 43), musculoskeletal (N = 31), or other somatic (N = 29) illness. MBI-GS scores were positively and UWES scores negatively associated with mental LTSA, but not musculoskeletal or other somatic LTSA. Discrimination between employees at high and low risk of mental LTSA was moderate: AUC = 0.68 for the MBI-GS and AUC = 0.70 for the UWES. Discrimination did not improve when the MBI-GS and UWES were used simultaneously. The MBI-GS and UWES predicted future mental LTSA in non-sicklisted employees, but discrimination was not practically useful for identifying employees at high risk of LTSA. However, both instruments could be used to select employees for further assessment of mental LTSA risk.

  17. Comparison of Rehabilitation Outcomes for Long Term Neurological Conditions: A Cohort Analysis of the Australian Rehabilitation Outcomes Centre Dataset for Adults of Working Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Turner-Stokes

    Full Text Available To describe and compare outcomes from in-patient rehabilitation (IPR in working-aged adults across different groups of long-term neurological conditions, as defined by the UK National Service Framework.Analysis of a large Australian prospectively collected dataset for completed IPR episodes (n = 28,596 from 2003-2012.De-identified data for adults (16-65 years with specified neurological impairment codes were extracted, cleaned and divided into 'Sudden-onset' conditions: (Stroke (n = 12527, brain injury (n = 7565, spinal cord injury (SCI (n = 3753, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS (n = 805 and 'Progressive/stable' conditions (Progressive (n = 3750 and Cerebral palsy (n = 196. Key outcomes included Functional Independence Measure (FIM scores, length of stay (LOS, and discharge destination.Mean LOS ranged from 21-57 days with significant group differences in gender, source of admission and discharge destination. All six groups showed significant change (p<0.001 between admission and discharge that was likely to be clinically important across a range of items. Significant between-group differences were observed for FIM Motor and Cognitive change scores (Kruskal-Wallis p<0.001, and item-by-item analysis confirmed distinct patterns for each of the six groups. SCI and GBS patients were generally at the ceiling of the cognitive subscale. The 'Progressive/stable' conditions made smaller improvements in FIM score than the 'Sudden-onset conditions', but also had shorter LOS.All groups made gains in independence during admission, although pattern of change varied between conditions, and ceiling effects were observed in the FIM-cognitive subscale. Relative cost-efficiency between groups can only be indirectly inferred. Limitations of the current dataset are discussed, together with opportunities for expansion and further development.

  18. Non-word repetition in children with specific language impairment: a deficit in phonological working memory or in long-term verbal knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalini, Claudia; Brizzolara, Daniela; Chilosi, Anna; Cipriani, Paola; Marcolini, Stefania; Pecini, Chiara; Roncoli, Silvia; Burani, Cristina

    2007-08-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of long-term memory (LTM) verbal knowledge on short-term memory (STM) verbal recall in a sample of Italian children affected by different subtypes of specific language impairment (SLI). The aim of the study was to evaluate if phonological working memory (PWM) abilities of SLI children can be supported by LTM linguistic representations and if PWM performances can be differently affected in the various subtypes of SLI. We tested a sample of 54 children affected by Mixed Receptive-Expressive (RE), Expressive (Ex) and Phonological (Ph) SLI (DSM-IV - American Psychiatric Association, 1994) by means of a repetition task of words (W) and non-words (NW) differing in morphemic structure [morphological non-words (MNW), consisting of combinations of roots and affixes - and simple non-words - with no morphological constituency]. We evaluated the effects of lexical and morpho-lexical LTM representations on STM recall by comparing the repetition accuracy across the three types of stimuli. Results indicated that although SLI children, as a group, showed lower repetition scores than controls, their performance was affected similarly to controls by the type of stimulus and the experimental manipulation of the non-words (better repetition of W than MNW and NW, and of MNW than NW), confirming the recourse to LTM verbal representations to support STM recall. The influence of LTM verbal knowledge on STM recall in SLI improved with age and did not differ among the three types of SLI. However, the three types of SLI differed in the accuracy of their repetition performances (PMW abilities), with the Phonological group showing the best scores. The implications for SLI theory and practice are discussed.

  19. Development of mechanical-hydraulic models for the prediction of the long-term sealing capacity of concrete based sealing materials in rock salt. Project Titel LASA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaikowski, Oliver; Dittrich, Juergen; Hertes, Uwe; Jantschik, Kyra; Wieczorek, Klaus; Zehle, Bernd

    2016-08-15

    The research work leading to these results has received funding from the German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) under contract no. 02E11132. This report presents the current state of laboratory investigations and modelling activities related to the LASA project. The work is related to the research and development of plugging and sealing for repositories in salt rock and is of fundamental importance for the salt option which represents one of the three European repository options in addition to the clay rock and the crystalline rock options.

  20. Shift work, long working hours, and later risk of dementia: A long-term follow-up of the Copenhagen Male Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Gyntelberg, Finn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Waldemar, Gunhild; Westendorp, Rudi Gj; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2017-11-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shift work and long working hours in midlife on the risk of dementia in old age. Methods The present study comprised 4766 participants from the Copenhagen Male Study. We used information on shift work (collected in 1970-1971 and 1985-1986), long working hours defined as >45 hours per week (collected in 1970-1971), socioeconomic status, sleep, stress, and cardiovascular risk factors. Information about dementia diagnoses was obtained from registers. Participants were followed until 2014 (mean length of follow-up was 17.8 years). We employed Poisson regression for the survival analyses and estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We found no statistically significant association between shift work (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70-1.05) or long working hours (IRR 0.97, 95% CI 0.79-1.19) and dementia. Adjustment for potential confounders and mediators did not change the estimates. Working shifts at both time points of exposure assessment was not associated with a higher incidence of dementia compared with non-shift workers at both time points (IRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.69-1.42). The lowest incidence of dementia was observed among participants who reported shift work at one time point (only in 1985-1986: IRR 0.44, 95% CI 0.16-1.23 and only in 1970-1971: IRR 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-1.11). Conclusion We did not find positive evidence of an association between shift work or long working hours and the incidence of dementia, but the negative findings may reflect the crude assessment of shift work and long working hours, which is a major limitation of the present study.

  1. Geographic variation in Chinese children' forced vital capacity and its association with long-term exposure to local PM10: a national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Jun; Li, Qin; Guo, Yuming; Song, Jie-Yun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Jun

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the association between Chinese children's forced vital capacity (FVC) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10 ). The FVC data of 71,763 children aged 7 to 18 was collected from 2010 Chinese National Survey on Students' Construction and Health (CNSSCH). The local annual average concentration of PM 10 , relative humidity, ambient temperature, and other air pollutant data of 30 cities was collected from China Meteorological Administration and Ministry of Environment Protection of China. Then, we used generalized additive model (GAM) to estimate the association between children's FVC and PM 10 . The obvious geographic variation in FVC was found in children of 30 Chinese cities ranging from 1647 ml in Xining to 2571 ml in Beijing. The annual average concentration of PM 10 was also different, ranging from 40 μg/m 3 in Haikou to 155 μg/m 3 in Lanzhou. After adjusted individual characteristics, socioeconomic conditions, ambient temperature, relative humidity, and other air pollutants (e.g., NO 2 and SO 2 ) in the generalized additive model, we found that the increase of PM 10 was associated with decrease of FVC in Chinese children. A 10-μg/m 3 increase of PM 10 was associated with 1.33-ml decrease in FVC (95% confidence interval: -2.18 to -0.47). We also found a larger effect estimate of PM 10 on FVC in boys than that in girls. Consistent associations were found in both physically inactive and active children. The increase of PM 10 was associated with decrease of children's FVC. We should develop proper public health policy to protect children's respiratory health during growth and development in polluted areas.

  2. Work package 1B.2 under the European Commission: Integrated wind turbine design (UPWIND): Specification of long-term load measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Cutululis, N.; Soerensen, Poul

    2007-02-15

    The present report is the 12 month intermediate report of the UPWIND WP1B2 transmission and conversion. It describes the developed measurement technique for long-term load measurement technique, presents the hardware details, type of sensors and location, data storage and data analysis technique to verify design load assumptions. (au)

  3. WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY TEST REVEALS SUBJECTS DIFFICULTIES MANAGING LIMITED CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Ershova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Free recall consists of two separate stages: the emptying of working memory and reactivation [5]. The Tarnow Unchunkable Test (TUT, [7] uses double integer items to separate out only the first stage by making it difficult to reactivate items due to the lack of intra-item relationships.193 Russian college students were tested via the internet version of the TUT. The average number of items remembered in the 3 item test was 2.54 items. In the 4 item test, the average number of items decreased to 2.38. This, and a number of other qualitative distribution differences between the 3 and 4 item tests, indicate that the average capacity limit of working memory has been reached at 3 items. This provides the first direct measurement of the unchunkable capacity limit of number items.Difficulties in managing working memory occurred as most subjects remembered less as the number of items increased beyond capacity and failed to remember a single item in at least one out of three 4 item trials. The Pearson correlation between the total recall of 3 and 4 items was a small 38%.

  4. Long Term Financing of Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Sidharth

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure projects, given their long life, require long term financing. The main sources of long term financings are insurance and pension funds who seek long term investments with low credit risk. However, in India household financial savings are mainly invested in bank deposits. Insurance and pension funds account for only a small percentage of household financial savings. In addition most infrastructure projects do not qualify for investment by insurance and pension funds because of t...

  5. Implementation of an interprofessional communication and collaboration intervention to improve care capacity for heart failure management in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscart, Veronique M; Heckman, George A; Huson, Kelsey; Brohman, Lisa; Harkness, Karen I; Hirdes, John; McKelvie, Robert S; Stolee, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Heart failure affects up to 20% of nursing home residents and is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and transfers to acute care. A major barrier to heart failure management in nursing home settings is limited interprofessional communication. Guideline-based heart failure management programs in nursing homes can reduce hospitalisation rates, though sustainability is limited when interprofessional communication is not addressed. A pilot intervention, 'Enhancing Knowledge and Interprofessional Care for Heart Failure', was implemented on two units in two conveniently selected nursing homes to optimise interprofessional care processes amongst the care team. A core heart team was established, and participants received tailored education focused on heart failure management principles and communication processes, as well as weekly mentoring. Our previous work provided evidence for this intervention's acceptability and implementation fidelity. This paper focuses on the preliminary impact of the intervention on staff heart failure knowledge, communication, and interprofessional collaboration. To determine the initial impact of the intervention on selected staff outcomes, we employed a qualitative design, using a social constructivist interpretive framework. Findings indicated a perceived increase in team engagement, interprofessional collaboration, communication, knowledge about heart failure, and improved clinical outcomes. Individual interviews with staff revealed innovative ways to enhance communication, supporting one another with knowledge and engagement in collaborative practices with residents and families. Engaging teams, through the establishment of core heart teams, was successful to develop interprofessional communication processes for heart failure management. Further steps to be undertaken include assessing the sustainability and effectiveness of this approach with a larger sample.

  6. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, N; Kuwabara, K

    2010-01-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called 'OPERA film' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  7. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.

    2010-02-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called ``OPERA film'' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  8. Working memory capacity as a dynamic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa R Simmering

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A well-known characteristic of working memory is its limited capacity. The source of such limitations, however, is a continued point of debate. Developmental research is positioned to address this debate by jointly identifying the source(s of limitations and the mechanism(s underlying capacity increases. Here we provide a cross-domain survey of studies and theories of working memory capacity development, which reveals a complex picture: dozens of studies from 50 papers show nearly universal increases in capacity estimates with age, but marked variation across studies, tasks, and domains. We argue that the full pattern of performance cannot be captured through traditional approaches emphasizing single causes, or even multiple separable causes, underlying capacity development. Rather, we consider working memory capacity as a dynamic process that emerges from a unified cognitive system flexibly adapting to the context and demands of each task. We conclude by enumerating specific challenges for researchers and theorists that will need to be met in order to move our understanding forward.

  9. Memory Functioning in Children with Reading Disabilities and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Clinical Investigation of Their Working Memory and Long-term Memory Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Kibby, Michelle Y.; Cohen, Morris J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined memory functioning in children with reading disabilities (RD), ADHD, and RD/ADHD using a clinic sample with a clinical instrument: the Children’s Memory Scale, enhancing its generalizability. Participants included 23 children with RD, 30 with ADHD, 30 with RD/ADHD, and 30 controls. Children with RD presented with reduced verbal short-term memory (STM) but intact visual STM, central executive (CE) and long-term memory (LTM) functioning. Their deficit in STM appeared specific to tas...

  10. Long-term data storage in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies. PMID:27819045

  11. Long-term data storage in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A

    2016-10-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV - ) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV - optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV - ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center's charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV - ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  12. Synaptic Correlates of Working Memory Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yuanyuan; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2017-01-18

    Psychological studies indicate that human ability to keep information in readily accessible working memory is limited to four items for most people. This extremely low capacity severely limits execution of many cognitive tasks, but its neuronal underpinnings remain unclear. Here we show that in the framework of synaptic theory of working memory, capacity can be analytically estimated to scale with characteristic time of short-term synaptic depression relative to synaptic current time constant. The number of items in working memory can be regulated by external excitation, enabling the system to be tuned to the desired load and to clear the working memory of currently held items to make room for new ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aging and verbal working memory capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Kralingen, R.B.A.S. van

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The development of verbal working memory capacity over time was investigated. xxx Methods. Four different age groups were tested with the new standard computerized version of the reading span test (Van den Noort et al., 2006, 2008). xxx Results. Compared to the young adults, the old

  14. When Higher Working Memory Capacity Hinders Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCaro, Marci S.; Van Stockum, Charles A., Jr.; Wieth, Mareike B.

    2016-01-01

    Higher working memory capacity (WMC) improves performance on a range of cognitive and academic tasks. However, a greater ability to control attention sometimes leads individuals with higher WMC to persist in using complex, attention-demanding approaches that are suboptimal for a given task. We examined whether higher WMC would hinder insight…

  15. Foreign language proficiency and working memory capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hugdahl, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the hypothesis that working memory capacity interacts with (foreign) language proficiency was tested on multilinguals, who were native (L1) Dutch speakers, were fluent in their second (L2) language, German, and had recently started the acquisition of their third (L3) language,

  16. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer,

  17. Working Memory Capacity as a Dynamic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmering, Vanessa R.; Perone, Sammy

    2013-01-01

    A well-known characteristic of working memory (WM) is its limited capacity. The source of such limitations, however, is a continued point of debate. Developmental research is positioned to address this debate by jointly identifying the source(s) of limitations and the mechanism(s) underlying capacity increases. Here we provide a cross-domain survey of studies and theories of WM capacity development, which reveals a complex picture: dozens of studies from 50 papers show nearly universal increases in capacity estimates with age, but marked variation across studies, tasks, and domains. We argue that the full pattern of performance cannot be captured through traditional approaches emphasizing single causes, or even multiple separable causes, underlying capacity development. Rather, we consider WM capacity as a dynamic process that emerges from a unified cognitive system flexibly adapting to the context and demands of each task. We conclude by enumerating specific challenges for researchers and theorists that will need to be met in order to move our understanding forward. PMID:23335902

  18. Negative emotional experiences arouse rumination and affect working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Antonietta; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Rimé, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    Following an emotional experience, individuals are confronted with the persistence of ruminative thoughts that disturb the undertaking of other activities. In the present study, we experimentally tested the idea that experiencing a negative emotion triggers a ruminative process that drains working memory (WM) resources normally devoted to other tasks. Undergraduate participants of high versus low WM capacity were administered the operation-word memory span test (OSPAN) as a measure of availability of WM resources preceding and following the presentation of negative emotional versus neutral material. Rumination was assessed immediately after the second OSPAN session and at a 24-hr delay. Results showed that both the individual's WM capacity and the emotional valence of the material influenced WM performance and the persistence of ruminative thoughts. Following the experimental induction, rumination mediated the relationship between the negative emotional state and the concomitant WM performance. Based on these results, we argue that ruminative processes deplete WM resources, making them less available for concurrent tasks; in addition, rumination tends to persist over time. These findings have implications for the theoretical modeling of the long-term effects of emotions in both daily life and clinical contexts.

  19. What is healthy work for women and men? - A case-control study of gender- and sector-specific effects of psycho-social working conditions on long-term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidwall, Ulrik; Marklund, Staffan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relevance of the demand-control model and social support in predicting long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Identifying gender- and sector- (private vs. public) specific patterns was in focus. The study uses a cross-sectional design with a case and a control group. The cases are a sample of 2 327 long-term sick listed (>60 days) and the controls are a Swedish population-based sample of 2 063. Data on sickness absence were retrieved from the Swedish national social insurance registers. Data on health, working and living conditions were gathered through a self-administered questionnaire. The results show that employed women have a notably higher risk for LTSA than employed men. High-strain jobs increase the odds for LTSA among both women and men. Active jobs were also associated with LTSA among women. The study confirms the demand-control model (job strain hypothesis) and social support and their associations with LTSA. However, the job strain hypothesis is more evident in the private sector. Active jobs with high psychological demands and high decision latitude seem to be problematic for many women, especially in the private sector. Thus, the active learning hypothesis receives no support for women in the Swedish working population in general.

  20. The prediction of the level of personality organization on reduction of psychiatric symptoms and improvement of work ability in short- versus long-term psychotherapies during a 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knekt, Paul; Lindfors, Olavi; Keinänen, Matti; Heinonen, Erkki; Virtala, Esa; Härkänen, Tommi

    2017-09-01

    How level of personality organization (LPO) predicts psychiatric symptoms and work ability in short- versus long-term psychotherapies is poorly known. We investigated the importance of the LPO on the benefits of short-term versus long-term psychotherapies. A cohort study based on 326 outpatients with mood or anxiety disorder was allocated to long-term (LPP) and short-term (SPP) psychodynamic psychotherapy, and solution-focused therapy (SFT). The LPO was assessed by interview at baseline and categorized into neuroses and higher level borderline. Outcome was assessed at baseline and 4-9 times during a 5-year follow-up, using self-report and interview-based measures of symptoms and work ability. For patients receiving SPP, improvement in work ability, symptom reduction, and the remission rate were more considerable in patients with neuroses than in higher level borderline patients, whereas LPP or SFT showed no notable differences in effectiveness in the two LPO groups. In patients with neuroses, improvement was more considerable in the short-term therapy groups during the first year of follow-up, and in higher level borderline patients LPP was more effective after 3 years of follow-up. The remission rate, defined as both symptom reduction and lack of auxiliary treatment, was higher in LPP than in SPP for both the LPO groups considered. In neuroses, short-term psychotherapy was associated with a more rapid reduction of symptoms and increase in work ability, whereas LPP was more effective for longer follow-ups in both LPO groups. Further large-scale studies are needed. Level of personality organization is relevant for selection between short- and long-term psychotherapies. Short-term therapy gives faster benefits for neurotic patients but not for patients with higher level borderline personality organization. Sustained remission from symptoms is more probable after long-term than short-term therapy. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  1. VISIONARY THINKER: LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT IN WORKS OF MARY P. FOLLETT – LONG-TERM PERSPECTIVE IN THE COMPANIES OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Nikezic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In her lectures, Mary P. Follett pointed to key moments of leadership, management, group membership, coordination and participation as relevant elements for the exploration of human relations that are of interest today in the same way as they were eighty years ago. Model of thinking applied by Mary P. Follett is deeply linked to current strong needs for the creation of leadership and management professions that are linked to changes and long term strategic goals of big companies and world economy as a whole.

  2. Long-term management of radioactive waste - will the Price-Anderson system work for third party liability issues arising from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznick, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Two pieces of legislation have been enacted in the United States to provide a framework for the management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel: the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (1980) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Neither of these statutes provide a means for resolving third party liability issues arising out of radioactive waste management. However, the Price Anderson Act (originally enacted in 1957) provides a system of financial protection that can be applied to waste management activities and that can resolve most issues pertaining to liability for nuclear damage that may result from long-term management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. (NEA) [fr

  3. On improving the NPP construction long-term planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    General approaches to solving the problems of long-term planning of the construction-mounting work volume and introduction of power capacities at different paces of power unit commission and norms of construction time are considered. Problems associated with location and development of subsidiary industries providing NPP construction are discussed. It is shown that decrease of WWER-1000 reactor type NPP construction time from 24 to 12 months results in reduction of required high-skilled engineers, managerial staff, unique construction mechanisms and engines as well as in improvement of conditions for conducting measures on work arrangement during preparation of construction industry and mounting of the first assemblies

  4. Models of verbal working memory capacity: what does it take to make them work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Blume, Christopher L; Saults, J Scott

    2012-07-01

    Theories of working memory (WM) capacity limits will be more useful when we know what aspects of performance are governed by the limits and what aspects are governed by other memory mechanisms. Whereas considerable progress has been made on models of WM capacity limits for visual arrays of separate objects, less progress has been made in understanding verbal materials, especially when words are mentally combined to form multiword units or chunks. Toward a more comprehensive theory of capacity limits, we examined models of forced-choice recognition of words within printed lists, using materials designed to produce multiword chunks in memory (e.g., leather brief case). Several simple models were tested against data from a variety of list lengths and potential chunk sizes, with test conditions that only imperfectly elicited the interword associations. According to the most successful model, participants retained about 3 chunks on average in a capacity-limited region of WM, with some chunks being only subsets of the presented associative information (e.g., leather brief case retained with leather as one chunk and brief case as another). The addition to the model of an activated long-term memory component unlimited in capacity was needed. A fixed-capacity limit appears critical to account for immediate verbal recognition and other forms of WM. We advance a model-based approach that allows capacity to be assessed despite other important processing contributions. Starting with a psychological-process model of WM capacity developed to understand visual arrays, we arrive at a more unified and complete model. Copyright 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Long term complications of diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long-term complications of diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, ... other tests. All these may help you keep complications of diabetes away. You will need to check your blood ...

  6. Selection History Modulates Working Memory Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Cheng Kuo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that past selection history affects the allocation of attention on target selection. However, it is unclear whether context-driven selection history can modulate the efficacy of attention allocation on working memory (WM representations. This study tests the influences of selection history on WM capacity. A display of one item (low load or three/four items (high load was shown for the participants to hold in WM in a delayed response task. Participants then judged whether a probe item was in the memory display or not. Selection history was defined as the number of items attended across trials in the task context within a block, manipulated by the stimulus set-size in the contexts with fewer possible stimuli (4-item or 5-item context or more possible stimuli (8-item or 9-item context from which the memorized content was selected. The capacity measure (i.e. the K parameter was estimated to reflect the number of items that can be held in WM. Across four behavioral experiments, the results revealed that the capacity was significantly reduced in the context with more possible stimuli relative to the context with fewer possible stimuli. Moreover, the reduction in capacity was significant for high WM load and not observed when the focus was on only a single item. Together, these findings indicate that context-driven selection history and focused attention influence WM capacity.

  7. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; P<001); diagnoses of psychological development disorders (OR=9.7; CI95%: 4.5-20.6; P<.001); mental retardation (OR=4.5; CI95%: 2.5-8.2; P<.001): schizophrenia (OR=3.0; CI95%: 1.7-5.2; P<.001); compulsory hospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; P<.001); having experienced therapeutic isolation (OR=1.8; CI95%: 1.5-2.1; P<.001). Variations of long-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had

  8. Memory functioning in children with reading disabilities and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a clinical investigation of their working memory and long-term memory functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibby, Michelle Y; Cohen, Morris J

    2008-11-01

    We examined memory functioning in children with reading disabilities (RD), Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and RD/ADHD using a clinic sample with a clinical instrument: the Children's Memory Scale, enhancing its generalizability. Participants included 23 children with RD, 30 with ADHD, 30 with RD/ADHD, and 30 controls. Children with RD presented with reduced verbal short-term memory (STM) but intact visual STM, central executive (CE), and long-term memory (LTM) functioning. Their deficit in STM appeared specific to tasks requiring phonetic coding of material. Children with ADHD displayed intact CE and LTM functioning but reduced visual-spatial STM, especially when off stimulant medication. Children with RD/ADHD had deficits consistent with both disorders.

  9. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  10. Working memory capacity in generalized social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nader; Bomyea, Jessica

    2011-05-01

    Research suggests that understanding complex social cues depends on the availability of cognitive resources (e.g., Phillips, Channon, Tunstall, Hedenstrom, & Lyons, 2008). In spite of evidence suggesting that executive control functioning may impact anxiety (e.g., Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), relatively few studies have examined working memory in individuals with generalized social phobia. Moreover, few studies have examined the role of threat-relevant content in working memory performance in clinically anxious populations. To this end, the present study assessed working memory capacity (WMC) in individuals with generalized social phobia and nonanxious controls using an operation span task with threat-relevant and neutral stimuli. Results revealed that nonanxious individuals demonstrated better WMC than individuals with generalized social phobia for neutral words but not for social threat words. Individuals with generalized social phobia demonstrated better WMC performance for threat words relative to neutral words. These results suggest that individuals with generalized social phobia may have relatively enhanced working memory performance for salient, socially relevant information. This enhanced working memory capacity for threat-relevant information may be the result of practice with this information in generalized social phobia.

  11. Long-Term Orientation in Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2008-01-01

    Trust does not work in the same way across cultures. This paper presents an agent model of behavior in trade across Hofstedes cultural dimension of long-term vs. short-term orientation. The situation is based on a gaming simulation, the Trust and Tracing game. The paper investigates the

  12. Developmental Dyslexia and Explicit Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, Deny; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marotta, Luigi; Finzi, Alessandra; Vicari, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The reduced verbal long-term memory capacities often reported in dyslexics are generally interpreted as a consequence of their deficit in phonological coding. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the learning deficit exhibited by dyslexics was restricted only to the verbal component of the long-term memory abilities or also involved…

  13. Working capacity in the experiment with animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pul'kov, V.N.; Mashneva, N.I.; Rodionova, L.F.

    1984-01-01

    Influence of different harmful factors such as 90 Sr, 210 Po, mercury, lead on working capacity is studied; special attention is paid to study of behaviour. Low-motivated reactions (spontaneous motor activity, some parameters of orientation-research behaviour) are shown to be most sensitive. The reaction of active avoiding electroskin stimulation or defense conditioned reflexes are more stable to the effect of harmful factors. Dependence of the effect of radioactive and chemical substances at intake with drinking water from different safety standard levels on behaviour reactions is presented

  14. Work capacity assessment of Nigerian bricklayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S .O. Ismaila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to assess the physical work capacity of bricklayers with focus on the energy expenditure during work. Eighty Nine bricklayers’ working on various sites in Ibadan and Eruwa towns of Oyo State, Nigeria are used for the study. Correlation and regression analysis using SPSS 16.0 Statistical Package was used to determine the relationship between VO2 given the age and weight of the subjects; % RHR(Relative Heart Rate and working heart rate (HRW given weight; VO2 and %RHR given Body Mass Index (BMI. The results showed that the mean energy expenditure of bricklaying was 1.5l/min of oxygen (7.23Kcal/min, using a conversion factor of 4.82 which classified bricklaying as “heavy work”. A rest allowance of 64.45% (38.67 minutes rest for 60 minutes work duration was calculated. It was concluded that there is a need to redesign the work content of the aforementioned occupation in order to reduce excessive strain on the workers, which in turn will increase productivity.

  15. Hotter and drier conditions in the near future (2010-2035) might paradoxically improve the general adaptive capacity of a viticultural social-ecological system in Roussillon, southern France, exposed to long-term climatic and economic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereboullet, Anne-Laure; Beltrando, Gérard

    2014-05-01

    Background: Wine production in Roussillon, southern France, has been subjected to deep structural changes in cultural practices since the 1970's, due to changes in demand and market organization. In this Mediterranean region, temperature and rainfall parameters have long been adapted to fortified wine production, but might be less suited to dry wine production, which is nowadays prevailing. The wine industry in Roussillon can be studied as a social-ecological system where local economical and social characteristics are strongly linked to physical inputs. Thus changes in climate, especially warming and drying trends that have been detected and projected by the IPCC in the Mediterranean basin, may disrupt the local economy and social organization in the long term. The aim of our study is to assess the role played by recent (1956-2010) and near-future (2010-2035) changes in temperature and rainfall inputs in the evolution of the system's adaptive capacity to combined long term climatic and economic changes. Methods: Our study combined quantitative and qualitative data. We first assessed recent exposure to climate change by analysing change in daily data of temperature and rainfall observed in Perpignan weather station from 1956 to 2010. Thirty-nine in-depth interviews with local producers and key stakeholders of the local wine industry helped us understand the impacts of recent climatic conditions in the system's adaptive capacity. Then, we measured future changes in temperature and rainfall based on daily data simulated by ARPEGE-Climat (SCRATCH10 dataset) at an 8-km spatial scale, for emission scenarios A2, A1B and B1, up to 2060. Based on the impacts of recent changes in the system, we inferred the possible impacts of future climate change on the system's equilibrium. Results and discussion: Climate data analyses show that changes in temperatures and rainfall patterns have occurred in Perpignan since the mid-1980's, and that current (2001-2010) conditions are

  16. Implementation of new working methods in the floor-laying trade: Long-term effects on knee load and knee complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lilli Kirkeskov; Friche, Claus

    2010-01-01

    This study compared floor laying using new working methods involving standing up, to the traditional methods involving working on one's knees.......This study compared floor laying using new working methods involving standing up, to the traditional methods involving working on one's knees....

  17. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2006-01-01

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  18. Comparing long term energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumo, M.; Simbolotti, G.

    2001-01-01

    Major projection studies by international organizations and senior analysts have been compared with reference to individual key parameters (population, energy demand/supply, resources, technology, emissions and global warming) to understand trends and implications of the different scenarios. Then, looking at the long term (i.e., 2050 and beyond), parameters and trends have been compared together to understand and quantify whether and when possible crisis or market turbulence might occur due to shortage of resources or environmental problems [it

  19. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  20. Long-term data storage in diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV?) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV? optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multic...

  1. Perceived Work Ability in the Light of Long-Term and Stress-Related Unhealthy Behaviors-a Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nevanpera, N; Seitsamo, J; Ala-Mursula, L; Remes, J; Hopsu, L; Auvinen, J; Tammelin, T; Jarvelin, M-R; Laitinen, J

    2015-01-01

    Background Most of the few studies that exist on the longitudinal associations between health behaviors and work ability target to single health behaviors. Purpose To investigate how lifetime clusters of unhealthy behaviors associate with perceived work ability in early midlife. Methods The study population consisted of 46-year-old men and women (n=3107) born in Northern Finland in 1966. Their current perceived work ability compared to lifetime best, and their unhealthy behaviors (physical in...

  2. Increased risk of long-term sickness absence, lower rate of return to work, and higher risk of unemployment and disability pensioning for thyroid patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexo, M A; Watt, T; Pedersen, J

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Little is known about how thyroid diseases affect work ability. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of work disability for patients with thyroid disease compared with the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In a longitudinal register study, ...

  3. Modelling the environmental transport of tritium in the vicinity of long term atmospheric and sub-surface sources. Report of the Tritium Working Group of the Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Programme, Theme 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The IAEA Programme on BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment (BIOMASS) was launched in Vienna in October 1996. The programme was concerned with developing and improving capabilities to predict the transfer of radionuclides in the environment. The programme had three themes: Theme 1: Radioactive Waste Disposal. The objective was to develop the concept of a standard or reference biosphere for application to the assessment of the long term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. Theme 2: Environmental Releases. BIOMASS provided an international forum for activities aimed at increasing the confidence in methods and models for the assessment of radiation exposure related to environmental releases. Two Working Groups addressed issues concerned with the reconstruction of radiation doses received by people from past releases of radionuclides to the environment and the evaluation of the efficacy of remedial measures. Theme 3: Biosphere Processes. The aim of this Theme was to improve capabilities for modelling the transfer of radionuclides in particular parts of the biosphere identified as being of potential radiological significance and where there were gaps in modelling approaches. This topic was explored using a range of methods including reviews of the literature, model inter-comparison exercises and, where possible, model testing against independent sources of data. Three Working Groups were established to examine the modelling of: (1) long term tritium dispersion in the environment; (2) radionuclide uptake by fruits; and (3) radionuclide migration and accumulation in forest ecosystems. This report describes results of the studies undertaken by the Tritium Working Group under Theme 3. It discusses the six model test exercises (three model-model intercomparisons and three model-data exercises) and the twenty-month field sampling programme undertaken to investigate the environmental transport of tritium in the vicinity of long term atmospheric and sub-surface sources

  4. Perceived Work Ability in the Light of Long-Term and Stress-Related Unhealthy Behaviors-a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevanperä, Nina; Seitsamo, Jorma; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Remes, Jouko; Hopsu, Leila; Auvinen, Juha; Tammelin, Tuija; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laitinen, Jaana

    2016-04-01

    Most of the few studies that exist on the longitudinal associations between health behaviors and work ability target to single health behaviors. To investigate how lifetime clusters of unhealthy behaviors associate with perceived work ability in early midlife. The study population consisted of 46-year-old men and women (n = 3107) born in Northern Finland in 1966. Their current perceived work ability compared to lifetime best, and their unhealthy behaviors (physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption) were assessed by questionnaires. We determined clusters of unhealthy behaviors at the ages of 14, 31, and 46 and created lifetime development trajectories of health behaviors. We also assessed stress-related eating and drinking at the ages of 31 and 46. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between clusters of health behaviors, stress-related eating and drinking, and work ability at 46 years. The analyses were controlled for basic education and physical strenuousness of work, psychosocial job characteristics, perceived work ability, and BMI (kg/m(2)) at 31 years. Four health behavior trajectories emerged: always healthy, moderate (reference group), deteriorated. and always unhealthy. Among men, always unhealthy behaviors [OR (95 % confidence interval) 2.81 (1.35, 5.86)], and among women, deteriorated health behaviors [1.67 (1.07, 2.58)] associated with poor perceived work ability at 46 years. In addition, stress-related eating and drinking associated independently with poor perceived work ability at 46 years [men 2.58 (1.62, 4.12) and women 2.48 (1.70, 3.61)]. Long-lasting and stress-related unhealthy behaviors increase the risk of poor work ability in midlife.

  5. Long-Term Effectiveness of a Stress Management Intervention at Work: A 9-Year Follow-Up Study Based on a Randomized Wait-List Controlled Trial in Male Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Short- and medium-term effectiveness (up to 3 years of individual level stress management interventions (SMI at work were demonstrated, yet long-term effectiveness remains unexplored. We therefore aimed to address this research gap. Methods. 94 male middle managers participated in a randomized wait-list controlled trial between 2006 and 2008 and in a post-trial-follow-up survey in 2015. During the first two years, all received an 18-hour psychotherapeutic SMI intervention which was based on the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI model: tackling stressor on mismatch between effort and reward and promoting recovery on overcommitment. Work stress (i.e., ERI indicators was the primary outcome, and the secondary outcome was depressive symptoms. The long-term effectiveness of the SMI was examined by mixed modeling, using an external control group (n=94. Results. Effort and reward were substantially improved with significant intervention ⁎ time interaction effects (p<0.001 compared to the external control group; effects on overcommitment and depressive symptoms were also significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01, resp., though their trajectories in the intervention group were less sustainable. Conclusions. The effectiveness of this psychotherapeutic SMI at work based on the ERI model was observed over a 9-year period, particularly on the effort-reward ratio.

  6. Capacity for work researching method in animal experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pul'nov, V.N.; Mashneva, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    The existing methods of examining the work capacity of animals are discussed with reference to extrapolation of animal data to man. A modified procedure for measuring maximal physical strength is proposed, whereby static endurance of animals at a given exercise rate can be measured. For an integrated evaluation of work capacity, a formula of absolute work capacity is suggested. The proposed procedure may be used to study the working capacity of animals exposed to unfavorable factors of radiation or nonradiation nature

  7. [Return to Work from Vocational RetrainingA Long-Term Analysis of Individual Trajectories: Biografical and Structural Conditions of Success and Failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschnig, Alexander; von Kardorff, Ernst; Klaus, Sebastian

    2018-03-28

    The study aimed at the reconstruction of the trajectories of participants of a two-year vocational-retraining into new workplaces thereby identifying favourable and risky conditions of the return-to-work process. From a practical point of view the study identified special needs and necessities for after-care facilities. A Mixed-Method-Design was used. Quantitatively the follow-up-study included 214 persons who participated for three times on filling out a questionnaire over a period of eighteen months after the end of the vocational retraining. In the qualitative part of the study thirty persons consented to participate in a narrative-episodic interview on their vocational biography, their illness experiences at work and their way back into work. The study focused on the experiences of the participants from within, on their decision-making, coping, and rearrangement processes as well as on the experienced support from family members and rehabilitation professionals. About 75% of the participants of the vocational retraining succeeded in getting a job within the range of 18 months after finishing the retraining. Indicators for successful Return to Work are a high identification with the new vocation, effective coping with the remaining health problems, and an accepted arrangement with the disabilities in the work place and in everyday-life, a positive anticipation of the health condition in the future, and last but not least a satisfying social inclusion. As specific risk constellations for Return to Work emerged a lack of partnership, unfinished mental coping with the illness, negative subjective health prognosis, and a more passive attitude to life. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Long-term biodosimetry Redux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits and reiterates the needs, purposes and requirements of bio-dosimetric assays for long-term dose and health risk assessments. While the most crucial need for bio-dosimetric assays is to guide medical response for radiation accidents, the value of such techniques for improving our understanding of radiation health risk by supporting epidemiological (long-term health risk) studies is significant. As new cohorts of exposed persons are identified and new health risk studies are undertaken with the hopes that studying the exposed will result in a deeper understanding of radiation risk, the value of reliable dose reconstruction is underscored. The ultimate application of biodosimetry in long-term health risk studies would be to completely replace model-based dose reconstruction-a complex suite of methods for retrospectively estimating dose that is commonly fraught with large uncertainties due to the absence of important exposure-related information, as well as imperfect models. While biodosimetry could potentially supplant model-based doses, there are numerous limitations of presently available techniques that constrain their widespread application in health risk research, including limited ability to assess doses received far in the past, high cost, great inter-individual variability, invasiveness, higher than preferred detection limits and the inability to assess internal dose (for the most part). These limitations prevent the extensive application of biodosimetry to large cohorts and should be considered a challenge to researchers to develop new and more flexible techniques that meet the demands of long-term health risk research. Events in recent years, e.g. the Fukushima reactor accident and the increased threat of nuclear terrorism, underscore that any event that results in significant radiation exposures of a group of people will also produce a much larger population, exposed at lower levels, but that likewise needs (or demands) an exposure

  9. What factors are most relevant to the assessment of work ability of employees on long-term sick leave? The physicians' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers-Sánchez, Patricia M.; Wind, Haije; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2013-01-01

    To reach insurance physician (IPs) consensus on factors that must be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees who are sick-listed for 2 years. A Delphi study using online questionnaires was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011. One hundred and two insurance

  10. Methamphetamine-induced short-term increase and long-term decrease in spatial working memory affects protein Kinase M zeta (PKMζ), dopamine, and glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braren, Stephen H; Drapala, Damian; Tulloch, Ingrid K; Serrano, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a toxic, addictive drug shown to modulate learning and memory, yet the neural mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of 2 weekly injections of MA (30 mg/kg) on working memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM) across 5 weeks in adolescent-age mice. MA-treated mice show a significant improvement in working memory performance 1 week following the first MA injection compared to saline-injected controls. Following 5 weeks of MA abstinence mice were re-trained on a reference and working memory version of the RAM to assess cognitive flexibility. MA-treated mice show significantly more working memory errors without effects on reference memory performance. The hippocampus and dorsal striatum were assessed for expression of glutamate receptors subunits, GluA2 and GluN2B; dopamine markers, dopamine 1 receptor (D1), dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH); and memory markers, protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ) and protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ). Within the hippocampus, PKMζ and GluA2 are both significantly reduced after MA supporting the poor memory performance. Additionally, a significant increase in GluN2B and decrease in D1 identifies dysregulated synaptic function. In the striatum, MA treatment increased cytosolic DAT and TH levels associated with dopamine hyperfunction. MA treatment significantly reduced GluN2B while increasing both PKMζ and PKCζ within the striatum. We discuss the potential role of PKMζ/PKCζ in modulating dopamine and glutamate receptors after MA treatment. These results identify potential underlying mechanisms for working memory deficits induced by MA.

  11. Methamphetamine-induced short-term increase and long-term decrease in spatial working memory affects Protein Kinase M zeta (PKMζ, dopamine, and glutamate receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H Braren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA is a toxic, addictive drug shown to modulate learning and memory, yet the neural mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of 2 weekly injections of MA (30 mg/kg on working memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM across 5 weeks in adolescent-age mice. MA-treated mice show a significant improvement in working memory performance 1 week following the first MA injection compared to saline-injected controls. Following 5 weeks of MA abstinence mice were re-trained on a reference and working memory version of the RAM to assess cognitive flexibility. MA-treated mice show significantly more working memory errors without effects on reference memory performance. The hippocampus and dorsal striatum were assessed for expression of glutamate receptors subunits, GluA2 and GluN2B; dopamine markers, dopamine 1 receptor (D1, dopamine transporter (DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; and memory markers, protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ and protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ. Within the hippocampus, PKMζ and GluA2 are both significantly reduced after MA supporting the poor memory performance. Additionally, a significant increase in GluN2B and decrease in D1 identifies dysregulated synaptic function. In the striatum, MA treatment increased cytosolic DAT and TH levels associated with dopamine hyperfunction. MA treatment significantly reduced GluN2B while increasing both PKMζ and PKCζ within the striatum. We discuss the potential role of PKMζ/PKCζ in modulating dopamine and glutamate receptors after MA treatment. These results identify potential underlying mechanisms for working memory deficits induced by MA.

  12. Long term physical and chemical stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grooth, Joris; Haakmeester, Brian; Wever, Carlos; Potreck, Jens; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a detailed investigation into the long term stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) modified membranes, a key factor for the application of these membranes in water purification processes. Although PEM modified membranes have been frequently investigated, their long term

  13. Modeling long-term dynamics of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Garces, Francisco; Haubrich, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, many countries have restructured their electricity industries by introducing competition in their power generation sectors. Although some restructuring has been regarded as successful, the short experience accumulated with liberalized power markets does not allow making any founded assertion about their long-term behavior. Long-term prices and long-term supply reliability are now center of interest. This concerns firms considering investments in generation capacity and regulatory authorities interested in assuring the long-term supply adequacy and the stability of power markets. In order to gain significant insight into the long-term behavior of liberalized power markets, in this paper, a simulation model based on system dynamics is proposed and the underlying mathematical formulations extensively discussed. Unlike classical market models based on the assumption that market outcomes replicate the results of a centrally made optimization, the approach presented here focuses on replicating the system structure of power markets and the logic of relationships among system components in order to derive its dynamical response. The simulations suggest that there might be serious problems to adjust early enough the generation capacity necessary to maintain stable reserve margins, and consequently, stable long-term price levels. Because of feedback loops embedded in the structure of power markets and the existence of some time lags, the long-term market development might exhibit a quite volatile behavior. By varying some exogenous inputs, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the influence of these factors on the long-run market dynamics

  14. Assessment of the long-term impacts of PM10 and PM2.5 particles from construction works on surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant; Marsh, Daniel; Fuller, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Construction activities are common across cities; however, the studies assessing their contribution to airborne PM10 (≤10 μm) and PM2.5 (≤2.5 μm) particles on the surrounding air quality are limited. Herein, we assessed the impact of PM10 and PM2.5 arising from construction works in and around London. Measurements were carried out at 17 different monitoring stations around three construction sites between January 2002 and December 2013. Tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM 1400) and OSIRIS (2315) particle monitors were used to measure the PM10 and PM2.5 fractions in the 0.1-10 μm size range along with the ambient meteorological data. The data was analysed using bivariate concentration polar plots and k-means clustering techniques. Daily mean concentrations of PM10 were found to exceed the European Union target limit value of 50 μg m(-3) at 11 monitoring stations but remained within the allowable 35 exceedences per year, except at two monitoring stations. In general, construction works were found to influence the downwind concentrations of PM10 relatively more than PM2.5. Splitting of the data between working (0800-1800 h; local time) and non-working (1800-0800 h) periods showed about 2.2-fold higher concentrations of PM10 during working hours when compared with non-working hours. However, these observations did not allow to conclude that this increase was from the construction site emissions. Together, the polar concentration plots and the k-means cluster analysis applied to a pair of monitoring stations across the construction sites (i.e. one in upwind and the other in downwind) confirmed the contribution of construction sources on the measured concentrations. Furthermore, pairing the monitoring stations downwind of the construction sites showed a logarithmic decrease (with R(2) about 0.9) in the PM10 and PM2.5 concentration with distance. Our findings clearly indicate an impact of construction activities on the nearby downwind areas and a need

  15. Effects of a randomized controlled intervention trial on return to work and health care utilization after long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, Anne-Mette H.; Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2016-01-01

    ) and odds ratio (OR) were used as measures of associations. Results were adjusted for gender, age, educational level, work ability and previous sick leave. Results: Among all responders we found no effect of the intervention on RTW. Among participants with low health anxiety, the one-year probability of RTW......Background: The aim of the RCT study was to investigate if the effect of a multidisciplinary intervention on return to work (RTW) and health care utilization differed by participants’ self-reported health status at baseline, defined by a) level of somatic symptoms, b) health anxiety and c) self......-reported general health. Methods: A total of 443 individuals were randomized to the intervention (n = 301) or the control group (n = 142) and responded to a questionnaire measuring health status at baseline. Participants were followed in registries measuring RTW and health care utilization. Relative risk (RR...

  16. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Differential Long-Term Effects of Haloperidol and Risperidone on the Acquisition and Performance of Tasks of Spatial Working and Short-Term Memory and Sustained Attention in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Elizabeth J.; Waller, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    A common feature of the neuropsychiatric disorders for which antipsychotic drugs are prescribed is cognitive dysfunction, yet the effects of long-term antipsychotic treatment on cognition are largely unknown. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of long-term oral treatment with the first-generation antipsychotic haloperidol (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg daily) and the second-generation antipsychotic risperidone (1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg daily) on the acquisition and performance of two radial-arm maze (RAM) tasks and a five-choice serial reaction-time task (5C-SRTT) in rats during days 15–60 and 84–320 days of treatment, respectively. In the RAM, neither antipsychotic significantly affected the acquisition or performance of a spatial win shift or a delayed non–match-to-position task. Conversely, in the rats administered 5C-SRTT, haloperidol was associated with profound deficits in performance, and the subjects were not able to progress through all stages of task acquisition. Depending on the dose, risperidone was associated with a greater number of trials to meet specific performance criteria during task acquisition compared with vehicle-treated controls; however, most subjects were eventually able to achieve all levels of task acquisition. Both haloperidol and risperidone also increased the number of perseverative and time-out responses during certain stages of task acquisition, and the response and reward latencies were slightly higher than controls during several stages of the study. These results in rats suggest that while long-term treatment with haloperidol or risperidone may not significantly affect spatial working or short-term memory, both antipsychotics can (depending on dose) impair sustained attention, decrease psychomotor speed, increase compulsive-type behaviors, and impair cognitive flexibility. PMID:24042161

  18. Differential long-term effects of haloperidol and risperidone on the acquisition and performance of tasks of spatial working and short-term memory and sustained attention in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Elizabeth J; Waller, Jennifer L; Terry, Alvin V

    2013-12-01

    A common feature of the neuropsychiatric disorders for which antipsychotic drugs are prescribed is cognitive dysfunction, yet the effects of long-term antipsychotic treatment on cognition are largely unknown. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of long-term oral treatment with the first-generation antipsychotic haloperidol (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg daily) and the second-generation antipsychotic risperidone (1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg daily) on the acquisition and performance of two radial-arm maze (RAM) tasks and a five-choice serial reaction-time task (5C-SRTT) in rats during days 15-60 and 84-320 days of treatment, respectively. In the RAM, neither antipsychotic significantly affected the acquisition or performance of a spatial win shift or a delayed non-match-to-position task. Conversely, in the rats administered 5C-SRTT, haloperidol was associated with profound deficits in performance, and the subjects were not able to progress through all stages of task acquisition. Depending on the dose, risperidone was associated with a greater number of trials to meet specific performance criteria during task acquisition compared with vehicle-treated controls; however, most subjects were eventually able to achieve all levels of task acquisition. Both haloperidol and risperidone also increased the number of perseverative and time-out responses during certain stages of task acquisition, and the response and reward latencies were slightly higher than controls during several stages of the study. These results in rats suggest that while long-term treatment with haloperidol or risperidone may not significantly affect spatial working or short-term memory, both antipsychotics can (depending on dose) impair sustained attention, decrease psychomotor speed, increase compulsive-type behaviors, and impair cognitive flexibility.

  19. Physical workload and risk of long-term sickness absence in the general working population and among blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Fallentin, Nils; Thorsen, Sannie Vester

    2016-01-01

    with a bent or twisted back (HR 1.59 (95% CI 1.39 to 1.83)), arms above shoulder height (HR 1.35 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.59)), squatting or kneeling (HR 1.30 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.54)), pushing/pulling or lifting/carrying (HR 1.40 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.62)) and standing in the same place for 50% or more of total work time...

  20. Assessment of advanced materials development in the European Fusion long-term Technology Programme. Report to the FTSC-P by the Advanced Materials Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Schaaf, B.

    1998-08-01

    In view of the transition to the next, fifth, framework program, and the resources available, the European Commission (EC) requested to launch an assessment for the Advanced Materials area, as part of the European Fusion Technology Programme. A working group chaired by the Materials Field Coordinator assessed the current status of the programme with the view to prepare its future focusing on one class of materials, as expressed by the FTSC-P. Two classes of materials: SiC/SiC ceramic composites and low activation alloys on the basis of V, Ti and Cr are presently in the Advanced Materials area. They are all in very early stages of development with a view to their application in fusion power reactors. All have adverse properties that could exclude their use. SiC/SiC ceramic composites have by far the highest potential operating temperature, contributing greatly to the efficiency of fusion power reactors. At the same time it is also the development with the highest development loss risk. This class of materials needs an integrated approach of design, manufacturing and materials development different from alloy development. The alloys with vanadium and titanium as base element have limited application windows due to their inherent properties. If the development of RAFM steels continues as foreseen, the development of V and Ti alloys is not justifiable in the frame of the advanced materials programme. The oxide dispersion strengthened variant of RAFM steels might reach similar temperature limits: about 900K. Chromium based alloys hold the promise of higher operating temperatures, but the knowledge and experience in fusion applications is limited. Investigating the potential of chromium alloys is considered worthwhile. The alloys have comparable activation hazards and early recycling potential, with properly controlled compositions. Recycling of the SiC/SiC class of materials needs further investigation. The working group concludes that at this stage no contender can be

  1. The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements,…

  2. Factors related to work ability and well-being among women on sick leave due to long-term pain in the neck/shoulders and/or back: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mamunur; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Heiden, Marina; Nilsson, Annika

    2018-05-30

    Musculoskeletal pain is one of the leading causes of sick leave, especially among women, in Western countries. The aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with work ability and well-being, respectively, among women on sick leave due to long-term pain in the neck/shoulders and/or back. A cross-sectional study with a correlational design was conducted on women who were sick-listed due to long-term pain in the neck/shoulders and/or back. A total of 208 participants responded to a survey comprising eight instruments: Multidimensional Pain Inventory scale, General Self-Efficacy scale, Sense of Coherence scale, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Work Ability Index and Life Satisfaction questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with work ability and well-being, respectively. Women who more strongly believed they would return to the same work had greater work ability (β = 0.39, p women with higher pain intensity (β = - 0.30, p job strain (β = - 0.12, p Women with higher self-efficacy rated greater well-being (β = 0.14, p women's scores for depression increased, their well-being decreased by 48%, which was statistically significant (p job strain are predictive of work ability. Moreover, the factors self-efficacy and depression seem to be predictive of well-being. The findings highlight factors that should be considered by health care professionals and policy-makers to guide attempts to reduce sick leave.

  3. Computerized Working-Memory Training for Children Following Arterial Ischemic Stroke: A Pilot Study With Long-Term Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eve, Megan; O'Keeffe, Fiadhnait; Jhuty, Simren; Ganesan, Vijeya; Brown, Gary; Murphy, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in the domains of working memory (WM) and executive function are well documented following childhood arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). However, there are currently no evidence-based cognitive interventions for this population. Computerized, implicit WM training has been demonstrated to generate generalized cognitive gains for children with WM and attention deficits and for adults following brain injury. This study used a pilot design to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of such an intervention program (Cogmed WM Training) for a childhood AIS population. Outcomes were measured via psychometric assessment at preintervention and postintervention and again at 1-year follow-up. At longitudinal follow-up, participants were found to have significant and persistent cognitive difficulties, particularly with attention and response inhibition. Following the computerized, implicit WM intervention, a significant improvement in phonological-loop WM was seen; however, this improvement was not maintained after 12 months. No additional significant improvements on standardized psychometric outcome measures were seen either immediately or at 12-month follow-up. Findings of this pilot study therefore do not currently support Cogmed as an effective intervention for children with AIS but highlight the need for further research, including randomized, controlled trials, to investigate cognitive interventions for the childhood AIS population.

  4. Ergonomics and Beyond: Understanding How Chemical and Heat Exposures and Physical Exertions at Work Affect Functional Ability, Injury, and Long-Term Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer A; Shipp, Eva M; Trueblood, Amber B; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2016-08-01

    To honor Tom Waters's work on emerging occupational health issues, we review the literature on physical along with chemical exposures and their impact on functional outcomes. Many occupations present the opportunity for exposure to multiple hazardous exposures, including both physical and chemical factors. However, little is known about how these different factors affect functional ability and injury. The goal of this review is to examine the relationships between these exposures, impairment of the neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems, functional outcomes, and health problems with a focus on acute injury. Literature was identified using online databases, including PubMed, Ovid Medline, and Google Scholar. References from included articles were searched for additional relevant articles. This review documented the limited existing literature that discussed cognitive impairment and functional disorders via neurotoxicity for physical exposures (heat and repetitive loading) and chemical exposures (pesticides, volatile organic compounds [VOCs], and heavy metals). This review supports that workers are exposed to physical and chemical exposures that are associated with negative health effects, including functional impairment and injury. Innovation in exposure assessment with respect to quantifying the joint exposure to these different exposures is especially needed for developing risk assessment models and, ultimately, preventive measures. Along with physical exposures, chemical exposures need to be considered, alone and in combination, in assessing functional ability and occupationally related injuries. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  5. Navigating Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Holt MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Americans over age 65 constitute a larger percentage of the population each year: from 14% in 2010 (40 million elderly to possibly 20% in 2030 (70 million elderly. In 2015, an estimated 66 million people provided care to the ill, disabled, and elderly in the United States. In 2000, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 15 million Americans used some form of long-term care: adult day care, home health, nursing home, or hospice. In all, 13% of people over 85 years old, compared with 1% of those ages 65 to 74, live in nursing homes in the United States. Transitions of care, among these various levels of care, are common: Nursing home to hospital transfer, one of the best-studied transitions, occurs in more than 25% of nursing home residents per year. This article follows one patient through several levels of care.

  6. Frontoparietal tDCS Benefits Visual Working Memory in Older Adults With Low Working Memory Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, Hector; Gözenman, Filiz; Jones, Kevin T; Stephens, Jaclyn A; Berryhill, Marian E

    2018-01-01

    Working memory (WM) permits maintenance of information over brief delays and is an essential executive function. Unfortunately, WM is subject to age-related decline. Some evidence supports the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to improve visual WM. A gap in knowledge is an understanding of the mechanism characterizing these tDCS linked effects. To address this gap, we compared the effects of two tDCS montages designed on visual working memory (VWM) performance. The bifrontal montage was designed to stimulate the heightened bilateral frontal activity observed in aging adults. The unilateral frontoparietal montage was designed to stimulate activation patterns observed in young adults. Participants completed three sessions (bilateral frontal, right frontoparietal, sham) of anodal tDCS (20 min, 2 mA). During stimulation, participants performed a visual long-term memory (LTM) control task and a visual WM task. There was no effect of tDCS on the LTM task. Participants receiving right unilateral tDCS showed a WM benefit. This pattern was most robust in older adults with low WM capacity. To address the concern that the key difference between the two tDCS montages could be tDCS over the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), we included new analyses from a previous study applying tDCS targeting the PPC paired with a recognition VWM task. No significant main effects were found. A subsequent experiment in young adults found no significant effect of either tDCS montage on either task. These data indicate that tDCS montage, age and WM capacity should be considered when designing tDCS protocols. We interpret these findings as suggestive that protocols designed to restore more youthful patterns of brain activity are superior to those that compensate for age-related changes.

  7. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    charges and fees levied from the waste producers. Altogether, financial resources for decommissioning are needed for the following steps: the post-operational phase in which the facility is prepared for dismantling after its final shut-down, dismantling of the radioactive part of the facility, management, storage and disposal of the radioactive waste, restoration of the site, licensing and regulatory supervision of all these steps. Additional means are necessary for the management, storage and disposal of the spent fuel. The way in which the availability of financial resources is secured differs between public owned installations and installations of the private power utilities. In Germany, past practices has resulted in singular contaminated sites of limited extent, mainly during the first half of the 20. century. Those contaminated sites have been or are being cleaned up and redeveloped. In large areas of Saxony and Thuringia, the geological formations permitted the surface and underground mining of Uranium ore. Facilities of the former Soviet-German WISMUT Ltd. where ore was mined and processed from 1946 until the early 1990's can be found at numerous sites. In the course of the re-unification of Germany, the soviet shares of the WISMUT were taken over by the Federal Republic of Germany and the closure of the WISMUT facilities was initiated. In that phase the extent of the damages to the environment and of the necessary remediation work became clear. All mining and milling sites are now closed and are under decommissioning. A comprehensive remediation concept covers all WISMUT sites. Heaps and mill-tailing ponds are transferred into a long-term stable condition. The area of the facilities to be remediated amounts to more than 30 km 2 . Heaps cover a total area of ca. 15,5 km 2 , tailing ponds in which the tailings resulting from the Uranium production are stored as sludges cover 6,3 km 2 ). In total, the remediation issues are very complex and without precedent. The

  8. Proactive interference does not meaningfully distort visual working memory capacity estimates in the canonical change detection task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Han eLin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The change detection task has become a standard method for estimating the storage capacity of visual working memory. Most researchers assume that this task isolates the properties of an active short-term storage system that can be dissociated from long-term memory systems. However, long-term memory storage may influence performance on this task. In particular, memory traces from previous trials may create proactive interference that sometimes leads to errors, thereby reducing estimated capacity. Consequently, the capacity of visual working memory may be higher than is usually thought, and correlations between capacity and other measures of cognition may reflect individual differences in proactive interference rather than individual differences in the capacity of the short-term storage system. Indeed, previous research has shown that change detection performance can be influenced by proactive interference under some conditions. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the canonical version of the change detection task—in which the to-be-remembered information consists of simple, briefly presented features—is influenced by proactive interference. Two experiments were conducted using methods that ordinarily produce substantial evidence of proactive interference, but no proactive interference was observed. Thus, the canonical version of the change detection task can be used to assess visual working memory capacity with no meaningful influence of proactive interference.

  9. Proactive interference does not meaningfully distort visual working memory capacity estimates in the canonical change detection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Han; Luck, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    The change detection task has become a standard method for estimating the storage capacity of visual working memory. Most researchers assume that this task isolates the properties of an active short-term storage system that can be dissociated from long-term memory systems. However, long-term memory storage may influence performance on this task. In particular, memory traces from previous trials may create proactive interference that sometimes leads to errors, thereby reducing estimated capacity. Consequently, the capacity of visual working memory may be higher than is usually thought, and correlations between capacity and other measures of cognition may reflect individual differences in proactive interference rather than individual differences in the capacity of the short-term storage system. Indeed, previous research has shown that change detection performance can be influenced by proactive interference under some conditions. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the canonical version of the change detection task - in which the to-be-remembered information consists of simple, briefly presented features - is influenced by proactive interference. Two experiments were conducted using methods that ordinarily produce substantial evidence of proactive interference, but no proactive interference was observed. Thus, the canonical version of the change detection task can be used to assess visual working memory capacity with no meaningful influence of proactive interference.

  10. Long-term governance for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, M.

    2007-01-01

    Meritxell Martell spoke of the long-term aspects of radioactive waste management. She pointed out that decision-making processes need to be framed within the context of sustainability, which means that a balance should be sought between scientific considerations, economic aspects and structural conditions. Focusing on structural aspects, Working Group 3 of COWAM-Spain came to the conclusion that the activity of the regulator is a key factor of long-term management. Another finding is that from a sustainability perspective multi-level governance is more effective for coping with the challenges of radioactive waste management than one tier of government-making decisions. The working group also felt that the current Local Information Committees need to evolve towards more institutionalized and legitimized mechanisms for long-term involvement. Ms. Martell introduced a study comparing the efficiency of economic instruments to advance sustainable development in nuclear communities vs. municipalities in mining areas. The study found that funds transferred to nuclear zones had become a means to facilitate local acceptance of nuclear facilities rather than a means to promote socio-economic development. Another finding is that economic instruments are not sufficient guarantees of sustainable development by themselves; additional preconditions include leadership, vision and entrepreneur-ship on the part of community leaders, private or public investments, among others. Finally, Ms. Martell summarised the challenges faced by the Spanish radioactive waste management programme, which include the need for strategic thinking, designing the future in a participatory fashion, and working with local and regional governments and citizens to devise mechanisms for social learning, economic development and environmental protection. (author)

  11. [Long-term effectiveness of psychodynamic outpatient treatment of addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, D V; Werle, L; Steffen, R; Steffen, M; Steffen, S

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to make an evaluation of the effectiveness of long-term outpatient treatment for addiction on the basis of abstinence, cognitive functions, and changes in personality structure. This is a prospective cohort study of 259 patients with registration of the German core data set "addiction", a 12-month follow-up and neuropsychological testing (personality inventory, intelligence and cognitive functions). One year after the end of the long-term treatment we see an abstinence rate (DGSS4) of 57.5 %. The most substantial factors in abstinence are the participation in a self-help-group (β = 0.734, p addiction seem to show its high effectiveness in terms of abstinence and processing of drug structures. The cognitive functions could increase. This could be determinate of a condition for the conservation and restoration of working capacity. Further studies should differentiate the effect of insight into the dependency structure from the abstinence as an specific or unspecific effect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Long term study of mechanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, properties of limestone cement concrete containing different replacement levels of limestone powder were examined. It includes 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of limestone powder as a partial replacement of cement. Silica fume was added incorporated with limestone powder in some mixes to enhance the concrete properties. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were determined. Also, durability of limestone cement concrete with different C3A contents was examined. The weight loss, length change and cube compressive strength loss were measured for concrete attacked by 5% sodium sulfate using an accelerated test up to 525 days age. The corrosion resistance was measured through accelerated corrosion test using first crack time, cracking width and steel reinforcement weight loss. Consequently, for short and long term, the use of limestone up to 10% had not a significant reduction in concrete properties. It is not recommended to use blended limestone cement in case of sulfate attack. The use of limestone cement containing up to 25% limestone has insignificant effect on corrosion resistance before cracking.

  13. Long-term competence restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas R; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    While the United States Supreme Court's Jackson v. Indiana decision and most state statutes mandate determinations of incompetent defendants' restoration probabilities, courts and forensic clinicians continue to lack empirical evidence to guide these determinations and do not yet have a consensus regarding whether and under what circumstances incompetent defendants are restorable. The evidence base concerning the restoration likelihood of those defendants who fail initial restoration efforts is even further diminished and has largely gone unstudied. In this study, we examined the disposition of a cohort of defendants who underwent long-term competence restoration efforts (greater than six months) and identified factors related to whether these defendants were able to attain restoration and adjudicative success. Approximately two-thirds (n = 52) of the 81 individuals undergoing extended restoration efforts were eventually deemed restored to competence. Lengths of hospitalization until successful restoration are presented with implications for the reasonable length of time that restoration efforts should persist. Older individuals were less likely to be restored and successfully adjudicated, and individuals with more severe charges and greater factual legal understanding were more likely to be restored and adjudicated. The significance of these findings for courts and forensic clinicians is discussed.

  14. Uranium ... long-term confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Half way through 1983 the outlook for the world's uranium producers was far from bright if one takes a short term view. The readily accessible facts present a gloomy picture. The spot prices of uranium over the past few years decreased from a high of $42-$43/lb to a low of $17 in 1982. It now hovers between $23 and $24. the contract prices negotiated between producers and consumers are not so accessible but they do not reflect the spot price. The reasons why contractual uranium prices do not follow the usual dictates of supply and demand are related to the position in which uranium and associated power industries find themselves. There is public reaction with strong emotional overtones as well as much reduced expectations about the electric power needs of the world. Furthermore the supply of uranium is not guaranteed despite present over production. However the people in the industry, taking the medium- and long-term view, are not despondent

  15. Long-term corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this activity is to assess the long-term corrosion properties of metallic materials under consideration for fabricating waste package containers. Three classes of metals are to be assessed: corrosion resistant, intermediate corrosion resistant, and corrosion allowance. Corrosion properties to be evaluated are general, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and galvanic corrosion. The performance of these materials will be investigated under conditions that are considered relevant to the potential emplacement site. Testing in four aqueous solutions, and vapor phases above them, and at two temperatures are planned for this activity. (The environmental conditions, test metals, and matrix are described in detail in Section 3.0.) The purpose and objective of this activity is to obtain the kinetic and mechanistic information on degradation of metallic alloys currently being considered for waste package containers. This information will be used to provide assistance to (1) waste package design (metal barrier selection) (E-20-90 to E-20-92), (2) waste package performance assessment activities (SIP-PA-2), (3) model development (E-20-75 to E-20-89). and (4) repository license application

  16. Working memory capacity and the spacing effect in cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Peter F; Godbole, Namrata R; Holden, Latasha R; Chang, Yoojin

    2018-07-01

    Spacing repetitions typically improves memory (the spacing effect). In three cued recall experiments, we explored the relationship between working memory capacity and the spacing effect. People with higher working memory capacity are more accurate on memory tasks that require retrieval relative to people with lower working memory capacity. The experiments used different retention intervals and lags between repetitions, but were otherwise similar. Working memory capacity and spacing of repetitions both improved memory in most of conditions, but they did not interact, suggesting additive effects. The results are consistent with the ACT-R model's predictions, and with a study-phase recognition process underpinning the spacing effect in cued recall.

  17. The Development of Visual Working Memory Capacity during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmering, Vanessa R.

    2012-01-01

    The change detection task has been used in dozens of studies with adults to measure visual working memory capacity. Two studies have recently tested children in this task, suggesting a gradual increase in capacity from 5 years to adulthood. These results contrast with findings from an infant looking paradigm suggesting that capacity reaches…

  18. Workplace involvement improves return to work rates among employees with back pain on long-term sick leave: a systematic review of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher; Rick, Jo; Pilgrim, Hazel; Cameron, Jackie; Hillage, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Long-term sickness absence among workers is a major problem in industrialised countries. The aim of the review is to determine whether interventions involving the workplace are more effective and cost-effective at helping employees on sick leave return to work than those that do not involve the workplace at all. A systematic review of controlled intervention studies and economic evaluations. Sixteen electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched, and reference and citation tracking was performed on included publications. A narrative synthesis was performed. Ten articles were found reporting nine trials from Europe and Canada, and four articles were found evaluating the cost-effectiveness of interventions. The population in eight trials suffered from back pain and related musculoskeletal conditions. Interventions involving employees, health practitioners and employers working together, to implement work modifications for the absentee, were more consistently effective than other interventions. Early intervention was also found to be effective. The majority of trials were of good or moderate quality. Economic evaluations indicated that interventions with a workplace component are likely to be more cost effective than those without. Stakeholder participation and work modification are more effective and cost effective at returning to work adults with musculoskeletal conditions than other workplace-linked interventions, including exercise.

  19. The influence of working memory capacity on experimental heat pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Aya; Endo, Kaori; Adachi, Tomonori; Ikeda, Takashi; Hagihira, Satoshi; Mashimo, Takashi; Osaka, Mariko

    2013-10-01

    Pain processing and attention have a bidirectional interaction that depends upon one's relative ability to use limited-capacity resources. However, correlations between the size of limited-capacity resources and pain have not been evaluated. Working memory capacity, which is a cognitive resource, can be measured using the reading span task (RST). In this study, we hypothesized that an individual's potential working memory capacity and subjective pain intensity are related. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated 31 healthy participants' potential working memory capacity using the RST, and then applied continuous experimental heat stimulation using the listening span test (LST), which is a modified version of the RST. Subjective pain intensities were significantly lower during the challenging parts of the RST. The pain intensity under conditions where memorizing tasks were performed was compared with that under the control condition, and it showed a correlation with potential working memory capacity. These results indicate that working memory capacity reflects the ability to process information, including precise evaluations of changes in pain perception. In this work, we present data suggesting that changes in subjective pain intensity are related, depending upon individual potential working memory capacities. Individual working memory capacity may be a phenotype that reflects sensitivity to changes in pain perception. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effort–reward imbalance, overcommitment and their associations with all-cause and mental disorder long-term sick leave – A case-control study of the Swedish working population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrik Lidwall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate if effort–reward imbalance (ERI and overcommitment (OC are associated with all-cause and mental disorder long-term sick leave (LS, and to identify differences in associations between genders, private versus public sector employees and socioeconomic status groups. Material and Methods: The study uses a cross-sectional case-control design with a sample of 3477 persons on long-term sick leave of more than 59 days and a control group of 2078 in employment. Data on sick leave originate from social insurance registers, while data on health, working and living conditions were gathered through a survey. The binary logistic regression was used to test the multivariate associations. Results: Effort–reward imbalance was associated with all-cause LS among the women (odds ratio (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.2–2.08, but not among the men. Associations for mental disorder LS were evident for both ERI and OC among both genders (ERI/OC: women OR = 2.76/2.82; men OR = 2.18/2.92. For the men these associations were driven by high effort, while for the women it was low job esteem in public sector and low job security in private sector. Among the highly educated women, ERI was strongly related to mental disorder LS (OR = 6.94, 95% CI: 3.2–15.04, while the highly educated men seemed to be strongly affected by OC for the same outcome (OR = 5.79, 95% CI: 1.48–22.57. Conclusions: The study confirmed the independent roles of ERI and OC for LS, with stronger associations among the women and for mental disorders. The ERI model is a promising tool that can contribute to understanding the prevailing gender gap in sick leave and increasing sick leave due to mental disorders. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:973–989

  1. Relating long-term studies to conservation practice: the case of the Serengeti Cheetah Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Sarah M; Bashir, Sultana; Maddox, Thomas; Laurenson, M Karen

    2007-06-01

    Although detailed, long-term scientific studies provide potentially crucial information for conservation, they are rare. Moreover, there is often a disjunction between scientists and managers that can affect whether scientific results are applied to help solve conservation problems. Long-term studies can promote increased communication between scientists and managers and hence offer an opportunity for constructive engagement between the two groups. We examined direct and indirect impacts of a 30-year study, the Serengeti Cheetah Project (SCP). Much of what is currently known about wild cheetahs comes from the SCP. In particular, the SCP has demonstrated that cheetahs have a combination of semisociality and ranging patterns that is unique among mammals. This system arises because cheetahs need to be mobile to avoid predators and competitors, yet maintain access to prey; this results in densities much lower than for other large carnivores and a requirement for large areas of heterogenous and connected habitat. The SCP started as a research project, but expanded into a national program, developing capacity for carnivore conservation within Tanzania. Long-term studies such as the SCP are uniquely placed to establish effective working relationships between scientists and managers, engage local and national institutions, and strengthen national capacity for biodiversity conservation. This process is best realized through the establishment of frameworks for conservation that seek to align scientific research with management needs. Long-term studies also play an important role in identifying international priorities for conservation. Nonetheless, the integration of science and management in conservation is a two-way process that requires concerted efforts by both sides to improve and maintain dialogue. Ultimately, conservation depends on people, and maintaining a commitment to a particular area over many years-such as through implementation of a long-term research project

  2. Goal-neglect links Stroop interference with working memory capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, C.C.; Elliott, E.M.; Wiggers, J.; Eaves, S.L.; Shelton, J.T.; Mall, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between Stroop interference and working memory capacity may reflect individual differences in resolving conflict, susceptibility to goal neglect, or both of these factors. We compared relationships between working memory capacity and three Stroop tasks: a classic, printed color-word

  3. Mental health (GHQ12; CES-D and attitudes towards the value of work among inmates of a semi-open prison and the long-term unemployed in Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Bihan Etienne

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To analyse the relationships between mental health and employment commitment among prisoners and the long-term unemployed (LTU trying to return to work. Method Fifty-two of 62 male inmates of a semi-open prison (Givenich Penitentiary Centre, the only such unit in Luxembourg, and 69 LTU registered at the Luxembourg Employment Administration completed a questionnaire exploring: 1 mental health (measured by means of scales GHQ12 and CES-D; 2 employment commitment; 3 availability of a support network, self-esteem, empowerment; and 4 socio-demographic characteristics. Results Compared with LTU, inmates were younger, more had work experience (54.9% vs 26.1%, and more were educated to only a low level (71.1% vs 58.0%. The link between employment commitment and mental health in the LTU was the opposite of that seen among the prisoners: the more significant the perceived importance of employment, the worse the mental health (GHQ12 p = 0.003; CES-D p Conclusion The two groups clearly need professional support. Future research should further investigate the link between different forms of professional help and mental health. Randomized controlled trials could be carried out in both groups, with interventions to improve work commitment for prisoners and to help with getting a job for LTU. For those LTU who value employment but cannot find it, the best help may be psychological support.

  4. Effects of strategy on visual working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengson, Jesse J; Luck, Steven J

    2016-02-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that individual differences in estimates of working memory capacity reflect differences in how effectively people use their intrinsic storage capacity. This suggests that estimated capacity could be increased by instructions that encourage more effective encoding strategies. The present study tested this by giving different participants explicit strategy instructions in a change detection task. Compared to a condition in which participants were simply told to do their best, we found that estimated capacity was increased for participants who were instructed to remember the entire visual display, even at set sizes beyond their capacity. However, no increase in estimated capacity was found for a group that was told to focus on a subset of the items in supracapacity arrays. This finding confirms the hypothesis that encoding strategies may influence visual working memory performance, and it is contrary to the hypothesis that the optimal strategy is to filter out any items beyond the storage capacity.

  5. Energy in 2010 - 2020. Long term challenges; Energie 2010-2020. Les defis du long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, Benjamin [ed.] [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-02-02

    This report presents the results of a workshop intending to anticipate the long term challenges, to guide better the short term power options, to understand the available political, economical and technical assumptions for the prospective world situation, to give some strategic hints on the necessary transition. Indeed, the difficult issue which the workshop tried to tackle was how should we prepare to reveal the energetic challenge of the development of the eight to ten billion inhabitants of our Planet in the next century without jeopardizing its existence. The energetic problems, a hardcore of the international preoccupation of both growth and environment, as it was recently evidenced by the climatic conference in Kyoto, have ever been the object of a particular attention on the part of General Commissariat of Plan. Thus, the commission 'Energy in 2010 - 2020' has been instituted in April 1996 in order to update the works done in 1990 - 1991 by the commission 'Energy 2010'. Soon it occurred to this new commission the task of illuminating its works by a long term (2050 - 2100) world prospective analysis of the challenges and problems linked to energy, growth and environment. In conclusion, this document tried to find answers to questions like: - which are the risks the energy consumption augmentation entail? - can we control them by appropriate urbanism and transport policies or technological innovation?. Four options for immediate action are suggested: - the energy efficiency should become a priority objective of policies; -coping with the long term challenges requires acting at present; - building the transition between governmental leadership and market; - taking profit of all the possible synergies between short and long term planning.

  6. Long-Term Planning in Restructured Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botterud, Audun

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of three decision support models for long-term investment planning in restructured power systems. The model concepts address the changing conditions for the electric power industry, with the introduction of more competitive markets, higher uncertainty and less centralised planning. Under these circumstances there is an emerging need for new planning models, also for analyses of the power system in a long-term perspective. The thesis focuses particularly on how dynamic and stochastic modelling can contribute to the improvement of decision making in a restructured power industry. We argue that the use of such modelling approaches has become more important after the introduction of competitive power markets, due to the participants' increased exposure to price fluctuations and economic risk. Our models can be applied by individual participants in the power system to evaluate investment projects for new power generation capacity. The models can also serve as a decision support tool on a regulatory level, providing analyses of the long-term performance of the power system under different regulations and market designs. In Chapter 1, we give a brief introduction to the ongoing development towards restructuring and liberalisation of the electrical power system. A discussion of the operation and organisation of restructured power systems is also provided. In Chapter 2, we look more specifically at different modelling approaches for expansion planning in electrical power systems. We also discuss how the contributions in this thesis compare to previous work in the field of decision support models for long-term planning in both regulated and competitive power systems. In Chapter 3, we develop a power market simulation model based on system dynamics. The advantages and limitations of using descriptive system dynamics models for long-term planning purposes in this context are also discussed. Chapter 4 is devoted to a novel optimisation

  7. High visual working memory capacity in trait social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Jun; Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    Working memory capacity is one of the most important cognitive functions influencing individual traits, such as attentional control, fluid intelligence, and also psychopathological traits. Previous research suggests that anxiety is associated with impaired cognitive function, and studies have shown low verbal working memory capacity in individuals with high trait anxiety. However, the relationship between trait anxiety and visual working memory capacity is still unclear. Considering that people allocate visual attention more widely to detect danger under threat, visual working memory capacity might be higher in anxious people. In the present study, we show that visual working memory capacity increases as trait social anxiety increases by using a change detection task. When the demand to inhibit distractors increased, however, high visual working memory capacity diminished in individuals with social anxiety, and instead, impaired filtering of distractors was predicted by trait social anxiety. State anxiety was not correlated with visual working memory capacity. These results indicate that socially anxious people could potentially hold a large amount of information in working memory. However, because of an impaired cognitive function, they could not inhibit goal-irrelevant distractors and their performance decreased under highly demanding conditions.

  8. Effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment and their associations with all-cause and mental disorder long-term sick leave - A case-control study of the Swedish working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidwall, Ulrik

    2016-11-18

    To investigate if effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and overcommitment (OC) are associated with all-cause and mental disorder long-term sick leave (LS), and to identify differences in associations between genders, private versus public sector employees and socioeconomic status groups. The study uses a cross-sectional case-control design with a sample of 3477 persons on long-term sick leave of more than 59 days and a control group of 2078 in employment. Data on sick leave originate from social insurance registers, while data on health, working and living conditions were gathered through a survey. The binary logistic regression was used to test the multivariate associations. Effort-reward imbalance was associated with all-cause LS among the women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.2-2.08), but not among the men. Associations for mental disorder LS were evident for both ERI and OC among both genders (ERI/OC: women OR = 2.76/2.82; men OR = 2.18/2.92). For the men these associations were driven by high effort, while for the women it was low job esteem in public sector and low job security in private sector. Among the highly educated women, ERI was strongly related to mental disorder LS (OR = 6.94, 95% CI: 3.2-15.04), while the highly educated men seemed to be strongly affected by OC for the same outcome (OR = 5.79, 95% CI: 1.48-22.57). The study confirmed the independent roles of ERI and OC for LS, with stronger associations among the women and for mental disorders. The ERI model is a promising tool that can contribute to understanding the prevailing gender gap in sick leave and increasing sick leave due to mental disorders. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):973-989. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  9. The relationship between sustained inattentional blindness and working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beanland, Vanessa; Chan, Esther Hiu Chung

    2016-04-01

    Inattentional blindness, whereby observers fail to detect unexpected stimuli, has been robustly demonstrated in a range of situations. Originally research focused primarily on how stimulus characteristics and task demands affect inattentional blindness, but increasingly studies are exploring the influence of observer characteristics on the detection of unexpected stimuli. It has been proposed that individual differences in working memory capacity predict inattentional blindness, on the assumption that higher working memory capacity confers greater attentional capacity for processing unexpected stimuli. Unfortunately, empirical investigations of the association between inattentional blindness and working memory capacity have produced conflicting findings. To help clarify this relationship, we examined the relationship between inattentional blindness and working memory capacity in two samples (Ns = 195, 147) of young adults. We used three common variants of sustained inattentional blindness tasks, systematically manipulating the salience of the unexpected stimulus and primary task practice. Working memory capacity, measured by automated operation span (both Experiments 1 & 2) and N-back (Experiment 1 only) tasks, did not predict detection of the unexpected stimulus in any of the inattentional blindness tasks tested. Together with previous research, this undermines claims that there is a robust relationship between inattentional blindness and working memory capacity. Rather, it appears that any relationship between inattentional blindness and working memory is either too small to have practical significance or is moderated by other factors and consequently varies with attributes such as the sample characteristics within a given study.

  10. The discovery of long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lømo, Terje

    2003-04-29

    This paper describes circumstances around the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP). In 1966, I had just begun independent work for the degree of Dr medicinae (PhD) in Per Andersen's laboratory in Oslo after an eighteen-month apprenticeship with him. Studying the effects of activating the perforant path to dentate granule cells in the hippocampus of anaesthetized rabbits, I observed that brief trains of stimuli resulted in increased efficiency of transmission at the perforant path-granule cell synapses that could last for hours. In 1968, Tim Bliss came to Per Andersen's laboratory to learn about the hippocampus and field potential recording for studies of possible memory mechanisms. The two of us then followed up my preliminary results from 1966 and did the experiments that resulted in a paper that is now properly considered to be the basic reference for the discovery of LTP.

  11. Conceptual Distinctiveness Supports Detailed Visual Long-Term Memory for Real-World Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkle, Talia; Brady, Timothy F.; Alvarez, George A.; Oliva, Aude

    2010-01-01

    Humans have a massive capacity to store detailed information in visual long-term memory. The present studies explored the fidelity of these visual long-term memory representations and examined how conceptual and perceptual features of object categories support this capacity. Observers viewed 2,800 object images with a different number of exemplars…

  12. Psychological Peculiarities of Teachers with Different Work Capacity Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Dorogina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the issue of teacher’s work capacity optimization. The research is aimed at defining teachers’ psychological peculiarities relating to their work capacity level and creating the assistance program for its optimization. In the course of the program implementation, its effectiveness has being proved, the low work capacity being optimized by developing self-control, emotional stability and decreasing the aggressive reactions in frustrating situations. The research findings can be applied while creating programs for teachers’ further training as well as for students training courses. 

  13. Knowledge Cannot Explain the Developmental Growth of Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; Ricker, Timothy J.; Clark, Katherine M.; Hinrichs, Garrett A.; Glass, Bret A.

    2015-01-01

    According to some views of cognitive growth, the development of working memory capacity can account for increases in the complexity of cognition. It has been difficult to ascertain, though, that there actually is developmental growth in capacity that cannot be attributed to other developing factors. Here we assess the role of item familiarity. We…

  14. Quality of Life and Work Capacity Are Unrelated to Approach or Complications After Pituitary Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvelius, Erik; Castelo, Nazia; Kahlon, Babar; Svensson, Christer; Cervin, Anders; Höglund, Peter; Valdemarsson, Stig; Siesjö, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Endoscopic pituitary surgery has shown favorable clinical outcomes. Less is known about the impact of surgical approaches on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and work capacity. The present study was undertaken to compare transsphenoidal microscope-assisted surgery with endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery regarding preoperative and surgical factors for the final outcome of HRQoL and work capacity. In a retrospective study of patients operated on for pituitary adenoma, outcome was compared between those operated on before and after transition with endoscopic surgery at our department. Data were gathered via patient questionnaires and patients' files. After exclusions, 235 patients were included (99 microsurgical and 136 endoscopic). Frequency of complications was similar but tumor size was significantly larger in the endoscopic group. Complications did not affect HRQoL or work capacity. HRQoL was not affected by surgical technique but showed an overall trend toward lower values compared with the general population. Sick leave, return to work frequency, and permanent sick leave were not affected by surgical technique. Female gender was a factor for lower ratings in all outcome variables. Surgical technique does not influence HRQoL or work capacity in this long-term follow-up although both are decreased compared with the general population. We conclude that fully endoscopic pituitary surgery, despite including larger tumors, bears the same risk for complications as microsurgery. In addition, females have a greater risk for decrease in HRQoL and work ability. This factor should be taken into account when informing patients and appreciating expectations of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Teaching for the Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses some of the reasons behind the teacher retention crisis. Some of those reasons are salaries and influences closer to the classroom, which have the most profound impact on teachers' day-to-day work. School board policies, site-based management decisions and even a school's climate and culture can all affect…

  16. Sexuality and physical intimacy in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long-term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long-term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders, it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long-term care, and presents two case examples. A semistructured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing the needs for protection with the needs for autonomy.

  17. Ethics and Intimate Sexual Activity in Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Eran

    2017-07-01

    A case is presented in which the staff of a long-term care facility discovers that the husband of a resident with dementia is engaged in sexual activity with her. The case illustrates a dilemma for long-term care facilities that create a home-like environment with a goal of maximizing residents' autonomy while ensuring their safety. An approach to assessing capacity to consent to intimate sexual activity is described, followed by guidelines that nursing homes can implement to support residents who wish to engage in sexual activity. Recommendations are also offered for supporting long-term care staff and family members of residents who are interested in intimate sexual activity. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  18. China's current status and long-term outlook of nuclear power and radioactive waste disposal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhidong

    2015-01-01

    This study identified the current status and long-term outlook of China's nuclear power development and radioactive waste disposal management after the 3.11 FUKUSHIMA accidents. China strengthened the actions for achieving nuclear power safety and cost efficiency as well as safety management of radioactive waste. It is a hard work to expand the capacity to 58 GW, the governmental target in 2020. The long-term development will strongly depend on the progress in safety management of nuclear power and radioactive waste and economic competitiveness. (author)

  19. Worrying Thoughts Limit Working Memory Capacity in Math Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhan; Liu, Peiru

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters) over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed.

  20. Worrying Thoughts Limit Working Memory Capacity in Math Anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Shi

    Full Text Available Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed.

  1. A Long-term Plan for Kalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In this case, the author demonstrates together with the owner-manager of KALK A/S, Mr Rasmus Jorgensen, how to use the Family Business Map to frame a constructive discussion about long-term planning. The Family Business Map is a tool for long-term planning in family firms developed by Professor...

  2. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  3. Long term radiological impact of thorium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, S.; Schapira, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Thorium extraction produces a certain amount of radioactive wastes. Potential long term radiological impact of these residues has been calculated using the recent ICRP-68 ingestion dose factors in connection with the computing code DECAY, developed at Orsay and described in this work. This code solves the well known Bateman's equations which govern the time dependence of a set of coupled radioactive nuclei. Monazites will be very likely the minerals to be exploited first, in case of an extensive use of thorium as nuclear fuel. Because monazites contain uranium as well, mining residues will contain not only the descendants of 232 Th and a certain proportion of non-extracted thorium (taken here to be 5%), but also this uranium, if left in the wastes for economical reasons. If no uranium would be present at all in the mineral, the potential radiotoxicity would strongly decrease in approximately 60 years, at the pace of the 5.8 years period of 228 Ra, which becomes the longest-lived radionuclide of the 4n radioactive family in the residues. Moreover, there is no risk due to radon exhalation, because of the very short period of 220 Rn. These significant differences between uranium and thorium mining have to be considered in view of some estimated long term real radiological impacts due to uranium residues, which could reach a value of the order of 1 mSv/year, the dose limit recommended for the public by the recent ICRP-60. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs., 43 appendices

  4. Estimation of work capacity and work ability among plantation workers in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Anbazhagan, Suguna; Ramesh, Naveen; Surekha, A; Fathima, Farah N.; Melina,; Anjali,

    2016-01-01

    Background: Work capacity is the ability to perform real physical work, and work ability is a result of interaction of worker to his or her work that is how good a worker is at present, in near future, and how able is he or she to do his or her work with respect to work demands and health and mental resources. Objective: To assess the work capacity and work ability and to study the factors associated with work capacity and work ability of workers at a tea plantation in South India. Materials ...

  5. Containment long-term operational integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammataro, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Periodic integrated leak rate tests are required to assure that containments continue to meet allowable leakage limits. Although overall performance has been quite good to date, several major containment aging and degradation mechanisms have been identified. Two pilot plant life extension (PLEX) studies serve as models for extending the operational integrity of present containments for light-water cooled nuclear power plants in the United States. One study is for a Boiling-Water Reactor (BWR) and the second is for a Pressurized-Water Reactor (PWR). Research and testing programs for determining the ultimate pressure capacity and failure mechanisms for containments under severe loading conditions and studies for extending the life of current plants beyond the present 40-year licensed lifetime are under way. This paper presents an overview of containment designs in the United States. Also presented are a discussion of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code) and regulatory authority requirements for the design, construction, inservice inspection, leakage testing and repair of steel and concrete containments. Findings for containments from the pilot PLEX studies and continuing containment integrity research and testing programs are discussed. The ASME Code and regulatory requirements together with recommendations from the PLEX studies and containment integrity research and testing provide a basis for continued containment long-term operational integrity. (orig./GL)

  6. Working memory capacity predicts dopamine synthesis capacity in the human striatum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cools, R.; Gibbs, S.E.; Miyakawa, A.; Jagust, W.; D'Esposito, M.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from psychopharmacological research has revealed that dopamine receptor agents have opposite effects on cognitive function depending on baseline levels of working memory capacity. These contrasting effects have been interpreted to reflect differential baseline levels of dopamine. Here we

  7. More efficient optimization of long-term water supply portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Brian R.; Characklis, Gregory W.; Dillard, Karen E. M.; Kelley, C. T.

    2009-03-01

    The use of temporary transfers, such as options and leases, has grown as utilities attempt to meet increases in demand while reducing dependence on the expansion of costly infrastructure capacity (e.g., reservoirs). Earlier work has been done to construct optimal portfolios comprising firm capacity and transfers, using decision rules that determine the timing and volume of transfers. However, such work has only focused on the short-term (e.g., 1-year scenarios), which limits the utility of these planning efforts. Developing multiyear portfolios can lead to the exploration of a wider range of alternatives but also increases the computational burden. This work utilizes a coupled hydrologic-economic model to simulate the long-term performance of a city's water supply portfolio. This stochastic model is linked with an optimization search algorithm that is designed to handle the high-frequency, low-amplitude noise inherent in many simulations, particularly those involving expected values. This noise is detrimental to the accuracy and precision of the optimized solution and has traditionally been controlled by investing greater computational effort in the simulation. However, the increased computational effort can be substantial. This work describes the integration of a variance reduction technique (control variate method) within the simulation/optimization as a means of more efficiently identifying minimum cost portfolios. Random variation in model output (i.e., noise) is moderated using knowledge of random variations in stochastic input variables (e.g., reservoir inflows, demand), thereby reducing the computing time by 50% or more. Using these efficiency gains, water supply portfolios are evaluated over a 10-year period in order to assess their ability to reduce costs and adapt to demand growth, while still meeting reliability goals. As a part of the evaluation, several multiyear option contract structures are explored and compared.

  8. Cognitive performance in long-term abstinent elderly alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, George; McGillivray, Shannon

    2007-11-01

    To date, there is a wealth of literature describing the deleterious effects of active alcoholism on cognitive function. There is also a growing body of literature on the extent of cognitive recovery that can occur with abstinence. However, there is still a dearth of published findings on cognitive functioning in very long-term abstinence alcoholics, especially in the elderly population. The current study examines 91 elderly abstinent alcoholics (EAA) (49 men and 42 women) with an average age of 67.3 years, abstinent for an average of 14.8 years (range 0.5 to 45 years), and age and gender comparable light/nondrinking controls. The EAA group was divided into 3 subgroups: individuals that attained abstinence before age 50 years, between the ages 50 and 60 years, and after age 60 years. Attention, verbal fluency, abstraction/cognitive flexibility, psychomotor, immediate memory, delayed memory, reaction time, spatial processing, and auditory working memory were assessed. The AMNART and cranium size were used as estimates of brain reserve capacity, and the association of all variables with alcohol use measures was examined. Overall, the EAA groups performed comparably to controls on the assessments of cognitive function. Only the abstinent in group before 50 years of age performed worse than controls, and this was only in the domain of auditory working memory. EAAs had larger craniums than their controls. This effect was strongest for those who drank the longest and had the shortest abstinence. Such individuals also performed better cognitively. Our data showed that elderly alcoholics that drank late into life, but with at least 6 months abstinence can exhibit normal cognitive functioning. Selective survivorship and selection bias probably play a part in these findings. Cognitively healthier alcoholics, with more brain reserve capacity, may be more likely to live into their 60s, 70s, or 80s of age with relatively intact cognition, and to volunteer for studies such as

  9. The influence of lapses of attention on working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Robison, Matthew K

    2016-02-01

    In three experiments, the influence of lapses of attention on working memory (WM) capacity measures was examined. Participants performed various change detection tasks while also reporting whether they were focused on the current task or whether they were unfocused and mind-wandering. Participants reported that they were mind-wandering roughly 27% of the time, and when participants reported mind-wandering, their performance was worse compared to when they reported being on-task. Low WM capacity individuals reported more mind-wandering and lapses of attention than high WM capacity individuals, and mind-wandering and filtering abilities were shown to make independent contributions to capacity estimates. These results provide direct support for the notion that the ability to focus attention on-task and prevent lapses of attention is an important contributor to performance on measures of WM capacity.

  10. CERN Services for Long Term Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie; Blomer, Jakob; Ganis, Gerardo; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Simko, Tibor; Cancio Melia, German; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the services that are offered by CERN for Long Term preservation of High Energy Physics (HEP) data, with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a key use case. Data preservation is a strategic goal for European High Energy Physics (HEP), as well as for the HEP community worldwide and we position our work in this global content. Specifically, we target the preservation of the scientific data, together with the software, documentation and computing environment needed to process, (re-)analyse or otherwise (re-)use the data. The target data volumes range from hundreds of petabytes (PB – 10^15 bytes) to hundreds of exabytes (EB – 10^18 bytes) for a target duration of several decades. The Use Cases driving data preservation are presented together with metrics that allow us to measure how close we are to meeting our goals, including the possibility for formal certification for at least part of this work. Almost all of the services that we describe are fully generic – the exception being A...

  11. Missouri Work Zone Capacity : Results of Field Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report presents the results of work zone field data analyzed on interstate highways in Missouri to determine : the mean breakdown and queue-discharge flow rates as measures of capacity. Several days of traffic data : collected at a work zone nea...

  12. Separate Capacities for Storing Different Features in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Benchi; Cao, Xiaohua; Theeuwes, Jan; Olivers, Christian N. L.; Wang, Zhiguo

    2017-01-01

    Recent empirical and theoretical work suggests that visual features such as color and orientation can be stored or retrieved independently in visual working memory (VWM), even in cases when they belong to the same object. Yet it remains unclear whether different feature dimensions have their own capacity limits, or whether they compete for shared…

  13. L2 Working Memory Capacity and L2 Reading Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Mike; Sawyer, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Examines the sensitivity of second-language (L2) working memory (ability to store and process information simultaneously) to differences in reading skills among advanced L2 learners. Subjects with larger L2 working memory capacities scored higher on measures of L2 reading skills, but no correlation was found between reading and passive short-term…

  14. A Comparison of Freeway Work Zone Capacity Prediction Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, N.; Hegyi, A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Zuylen, H.J.; Peters, D.

    2011-01-01

    To keep the freeway networks in a good condition, road works such as maintenance and reconstruction are carried out regularly. The resulting work zones including the related traffic management measures, give different traffic capacities of the infrastructures, which determines the travel time for

  15. Tone Series and the Nature of Working Memory Capacity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Katherine M.; Hardman, Kyle O.; Schachtman, Todd R.; Saults, J. Scott; Glass, Bret A.; Cowan, Nelson

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding visual working memory, the limited information held in mind for use in ongoing processing, are extended here to examine auditory working memory development. Research with arrays of visual objects has shown how to distinguish the capacity, in terms of the "number" of objects retained, from the…

  16. Muscle strength, working capacity and effort in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Lykkegaard, J J

    1997-01-01

    exercise capacity, work status and psychometric scoring (SCL-90-R) were correlated. The fibromyalgia patients exhibited significant reduction in voluntary muscle strength of the knee and elbow, flexors and extensors in the order of 20-30%. However, the coefficient of variation was higher among patients......, thus indicating lower effort. The physical performance during an ergometer test corresponded to a maximal oxygen consumption of 21 ml/kg-1 x min-1. The maximal increase in heart rate was only 63% (44-90%) of the predicted increase. Degree of effort or physical capacity did not correlate to psychometric...... scores. Work status was related to psychometric scoring, but not to physical capacity or effort. In conclusion, we found a low degree of effort but near normal physical capacity in the fibromyalgia patients....

  17. Long-Term Resource Adequacy, Long-Term Flexibility Requirements, and Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Institute; Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Laboratory; Levin, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory

    2018-02-15

    Variable generation (VG) can reduce market prices over time and also the energy that other suppliers can sell in the market. The suppliers that are needed to provide capacity and flexibility to meet the long-term reliability requirements may, therefore, earn less revenue. This chapter discusses the topics of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency - that is, determining and acquiring the quantity of capacity that will be needed at some future date and ensuring that those suppliers that offer the capacity receive sufficient revenue to recover their costs. The focus is on the investment time horizon and the installation of sufficient generation capability. First, the chapter discusses resource adequacy, including newer methods of determining adequacy metrics. The chapter then focuses on revenue sufficiency and how suppliers have sufficient opportunity to recover their total costs. The chapter closes with a description of the mechanisms traditionally adopted by electricity markets to mitigate the issues of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency and discusses the most recent market design changes to address these issues.

  18. Exploring the return-to-work process for workers partially returned to work and partially on long-term sick leave due to common mental disorders: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordik, Erik; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Varekamp, Inge; van der Klink, Jac J.; Van Dijk, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study into the return-to-work process of workers partially on sick leave due to common mental disorders. Our objectives were to describe the barriers to a full return to work, solutions, communicating to the working environment and the aim of a full return to work, all as

  19. Working Memory Capacity and Fluid Intelligence: Maintenance and Disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipstead, Zach; Harrison, Tyler L; Engle, Randall W

    2016-11-01

    Working memory capacity and fluid intelligence have been demonstrated to be strongly correlated traits. Typically, high working memory capacity is believed to facilitate reasoning through accurate maintenance of relevant information. In this article, we present a proposal reframing this issue, such that tests of working memory capacity and fluid intelligence are seen as measuring complementary processes that facilitate complex cognition. Respectively, these are the ability to maintain access to critical information and the ability to disengage from or block outdated information. In the realm of problem solving, high working memory capacity allows a person to represent and maintain a problem accurately and stably, so that hypothesis testing can be conducted. However, as hypotheses are disproven or become untenable, disengaging from outdated problem solving attempts becomes important so that new hypotheses can be generated and tested. From this perspective, the strong correlation between working memory capacity and fluid intelligence is due not to one ability having a causal influence on the other but to separate attention-demanding mental functions that can be contrary to one another but are organized around top-down processing goals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  1. Industrial Foundations as Long-Term Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen; Poulsen, Thomas; Børsting, Christa Winther

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for corporate governance, and this has inspired a search for institutional arrangements to promote long-term decision-making. In this paper, we call attention to long-term ownership by industrial foundations, which is common in Northern Europe but little...... known in the rest of the world. We use a unique Danish data set to document that industrial foundations are long-term owners that practice long-term governance. We show that foundation ownership is highly stable compared to other ownership structures. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less...... frequently. They have conservative capital structures with low financial leverage. They score higher on an index of long-termism in finance, investment, and employment. They survive longer. Overall, our paper supports the hypothesis that corporate time horizons are influenced by ownership structures...

  2. Coping with PH over the Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a job, a volunteer commitment, or even a hobby can take a toll on long-term survivors ... people find solace in meditation, faith, humor, writing, hobbies and more. Find an outlet that you enjoy ...

  3. Long term effects of radiation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Chih Ping; Idris Besar

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the long term effects of radiation in man is presented, categorizing into somatic effects, genetic effects and teratogenic effects, and including an indication of the problems that arise in their determination. (author)

  4. Long term liquidity analysis of the firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Gonos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquidity control is a very difficult and important function. If the business is not liquid in the long term, it is under threatof bankruptcy, and on the other hand surplus of the cash in hand threaten its future efficiency, because the cash in hand is a sourceof only limited profitability. Long term liquidity is related to the ability of the short term and long term liabilities payment. Articleis trying to point out to the monitoring and analyzing of the long term liquidity in the concrete business, in this case the printing industrycompany. Hereby at the end of the article mentioned monitored and analyzed liquidity is evaluated in the five years time period.

  5. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  6. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...

  7. Effect of long-term storage of LWR spent fuel on Pu-thermal fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Masayoshi; Naito, Yoshitaka; Suyama, Kenya; Itahara, Kuniyuki; Suzuki, Katsuo; Hamada, Koji

    1998-01-01

    According to the Long-term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy (June, 1994) in Japan, the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant will be operated shortly after the year 2000, and the planning of the construction of the second commercial plant will be decided around 2010. Also, it is described that spent fuel storage has a positive meaning as an energy resource for the future utilization of Pu. Considering the balance between the increase of spent fuels and the domestic reprocessing capacity in Japan, it can be expected that the long-term storage of UO 2 spent fuels will be required. Then, we studied the effect of long-term storage of spent fuels on Pu-thermal fuel cycle. The burnup calculation were performed on the typical Japanese PWR fuel, and the burnup and criticality calculations were carried out on the Pu-thermal cores with MOX fuel. Based on the results, we evaluate the influence of extending the spent fuel storage term on the criticality safety, shielding design of the reprocessing plant and the core life time of the MOX core, etc. As the result of this work on long-term storage of LWR spent fuels, it becomes clear that there are few demerits regarding the lifetime of a MOX reactor core, and that there are many merits regarding the safety aspects of the fuel cycle facilities. Furthermore, long-term storage is meaningful as energy storage for effective utilization of Pu to be improved by technological innovation in future, and it will allow for sufficient time for the important policymaking of nuclear fuel cycle establishment in Japan. (author)

  8. The uranium enrichment market and long-term technological options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider-Maunoury, A.

    1992-01-01

    The world enrichment market situation is clearly delineated up to the year 2000. Including the East European countries, worldwide enriched uranium requirements should reach 40 million separative work units (SWUs) a year and production capacity should reach 44 millions SWUs. Two-thirds of this capacity will be supplied by the gaseous diffusion process and one-third by the centrifuge process. The enrichment processes currently considered are: (i) the gaseous diffusion process, (ii) the centrifuge process, (iii) the chemical treatment process and (iv) the laser processes, long-term assessment of the enrichment market up to the year 2015. Two scenarios may be envisioned for the (i) Public opinion will continue to block the development of nuclear power, and requirements will level off at 40 million SWUs. (ii) Changing attitudes will favor a reasonable approach enabling a revival of nuclear power expansion around 1995. Requirements should then increase starting in 2005 and would readily attain 60 million SWUs a year by 2015. Depending on market conditions, enrichment process options will be influenced either entirely by cost considerations, without allowance for the time factor, or by need to meet demand. Demonstrations of the industrial validity of laser processes are expected by 1992 - 1995 and, if interest in nuclear power makes a comeback, decisions should be made between 1995 and 2000 to build new large-capacity enrichment plants. The gaseous diffusion process may still be used for a long time if nuclear power is judiciously employed. The centrifuge process will be fully mature by the year 2000. The uranium vapor laser processes offer the most promise and should ultimately prevail. the chemical processes, though outsiders, deserve watching. (author)

  9. Searching while loaded: Visual working memory does not interfere with hybrid search efficiency but hybrid search uses working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Trafton; Boettcher, Sage E P; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2016-02-01

    In "hybrid search" tasks, such as finding items on a grocery list, one must search the scene for targets while also searching the list in memory. How is the representation of a visual item compared with the representations of items in the memory set? Predominant theories would propose a role for visual working memory (VWM) either as the site of the comparison or as a conduit between visual and memory systems. In seven experiments, we loaded VWM in different ways and found little or no effect on hybrid search performance. However, the presence of a hybrid search task did reduce the measured capacity of VWM by a constant amount regardless of the size of the memory or visual sets. These data are broadly consistent with an account in which VWM must dedicate a fixed amount of its capacity to passing visual representations to long-term memory for comparison to the items in the memory set. The data cast doubt on models in which the search template resides in VWM or where memory set item representations are moved from LTM through VWM to earlier areas for comparison to visual items.

  10. Exploring the return-to-work process for workers partially returned to work and partially on long-term sick leave due to common mental disorders : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordik, Erik; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Varekamp, Inge; van der Klink, Jac J.; van Dijk, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. We conducted a qualitative study into the return-to-work process of workers partially on sick leave due to common mental disorders. Our objectives were to describe the barriers to a full return to work, solutions, communicating to the working environment and the aim of a full return to

  11. Visual Working Memory Capacity for Emotional Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Švegar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of visual working memory is limited to no more than four items. At the same time, it is limited not only by the number of objects, but also by the total amount of information that needs to be memorized, and the relation between the information load per object and the number of objects that can be stored into visual working memory is inverse. The objective of the present experiment was to compute visual working memory capacity for emotional facial expressions, and in order to do so, change detection tasks were applied. Pictures of human emotional facial expressions were presented to 24 participants in 1008 experimental trials, each of which began with a presentation of a fixation mark, which was followed by a short simultaneous presentation of six emotional facial expressions. After that, a blank screen was presented, and after such inter-stimulus interval, one facial expression was presented at one of previously occupied locations. Participants had to answer if the facial expression presented at test is different or identical as the expression presented at that same location before the retention interval. Memory capacity was estimated through accuracy of responding, by the formula constructed by Pashler (1988, adopted from signal detection theory. It was found that visual working memory capacity for emotional facial expressions equals 3.07, which is high compared to capacity for facial identities and other visual stimuli. The obtained results were explained within the framework of evolutionary psychology.

  12. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig

  13. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  14. Working Memory Capacity and Focused and Sustained Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engle, Randall

    2003-01-01

    .... We see WM as a system consisting of those long-term memory traces active above threshold, the procedures and skills necessary to achieve and maintain that activation and, what we call executive...

  15. Declarative and Procedural Working Memory: Common Principles, Common Capacity Limits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klus Oberauer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is often described as a system for simultaneous storage and processing. Much research – and most measures of working-memory capacity – focus on the storage component only, that is, people's ability to recall or recognize items after short retention intervals. The mechanisms of processing information are studied in a separate research tradition, concerned with the selection and control of actions in simple choice situations, dual-task constellations, or task-switching setups. both research traditions investigate performance based on representations that are temporarily maintained in an active, highly accessible state, and constrained by capacity limits. In this article an integrated theoretical framework of declarative and procedural working memory is presented that relates the two domains of research to each other. Declarative working memory is proposed to hold representations available for processing (including recall and recognition, whereas procedural working memory holds representations that control processing (i. e., task sets, stimulus-response mappings, and executive control settings. The framework motivates two hypotheses: Declarative and procedural working memory have separate capacity limits, and they operate by analogous principles. The framework also suggests a new characterization of executive functions as the subset of processes governed by procedural working memory that has as its output a change in the conditions of operation of the working-memory system.

  16. Long-term nitrogen regulation of forest carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Luo, Y.

    2009-12-01

    It is well established that nitrogen (N) limits plant production but unclear how N regulates long-term terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration in response to rising atmospheric C dioxide (CO2)(Luo et al., 2004). Most experimental evidence on C-N interactions is primarily derived from short-term CO2 manipulative studies (e.g. Oren et al., 2001; Reich et al., 2006a), which abruptly increase C inputs into ecosystems and N demand from soil while atmospheric CO2 concentration in the real world is gradually increasing over time (Luo & Reynolds, 1999). It is essential to examine long-term N regulations of C sequestration in natural ecosystems. Here we present results of a synthesis of more than 100 studies on long-term C-N interactions during secondary succession. C significantly accumulates in plant, litter and forest floor in most studies, and in mineral soil in one-third studies during stand development. Substantial increases in C stock are tightly coupled with N accretion. The C: N ratio in plant increases with stand age in most cases, but remains relatively constant in litter, forest floor and mineral soil. Our results suggest that natural ecosystems could have the intrinsic capacity to maintain long-term C sequestration through external N accrual, high N use efficiency, and efficient internal N cycling.

  17. Very long-term sequelae of craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Mark; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Janssen, Joseph A M J L; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Michiels, Erna M C; van Veelen-Vincent, Marie-Lise C; Dallenga, Alof H G; van den Berge, J Herbert; van Rij, Carolien M; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M

    2017-06-01

    Studies investigating long-term health conditions in patients with craniopharyngioma are limited by short follow-up durations and generally do not compare long-term health effects according to initial craniopharyngioma treatment approach. In addition, studies comparing long-term health conditions between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma report conflicting results. The objective of this study was to analyse a full spectrum of long-term health effects in patients with craniopharyngioma according to initial treatment approach and age group at craniopharyngioma presentation. Cross-sectional study based on retrospective data. We studied a single-centre cohort of 128 patients with craniopharyngioma treated from 1980 onwards (63 patients with childhood-onset disease). Median follow-up since craniopharyngioma presentation was 13 years (interquartile range: 5-23 years). Initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches included gross total resection ( n  = 25), subtotal resection without radiotherapy ( n  = 44), subtotal resection with radiotherapy ( n  = 25), cyst aspiration without radiotherapy ( n  = 8), and 90 Yttrium brachytherapy ( n  = 21). Pituitary hormone deficiencies (98%), visual disturbances (75%) and obesity (56%) were the most common long-term health conditions observed. Different initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches resulted in similar long-term health effects. Patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma experienced significantly more growth hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, panhypopituitarism, morbid obesity, epilepsy and psychiatric conditions compared with patients with adult-onset disease. Recurrence-/progression-free survival was significantly lower after initial craniopharyngioma treatment with cyst aspiration compared with other therapeutic approaches. Survival was similar between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma. Long-term health conditions were comparable after

  18. Maintenance management during long-term stop of JRR-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Yutaka; Suwa, Masayuki; Wada, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    JRR-3 has been continuing its stop state for more than 5 years as of FY2015 after stopping the use operation of the reactor in November 2010. Different responses are required in the maintenance management for operation resumption, compared with those in normal operation. This paper introduces part of the maintenance managements that are performed during long-term stop. The water qualities of primary coolant and secondary coolant are controlled by measuring pH and conductivity, and the prevention of crevice corrosion of equipment is performed. In the management of pumps for coolant circulation, vibration measurement is performed to confirm that there are no signs of abnormality. As the management of the core structure, the bend measurement of beryllium reflector is performed to confirm that there is no hindrance to operation resumption, and the visual inspection of high burnup fuel elements is performed to confirm that abnormality has not occurred. As for the management of monitoring equipment, the equipment required in shutdown period is subjected to calibration work, and the equipment required in operation period is subjected to soundness check based on the results of cooling system operation. As the functional maintenance of the cooling system, cooling system operating test and 10-day continuous operation of the cooling system are monthly performed to confirm the soundness of equipment. In addition, the competence maintenance and capacity improvement of operators are performed through the cooling system operation and reactor simulator training. (A.O.)

  19. Nurses struggle to help pupils with long-term conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Chris

    2016-10-07

    Most school nurses are not confident they can give essential support to pupils with long-term health conditions. Research by the National Children's Bureau found that, due to heavy workloads and the need to work across several schools, nine out of ten school nurses were less confident they can help children with conditions such as diabetes and asthma.

  20. Methodology of long term behaviour study of containment materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.; Godon, N.

    1994-01-01

    Here is the presentation of the papers shown in the colloquium on environment and ceramics; the Atomic Energy Commissariat (Cea) have been working for fifteen years on the long term behaviour of fission products glasses on very long periods, about several millions years. The method of studies is detailed. 2 refs

  1. Gender-Based Violence in India: Long-Term Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and…

  2. Incidental Biasing of Attention from Visual Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Judith E.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past…

  3. Long term assurance of supply of raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The working group discussed the long-term assurance of uranium supply. A number of key questions is presented along with the answers given by representatives of 10 countries and by EC commission. Emphasis is laid on market stability and on the difficulties in adopting to sudden changes in the supply and demand situation

  4. Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.; Tønnesen, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain sli...

  5. Topical and working papers on nuclear power capacity projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the overall work programme of WG. 1, Sub-Group 1A/2A was formed jointly with WG. 2 and given the responsibility for estimating the growth of nuclear power up to the year 2025 and the associated demands for nuclear fuels, heavy water, enrichment and other fuel cycle services. In carrying out the first part of its task, the estimation of nuclear power capacity growth, sub-Group 1A/2A prepared 6 working papers which contain the following information: A critique of recent world energy demand forecasts; world energy demand and installed capacity to the year 2025; nuclear power growth projections 1977-2000 for developing countries; long range world nuclear power growth projections; INFCE forecasts of nuclear generating capacity 1985-2025

  6. Working memory training may increase working memory capacity but not fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tyler L; Shipstead, Zach; Hicks, Kenny L; Hambrick, David Z; Redick, Thomas S; Engle, Randall W

    2013-12-01

    Working memory is a critical element of complex cognition, particularly under conditions of distraction and interference. Measures of working memory capacity correlate positively with many measures of real-world cognition, including fluid intelligence. There have been numerous attempts to use training procedures to increase working memory capacity and thereby performance on the real-world tasks that rely on working memory capacity. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that training on complex working memory span tasks leads to improvement on similar tasks with different materials but that such training does not generalize to measures of fluid intelligence.

  7. A Latent Variable Analysis of Working Memory Capacity, Short-Term Memory Capacity, Processing Speed, and General Fluid Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Andrew R. A.; Cowan, Nelsin; Bunting, Michael F.; Therriault, David J.; Minkoff, Scott R. B.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the interrelationships among general fluid intelligence, short-term memory capacity, working memory capacity, and processing speed in 120 young adults and used structural equation modeling to determine the best predictor of general fluid intelligence. Results suggest that working memory capacity, but not short-term memory capacity or…

  8. Interactive effects of silicon and arbuscular mycorrhiza in modulating ascorbate-glutathione cycle and antioxidant scavenging capacity in differentially salt-tolerant Cicer arietinum L. genotypes subjected to long-term salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neera; Bhandari, Purnima

    2016-09-01

    Salinity is the major environmental constraint that affects legume productivity by inducing oxidative stress. Individually, both silicon (Si) nutrition and mycorrhization have been reported to alleviate salt stress. However, the mechanisms adopted by both in mediating stress responses are poorly understood. Thus, pot trials were undertaken to evaluate comparative as well as interactive effects of Si and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) in alleviating NaCl toxicity in modulating oxidative stress and antioxidant defence mechanisms in two Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) genotypes-HC 3 (salt-tolerant) and CSG 9505 (salt-sensitive). Plants subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0-100 mM) recorded a substantial increase in the rate of superoxide radical (O2 (·-)), H2O2, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which induced leakage of ions and disturbed Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratio in roots and leaves. Individually, Si and AM reduced oxidative burst by strengthening antioxidant enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX)). Si was relatively more efficient in reducing accumulation of stress metabolites, while mycorrhization significantly up-regulated antioxidant machinery and modulated ascorbate-glutathione (ASA-GSH) cycle. Combined applications of Si and AM complemented each other in reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) build-up by further enhancing the antioxidant defence responses. Magnitude of ROS-mediated oxidative burden was lower in HC 3 which correlated strongly with more effective AM symbiosis, better capacity to accumulate Si and stronger defence response when compared with CSG 9505. Study indicated that Si and/or AM fungal amendments upgraded salt tolerance through a dynamic shift from oxidative destruction towards favourable antioxidant defence system in stressed chickpea plants.

  9. Strengthening health workforce capacity through work-based training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matovu Joseph KB

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although much attention has been given to increasing the number of health workers, less focus has been directed at developing models of training that address real-life workplace needs. Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH with funding support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC developed an eight-month modular, in-service work-based training program aimed at strengthening the capacity for monitoring and evaluation (M&E and continuous quality improvement (CQI in health service delivery. Methods This capacity building program, initiated in 2008, is offered to in-service health professionals working in Uganda. The purpose of the training is to strengthen the capacity to provide quality health services through hands-on training that allows for skills building with minimum work disruptions while encouraging greater involvement of other institutional staff to enhance continuity and sustainability. The hands-on training uses practical gaps and challenges at the workplace through a highly participatory process. Trainees work with other staff to design and implement ‘projects’ meant to address work-related priority problems, working closely with mentors. Trainees’ knowledge and skills are enhanced through short courses offered at specific intervals throughout the course. Results Overall, 143 trainees were admitted between 2008 and 2011. Of these, 120 (84% from 66 institutions completed the training successfully. Of the trainees, 37% were Social Scientists, 34% were Medical/Nursing/Clinical Officers, 5.8% were Statisticians, while 23% belonged to other professions. Majority of the trainees (80% were employed by Non-Government Organizations while 20% worked with the public health sector. Trainees implemented 66 projects which addressed issues such as improving access to health care services; reducing waiting time for patients; strengthening M&E systems; and improving data collection and

  10. Long-term prisoner in prison isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Grudzińska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term prisoner belongs to a particular category of people who are imprisoned in prisons. On the one hand in this group are often heavily demoralized people who committed the most serious crimes, on the other hand it is a group of prisoners, who should be well thought out and programmed the impact of rehabilitation. The situation of man trapped for years poses in a complicated situation not only the prisoners, but also the entire prison staff. They have to take care of the fact that the prison isolation did not cause the state in which convicts form itself in learned helplessness and lack of skills for self-planning and decision-making. In addition, planning the rehabilitation impact of long-term prisoners should not be forgotten that these prisoners in the short or the long term will return to the libertarian environment therefore, should prevent any negative effects of long-term imprisonment. This article presents the main issues related to the execution of imprisonment against long-term prisoners. It is an attempt to systematize the knowledge of this category of people living in prison isolation.

  11. High Working Memory Capacity Predicts Less Retrieval Induced Forgetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mall, Jonathan T.; Morey, Candice C.

    2013-01-01

    Background : Working Memory Capacity (WMC) is thought to be related to executive control and focused memory search abilities. These two hypotheses make contrasting predictions regarding the effects of retrieval on forgetting. Executive control during memory retrieval is believed to lead to retrieval

  12. Exploring the Relationship between Modified Output and Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Alison; Adams, Rebecca; Stafford, Catherine; Winke, Paula

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between learners' production of modified output and their working memory (WM) capacity. The task-based interactions of 42 college-level, native English-speaking learners of Spanish as a foreign language were examined. A relationship was found between learners' WM test scores and their tendency to modify output.…

  13. Why is working memory capacity related to matrix reasoning tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tyler L; Shipstead, Zach; Engle, Randall W

    2015-04-01

    One of the reasons why working memory capacity is so widely researched is its substantial relationship with fluid intelligence. Although this relationship has been found in numerous studies, researchers have been unable to provide a conclusive answer as to why the two constructs are related. In a recent study, researchers examined which attributes of Raven's Progressive Matrices were most strongly linked with working memory capacity (Wiley, Jarosz, Cushen, & Colflesh, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37, 256-263, 2011). In that study, Raven's problems that required a novel combination of rules to solve were more strongly correlated with working memory capacity than were problems that did not. In the present study, we wanted to conceptually replicate the Wiley et al. results while controlling for a few potential confounds. Thus, we experimentally manipulated whether a problem required a novel combination of rules and found that repeated-rule-combination problems were more strongly related to working memory capacity than were novel-rule-combination problems. The relationship to other measures of fluid intelligence did not change based on whether the problem required a novel rule combination.

  14. Bilingualism and Working Memory Capacity: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John G.; Timmer, Kalinka

    2017-01-01

    Bilinguals often outperform monolinguals on executive function tasks, including tasks that tap cognitive flexibility, conflict monitoring, and task-switching abilities. Some have suggested that bilinguals also have greater working memory capacity than comparable monolinguals, but evidence for this suggestion is mixed. We therefore conducted a…

  15. Working memory capacity predicts conflict-task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulbinaite, Rasa; Johnson, Addie

    The relationship between the ability to maintain task goals and working memory capacity (WMC) is firmly established, but evidence for WMC-related differences in conflict processing is mixed. We investigated whether WMC (measured using two complex-span tasks) mediates differences in adjustments of

  16. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  17. Affective bias in visual working memory is associated with capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Li, Huanhuan; Ying, Xiangyu; Zhu, Shiyou; Fu, Rong; Zou, Yingmin; Cui, Yanyan

    2017-11-01

    How does the affective nature of task stimuli modulate working memory (WM)? This study investigates whether WM maintains emotional information in a biased manner to meet the motivational principle of approaching positivity and avoiding negativity by retaining more approach-related positive content over avoidance-related negative content. This bias may exist regardless of individual differences in WM functionality, as indexed by WM capacity (overall bias hypothesis). Alternatively, this bias may be contingent on WM capacity (capacity-based hypothesis), in which a better WM system may be more likely to reveal an adaptive bias. In two experiments, participants performed change localisation tasks with emotional and non-emotional stimuli to estimate the number of items that they could retain for each of those stimuli. Although participants did not seem to remember one type of emotional content (e.g. happy faces) better than the other type of emotional content (e.g. sad faces), there was a significant correlation between WM capacity and affective bias. Specifically, participants with higher WM capacity for non-emotional stimuli (colours or line-drawing symbols) tended to maintain more happy faces over sad faces. These findings demonstrated the presence of a "built-in" affective bias in WM as a function of its systematic limitations, favouring the capacity-based hypothesis.

  18. Depressive thoughts limit working memory capacity in dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Nicholas A; Hutchison, Joanna L; Turner, Monroe; Montroy, Janelle; Bowles, Ryan P; Rypma, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Dysphoria is associated with persistence of attention on mood-congruent information. Longer time attending to mood-congruent information for dysphoric individuals (DIs) detracts from goal-relevant information processing and should reduce working memory (WM) capacity. Study 1 showed that DIs and non-DIs have similar WM capacities. Study 2 embedded depressive information into a WM task. Compared to non-DIs, DIs showed significantly reduced WM capacity for goal-relevant information in this task. Study 3 replicated results from Studies 1 and 2, and further showed that DIs had a significantly greater association between processing speed and recall on the depressively modified WM task compared to non-DIs. The presence of inter-task depressive information leads to DI-related decreased WM capacity. Results suggest dysphoria-related WM capacity deficits when depressive thoughts are present. WM capacity deficits in the presence of depressive thoughts are a plausible mechanism to explain day-to-day memory and concentration difficulties associated with depressed mood.

  19. The impact of depressed mood, working memory capacity, and priming on delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuhany, Kristin L; MacKenzie, Danny; Otto, Michael W

    2018-09-01

    The impaired ability to delay rewards, delay discounting (DD), is associated with several problematic conditions in which impulsive decision-making derails long-term goals. Working memory (WM), the ability to actively store and manipulate information, is associated with DD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive priming on DD and to identify moderation of this effect dependent on degree of WM capacity (WMC) and depressed mood. A WM task (n-back) was used as a cognitive prime before assessment of DD (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and was compared to a similar prime from an inhibition task in a factorial design in 183 community participants. All participants completed a DD task and assessment of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II). Priming effects were evaluated relative to WMC of participants. Higher WMC and lower depression scores were associated with greater relative preference for larger, delayed rewards. The effects of a WM prime were moderated by WMC; benefits of the prime were only evident for individuals with lower WMC. No effects were found for an alternative inhibition task. Limitations included depression scores mainly in subclinical range, use of hypothetical instead of real rewards in the DD task, and no examination of the time course of effects. This study provides support for the effectiveness of a brief WM prime in enhancing ability to delay rewards. Priming may be a useful adjunctive intervention for individuals with WM dysfunction or conditions in which impulsive decision-making may derail long-term goals. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Working memory span capacity improved by a D2 but not D1 receptor family agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Isadore S; Sharp, Richard F; Geyer, Mark A; Meves, Jessica M; Young, Jared W

    2011-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit poor working memory (WM). Although several subcomponents of WM can be measured, evidence suggests the primary subcomponent affected in schizophrenia is span capacity (WMC). Indeed, the NIMH-funded MATRICS initiative recommended assaying the WMC when assessing the efficacy of a putative therapeutic for FDA approval. Although dopamine D1 receptor agonists improve delay-dependent memory in animals, evidence for improvements in WMC due to dopamine D1 receptor activation is limited. In contrast, the dopamine D2-family agonist bromocriptine improves WMC in humans. The radial arm maze (RAM) can be used to assess WMC, although complications due to ceiling effects or strategy confounds have limited its use. We describe a 12-arm RAM protocol designed to assess whether the dopamine D1-family agonist SKF 38393 (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) or bromocriptine (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) could improve WMC in C57BL/6N mice (n=12) in cross-over designs. WMC increased and strategy usage decreased with training. The dopamine D1 agonist SKF 38393 had no effect on WMC or long-term memory. Bromocriptine decreased WMC errors, without affecting long-term memory, consistent with human studies. These data confirm that WMC can be measured in mice and reveal drug effects that are consistent with reported effects in humans. Future research is warranted to identify the subtype of the D2-family of receptors responsible for the observed improvement in WMC. Finally, this RAM procedure may prove useful in developing animal models of deficient WMC to further assess putative treatments for the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Working Memory Capacity Limits Motor Learning When Implementing Multiple Instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Buszard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although it is generally accepted that certain practice conditions can place large demands on working memory (WM when performing and learning a motor skill, the influence that WM capacity has on the acquisition of motor skills remains unsubstantiated. This study examined the role of WM capacity in a motor skill practice context that promoted WM involvement through the provision of explicit instructions. A cohort of 90 children aged 8 to 10 years were assessed on measures of WM capacity and attention. Children who scored in the lowest and highest thirds on the WM tasks were allocated to lower WM capacity (n = 24 and higher WM capacity (n = 24 groups, respectively. The remaining 42 participants did not participate in the motor task. The motor task required children to practice basketball shooting for 240 trials in blocks of 20 shots, with pre- and post-tests occurring before and after the intervention. A retention test was administered 1 week after the post-test. Prior to every practice block, children were provided with five explicit instructions that were specific to the technique of shooting a basketball. Results revealed that the higher WM capacity group displayed consistent improvements from pre- to post-test and through to the retention test, while the opposite effect occurred in the lower WM capacity group. This implies that the explicit instructions had a negative influence on learning by the lower WM capacity children. Results are discussed in relation to strategy selection for dealing with instructions and the role of attention control.

  2. Long-Term Prognosis of Plantar Fasciitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Liselotte; Krogh, Thøger Persson; Ellingsen, Torkell

    2018-01-01

    , exercise-induced symptoms, bilateral heel pain, fascia thickness, and presence of a heel spur) could predict long-term outcomes, (3) to assess the long-term ultrasound (US) development in the fascia, and (4) to assess whether US-guided corticosteroid injections induce atrophy of the heel fat pad. Study....... The risk was significantly greater for women (P heel...... regardless of symptoms and had no impact on prognosis, and neither did the presence of a heel spur. Only 24% of asymptomatic patients had a normal fascia on US at long-term follow-up. A US-guided corticosteroid injection did not cause atrophy of the heel fat pad. Our observational study did not allow us...

  3. Long-term dependence in exchange rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karytinos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which exchange rates of four major currencies against the Greek Drachma exhibit long-term dependence is investigated using a R/S analysis testing framework. We show that both classic R/S analysis and the modified R/S statistic if enhanced by bootstrapping techniques can be proven very reliable tools to this end. Our findings support persistence and long-term dependence with non-periodic cycles for the Deutsche Mark and the French Franc series. In addition a noisy chaos explanation is favored over fractional Brownian motion. On the contrary, the US Dollar and British Pound were found to exhibit a much more random behavior and lack of any long-term structure.

  4. Estimation of work capacity and work ability among plantation workers in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbazhagan, Suguna; Ramesh, Naveen; Surekha, A; Fathima, Farah N; Melina; Anjali

    2016-01-01

    Work capacity is the ability to perform real physical work, and work ability is a result of interaction of worker to his or her work that is how good a worker is at present, in near future, and how able is he or she to do his or her work with respect to work demands and health and mental resources. To assess the work capacity and work ability and to study the factors associated with work capacity and work ability of workers at a tea plantation in South India. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tea plantation in Annamalai, South India, from March to May 2015. Data were collected using a structured interview schedule comprising of three parts as follows: sociodemographic data, work ability questionnaire, and work capacity assessment. Of the 199 subjects participated in the study, majority [90 (45.3%)] were in the age group of 46-55 years, and 128 (64.3%) were females. Of the 199 workers, 12.6% had poor aerobic capacity (by Harvard Step test), 88.4% had an endurance of more than 1 h, 70.9% had better work productivity and energetic efficiency, and the voluntary activity workers spent most time on household chores. Of the 199 workers assessed, only 9.6% had good work ability. There is negative correlation between work ability and body mass index (BMI). Our study found 12.6% workers with poor aerobic capacity and 9.6% of workers with good work ability. Periodic health examinations and other screening procedures should be made as routine in workplace to improve work ability and capacity.

  5. The work ability index and functional capacity among older workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire S. Padula

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decreases in functional ability due to aging can impair work capacity and productivity among older workers. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the sociodemographics, health conditions, and physical functioning abilities of young and old workers as well as correlates of physical functioning capacity with the work ability index (WAI. METHOD: This exploratory, cross-sectional study examined employees of a higher education institution (HEI and those of a metallurgical industry. Older workers (50 years old or above were matched for gender and occupation type with younger workers (less than 50 years old. The following evaluations were applied: the multidimensional assessment questionnaire (which included sociodemographic, clinical, health perception, and physical health indices, the WAI, and a battery of physical functional tests. RESULTS: Diseases and regularly used medications were more common among the group of aging workers. The WAI did not differ between groups (p=0.237. Both groups showed similar physical functional capacity performances with regard to walking speed, muscle strength, and lower limb physical functioning. Aging workers showed a poorer performance on a test of right-leg support (p=0.004. The WAI was moderately correlated with the sit-to-stand test among older female workers (r=0.573, p=0.051. CONCLUSIONS: Unfavorable general health conditions did not affect the assessment of work ability or most of the tests of physical functional capacity in the aging group.

  6. Long term planning for wind energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinick, M.

    1995-01-01

    In a planning system intended to be governed primarily by policies in statutory plans a reasonable horizon for long term planning is 10 years or longer. Because of statutory requirements, developers have no option but to pay due regard to, and take a full part in, long term planning. The paper examines the type of policies which have emerged in the last few years to cater for wind energy development. It canvasses the merits of different types of policies. Finally, it discusses the policy framework which may emerge to cater for development outside NFFO. (Author)

  7. Long term storage techniques for 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.A.; Pence, D.T.; Staples, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    As new nuclear fuel reprocessing plants go on stream, the collection of fission product 85 Kr will be required to avoid potential local release problems and long-term atmospheric buildup. Storage of the collected 85 Kr for a period of at least 100 years will be necessary to allow approximately 99.9 percent decay before it is released. A program designed to develop and evaluate proposed methods for long-term storage of 85 Kr is discussed, and the results of a preliminary evaluation of three methods, high pressure steel cylinders, zeolite encapsulation, and clathrate inclusion are presented. (U.S.)

  8. Neural mechanisms of interference control in working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomyea, Jessica; Taylor, Charles T; Spadoni, Andrea D; Simmons, Alan N

    2018-02-01

    The extent to which one can use cognitive resources to keep information in working memory is known to rely on (1) active maintenance of target representations and (2) downregulation of interference from irrelevant representations. Neurobiologically, the global capacity of working memory is thought to depend on the prefrontal and parietal cortices; however, the neural mechanisms involved in controlling interference specifically in working memory capacity tasks remain understudied. In this study, 22 healthy participants completed a modified complex working memory capacity task (Reading Span) with trials of varying levels of interference control demands while undergoing functional MRI. Neural activity associated with interference control demands was examined separately during encoding and recall phases of the task. Results suggested a widespread network of regions in the prefrontal, parietal, and occipital cortices, and the cingulate and cerebellum associated with encoding, and parietal and occipital regions associated with recall. Results align with prior findings emphasizing the importance of frontoparietal circuits for working memory performance, including the role of the inferior frontal gyrus, cingulate, occipital cortex, and cerebellum in regulation of interference demands. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nutritional deficit and Long Term Potentiation alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrosino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we examined the ability of prenatally malnourished offspring to produce and maintain long-term potentiation (LTP of the perforant path/dentate granule cell synapse in freely moving rats at 15,30, and 90 days of age. Population spike amplitude (PSA was calculated from dentate field potential recordings prior to and at 15, 30, 60 min. and 3, 5, 18 and 24 h following tetanization of the perforant pathway. All animals of both malnourished and well-nourished diet groups at 15 days of age showed potentiation of PSA measures but the measures obtained from 15-day-old prenatally malnourished animals were significantly less than that of age-matched, well-nourished controls. At 30 days of age, remarkable effect of tetanization was likely observed from PSA measures for this age group followed much the same pattern. At 90 days of age, PSA measures obtained from malnourished animals decreased from pretetanization levels immediately following tetanization. At this age, however, at three hours time recordings, this measure growing up to a level which did not differ significantly from that of the control group. These results indicate that the width of tetanization induced enhancement of dentate granule cell response in preweanling rats (15-day-old animals is signifacantly affected fromgestational protein malnutrition and this trend is kept in animals tested at 30 and 90 days of age. The fact, however, that considerable limitation in LTP generation was gained from prenatally malnourished animals at 90 days of age, implying that dietary rehabilitation starting at birth is an intervention strategy not capable to imbrove the effects of the gestational stress.

  10. Analysis of long-term guarantee of supply in power markets: Application of the marginal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrilla, Ernesto; Vazquez, Carlos

    2005-06-01

    In this paper the marginal theory is applied to discuss the different long-term equilibria that could be reached in an electricity market depending on the market participants' (generators, consumers and the regulator) goals and constraints. The aim is to identify the key elements of a possible market failure in providing generation adequacy - immature demand, regulated tariffs, long-term contracting, different agents perception of the market risks, etc - and to study their influence in the long-term market equilibrium. Furthermore, we analyze several of the different capacity mechanisms that could be used to ensure generation adequacy, such as: short-term capacity payments, long-term capacity payments and capacity markets. This final analysis includes an estimation of how useful each method is to compensate the market failures that we have previously identified

  11. Working memory capacity of biological movements predicts empathy traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zaifeng; Ye, Tian; Shen, Mowei; Perry, Anat

    2016-04-01

    Working memory (WM) and empathy are core issues in cognitive and social science, respectively. However, no study so far has explored the relationship between these two constructs. Considering that empathy takes place based on the others' observed experiences, which requires extracting the observed dynamic scene into WM and forming a coherent representation, we hypothesized that a sub-type of WM capacity, i.e., WM for biological movements (BM), should predict one's empathy level. Therefore, WM capacity was measured for three distinct types of stimuli in a change detection task: BM of human beings (BM; Experiment 1), movements of rectangles (Experiment 2), and static colors (Experiment 3). The first two stimuli were dynamic and shared one WM buffer which differed from the WM buffer for colors; yet only the BM conveyed social information. We found that BM-WM capacity was positively correlated with both cognitive and emotional empathy, with no such correlations for WM capacity of movements of rectangles or of colors. Thus, the current study is the first to provide evidence linking a specific buffer of WM and empathy, and highlights the necessity for considering different WM capacities in future social and clinical research.

  12. Experiences of long-term tranquillizer use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinhoj, K T; Larsson, S; Helweg-Joergensen, S

    2001-01-01

    , the psychodynamic perspective is integrated within a multi-dimensional model that considers biological, cognitive, identity, gender and social learning factors. The analysis reveals the possibility of achieving a detailed understanding of the dynamic processes involved in the development of long-term tranquillizer...

  13. Safety of long-term PPI therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of medical treatment of acid-related disorders. Long-term use is becoming increasingly common, in some cases without a proper indication. A large number of mainly observational studies on a very wide range of possible associations have been publishe...... to a careful evaluation of the indication for PPI treatment....

  14. Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinsey, B.H.; Hoddinott, J; Alderman, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects - instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long term panel data set. Representations of civil war and drought shocks are used to identify

  15. Financial Incentives in Long-Term Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L.H. Bakx (Pieter)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Long-term care (ltc) aims to help individuals to cope with their impairments. In my thesis, I describe ltc financing alternatives and their consequences for the allocation of ltc. This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part, I investigate how alternative ways

  16. Long-term outcomes of patellofemoral arthroplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonbergen, J.P.W. van; Werkman, D.M.; Barnaart, L.F.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate the long-term survival of patellofemoral arthroplasty with primary diagnosis, age, sex, and body mass index. One hundred eighty-five consecutive Richards type II patellofemoral arthroplasties were performed in 161 patients with isolated patellofemoral

  17. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  18. The 2013 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    number of years, leading to substantial additional federal spending. For example, the nation could experience a massive earthquake, a nuclear meltdown...budget surpluses remaining after paying down publicly held debt available for redemption . a. For comparison with the current long-term projections, CBO

  19. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Alexander; Burkart, Werner; Grosche, Bernd; Jung, Thomas; Martignoni, Klaus; Stephan, Guenther

    1997-01-01

    This paper approaches the long-term effects of ionizing radiation considering the common thought that killing of cells is the basis for deterministic effects and that the subtle changes in genetic information are important in the development of radiation-induced cancer, or genetic effects if these changes are induced in germ cells

  20. Pituitary diseases : long-term psychological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, pituitary adenomas can be appropriately treated, but patients continue to report impaired quality of life (QoL) despite long-term remission or cure. In patients with Cushing’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly, doctors should be aware of subtle cognitive impairments and the

  1. The long term stability of lidar calibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. One of the requirements for the data to be accepted in support of project financing (so-called ‘banka-bility’) is to demonstrate the long-term stability of lidar cali-brations. Calibration results for six Leosphere WindCube li...

  2. Rebalancing for Long-Term Investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Joost; Kuiper, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    In this study we show that the rebalance frequency of a multi-asset portfolio has only limited impact on the utility of a long-term passive investor. Although continuous rebalancing is optimal, the loss of a suboptimal strategy corresponds to up to only 30 basis points of the initial wealth of the

  3. Working with Toronto neighbourhoods toward developing indicators of community capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Suzanne F; Cleverly, Shelley; Poland, Blake; Burman, David; Edwards, Richard; Robertson, Ann

    2003-12-01

    Often the goal of health and social development agencies is to assess communities and work with them to improve community capacity. Particularly for health promoters working in community settings and to ensure consistency in the definition of health promotion, the evaluation of health promotion programmes should be based on strengths and assets, yet existing information for planning and evaluation purposes usually focuses on problems and deficits. A model and definition of community capacity, grounded in community experience and focusing on strengths and assets, was developed following a 4-year, multi-site, qualitative, action research project in four Toronto neighbourhoods. There was significant community involvement in the four Community Advisory Committees, one for each study site. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews and focus groups were conducted with 161 residents and agency workers identified by the Community Advisory Committees. The data were analyzed with the assistance of NUDIST software. Thematic analysis was undertaken in two stages: (i) within each site and (ii) across sites, with the latter serving as the basis for the development of indicators of community capacity. This paper presents a summary of the research, the model and the proposed indicators. The model locates talents and skills of community members in a larger context of socioenvironmental conditions, both inside and outside the community, which can act to enable or constrain the expression of these talents and skills. The significance of the indicators of community capacity proposed in the study is that they focus on identifying and measuring the facilitating and constraining socioenvironmental conditions.

  4. Dynamic relation between working memory capacity and speech recognition in noise during the first 6 months of hearing aid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Elaine H N; Classon, Elisabet; Larsby, Birgitta; Arlinger, Stig; Lunner, Thomas; Rudner, Mary; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-11-23

    The present study aimed to investigate the changing relationship between aided speech recognition and cognitive function during the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Twenty-seven first-time hearing aid users with symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Aided speech recognition thresholds in noise were obtained in the hearing aid fitting session as well as at 3 and 6 months postfitting. Cognitive abilities were assessed using a reading span test, which is a measure of working memory capacity, and a cognitive test battery. Results showed a significant correlation between reading span and speech reception threshold during the hearing aid fitting session. This relation was significantly weakened over the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Multiple regression analysis showed that reading span was the main predictor of speech recognition thresholds in noise when hearing aids were first fitted, but that the pure-tone average hearing threshold was the main predictor 6 months later. One way of explaining the results is that working memory capacity plays a more important role in speech recognition in noise initially rather than after 6 months of use. We propose that new hearing aid users engage working memory capacity to recognize unfamiliar processed speech signals because the phonological form of these signals cannot be automatically matched to phonological representations in long-term memory. As familiarization proceeds, the mismatch effect is alleviated, and the engagement of working memory capacity is reduced. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Increased Capacity for Work and Productivity After Breast Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Isaias Vieira; Garcia, Edgard da Silva; Sobrinho, Rebecca Neponucena; Pinto, Natália Lana Larcher; Juliano, Yara; Veiga-Filho, Joel; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Veiga, Daniela Francescato

    2017-01-01

    Breast hypertrophy is a prevalent condition among women worldwide, which can affect different aspects of their quality of life. The physical and emotional impact of breast hypertrophy may harm daily activities, including work. To assess the impact of reduction mammaplasty on the ability to work and productivity of women with breast hypertrophy. A total of 60 patients with breast hypertrophy, already scheduled for breast reduction, aged 18 to 60 years and who had formal or autonomous employment were prospectively enrolled. The Brazilian versions of two validated tools, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment - General Health (WPAI-GH) and Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) were self-administered at the preoperative evaluation and six months following surgery. The median age was 33 years, median body mass index was 24 kg/m 2 , and the median total weight of resected breast tissue was 617.5 g. According to the Brazilian classification of occupation, most patients (53%) had technical, scientific, artistic and similar occupations. There was a significant improvement in work capacity and productivity six months after the reduction mammaplasty, denoted by a decrease in presenteeism, absenteeism, and WLQ Productivity Loss Score (Wilcoxon analysis of variance: P work capacity and productivity of Brazilian women with breast hypertrophy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 4. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. [Criteria for forensic medical evaluation of professional working capacity loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustin, A V; Tomilin, V V; Ol'khovik, V P; Panfilenko, O A; Serebriakova, V G

    2000-01-01

    The main and additional criteria used in evaluation (in percent) of loss of professional working capacity are characterized. Criteria common for forensic medical and medical social expert evaluations and differences between them are discussed. These differences are due to the fact that forensic medical expert evaluations are based on the Civil and Civil Processual Codes of the Russian Federation but not on the departamental norm-setting documents.

  7. Models of Verbal Working Memory Capacity: What Does It Take to Make Them Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Blume, Christopher L.; Saults, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Theories of working memory (WM) capacity limits will be more useful when we know what aspects of performance are governed by the limits and what aspects are governed by other memory mechanisms. Whereas considerable progress has been made on models of WM capacity limits for visual arrays of separate objects, less progress has been made in…

  8. Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Long-Term Habituation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2009-09-12

    Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by

  9. Long Term Monitoring of Microbial Induced Soil Strengthening Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneiyan, S.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Werkema, D. D., Jr.; Colwell, F. S.; Ohan, J.

    2016-12-01

    Soil strengthening/stabilization processes are used to address some of soil quality issues. Microbial induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a promising soil stabilization process that could offer long term solution by overcoming problems of commonly used methods (e.g. injecting cement slurry). MICP can be applied in larger spatial scales, allowing the enhanced soils to be maintained in an economic sustainable and environmental friendly way. Methods are sought for the long term monitoring of MICP enhanced soils. The spectral induced polarization (SIP) method is one promising method due to sensitivity on such processes and the ability for long term, even autonomous, operation as well as cost effectiveness. Previous laboratory tests showed the sensitivity of the SIP method on soil strengthening as a result of abiotic calcite precipitation. We extended this work to biotic calcite precipitation through MICP. Early results suggest that the MICP formed calcite is denser and could provide improved strengthening capabilities. Our results are supported by geophysical (SIP and shear-wave velocity), geo-chemical and microbiological monitoring. Destructive analysis and visualization (scanning electron imaging - SEM) is expected to provide conclusive evidence on the MICP long term effectiveness.

  10. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.; Lavelle, S.

    2006-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  11. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lavelle, S. [ICAM, 59 - Lille (France)

    2006-07-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  12. Working memory capacity and the scope and control of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipstead, Zach; Harrison, Tyler L; Engle, Randall W

    2015-08-01

    Complex span and visual arrays are two common measures of working memory capacity that are respectively treated as measures of attention control and storage capacity. A recent analysis of these tasks concluded that (1) complex span performance has a relatively stronger relationship to fluid intelligence and (2) this is due to the requirement that people engage control processes while performing this task. The present study examines the validity of these conclusions by examining two large data sets that include a more diverse set of visual arrays tasks and several measures of attention control. We conclude that complex span and visual arrays account for similar amounts of variance in fluid intelligence. The disparity relative to the earlier analysis is attributed to the present study involving a more complete measure of the latent ability underlying the performance of visual arrays. Moreover, we find that both types of working memory task have strong relationships to attention control. This indicates that the ability to engage attention in a controlled manner is a critical aspect of working memory capacity, regardless of the type of task that is used to measure this construct.

  13. The reliability and stability of visual working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z; Adam, K C S; Fang, X; Vogel, E K

    2018-04-01

    Because of the central role of working memory capacity in cognition, many studies have used short measures of working memory capacity to examine its relationship to other domains. Here, we measured the reliability and stability of visual working memory capacity, measured using a single-probe change detection task. In Experiment 1, the participants (N = 135) completed a large number of trials of a change detection task (540 in total, 180 each of set sizes 4, 6, and 8). With large numbers of both trials and participants, reliability estimates were high (α > .9). We then used an iterative down-sampling procedure to create a look-up table for expected reliability in experiments with small sample sizes. In Experiment 2, the participants (N = 79) completed 31 sessions of single-probe change detection. The first 30 sessions took place over 30 consecutive days, and the last session took place 30 days later. This unprecedented number of sessions allowed us to examine the effects of practice on stability and internal reliability. Even after much practice, individual differences were stable over time (average between-session r = .76).

  14. Data management to enhance long-term watershed research capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water resources are under growing pressure globally, and in the face of projected climate change, uncertainty about precipitation frequency and intensity; evapotranspiration, runoff, and snowmelt poses severe societal challenges. Interdisciplinary environmental research across natural and social sc...

  15. Identifying factors relevant in the assessment of return-to-work efforts in employees on long-term sickness absence due to chronic low back pain: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the return to work (RTW process need to be sufficient to prevent unnecessary applications for disability benefits. The purpose of this study was to identify factors relevant to RTW Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with chronic low back pain (CLBP. Methods Using focus groups consisting of Labor Experts (LE's working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute, arguments and underlying grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES were investigated. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Two focus groups yielded 19 factors, of which 12 are categorized in the ICF model under activities (e.g. functional capacity and in the personal (e.g. age, tenure and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship. The remaining 7 factors are categorized under intervention, job accommodation and measures. Conclusions This focus group study shows that 19 factors may be relevant to RTW-ES in sick-listed employees with CLBP. Providing these results to professionals assessing RTW-ES might contribute to a more transparent and systematic approach. Considering the importance of the quality of the RTW process, optimizing the RTW-ES assessment is essential.

  16. Hot functional test chemistry - long term experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonkova, K.; Kysela, J.; Marcinsky, M.; Martykan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary circuit materials undergo general corrosion in high temperature, deoxygenated, neutral or mildly alkaline solutions to form thin oxide films. These oxide layers (films) serve as protective film and mitigate the further corrosion of primary materials. Inner chromium-rich oxide layer has low cation diffusion coefficients and thus control iron and nickel transport from the metal surface to the outer layer and their dissolution into the coolant. Much less corrosion products are generated by the compact, integral and stable oxide (passivation) layer. For the latest Czech and Slovak stations commissioned (Temelin and Mochovce) a modified Hot Functional Test (HFT) chemistry was developed in the NRI Rez. Chromium rich surface layer formatted due to modified HTF chemistry ensures lower corrosion rates and radiation field formation and thus also mitigates crud formation during operation. This procedure was also designed to prepare the commissioned unit for the further proper water chemistry practise. Mochovce 1 (SK) was the first station commissioned using these recommendations in 1998. Mochovce 2 (1999) and Temelin 1 and 2 (CZ - 2000 and 2002) were subsequently commissioned using these guidelines too. The main principles of the controlled primary water chemistry applied during the hot functional tests are reviewed and importance of the water chemistry, technological and other relevant parameters is stressed regarding to the quality of the passive layer formed on the primary system surfaces. Samples from Mochovce indicated that duplex oxide layers up to 20 μm thick were produced, which were mainly magnetite substituted with nickel and chromium (e.g. 60-65% Fe, 18-28% Cr, 9-12% Ni, <1% Mn and 1-2% Si on a stainless steel primary circuit sample). Long term operation experience from both nuclear power plants are discussed in this paper. Radiation field, occupational radiation exposure and corrosion layers evolution during the first c. ten years of operation are

  17. Long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempe, T.F.; Martin, A.; Thorne, M.C.

    1980-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study on the storage of spent nuclear fuel, with particular reference to the options which would be available for long-term storage. Two reference programmes of nuclear power generation in the UK are defined and these are used as a basis for the projection of arisings of spent fuel and the storage capacity which might be needed. The characteristics of spent fuel which are relevant to long-term storage include the dimensions, materials and physical construction of the elements, their radioactive inventory and the associated decay heating as a function of time after removal from the reactor. Information on the behaviour of spent fuel in storage ponds is reviewed with particular reference to the corrosion of the cladding. The review indicates that, for long-term storage, both Magnox and AGR fuel would need to be packaged because of the high rate of cladding corrosion and the resulting radiological problems. The position on PWR fuel is less certain. Experience of dry storage is less extensive but it appears that the rate of corrosion of cladding is much lower than in water. Unit costs are discussed. Consideration is given to the radiological impact of fuel storage. (author)

  18. Long term contracts signed in Slovak timber business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2005-01-01

    The Slovak timber business is changing. The state-owned company, SR Forests, which cuts more then 50% of Slovak timber has signed long term agreements with major domestic timber processing companies - Smrecina, the Rettenmeier Tatra Timber saw mill in Liptovsky Mikulas and two paper mills - Mondi SCP Ruzomberok and Kappa Sturovo. In the past, only quarterly contracts were signed. Now, for the first time, two-year contracts have been signed that should help the timber processing industry and the forestry sector. The General Director of Lesy SR (SR Forests), Karol Vins, hopes for better sale prices. Company headquarters wants to maintain better control of prices than under the old system of timber sales by its branches. In the opinion of the General Director of the Forestry Section at the Ministry of Agriculture, long term contracts will guarantee a stable delivery of timber to processing companies, giving investors in new production capacity a better position in negotiations with banks regarding financing. According to K. Vins, long term contracts have so far only been negotiated with major timber processing companies which are mostly controlled by foreign capital and therefore have good payment discipline. The Association of the Timber Processing Industry is unhappy regarding developments and Lesy SR has not invited domestic companies to these negotiations

  19. PSA modeling of long-term accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, Gabriel; Corenwinder, Francois; Lanore, Jeanne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the extension of PSA scope to include external hazards, in France, both operator (EDF) and IRSN work for the improvement of methods to better take into account in the PSA the accident sequences induced by initiators which affect a whole site containing several nuclear units (reactors, fuel pools,...). These methodological improvements represent an essential prerequisite for the development of external hazards PSA. However, it has to be noted that in French PSA, even before Fukushima, long term accident sequences were taken into account: many insight were therefore used, as complementary information, to enhance the safety level of the plants. IRSN proposed an external events PSA development program. One of the first steps of the program is the development of methods to model in the PSA the long term accident sequences, based on the experience gained. At short term IRSN intends to enhance the modeling of the 'long term' accident sequences induced by the loss of the heat sink or/and the loss of external power supply. The experience gained by IRSN and EDF from the development of several probabilistic studies treating long term accident sequences shows that the simple extension of the mission time of the mitigation systems from 24 hours to longer times is not sufficient to realistically quantify the risk and to obtain a correct ranking of the risk contributions and that treatment of recoveries is also necessary. IRSN intends to develop a generic study which can be used as a general methodology for the assessment of the long term accident sequences, mainly generated by external hazards and their combinations. This first attempt to develop this generic study allowed identifying some aspects, which may be hazard (or combinations of hazards) or related to initial boundary conditions, which should be taken into account for further developments. (authors)

  20. [Participation as Target of Social Medicine and Nursing Care: - Legal Definition of Long-Term Care Dependency - Strategies to Prevent Long-Term Care Dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüchtern, Elisabeth; Gansweid, Barbara; Gerber, Hans; von Mittelstaedt, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Objective: By the "Second Bill to Strengthen Long-Term Care", a new concept of long-term care dependency will be introduced, valid from 2017. Long-term care dependency according to Social Code XI will be defined covering more aspects than today. Therefore, the working group "Nursing Care" of the division "Social Medicine in Practice and Rehabilitation" in the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention presents their results after working on the social medicine perspective of the definition and prevention of long-term care dependency. Methods: Both the definition and strategies to prevent long-term care dependency are systematically taken into consideration from the point of view of social medicine on the basis of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), as long-term care dependency means a defined condition of disability. Results: Both the current and the new concept of long-term care dependency focus activity limitations. The perspective of social medicine considers the interactions of health condition, its effects on daily activities and personal as well as environmental factors. From this point of view approaches for social benefits concerning prevention and rehabilitation can be identified systematically so as to work against the development and progression of long-term care dependency. The reference to the ICF can facilitate the communication between different professions. The new "graduation" of long-term care dependency would allow an international "translation" referring to the ICF. Conclusion: Experts from the field of social medicine as well as those of nursing care, care-givers and nursing researchers have in common the objective that persons in need of nursing care can participate in as many aspects of life of importance to them in an autonomous and self-determined way. The point of view of social medicine on long-term care dependency is fundamental for all occupational groups that are involved and for their