WorldWideScience

Sample records for long-term sustainable supply

  1. Proceedings of the IEA Bioenergy Task 43 and Long-Term Soil Productivity international workshop : sustainability across the supply chain of land-based biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Concerns over energy security and economic and environmental sustainability have created an interest in alternative, renewable forms of energy. Bioenergy is the oldest and most widespread source of converted energy, and can be produced at local and regional scales. Studies have indicated that bioenergy production may offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and provide support for traditional and new fibre production and transport systems. This workshop was held to explore methods of ensuring the sustainability of ecosystems as well as to discuss the economic and social challenges related to the production, conversion, and transport of biomass to energy. The economic sustainability of supply was discussed, as well as methods of sustaining soils and plant productive capacity. Sustainable feedstock supply systems were also evaluated. The workshop was divided into the following 12 main sessions: (1) global and regional perspectives; (2) broad scale supply chain issues; (3) broad scale environmental issues; (4) sustainable feedstock supply systems criteria and indicators; (5) managing land for bioenergy feedstock production; (6) managing the productive capacity of soils; (7) environmental sustainability; (8) long term soil productivity; (9) greenhouse gas balances and life cycle assessment; (10) long term soil productivity; (11) bioenergy in practice; and (12) environmental quality concerns. The workshop featured 50 presentations, of which 19 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  2. Geospatial Assessment of Long-Term Sustainability of Biomass Feedstock Supplies: Erosion, Soil Biomass Accumulation, Greenhouse Gasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentrater, K. A.; Kaleita, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    In the past decade, the corn grain-based fuel ethanol industry has grown exponentially. Now, stakeholders within the corn grain producing regions of the midwestern United States are seeking to develop advanced biofuels from abundant post-harvest lignocellulosic corn stover resides. How sustainable are these biofuels? Scientific guidelines regarding the sustainable use of corn grain and stover to maintain soil quality have not been clearly defined, due in part to the complexity of agricultural soil systems and the dearth of robust and consistent data. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term sustainability of corn stover harvest for economically relevant agricultural production scenarios focused on the state of Iowa. We used the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model to simulate soil erosion and biomass returned to the soil under two crop rotation scenarios (continuous corn vs. corn-soybean rotation), three corn stover removal rates (0, 50, 100% removed), and three tillage intensities (no till (NT), intermediate till (IT), conventional till (CT)). Calculations were aggregated to the township-scale using multiple sampling points from the USDA Natural Resources Inventory per township within each county, for a total of 17,848 sampling points throughout the state. This accounted for the topographical and soils variation within the state; use of county weather stations incorporated climate variations. Statistical characterization and GIS visualization were used to illustrate and interpret the results. Wide variations in biomass accumulation/erosion/GHG impacts were observed across agronomic scenarios and landform regions throughout Iowa, and biomass management and tillage intensity impacted on-site soil quality and the off-site environment. Soil biomass was primarily affected by stover removal rate, with soybean rotation also reducing soil biomass. Soil erosion was primarily affected by slope and tillage, with stover removal rate playing a lesser

  3. Long-term security of energy supply and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turton, H. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria). ECS; Barreto, L. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland). Energy Economics Group

    2006-10-15

    Security of energy supply and climate change are central concerns for policy makers and important dimensions of the long-term quest for a sustainable global energy system. This paper examines the role of several policy instruments in managing energy security and climate risks and stimulating technological change towards a more secure and climate-benign global energy system in the long-term future. The analysis has been conducted with ERIS, a multi-regional energy-systems ''bottom-up'' optimization model with technology learning. Our analysis provides some policy insights and identifies synergies and trade-offs relating to the potential for security of supply policies to promote the uptake of new technologies, reduce the cost of pursuing climate change mitigation policies, and facilitate a possible transition to a hydrogen economy. (author)

  4. Long-term security of energy supply and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hal Turton; Leonardo Barreto [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria). Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (ECS)

    2006-10-15

    Security of energy supply and climate change are central concerns for policy makers and important dimensions of the long-term quest for a sustainable global energy system. This paper examines the role of several policy instruments in managing energy security and climate risks and stimulating technological change towards a more secure and climate-benign global energy system in the long-term future. The analysis has been conducted with ERIS, a multi-regional energy-systems 'bottom-up' optimization model with technology learning. The analysis provides some policy insights and identifies synergies and trade-offs relating to the potential for security of supply policies to promote the uptake of new technologies, reduce the cost of pursuing climate change mitigation policies, and facilitate a possible transition to a hydrogen economy. 44 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  5. ROLE OF CONTROLLABILITY FOR LONG TERM SUSTAINABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful implementation of sustainability ideas in ecosystem management requires a basic understanding of the often nonlinear and nonintuitive relationships among different dimensions of sustainability, particularly the system-wide implications of human actions. This basic unde...

  6. 影响供应链伙伴关系长久持续的因素分析%Analysis of the Influential Factors of Long-Term Sustainable Supply Chain Partnerships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹佳; 王志坚

    2011-01-01

    作为供应链管理的重要组成部分,供应链伙伴关系成为越来越多企业关注的焦点,能否建立长期稳定的伙伴关系成为决定供应链是否成功实施的关键。通过对影响供应链伙伴关系长久持续的各种因素的对比分析,发现信任关系、企业声誉、长期目标、供应链文化、组织结构和欺骗成本是其中最主要的影响因素。这些因素无论在软件还是硬件上都对供应链伙伴关系的稳定有着重大的影响,通过格力、海尔和国美的案例可以充分证明。%As an important part of supply chain management,supply chain partnerships are increasingly concerned by the companies.Establishing long-term stable partnership is the key to the successful implementation of supply chain.Through the comparative analysis of various factors of long-term sustainable supply chain partnerships,the finding is that the relationship of trust,reputation,long-term goals,supply chain culture,organizational structure and cost of fraud are the most important factors.These factors have a great impact on the supply chain partnership's stability both in software and hardware,which has demonstrated by the case of the supply chain partnerships of Gree,Harier and Gome.

  7. A cross cultural comparison of long-term supply relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Gjalt de; Nooteboom, Bart

    2003-01-01

    This paper challenges the received view that long-term supply relationships are a typically Japanese feature, embedded and developed in a typically Japanese society characterized by high levels of trust and cooperation, and for that reason cannot be established in the typically a-cooperative, compet

  8. Seamless Long Term Learning in Agile Teams for Sustainable Leadership

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, M R J

    2012-01-01

    Seamless and continuous support for long term organizational learning needs is essential for long lasting progress of the organization. Agile process model provides an excellent opportunity to cater that specific problem and also helps in motivation, satisfaction, coordination, presentation and technical skills enhancement of agile teams. This long term learning process makes organization to sustain their current successes and lead both organization and team members to successful and dynamic market leaders.

  9. Long-term natural gas supply to Europe: Import potential, infrastructure needs and investment promotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, M.; Karbuz, S.; Esnault, B.; El Andaloussi, H.

    2007-07-01

    This paper assesses the future long term (2010-2020-2030) gas import requirements and external supply potential for Europe, and identifies future gas corridor infrastructure needs taking into account a reserve/resource analysis, production and demand outlooks, export infrastructure and projects, supply costs as well as institutional, strategy and geopolitical issues, etc. Finally, the paper identifies investment barriers for different types of gas corridor infrastructure projects and proposes issues to be addressed by policymakers in order to put in place a favourable environment regarding investment promotion and to create a sustainable gas market for the long term. (auth)

  10. Long term impacts of international outsourcing of manufacturing on sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moosavirad, Seyed Hamed; Kara, Sami; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2014-01-01

    International outsourcing seems to be a cost efficient way of production. However, there are serious concerns about its long term impacts on the environmental, social and economic sustainability. This paper aims to quantify these impacts by using input output analysis, linear programming and syst...

  11. More efficient optimization of long-term water supply portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Brian R.; Characklis, Gregory W.; Dillard, Karen E. M.; Kelley, C. T.

    2009-03-01

    The use of temporary transfers, such as options and leases, has grown as utilities attempt to meet increases in demand while reducing dependence on the expansion of costly infrastructure capacity (e.g., reservoirs). Earlier work has been done to construct optimal portfolios comprising firm capacity and transfers, using decision rules that determine the timing and volume of transfers. However, such work has only focused on the short-term (e.g., 1-year scenarios), which limits the utility of these planning efforts. Developing multiyear portfolios can lead to the exploration of a wider range of alternatives but also increases the computational burden. This work utilizes a coupled hydrologic-economic model to simulate the long-term performance of a city's water supply portfolio. This stochastic model is linked with an optimization search algorithm that is designed to handle the high-frequency, low-amplitude noise inherent in many simulations, particularly those involving expected values. This noise is detrimental to the accuracy and precision of the optimized solution and has traditionally been controlled by investing greater computational effort in the simulation. However, the increased computational effort can be substantial. This work describes the integration of a variance reduction technique (control variate method) within the simulation/optimization as a means of more efficiently identifying minimum cost portfolios. Random variation in model output (i.e., noise) is moderated using knowledge of random variations in stochastic input variables (e.g., reservoir inflows, demand), thereby reducing the computing time by 50% or more. Using these efficiency gains, water supply portfolios are evaluated over a 10-year period in order to assess their ability to reduce costs and adapt to demand growth, while still meeting reliability goals. As a part of the evaluation, several multiyear option contract structures are explored and compared.

  12. Sustainability of a long term professional development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Christine E.

    Currently, in most school districts, the main form of teacher education comes from professional development (PD) that claims to improve teaching and student achievement. School districts and teachers spend time and money trying to make sure that they are providing the best quality education for their students. Yet, educators are looking for what the most effective form of PD should look like. Utilizing the methodology of a descriptive case study a long-term PD grant, called Science Alliance was evaluated to add to the research on PD and grant program efficacy. Twelve teachers that participated in the Science Alliance grant were interviewed, observed, and given a survey to see how and to what degree they were implementing the inquiry methodology three years after the grant ended. The results were compared with previously existing data that were collected by a company that Science Alliance hired to complete external research on the effects of the PD. The findings suggest that the teachers that participated have sustained the utilization and implementation of the methodology learned during the training. School administrators and/or staff developers could utilize the findings from this study to see what effective PD may entail. Future researchers may use findings from this study when reporting about grant program evaluations and/or PD.

  13. Metabolic modelling to support long term strategic decisions on water supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriello, Valentina; Felisa, Giada; Lauriola, Ilaria; Pomanti, Flavio; Di Federico, Vittorio

    2017-04-01

    Water resources are essential for the economic development and sustenance of anthropic activities belonging to the civil, agricultural and industrial sectors. Nevertheless, availability of water resources is not uniformly distributed in space and time. Moreover, the increasing water demand, mainly due to population growth and expansion of agricultural crops, may cause increasing water stress conditions, if combined with the effects of climate change. Under these circumstances, it is necessary to improve the resilience of water supply systems both in terms of infrastructures and environmental compliance. Metabolic modelling approaches represent a flexible tool able to provide support to decision making in the long term, based on sustainability criteria. These approaches mimic the water supply network through a set of material and energy fluxes that interact and influence each other. By analyzing these fluxes, a suite of key performance indicators is evaluated in order to identify which kind of interventions may be applied to increase the sustainability of the system. Here, we adopt these concepts to analyze the water supply network of Reggio-Emilia (Italy) which is supported by water withdrawals from both surface water and groundwater bodies. We analyze different scenarios, including possible reduction of water withdrawals from one of the different sources as a consequence of a decrease in water availability under present and future scenarios. On these basis, we identify preventive strategies for a dynamic management of the water supply system.

  14. Supply Chain Coordination by Single-Period and Long-Term Contracts with Fuzzy Market Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Junyan; ZHAO Ruiqing; TANG Wansheng

    2009-01-01

    Due to the uncertainty of the market demand in the supply chain, this paper characterized market demand as a fuzzy variable and proposed single-period and long-term contracts to coordinate the two members (supplier and buyer) in the supply chain. Comparison of the effectiveness of the two contracts in-dicates that a long-term contract is more effective than a single-period contract in improving the profit poten-tial of both the total supply chain and each member in the supply chain. This conclusion is useful to the de-cision-maker in supply chains with fuzzy market demand.

  15. RED BULL: the Long term Business Sustainable Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanasarnsombati, Tas

    2011-01-01

    According to number of studies shows that food and beverage market is one of the most sustainable markets of them all. As majority of super-power supermarkets continue to increase their profits, proven that despite either the up or down-turn of the economic situations, food and beverage always will be the basic need to everyone. However with the food and beverage products keep emerging though out rapidly into the market, leaving consumers with numbers of choices to choose to purchase. In the ...

  16. Technologies for sustainable energy development in the long term. Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderberg Petersen, Leif; Larsen, Hans Hvidtfeldt

    2005-01-01

    The Risø International Energy Conference took place 23 - 25 May 2005 and the aim of the conference was to present and discuss new developments and trends in energy technologies which may make major contributions to sustainable energy developments in thecoming decades. The conference addressed R......&D related to the individual technologies as well as their integration into the local, regional and global energy systems. The proceedings are prepared from papers presented at the conference and received withcorrections, if any, until the final deadline on 15 June 2005....

  17. Sustainable Living in Long-Term Care: For People with Dementia/Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Nonhome-based long-term care sustainable living arrangements for elderly people with Alzheimer's is presented. Characteristics contributing to sustainability are discussed. The ultimate goal in sustainable design for older adult communities is a people-centered model of care in environments that improve their quality of life. Without sustainable…

  18. Sustainable Living in Long-Term Care: For People with Dementia/Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Nonhome-based long-term care sustainable living arrangements for elderly people with Alzheimer's is presented. Characteristics contributing to sustainability are discussed. The ultimate goal in sustainable design for older adult communities is a people-centered model of care in environments that improve their quality of life. Without sustainable…

  19. Long-term sustainability of bio-components production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souček Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels play an increasingly important role in motor fuel market. The list of biofuels (bio-components in accordance with EU legislations contains a number of substances not widely used in the market. Traditionally these include: fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, in the Czech Republic methyl ether of rape seed oil and bioethanol (also ethyl terc. buthyl ether ETBE, based on bioethanol. The availability and possible utilizations of bio-component fuels in Czech Republic and Serbia are discussed. Additional attention is paid on the identification of the possibilities to improve effectiveness of rape seeds cultivation and utilization of by-products from FAME production (utilization of sew, rape-meal and glycerol which will allow fulfilment of the sustainability criteria for the first generation biofuels. The new approaches on renewable co-processing are commented. The concept of 3E (emissions, energy demand, and economics is introduced specifying three main attributes for effective production of FAME production in accordance with legal compliances. Bio-components price change is analyzed in comparison to the price of motor fuels, identifying possible (speculative crude price break-even point at the level of 149-176 USD/bbl at which point bio-fuels would become economically cost effective for the use by refiners.

  20. Modelling long-term sustainability of irrigation practices in semi arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyennon, Nicolas; Romano, Emanuele; Portoghese, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    The impact of climate change on groundwater or surface water resources can be investigated through models simulating the hydrological and hydrogeological processes at the atmosphere/surface water/soil/groundwater interfaces. However, in aquifers extensively exploited for irrigation purposes, the water demand variability related to actual water availability, as well as to variation of the crops, and associated supply management options should be considered to evaluate impacts. Moreover, in the case of a multi-resources water supply system it is necessary to develop models able to simulate also the variation of the total demand distribution among each resource. We proposed a modeling scheme able to simulate an integrated multiple-resources and multiple-purposes water supply system by merging distributed crop water requirements with surface reservoir and ground water mass balance, considering resources availability and management, with emphasis on irrigation practices. The overall framework has been implemented for the case study of the Fortore water supply system, a semi-arid region in south Italy. It permits to simulate the conjunctive use of the water from the Occhito artificial reservoir (160 Mm3) and from groundwater to supply domestic, industrial and agricultural demand. The overall model successfully reproduces the Occhito dam level variability (both seasonal and inter-annual) as well as the observed groundwater depletion. The proposed model was forced by 60 years of meteorological observation to test the long-term sustainability of the current irrigation practices and has been extended to the next decades under a1b IPCC scenario using three ENSEMBLES member to test adaptation strategies.

  1. Short and long term improvements in quality of chronic care delivery predict program sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractEmpirical evidence on sustainability of programs that improve the quality of care delivery over time is lacking. Therefore, this study aims to identify the predictive role of short and long term improvements in quality of chronic care delivery on program sustainability. In this lon

  2. Simple models and concepts as tools for the study of sustained soil productivity in long-term experiments. II. Crop nutrient equivalents, balanced supplies of available nutrients, and NPK triangles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.H.

    2011-01-01

    Two NPK factorial trials, one in Vietnam and one in The Netherlands were (re-)analyzed to find causes of success or failure with regard to sustained soil productivity, using the concept of crop nutrient equivalents (CNE). A (k)CNE is the quantity of a nutrient that, under conditions of balanced

  3. Model validation through long-term promising sustainable maize/pigeon pea residue management in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwale, C.D.; Kabambe, V.H.; Sakale, W.D.; Giller, K.E.; Kauwa, A.A.; Ligowe, I.; Kamalongo, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the 2005/2006 season, the Model Validation Through Long-Term Promising Sustainable Maize/Pigeon Pea Residue Management experiment was in the 11th year at Chitedze and Chitala, and in the 8th year at Makoka and Zombwe. The experiment was a split-plot design with cropping system as the main plot an

  4. Long term clinical outcome of chronic hepatitis C patients with sustained virological response to interferon monotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldt, B J; Saracco, G; Boyer, N; Cammà, C; Bellobuono, A; Hopf, U; Castillo, I; Weiland, O; Nevens, F; Hansen, B E; Schalm, S W

    2004-01-01

    Background: The key end point for treatment efficacy in chronic hepatitis C is absence of detectable virus at six months after treatment. However, the incidence of clinical events during long term follow up of patients with sustained virological response is still poorly documented and may differ between the Eastern and Western world. Aims: To assess clinical end points during long term follow up of European patients with a sustained virological response to interferon monotherapy. Methods: Meta-analysis of individual patient data from eight European protocolled follow up studies of interferon treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Results: A total of 286 sustained virological responders and 50 biochemical responders (detectable virus but normal alanine aminotransferase levels) were followed up for 59 months. Fifteen sustained virological responders (5.2%) had cirrhosis before treatment and 112 (39%) had genotype 1. The late virological relapse rate after five years of follow up was 4.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0–7.4) among sustained virological responders; all late relapses occurred within four years after treatment. Among sustained virological responders, the rate of decompensation after five years of follow up was 1.0% (95% CI 0.0–2.3) and none developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Survival was comparable with the general population, matched for age and sex, the standard mortality ratio being 1.4 (95% CI 0.3–2.5). Clinical outcome of patients with cirrhosis was similar to other sustained virological responders. For biochemical responders, the rates of development of decompensation and HCC during long term follow up were 9.1% (95% CI 0.5–17.7) and 7.1% (95% CI 0–15.0), respectively. Conclusions: Five year survival of European sustained virological responders was similar to the overall population, matched for age and sex. No HCCs were detected during long term follow up. PMID:15361504

  5. LONG-TERM GOVERNMENT RESPONSES TO SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT: PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Csoban, Katalin, Vargane; Gathy, Andrea Bauer

    2009-01-01

    Tourism is one of the leading sectors in the world economy. Enhancing its well-known economic, social and environmental benefits while managing its negative impacts are highly important for the national governments in European Union. Strategic planning is essential to meet the long term requirements of sustainability. National sustainable development strategies and tourism strategies are fundamental means of strategic planning as they provide guidance for the decision-makers of the tourism se...

  6. Backup Sourcing Decisions for Coping with Supply Disruptions under Long-Term Horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a buyer’s inventory control problem under a long-term horizon. The buyer has one major supplier that is prone to disruption risks and one backup supplier with higher wholesale price. Two kinds of sourcing methods are available for the buyer: single sourcing with/without contingent supply and dual sourcing. In contingent sourcing, the backup supplier is capacitated and/or has yield uncertainty, whereas in dual sourcing the backup supplier has an incentive to offer output flexibility during disrupted periods. The buyer’s expected cost functions and the optimal base-stock levels using each sourcing method under long-term horizon are obtained, respectively. The effects of three risk parameters, disruption probability, contingent capacity or uncertainty, and backup flexibility, are examined using comparative studies and numerical computations. Four sourcing methods, namely, single sourcing with contingent supply, dual sourcing, and single sourcing from either of the two suppliers, are also compared. These findings can be used as a valuable guideline for companies to select an appropriate sourcing strategy under supply disruption risks.

  7. Backup Sourcing Decisions for Coping with Supply Disruptions under Long-Term Horizons

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Hou; Lijun Sun

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies a buyer’s inventory control problem under a long-term horizon. The buyer has one major supplier that is prone to disruption risks and one backup supplier with higher wholesale price. Two kinds of sourcing methods are available for the buyer: single sourcing with/without contingent supply and dual sourcing. In contingent sourcing, the backup supplier is capacitated and/or has yield uncertainty, whereas in dual sourcing the backup supplier has an incentive to offer output fle...

  8. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    design for TBL sustainability. These are located in catastrophe-ridden Haiti and supported by the Germany-based investor company Yunus Social Business. Three supply chain archetypes combining physical and support chains are presented that focus on TBL sustainable outputs and outcomes. For SSCM research...

  9. Development of oil supply and demand planning model for mid- and long-term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hyun [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1997-10-01

    Despite the liberalization of oil market, a systematic model is required for reasonable supply and demand of oil, which still has an important influence on industry and state economy. It is required a demand model deriving prospects of each sector and product and a supply model examining the optimum rate of operation, production mix of products, stock, export and import, and the size of equipment investment to meet given demand. As the first phase for the development of supply and demand model, the existing oil and energy models in domestic and overseas were reviewed and recommendations for establishing a Korean oil supply and demand model were derived in this study. Based on these, a principle for establishing a model and a rough framework were set up. In advance of mid- and long-term prospects, a short-term prospect model was established and the short-term prospects for the first quarter of 1999 and for the year 1999 were presented on trial. Due to the size and characters of a supply model, a plan for an ideal model was first explained and then a plan for creating a model step by step was presented as a realistic scheme. (author). 16 refs., 9 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Towards sustainable groundwater use: setting long-term goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Alley, William M; Allen, Diana M; Sophocleous, Marios A; Zhou, Yangxiao; Taniguchi, Makoto; VanderSteen, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The sustainability of crucial earth resources, such as groundwater, is a critical issue. We consider groundwater sustainability a value-driven process of intra- and intergenerational equity that balances the environment, society, and economy. Synthesizing hydrogeological science and current sustainability concepts, we emphasize three sustainability approaches: setting multigenerational sustainability goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively. As most aquifer problems are long-term problems, we propose that multigenerational goals (50 to 100 years) for water quantity and quality that acknowledge the connections between groundwater, surface water, and ecosystems be set for many aquifers. The goals should be set by a watershed- or aquifer-based community in an inclusive and participatory manner. Policies for shorter time horizons should be developed by backcasting, and measures implemented through adaptive management to achieve the long-term goals. Two case histories illustrate the importance and complexity of a multigenerational perspective and adaptive management. These approaches could transform aquifer depletion and contamination to more sustainable groundwater use, providing groundwater for current and future generations while protecting ecological integrity and resilience.

  11. Automatic estimation of aquifer parameters using long-term water supply pumping and injection records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ning; Illman, Walter A.

    2016-09-01

    Analyses are presented of long-term hydrographs perturbed by variable pumping/injection events in a confined aquifer at a municipal water-supply well field in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Such records are typically not considered for aquifer test analysis. Here, the water-level variations are fingerprinted to pumping/injection rate changes using the Theis model implemented in the WELLS code coupled with PEST. Analyses of these records yield a set of transmissivity ( T) and storativity ( S) estimates between each monitoring and production borehole. These individual estimates are found to poorly predict water-level variations at nearby monitoring boreholes not used in the calibration effort. On the other hand, the geometric means of the individual T and S estimates are similar to those obtained from previous pumping tests conducted at the same site and adequately predict water-level variations in other boreholes. The analyses reveal that long-term municipal water-level records are amenable to analyses using a simple analytical solution to estimate aquifer parameters. However, uniform parameters estimated with analytical solutions should be considered as first rough estimates. More accurate hydraulic parameters should be obtained by calibrating a three-dimensional numerical model that rigorously captures the complexities of the site with these data.

  12. Long-term climate sensitivity of an integrated water supply system: The role of irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyennon, Nicolas; Romano, Emanuele; Portoghese, Ivan

    2016-09-15

    The assessment of the impact of long-term climate variability on water supply systems depends not only on possible variations of the resources availability, but also on the variation of the demand. In this framework, a robust estimation of direct (climate induced) and indirect (anthropogenically induced) effects of climate change is mandatory to design mitigation measures, especially in those regions of the planet where the groundwater equilibrium is strongly perturbed by exploitations for irrigation purposes. The main goal of this contribution is to propose a comprehensive model that integrates distributed crop water requirements with surface and groundwater mass balance, able to consider management rules of the water supply system. The proposed overall model, implemented, calibrated and validated for the case study of the Fortore water supply system (Apulia region, South Italy), permits to simulate the conjunctive use of the water from a surface artificial reservoir and from groundwater. The relative contributions of groundwater recharges and withdrawals to the aquifer stress have been evaluated under different climate perturbations, with emphasis on irrigation practices. Results point out that irrigated agriculture primarily affects groundwater discharge, indicating that ecosystem services connected to river base flow are particularly exposed to climate variation in irrigated areas. Moreover, findings show that the recharge both to surface and to groundwater is mainly affected by drier climate conditions, while hotter conditions have a major impact on the water demand. The non-linearity arising from combined drier and hotter conditions may exacerbate the aquifer stress by exposing it to massive sea-water intrusion.

  13. Short and long term improvements in quality of chronic care delivery predict program sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane Murray; Nieboer, Anna Petra

    2014-01-01

    Empirical evidence on sustainability of programs that improve the quality of care delivery over time is lacking. Therefore, this study aims to identify the predictive role of short and long term improvements in quality of chronic care delivery on program sustainability. In this longitudinal study, professionals [2010 (T0): n=218, 55% response rate; 2011 (T1): n=300, 68% response rate; 2012 (T2): n=265, 63% response rate] from 22 Dutch disease-management programs completed surveys assessing quality of care and program sustainability. Our study findings indicated that quality of chronic care delivery improved significantly in the first 2 years after implementation of the disease-management programs. At T1, overall quality, self-management support, delivery system design, and integration of chronic care components, as well as health care delivery and clinical information systems and decision support, had improved. At T2, overall quality again improved significantly, as did community linkages, delivery system design, clinical information systems, decision support and integration of chronic care components, and self-management support. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that quality of chronic care delivery at T0 (pquality changes in the first (pmanagement programs based on the chronic care model improved the quality of chronic care delivery over time and that short and long term changes in the quality of chronic care delivery predicted the sustainability of the projects.

  14. Long-term dynamics of dissolved organic carbon: implications for drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, José L J; Köhler, Stephan J; Futter, Martyn N

    2012-08-15

    Surface waters are the main source of drinking water in many regions. Increasing organic carbon concentrations are a cause for concern in Nordic countries since both dissolved and particulate organic carbon can transport contaminants and adversely affect drinking water treatment processes. We present a long-term study of dynamics of total (particulate and dissolved) organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in the River Fyris. This river supplies drinking water to approximately 200000 people in Uppsala, Sweden. The River Fyris is a main tributary to Lake Mälaren, which supplies drinking water to approximately 2 million people in the greater Stockholm area. Utilities responsible for drinking water supply in both Uppsala and Stockholm have expressed concerns about possible increases in TOC. We evaluate organic carbon dynamics within the Fyris catchment by calculating areal mass exports using observed TOC concentrations and modeled flows and by modeling dissolved organic carbon (as a proxy for TOC) using the dynamic, process based INCA-C model. Exports of TOC from the catchment ranged from 0.8 to 5.8 g m(-2) year(-1) in the period 1995-2010. The variation in annual exports was related to climatic variability which influenced seasonality and amount of runoff. Exports and discharge uncoupled at the end of 2008. A dramatic increase in TOC concentrations was observed in 2009, which gradually declined in 2010-2011. INCA-C successfully reproduced the intra- and inter-annual variation in concentrations during 1996-2008 and 2010-2011 but failed to capture the anomalous increase in 2009. We evaluated a number of hypotheses to explain the anomaly in 2009 TOC values, ultimately none proved satisfactory. We draw two main conclusions: there is at least one unknown or unmeasured process controlling or influencing surface water TOC and INCA-C can be used as part of the decision-making process for current and future use of rivers for drinking water supply.

  15. Untangling Risk in Water Supply Systems: What Factors Drive Long-term Adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeff, H. B.; Lin, L.; Band, L. E.; Reed, P. M.; Characklis, G. W.

    2016-12-01

    Deeply uncertain factors like climate change, the hydrologic impacts of urbanization, forest evolution, and long-term demand forecasts make water supply planning a `wicked' problem. The traditional technique of assessing risk based on historical observations can be inadequate in the face of environmental non-stationarity. However, competing models and limited observational data make it difficult for decision makers and experts to agree on how much uncertainty should be built into analyses of risk, particularly at the timescales relevant to long-term investments in water infrastructure. Further, the physical connectivity of these deeply uncertain processes create inter-related systems, amplifying the challenges of a `worst case scenario'. The development of adaptive systems and planning processes provide solutions that have been shown to meet technical, environmental, and social objectives at lower costs. Instead of developing plans with fixed targets for the timing of actions, adaptive plans develop risk metrics and thresholds that are able to integrate new information to determine when conditions reach a `tipping point' which necessitates action. It is an open question as to how new information can be best integrated into the decision-making process (i.e. how much weight do we give new observations relative to the historical record), but a better understanding of the way the relevant systems are expected to evolve and change over time could inform these decisions. In this study, we use linked, dynamic models of temperature and precipitation changes, forest evolution, urbanization, hydrology, and water demand to develop scenarios for an adaptive water management framework that uses risk-based metrics to make short- and long-term decisions. The impact of individual environmental processes on the adaptive capability of this management framework is evaluated through problem formulations that successively increase the complexity of the uncertainty scenarios. Although

  16. PRODUCER SEGMENTATION AND THE ROLE OF LONG-TERM RELATIONSHIP IN MALAYSIA’S MILK SUPPLY CHAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Boniface, Bonaventure

    2011-01-01

    Research on buyer-seller relationships in the agricultural sector receives little attention. A growing body of evidence suggests that strong buyer-seller relationships facilitate more efficient supply chains. The long term relationship literature tends to treat suppliers as a homogenous group when attempting to identify motivations, strategies and incentives to enhance the quality of buyer-seller relationships. This article explores the role of long-term relationships between buyers and selle...

  17. Modeling and analysis of long-term energy scenarios for sustainable strategies of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senshaw, Dereje Azemraw

    2014-04-15

    Despite robust economic growth, Ethiopia is one of the countries with poor energy accesses. Contributing factors are poor availability of energy, unreliable and insufficient quality of energy, and insufficient policy. Recognizing that energy access and security are indispensable to economic transformation, Ethiopia needs to cope with key challenges related to energy security, climate change mitigation and also diversification of energy supply. In order to achieve these targets and strive towards sustainable energy for all, Ethiopia's energy system requires a major transformation. The main achievement of this research has been the development of alternative energy options under different conditions for Ethiopia up to 2050. To identify an energy pathway that would meet Ethiopia's energy needs in a sustainable manner, three scenarios are considered: the business-as usual (BAU), moderate shift (Scenario1) and the advanced shift scenario (Scenario 2). The scenarios were developed, quantified and analyzed using a bottom-up model for Long Term Alternative Energy Planning (LEAP). These scenarios represent a range of energy policy measures that Ethiopia could adopt to achieve its sustainable development goals. The BAU scenario reflects a continuation of the current policy trend and considers on economic growth rate of 7%, while Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 represent moderate and advanced levels of commitment in economic growth, energy diversity and reduction of energy import dependency and CO{sub 2} emissions limits, respectively. The scenario analysis shows that the primary energy requirements for Ethiopia's socio-economic development will increase sharply over the period (2010-2050) in all three scenarios. BAU, Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 show an expected to growth at annual rates of 4.1, 4.9 and 5.7% respectively. If the current policy trends (as represented by BAU) continue, the total energy demand in Ethiopia is expected to reach 6,553 Petajoule (PJ) by 2050

  18. Sheep grazing in the North Atlantic region: A long-term perspective on environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Louise C; Austrheim, Gunnar; Asheim, Leif-Jarle; Bjarnason, Gunnar; Feilberg, Jon; Fosaa, Anna Maria; Hester, Alison J; Holand, Øystein; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Mortensen, Lis E; Mysterud, Atle; Olsen, Erla; Skonhoft, Anders; Speed, James D M; Steinheim, Geir; Thompson, Des B A; Thórhallsdóttir, Anna Gudrún

    2016-09-01

    Sheep grazing is an important part of agriculture in the North Atlantic region, defined here as the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Scotland. This process has played a key role in shaping the landscape and biodiversity of the region, sometimes with major environmental consequences, and has also been instrumental in the development of its rural economy and culture. In this review, we present results of the first interdisciplinary study taking a long-term perspective on sheep management, resource economy and the ecological impacts of sheep grazing, showing that sustainability boundaries are most likely to be exceeded in fragile environments where financial support is linked to the number of sheep produced. The sustainability of sheep grazing can be enhanced by a management regime that promotes grazing densities appropriate to the site and supported by area-based subsidy systems, thus minimizing environmental degradation, encouraging biodiversity and preserving the integrity of ecosystem processes.

  19. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Henry; Skinner, Kirsten; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul of the system in

  20. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Henry; Smith, Robert J; Skinner, Kirsten; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul of the system in

  1. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  2. Considering long-term sustainability in the development of world class success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güllich, Arne; Emrich, Eike

    2014-01-01

    The developmental practice patterns leading to the highest levels of success remain a subject of debate. The present study purposes to extend the body of empirical research by analysing athletic biographies from a large sample of German national squad athletes across all Olympic sports (n=1558; 57% male, 43% female). In a combined retrospective and longitudinal study utilising postal questionnaires, we evaluated the age at onset, volume, domain-specificity, variability in training and competition and success attained at different ages. Developmental practice patterns leading to rapid adolescent success and long-term senior success were inconsistent, and in some aspects contradictory. An early start-age for training and competition, early specialisation, high-intensity specific practice in the respective domain sport and little or no involvement in other sports (OS) favoured early adolescent success. Juvenile success, however, did not contribute to individual differences in success achieved at a senior age (-0.09world class performers differed from national class athletes in a later age for onset of training and competition in their domain sport, later specialisation (14.4 vs. 12.1 years), more involvement in OS (training 66% vs. 51%; competitions 53% vs. 39%), but not in practice volume in their domain sport at any age. Findings were confirmed with longitudinal testing and were widely consistent across types of sports. These findings are interpreted relative to correspondence to deliberate practice and DMSP frameworks while drawing on the concept of long-term sustainability.

  3. The long-term forecast of Taiwan's energy supply and demand: LEAP model application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yophy, E-mail: yohuanghaka@gmail.com [Deptartment of Public Finance and Tax Administration, National Taipei College of Business, Taipei Taiwan, 10051 (China); Bor, Yunchang Jeffrey [Deptartment of Economics, Chinese Culture University, Yang-Ming-Shan, Taipei, 11114, Taiwan (China); Peng, Chieh-Yu [Statistics Department, Taoyuan District Court, No. 1 Fazhi Road, Taoyuan City 33053, Taiwan (China)

    2011-11-15

    The long-term forecasting of energy supply and demand is an extremely important topic of fundamental research in Taiwan due to Taiwan's lack of natural resources, dependence on energy imports, and the nation's pursuit of sustainable development. In this article, we provide an overview of energy supply and demand in Taiwan, and a summary of the historical evolution and current status of its energy policies, as background to a description of the preparation and application of a Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model of Taiwan's energy sector. The Taiwan LEAP model is used to compare future energy demand and supply patterns, as well as greenhouse gas emissions, for several alternative scenarios of energy policy and energy sector evolution. Results of scenarios featuring 'business-as-usual' policies, aggressive energy-efficiency improvement policies, and on-schedule retirement of Taiwan's three existing nuclear plants are provided and compared, along with sensitivity cases exploring the impacts of lower economic growth assumptions. A concluding section provides an interpretation of the implications of model results for future energy and climate policies in Taiwan. - Research Highlights: > The LEAP model is useful for international energy policy comparison. > Nuclear power plants have significant, positive impacts on CO{sub 2} emission. > The most effective energy policy is to adopt demand-side management. > Reasonable energy pricing provides incentives for energy efficiency and conservation. > Financial crisis has less impact on energy demand than aggressive energy policy.

  4. Robotic Observatory System Design-Specification Considerations for Achieving Long-Term Sustainable Precision Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, J. D.

    2003-05-01

    The robotic observatory telescope must point precisely on the target object, and then track autonomously to a fraction of the FWHM of the system PSF for durations of ten to twenty minutes or more. It must retain this precision while continuing to function at rates approaching thousands of observations per night for all its years of useful life. These stringent requirements raise new challenges unique to robotic telescope systems design. Critical design considerations are driven by the applicability of the above requirements to all systems of the robotic observatory, including telescope and instrument systems, telescope-dome enclosure systems, combined electrical and electronics systems, environmental (e.g. seeing) control systems and integrated computer control software systems. Traditional telescope design considerations include the effects of differential thermal strain, elastic flexure, plastic flexure and slack or backlash with respect to focal stability, optical alignment and angular pointing and tracking precision. Robotic observatory design must holistically encapsulate these traditional considerations within the overall objective of maximized long-term sustainable precision performance. This overall objective is accomplished through combining appropriate mechanical and dynamical system characteristics with a full-time real-time telescope mount model feedback computer control system. Important design considerations include: identifying and reducing quasi-zero-backlash; increasing size to increase precision; directly encoding axis shaft rotation; pointing and tracking operation via real-time feedback between precision mount model and axis mounted encoders; use of monolithic construction whenever appropriate for sustainable mechanical integrity; accelerating dome motion to eliminate repetitive shock; ducting internal telescope air to outside dome; and the principal design criteria: maximizing elastic repeatability while minimizing slack, plastic deformation

  5. Long-term Effect of Pig Slurry Application on Soil Carbon Storage, Quality and Yield Sustainability in Murcia Region, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkılıç Yanardaǧ, Asuman

    2013-04-01

    Sustainability of agriculture is now a major global concern, especially since the 1980s. Soil organic matter is very important in the proper functions of the soil, which is also a good indicator of soil quality. This is due to its influence on many of the chemical, physical, and biological processes that control the capacity of a soil to perform properly. Understanding of nutrient supply through organic matter mineralization in agricultural systems is essential for maintaining long-term quality and productivity. The composition of pig manure will have a profound impact on soil properties, quality and crop yield when used in agriculture. We studied the effects of pig slurry (PS) application as an organic fertilizer, trying to determine the optimum amount that can be added to the soil, and the effect on soil properties, quality, and productivity. We applied 3 different doses on silty loam soils: Single (D1), Double (D2), Triple (D3) and unfertilized plots (C) served as controls. Samples were collected at two different levels, surface (0-30 cm) and subsurface (30-60 cm). D1 application dose, which is the agronomic rate of N-requirement (170 kg N/ha/yr) (European Directive 91/676/CEE), is very appropriate in term of sustainable agriculture and also can improve physical, chemical and biological soil properties. Therefore that the long-term use of PS with low dose may necessarily enhance soil quality in the long term. There are many factors to be considered when attempting to assess the overall net impact of a management practice on productivity. Additions of pig manure to soils at agronomic rates (170 kg N ha-1 yr-1) to match crop nutrient requirements are expected to have a positive impact on soil productivity. Therefore, the benefits from the use of application depend on the management of PS, carbon and environmental quality. However, PS have high micronutrient contents, and for this reason the application of high doses can pollute soils and damage human, animal and

  6. Perinatal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supply Are there long term consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demmelmair Hans

    2007-05-01

    , according to the concept of “metabolic programming” during the perinatal period a dietary factor, such as the availability of LC-PUFA, might have long term consequences. From the available data it has to be assumed that LC-PUFA are conditionally essential substrates during early life and a further investigation of the biological mechanisms related to their availability for the infant and of potential life long effects on cognitive function and potentially also risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and allergy are certainly warranted.

  7. Nanotechnology for sustainable wastewater treatment and use for agricultural production: A comparative long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cueva Bueno, Patricia; Gillerman, Leonid; Gehr, Ronald; Oron, Gideon

    2017-03-01

    Nanotechnology applications can be used for filtering low quality waters, allowing under given conditions, the removal of salts and other micropollutants from these waters. A long-term field experiment, implementing nanotechnology in the form of UltraFiltration (UF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) for salt removal from treated wastewater, was conducted with secondary effluents, aiming to prove the sustainability of agricultural production using irrigation with treated wastewater. Six outdoor field treatments, each under four replications, were conducted for examining the salt accumulation effects on the soil and the crops. The field experiments proved that crop development is correlated with the water quality as achieved from the wastewater filtration capability of the hybrid nanotechnology system. The key goal was to maintain sustainable food production, despite the low quality of the waters. Of the six treatment methods tested, irrigation with RO-treated effluent produced the best results in terms of its effect on soil salinity and crop yield. Nevertheless, it must be kept in mind that this process is not only costly, but it also removes all organic matter content from the irrigation water, requiring the addition of fertilizers to the effluent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlance, R.J.; Allain, C.J.; Laughton, P.J.; Henry, J.G.

    2003-07-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115 000 m{sup 3}/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Universite de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and ''cumulative effects'' as part of the overall biosolids management strategy is also discussed. (author)

  9. Long-term Sustainability of Fracture Conductivity in Geothermal Systems using Proppants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl D Mattson; Ghanashyam Neupane; Mitchell Plummer; Clay Jones; Joe Moore

    2016-02-01

    Long-term sustainability of fracture conductivity is critical for commercial success of engineered geothermal system (EGS) and hydrogeothermal field sites. The injection of proppants has been suggested as a means to enhance the conductivity in these systems. Several studies have examined the chemical behavior of proppants that are not at chemical equilibrium with the reservoir rock and water. These studies have suggested that in geothermal systems, geochemical reactions can lead to enhance proppant dissolution and deposition alteration minerals. We hypothesize that proppant dissolution will decrease the strength of the proppant and can potentially reduce the conductivity of the fracture. To examine the geomechanical strength of proppants, we have performed modified crushing tests of proppants and reservoir rock material that was subjected to geothermal reservoir temperature conditions. The batch reactor experiments heated crushed quartz monzonite rock material, proppants (either quartz sand, sintered bauxite or kryptospheres) with Raft River geothermal water to 250 ºC for a period of 2 months. Solid and liquid samples were shipped to University of Utah for chemical characterization with ICP-OES, ICP-MS, and SEM. A separate portion of the rock/proppant material was subjected to a modified American Petroleum Institute ISO 13503-2 proppant crushing test. This test is typically used to determine the maximum stress level that can be applied to a proppant pack without the occurrence of unacceptable proppant crushing. We will use the test results to examine potential changes in proppant/reservoir rock geomechanical properties as compared to samples that have not been subjected to geothermal conditions. These preliminary results will be used to screen the proppants for long term use in EGS and hot hydrogeothermal systems.

  10. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices.

  11. Short Term Cyber Attacks with Long Term Effects and Degradation of Supply Chain Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    define a black swan event as one that exhibits uncertainty fluctuations caused by “time-varying risk of unobserved tail events” (2015, 2), in other...cybersecurity, poses new challenges to readiness. Cybersecurity concerns are prominent, as shown in Internet and news media headlines of companies ...considered as an integral part of the long-term perspective. Rather than predicting the consequences of uncertainty , the DOD risk framework combines with

  12. Essays on sustainable supply management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    The growing concern for organizations’ social responsibility and sustainable behavior has been accompanied by considerable awareness of how organizations manage their supply chains. For many organizations, a large proportion of their sustainability impact comes from their inbound supply chain, an ar

  13. Sustainability of Long-term Care: Puzzling Tasks Ahead for Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Ilaria; van der Wees, Philip J.; Mot, Esther S.; Wammes, Joost J.G.; Jeurissen, Patrick P.T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The sustainability of long-term care (LTC) is a prominent policy priority in many Western countries. LTC is one of the most pressing fiscal issues for the growing population of elderly people in the European Union (EU) Member States. Country recommendations regarding LTC are prominent under the EU’s European Semester. Methods: This paper examines challenges related to the financial- and organizational sustainability of LTC systems in the EU. We combined a targeted literature review and a descriptive selected country analysis of: (1) public- and private funding; (2) informal care and externalities; and (3) the possible role of technology in increasing productivity. Countries were selected via purposive sampling to establish a cohort of country cases covering the spectrum of differences in LTC systems: public spending, private funding, informal care use, informal care support, and cash benefits. Results: The aging of the population, the increasing gap between availability of informal care and demand for LTC, substantial market failures of private funding for LTC, and fiscal imbalances in some countries, have led to structural reforms and enduring pressures for LTC policy-makers across the EU. Our exploration of national policies illustrates different solutions that attempt to promote fairness while stimulating efficient delivery of services. Important steps must be taken to address the sustainability of LTC. First, countries should look deeper into the possibilities of complementing public- and private funding, as well as at addressing market failures of private funding. Second, informal care externalities with spill-over into neighboring policy areas, the labor force, and formal LTC workers, should be properly addressed. Thirdly, innovations in LTC services should be stimulated to increase productivity through technology and process innovations, and to reduce costs. Conclusion: The analysis shows why it is difficult for EU Member State governments to

  14. Sustainability of Long-term Care: Puzzling Tasks Ahead for Policy-Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Mosca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The sustainability of long-term care (LTC is a prominent policy priority in many Western countries. LTC is one of the most pressing fiscal issues for the growing population of elderly people in the European Union (EU Member States. Country recommendations regarding LTC are prominent under the EU’s European Semester. Methods This paper examines challenges related to the financial- and organizational sustainability of LTC systems in the EU. We combined a targeted literature review and a descriptive selected country analysis of: (1 public- and private funding; (2 informal care and externalities; and (3 the possible role of technology in increasing productivity. Countries were selected via purposive sampling to establish a cohort of country cases covering the spectrum of differences in LTC systems: public spending, private funding, informal care use, informal care support, and cash benefits. Results The aging of the population, the increasing gap between availability of informal care and demand for LTC, substantial market failures of private funding for LTC, and fiscal imbalances in some countries, have led to structural reforms and enduring pressures for LTC policy-makers across the EU. Our exploration of national policies illustrates different solutions that attempt to promote fairness while stimulating efficient delivery of services. Important steps must be taken to address the sustainability of LTC. First, countries should look deeper into the possibilities of complementing public- and private funding, as well as at addressing market failures of private funding. Second, informal care externalities with spill-over into neighboring policy areas, the labor force, and formal LTC workers, should be properly addressed. Thirdly, innovations in LTC services should be stimulated to increase productivity through technology and process innovations, and to reduce costs. Conclusion The analysis shows why it is difficult for EU Member State

  15. Potential Effect of Conservation Tillage on Sustainable Land Use: A Review of Global Long-Term Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Bin; CAI Dian-Xiong; W. B. HOOGMOED; O. OENEMA; U. D. PERDOK

    2006-01-01

    Although understood differently in different parts of the world, conservation tillage usually includes leaving crop residues on the soil surface to reduce tillage. Through a global review of long-term conservation tillage research, this paper discusses the long-term effect of conservation tillage on sustainable land use, nutrient availability and crop yield response. Research has shown several potential benefits associated with conservation tillage, such as potential carbon sequestration, nutrient availability, and yield response. This research would provide a better perspective of the role of soil conservation tillage and hold promise in promoting application of practical technologies for dryland farming systems in China.

  16. Technoeconomic assumptions adopted for the development of a long-term electricity supply model for Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliotis, Constantinos; Taibi, Emanuele; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Holger; Bazilian, Morgan; Welsch, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    The generation mix of Cyprus has been dominated by oil products for decades. In order to conform with European Union and international legislation, a transformation of the supply system is called for. Energy system models can facilitate energy planning into the future, but a large volume of data is required to populate such models. The present data article provides information on key modelling assumptions and input data adopted with the aim of representing the electricity supply system of Cyprus in a separate research article. Data in regards to renewable energy technoeconomic characteristics and investment cost projections, fossil fuel price projections, storage technology characteristics and system operation assumptions are described in this article.

  17. Sustainable long-term intensive application of manure to sandy soils without phosphorus leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asomaning, Samuel K.; Abekoe, Mark K.; Dowuona, G.N.N.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term application of manure to sandy soils to ensure high crop productivity may lead to phosphorus (P) leaching, which, in turn, may deteriorate the quality of recipient waters because of eutrophication. The risk of P leaching depends on contents of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) oxides...... soils, whereas in the deepest soil layers the P contents in the cultivated and uncultivated soils were almost the same indicating very limited downward P transport despite long-term manure application. This was supported by comparable P concentrations in groundwater taken under cultivated...

  18. Sustainability of teacher expectation bias effects on long-term student performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Hester; Bosker, R.J.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we address the relationship between teacher expectation bias and student characteristics, its effect on long-term student performance, and the development of this effect over time. Expectation bias was defined as the difference between observed and predicted teacher expectation. The

  19. Long-term Sustainability of Escherichia coli Removal in Conventional Bioretention Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioretention has significant potential for reducing bacterial levels in urban stormwater discharge. The long-term performance of bacteria removal was evaluated using column studies over an 18 month period, during which synthetic urban stormwater runoff was loaded to conventional bioretention media (...

  20. Sustainability of teacher expectation bias effects on long-term student performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Hester; Bosker, R.J.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we address the relationship between teacher expectation bias and student characteristics, its effect on long-term student performance, and the development of this effect over time. Expectation bias was defined as the difference between observed and predicted teacher expectation. The

  1. Sustainability of comprehensive universal long-term care insurance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.T. Schut (Erik); B. van den Berg (Bernard)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe Netherlands was the first country that introduced a universal mandatory social health insurance scheme for covering a broad range of long-term care (LTC) services provided in a variety of care settings. Compared with most other OECD countries, both total and public expenditure on LTC

  2. Sustainability of Teacher Expectation Bias Effects on Long-Term Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hester; Bosker, Roel J.; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we address the relationship between teacher expectation bias and student characteristics, its effect on long-term student performance, and the development of this effect over time. Expectation bias was defined as the difference between observed and predicted teacher expectation. These predicted expectations were estimated from a…

  3. Implementing Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Heike; Bals, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    Implementing social and environmental dimensions in global supply chains remains a major challenge in practice. While processes and actions needed to implement sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) have been subject to more research in the last years, the question who implements...... these in practice is much less understood. Purchasing & Supply Management (PSM) stands out as a function with particular influence on the global supply base. Thus, there is a central connection between SSCM implementation and PSM as a function. While the organizational level has usually been in focus of research...... on a literature review, the current coverage of PSM competences in relation to SSCM ispresented in order to discuss further avenues for research....

  4. Assessment of a novel alder biorefinery concept to meet demands of economic feasibility, energy production and long term environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    A biorefinery concept based on alder tree plantations on degenerated soil is developed to comply with indicators of economic feasibility, fossil fuel depletion concerns, and long term sustainability issues. The potential performance of feedstock and biorefinery has been assessed through a literat......A biorefinery concept based on alder tree plantations on degenerated soil is developed to comply with indicators of economic feasibility, fossil fuel depletion concerns, and long term sustainability issues. The potential performance of feedstock and biorefinery has been assessed through...... degenerated soils. Integrating a biomass handling system, an LTCFB gasifier, a diarylheptanoids production chain, an anaerobic digestion facility, a slow pyrolysis unit, gas upgrading and various system integration units, the biorefinery could obtain the following production characteristics accounted...

  5. Modeling sustainability in renewable energy supply chain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei

    This dissertation aims at modeling sustainability of renewable fuel supply chain systems against emerging challenges. In particular, the dissertation focuses on the biofuel supply chain system design, and manages to develop advanced modeling framework and corresponding solution methods in tackling challenges in sustaining biofuel supply chain systems. These challenges include: (1) to integrate "environmental thinking" into the long-term biofuel supply chain planning; (2) to adopt multimodal transportation to mitigate seasonality in biofuel supply chain operations; (3) to provide strategies in hedging against uncertainty from conversion technology; and (4) to develop methodologies in long-term sequential planning of the biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. All models are mixed integer programs, which also involves multi-objective programming method and two-stage/multistage stochastic programming methods. In particular for the long-term sequential planning under uncertainties, to reduce the computational challenges due to the exponential expansion of the scenario tree, I also developed efficient ND-Max method which is more efficient than CPLEX and Nested Decomposition method. Through result analysis of four independent studies, it is found that the proposed modeling frameworks can effectively improve the economic performance, enhance environmental benefits and reduce risks due to systems uncertainties for the biofuel supply chain systems.

  6. Supply and demand for long-term care services from the perspective of leaders of health care institutions1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoliński, Bolesław

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Poland's transition into the stage of intensive population aging imposes changes in demand for different forms of care (including long-term). The proportion of dependent persons (requiring care) in the population continues to increase. The number of people aged 80 and above (in 2013 – 1.48 million) will double by 2050 and reach 3.54 million. The research objective was to gain knowledge on the supply and demand of different institutionalized forms of care services from the healthcare system perspective. Material and methods A computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI) survey was carried out on a Poland-wide quota sample of health care and nursing centres operating within the healthcare system. The respondent group consisted of 96 directors of health care facilities. Results In the opinion of more than a half of surveyed directors, supply of health care and nursing centres in their region is insufficient in terms of the needs of both patients and elderly people. In the context of patients, the deficit is observed primarily in health care and treatment centres, long-term nursing care and health care institutions, whereas for the elderly people the main concern is availability of nursing care, day care or social aid centres. More than half of surveyed institutions admit patients requiring care on an ongoing basis; however, in the case of health care and treatment centres more than a year-long waiting time proved to be a frequent phenomenon. In the opinion of the surveyed directors, the key factors influencing the number of available places and waiting time are insufficient financing and personnel deficit. Conclusions Introduction of multiple changes to the operation of the care system in Poland is necessary in order to improve its availability, effectiveness and quality. Achievement of this objective requires implementation of a cohesive and integrated system dedicated to monitoring and diagnosing both the supply and demand for different forms of care

  7. PV plasticity sustained through D1/5 dopamine signaling required for long-term memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Smitha; Chowdhury, Ananya; Donato, Flavio; Quairiaux, Charles; Michel, Christoph M; Caroni, Pico

    2016-03-01

    Long-term consolidation of memories depends on processes occurring many hours after acquisition. Whether this involves plasticity that is specifically required for long-term consolidation remains unclear. We found that learning-induced plasticity of local parvalbumin (PV) basket cells was specifically required for long-term, but not short/intermediate-term, memory consolidation in mice. PV plasticity, which involves changes in PV and GAD67 expression and connectivity onto PV neurons, was regulated by cAMP signaling in PV neurons. Following induction, PV plasticity depended on local D1/5 dopamine receptor signaling at 0-5 h to regulate its magnitude, and at 12-14 h for its continuance, ensuring memory consolidation. D1/5 dopamine receptor activation selectively induced DARPP-32 and ERK phosphorylation in PV neurons. At 12-14 h, PV plasticity was required for enhanced sharp-wave ripple densities and c-Fos expression in pyramidal neurons. Our results reveal general network mechanisms of long-term memory consolidation that requires plasticity of PV basket cells induced after acquisition and sustained subsequently through D1/5 receptor signaling.

  8. Ethical considerations of the short-term and long-term health impacts, costs, and educational value of sustainable development projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striebig, Bradley A; Jantzen, Tyler; Rowden, Katherine

    2006-04-01

    There are over 800 seventh to tenth grade students at the College d'Enseignment Generale (CEG) School in Azové, Benin. Like most children in the developing world, these students lack access to clean water and basic sanitation facilities. These students suffer from parasitic infection and health ailments which could be directly offset with short term aid to supply water and medical aid. Promoting proper sanitation and providing the technology to implement water and wastewater treatment in the community will decrease childhood and maternal disease and mortality rates in Azové. However, these measures may take several years to implement and will require a significant investment in the infrastructure of the school. Is it ethical to spend 10,000 dollars towards the long-term goals of providing water and sanitation to the students of CEG Azové, compared to spending the same amount on short-term relief efforts? This paper addresses the ethical dilemma of dealing with immediate medical needs in developing countries while trying to implement sustainable technologies. The views and frustration of students working on the project are discussed, as they realize the monetary and short-term impacts on human health when implementing sustainable technologies. The opportunity costs associated with the education principles of sustainable development were also considered. The anticipated costs and health impacts in the short-term and long-term will be evaluated for a period of 1, 2, 5 and 10 years. Sustainable development requires a new way of thinking, and a long-term approach. These problems will require the dedication of a new generation of engineers, working hand-in-hand with local communities and governments, social scientists, economists, businesses, human rights organizations, other non-government organizations, and international development organizations. Design projects encourage the professional and ethical development of engineers through hands-on involvement in national

  9. Open pit mine Drmno coal characteristics analysis for long-term thermo power plant supply regarding desulphurization device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, V.; Jakovljevic, I.; Stepanovic, S.

    2010-07-01

    The Drmno deposit is located in the eastern part of the Kostolac coal basin of Serbia. This paper discussed the characteristics of the open pit Drmno coal mine for long-term thermo power plant supply regarding desulphurization device. The paper provided background information on the Drmno deposit, including geologic exploration; rock type; coal layers; and a systematization of characteristics of coal. Several charts and figures were presented, including the boundary of the Drmno open pit mine on the terrain and the roof of the coal seam; a map of combustible sulphur content in the third coal seam; and exploitative quality of coal exploitation periods. It was concluded that decreasing of the emissions of sulphur oxides from the thermal power plant will be one of the highest priority tasks of EPS. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Long-Term Arthralgia after Mayaro Virus Infection Correlates with Sustained Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix W Santiago

    Full Text Available Mayaro virus (MAYV, an alphavirus similar to chikungunya virus (CHIKV, causes an acute debilitating disease which results in the development of long-term arthralgia in more than 50% of infected individuals. Currently, the immune response and its role in the development of MAYV-induced persistent arthralgia remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the immune response of individuals with confirmed MAYV infection in a one-year longitudinal study carried out in Loreto, Peru. We report that MAYV infection elicits robust immune responses that result in the development of a strong neutralizing antibody response and the secretion of pro-inflammatory immune mediators. The composition of these inflammatory mediators, in some cases, differed to those previously observed for CHIKV. Key mediators such as IL-13, IL-7 and VEGF were strongly induced following MAYV infection and were significantly increased in subjects that eventually developed persistent arthralgia. Although a strong neutralizing antibody response was observed in all subjects, it was not sufficient to prevent the long-term outcomes of MAYV infection. This study provides initial immunologic insight that may eventually contribute to prognostic tools and therapeutic treatments against this emerging pathogen.

  11. Long-Term Arthralgia after Mayaro Virus Infection Correlates with Sustained Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Felix W; Halsey, Eric S; Siles, Crystyan; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Guevara, Carolina; Silvas, Jesus A; Ramal, Cesar; Ampuero, Julia S; Aguilar, Patricia V

    2015-01-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV), an alphavirus similar to chikungunya virus (CHIKV), causes an acute debilitating disease which results in the development of long-term arthralgia in more than 50% of infected individuals. Currently, the immune response and its role in the development of MAYV-induced persistent arthralgia remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the immune response of individuals with confirmed MAYV infection in a one-year longitudinal study carried out in Loreto, Peru. We report that MAYV infection elicits robust immune responses that result in the development of a strong neutralizing antibody response and the secretion of pro-inflammatory immune mediators. The composition of these inflammatory mediators, in some cases, differed to those previously observed for CHIKV. Key mediators such as IL-13, IL-7 and VEGF were strongly induced following MAYV infection and were significantly increased in subjects that eventually developed persistent arthralgia. Although a strong neutralizing antibody response was observed in all subjects, it was not sufficient to prevent the long-term outcomes of MAYV infection. This study provides initial immunologic insight that may eventually contribute to prognostic tools and therapeutic treatments against this emerging pathogen.

  12. Long-Term Sustainable Development of Tourism in South Tyrol: An Analysis of Tourists’ Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Laura Sidali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although sustainable tourism concepts are gaining in importance everywhere, related research is quite fragmented with many studies concentrating on environmental sustainability. Seeking to contribute to the general discussion, we first examine the perceptions of sustainability among tourists using a best–worst scaling method applied to important aspects of sustainable tourism. Our results show that experiencing nature in an intense and profound way is considered the most important aspect of sustainable tourism whereas grappling with the culture of the host region is perceived as the least important aspect of sustainable tourism in our sample. Second, we analyze if socio-demographic and/or other factors have significant implications for the propensity to increase expenditures for sustainable holiday offers. Applying a simple regression model, we can show that age has a significant and positive impact on the propensity to spend more on a sustainable holiday offer such as overnight stays in an accommodation that is carbon-neutral. Other socio-demographic variables such as gender, education, and income are not significant. Moreover, hotel stars and average expenditures per person per night are significant and have a positive effect on the propensity to spend more on carbon-neutral housing. Two simple policy implications can be drawn: (1 sustainable tourism experiences should prioritize landscape and natural beauty; and (2 sustainable tourism offers are best suited for higher-priced and/or higher starred hotels.

  13. Long-term excessive magnesium supplementation is deleterious whereas suboptimal supply is beneficial for bones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riond, J L; Hartmann, P; Steiner, P; Ursprung, R; Wanner, M; Forrer, R; Spichiger, U E; Thomsen, J S; Mosekilde, L

    2000-12-01

    The long-term effects of a suboptimal magnesium supply inducing a marginal or moderate deficiency or of an excessive magnesium supplementation corresponding to a basal diet with a high pharmacological intake were investigated in 36 growing Sprague-Dawley female rats. The rats were randomly divided in three groups and received a purified diet with 7 g calcium, 5 g phosphorus and either 0.2, 0.5 or 2 g magnesium per kg diet for 7 months. At the end of the trial, plasma and erythrocyte total magnesium concentrations were significantly lower in the magnesium-deficient group than in the respective control group. Serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, PTH and IGF-I and the length of the right humeri were not affected by the dietary treatment. The volumes corrected for body weight, the medio-lateral diameters and the ratios dry weight/length of the right humeri, and the dry weight corrected for body weight of the left tibiae and of the right humeri were significantly smaller in the magnesium-supplemented group than in the two other groups. The magnesium contents of the left tibiae and of the first lumbar vertebrae were significantly lower in the magnesium-deficient group than in the two other groups. In the right femora, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed significantly smaller areas in the proximal part and significantly smaller mineral contents in the second proximal quarter in the magnesium-supplemented group compared with the two other groups. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography of the right humeri revealed in the cortex significantly larger values for the relative area, mineral content, mineral density and thickness in the magnesium-deficient group compared with the control group. The maximum point of the load-deformation curve was significantly reduced in the fifth lumbar vertebrae and in the proximal femoral metaphyses of the magnesium-supplemented group. These results indicate that the long-term suboptimal magnesium supply improved some of

  14. Comparing multi-criteria decision analysis and integrated assessment to support long-term water supply planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Lisa; Maurer, Max; Lienert, Judit

    2017-01-01

    We compare the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA)-or more precisely, models used in multi-attribute value theory (MAVT)-to integrated assessment (IA) models for supporting long-term water supply planning in a small town case study in Switzerland. They are used to evaluate thirteen system scale water supply alternatives in four future scenarios regarding forty-four objectives, covering technical, social, environmental, and economic aspects. The alternatives encompass both conventional and unconventional solutions and differ regarding technical, spatial and organizational characteristics. This paper focuses on the impact assessment and final evaluation step of the structured MCDA decision support process. We analyze the performance of the alternatives for ten stakeholders. We demonstrate the implications of model assumptions by comparing two IA and three MAVT evaluation model layouts of different complexity. For this comparison, we focus on the validity (ranking stability), desirability (value), and distinguishability (value range) of the alternatives given the five model layouts. These layouts exclude or include stakeholder preferences and uncertainties. Even though all five led us to identify the same best alternatives, they did not produce identical rankings. We found that the MAVT-type models provide higher distinguishability and a more robust basis for discussion than the IA-type models. The needed complexity of the model, however, should be determined based on the intended use of the model within the decision support process. The best-performing alternatives had consistently strong performance for all stakeholders and future scenarios, whereas the current water supply system was outperformed in all evaluation layouts. The best-performing alternatives comprise proactive pipe rehabilitation, adapted firefighting provisions, and decentralized water storage and/or treatment. We present recommendations for possible ways of improving water supply planning

  15. Comparing multi-criteria decision analysis and integrated assessment to support long-term water supply planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Lienert, Judit

    2017-01-01

    We compare the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA)–or more precisely, models used in multi-attribute value theory (MAVT)–to integrated assessment (IA) models for supporting long-term water supply planning in a small town case study in Switzerland. They are used to evaluate thirteen system scale water supply alternatives in four future scenarios regarding forty-four objectives, covering technical, social, environmental, and economic aspects. The alternatives encompass both conventional and unconventional solutions and differ regarding technical, spatial and organizational characteristics. This paper focuses on the impact assessment and final evaluation step of the structured MCDA decision support process. We analyze the performance of the alternatives for ten stakeholders. We demonstrate the implications of model assumptions by comparing two IA and three MAVT evaluation model layouts of different complexity. For this comparison, we focus on the validity (ranking stability), desirability (value), and distinguishability (value range) of the alternatives given the five model layouts. These layouts exclude or include stakeholder preferences and uncertainties. Even though all five led us to identify the same best alternatives, they did not produce identical rankings. We found that the MAVT-type models provide higher distinguishability and a more robust basis for discussion than the IA-type models. The needed complexity of the model, however, should be determined based on the intended use of the model within the decision support process. The best-performing alternatives had consistently strong performance for all stakeholders and future scenarios, whereas the current water supply system was outperformed in all evaluation layouts. The best-performing alternatives comprise proactive pipe rehabilitation, adapted firefighting provisions, and decentralized water storage and/or treatment. We present recommendations for possible ways of improving water supply

  16. World Top Business Eyes on Long-term opportunities When China Promotes Sustained Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Song

    2005-01-01

    @@ As China faces crucial task of converting its economy with rock eting growth and massive demand into a sustained and efficient one,world top businesses finds opportunities in this most dynamic market for them to seize.

  17. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of th...

  18. Assessment of a novel alder biorefinery concept to meet demands of economics feasibility, energy production and long term environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2012-01-01

    A biorefinery concept based on alder tree plantations on degenerated or marginalized soils is developed to illustrate how it is possible to comply with indicators of economic feasibility, fossil fuel depletion concerns and long term sustainability issues. The biorefinery is based on grey alder (A...... system Energy Return on energy Invested 4.4, total system Exergy Return on exergy Invested 3.5, Net Energy Output 78 GJ/ha/year, Net Exergy Output 50 GJ/ha/year, Net carbon sequestration 0.8 ton CO2-eq/ha/year, Total product value 2030 euro/ha/year and Net Dry Matter Removal 90%....

  19. Assessment of a novel alder biorefinery concept to meet demands of economics feasibility, energy production and long term environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2012-01-01

    A biorefinery concept based on alder tree plantations on degenerated or marginalized soils is developed to illustrate how it is possible to comply with indicators of economic feasibility, fossil fuel depletion concerns and long term sustainability issues. The biorefinery is based on grey alder...... system Energy Return on energy Invested 4.4, total system Exergy Return on exergy Invested 3.5, Net Energy Output 78 GJ/ha/year, Net Exergy Output 50 GJ/ha/year, Net carbon sequestration 0.8 ton CO2-eq/ha/year, Total product value 2030 euro/ha/year and Net Dry Matter Removal 90%....

  20. Long-term sustainability of metal immobilization by soil amendments: Cyclonic ashes versus lime addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruttens, A.; Adriaensen, K. [Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Meers, E. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Ghent University, Coupure 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Vocht, A.; Geebelen, W.; Carleer, R. [Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Mench, M. [UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, Ecologie des Communautes, Universite Bordeaux 1, Bat. B8, RdC Est, 2, Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Vangronsveld, J., E-mail: jaco.vangronsveld@uhasselt.b [Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    A soil column leaching experiment was used to gain insight into the long-term metal immobilization capacity of cyclonic ashes (CAH) compared to lime (LIME). Twenty six years of rainfall were simulated. Initially, all amended soils were brought to an equal soil pH. This was done to obtain optimal conditions for the detection of metal immobilization mechanisms different from just a pH effect. During the simulation period, soil pH in all treatments decreased in parallel. However, the evolution of metal mobility and phytoavailability showed a clearly distinct pattern. The strong reduction in metal immobilizing efficiency observed in the lime treatment at the end of the simulation period was much less pronounced, or even absent, in the CAH treatments. Moreover, metal accumulation in plants grown on the CAH amended soil was significantly lower compared to the untreated and the lime treated soil. CAH + SS treatment delivered the strongest reductions in metal mobility and bioavailability. - In a soil column leaching experiment, simulating 26 years of rainfall, application of cyclonic ashes resulted in a more durable metal immobilization compared to lime.

  1. Mobilizing Sustainable Bioenergy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Tat; Lattimore, Brenna; Berndes, Göran

    This report summarizes the results of an IEA Bioenergy inter-Task project involving collaborators from Tasks 37 (Energy from Biogas), 38 (Climate Change Effects of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems), 39 (Commercialising Conventional and Advanced Liquid Biofuels from Biomass), 40 (Sustainable...... International Bioenergy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand), 42 (Biorefining – Sustainable Processing of Biomass into a Spectrum of Marketable Bio-based Products and Bioenergy), and 43 (Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Markets). The purpose of the collaboration has been to analyze prospects for large...

  2. World Top Business Eyes on Long-term opportunities When China Promotes Sustained Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Song

    2005-01-01

      As China faces crucial task of converting its economy with rock eting growth and massive demand into a sustained and efficient one,world top businesses finds opportunities in this most dynamic market for them to seize.……

  3. A framework and a measurement instrument for sustainability of work practices in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaghuis, Sarah S; Strating, Mathilde M H; Bal, Roland A; Nieboer, Anna P

    2011-11-16

    In health care, many organizations are working on quality improvement and/or innovation of their care practices. Although the effectiveness of improvement processes has been studied extensively, little attention has been given to sustainability of the changed work practices after implementation. The objective of this study is to develop a theoretical framework and measurement instrument for sustainability. To this end sustainability is conceptualized with two dimensions: routinization and institutionalization. The exploratory methodological design consisted of three phases: a) framework development; b) instrument development; and c) field testing in former improvement teams in a quality improvement program for health care (N teams = 63, N individual = 112). Data were collected not until at least one year had passed after implementation.Underlying constructs and their interrelations were explored using Structural Equation Modeling and Principal Component Analyses. Internal consistency was computed with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. A long and a short version of the instrument are proposed. The χ2- difference test of the -2 Log Likelihood estimates demonstrated that the hierarchical two factor model with routinization and institutionalization as separate constructs showed a better fit than the one factor model (p work practices. Even though the two dimensions routinization and institutionalization are related, they are clearly distinguishable and each has distinct value in the discussion of sustainability. Finally, the subscales conformed to psychometric properties defined in literature. The instrument can be used in the evaluation of improvement projects.

  4. A framework and a measurement instrument for sustainability of work practices in long-term care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaghuis Sarah S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In health care, many organizations are working on quality improvement and/or innovation of their care practices. Although the effectiveness of improvement processes has been studied extensively, little attention has been given to sustainability of the changed work practices after implementation. The objective of this study is to develop a theoretical framework and measurement instrument for sustainability. To this end sustainability is conceptualized with two dimensions: routinization and institutionalization. Methods The exploratory methodological design consisted of three phases: a framework development; b instrument development; and c field testing in former improvement teams in a quality improvement program for health care (N teams = 63, N individual = 112. Data were collected not until at least one year had passed after implementation. Underlying constructs and their interrelations were explored using Structural Equation Modeling and Principal Component Analyses. Internal consistency was computed with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. A long and a short version of the instrument are proposed. Results The χ2- difference test of the -2 Log Likelihood estimates demonstrated that the hierarchical two factor model with routinization and institutionalization as separate constructs showed a better fit than the one factor model (p Conclusions The theoretical framework offers a valuable starting point for the analysis of sustainability on the level of actual changed work practices. Even though the two dimensions routinization and institutionalization are related, they are clearly distinguishable and each has distinct value in the discussion of sustainability. Finally, the subscales conformed to psychometric properties defined in literature. The instrument can be used in the evaluation of improvement projects.

  5. Sustaining complex interventions in long-term care: a qualitative study of direct care staff and managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen; Toles, Mark; Cary, Michael P; Batchelor-Murphy, Melissa; Yap, Tracey; Song, Yuting; Hall, Rasheeda; Anderson, Amber; Burd, Andrew; Anderson, Ruth A

    2016-07-16

    Little is known about the sustainability of behavioral change interventions in long-term care (LTC). Following a cluster randomized trial of an intervention to improve staff communication (CONNECT), we conducted focus groups of direct care staff and managers to elicit their perceptions of factors that enhance or reduce sustainability in the LTC setting. The overall aim was to generate hypotheses about how to sustain complex interventions in LTC. In eight facilities, we conducted 15 focus groups with 83 staff who had participated in at least one intervention session. Where possible, separate groups were conducted with direct care staff and managers. An interview guide probed for staff perceptions of intervention salience and sustainability. Framework analysis of coded transcripts was used to distill insights about sustainability related to intervention features, organizational context, and external supports. Staff described important factors for intervention sustainability that are particularly challenging in LTC. Because of the tremendous diversity in staff roles and education level, interventions should balance complexity and simplicity, use a variety of delivery methods and venues (e.g., group and individual sessions, role-play/storytelling), and be inclusive of many work positions. Intervention customizability and flexibility was particularly prized in this unpredictable and resource-strapped environment. Contextual features noted to be important include addressing the frequent lack of trust between direct care staff and managers and ensuring that direct care staff directly observe manager participation and support for the program. External supports suggested to be useful for sustainability include formalization of changes into facility routines, using "train the trainer" approaches and refresher sessions. High staff turnover is common in LTC, and providing materials for new staff orientation was reported to be important for sustainability. When designing or

  6. Long-term indigenous soil conservation technology in the Chencha area, southern Ethiopia: origin, characteristics, and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdawork, Assefa; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the origin, development, and characteristics of terraces (kella), plus their potentials and determinants for sustainable use in the Chencha-Dorze Belle area of southern Ethiopia. Field surveys were conducted to determine the various parameters of the indigenous terraces and in order to collect samples for radiocarbon dating. To identify farmers' views of the terrace systems, semi-structured interviews and group discussions were also carried out. Terraces were built and used-as radiocarbon dating proves-at least over the last 800 years. The long-term continued usage of the indigenous terraces is the result of social commitments, the structural features of the terraces, and the farmers' responses to the dynamics of social and cultural circumstances. We dubbed that the terraces are a success story of fruitful environmental management over generations. Thus, a strong need is to preserve and develop this important cultural heritage and example of sustainable land use.

  7. Long-Term Cropping Effects on Agricultural Sustainability in Alar Oasis of Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Gong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sustainability has become a major concern in arid regions of China. In order to better understand the influence of continuous cropping on soil quality, six experimental fields were established in the Alar Oasis of Xinjiang, including uncultivated land (as a zero year treatment duration and five different continuous cropping years on cotton fields, with different cropping durations (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 years, respectively. Thirteen soil indicators were selected including soil physicochemical properties, nutrient properties and enzymatic activities. The results show that duration of continuous cropping of cotton fields significantly influences a number of soil properties. Cultivation durations ranked according to soil quality indexes (SQI are as follows: 15 years (0.828 > 20 years (0.816 > 10 years (0.668> 5 years (0.548 > 25 years (0.377 > 0 years (0.205, and sustainable yield index (SYI are as follows: 10 years (0.830 > 15 years (0.777 > 20 years (0.667 > 5 years (0.586 > 25 years (0.159.

  8. Between green growth and degrowth: Decoupling, rebound effects and the politics for long-term sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Xue, Jin

    2016-01-01

    that the rebound effect is both a natural consequence of the growth dedicated society and a driver of further economic growth. Through rebound effects, labour productivity and eco-efficiency technologies in the growth society tend to contradict the goal of achieving environmental sustainability. To address...... the environmental problems, attention should therefore be redirected to the growth ideology and policy in current society. Drawing on the emerging degrowth debates in the affluent countries, the chapter proposes pathways towards a degrowth transformation by, respectively, discussing the role of population......, affluence and technology in the attempts at reducing environmental impacts. Overall, it is suggested that from an analysis not confined to monetary terms, but with real cost and real benefits represented by environmental damage and human satisfaction, respectively, a degrowth in affluent countries can...

  9. Long-term sustainability of a worksite canteen intervention of serving more fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Tetens, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the 5-year sustainability of a worksite canteen intervention of serving more fruit and vegetables (F&V). Design: Average F&V consumption per customer per meal per day was assessed in five worksite canteens by weighing F&V served and subtracting waste. Data were collected...... by the canteen staff during a 3-week continuous period and compared to data from the same five canteens measured at baseline, at end point and at 1-year follow-up. The intervention used a participatory and empowering approach, self-monitoring and networking among the canteen staff, management and a consultant....... The method focused on providing ideas for increased F&V for lunch, making environmental changes in the canteens by giving access to tasteful and healthy food choices and reducing the availability of unhealthy options. Setting: Five Danish worksites serving from 50 to 500 meals a day: a military base...

  10. Long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis C patients with sustained virological response to peginterferon plus ribavirin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    María Trapero-Marugán; Jorge Mendoza; María Chaparro; Leticia González-Moreno; José Andrés Moreno-Monteagudo

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess the clinical, biochemical and virological long-term outcome in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with a sustained virological response (SVR) after peginterferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin combination therapy. METHODS: One hundred and fifty three patients with a SVR after treatment with PEG-IFN plus ribavirin were included in a 5-year follow-up study in a single Spanish center, based on standard clinical practice. Clinical anamnesis, biochemical analysis, hepatitis C virus RNA and alpha-fetoprotein measurement, ultrasonography and transient elastography were performed annually. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period of the 153 patients was 76 ± 13 mo after they obtained a SVR. Five patients (3.26%) presented with cirrhosis before treatment and 116 (75.8%) had genotype 1. No patient showed evidence of hepatic decompensation. One patient (0.65%) developed a hepatocellular carcinoma at month 30 after achieving SVR. There were no virological relapses during this follow-up period. Persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase was found in only one patient (0.65%). At the end of the 5-year follow-up, the mean value of transient elastography was 7 ± 4.3 kPa (F1). There were no deaths and no other tumors. CONCLUSION: The long-term outcome of 153 CHC patients with SVR to PEG-IFN plus ribavirin was good. No evidence of a virological relapse was seen. One patient (0.65%) developed a hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Implementation of sustainable sanitation in existing urban areas: long-term strategies for an optimised solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, I; Meyer, T; Kalsch, M; Schmitt, T G; Hamacher, H W

    2007-01-01

    If technologies for decentralised sanitation and reuse (DESAR) and for natural stormwater management should at least partially replace existing systems, then intensive reconstruction work becomes essential. A conversion can only be realised successively over a long period due to high construction and financial expenses and requires new strategies. This paper presents the development and practical implementation of a mathematical tool to find an optimised strategy for the realisation of alternative and more decentralised drainage and sanitation concepts in existing urban areas. The succession of construction measures (e.g. the implementation of decentralised greywater recycling) for the whole period of consideration is determined based upon a mathematical optimisation model on the condition that the favoured future state is known. The model describes the complex interdependencies of the urban water and nutrient cycle and enables the minimisation of both financial efforts and ecological impacts on the way toward the future state. The results of the implementation for a rural area in Germany show that the mathematical optimisation is an adequate instrument to support decision-making processes in finding strategies for the realisation of sustainable urban water management.

  12. Sustainable energy scenarios at medium and long-term; Escenarios energeticos sostenibles a medio y largo plazo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabal, H.; Lechon, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Energy is essential for the development of the economy and guarantee the welfare of a country. The energy system must be compatible with sustainable development, respecting the environment, to ensure security of supply and contribute to increased competitiveness of the economy.

  13. Modeling generation expansion in the context of a security of supply mechanism based on long-term auctions. Application to the Colombian case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodilla, P.; Batlle, C. [Institute for Research in Technology, University Pontificia Comillas, Sta. Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain); Salazar, J. [Empresas Publicas de Medellin, Carrera 58 No. 42-125 Edificio Inteligente, Medellin (Colombia); Sanchez, J.J. [Secretaria de Estado de Cambio Climatico, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Rural y Marino. Plaza San Juan de la Cruz, 28071 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    In an attempt to provide electricity generation investors with appropriate economic incentives so as to maintain quality of supply at socially optimal levels, a growing number of electricity market regulators have opted for implementing a security of supply mechanism based on long-term auctions. In this context, the ability to analyze long-term investment dynamics is a key issue not only for market agents, but also for regulators. This paper describes a model developed to serve this purpose. A general system-dynamics-inspired methodology has been designed to be able to simulate these long-term auction mechanisms in the formats presently in place. A full-scale simulation based on the Colombian system was conducted to illustrate model capabilities. (author)

  14. Sustained photosynthetic performance of Coffea spp. under long-term enhanced [CO2].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Ramalho

    Full Text Available Coffee is one of the world's most traded agricultural products. Modeling studies have predicted that climate change will have a strong impact on the suitability of current cultivation areas, but these studies have not anticipated possible mitigating effects of the elevated atmospheric [CO2] because no information exists for the coffee plant. Potted plants from two genotypes of Coffea arabica and one of C. canephora were grown under controlled conditions of irradiance (800 μmol m(-2 s(-1, RH (75% and 380 or 700 μL CO2 L(-1 for 1 year, without water, nutrient or root development restrictions. In all genotypes, the high [CO2] treatment promoted opposite trends for stomatal density and size, which decreased and increased, respectively. Regardless of the genotype or the growth [CO2], the net rate of CO2 assimilation increased (34-49% when measured at 700 than at 380 μL CO2 L(-1. This result, together with the almost unchanged stomatal conductance, led to an instantaneous water use efficiency increase. The results also showed a reinforcement of photosynthetic (and respiratory components, namely thylakoid electron transport and the activities of RuBisCo, ribulose 5-phosphate kinase, malate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase, what may have contributed to the enhancements in the maximum rates of electron transport, carboxylation and photosynthetic capacity under elevated [CO2], although these responses were genotype dependent. The photosystem II efficiency, energy driven to photochemical events, non-structural carbohydrates, photosynthetic pigment and membrane permeability did not respond to [CO2] supply. Some alterations in total fatty acid content and the unsaturation level of the chloroplast membranes were noted but, apparently, did not affect photosynthetic functioning. Despite some differences among the genotypes, no clear species-dependent responses to elevated [CO2] were observed. Overall, as no apparent sign of photosynthetic down

  15. Value of long-term streamflow forecasts to reservoir operations for water supply in snow-dominated river catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, D.; Voisin, N.; Castelletti, A.; Pianosi, F.; Nijssen, B.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2016-06-01

    We present a forecast-based adaptive management framework for water supply reservoirs and evaluate the contribution of long-term inflow forecasts to reservoir operations. Our framework is developed for snow-dominated river basins that demonstrate large gaps in forecast skill between seasonal and inter-annual time horizons. We quantify and bound the contribution of seasonal and inter-annual forecast components to optimal, adaptive reservoir operation. The framework uses an Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) approach to generate retrospective, one-year-long streamflow forecasts based on the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model. We determine the optimal sequence of daily release decisions using the Model Predictive Control (MPC) optimization scheme. We then assess the forecast value by comparing system performance based on the ESP forecasts with the performances based on climatology and perfect forecasts. We distinguish among the relative contributions of the seasonal component of the forecast versus the inter-annual component by evaluating system performance based on hybrid forecasts, which are designed to isolate the two contributions. As an illustration, we first apply the forecast-based adaptive management framework to a specific case study, i.e., Oroville Reservoir in California, and we then modify the characteristics of the reservoir and the demand to demonstrate the transferability of the findings to other reservoir systems. Results from numerical experiments show that, on average, the overall ESP value in informing reservoir operation is 35% less than the perfect forecast value and the inter-annual component of the ESP forecast contributes 20-60% of the total forecast value.

  16. Mexico's long-term energy outlook : results of a detailed energy supply and demand simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conzelmann, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Quintanilla, J. [Nacional de Autonoma de Mexico Univ., Mexico City (Mexico). Direccion General de Servicios de Computo Academico; Aguilar, V. [Secretaria de Energia, Mexico City (Mexico); Conde, L.A. [Inst. Nacional de Ecologia, Mexico City (Mexico); Fernandez, J. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico City (Mexico); Mar, E. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Martin del Campo, C.; Serrato, G.; Ortega, R. [Nacional de Autonoma de Mexico Univ., Mexico City (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria

    2006-04-15

    This article discussed the results of a bottom-up analysis of Mexico's energy markets which was conducted using an energy and power evaluation program. The program was used to develop energy market forecasts to the year 2025. In the first phase of the study, dynamic optimization software was used to determine the optimal, least-cost generation system expansion path to meet growing demand for electricity. A separate model was used to determine the optimal generating strategy of mixed hydro-thermal electric power systems. In phase 2, a nonlinear market-based approach was used to determine the energy supply and demand balance for the entire energy system, as well as the response of various segments of the energy system to changes in energy price and demand levels. Basic input parameters included information on the energy system structure; base-year energy statistics; and, technical and policy constraints. A total of 14 scenarios were modelled to examine variations in load growth, sensitivities to changes in projected fuel prices, variations in assumed natural gas availability, system reliability targets, and the potential for additional nuclear capacity. Forecasts for the entire energy system were then developed for 4 scenarios: (1) reference case; (2) limited gas scenario; (3) renewable energy; and (4) additional nuclear power generation capacity. Results of the study showed that Mexico's crude oil production is projected to increase annually by 1 per cent to 2025. Imports of petroleum products resulting from the country's rapidly growing transportation sector will increase. Demand for natural gas is expected to outpace projected domestic production. The long-term market outlook for Mexico's electricity industry shows a heavy reliance on natural gas-based generating technologies. It was concluded that alternative results for a constrained-gas scenario showed a substantial shift to coal-based generation and associated effects on the natural gas

  17. Long-term nutrient fertilization and the carbon balance of permanent grassland: any evidence for sustainable intensification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornara, Dario A.; Wasson, Elizabeth-Anne; Christie, Peter; Watson, Catherine J.

    2016-09-01

    Sustainable grassland intensification aims to increase plant yields while maintaining the ability of soil to act as a sink rather than sources of atmospheric CO2. High biomass yields from managed grasslands, however, can be only maintained through long-term nutrient fertilization, which can significantly affect soil carbon (C) storage and cycling. Key questions remain about (1) how long-term inorganic vs. organic fertilization influences soil C stocks, and (2) how soil C gains (or losses) contribute to the long-term C balance of managed grasslands. Using 43 years of data from a permanent grassland experiment, we show that soils not only act as significant C sinks but have not yet reached C saturation. Even unfertilized control soils showed C sequestration rates of 0.35 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 (i.e. 35 g C m-2 yr-1; 0-15 cm depth) between 1970 and 2013. High application rates of liquid manure (i.e. cattle slurry) further increased soil C sequestration to 0.86 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 (i.e. 86 g C m-2 yr-1) and a key cause of this C accrual was greater C inputs from cattle slurry. However, average coefficients of slurry-C retention in soils suggest that 85 % of C added yearly through liquid manure is lost possibly via CO2 fluxes and organic C leaching. Inorganically fertilized soils (i.e. NPK) had the lowest C-gain efficiency (i.e. unit of C gained per unit of N added) and lowest C sequestration (similar to control soils). Soils receiving cattle slurry showed higher C-gain and N-retention efficiencies compared to soils receiving NPK or pig slurry. We estimate that net rates of CO2-sequestration in the top 15 cm of the soil can offset 9-25 % of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions from intensive management. However, because of multiple GHG sources associated with livestock farming, the net C balance of these grasslands remains positive (9-12 Mg CO2-equivalent ha-1 yr-1), thus contributing to climate change. Further C-gain efficiencies (e.g. reduced enteric fermentation and use of feed

  18. Sustainability Analysis for Gayo Coffee Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Jaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable supply chain is a development of the conventional supply chains that discuses trade-off among economic, social and environmental dimensions in order to achieve better responsiveness in terms of quality, quantity and time-delivery in the supply chain structure. The objective of this research was to determine the Gayo coffee supply chain sustainability. The research was conducted at Bener Meriah and Aceh Tengah Districts, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Key actors in the supply chain considered were farmers, collectors, agro-industry and exporter. Sustainability dimensions considered in this research were the economic, social, environmental and material resources. The performance of each aspect was analyzed by using Multi-dimensional scaling and leverage analysis. The result of the research showed that the composite of Gayo coffee supply chain sustainability index was 33.53 which mean less sustainable level. Therefore it is recommended to reengineering the Gayo coffee supply chain by considering all of the four sustainability dimensions above.

  19. IMPLEMENTING SUSTAINABILITY INTO SUPPLY CHAIN OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Jørsfeldt, Lilyana Makarowa

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability is acknowledged as a top strategic agenda by many global companies. As increasing globalization and outsourcing trends shift competition from single company affairs to competition among supply chains, the implementation of sustainability within companies’ supply chain operations becomes even more crucial. Professional literature acknowledges that complex and dispersed supply chain structures present organizational challenges when companies strive to translate their strategic su...

  20. Ergonomics and sustainability--challenges from global supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2012-01-01

    The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply chains especially related to the social aspects of sustainability: (1) criteria for social sustainability, (2) the role of key performance indicators in the management of supply chains, (3) the constant changes in supply chains, (4) the challenge in establishing participation, and (5) the development of agency and regulatory mechanisms. There are obviously no clear and simple solutions to these challenges. One possible avenue for progress might lie in acquiring a greater understanding of the challenges from global supply chains and developing a strategy which combines social and long-term business sustainability. Starting from such a basis, the next step would be to find ways for the ergonomics and human factors community to create international collaboration which can impact specific global supply chains.

  1. Global sustainable timber supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2010-01-01

    Industrial timber use has provided timber revenue that has helped make timber supply and demand more sustainable in the leading timber producing regions of the world. Sustainable development implies not consuming more resources today than we can replace tomorrow, but sustainable forest management implies more than merely a non-declining supply of timber. Forests as a...

  2. Increasing the Frequency and Timeliness of Pain Assessment and Management in Long-Term Care: Knowledge Transfer and Sustained Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hadjistavropoulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although feasible protocols for pain assessment and management in long-term care (LTC have been developed, these have not been implemented on a large-scale basis. Objective. To implement a program of regular pain assessment in two LTC facilities, using implementation science principles, and to evaluate the process and success of doing so. Methods. The implementation protocol included a pain assessment workshop and the establishment of a nurse Pain Champion. Quality indicators were tracked before and after implementation. Focus groups and interviews with staff were also conducted. Results. The implementation effort was successful in increasing and regularizing pain assessments. This was sustained during the follow-up period. Staff members reported enthusiasm about the protocol at baseline and positive results following its implementation. Despite the success in increasing assessments, we did not identify changes in the percentages of patients reported as having moderate-to-severe pain. Discussion. It is our hope that our feasibility demonstration will encourage more facilities to improve their pain assessment/management practices. Conclusions. It is feasible to implement regular and systematic pain assessment in LTC. Future research should focus on ensuring effective clinical practices in response to assessment results, and determination of longer-term sustainability.

  3. Impact factors on the long-term sustainability of Borehole Heat Exchanger coupled Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haibing; Hein, Philipp; Görke, Uwe-Jens; Bucher, Anke; Kolditz, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, Ground Source Heat Pump System (GSHPS) has been recognized as an efficient technology to utilize shallow geothermal energy. Along with its wide application, some GSHPS are experiencing a gradual decrease in Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) outflow temperatures and thus have to be turned off after couple of years' operation. A comprehensive numerical investigation was then performed to model the flow and heat transport processes in and around the BHE, together with the dynamic change of heat pump efficiency. The model parameters were based on the soil temperature and surface weather condition in the Leipzig area. Different scenarios were modelled for a service life of 30 years, to reveal the evolution of BHE outflow and surrounding soil temperatures. It is found that lateral groundwater flow and using BHE for cooling will be beneficial to the energy recovery, along with the efficiency improvement of the heat pump. In comparison to other factors, the soil heat capacity and thermal conductivity are considered to have minor impact on the long-term sustainability of the system. Furthermore, the application of thermally enhanced grout material will improve the sustainability and efficiency. In contrast, it is very likely that undersized systems and improper grouting are the causes of strong system degradation.

  4. Coal investment and long-term supply and demand outlook for coal in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-12-31

    The theme of this symposium to look ahead almost a quarter century to 2020 gives one the freedom to speculate more than usual in projections for coal. It is important to attempt to take a long term look into the future of coal and energy, so that one can begin to prepare for major changes on the horizon. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the crystal ball for making long term projections is accurate for 2020. Hopefully it can suggest plausible changes that have long term strategic importance to Asia`s coal sector. This paper presents the medium scenario of long term projects of coal production, consumption, imports and exports in Asia. The second part of the paper examines the two major changes in Asia that could be most important to the long term role of coal. These include: (1) the impact of strict environmental legislation on energy and technology choices in Asia, and (2) the increased role of the private sector in all aspects of coal in Asia.

  5. Boundary Organizations: Creating a Unique Model for Sustained Dialog Among Scientists and Decison Makers About Long-term Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, B.; Carter, H.; Knight, E.; Meyer, R.

    2015-12-01

    California Ocean Science Trust is a boundary organization formed by the state of California. We work across traditional boundaries between government, science, and communities to build trust and understanding in ocean and coastal science. We work closely with decision makers to understand their priority needs and identify opportunities for science to have a meaningful impact, and we engage scientists and other experts to compile and translate information into innovative products that help to meet those needs. This often sparks new collaborations that live well beyond the products themselves. Through this unique model, we are deepening relationships and facilitating an ongoing dialogue between scientists, decision-makers, and communities. The West Coast of the United States is already experiencing climate-driven changes in marine conditions at both large and small spatial scales. Decision makers are increasingly concerned with the potential threats that these changes pose to coastal communities, industries, ecosystems, and species. Detecting and understanding these multi-stressor changes requires consideration across scientific disciplines and management jurisdictions. Research and monitoring programs must reflect this new reality: they should be designed to connect with the decision makers who may use their results. In this presentation, I will share how we are drawing from the West Coast Ocean Acidification and Hypoxia Science Panel - an interdisciplinary team of scientists convened by Ocean Science Trust from California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia - to develop actionable guidance for long-term monitoring for long-term change. Building on our experiences working with the Panel, I will discuss the unique model that boundary organizations provide for sustained dialog across traditionally siloed disciplines and management regimes, and share best practices and lessons learned in working across those boundaries.

  6. Poly(ε-caprolactone)/triclosan loaded polylactic acid nanoparticles composite: A long-term antibacterial bionanocomposite with sustained release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffashi, Babak; Davoodi, Saeed; Oliaei, Erfan

    2016-07-11

    In this study, the antibacterial bionanocomposites of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with different concentrations of triclosan (TC) loaded polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles (30wt% triclosan) (LATC30) were fabricated via a melt mixing process in order to lower the burst release of PCL and to extend the antibacterial activity during its performance. Due to the PLA's higher glass transition temperature (Tg) and less flexibility compared with PCL; the PLA nanoparticles efficiently trapped the TC particles, reduced the burst release of TC from the bionanocomposites; and extended the antibacterial property of the samples up to two years. The melt mixing temperature was adjusted to a temperature lower than the melting point of LATC30 nanoparticles; therefore, these nanoparticles were dispersed in the PCL matrix without any chemical reaction and/or drug extraction. The sustained release behavior of TC from PCL remained unchanged since no significant changes occurred in the samples' crystallinity compared with that in the neat PCL. The elastic moduli of samples were enhanced once LATC30 is included. This is necessary since the elastic modulus is decreased with water absorption. The rheological behaviors of samples showed appropriate properties for melt electro-spinning. A stable process was established as the relaxation time of the bionanocomposites was increased. The hydrophilic properties of samples were increased with increasing LATC30. The proliferation rate of the fibroblast (L929) cells was enhanced as the content of nanoparticles was increased. A system similar to this could be implemented to prepare long-term antibacterial and drug delivery systems based on PCL and various low molecular weight drugs. The prepared bionanocomposites are considered as candidates for the soft connective tissue engineering and long-term drug delivery.

  7. Sustainable peat supply chain : report of the ad hoc working group enhancing the sustainability of the peat supply chain for the Dutch horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.; Diemont, W.H.; Verhagen, A.

    2011-01-01

    The project deals with the future sustainability of the peat supply chain for Dutch horticulture. This means securing long term availability of high quality peat and/or alternatives for the sector, dealing appropriately with biodiversity issues and taking climate change into account. The project

  8. LWR spent fuel reduction by the removal of U and the compact storage of Pu with FP for long-term nuclear sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukasawa, T.; Hoshino, K. [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan); Takano, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan); Sato, S. [Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan); Shimazu, Y. [Fukui University, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Fast breeder reactors (FBR) nuclear fuel cycle is needed for long-term nuclear sustainability while preventing global warming and maximum utilizing the limited uranium (U) resources. The 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy' by the Japanese government on October 2005 stated that commercial FBR deployment will start around 2050 under its suitable conditions by the successive replacement of light water reactors (LWR) to FBR. Even after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident which made Japanese tendency slow down the nuclear power generation activities, Japan should have various options for energy resources including nuclear, and also consider the delay of FBR deployment and increase of LWR spent fuel (LWR-SF) storage amounts. As plutonium (Pu) for FBR deployment will be supplied from LWR-SF reprocessing and Japan will not possess surplus Pu, the authors have developed the flexible fuel cycle initiative (FFCI) for the transition from LWR to FBR. The FFCI system is based on the possibility to stored recycled materials (U, Pu)temporarily for a suitable period according to the FBR deployment rate to control the Pu demand/supply balance. This FFCI system is also effective after the Fukushima accident for the reduction of LWR-SF and future LWR-to-FBR transition. (authors)

  9. Effects of long-term sustained naltrexone release onthe optic center in opioid-dependent patients Case-control study in four provinces of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengxi He; Longchuan Yu; Shaowei Jia; Qing Chen; Dongmei Wang; Shu Hu

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known about visual functional recovery following long-term naltrexone administration in opioid-dependent patients. In the present study, a portable event-related potential (ERP) working system was utilized to collect and record ERP in opioid-dependent patients and normal controls in visual half-field testing. In addition, the influence of long-term sustained naltrexone release on the visual nervous system was observed in opioid-dependent patients. Results revealed a significant main group effect in reaction time to visual signal stimulations. The reaction time of normal controls was shortest, but longest in opioid-dependent patients. The reaction time of long-term sustained naltrexone release group and compulsory detoxification group was similar to normal controls. A significant main group effect was also observed in P100 latency, and P100 latency in normal controls and the compulsory detoxification group was significantly decreased compared with the opioid-dependent patients. P100 amplitude at the Oz-electrode resulted in a significant main group effect. In particular, normal controls exhibited significant differences compared with long-term sustained release naltrexone and compulsory detoxification groups. These findings demonstrated that long-term sustained naltrexone release effectively ameliorated optic center function and improved visual sensitivity and reactions in opioid-dependent patients.

  10. Metallic corrosion processes reactivation sustained by iron-reducing bacteria: Implication on long-term stability of protective layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnault, L.; Jullien, M.; Mustin, C.; Bildstein, O.; Libert, M.

    In deep geological environments foreseen for the disposal of radioactive waste, metallic containers will undergo anaerobic corrosion. In this context, the formation of corrosion products such as magnetite may reduce the rate of corrosion processes through the formation of a protective layer. This study aims at determining the direct impact of iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) activity on the stability of corrosion protective layers. Batch experiments investigating iron corrosion processes including the formation of secondary magnetite and its subsequent alteration in the presence of IRB show the bacteria ability to use structural Fe(III) for respiration which leads to the sustainment of a high corrosion rate. With the bio-reduction of corrosion products such as magnetite, and H 2 as electron donor, IRB promote the reactivation of corrosion processes in corrosive environments by altering the protective layer. This phenomenon could have a major impact on the long-term stability of metallic compounds involved in multi-barrier system for high-level radioactive waste containment.

  11. Root ABA Accumulation in Long-Term Water-Stressed Plants is Sustained by Hormone Transport from Aerial Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Matías; Lado, Joanna; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2015-12-01

    The reduced pool of the ABA precursors, β,β-carotenoids, in roots does not account for the substantial increase in ABA content in response to water stress (WS) conditions, suggesting that ABA could be transported from other organs. Basipetal transport was interrupted by stem-girdling, and ABA levels were determined in roots after two cycles of WS induced by transplanting plants to dry perlite. Leaf applications of isotope-labeled ABA and reciprocal grafting of ABA-deficient tomato mutants were used to confirm the involvement of aerial organs on root ABA accumulation. Disruption of basipetal transport reduced ABA accumulation in roots, and this decrease was more severe after two consecutive WS periods. This effect was linked to a sharp decrease in the β,β-carotenoid pool in roots in response to water deficit. Significant levels of isotope-labeled ABA were transported from leaves to roots, mainly in plants subjected to water dehydration. Furthermore, the use of different ABA-deficient tomato mutants in reciprocal grafting combinations with wild-type genotypes confirmed the involvement of aerial organs in the ABA accumulation in roots. In conclusion, accumulation of ABA in roots after long-term WS periods largely relies on the aerial organs, suggesting a reduced ability of the roots to synthesize ABA from carotenoids. Furthermore, plants are able to transport ABA basipetally to sustain high hormone levels in roots.

  12. Long-Term Implications of Sustained Wind Power Growth in the United States: Direct Electric System Impacts and Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric; Mai, Trieu; Wiser, Ryan H.; Krishnan, Venkat

    2016-10-01

    This paper evaluates potential changes in the power system associated with sustained growth in wind generation in the United States to 35% of end-use demand by 2050; Wiser et al. (2016) evaluate societal benefits and other impacts for this same scenario. Under reference or central conditions, the analysis finds cumulative wind capacity of 404 gigawatts (GW) would be required to reach this level and drive 2050 incremental electricity rate and cumulative electric sector savings of 2% and 3% respectively, relative to a scenario with no new wind capacity additions. Greater savings are estimated under higher fossil fuel costs or with greater advancements in wind technologies. Conversely, incremental costs are found when fossil fuel costs are lower than central assumptions or wind technology improvements are more-limited. Through 2030, the primary generation sources displaced by new wind capacity include natural gas and coal-fired generation. By 2050, wind could displace other renewables. Incremental new transmission infrastructure totaling 29 million megawatt-miles is estimated to be needed by 2050. In conjunction with related societal benefits, this work demonstrates that 35% wind energy by 2050 is plausible, could support enduring benefits, and could result in long-term consumer savings, if nearer-term (pre-2030) cost barriers are overcome; at the same time, these opportunities are not anticipated to be realized in their full form under 'business-as-usual' conditions.

  13. The Histone Demethylase FBXL10 Regulates the Proliferation of Spermatogonia and Ensures Long-Term Sustainable Spermatogenesis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Manabu; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Reiko; Honda, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Nobuaki

    2016-04-01

    The F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 10 (Fbxl10) gene encodes a protein that catalyzes demethylation of H3K4 and H3K36. In this study, we show the important roles of FBXL10 as a histone demethylase in sustainable sperm production using mice in which the JmjC domain of Fbxl10 was deleted (Fbxl10(DeltaJ/DeltaJ)). In histological analysis, testis sections from 10-wk-old Fbxl10(DeltaJ/DeltaJ) mice appeared normal. On the other hand, testes from 7-mo-old Fbxl10(DeltaJ/DeltaJ) mice contained a greater ratio of seminiferous tubules exhibiting degeneration of spermatogenesis. Further analysis using an in vitro spermatogonia culture system, that is, germline stem cells (GSCs), revealed that Fbxl10(DeltaJ/DeltaJ) GSCs expressed a significantly higher level of P21 and P19 mRNA, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and also known as cellular senescence markers, than wild-type (WT) GSCs. Furthermore, the ratio of Fbxl10(DeltaJ/DeltaJ) GSCs in G0/G1 phase was higher and the ratios in S and G2/M phases were lower than the corresponding ratios of WT GSCs, and the doubling speed of Fbxl10(DeltaJ/DeltaJ) GSCs was significantly slower than that of WT GSCs. In addition to these in vitro results, an in vivo study indicated that recovery of spermatogenesis after a transient reduction in the number of testicular germ cells by busulfan treatment was significantly slower in Fbxl10(DeltaJ/DeltaJ) mice than in WT mice. These data suggest that Fbxl10 plays important roles in long-term sustainable spermatogenesis via regulating cell cycle.

  14. Potential effect of conservation tillage on sustainable land use : a review of global long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang Xiaobin,; Cai, D.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Oenema, O.; Perdok, U.D.

    2006-01-01

    Although understood differently in different parts of the world, conservation tillage usually includes leaving crop residues on the soil surface to reduce tillage. Through a global review of long-term conservation tillage research, this paper discusses the long-term effect of conservation tillage on

  15. Acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana to long-term CO{sub 2} enrichment and nitrogen supply is basically a matter of growth rate adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocquin, P.; Ormenese, S.; Pieltain, A.; Detry, N.; Bernier, G.; Perilleux, C. [Univ. of Liege, Dept. of Life Sciences, Lab. of Plant Physiology, Liege (Belgium)

    2006-12-15

    The long-term response of Arabidopsis thaliana to increasing CO{sub 2} was evaluated in plants grown in 800 {mu}l l{sup -1} CO{sub 2} from sowing and maintained, in hydroponics, on three nitrogen supplies: 'low', 'medium' and 'high'. The global response to high CO{sub 2} and N-supply was evaluated by measuring growth parameters in parallel with photosynthetic activity, leaf carbohydrates, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) messenger RNA and protein, stomatal conductance (g-s) and density. CO{sub 2} enrichment was found to stimulate biomass production, whatever the N-supply. This stimulation was transient on low N-supply and persisted throughout the whole vegetative growth only in high N-supply. Acclimation on low N-high C0{sub 2} was not associated with carbohydrate accumulation or with a strong reduction in Rubisco amount or activity. At high N-supply, growth stimulation by high CO{sub 2} was mainly because of the acceleration of leaf production and expansion while other parameters such as specific leaf area, root/shoot ratio and g{sub s} appeared to be correlated with total leaf area. Our results thus suggest that, in strictly controlled and stable growing conditions, acclimation of A. thaliana to long-term CO{sub 2} enrichment is mostly controlled by growth rate adjustment. (au)

  16. DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program. Joint Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Don

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear power has contributed almost 20% of the total amount of electricity generated in the United States over the past two decades. High capacity factors and low operating costs make nuclear power plants (NPPs) some of the most economical power generators available. Further, nuclear power remains the single largest contributor (nearly 70%) of non-greenhouse gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Even when major refurbishments are performed to extend operating life, these plants continue to represent cost-effective, low-carbon assets to the nation’s electrical generation capability. By the end of 2014, about one-third of the existing domestic fleet will have passed their 40th anniversary of power operations, and about one-half of the fleet will reach the same 40-year mark within this decade. Recognizing the challenges associated with pursuing extended service life of commercial nuclear power plants, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have established separate but complementary research and development programs (DOE-NE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability [LWRS] Program and EPRI’s Long-Term Operations [LTO] Program) to address these challenges. To ensure that a proper linkage is maintained between the programs, DOE-NE and EPRI executed a memorandum of understanding in late 2010 to “establish guiding principles under which research activities (between LWRS and LTO) could be coordinated to the benefit of both parties.” This document represents the third annual revision to the initial version (March 2011) of the plan as called for in the memorandum of understanding.

  17. Long-term Planning for Sustainable Water and Wastewater Infrastructure in Wellpinit, Washington, for the Spokane Tribe of Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spokane Tribe initiated a long-term planning process for a water and wastewater infrastructure system that can support the tribe’s goals to add compact, mixed-use development in the town of Wellpinit.

  18. Navy Force Structure: Sustainable Plan and Comprehensive Assessment Needed to Mitigate Long-Term Risks to Ships Assigned to Overseas Homeports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    surface combatant tailored for land attack and littoral warfare. The Navy plans to build three of these ships and estimates initial operating...homeported in Rota, Spain; however, it has not determined how—or whether—it will apply a more sustainable schedule to its 36 surface and amphibious ships...NAVY FORCE STRUCTURE Sustainable Plan and Comprehensive Assessment Needed to Mitigate Long-Term Risks to Ships

  19. Developing a long-term global tourism transport model using a behavioural approach: implications for sustainable tourism policy making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the creation and use of a long-term global tourism transport model for private and public sector tourism policy makers. Given that technology is unlikely to reduce tourism transport's impact on climate change sufficiently to avoid serious dangers, behavioural change is necessary.

  20. Developing a long-term global tourism transport model using a behavioural approach: implications for sustainable tourism policy making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the creation and use of a long-term global tourism transport model for private and public sector tourism policy makers. Given that technology is unlikely to reduce tourism transport's impact on climate change sufficiently to avoid serious dangers, behavioural change is necessary.

  1. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterkova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    , effectiveness and enforcement. Regardless of this regulatory gap, companies who do not comply with the globally accepted sustainability standards run reputational risks that can lead to long-term negative economic effects. Moreover, stakeholders expect companies not only to follow the standards themselves...... corporate social responsibility tool ‘without teeth’. The central questions are: why SCCs are presumed to be effective regulatory means for global sustainability, how these clauses are seen through the lenses of international contract law and whether they can actually contribute to a positive change...... in suppliers’ social and environmental performance. Based on the analysis of SCCs’ features and the underlying regulatory framework, the author concludes that while SCCs would not be enforceable by courts in most cases, they can still be successful in regulating global sustainability. Their positive effects...

  2. Mobilizing Sustainable Bioenergy Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter, David; Cowie, Annette; BERNDES Goran; Junginger, Martin; MCMILLAN James D; Saddler, J N; VAN REE Rene

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of the five globally significant supply chains conducted by IEA Bioenergy inter-Task teams – boreal and temperate forests, agricultural crop residues, biogas, lignocellulosic crops, and cultivated grasslands and pastures in Brazil – has confirmed that feedstocks produced using logistically efficient production systems can be mobilized to make significant contributions to achieving global targets for bioenergy. However, the very significant challenges identified in this report indi...

  3. Is the Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt Sustainable to Long-Term Drip Irrigation with High Saline Groundwater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Xu, Xinwen; Li, Shengyu; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Afeng; Zhang, Tibin; Jiang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources are scarce in desert regions. Highly saline groundwater of different salinity is being used to drip irrigate the Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt with a double-branch-pipe system controlling the irrigation cycles. In this study, to evaluate the dynamics of soil moisture and salinity under the current irrigation system, soil samples were collected to a 2-m depth in the shelterbelt planted for different years and irrigated with different groundwater salinities, and soil moisture and salinity were analyzed. The results showed that both depletion of soil moisture and increase of topsoil salinity occurred simultaneously during one irrigation cycle. Soil moisture decreased from 27.4% to 2.4% for a 15-day irrigation cycle and from 26.4% to 2.7% for a 10-day-cycle, respectively. Topsoil electrical conductivity (EC) increased from 0.64 to 3.32 dS/m and 0.70 to 3.99 dS/m for these two irrigation cycles. With increased shelterbelt age, profiled average soil moisture (0-200 cm) reduced from 12.8% (1-year) to 7.1% (10-year); however, soil moisture in 0-20-cm increased, while topsoil salinity decreased. In addition, irrigation salinity mainly affected soil salinity in the 0-20-cm range. We conclude that water supply with the double-branch-pipe is a feasible irrigation method for the Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt, and our findings provide a model for shelterbelt construction and sustainable management when using highly saline water for irrigation in analogous habitats.

  4. Is the Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt Sustainable to Long-Term Drip Irrigation with High Saline Groundwater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Xu, Xinwen; Li, Shengyu; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Afeng; Zhang, Tibin; Jiang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources are scarce in desert regions. Highly saline groundwater of different salinity is being used to drip irrigate the Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt with a double-branch-pipe system controlling the irrigation cycles. In this study, to evaluate the dynamics of soil moisture and salinity under the current irrigation system, soil samples were collected to a 2-m depth in the shelterbelt planted for different years and irrigated with different groundwater salinities, and soil moisture and salinity were analyzed. The results showed that both depletion of soil moisture and increase of topsoil salinity occurred simultaneously during one irrigation cycle. Soil moisture decreased from 27.4% to 2.4% for a 15-day irrigation cycle and from 26.4% to 2.7% for a 10-day-cycle, respectively. Topsoil electrical conductivity (EC) increased from 0.64 to 3.32 dS/m and 0.70 to 3.99 dS/m for these two irrigation cycles. With increased shelterbelt age, profiled average soil moisture (0–200 cm) reduced from 12.8% (1-year) to 7.1% (10-year); however, soil moisture in 0–20-cm increased, while topsoil salinity decreased. In addition, irrigation salinity mainly affected soil salinity in the 0–20-cm range. We conclude that water supply with the double-branch-pipe is a feasible irrigation method for the Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt, and our findings provide a model for shelterbelt construction and sustainable management when using highly saline water for irrigation in analogous habitats. PMID:27711244

  5. Long-term scenarios for global energy demand and supply. Four global greenhouse mitigation scenarios. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, B.; Meibom, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Kuemmel, B. [Royal Agricultural and Veterinary Univ., Tastrup (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The scenario method is used to investigate energy demand and supply systems for the 21st century. A geographical information system (GIS) is employed to assess the spatial match between supply and demand, and the robustness of the scenario against changes in assumptions is discussed, for scenarios using fossil fuels without carbon dioxide emissions, nuclear fuels with reduced accident and proliferation risks, and renewable energy from local and from more centralised installations: The year 2050 demand scenario is based on a very high goal satisfaction in all regions of the world, for the middle UN population projection. All energy efficiency measures that are technically ready and economic today are assumed in effect by year 2050. An increased fraction of total activities are assumed to occur in non-material sectors. Technical, economic and implementation issues are discussed, including the resilience to changes in particularly demand assumptions and the type of framework that would allow energy policy to employ any of (or a mix of) the scenario options. Results are presented as average energy flows per unit of land area. This geographically based presentation method gives additional insights, particularly for the dispersed renewable energy systems, but in all cases it allows to identify the need for energy transmission and trade between regions, and to display it in a visually suggestive fashion. The scenarios are examples of greenhouse mitigation scenarios, all characterised by near-zero emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. All are more expensive than the present system, but only if the cost of the negative impacts from the current system is neglected. As options for global energy policy during the next decades, the clean fossil and the renewable energy options (possibly in combination) are the only realistic ones, because the safe nuclear option requires research and development that most likely will take longer time, if it can at all be carried

  6. Offshore Brazil: forcing the path to the future managing supply chain challenges to ensure long-term growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillegeist, Paul H.; Pickard, Matt [Quest Offshore Resources, Inc., Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Over the last 10 years, worldwide demand for energy has seen a significant increase. This accelerated growth has placed a tremendous strain on the offshore oil and gas E and P industry, as operators strive to find and develop new accumulations to help meet rising global energy demand, while overcoming many substantial challenges. Whether those challenges come from limited manufacturing and construction supply or limited human capital, these issues will need to be addressed in order for the industry to continue to push forward at a record pace. Additionally, the industry will have to rely heavily on new and emerging technologies, some of which are largely unproven. Nowhere is this dedication to technological achievement more evident than in the deep waters offshore Brazil. Recent discoveries have placed an added degree of focus on the technologies that will be needed to help develop these fields in a commercially viable manner. Given Brazil's track record for innovation and accomplishment, the region is poised to present a number of industry-wide advancements over the next 10 to 15 years as Brazil continues to be a trend setter for worldwide energy security. A thorough understanding of these issues, as well as the potential solutions to overcoming them, is critical to companies wishing to participate in the highly rewarding Brazilian offshore sector. This presentation will strive to detail the underlying factors that drive industry activity, including burgeoning commercial opportunities for service and supply companies, as well as addressing the technologies currently in progress that will help move the industry into ultra-deep water exploration and development. (author)

  7. Sustainable supply chain design: a configurational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumik, S Maryam; Abdul-Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Olugu, Ezutah Udoncy; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research.

  8. Sustainable Supply Chain Design: A Configurational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumik, S. Maryam; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research. PMID:24523652

  9. Sustainability and long-term effectiveness of the WHO surgical safety checklist combined with pulse oximetry in a resource-limited setting: two-year update from Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rebecca Y; Kwakye, Gifty; Kwok, Alvin C; Baltaga, Ruslan; Ciobanu, Gheorghe; Merry, Alan F; Funk, Luke M; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Gawande, Atul A; Berry, William R; Haynes, Alex B

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the sustainability and long-term effect of surgical safety checklists when implemented in resource-limited settings. A previous study demonstrated the marked, short-term effect of a structured hospital-wide implementation of a surgical safety checklist in Moldova, a lower-middle-income country, as have studies in other low-resource settings. To assess the long-term reduction in perioperative harm following the introduction of a checklist-based surgical quality improvement program in a resource-limited setting and to understand the long-term effects of such programs. Twenty months after the initial implementation of a surgical safety checklist and the provision of pulse oximetry at a referral hospital in Moldova, a lower-middle-income, resource-limited country in Eastern Europe, we conducted a prospective study of perioperative care and outcomes of 637 consecutive patients undergoing noncardiac surgery (the long-term follow-up group), and we compared the findings with those from 2106 patients who underwent surgery shortly after implementation (the short-term follow-up group). Preintervention data were collected from March to July 2010. Data collection during the short-term follow-up period was performed from October 2010 to January 2011, beginning 1 month after the implementation of the launch period. Data collection during the long-term follow-up period took place from May 25 to July 6, 2012, beginning 20 months after the initial intervention. The primary end points of interest were surgical morbidity (ie, the complication rate), adherence to safety process measures, and frequency of hypoxemia. Between the short- and long-term follow-up groups, the complication rate decreased 30.7% (P = .03). Surgical site infections decreased 40.4% (P = .05). The mean (SD) rate of completion of the checklist items increased from 88% (14%) in the short-term follow-up group to 92% (11%) in the long-term follow-up group (P rate of hypoxemic events

  10. Designing Sustainable Supply Chains for Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driven by the Energy and Independence Act of 2007 mandate to increase production of alternative fuels and to ensure that this increase causes minimal environmental impact, a project to design sustainable biofuel supply chains has been developed. This effort uses life cycle asses...

  11. Designing Sustainable Supply Chains (Journal Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Research and Development within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently put forth a new vision for environmental protection that states that sustainability is our “True North”. In support of this new vision, an effort to design supply chains to ...

  12. IMPLEMENTING SUSTAINABILITY INTO SUPPLY CHAIN OPERATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørsfeldt, Lilyana Makarowa

    2016-01-01

    functions and across the organizations involved in the supply chain—to achieve sustainability deployment. The outcomes of the study are as follows: (1) Conceptual frameworks are developed based on empirical data from the case study. These frameworks cover three different levels of the business system...... by bottom-up, day-to-day experiences of supply chain operations is scarce. The contingency approach, which includes the contextual conditions under which the implementation occurs, is also scarce. Moreover, there is a lack of theoretical frameworks based on empirical studies that can support the application...... and present a simplified model to explore the complexity of the phenomenon. (2) Means for the deployment (i.e., successful implementation) of a sustainability agenda in supply chain practices are identified. The discussion of means provides some explanations for relationships among frameworks components. More...

  13. Problems and countermeasures on main mineral resource sustainable supply in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang LIU; Shouyi LI; Jian GUAN; Tingting ZHANG; Ying CHU; Jing ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    northeastern China is an important old industrial base in China. Mineral resources are the foundation of industry development. However, because of long-term exploitation of mineral resources in northeastern China, the mineral resources reserves decrease gradually and some mineral resources are nearly exhausted, which restricts revitalization and sustainable development of the northeast old industrial base. On the basis of the comprehensive analysis of development and utilization status of mineral resources and supply and demand situation of main mineral resources in northeastern China, the authors put forward countermeasures on main mineral resources sustainable supply in northeastern China.

  14. Observational evidence of a long-term increase in precipitation due to urbanization effects and its implications for sustainable urban living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, K M; Wang, X M; Lin, T H; Wong, M S; Zeng, S K; He, N; Ng, E; Lau, K; Wang, D H

    2017-12-01

    Although projected precipitation increases in East Asia due to future climate change have aroused concern, less attention has been paid by the scientific community and public to the potential long-term increase in precipitation due to rapid urbanization. A ten-year precipitation dataset was analysed for both a rapidly urbanized megacity and nearby suburban/rural stations in southern China. Rapid urbanization in the megacity was evident from satellite observations. A statistically significant, long-term, increasing trend of precipitation existed only at the megacity station (45.6mm per decade) and not at the other stations. The increase was attributed to thermal and dynamical modifications of the tropospheric boundary layer related to urbanization, which was confirmed by the results of our WRF-SLUCM simulations. The results also suggested that a long-term regional increase in precipitation, caused by greenhouse gas-induced climate change, for instance, was not evident within the study period. The urbanization-induced increase was found to be higher than the precipitation increase (18.3mm per decade) expected from future climate change. The direct climate impacts due to rapid urbanization is highlighted with strong implications for urban sustainable development and the planning of effective adaptation strategies for issues such as coastal defenses, mosquito-borne disease spread and heat stress mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term outcome of patients with active ankylosing spondylitis with etanercept-sustained efficacy and safety after seven years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Data from clinical studies on the long-term efficacy and safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are scarce. This is the first report on continuous treatment with the TNFα fusion protein etanercept over seven years (y). Methods Overall, 26 patients with active AS were initially treated with etanercept 2 × 25 mg s.c./week with no concomitant disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or steroids. The clinical response was assessed by standardized parameters. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients in the Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) partial remission at seven years. AS disease activity scores (ASDAS) for status and improvement were compared to conventional outcome measures. Results Overall, 21/26 patients (81%) completed two years of treatment and 16/26 patients (62%) completed seven years. In the completer analysis, 31% patients were in ASAS partial remission at seven years, while 44% patients showed an ASDAS inactive disease status. Mean Bath AS activity index (BASDAI) scores, which were elevated at baseline (6.3 ± 0.9), showed constant improvement and remained low: 3.1 ± 2.5 at two years and 2.5 ± 2.2 at seven years, while ASDAS also improved (3.9 ± 0.7 at baseline, 1.8 ± 0.9 at two years, 1.6 ± 0.8 at seven years), all P <0.001. From the 10 dropouts, only 5 patients discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Patients who completed the study had lower baseline Bath AS function index (BASFI) scores vs. patients who discontinued. No other clinical parameter at baseline could predict any long-term outcome. Conclusions This study confirms the clinical efficacy and safety of etanercept in patients with active AS over seven years of continuous treatment. After seven years, more than half of the initially treated patients remained on anti-TNF therapy, and one-third were in partial remission. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01289743 PMID:23786760

  16. Long-term natalizumab treatment is associated with sustained improvements in quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, John F; Nair, Kavita V; Vollmer, Timothy; Stephenson, Judith J; Niecko, Timothy; Agarwal, Sonalee S; Watson, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients experience lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than the general population. In clinical trials, natalizumab significantly improved HRQoL and reduced relapse rates and disability progression in patients with relapsing MS. In a 1-year analysis of patients included in the current study, HRQoL improvement occurred within 3 months of natalizumab initiation and continued for 1 year thereafter. However, natalizumab’s long-term efficacy in improving HRQoL has not been studied. Methods In this longitudinal, observational, single-arm US study, HRQoL and treatment satisfaction were evaluated in MS patients receiving intravenous natalizumab 300 mg every 4 weeks in clinical settings. Patients completed surveys at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years and reported the following measures: Short Form-12 Version 2 (SF-12v2), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), and Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication. Results In this study, 120 patients completed ≥3 years of natalizumab treatment. Significant HRQoL improvements were evident from baseline to year 3 by increases in SF-12v2 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary scores (P<0.01) and decreases in MSIS-29 physical and psychological scores (P<0.0001). Patients with less physical disability (baseline Disease Steps [DS] 0–2) had significant improvement from baseline to year 3 in SF-12v2 PCS (P<0.05) and MSIS-29 physical scores (P<0.05). Physical HRQoL outcomes in patients with baseline DS 3–6 remained stable over 3 years. Treatment satisfaction increased significantly from baseline to year 1 (P<0.0001) and was maintained in the following 2 years. Conclusion Patients reported physical and psychological HRQoL improvements over 3 years of natalizumab treatment, supporting the long-term efficacy of natalizumab in real-world settings. Lower baseline disease activity and earlier treatment were related to better outcomes, indicating the

  17. A Biobank for Long-term and Sustainable Research in the Field of Congenital Heart Disease in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Pickardt; Eva Niggemeyer; Ulrike MM Bauer; Hashim Abdul-Khaliq

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most frequent birth defect (0.8%–1% of all live births). Due to the advance in prenatal and postnatal early diagnosis and treatment, more than 90%of these patients survive into adulthood today. However, several mid-and long-term morbidi-ties are dominating the follow-up of these patients. Due to the rarity and heterogeneity of the phe-notypes of CHD, multicenter registry-based studies are required. The CHD-Biobank was established in 2009 with the aim to collect DNA from patients and their parents (trios) or from affected families, as well as cardiovascular tissues from patients undergoing corrective heart surgery for cardiovascular malformations. Clinical/phenotype data are matched to the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10). The DNA collection currently comprises samples from approximately 4200 participants with a wide range of CHD phenotypes. The collection covers about 430 trios and 120 families with more than one affected member. The cardiac tissue collection comprises 1143 tissue samples from 556 patients after open heart surgery.

  18. A Biobank for Long-term and Sustainable Research in the Field of Congenital Heart Disease in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pickardt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease (CHD is the most frequent birth defect (0.8%–1% of all live births. Due to the advance in prenatal and postnatal early diagnosis and treatment, more than 90% of these patients survive into adulthood today. However, several mid- and long-term morbidities are dominating the follow-up of these patients. Due to the rarity and heterogeneity of the phenotypes of CHD, multicenter registry-based studies are required. The CHD-Biobank was established in 2009 with the aim to collect DNA from patients and their parents (trios or from affected families, as well as cardiovascular tissues from patients undergoing corrective heart surgery for cardiovascular malformations. Clinical/phenotype data are matched to the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10. The DNA collection currently comprises samples from approximately 4200 participants with a wide range of CHD phenotypes. The collection covers about 430 trios and 120 families with more than one affected member. The cardiac tissue collection comprises 1143 tissue samples from 556 patients after open heart surgery. The CHD-Biobank provides a comprehensive basis for research in the field of CHD with high standards of data privacy, IT management, and sample logistics.

  19. The science of sustainable supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Dara

    2014-06-06

    Recent advances in the science and technology of global supply chain management offer near-real-time demand-response systems for decision-makers across production networks. Technology is helping propel "fast fashion" and "lean manufacturing," so that companies are better able to deliver products consumers want most. Yet companies know much less about the environmental and social impacts of their production networks. The failure to measure and manage these impacts can be explained in part by limitations in the science of sustainability measurement, as well as by weaknesses in systems to translate data into information that can be used by decision-makers inside corporations and government agencies. There also remain continued disincentives for firms to measure and pay the full costs of their supply chain impacts. I discuss the current state of monitoring, measuring, and analyzing information related to supply chain sustainability, as well as progress that has been made in translating this information into systems to advance more sustainable practices by corporations and consumers. Better data, decision-support tools, and incentives will be needed to move from simply managing supply chains for costs, compliance, and risk reduction to predicting and preventing unsustainable practices.

  20. Quantitative models for sustainable supply chain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandenburg, M.; Govindan, Kannan; Sarkis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability, the consideration of environmental factors and social aspects, in supply chain management (SCM) has become a highly relevant topic for researchers and practitioners. The application of operations research methods and related models, i.e. formal modeling, for closed-loop SCM...... and reverse logistics has been effectively reviewed in previously published research. This situation is in contrast to the understanding and review of mathematical models that focus on environmental or social factors in forward supply chains (SC), which has seen less investigation. To evaluate developments...

  1. Energy efficiency, resilience to future climates and long-term sustainability: the role of the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M J

    2010-03-13

    Just under half of all energy consumption in the UK today takes place indoors, and over a quarter within our homes. The challenges associated with energy security, climate change and sustainable consumption will be overcome or lost in our existing buildings. A background analysis, and the scale of the engineering challenge for the next three to four decades, is described in this paper.

  2. Influence of Silica Fume Addition in the Long-Term Performance of Sustainable Cement Grouts for Micropiles Exposed to a Sulphate Aggressive Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Ortega

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available At present, sustainability is of major importance in the cement industry, and the use of additions such as silica fume as clinker replacement contributes towards that goal. Special foundations, and particularly micropiles, are one of the most suitable areas for the use of sustainable cements. The aim of this research is to analyse the effects in the very long-term (for 600 days produced by sulphate attack in the microstructure of grouts for micropiles in which OPC (ordinary Portland cement has been replaced by 5% and 10% silica fume. This line of study is building on a previous work, where these effects were studied in slag and fly ash grouts. Grouts made using a commercial sulphate-resisting Portland cement were also studied. The non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and Wenner resistivity testing were used. Mass variation and the compressive strength have also been analysed. Apparently, impedance spectroscopy is the most suitable technique for studying sulphate attack development. According to the results obtained, grouts for micropiles with a content of silica fume up to 10% and exposed to an aggressive sulphate medium, have a similar or even better behaviour in the very long-term, compared to grouts prepared using sulphate-resisting Portland cement.

  3. Energy efficiency, resilience to future climates and long-term sustainability: the role of the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Just under half of all energy consumption in the UK today takes place indoors, and over a quarter within our homes. The challenges associated with energy security, climate change and sustainable consumption will be overcome or lost in our existing buildings. A background analysis, and the scale of the engineering challenge for the next three to four decades, is described in this paper. PMID:20123747

  4. Long-Term Sustained Release from a Biodegradable Photo-Cross-Linked Network for Intraocular Corticosteroid Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsden, Brian G; Marecak, Dale

    2016-09-06

    Intravitreal sustained delivery of corticosteroids such as dexamethasone is an effective means of treating a number of ocular diseases, including diabetic retinopathy, uveitis, and age-related or diabetic macular edema. There are currently marketed devices for this purpose, yet only one, Ozurdex, is degradable. In vitro release of dexamethasone from the Ozurdex device is limited to approximately 30 days, however. It was the objective of this study to examine the potential for prolonged and sustained release of a corticosteroid in vitro from a degradable polymer prepared from terminally acrylated star co- and ter-prepolymers composed of d,l-lactide, ε-caprolactone, and trimethylene carbonate co-photo-cross-linked with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate. Through manipulation of the network polymer glass transition temperature and degradation rate, a sustained release of triamcinolone was achieved, with an estimated release duration greater than twice that of the Ozurdex system. Moreover, a period of nearly constant release was obtained using a network prepared from 5000 Da star-poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-d,l-lactide) triacrylate (3:1 trimethylene carbonate:d,l-lactide) co-cross-linked with 700 Da poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate). These formulations show promise as implantable, intravitreal corticosteroid delivery devices.

  5. Sustained long-term improvement with clozapine in schizophrenia Clozapina na esquizofrenia grave: melhora duradoura e sustentada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO DE OLIVEIRA-SOUZA

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the long-term use of clozapine in a prospective sample of 46 chronic schizophrenics. In six months, 21 subjects had been excluded for a number of reasons. In four of them the reasons for exclusion were related to lack of response or adverse effects. The median daily clozapine dose was 400 mg in the remaining 25 patients. As a whole, there were remarkable improvements in core dimensions of psychopathology, global cognitive status, and level of functioning. We confirmed that clozapine is effective in a subgroup of schizophrenics with the severest forms of the disease. If tolerated after the first few months it leads to progressive gains in several domains of behavior. Clozapine should be tried in every patient with schizophrenia in whom positive symptoms, disorganization, or bizarre behavior are a matter of incapacitation despite efforts to keep them under control with other drugs.O presente estudo, prospectivo, relata o uso de longo-prazo da clozapina em 46 esquizofrênicos graves, com mais de cinco anos de doença. Com seis meses de uso da droga, 21 indivíduos haviam sido excluídos por diversas razões. Em quatro, a exclusão se deveu a efeitos adversos ou ausência de resposta. A dose mediana de clozapina foi de 400 mg nos demais 25 pacientes. No todo, observamos melhora em dimensões de psicopatologia, estado cognitivo global, e nível funcional. Concluímos que a clozapina é eficaz em um subgrupo de esquizofrênicos com formas graves da doença. Se tolerada depois dos primeiros meses, produz benefícios progressivos em diversos domínios do comportamento. Clozapina deve ser tentada em todo paciente com esquizofrenia incapacitado por sintomas positivos, desorganização, e/ou comportamentos bizarros, que persistem a despeito de esforços para mantê-los sob controle com outras drogas.

  6. Environmental concerns of supply chain sustainability (SCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mohd Faiz; Omar, Badrul; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Pauzi, Nur Fazlinda Mohd; Hasan, Sulaiman; Mohamed, W. A. Wan

    2017-04-01

    Environment concern is one important aspect for supply chain sustainability (SCS). Nowadays, company's activities give a lot of impact on the environment. Through these activities, there are other SCS issue of environment were identified. In this paper, the proposed SCS issue of environmental concern will be determined from Corporate Sustainability Report (CSR). Using a total weightage of 0.333 (after dividing into three aspects of sustainability), each proposed issues will be classified according to the company activities in order to determined weightage for each issue. Those weightages then will be used in developing of score metric for SCS in design phase. Result shows that the carbon footprint is the major concern for SCS of environment while environmental management system is a lowest concern for SCS environment.

  7. The Potential for Long-Term Sustainability in Seminatural Forestry: A Broad Perspective Based on Woodpecker Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõhmus, Asko; Nellis, Renno; Pullerits, Mirjam; Leivits, Meelis

    2016-03-01

    We assessed ecological sustainability of seminatural forestry by analyzing 80-year dynamics and the current distribution of all woodpecker species in Estonia. We found that, despite the clear-cutting-based forestry system, woodpeckers inhabited commercial seminatural forests in substantial numbers, including the species generally considered vulnerable to timber harvesting. The only negative trend, a drastic decline in the Green Woodpecker, paralleled the loss of seminatural, wooded grasslands and is mostly an issue for landscape planning and agricultural land use. Major silvicultural factors supporting other species in commercial forests include natural regeneration with multiple native tree species and deadwood abundance. In such context, the main role of protected areas is to provide ecological resilience; however, we estimated that the current strict reserves could further double their carrying capacities for woodpeckers through successional recovery and, perhaps, active restoration. The long time series used were instrumental in detecting unexpected dynamics and the impacts of climatically extreme years. We conclude that (1) seminatural forestry can serve as a basis for reconciling timber harvesting and biodiversity protection at the landscape scale, given appropriate attention to key structures and landscape zoning and (2) woodpeckers represent a biological indicator system for the sustainability of forest landscapes in Europe.

  8. Potential long-term effects of a mind-body intervention for women with major depressive disorder: sustained mental health improvements with a pilot yoga intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Elswick, R K; Kornstein, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Despite pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic advances over the past decades, many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience recurrent depressive episodes and persistent depressive symptoms despite treatment with the usual care. Yoga is a mind-body therapeutic modality that has received attention in both the lay and research literature as a possible adjunctive therapy for depression. Although promising, recent findings about the positive mental health effects of yoga are limited because few studies have used standardized outcome measures and none of them have involved long-term follow-up beyond a few months after the intervention period. The goal of our research study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a yoga intervention for women with MDD using standardized outcome measures and a long follow-up period (1year after the intervention). The key finding is that previous yoga practice has long-term positive effects, as revealed in both qualitative reports of participants' experiences and in the quantitative data about depression and rumination scores over time. Although generalizability of the study findings is limited because of a very small sample size at the 1-year follow-up assessment, the trends in the data suggest that exposure to yoga may convey a sustained positive effect on depression, ruminations, stress, anxiety, and health-related quality of life. Whether an individual continues with yoga practice, simple exposure to a yoga intervention appears to provide sustained benefits to the individual. This is important because it is rare that any intervention, pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic, for depression conveys such sustained effects for individuals with MDD, particularly after the treatment is discontinued.

  9. Decision support for on-farm water management and long-term agricultural sustainability in a semi-arid region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay

    2010-09-01

    SummaryThe long-term success of irrigated agriculture for sustainable crop production in India depends largely on the careful management of land and water resources. Currently, some serious environmental problems of waterlogging and soil salinization are burgeoning in parts of Haryana State of India; half a million hectare area of the State is already waterlogged. Poor irrigation and drainage management and inadequate exploitation of saline ground water are the main factors responsible for this phenomenon. In order to prevent further degradation and to maintain the food production for the growing population, judicious use of natural resources is a must. A wide range of solutions could be considered to address the problems. But the effectiveness of all the solutions and their combinations cannot be verified with on-farm experiments. Simulation models by way of their predictive capability are often the only viable means of providing input to management decisions. These models can help to forecast the likely impacts of a particular alternative management strategy. In the present study a physical based one-dimensional simulation model SWASALT was employed to evaluate on-farm irrigation water management options. After successful calibration and validation with field experimentation data, several scenario building exercises have been conducted under different crop, soil and rainfall conditions. The water and salt balance component obtained for each simulation run were used to derive water management response indicators. The simulation study revealed that in most conditions, saline water of up to 7.5 dS/m can be used safely on long term basis for crop production. The simulation study further revealed that alternative use of canal and saline water had an edge over mix use. Several alternatives have been suggested for sustainable agricultural production in the region. The strategies suggested, if followed, would lend sustainability to the agricultural production besides

  10. Modeling Costs and Impacts of Introducing Early Infant Male Circumcision for Long-Term Sustainability of the Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Peter; Kripke, Katharine; Mugurungi, Owen; Ncube, Gertrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Hatzold, Karin; Christensen, Alice; Stover, John

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been shown to be an effective prevention strategy against HIV infection in males [1–3]. Since 2007, the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has supported VMMC programs in 14 priority countries in Africa. Today several of these countries are preparing to transition their VMMC programs from a scale-up and expansion phase to a maintenance phase. As they do so, they must consider the best approaches to sustain high levels of male circumcision in the population. The two alternatives under consideration are circumcising adolescents 10–14 years old over the long term or integrating early infant male circumcision (EIMC) into maternal and child health programs. The paper presents an analysis, using the Decision Makers Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), of the estimated cost and impact of introducing EIMC into existing VMMC programs in several countries in eastern and southern Africa. Limited cost data exist for the implementation of EIMC, but preliminary studies, such as the one detailed in Mangenah, et al. [4–5], suggest that the cost of EIMC may be less than that of adolescent and adult male circumcision. If this is the case, then adding EIMC to the VMMC program will increase the number of circumcisions that need to be performed but will not increase the total cost of the program over the long term. In addition, we found that a delayed or slow start-up of EIMC would not substantially reduce the impact of adding it to the program or increase cumulative long-term costs, which should make introduction of EIMC more feasible and attractive to countries contemplating such a program innovation. PMID:27410233

  11. Modeling Costs and Impacts of Introducing Early Infant Male Circumcision for Long-Term Sustainability of the Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Stegman, Peter; Kripke, Katharine; Mugurungi, Owen; Ncube, Gertrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Hatzold, Karin; Christensen, Alice; Stover, John

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been shown to be an effective prevention strategy against HIV infection in males [1-3]. Since 2007, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has supported VMMC programs in 14 priority countries in Africa. Today several of these countries are preparing to transition their VMMC programs from a scale-up and expansion phase to a maintenance phase. As they do so, they must consider the best approaches to sustain high levels of male circumcision in the population. The two alternatives under consideration are circumcising adolescents 10-14 years old over the long term or integrating early infant male circumcision (EIMC) into maternal and child health programs. The paper presents an analysis, using the Decision Makers Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), of the estimated cost and impact of introducing EIMC into existing VMMC programs in several countries in eastern and southern Africa. Limited cost data exist for the implementation of EIMC, but preliminary studies, such as the one detailed in Mangenah, et al. [4-5], suggest that the cost of EIMC may be less than that of adolescent and adult male circumcision. If this is the case, then adding EIMC to the VMMC program will increase the number of circumcisions that need to be performed but will not increase the total cost of the program over the long term. In addition, we found that a delayed or slow start-up of EIMC would not substantially reduce the impact of adding it to the program or increase cumulative long-term costs, which should make introduction of EIMC more feasible and attractive to countries contemplating such a program innovation.

  12. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers.

  13. Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: Aggregate Planning from Sustainability Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Türkay

    Full Text Available Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor usage levels in the medium term. Traditionally standard mathematical programming formulation is used to devise the aggregate plan so as to minimize the total cost of operations. However, this formulation is purely an economic model that does not include sustainability considerations. In this study, we revise the standard aggregate planning formulation to account for additional environmental and social criteria to incorporate triple bottom line consideration of sustainability. We show how these additional criteria can be appended to traditional cost accounting in order to address sustainability in aggregate planning. We analyze the revised models and interpret the results on a case study from real life that would be insightful for decision makers.

  14. Impact of supply chain management practices on sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Azevedo, Susana G.; Carvalho, Helena

    2014-01-01

    elimination," "supply chain risk management" and "cleaner production." The following lean, resilient and green supply chain management practices do not have a significant impact on supply chain sustainability: "flexible transportation," "flexible sourcing," "ISO 14001 certification," and "reverse logistics...

  15. Long-term implications of sustained wind power growth in the United States: Potential benefits and secondary impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Heath, Garvin; Keyser, David; Lantz, Eric; Macknick, Jordan; Mai, Trieu; Millstein, Dev

    2016-10-01

    We model scenarios of the U.S. electric sector in which wind generation reaches 10% of end-use electricity demand in 2020, 20% in 2030, and 35% in 2050. As shown in a companion paper, achieving these penetration levels would have significant implications for the wind industry and the broader electric sector. Compared to a baseline that assumes no new wind deployment, under the primary scenario modeled, achieving these penetrations imposes an incremental cost to electricity consumers of less than 1% through 2030. These cost implications, however, should be balanced against the variety of environmental and social implications of such a scenario. Relative to a baseline that assumes no new wind deployment, our analysis shows that the high-penetration wind scenario yields potential greenhouse-gas benefits of $85-$1,230 billion in present-value terms, with a central estimate of $400 billion. Air-pollution-related health benefits are estimated at $52-$272 billion, while annual electric-sector water withdrawals and consumption are lower by 15% and 23% in 2050, respectively. We also find that a high-wind-energy future would have implications for the diversity and risk of energy supply, local economic development, and land use and related local impacts on communities and ecosystems; however, these additional impacts may not greatly affect aggregate social welfare owing to their nature, in part, as resource transfers.

  16. Conditioned Medium Derived from Neural Progenitor Cells Induces Long-term Post-ischemic Neuroprotection, Sustained Neurological Recovery, Neurogenesis, and Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeppner, Thorsten R; Traut, Viktorija; Heidenreich, Alexander; Kaltwasser, Britta; Bosche, Bert; Bähr, Mathias; Hermann, Dirk M

    2017-03-01

    Adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs) induce post-ischemic long-term neuroprotection and brain remodeling by releasing of survival- and plasticity-promoting mediators. To evaluate whether secreted factors may mimic neuroprotective and restorative effects of NPCs, we exposed male C57BL6 mice to focal cerebral ischemia and intravenously applied conditioned medium (CM) derived from subventricular zone NPCs. CM dose-dependently reduced infarct volume and brain leukocyte infiltration after 48 h when delivered up to 12 h after focal cerebral ischemia. Neuroprotection persisted in the post-acute stroke phase yielding enhanced neurological recovery that lasted throughout the 28-day observation period. Increased Bcl-2, phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated STAT-3 abundance, and reduced caspase-3 activity and Bax abundance were noted in ischemic brains of CM-treated mice at 48 h post-stroke, indicative of enhanced cell survival signaling. Long-term neuroprotection was associated with increased brain glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations at 28 days resulting in increased neurogenesis and angiogenesis. The observation that NPC-derived CM induces sustained neuroprotection and neurological recovery suggests that cell transplantation may be dispensable when secreted factors are instead administered.

  17. Long-term efficacy of empirical chronic amiodarone therapy in patients with sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia and structural heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Takeshi; Kurita, Takashi; Taguchi, Atsushi; Shimizu, Wataru; Suyama, Kazuhiro; Aihara, Naohiko; Kamakura, Shiro

    2002-04-01

    The efficacy of empirical chronic oral amiodarone therapy in 129 patients with sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VTNVF) and structural heart disease is evaluated. Twenty-nine patients were treated with class I drugs and monitored by electrophysiological study (EPS) and Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) (class I). The remaining 100 non-responders to the class I drugs were treated with oral amiodarone, of whom 70 were tolerant (AMD+) and 30 were intolerant (AMD-). Patients were followed up to 36 months. The primary and secondary end-points were recurrence of VT/VF and hypothetical death, respectively; whereby, hypothetical death was defined as actual death and the event of rapid VT.VF (heart rate >240beats/min) in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Class I and AMD+ patients showed a better prognosis than AMD- patients. The VT/VF event free at 36 months in class I (64.8%) and AMD+ (56.1%) patients were significantly higher than that in AMD- (27.2%) (pAMD+ (83.6%) patients were significantly higher than that in AMD- (57.0%) (pdisease.

  18. Relationship quality as the predictor of long term relationship in the Malaysian dairy industry

    OpenAIRE

    Boniface, Bonaventure; Gyau, Amos; Stringer, Randy

    2009-01-01

    Dairy market in Malaysia has been increasing due to high income and population growth in the region. In response to the increasing demand, milk processors need to obtain constant milk supplies from the dairy farmers. One way of doing this is when the buyers and the sellers build and maintain quality relationships in order to enhance long term sustainability of the milk supply. This paper examines the determinants of relationship quality and its role in enhancing long term relationship between...

  19. Long-Term Urban Growth and Land Use Efficiency in Southern Europe: Implications for Sustainable Land Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zitti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study illustrates a multidimensional analysis of an indicator of urban land use efficiency (per-capita built-up area, LUE in mainland Attica, a Mediterranean urban region, along different expansion waves (1960–2010: compaction and densification in the 1960s, dispersed growth along the coasts and on Athens’ fringe in the 1970s, fringe consolidation in the 1980s, moderate re-polarization and discontinuous expansion in the 1990s and sprawl in remote areas in the 2000s. The non-linear trend in LUE (a continuous increase up to the 1980s and a moderate decrease in 1990 and 2000 preceding the rise observed over the last decade reflects Athens’ expansion waves. A total of 23 indicators were collected by decade for each municipality of the study area with the aim of identifying the drivers of land use efficiency. In 1960, municipalities with low efficiency in the use of land were concentrated on both coastal areas and Athens’ fringe, while in 2010, the lowest efficiency rate was observed in the most remote, rural areas. Typical urban functions (e.g., mixed land uses, multiple-use buildings, vertical profile are the variables most associated with high efficiency in the use of land. Policies for sustainable land management should consider local and regional factors shaping land use efficiency promoting self-contained expansion and more tightly protecting rural and remote land from dispersed urbanization. LUE is a promising indicator reflecting the increased complexity of growth patterns and may anticipate future urban trends.

  20. Sustainability of the Catalytic Activity of a Silica-Titania Composite (STC) for Long-Term Indoor Air Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Richards, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    TiO2-assisted photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is an emerging technology for indoor air quality control and is also being evaluated as an alternative trace contaminant control technology for crew habitats in space exploration. Though there exists a vast range of literature on the development of photocatalysts and associated reactor systems, including catalyst performance and performance-influencing factors, the critical question of whether photocatalysts can sustain their initial catalytic activity over an extended period of operation has not been adequately addressed. For a catalyst to effectively serve as an air quality control product, it must be rugged enough to withstand exposure to a multitude of low concentration volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over long periods of time with minimal loss of activity. The objective of this study was to determine the functional lifetime of a promising photocatalyst - the silica-titania composite (STC) from Sol Gel Solutions, LLC in a real-world scenario. A bench-scale STC-packed annular reactor under continuous irradiation by a UV-A fluorescent black-light blue lamp ((lambda)max = 365 nm) was exposed to laboratory air continuously at an apparent contact time of 0.27 sand challenged with a known concentration of ethanol periodically to assess any changes in catalytic activity. Laboratory air was also episodically spiked with halocarbons (e.g., octafluoropropane), organosulfur compounds (e.g., sulfur hexafluoride), and organosilicons (e.g., siloxanes) to simulate accidental releases or leaks of such VOCs. Total organic carbon (TOC) loading and contaminant profiles of the laboratory air were also monitored. Changes in STC photocatalytic performance were evaluated using the ethanol mineralization rate, mineralization efficiency, and oxidation intermediate (acetaldehyde) formation. Results provide insights to any potential catalyst poisoning by trace halocarbons and organosulfur compounds.

  1. Long-term sustained release of salicylic acid from cross-linked biodegradable polyester induces a reduced foreign body response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandorkar, Yashoda; Bhaskar, Nitu; Madras, Giridhar; Basu, Bikramjit

    2015-02-09

    There has been a continuous surge toward developing new biopolymers that exhibit better in vivo biocompatibility properties in terms of demonstrating a reduced foreign body response (FBR). One approach to mitigate the undesired FBR is to develop an implant capable of releasing anti-inflammatory molecules in a sustained manner over a long time period. Implants causing inflammation are also more susceptible to infection. In this article, the in vivo biocompatibility of a novel, biodegradable salicylic acid releasing polyester (SAP) has been investigated by subcutaneous implantation in a mouse model. The tissue response to SAP was compared with that of a widely used biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), as a control over three time points: 2, 4, and 16 weeks postimplantation. A long-term in vitro study illustrates a continuous, linear (zero order) release of salicylic acid with a cumulative mass percent release rate of 7.34 × 10(-4) h(-1) over ∼1.5-17 months. On the basis of physicochemical analysis, surface erosion for SAP and bulk erosion for PLGA have been confirmed as their dominant degradation modes in vivo. On the basis of the histomorphometrical analysis of inflammatory cell densities and collagen distribution as well as quantification of proinflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α and IL-1β), a reduced foreign body response toward SAP with respect to that generated by PLGA has been unambiguously established. The favorable in vivo tissue response to SAP, as manifest from the uniform and well-vascularized encapsulation around the implant, is consistent with the decrease in inflammatory cell density and increase in angiogenesis with time. The above observations, together with the demonstration of long-term and sustained release of salicylic acid, establish the potential use of SAP for applications in improved matrices for tissue engineering and chronic wound healing.

  2. Delivering Sustainability Through Supply Chain Distribution Network Redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Ravet

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Companies could gain (cost, service, green/sustainable competitive advantage through the supply chain network. The goal of this article is to study how to deliver sustainability through the supply chain distribution network redesign.Design/methodology/approach - A literature review is conducted to examine research relating to sustainable supply chain strategies and supply chain distribution network redesign.Findings - A study of the supply chain literature reveals the importance to rethink the supply chain distribution network design and to treat sustainability as integral to operations.

  3. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterkova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    of enforceable business contracts, SCCs are considered to overcome the heavily criticized softness of other CSR regulation and, therefore, to be more successful in fostering ethical behaviour of suppliers who are legally independent but often in economic and business terms dependent on the sourcing companies...... but also to do business exclusively with socially responsible partners. Unawareness, either intentional or negligent, of unethical behaviour within a company’s supply chain may lead to an assumption that the company is complicit in such a conduct. The paper discusses a hypothesis that sustainability...

  4. Education for local sustainable food supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Resnik Planinc

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at local sustainable food supplies from the aspect of education and youth awareness. Through analysis of the present circumstances, the authors offer suggestions of how to implement the chosen theme into a geography lesson within primary and secondary schools. They are convinced the implementation of a chosen theme into a compulsory educational programme proves its importance in everyday life, in the development of an individual and for society as a whole, thereby offering us an assurance that the main ideas will reach the majority of the population.

  5. A risk-based framework to assess long-term effects of policy and water supply changes on water resources systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Climate uncertainty can affect water resources availability and management decisions. Sustainable water resources management therefore requires evaluation of policy and management decisions under a wide range of possible future water supply conditions. This study proposes a risk-based framework to integrate water supply uncertainty into a forward-looking decision making context. To apply this framework, a stochastic reconstruction scheme is used to generate a large ensemble of flow series. For the Rocky Mountain basins considered here, two key characteristics of the annual hydrograph are its annual flow volume and the timing of the seasonal flood peak. These are perturbed to represent natural randomness and potential changes due to future climate. 30-year series of perturbed flows are used as input to the SWAMP model - an integrated water resources model that simulates regional water supply-demand system and estimates economic productivity of water and other sustainability indicators, including system vulnerability and resilience. The simulation results are used to construct 2D-maps of net revenue of a particular water sector; e.g., hydropower, or for all sectors combined. Each map cell represents a risk scenario of net revenue based on a particular annual flow volume, timing of the peak flow, and 200 stochastic realizations of flow series. This framework is demonstrated for a water resources system in the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada. Critical historical drought sequences, derived from tree-ring reconstructions of several hundred years of annual river flows, are used to evaluate the system's performance (net revenue risk) under extremely low flow conditions and also to locate them on the previously produced 2D risk maps. This simulation and analysis framework is repeated under various reservoir operation strategies (e.g., maximizing flood protection or maximizing water supply security); development proposals, such as irrigation

  6. Supporting Smallholders to Access Sustainable Supply Chains : Lessons from the Indian Cotton Supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fayet, Laia; Vermeulen, Walter J V

    2014-01-01

    A significant number of different sustainable initiatives have emerged to improve sustainability and inclusion of small farmers in global supply chains. These include production process adjustment advice and implementation of different sustainable product standards. In practice two different approac

  7. Supporting Smallholders to Access Sustainable Supply Chains: Lessons form the Indian Cotton Supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fayet, L.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of different sustainable initiatives have emerged to improve sustainability and inclusion of small farmers in global supply chains. These include production process adjustment advice and implementation of different sustainable product standards. In practice two different approac

  8. Strategic framework for sustainable development in the period of transition towards market economy: Critical overview of the strategy of long-term development of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadžić Miroljub

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a critical analysis of the strategic framework for long-term economic development of Serbia, of the role of strategic development in the success of the transition process, and the consequences of the lack of a development strategy. The strategy of long-term economic development of Serbia, as a programme intended to designate the economic and development policy of the state, is analyzed with the aim of finding an acceptable formulation of development strategy. The authors consider various approaches and propose a strategy for Serbia in the period of transition towards market economy. They also point out that, in the period of transition from a government-planned towards a market economy, strategy should be given greater importance than in periods that do not represent turning points, because of the greater possibility of incorrect policy making, potential conflicts of interest groups, reaching sustainable development, and maximizing prosperity. The authors take into account the advantages and disadvantages of the radical and of the gradualist approach to transition and propose formulating a development strategy that would contain combined elements of plan and market mechanisms. They believe that the process of transition lacks a clear development strategy, and that the quality of the existing development strategy of Serbia until 2010 is such that it cannot be understood as a serious approach to the transition issue. The authors stress the consequences of undergoing transition without a development strategy, that include inappropriate dynamic and sequence of reforms; a lack of coordination between development policy, macroeconomic policy, market reforms, and spatial planning policy; higher costs of transition, insufficient rate of economic growth, etc. They offer proposals for a comprehensive development framework (CDF and for strategic planning of territorial industrial development.

  9. Sustainability of water-supply at military installations, Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, including the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, is host to several military installations of Afghanistan, the United States, and other nations that depend on groundwater resources for water supply. These installations are within or close to the city of Kabul. Groundwater also is the potable supply for the approximately four million residents of Kabul. The sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin is a concern to military operations, and Afghan water-resource managers, owing to increased water demands from a growing population and potential mining activities. This study illustrates the use of chemical and isotopic analysis, groundwater flow modeling, and hydrogeologic investigations to assess the sustainability of groundwater resources in the Kabul Basin.Water supplies for military installations in the southern Kabul Basin were found to be subject to sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow-water supply wells as a result of declining water levels. Model simulations indicate that new withdrawals from deep aquifers may have less of an impact on surrounding community water supply wells than increased withdrawals from near- surface aquifers. Higher rates of recharge in the northern Kabul Basin indicate that military installations in that part of the basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Simulations of groundwater withdrawals may be used to evaluate different withdrawal scenarios in an effort to manage water resources in a sustainable manner in the Kabul Basin.

  10. Sustainability in Supply chain management is not enough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Henning de

    2009-01-01

    To be or not to be - sustainable, that is the question. To be sustainable or green, seems to be the new mantra in supply chain management. Nearly every conference and SCS magazine has the topic on the agenda. The topic of sustainability is not new in a supply chain context. For some years Corporate...

  11. Human resources for health strategies adopted by providers in resource-limited settings to sustain long-term delivery of ART: a mixed-methods study from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakumumpa, Henry; Taiwo, Modupe Oladunni; Muganzi, Alex; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2016-10-19

    Human resources for health (HRH) constraints are a major barrier to the sustainability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Many prior approaches to HRH constraints have taken a top-down trend of generalized global strategies and policy guidelines. The objective of the study was to examine the human resources for health strategies adopted by front-line providers in Uganda to sustain ART delivery beyond the initial ART scale-up phase between 2004 and 2009. A two-phase mixed-methods approach was adopted. In the first phase, a survey of a nationally representative sample of health facilities (n = 195) across Uganda was conducted. The second phase involved in-depth interviews (n = 36) with ART clinic managers and staff of 6 of the 195 health facilities purposively selected from the first study phase. Quantitative data was analysed based on descriptive statistics, and qualitative data was analysed by coding and thematic analysis. The identified strategies were categorized into five themes: (1) providing monetary and non-monetary incentives to health workers on busy ART clinic days; (2) workload reduction through spacing ART clinic appointments; (3) adopting training workshops in ART management as a motivation strategy for health workers; (4) adopting non-physician-centred staffing models; and (5) devising ART program leadership styles that enhanced health worker commitment. Facility-level strategies for responding to HRH constraints are feasible and can contribute to efforts to increase country ownership of HIV programs in resource-limited settings. Consideration of the human resources for health strategies identified in the study by ART program planners and managers could enhance the long-term sustainment of ART programs by providers in resource-limited settings.

  12. Impact of supply chain management practices on sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Azevedo, Susana G.; Carvalho, Helena

    2014-01-01

    elimination," "supply chain risk management" and "cleaner production." The following lean, resilient and green supply chain management practices do not have a significant impact on supply chain sustainability: "flexible transportation," "flexible sourcing," "ISO 14001 certification," and "reverse logistics......This paper aims to investigate the impact of lean, resilient and green supply chain management practices on supply chain sustainability. A deductive research approach was used to derive a conceptual model. Eighteen research propositions are suggested and tested with empirical data derived from five...... case studies belonging to the Portuguese automotive supply chain. A conceptual model to assess the impact of lean, resilient and green practices on supply chain sustainability was derived from the data analysis. The practices with significant impact on supply chain sustainability are: "waste...

  13. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Raja, Waseem K; Wang, Rebecca Y; Stinson, Jordan A; Glettig, Dean L; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-08-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogenesis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight.

  14. Sustained improvement in patient-reported outcomes during long-term fesoterodine treatment for overactive bladder symptoms: pooled analysis of two open-label extension studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Con J; Dmochowski, Roger R; Berriman, Sandra; Kopp, Zoe S; Carlsson, Martin

    2012-08-01

    • To evaluate the effects of long-term fesoterodine treatment on health-related quality of life (HRQL) and treatment satisfaction in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. • To determine the impact of gender and age on these effects. • This is a post hoc analysis of data pooled from identically designed open-label extensions of two randomized, double-blind, 12-week fesoterodine studies. • Initial treatment was once-daily fesoterodine 8 mg; subjects had the opportunity to receive open-label fesoterodine for ≥24 months. • After 1 month, subjects could elect dose reduction to 4 mg and subsequent re-escalation to 8 mg; dose reduction and re-escalation were each allowed once annually. • Changes in scores on the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and a Likert scale evaluating severity of bladder-related problems were assessed at open-label baseline and months 12 and 24; treatment satisfaction was assessed at open-label baseline and at months 4, 12 and 24. • A total of 864 enrolled subjects were included (men, n= 182; women, n= 682; aged fesoterodine treatment was associated with sustained improvement in measures of health-related quality of life and bladder-related problems and with high treatment satisfaction in subjects with overactive bladder symptoms. • Effects of gender and age were minimal. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  15. Long term protection after immunization with P. berghei sporozoites correlates with sustained IFNγ responses of hepatic CD8+ memory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystelle Nganou-Makamdop

    Full Text Available Protection against P. berghei malaria can successfully be induced in mice by immunization with both radiation attenuated sporozoites (RAS arresting early during liver stage development, or sporozoites combined with chloroquine chemoprophylaxis (CPS, resulting in complete intra-hepatic parasite development before killing of blood-stages by chloroquine takes place. We assessed the longevity of protective cellular immune responses by RAS and CPS P. berghei immunization of C57BL/6j mice. Strong effector and memory (T(EM CD8+ T cell responses were induced predominantly in the liver of both RAS and CPS immunized mice while CD4+ T cells with memory phenotype remained at base line levels. Compared to unprotected naïve mice, we found high sporozoite-specific IFNγ ex vivo responses that associated with induced levels of in vivo CD8+ T(EM cells in the liver but not spleen. Long term evaluation over a period of 9 months showed a decline of malaria-specific IFNγ responses in RAS and CPS mice that significantly correlated with loss of protection (r(2 = 0.60, p<0.0001. The reducing IFNγ response by hepatic memory CD8+ T cells could be boosted by re-exposure to wild-type sporozoites. Our data show that sustainable protection against malaria associates with distinct intra-hepatic immune responses characterized by strong IFNγ producing CD8+ memory T cells.

  16. Effect of sustained virological response on long-term clinical outcome in 113 patients with compensated hepatitis C-related cirrhosis treated by interferon alpha and ribavirin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the long-term clinical benefit of sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis treated by antiviral therapy using mostly ribavirin plus interferon either standard or pegylated. METHODS: One hundred and thirteen patients with uncomplicated HCV biopsy-proven cirrhosis, treated by at least one course of antiviral treatment ≥ 3 mo and followed ≥ 30 mo were included. The occurrence of clinical events [hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), decompensation and death] was compared in SVR and non SVR patients. RESULTS: Seventy eight patients received bitherapy and 63 had repeat treatments. SVR was achieved in 37 patients (33%). During a mean follow-up of 7.7 years, clinical events occurred more frequently in non SVR than in SVR patients, with a significant difference for HCC (24/76 vs 1/37, P = 0.01). No SVR patient died while 20/76 non-SVR did (P = 0.002), mainly in relation to HCC (45%).CONCLUSION: In patients with HCV-related cirrhosis, SVR is associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of HCC and mortality during a follow-up period of 7.7 years. This result is a strong argument to perform and repeat antiviral treatments in patients with compensated cirrhosis.

  17. Optimization of emergy sustainability index for biodiesel supply network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Yang, Le

    2015-01-01

    sustainable design. In the proposed model, the emergy sustainability index of the whole biodiesel supply networks in a life cycle perspective is employed as the measure of the sustainability, and multiple feedstocks, multiple transport modes, multiple regions for biodiesel production and multiple distribution...... centers can be considered. After describing the process and mathematic framework of the model, an illustrative case was studied and demonstrated that the proposed methodology is feasible for finding the most sustainable design and planning of biodiesel supply chains....

  18. Sustainability metrics for agri-food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Gaitán Cremaschi, D.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing sustainability in food production requires knowledge about the economic, environmental and social performance of the various stages of agri-food supply chains. An integrated indicator can provide synthetized information about the extent to which food products are sustainably produced and can guide sustainability improvements. The overall objective of this thesis was to perform integrated assessments of relative sustainability performance of (stages of) agri-food supply chains using ...

  19. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  20. Sustainable and Resilient Supply Chain Network Design under Disruption Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Irshad Mari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable supply chain network design is a rich area for academic research that is still in its infancy and has potential to affect supply chain performance. Increasing regulations for carbon and waste management are forcing firms to consider their supply chains from ecological and social objectives, but in reality, however, facilities and the links connecting them are disrupted from time to time, due to poor weather, natural or manmade disasters or a combination of any other factors. Supply chain systems drop their sustainability objectives while coping with these unexpected disruptions. Hence, the new challenges for supply chain managers are to design an efficient and effective supply chain network that will be resilient enough to bounce back from any disruption and that also should have sufficient vigilance to offer same sustainability under a disruption state. This paper focuses on ecological sustainability, because an environmental focus in a supply chain system is more important and also links with other pillars of sustainability, as the products need to be produced, packed and transported in an ethical way, which should not harm social balance and the environment. Owing to importance of the considered issue, this paper attempts to introduce a network optimization model for a sustainable and resilient supply chain network by incorporating (1 sustainability via carbon emissions and embodied carbon footprints and (2 resilience by incorporating location-specific risks. The proposed goal programming (GP model optimizes the total cost, while considering the resilience and sustainability of the supply chain network.

  1. Sustainable Supply Chain Engagement in a Retail Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Berning

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a key requirement for business success and is often regarded a competitive advantage if strategically managed. Sustainability-mature organisations look to their value chains where the retailer-supplier collaboration becomes critical in embedding sustainability. With this in mind, it is important to monitor retailer-supplier collaboration to determine whether it is effective. To facilitate this monitoring, the UN Global Compact Supply Chain Sustainability: A Guide for Continuous Improvement was consulted. The research question aimed to determine the progress of a prominent South African retailer regarding their sustainable supply chain management (SSCM and collaboration with suppliers. Therefore, this study attempts to apply the Supplier Engagement Continuum, extracted from the UN Global Compact Supply Chain Sustainability: A Guide for Continuous Improvement, in order to determine how the retailer is progressing in sustainable supply chain management. The qualitative and exploratory nature of the study necessitated a case study research design, while the technique of purposive sampling was used to select the sample of three suppliers. Data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews facilitated by an interview guide, and data analysis was conducted with Atlas.ti software. It was found that the retailer’s sustainable supply chain management can only be located on level one of the continuum. Supply chain sustainability in organisations lack the theoretical foundation of what sustainability really is. Therefore, the model was amended and an additional level was added to incorporate the education of sustainability.

  2. THE ROLE OF SUPPLY CHAIN COLLABORATION ON SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable supply chain management and collaboration have taken big attention from academicians and practitioners. The extensive literature review is conducted to analyse the relationship between Sustainable Supply Chain Management and collaboration and its effects on performance of SSCM dimensions. Then, a framework is proposed to explain the relationship between sustainable supply chain management and collaboration. For further studies the proposed framework should be tested empirically.

  3. Sustainable supply of biogas in Germany; Nachhaltige Biogasbereitstellung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, Ronny [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany). Bereich Biogastechnologie; Ball, Thomas; Kiefer, Joachim [Technologiezentrum Wasser (Germany). Abt. Grundwasser und Boden; Dresen, Boris [Fraunhofer-Institut UMSICHT (Germany). Themenbereich Ressourcenmanagement; Koeppel, Wolfgang [DVGW-Forschungsstelle Karlsruhe (Germany). Gruppe Systeme und Netze

    2013-04-15

    The supply of certain substrates for biogas production is partly controversial discussed: 'Tank-or-plate' discussions, maize cultivation of the landscape and so forth. The research project 'Potential study for the sustainable production and supply of gaseous, renewable energy in Germany (Biogas Atlas)' examines the potentials of biogas production under consideration of various sustainability factors.

  4. Biofuel Supply Chains: Impacts, Indicators and Sustainability Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development has introduced a program to study the environmental impacts and sustainability of biofuel supply chains. Analyses will provide indicators and metrics for valuating sustainability. In this context, indicators are supply chain rat...

  5. Biofuel Supply Chains: Impacts, Indicators and Sustainability Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development has introduced a program to study the environmental impacts and sustainability of biofuel supply chains. Analyses will provide indicators and metrics for valuating sustainability. In this context, indicators are supply chain rat...

  6. Long-term energy contracts and cartel law. Overview of the case practice of the cartel authorities and courts on long-term gas, electricity, and district heating supply contracts and corresponding energy transport and gas storage contracts; Langfristige Energievertraege und Kartellrecht. Uebersicht ueber die Entscheidungspraxis der Kartellbehoerden und Gerichte zu langfristigen Gas-, Strom- und Fernwaermeliefervertraegen sowie entsprechenden Energietransport- und Gasspeichervertraegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Florian

    2011-07-01

    Energy contracts should be drawn up with due consideration not only to the stipulations of civil law but also to aspects of cartel law. In recent times the cartel authorities and legislature have again sharpened their focus on long-term energy contracts. The present study gives an overview of the decisions of the European Commission and the German Federal Cartel Office concerning long-term energy contracts. It offers energy supply companies reference points for an assessment of their own contract practice. It also takes account of the new regulations of the amended Gas Network Access Ordinance as well as the changes soon to come with the EU's Third Single Energy Market Package. For the sake of clarity the study presents the case practice of the cartel authorities separately by energy carrier, making further distinctions by economic level and contractual relationships. It deals not only with natural gas and electricity but also district heating, an energy carrier which is increasingly moving into the focus of the German cartel authorities. The study also discusses the compatibility of long-term energy contracts with European state aid legislation.

  7. Supply chain planning with sustainability considerations: an integrative framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yang; Akkerman, Renzo; Birkved, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a modelling framework for combining supply chain planning and sustainability assessment, illustrating how sustainability assessments of logistic activities can be improved by supply chain planning input, and supply chain planning can in turn make use of the results from...... sustainability assessments. We use mathematical programming for the supply chain planning and life cycle assessment for the modelling and quantification of the environmental impacts. We illustrate the benefits of our integrated framework for a case of production, distribution and storage of food products...... produced on industrial scale, studying several important planning decisions like temperature treatments and choice of packaging materials....

  8. 不同长期照料服务供给下的失能老人长期照料模式选择%Analysis on model selection of disabled elders long-term care under the different long-term care supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨福; 张利; 余红剑; 朱素军

    2015-01-01

    [目的]探究长期照料服务供给(医疗康复服务供给、精神慰藉服务供给、日常生活照料服务供给)对失能老人长期照料模式选择的影响。[方法]抽取中国健康长寿纵向调查(CLHLS)2008年数据的长期失能老人样本进行列联表分析。[结果]对失能老人长期照料模式的选择均有显著影响的因素是:①医疗康复服务包括上门医疗服务(P<0.01)、社区健康教育(P<0.01)、医疗保险情况(P<0.05);②精神慰藉服务包括社区精神慰藉服务(P<0.01)、社会活动与娱乐活动(P<0.01);③日常生活照料服务包括社区起居照料服务(P<0.01)、社区日常购物服务(P<0.01)。[结论]长期照料服务供给对失能老人长期照料模式的选择具有显著影响。%Objective To explore the impact of long-term care service supply (medical rehabilitation services, psychological comfort services, daily care services) to the model selection of disabled elders long-term care. Methods Selects data from“2008 Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey data” (CLHLS), and analyzes the data by contingency tables. Results There is obvious significance factors of disabled elders long-term care model. 1. Medical rehabilitation services including on-site medical services (P<0.001), community health education (P<0.001), health insurance (P<0.05). 2 Psychological comfort services including community psychological comfort service s(P<0.001), community public activitiesand amusement(P<0.001), 3. Daily care services including community daily life services (P<0.001), daily shopping community service(P<0.001)). Conclusions Long-term care service supply has significant effect on long-term care model decision-making to disabled elders.

  9. EMPHASIZING SOCIAL ISSUES TOWARD SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAIN: A BRAZILIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minelle Enéas da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From sustainability perspective, the supply chain management strategy can use different indicators related to Triple Bottom Line to improve its practices. Some studies in the topic have focused only environmental issues; however in some cases the social issues should be considered as a core of the sustainable strategies. Considering this view, the paper aims to highlight the relevance of social issues in the Brazilian context toward sustainable supply chain. Therefore, a theoretical essay was conducted using the literature about sustainable supply chain in relation to the Brazilian perspective to understand how it is possible to use new approaches for a more emphasis on social issues. The discussions indicates that to re-conceptualize the social relations in supply chains, it's necessary to use corporate social responsibility and social capital approaches to create a better discussion about sustainable supply chain. The proposal starts a discussion in the Brazilian context to stimulate new scholars to study this topic.

  10. Sustainable Supply Chain Capabilities: Accumulation, Strategic Types and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Seung Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the cumulative sustainable supply chain (SC capabilities and their effects on supply chain performance, including economic, environmental, and social performance. Using empirical analyses with data from 198 small- and medium-sized suppliers in Korea, this paper provides evidence about the cumulative sustainable SC capabilities, indicating that economic, social, and environmental capabilities in the supply chain mutually reinforce each other rather than traded off. This study also presents the positive effect of cumulative sustainable SC capabilities on supply chain sustainability performance. This paper identifies four distinctive groups of cumulative capabilities: the laggard, environmental-focused, social-cautious, and all-round. This study provides a better understanding about sustainable capabilities and important guidelines for managers of suppliers and buyers who wish to build strong social/environmental management capabilities without compromising economic capability throughout the entire supply chain.

  11. Minimal residual disease and normalization of the bone marrow after long-term treatment with alpha-interferon2b in polycythemia vera. A report on molecular response patterns in seven patients in sustained complete hematological remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Møller, Michael Boe; de Stricker, Karin;

    2009-01-01

    PV patients with profound molecular responses during and after long-term treatment with alpha-interferon 2b. All patients obtained a major molecular response (MMR). Subsequently all patients discontinued alpha-interferon and sustained complete hematological remission with a follow-up period of median...

  12. Simple models and concepts as tools for the study of sustained soil productivity in long-term experiments. I. New soil organic matter and residual effect of P from fertilizers and farmyard manure in Kabete, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.H.

    2011-01-01

    The rough outcomes of a long-term experiment in Kenya were (re-)interpreted using simple models to find causes of success or failure with regard to sustained soil productivity. A two- pools model calculated the development of soil organic matter, and a practical equation estimated the residual

  13. Long-term Infusion of Nesfatin-1 Causes a Sustained Modulation of Whole-Body Energy Homeostasis of Male Fischer 344 Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima eMortazavi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nesfatin-1, the N-terminal fragment of nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2, is an 82 amino-acid peptide that inhibits food intake and exerts weight-reducing effects. Nesfatin-1 has been proposed as a potential anti-obesity peptide. However, studies to date have mainly focused solely on the acute satiety effects of centrally administered nesfatin-1. The main objective of our studies was to characterize the long-term/chronic effects of peripheral administration of nesfatin-1 on whole-body energy balance and metabolic partitioning in male Fischer 344 rats. Short-term (1 day subcutaneous infusion of nesfatin-1 (50 µg/kg body weight/day using osmotic mini-pumps increased spontaneous physical activity and whole-body fat oxidation during the dark phase. This was accompanied by decreased food intake and basal metabolic rate compared to saline infused controls. On the seventh day of nesfatin-1 infusion, cumulative food intake and total spontaneous physical activity during the dark phase were significantly reduced and elevated, respectively. Meanwhile, intraperitoneal injection of nesfatin-1 only caused a dark phase specific reduction in food intake and an increase in physical activity. NUCB2 mRNA expression in the brain and stomach, as well as serum NUCB2 concentrations were significantly reduced after 24 h fasting, while a post-prandial increase in serum NUCB2 was found in ad libitum fed rats. Collectively, our results indicate that chronic peripheral administration of nesfatin-1 at the dose tested, results in a sustained reduction in food intake and modulation of whole body energy homeostasis.

  14. Ergonomics and sustainability – challenges from global supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2012-01-01

    The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply...... sustainability. Starting from such a basis, the next step would be to find ways for the ergonomics and human factors community to create international collaboration which can impact specific global supply chains....

  15. Sustainable Supply Chain Management: State- of- the- Art

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Sustainability is a very vital issue which receives key attention in the media, press, journals, business and academic research arena. Most of the conversation and argument is ambiance the environmental impact that happened on the organizational supply chains. It is mostly regarding how to convert the traditional Supply chain management practices into Sustainable supply chain management (sSCM) system. In this paper we exert our effort to show a state of art regarding s...

  16. Sustainable Fashion Supply Chain: Lessons from H&M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is significantly important for fashion business due to consumers’ increasing awareness of environment. When a fashion company aims to promote sustainability, the main linkage is to develop a sustainable supply chain. This paper contributes to current knowledge of sustainable supply chain in the textile and clothing industry. We first depict the structure of sustainable fashion supply chain including eco-material preparation, sustainable manufacturing, green distribution, green retailing, and ethical consumers based on the extant literature. We study the case of the Swedish fast fashion company, H&M, which has constructed its sustainable supply chain in developing eco-materials, providing safety training, monitoring sustainable manufacturing, reducing carbon emission in distribution, and promoting eco-fashion. Moreover, based on the secondary data and analysis, we learn the lessons of H&M’s sustainable fashion supply chain from the country perspective: (1 the H&M’s sourcing managers may be more likely to select suppliers in the countries with lower degrees of human wellbeing; (2 the H&M’s supply chain manager may set a higher level of inventory in a country with a higher human wellbeing; and (3 the H&M CEO may consider the degrees of human wellbeing and economic wellbeing, instead of environmental wellbeing when launching the online shopping channel in a specific country.

  17. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  18. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE POULTRY SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SHAMSUDDOHA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Now a day, sustainable supply chain is the crucially considerable matter for future focused industries. As a result, attention in supply chain management has increasingly amplified since the 1980s when firms discovered its benefits of mutual relationships within and beyond their own organization. This is why, concern researchers are trying hard to develop new theory or model which might help the corporate sector for achieving sustainability in their supply chains. This kind of reflection can be seen by the number of papers published and in particular by journal since 1980. The objectives of this paper are twofold. First, it offers a literature review on sustainable supply chain management taking papers published in last three decades. Second, it offers a conceptual sustainable supply chain process model in light of triple bottom line theory. The model has been developed by taking in-depth interview of an entrepreneur from a Poultry case industry in Bangladesh.

  19. Supply Chain Management and Sustainability: Procrastinating Integration in Mainstream Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa P. de Brito

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Research has pointed out opportunities and research agendas to integrate sustainability issues with supply chain and operations management. However, we find that it is still not mainstream practice to systematically take a sustainability approach in tackling supply chain and operations management issues. In this paper, we make use of behavioral theory to explain the current lack of integration. We conclude through abductive reasoning that the reasons for procrastinating integration of sustainability in supply chain and operations management research are the conflicting nature of the task and the inherent context, which is the focus on operations rather than environmental or social issues.

  20. Integrating end-user and grid focused batteries and long-term power-to-gas storage for reaching a 100 % renewable energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlusiak, Markus; Breyer, C. [Reiner Lemoine Institut gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents results of modelling cost optimised electricity generation systems for renewable energy shares varying from 0 % to 100 % on an hourly timescale. The model takes into account generation from solar photovoltaics (PV), wind, hydro, biogas and natural gas fuelled power plants. Storage is incorporated as short-term storage in batteries and biogas bladders and long-term storage via renewable power methane (RPM) and biomethane. Gridparity enabled PV-battery systems are taken into account to model electricity end-user behaviour. We use localised hourly solar insolation, wind and hydro power output, and electricity demand data. Results include optimum component sizing as well as levelised cost of electricity (LCOE). Impacts of changing storage technology prices are investigated.

  1. Sustainability in Supply chain management is not enough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Henning de

    2009-01-01

    To be or not to be - sustainable, that is the question. To be sustainable or green, seems to be the new mantra in supply chain management. Nearly every conference and SCS magazine has the topic on the agenda. The topic of sustainability is not new in a supply chain context. For some years Corporate...... Social Responsibility - CSR (child labour, code of conduct, etc.) has been a topic especially in sourcing, but the application of sustainability in an environmental perspective, carbon footprint and so on, is fairly new...

  2. Sustainability in supply chain management: aggregate planning from sustainability perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Türkay, Metin; Saraçoğlu, Öztürk; Arslan, Mehmet Can; Saraçoğlu, O.; Arslan, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain management that considers the flow of raw materials, products and information has become a focal issue in modern manufacturing and service systems. Supply chain management requires effective use of assets and information that has far reaching implications beyond satisfaction of customer demand, flow of goods, services or capital. Aggregate planning, a fundamental decision model in supply chain management, refers to the determination of production, inventory, capacity and labor us...

  3. Sustainability Research: Biofuels, Processes and Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation will talk about sustainability at the EPA, summarily covering high level efforts and focusing in more detail on research in metrics for liquid biofuels and tools to evaluate sustainable processes. The presentation will also briefly touch on a new area of research, t...

  4. SUSTAINABILITY OF SHORT FOOD SUPPLY CHAINS: ANALYSIS OF RAW MATERIAL SUPPLY IN MILAN PUBLIC SCHOOL CATERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D’Anna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand of short food supply chains is becoming more pressing by consumers, especially in the largest school catering. The implementation of the short chain in a large catering company of Milan, is described in this practical contribution. Several aspects of short food chains sustainability: legal, commercial and economic sustainability, hygienic and gastronomic sustainability, are discussed.

  5. Implementation of Sustainability in Ongoing Supply Chain Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørsfeldt, Liliyana Makarowa; Meulengracht Jensen, Peter; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2012-01-01

    The need to take the sustainable agenda beyond its technological outset and include operational and supply chain practices is well-established, but still very little has happened and the supply chain and operational logics have remained largely unaffected. This paper asks why this may be the case...... and investigates what happens in the translation from ambitious strategic goals to operational practices. To do this an exploratory case study is presented detailing the efforts of a large Danish manufacturing company to introduce an ambitious sustainability agenda in its ongoing supply chain operations. The study...... aims to develop a deeper un-derstanding of the, inter-functional coordination and operational practices related to introducing the sustainable agenda in the supply chain. The study points to a lack of tangible environmental performance measurements related to day-to-day practice in the ongoing supply...

  6. Supply Chain Management and Sustainability: Procrastinating Integration in Mainstream Research

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa P. de Brito; Erwin A. van der Laan

    2010-01-01

    textabstractResearch has pointed out opportunities and research agendas to integrate sustainability issues with supply chain and operations management. However, we find that it is still not mainstream practice to systematically take a sustainability approach in tackling supply chain and operations management issues. In this paper, we make use of behavioral theory to explain the current lack of integration. We conclude through abductive reasoning that the reasons for procrastinating integratio...

  7. Plantation Forests for Sustainable Wood Supply and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    With the implementation of Natural Forests Protection Program, wood resource base in China is shifting from naturally grown forests to plantation forests. This paper reviews: 1) The evolution of Chinese decade-long reforestation program and its contribution to sustainable wood supply and development, and 2) impacts of "China's Natural Forest Protection Program and " Fast-Growing and High-Yield Plantation Program in China " on China's wood supply and sustainability. In addition, this paper highlights Chi...

  8. Raw materials potential and long-term raw materials supply in the pit-and-quarry sector: The Niedersachsen experience; Rohstoffpotential sowie Rohstoffsicherung fuer Steine-Erden-Rohstoffe - Erfahrungen in Niedersachsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, A. [Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Bodenforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The contribution outlines the potential of nometallic minerals in Niedersachsen, e.g. gravel and sand, raw materials for brick and gypsum production, and oil shales. Measures taken to ensure long-term supply and the experience gained in this sector are presented. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Beitrag beschaeftigt sich mit dem Potential an Steine-Erden-Rohstoffen in Niedersachsen, wie u.a. Kiese und Sande, Rohstoffe der Ziegelindustrie, Rohstoffe fuer die Gipsindustrie und Oelschiefervorkommen. Zudem werden die Massnahmen und die Erfahrungen bei der Rohstoffsicherung geschildert.

  9. Using Sustainability Metrics and Indicators to Design Sustainable Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability is widely associated with the statement from the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: “… development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs…” Hence, sustainability is abo...

  10. Using Sustainability Metrics and Indicators to Design Sustainable Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability is widely associated with the statement from the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: “… development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs…” Hence, sustainability is abo...

  11. Sustainable Supply Chain Management Programs in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neureuther, Brian D.; O'Neill, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    One of the most difficult challenges for an undergraduate supply chain management program at smaller universities is to create an environment of sustainability. Supply chain management is not at the tip of tongue for many graduating high school students and few undergraduate curriculums require a course in the content area. This research addresses…

  12. Operational modeling of a sustainable gas supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, Jan; Broekhuis, Ton A; van Gemert, Wim J. T.

    2010-01-01

    Biogas production from codigestion of cattle manure and biomass can have a significant contribution to a sustainable gas supply when this gas is upgraded to specifications prescribed for injection into the national gas grid and injected into this grid. In this study, we analyzed such a gas supply ch

  13. Operational modeling of a sustainable gas supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, Jan; Broekhuis, Ton A; van Gemert, Wim J. T.

    2010-01-01

    Biogas production from codigestion of cattle manure and biomass can have a significant contribution to a sustainable gas supply when this gas is upgraded to specifications prescribed for injection into the national gas grid and injected into this grid. In this study, we analyzed such a gas supply

  14. Closed Loop Supply Chains for Sustainable Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    Closed loop supply chains reducing waste, energy consumption and natural resource depletion which all contribute to more sustainable production and products. For mass customization however, the challenges of closed loop supply chains are emphasized by the large variety of inbound end...

  15. Sustainability evaluation of water supply technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit

    - & stormwater harvesting as the most environmentally friendly technology followed by the cases relying on groundwater abstraction. The least favorable case is desalination of seawater. Rain- & stormwater harvesting and desalination have markedly lower environmental impacts in the use stage compared to the base...... the main driver is the limitations of the available resource from the groundwater bodies. The environmental impact of products and systems can be evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) which is a comprehensive and dominant decision support tool capable of evaluating a water system from the cradle...... to the grave. The first aim of this PhD thesis was to assess the environmental impacts of water supply technologies. For this LCA was used to compare the impacts of Copenhagen’s water supply technology of today with relevant cases considered for implementation in future water supply. The importance of placing...

  16. Sustainability metrics for agri-food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaitán Cremaschi, D.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing sustainability in food production requires knowledge about the economic, environmental and social performance of the various stages of agri-food supply chains. An integrated indicator can provide synthetized information about the extent to which food products are sustainably produced and c

  17. Sustainable Supply Chain Design by the P-Graph Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present work proposes a computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains in terms of sustainability metrics by resorting to the P-graph framework. The methodology is an outcome of the collaboration between the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the ...

  18. Sustainable Supply Chain Design by the P-Graph Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present work proposes a computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains in terms of sustainability metrics by resorting to the P-graph framework. The methodology is an outcome of the collaboration between the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the ...

  19. Long-term sustained-released in situ gels of a water-insoluble drug amphotericin B for mycotic arthritis intra-articular administration: preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan-Bin, Guo; Yue, Tian; Ling-Yan, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) was often used in intra-articular injection administration for fungal arthritis, because it could often bring a satisfactory therapeutic efficacy and a minimum systemic toxic side effect. However, because of the multiple operations and the frequent injections, the compliance of the patients was bad. Therefore, to develop a long-term sustained-released preparation of AMB for mycotic arthritis intra-articular administration is of great significance. The purpose of present study was to develop a long-term sustained-released in situ gel of a water-insoluble drug AMB for mycotic arthritis intra-articular administration. Based on the evaluations of the in vitro properties of the formulations, the formulation containing 10% (w/w) ethanol, 15% (w/w) PG, 0.75% (w/w) HA, 5% (w/w) purified soybean oil, 0.03% (w/w) α-tocopherol, 15% (w/w) water and 55% (w/w) glyceryl monooleate was selected as a suitable intra-articular injectable in situ gel drug delivery system for water-insoluble drug AMB. Furthermore, the results of the in vivo study on rabbits showed that the selected formulation was a safe and effective long-term sustained-released intra-articular injectable AMB preparation. Therefore, the presented in situ AMB gel could reduce the frequency of the administration in the AMB treatment of fungal arthritis, and then would get a good patient compliance.

  20. New Perspectives to Sustain Energy Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Cuiping

    2009-01-01

    @@ China should try to free itself of excessive dependence on the world energy market and set up a self-reliant energy structure for the sustainable development of its growing economy. The country's dependence on energy imports has been rising in recent years. According to statistics released by General Administration of Customs,last year, the net crude oil imported by the world's third largest economy was 175 million tons against 189 million tons produced at home. That means for 50 percent of its crude oil demand, China is dependent on foreign markets.This poses a serious challenge to the country's energy security and its sustainable development.

  1. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  2. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  3. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Document Server

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  4. Creating Sustainable Fresh Food Supply Chains through Waste Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Loikkanen, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this empirical paper is to study information sharing in fresh food supply chains, with a specific goal of reducing waste and facilitating sustainable performance. The study focuses on material and information flow issues, specifically on sharing demand and shelf-life data...... in the supply chain structure were needed to speed up the deliveries and ensure shelf availability. The cross-case analysis revealed that improved performance was obtained with parallel changes in information sharing and usage and in material flow. Originality/value – Few studies approach the problem of waste...... and sustainability from an integrated supply chain perspective. This paper links data sharing with the sustainability performance of the supply chain as a whole....

  5. How to manage sustainable supply chain? The issue of maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Rudnicka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of managing sustainability in supply chain seems to be more and more complex. There are many aspects that need to be taken into consideration when planning, implementing and monitoring environmental and social conditions of supply chains. Despite many works, already published, on the concept of sustainable development (SD is seems that the issue of assessment and especially the issue of maturity in the light of the SD concept is still not developed enough. Methods: The general aim of the paper is the analysis of the maturity issue in the context of sustainability. The main objective is to conceptualize the idea of maturity in sustainable supply chain. Beside the literature research the own proposition of theoretical model was described. Results: The article describes the issue of maturity as an element of managing sustainable development in the supply chain. The author presented a theoretical model of the maturity. Moreover the author gave some recommendations how to manage the sustainability issues in supply chain in more mature approach and introduced some useful tools among which are: certification, code of conduct and code of ethics, audits, projects etc. Conclusions: The issue of maturity seems to be very useful for proper understanding the idea of sustainable development in supply chain. The developed model can be used as self-assessment method to check at which level of implementation the idea of SD is analyzed in supply chain. Furthermore, the next phase of the planned research in form of practical verification of the model was advised as well as a research of identification of new factors and tools in analyzed area.

  6. The Present, Mid-Term, and Long-Term Supply Curves for Tellurium; and Updates in the Results from NREL's CdTe PV Module Manufacturing Cost Model (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, M.; Goodrich, A.; Redlinger, M.; Lokanc, M.; Eggert, R.

    2013-09-01

    For those PV technologies that rely upon Te, In, and Ga, first-order observations and calculations hint that there may be resource constraints that could inhibit their successful deployment at a SunShot level. These are only first-order approximations, however, and the possibility for an expansion in global Te, In, and Ga supplies needs to be considered in the event that there are upward revisions in their demand and prices.In this study, we examine the current, mid-term, and long-term prospects of Tellurium (Te) for use in PV. We find that the current global supply base of Te would support <10 GW of annual traditional CdTe PV manufacturing production. But as for the possibility that the supply base for Te might be expanded, after compiling several preliminary cumulative availability curves we find that there may be significant upside potential in the supply base for this element - principally vis a vis increasing demand and higher prices. Primarily by reducing the Tellurium intensity in manufacturing and by increasing the recovery efficiency of Te in Cu refining processes, we calculate that it may prove affordable to PV manufacturers to expand the supply base for Te such that 100 GW, or greater, of annual CdTe PV production is possible in the 2030 - 2050 timeframe.

  7. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lai, Judy; Borgeson, Sam; Coffey, Brian; Azevedo, Ines Lima

    2009-09-01

    In this analysis, the authors projected Japan's energy demand/supply and energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions to 2050. Their analysis of various scenarios indicated that Japan's CO{sub 2} emissions in 2050 could be potentially reduced by 26-58% from the current level (FY 2005). These results suggest that Japan could set a CO{sub 2} emission reduction target for 2050 at between 30% and 60%. In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 60% in 2050 from the present level, Japan will have to strongly promote energy conservation at the same pace as an annual rate of 1.9% after the oil crises (to cut primary energy demand per GDP (TPES/GDP) in 2050 by 60% from 2005) and expand the share of non-fossil energy sources in total primary energy supply in 2050 to 50% (to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions per primary energy demand (CO{sub 2}/TPES) in 2050 by 40% from 2005). Concerning power generation mix in 2050, nuclear power will account for 60%, solar and other renewable energy sources for 20%, hydro power for 10% and fossil-fired generation for 10%, indicating substantial shift away from fossil fuel in electric power supply. Among the mitigation measures in the case of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 60% in 2050, energy conservation will make the greatest contribution to the emission reduction, being followed by solar power, nuclear power and other renewable energy sources. In order to realize this massive CO{sub 2} abatement, however, Japan will have to overcome technological and economic challenges including the large-scale deployment of nuclear power and renewable technologies.

  8. Spational modeling of a sustainable gas supply chain by matching supply and demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof. dr. Wim van Gemert; A.A. Broekhuis; Ir. J. Bekkering

    2012-01-01

    Biogas production from co-digestion of cattle manure and biomass can have a significant contribution to a sustainable gas supply when this gas is upgraded to specifications prescribed for injection into the national gas grid and injected into this grid. In this study we analyzed such a gas supply ch

  9. Halalan Toyyiban Supply Chain The New Insights in Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Emi Normalina; Jaafar, Harlina Suzana; Osman, Muhamad Rahimi; Nasruddin, Faisol

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In today’s highly competitive world scenario, in order for logistics and supply chain firms to be successful, resilient and sustainable, halalan-toyyiban supply chain could be the new insight in assisting the firm. Hence, the purpose of this study is to provide a practical definition for developing an effective supply chain through halalan toyyiban processes and comparing the similarities and differences of the halal term. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is develo...

  10. 外空活动长期可持续性面临的挑战及对策%Challenges Related to Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities and Its Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹玉海; 颜永亮

    2016-01-01

    外空活动长期可持续性是可持续发展概念在外空领域的延伸,所以它与可持续发展概念既有联系也有区别。对比可持续发展原则,外空活动长期可持续性原则应是外空法的一项重要原则,其内涵包括代际公平、代内公平、长期可持续利用和外空环境与外空活动一体化等四个方面。在现有外层环境日益恶化的情形下,强调并践行外空活动长期可持续性原则具有重要的现实意义。目前外空活动长期可持续性所面临的问题包括空间碎片问题、地球静止轨道问题和空间环境污染问题。国际社会正在制定《外空活动长期可持续性准则》,这对解决上述问题发挥很大的作用,但更为重要的是把这一原则规定到《外用条约》中来,或有意推动使其成为一项公认的国际习惯法规则,使其发挥法律规范的作用。%Sincelong-term sustainability of outer space activities is an extension concept of sustainable development in the field of outer space law , there are not only some connections but also a few differences between them .According to the juridical status of the principle of sustainable development , the principle of long-term sustainability of outer space activities should be an important principle in the law of outer space , and contains the following aspects:inter-generation fair;within-generation fair;long-term sustainable use , integration between environment and activities in the outer space .In the case of the existing outer environment worsening , emphasizing and practicing principle of long-term sustainability of outer space activities has important practical significance .Now the challenges related to the long-term sustainability of outer space activities include the issues of space debris ; the increasing decrease in geostationary orbit resources; space pollution .The international community is working on the guidelines of the long-term

  11. Investigating the Sustainability of Kesko’s Grocery Supply Chain: Comparison and Recommendation for Grocery Supply Chain in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate Kesko’s grocery supply chain and find out sustainable practices along it. The main objective of the thesis is to compare Kesko’s sustainable supply chain practices with Vietnamese grocery retailers’ and through which draws out a set of recommendation for the latter. The literature review revisits related terms and concepts, which are retail, supply chain management, sustainability and sustainable supply chain management (SSCM). Also in this part, a SSCM fra...

  12. Embending Sustainability Dynamics in the Lean Construction Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertyesilisik Begum

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The world’s habitat is being deteriorated despite of the precautions taken. Construction industry is among the industries which highly effect the environment adversely not only through its outputs but also through the construction process and its inputs. The main focus in dealing with the reduction of its footprint has been on sustainable building certificates which mainly analyse the output of the construction activies. There is need to analyse the construction supply chain as a whole and to embed sustainability dynamics in construction supply chain management. Lean construction project management contributes to the reduction of the environmental footprint of the construction industry, enabling reduction in waste, and increasing value added activities. For this reason, based on an in depth literature review, this paper analyses and establishes the principles of the integration of the sustainability dynamics into lean construction supply chain management.

  13. Quality, efficiency, and sustainability in the foodservice supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yang; Grunow, Martin

    Consumers have become more and more demanding with regards to food quality, food safety, sustainability, and associated product attributes. Looking at food supply chains from an integrated point of view has therefore become an industry paradigm. The overall aim of this thesis is to contribute...... to the literature with regards to the development of efficient, high-quality, and sustainable food supply chains; especially focusing on integrated methodologies. In this thesis, research is presented on the inclusion of the specifics of the food industry, food engineering related knowledge, and sustainability...... assessment methodology into food supply chain management. This thesis builds on a case from the foodservice industry, which is used throughout the thesis to illustrate the proposed methodologies. As an important part of the food industry, the foodservice industry connects agricultural producers, food...

  14. 长期施肥对不同热量带土壤供氮能力的影响%Influence of Long-term Fertilization on Nitrogen Supply Capacity in Different Thermal Zones Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱霞; 韩晓增; 乔云发; 李晓慧; 王守宇

    2009-01-01

    研究利用中国科学院海伦、栾城、鹰潭农业生态试验站长期定位试验,结合温室盆栽,研究了长期施肥对不同热量带土壤供氮能力的影响.为我国不同热量带下农田土壤的生产潜力,平衡施肥等提供理论依据.结果表明:长期不同施肥土壤全氮、碱解氮和矿质态氮含量的高低顺序均表现为:化肥+有机肥 > 化肥 > 无肥.长期施肥对红壤供氮能力的增加幅度最高,其次为潮褐土,最低为黑土,且长期施肥对土壤供氮能力的增加幅度与土壤所处热量带的有效积温呈显著正相关(P NPK > CK. Long-term fertilization en-hanced the capacity of soil nitrogen supply in different soils with an order of red soil > cinnamon soil > black soil. There was significant positive correlated relationship between the degree of long-term fertilization increased nitrogen supply ca-pacity and the effectively accumulated temperature ( P < 0.05) .In addition,crop biomass of fertilization soil was signifi-cantly higher than no fertilization soil, and the tendency of crop biomass was the same with the tendency of soil nitrogen content. It showed that crop biomass could be chosen as index for evaluating soil nitrogen supplying capacity

  15. Studies of breakeven prices and electricity supply potentials of nuclear fusion by a long-term world energy and environment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Konishi, S.; Fujino, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Okano, K.; Nishio, S.; Yoshida, T.; Hiwatari, R.; Yamaji, K.

    2002-11-01

    In response to social demand, this paper investigates the breakeven price (BP) and potential electricity supply of nuclear fusion energy in the 21st century by means of a world energy and environment model. We set the following objectives in this paper: (i) to reveal the economics of the introduction conditions of nuclear fusion; (ii) to know when tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors are expected to be introduced cost-effectively into future energy systems; (iii) to estimate the share in 2100 of electricity produced by the presently designed reactors that could be economically selected in the year. The model can give in detail the energy and environment technologies and price-induced energy saving, and can illustrate optimal energy supply structures by minimizing the costs of total discounted energy systems at a discount rate of 5%. The following parameters of nuclear fusion were considered: cost of electricity (COE) in the nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and regional nuclear fusion capacity projection. The investigations are carried out for three nuclear fusion projections one of which includes tritium breeding constraints, four future CO2 concentration constraints, and technological assumptions on fossil fuels, nuclear fission, CO2 sequestration, and anonymous innovative technologies. It is concluded that: (1) the BPs are from 65 to 125 mill kW-1 h-1 depending on the introduction year of nuclear fusion under the 550 ppmv CO2 concentration constraints; those of a business-as-usual (BAU) case are from 51 to 68 mill kW-1h-1. Uncertainties resulting from the CO2 concentration constraints and the technological options influenced the BPs by plus/minus some 10 30 mill kW-1h-1, (2) tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (as presently designed, with a COE range around 70 130 mill kW-1h-1) would be favourably introduced into energy systems after 2060 based on the economic criteria under the 450 and 550 ppmv CO2

  16. Sustainable supply chain management through enterprise resource planning (ERP): a model of sustainable computing

    OpenAIRE

    Broto Rauth Bhardwaj

    2015-01-01

    Green supply chain management (GSCM) is a driver of sustainable strategy. This topic is becoming increasingly important for both academia and industry. With the increasing demand for reducing carbon foot prints, there is a need to study the drivers of sustainable development. There is also need for developing the sustainability model. Using resource based theory (RBT) the present model for sustainable strategy has been developed. On the basis of data collected, the key drivers of sustainabili...

  17. Closed Loop Supply Chains for Sustainable Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    Closed loop supply chains reducing waste, energy consumption and natural resource depletion which all contribute to more sustainable production and products. For mass customization however, the challenges of closed loop supply chains are emphasized by the large variety of inbound end-of-life prod......Closed loop supply chains reducing waste, energy consumption and natural resource depletion which all contribute to more sustainable production and products. For mass customization however, the challenges of closed loop supply chains are emphasized by the large variety of inbound end......-of-life products from customers which complicates handling and forecasting. This paper analyses these challenges in the specific context mass customization using theoretical considerations and three case studies....

  18. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  19. Organic production potentials for sustainable local food supply in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Slabe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is presenting the assessment of organic production potentials for sustainable local food supply. Using the results of extensive field research among organic farmers, we analyzed the existing organic production for the market by the type of products and marketing channels. We defined the main strengths and weaknesses critical to the development of the Slovenian market for organic food, and highlighted spatial differences. We estimate that, especially in the organic production, there is a large untapped potential for sustainable local food supply in Slovenia.

  20. Protein-pacing caloric-restriction enhances body composition similarly in obese men and women during weight loss and sustains efficacy during long-term weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    /day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P......-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men......) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p diet....

  1. Maintenance of C sinks sustains enhanced C assimilation during long-term exposure to elevated [CO2] in Mojave Desert shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Ebbets, Allison L; Evans, R Dave; Tissue, David T; Nogués, Salvador; van Gestel, Natasja; Payton, Paxton; Ebbert, Volker; Adams, Williams W; Nowak, Robert S; Smith, Stanley D

    2011-10-01

    During the first few years of elevated atmospheric [CO(2)] treatment at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility, photosynthetic downregulation was observed in desert shrubs grown under elevated [CO(2)], especially under relatively wet environmental conditions. Nonetheless, those plants maintained increased A (sat) (photosynthetic performance at saturating light and treatment [CO(2)]) under wet conditions, but to a much lesser extent under dry conditions. To determine if plants continued to downregulate during long-term exposure to elevated [CO(2)], responses of photosynthesis to elevated [CO(2)] were examined in two dominant Mojave Desert shrubs, the evergreen Larrea tridentata and the drought-deciduous Ambrosia dumosa, during the eighth full growing season of elevated [CO(2)] treatment at the NDFF. A comprehensive suite of physiological processes were collected. Furthermore, we used C labeling of air to assess carbon allocation and partitioning as measures of C sink activity. Results show that elevated [CO(2)] enhanced photosynthetic performance and plant water status in Larrea, especially during periods of environmental stress, but not in Ambrosia. δ(13)C analyses indicate that Larrea under elevated [CO(2)] allocated a greater proportion of newly assimilated C to C sinks than Ambrosia. Maintenance by Larrea of C sinks during the dry season partially explained the reduced [CO(2)] effect on leaf carbohydrate content during summer, which in turn lessened carbohydrate build-up and feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. δ(13)C results also showed that in a year when plant growth reached the highest rates in 5 years, 4% (Larrea) and 7% (Ambrosia) of C in newly emerging organs were remobilized from C that was assimilated and stored for at least 2 years prior to the current study. Thus, after 8 years of continuous exposure to elevated [CO(2)], both desert perennials maintained their photosynthetic capacities under elevated [CO(2)]. We conclude that C storage, remobilization

  2. Sustainable water supply systems in India: The role of financial institutions and ethical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowda Krishne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is a scarce resource and an important basic necessity for the human survival. The quantity of potable water on earth is limited and its availability per person is reducing day by day due to increase in global population and damage to environment. Though water available in nature is free, sizeable investment is needed in order to supply water to the people at their doorsteps with required quality. This paper deals with the role of financial institutions in the balanced distribution of water for the public, the related problems with various regulatory instruments, and ethical perspectives for efficient utilization of this scarce resource through internal control aimed at long term sustainability.

  3. Teaching the Social Issues of a Sustainable Food Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the pressing need for humans to limit their consumption to more supportable levels, this study investigated how one social studies teacher taught the social issues associated with a sustainable food supply. This article discusses what the teacher's curricular, pedagogical, and assessment strategies were in engaging students with…

  4. Sustained Improvement of Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure after Long-Term Rosuvastatin Treatment in Patients with Inflammatory Joint Diseases: Results from the RORA-AS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Ikdahl

    Full Text Available Patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD have a high prevalence of hypertension and increased arterial stiffness. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of long-term rosuvastatin treatment on arterial stiffness, measured by augmentation index (AIx and aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV, and blood pressure (BP in IJD patients with established atherosclerosis.Eighty-nine statin naïve IJD patients with carotid atherosclerotic plaque(s (rheumatoid arthritis n = 55, ankylosing spondylitis n = 23, psoriatic arthritis n = 11 received rosuvastatin for 18 months to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal ≤1.8 mmol/L. Change in AIx (ΔAIx, aPWV (ΔaPWV, systolic BP (ΔsBP and diastolic BP (ΔdBP from baseline to study end was assessed by paired samples t-tests. Linear regression was applied to evaluate associations between cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, rheumatic disease specific variables and medication, and ΔAIx, ΔaPWV, ΔsBP and ΔdBP.AIx, aPWV, sBP and dBP were significantly reduced from baseline to study end. The mean (95%CI changes were: ΔAIx: -0.34 (-0.03, -0.65% (p = 0.03, ΔaPWV: -1.69 (-0.21, -3.17m/s2 (p = 0.03, ΔsBP: -5.27 (-1.61, -8.93mmHg (p = 0.004 and ΔdBP -2.93 (-0.86, -5.00mmHg (p = 0.01. In linear regression models, ∆aPWV was significantly correlated with ΔsBP and ΔdBP (for all: p<0.001.There is an unmet need of studies evaluating CVD prevention in IJD patients. We have shown for the first time that long-term intensive lipid lowering with rosuvastatin improved arterial stiffness and induced a clinically significant BP reduction in patients with IJD. These improvements were linearly correlated and may represent novel insight into the pleiotropic effects by statins.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01389388.

  5. Creating Sustainable Fresh Food Supply Chains through Waste Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Loikkanen, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this empirical paper is to study information sharing in fresh food supply chains, with a specific goal of reducing waste and facilitating sustainable performance. The study focuses on material and information flow issues, specifically on sharing demand and shelf-life data....... Design/methodology/approach – This work has been designed as an exploratory case study in three fresh food supply chains, milk, fresh fish, and fresh poultry, in the Nordic countries. The cases are based on interviews and data from the databases of the companies involved. Each case focuses on analyzing...... uses of shared information to create a sustainable fresh food supply chain. Findings –The performance of the perishable food chain can be improved by more efficient information sharing. The key to improved operations is how and for which purposes the shared data should be used. In addition, changes...

  6. Long-Term Sustainability of Evidence-Based Prevention Interventions and Community Coalitions Survival: a Five and One-Half Year Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Knowlton; Collins, David; Shamblen, Steve; Kenworthy, Tara; Wandersman, Abraham

    2017-07-01

    This study examines (1) coalition survival, (2) prevalence of evidence-based prevention interventions (EBPIs) to reduce substance abuse implemented as part of the Tennessee Strategic Prevention Framework (SPF) State Incentive Grant (SIG), (3) EBPI sustainability, and (4) factors that predict EBPI sustainability. Secondary data were collected on 27 SPF SIG-funded coalitions and 88 EBPI and non-EBPI implementations. Primary data were collected by a telephone interview/web survey five and one-half years after the SPF SIG ended. Results from secondary data show that 25 of the 27 coalitions survived beyond the SPF SIG for one to five and one-half years; 19 coalitions (70%) were still active five and one-half years later. Further, 88 EBPIs and non-EBPIs were implemented by 27 county SPF SIG coalitions. Twenty-one (21) of 27 coalitions (78%) implemented one to three EBPIs, totaling 37 EBPI implementations. Based on primary survey data on 29 of the 37 EBPI implementations, 28 EBPIs (97%) were sustained between two and five and one-half years while 22 EBPI implementations (76%) were sustained for five and one-half years. When controlling for variability among coalitions (nesting of EBPIs in coalitions), increases in data resources (availability of five types of prevention data) was a strong predictor of length of EBPI sustainability. Positive change in extramural funding resources and level of expertise during SPF SIG implementation, as well as level of coalition formalization at the end of the SPF SIG predicted EBPI sustainability length. One intervention attribute (trialability) also predicted length of sustainability. Implications are discussed.

  7. Protein-pacing caloric-restriction enhances body composition similarly in obese men and women during weight loss and sustains efficacy during long-term weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng;

    2016-01-01

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in ob......Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein....../day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P...... and women had similar reductions (p weight (10%), TBF (19%), ABF (25%), VAT (33%), glucose (7%-12%), insulin (40%), leptin (>50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14...

  8. SHORT, MEDIUM AND LONG-TERM OPPORTUNITIES AND NEEDS FOR RESEARCH FOR SUSTAINABLE FARM ANIMAL BREEDING AND REPRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kompan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The European landscape is characterised by a range of diverse farming systems. These relate not only to varied geographical environments, but also to different social and cultural environments for farming and food production. This diversity is unique to Europe and underlines the importance of European agriculture. Animal breeding is a knowledge intensive sector, and for the future competitiveness of animal breeding and animal production, high level European research is indispensable. The preparation of Strategic Research Agenda were in a full process: opportunities and problems, gaps, short, medium and long term opportunities and needs for research. Each country experts from different group have opportunity to help define his country dimension of animal breeding in its regional and country context, and also in relation to European and global developments. The Farm Animal Breeding and Reproduction European Technology Platform, brings together a wide range of interested parties to produce a vision of how livestock breeding might develop in the next 20 years, and constitutes the first step in achieving that vision.

  9. Sustainable Logistics Network Modeling for Enterprise Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of the study about green logistics, sustainable supply chain management (SSCM has appeared as a new concept in current economic circumstance. This paper studies the sustainability optimization of enterprise logistics network from a strategic perspective and proposes a multiobjective sustainable logistics optimization model considering three dimensions of sustainability: economy, environment, and society. In this model, the environment factor was measured with a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method based on Chinese Life Cycle Database (CLCD, while for social factors, Sustainability Reporting Guidelines (GRI are utilized to quantify the social performance. Moreover, the model was solved with an adapted version of the ε-constraint method named augment constraint algorithm (AUGMENCON through GAMS software. The numerical experiment results of a computer manufacturer supply chain show that the proposed model is able to integrate all dimensions of sustainability and simultaneously prove the capability of AUGMENCON in providing a set of trade-off solutions for the decision makers to make different decisions under different environment and social requirements.

  10. The essential value of long-term experimental data for hydrology and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Carey, Sean K.; McNamara, James P.; Laudon, Hjalmar; Soulsby, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Observations and data from long-term experimental watersheds are the foundation of hydrology as a geoscience. They allow us to benchmark process understanding, observe trends and natural cycles, and are prerequisites for testing predictive models. Long-term experimental watersheds also are places where new measurement technologies are developed. These studies offer a crucial evidence base for understanding and managing the provision of clean water supplies, predicting and mitigating the effects of floods, and protecting ecosystem services provided by rivers and wetlands. They also show how to manage land and water in an integrated, sustainable way that reduces environmental and economic costs.

  11. The Long-Term Impact of an Education for Sustainability Course on Israeli Science and Technology Teachers' Pro-Environment Awareness, Commitment and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, Anat; Loria, Yahavit

    2015-01-01

    The impact of an Education for Sustainability (EfS) course for science and technology junior high school teachers on the intentional and actual environmental behaviour of participants was studied by researching the EfS implementation of 13 science and technology teachers within their family, community, and work environment. The research was…

  12. The Long-Term Impact of an Education for Sustainability Course on Israeli Science and Technology Teachers' Pro-Environment Awareness, Commitment and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, Anat; Loria, Yahavit

    2015-01-01

    The impact of an Education for Sustainability (EfS) course for science and technology junior high school teachers on the intentional and actual environmental behaviour of participants was studied by researching the EfS implementation of 13 science and technology teachers within their family, community, and work environment. The research was…

  13. Sustained increase of spontaneous input and spike transfer in the CA3-CA1 pathway following long term potentiation in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar eHerreras

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Long term potentiation (LTP is commonly used to study synaptic plasticity but the associated changes in the spontaneous activity of individual neurons or the computational properties of neural networks in vivo remain largely unclear. The multisynaptic origin of spontaneous spikes makes difficult estimating the impact of a particular potentiated input. Accordingly, we adopted an approach that isolates pathway-specific postsynaptic activity from raw local field potentials (LFPs in the rat hippocampus in order to study the effects of LTP on ongoing spike transfer between cell pairs in the CA3-CA1 pathway. CA1 Schaffer-specific LFPs elicited by spontaneous clustered firing of CA3 pyramidal cells involved a regular succession of elementary micro-field-EPSPs (gamma-frequency that fired spikes in CA1 units. LTP increased the amplitude but not the frequency of these ongoing excitatory quanta. Also, the proportion of Schaffer-driven spikes in both CA1 pyramidal cells and interneurons increased in a cell-specific manner only in previously connected CA3-CA1 cell pairs, i.e., when the CA3 pyramidal cell had shown pre-LTP significant correlation with firing of a CA1 unit and potentiated spike-triggered average of Schaffer LFPs following LTP. Moreover, LTP produced subtle reorganization of presynaptic CA3 cell assemblies. These findings show effective enhancement of pathway specific ongoing activity which leads to increased spike transfer in potentiated segments of a network. These indicate that plastic phenomena induced by external protocols may intensify spontaneous information flow across specific channels as proposed in transsynaptic propagation of plasticity and synfire chain hypotheses that may be the substrate for different types of memory involving multiple brain structures.

  14. Sustained increase of spontaneous input and spike transfer in the CA3-CA1 pathway following long-term potentiation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ruiz, Antonio; Makarov, Valeri A; Herreras, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is commonly used to study synaptic plasticity but the associated changes in the spontaneous activity of individual neurons or the computational properties of neural networks in vivo remain largely unclear. The multisynaptic origin of spontaneous spikes makes it difficult to estimate the impact of a particular potentiated input. Accordingly, we adopted an approach that isolates pathway-specific postsynaptic activity from raw local field potentials (LFPs) in the rat hippocampus in order to study the effects of LTP on ongoing spike transfer between cell pairs in the CA3-CA1 pathway. CA1 Schaffer-specific LFPs elicited by spontaneous clustered firing of CA3 pyramidal cells involved a regular succession of elementary micro-field-EPSPs (gamma-frequency) that fired spikes in CA1 units. LTP increased the amplitude but not the frequency of these ongoing excitatory quanta. Also, the proportion of Schaffer-driven spikes in both CA1 pyramidal cells and interneurons increased in a cell-specific manner only in previously connected CA3-CA1 cell pairs, i.e., when the CA3 pyramidal cell had shown pre-LTP significant correlation with firing of a CA1 unit and potentiated spike-triggered average (STA) of Schaffer LFPs following LTP. Moreover, LTP produced subtle reorganization of presynaptic CA3 cell assemblies. These findings show effective enhancement of pathway-specific ongoing activity which leads to increased spike transfer in potentiated segments of a network. They indicate that plastic phenomena induced by external protocols may intensify spontaneous information flow across specific channels as proposed in transsynaptic propagation of plasticity and synfire chain hypotheses that may be the substrate for different types of memory involving multiple brain structures.

  15. Sustainable supply chain management: Review and research opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer Gupta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions likely pose serious threat to the stability of our environment; immediate actions are required to change the way the earth’s resources are consumed. Among the many approaches to mitigation of environmental deterioration being considered, the processes for designing, sourcing, producing and distributing products in global markets play a central role. Considerable research effort is being devoted to understanding how organisational initiatives and government policies can be structured to facilitate incorporation of sustainability into design and management of entire supply chain. In this paper, we review the current state of academic research in sustainable supply chain management, and provide a discussion of future direction and research opportunities in this field. We develop an integrative framework summarising the existing literature under four broad categories: (i strategic considerations; (ii decisions at functional interfaces; (iii regulation and government policies; and (iv integrative models and decision support tools. We aim to provide managers and industry practitioners with a nuanced understanding of issues and trade-offs involved in making decisions related to sustainable supply chain management. We conclude the paper by discussing environmental initiatives in India and the relevance of sustainability discussions in the context of the Indian economy.

  16. Assessing Tourists’ Preferences for Recreational Trips in National and Natural Parks as a Premise for Long-Term Sustainable Management Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana E. Dumitras

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism management plans rely on relevant and consistent information about factors that can influence the decision to visit a protected area. This paper uses the choice experiment method to investigate tourists’ preferences with regard to recreational trip characteristics in national and natural parks in Romania. An on-site survey questionnaire was administered to visitors. The multinomial logit model was employed to investigate the preference orderings of the identified groups of recreational users. Overall, results indicate that tourists gain benefits after visiting the parks. Main preference differences were found for information sources and location of campsites. Visitors who stated that the park was the main trip destination were willing to have access to more information sources, the marks on trails being insufficient. Camping is preferred only in organized places, expressing the concern for environmental protection. The results of this study have management implications, highlighting the importance of assessing tourists’ preferences as a foundation for developing sustainable tourism strategies.

  17. Long-term study of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinogenesis in sheep with marginal vs. sufficient nutritional selenium supply: results from computed tomography, pathology, immunohistochemistry, JSRV-PCR and lung biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humann-Ziehank, Esther; Renko, Kostja; Bruegmann, Michael L; Devi, Vemuri Rama; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Andreae, Arnim; Ganter, Martin

    2013-10-01

    The impact of selenium (Se) in carcinogenesis is still debatable due to inconsistent results of observational studies, recent suspicion of diabetic side effects and e.g. dual roles of glutathione peroxidases (GPx). Previously, our group introduced long-term studies on lung carcinogenesis using the jaagtsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) induced ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) as an innovative animal model. The present report describes the results of sufficient (0.2 mg Se/kg dry weight (dw)) vs. marginal (CT) evaluation of lung cancer progression, final pathological examination, evidence of pro-viral JSRV-DNA in lung, lymph nodes and broncho-alveolar lavage cells as well as biochemical analysis of Se, GPx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity in lung tissue were recorded. Additionally, immunohistochemical determination of GPx1 expression in unaffected and neoplastic lung cells was implemented. The feeding regime caused significant differences in Se concentration and GPx1 activity in lung tissue between groups, whereas TrxR activity remained unaffected. JSRV was evident in broncho-alveolar lavage cells, lung tissue and lung lymph nodes. Quarterly executed CT could not demonstrate differences in lung cancer proliferation intensity. Necropsy and histopathology substantiated CT findings. Immunohistochemical analysis of GPx1 in lung tissue suggested a coherency of GPx1 immunolabelling intensity in dependence of tumour size. It was concluded that the model proved to be suitable for long-term studies of lung cancer proliferation including the impact of modifiable nutritional factors. Proliferation of OPA was unaffected by marginal vs. sufficient nutritional Se supply.

  18. Energy supply options for climate change mitigation and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobran, Flavio

    2010-09-15

    Modern society is dependent on fossil fuels for its energy needs, but their combustion is producing emissions of greenhouse gases that cause global warming. If these emissions remain unconstrained they risk of producing significant impacts on humanity and ecosystems. Replacement of fossil fuels with alternative energy sources can stabilize anthropogenic global warming and thus reduce the climate change impacts. The deployment of alternative energy supply technologies should be based on objectives that are consistent with sustainability indicators and incorporate quantitative risk assessment multiattribute utility decision methodologies capable of ascertaining effective future energy supply options.

  19. Vision 2050: sustainable energy supply and use in Switzerland; Vision 2050: Nachhaltige Energieversorgung und Energienutzung in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M.; Brodmann, U. [Factor Consulting und Management AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Ott, W. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This executive summary for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE summarises the results of a study carried out on the topic of how long-term strategies for Swiss energy policy. can be developed. A proposed series of studies is examined that is to show how Switzerland can find the way to a sustainable energy supplies and their sustainable use by the year 2050. Research areas are defined, particularly in the technical, behavioural and political sectors. Technical potentials in several areas, strategies and instruments are looked at, as is the social acceptance of proposed measures. Also, models for the analysis of economic effects are examined. Sustainability indicators and targets are reviewed, as are the benefits of developing strategies as early as possible. The report is completed with recommendations for further action.

  20. The regulatory T cells induction by epicutaneous immunotherapy is sustained and mediates long-term protection from eosinophilic disorders in peanut-sensitized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioszeghy, V; Mondoulet, L; Dhelft, V; Ligouis, M; Puteaux, E; Dupont, C; Benhamou, P-H

    2014-06-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy favours immune deviation from a Th2 to a Th1 response and increases the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) of sensitized mice decreases the clinical and the allergen-specific Th2 responses and increases local and peripheral Foxp3(+) Tregs. To investigate the role of Tregs in EPIT and characterize their phenotype and maintenance following EPIT. Tregs were investigated using in vivo depletion or adoptive transfer into BALB/c mice. Tregs were depleted using anti-CD25 antibody injection during EPIT, and allergen-specific responses were compared with Sham, EPIT alone and naïve mice. To demonstrate that Tregs can mediate protection by their own, and to study their maintenance following the end of EPIT, CD25(+) CD4(+) Tregs isolated from mice just after or 8 weeks after EPIT were transferred into peanut-sensitized mice. Foxp3-IRES-mRFP mice were transferred with EPIT-induced Tregs to analyse the induction of host Tregs. The anti-CD25 antibody injection to EPIT mice abrogated the induction of Tregs in spleen and the expression of Foxp3 in oesophagus. This resulted in levels of peanut-induced eosinophilic infiltration in oesophagus similar to Sham and significantly higher than EPIT. Whereas the transfer of Tregs from Sham-treated mice demonstrated no effect, the transfer of Tregs isolated just after EPIT prevented peanut-induced eosinophil infiltration and eotaxin expression and induced Foxp3 in oesophagus. The transfer of Tregs isolated 8 weeks after EPIT suppressed allergen-specific responses as efficiently as did Tregs isolated just after EPIT and increased spleen Foxp3(+) CD25(+) CD4(+) cells similarly. The use of reporter mice demonstrated an increase in host Tregs. These results confirm the Tregs-mediated mechanism of EPIT and demonstrate the persistence of efficient Tregs during a long period of time after treatment cessation. This suggests that EPIT induces long-term tolerance in peanut

  1. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  2. Themes and challenges in making supply chains socially sustainable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Maisam

    2014-01-01

    holistic view of the pattern of currently discussed themes and challenges may be beneficial in increasing the absorptive capacity of industrial and business practitioners when they design and operationalize innovative strategies in developing sustainable supply chains. Originality/value This paper may......Purpose Purpose of this paper is to explore and classify pattern of the currently discussed themes and challenges in making supply chains socially sustainable. Design/methodology/approach The methodology was based on a systematic review of the existing literature in order to explore what major...... themes and challenges have been discussed as well as the significant gaps where opportunities for further research can be found. Findings In total five categories of themes were identified, namely goods/service-centric, human-centric, organization-centric, corporate-centric, and management...

  3. Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saleem H.; Giurco, Damien; Arndt, Nicholas; Nickless, Edmund; Brown, Graham; Demetriades, Alecos; Durrheim, Ray; Enriquez, Maria Amélia; Kinnaird, Judith; Littleboy, Anna; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Salem, Janet; Schodde, Richard; Schneider, Gabi; Vidal, Olivier; Yakovleva, Natalia

    2017-03-01

    Successful delivery of the United Nations sustainable development goals and implementation of the Paris Agreement requires technologies that utilize a wide range of minerals in vast quantities. Metal recycling and technological change will contribute to sustaining supply, but mining must continue and grow for the foreseeable future to ensure that such minerals remain available to industry. New links are needed between existing institutional frameworks to oversee responsible sourcing of minerals, trajectories for mineral exploration, environmental practices, and consumer awareness of the effects of consumption. Here we present, through analysis of a comprehensive set of data and demand forecasts, an interdisciplinary perspective on how best to ensure ecologically viable continuity of global mineral supply over the coming decades.

  4. Flexible procurement systems is key to supply chain sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Surajit Bag

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this dynamic business environment, manufacturers are focusing primarily on delivery performance and competitive pricing to win orders. It is essential that manufacturers adopt flexible procurement systems (FPSs) in such an uncertain environment for business sustainability.Objectives: The purpose of the study is to identify the elements of FPSs and model the interrelationships between elements of FPSs and, finally, to understand how FPSs are linked with supply chain sustainabili...

  5. Productivity and sustainability of rainfed wheat-soybean system in the North China Plain: results from a long-term experiment and crop modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Wang, Daozhong; Guo, Xisheng; Yang, Taiming; Oenema, Oene

    2015-12-02

    A quantitative understanding of yield response to water and nutrients is key to improving the productivity and sustainability of rainfed cropping systems. Here, we quantified the effects of rainfall, fertilization (NPK) and soil organic amendments (with straw and manure) on yields of a rainfed wheat-soybean system in the North China Plain (NCP), using 30-years' field experimental data (1982-2012) and the simulation model-AquaCrop. On average, wheat and soybean yields were 5 and 2.5 times higher in the fertilized treatments than in the unfertilized control (CK), respectively. Yields of fertilized treatments increased and yields of CK decreased over time. NPK + manure increased yields more than NPK alone or NPK + straw. The additional effect of manure is likely due to increased availability of K and micronutrients. Wheat yields were limited by rainfall and can be increased through soil mulching (15%) or irrigation (35%). In conclusion, combined applications of fertilizer NPK and manure were more effective in sustaining high crop yields than recommended fertilizer NPK applications. Manure applications led to strong accumulation of NPK and relatively low NPK use efficiencies. Water deficiency in wheat increased over time due to the steady increase in yields, suggesting that the need for soil mulching increases.

  6. The Effect of a Femoral Fracture Sustained before Skeletal Maturity on Bone Mineral Density: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Kettunen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. The possible effect of pediatric femoral fractures on the bone mineral density (BMD is largely unknown. We conducted a study to investigate BMD in adults who had sustained a femoral shaft fracture in childhood treated with skeletal traction. Materials and Methods. Forty-four adults, who had had a femoral fracture before skeletal maturity, were reexamined on average 21 (range 11.4 years after treatment. Our follow-up study included a questionnaire, a clinical examination, length and angle measurements of the lower extremities from follow-up radiographs, and a DEXA examination with regional BMD values obtained for both legs separately. Results. At follow-up femoral varus-valgus (P=0.001 and ante-/recurvatum (P=0.001 angles were slightly larger in the injured lower-limb compared to the contralateral limb. The mean BMD of the entire injured lower-limb was lower than that of the noninjured (1.323 g/cm2 versus 1.346 g/cm2, P=0.003. Duration of traction was the only factor in multiple linear regression analysis that was positively correlated with the BMD discrepancy between the injured and noninjured lower-limb explaining about 17% of its variation. Conclusion. The effect of a femoral fracture sustained during growth is small even in patients treated with traction.

  7. Building sustainable supply chains: consumer choice or direct management?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebditch, David; Blackmore, Emma

    2012-06-15

    Putting a 'carbon label' on products to show how much carbon dioxide is emitted during their production, transport and disposal has been heralded as a powerful route to sustainability within companies' supply chains. Several leading firms have joined the Carbon Trust carbon labelling scheme over the past five years, including UK-based retail giant Tesco, which as early as 2007 promised to use carbon labels on all its products. But earlier this year, the multinational said it was dropping carbon labels and instead directly managing its supply chains. Many other companies are similarly choosing direct management over consumer choice as the most effective route to emission reductions. In so doing, they are shouldering greater responsibility for the emissions and impacts of their supply chains. But environmental concerns must not be allowed to trump development needs and companies must not unfairly disadvantage smaller-scale producers in developing countries.

  8. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  9. Indirect potable reuse: a sustainable water supply alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-03-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  10. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed. PMID:19440440

  11. Going above and beyond: How sustainability culture and entrepreneurial orientation drive social sustainability supply chain practice adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Donna; McCarthy, Lucy; McGrath, Paul; Claudy, Marius C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - This paper examines what drives the adoption of different social sustainability supply chain practices. Research has shown certain factors drive the adoption of environmental sustainability practices but few focus on social supply chain practices; delineate which practices are adopted ; or what drives their adoption . We examine the facilitative role of sustainability culture to explain the adoption basic social sustainability supply chain practices, consisting of monitoring and man...

  12. Effect of crop residue harvest on long-term crop yield, soil erosion, and carbon balance: tradeoffs for a sustainable bioenergy feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, Jay S.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2010-08-26

    Agricultural residues are a potential feedstock for bioenergy production, if residue harvest can be done sustainably. The relationship between crop residue harvest, soil erosion, crop yield and carbon balance was modeled with the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator/ Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) using a factorial design. Four crop rotations (winter wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – sunflower [Helianthus annuus]; spring wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – canola [Brassica napus]; corn [Zea mays L.] – soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]; and cotton [Gossypium hirsutum] – peanut [Arachis hypogaea]) were simulated at four US locations each, under different topographies (0-10% slope), and management practices [crop residue removal rates (0-75%), conservation practices (no till, contour cropping, strip cropping, terracing)].

  13. Sustained safety and efficacy of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres: long-term follow-up in a 134-patient cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, Robert J.; Minocha, Jeet; Memon, Khairuddin; Riaz, Ahsun; Gates, Vanessa L.; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Omary, Reed; Salem, Riad [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-03-15

    To validate our initial pilot study and confirm sustained safety and tumor response of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres. We hypothesized that for the same planned tissue dose, the increase in number of glass microspheres (decayed to the second week of their allowable shelf-life) administered for the same absorbed dose would result in better tumor distribution of the microspheres without causing additional adverse events. Between June 2007 and January 2010, 134 patients underwent radioembolization with extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres; data from 84 new patients were combined with data from our 50-patient pilot study cohort. Baseline and follow-up imaging and laboratory data were obtained 1 and 3 months after therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Clinical and biochemical toxicities were prospectively captured and categorized according to the Common Terminology Criteria. Response in the index lesion was assessed using WHO and EASL guidelines. The mean delivered radiation dose was 123 Gy to the target liver tissue. The mean increase in number of microspheres with this approach compared to standard {sup 90}Y glass microsphere dosimetry was 103 %, corresponding to an increase from 3.84 to 7.78 million microspheres. Clinical toxicities included fatigue (89 patients, 66 %), abdominal pain (49 patients, 36.6 %), and nausea/vomiting (25 patients, 18.7 %). Grade 3/4 bilirubin toxicity was seen in three patients (2 %). Two (1 %) of the initial 50-patient cohort showed gastroduodenal ulcers; gastroduodenal ulcers were not seen in any of the subsequent 84 patients. According to WHO and EASL guidelines, response rates were 48 % and 57 %, respectively, and 21 % demonstrated a complete EASL response. This study showed sustained safety and efficacy of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres in a larger, 134-patient cohort. The increase in number of microspheres administered theoretically resulted in better tumor distribution of the

  14. Effects of Long-term Fertilization on Phosphorus Supply Capacity and Availability in Black Soil%长期施肥对黑土供磷能力及磷素有效性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣; 韩晓增; 宋春; 梁尧; 丁雪丽

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the effects of long-term fertilization on phosphorus supply capacity, phosphorus fractions transformation in black soil. [Method] The soil samples of pot experiment were collected from a long-term field experiment which carried on Hailun Agricultural Ecology Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Experimental treatments included without fertilizer application ( CK), applying chemical nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer (NP), and applying N and P fertilizer and organic manure ( NPM). Phosphorus fractions transformation during biological depletion was studied by Hedley' s P fractionation method. [ Result] Compared with no fertilizer application, applying chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer with organic manure could increase contents of different forms of phosphorus. The biological depletion pot experiment showed that plant biomass in NPM was 31.72% higher than NP and 54.65% higher than CK. The amounts of plant P uptake in NPM were 1.7 and 2. 1 times higher than those of NP and CK soils, respectively. The concentrations of resin-P in NPM only decreased 0. 85% , which was much lower than that of CK and NP after two successive growing seasons. [Conclusion] Long-term application of chemical fertilizer with organic manure can maintain a high level of reactive P content, improve soil Phosphorus supply capacity and productivity in the agroecosystem.%[目的]研究长期施肥后黑土供磷能力、磷素形态的变化.[方法]利用采自海伦农田生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站长期定位试验地的无肥(CK)、化肥(NP)、化肥配施有机肥( NPM)3个施肥处理黑土进行生物耗竭盆栽试验,并用Hedley方法对土壤磷素形态进行研究.[结果]与长期不施肥处理相比,施化肥与化肥配施有机肥均能明显增加土壤各形态磷素;与无肥处理土壤相比,化肥有机肥配施处理土壤与化肥处理土壤植株的生物量增幅分别为31.72%和54.65%;植

  15. Identifying breakthrough technologies for the production of basic chemicals. A long term view on the sustainable production of ammonia, olefins and aromatics in the European region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, J.; Van Lieshout, M.; Croezen, H.

    2012-01-15

    The European Commission's Roadmap for a competitive and low carbon economy in 2050 indicates that greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in all sectors should be significantly reduced to meet the European Union (EU) objective of 80 to 95% greenhouse gas emission reductions by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The European Commission indicated in the Roadmap that the EU's industrial sectors should reduce emissions by 83 to 87% domestically by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The objective of this study is to explore breakthrough abatement technologies in three processes in the European chemical industry that can considerably contribute to achieving the required greenhouse gas emission reductions. In this context we have assessed the processes for the production of: (1) Ammonia; (2) Olefins; (3) Aromatics (BTX). For all three processes possible breakthrough abatement technologies were found, allowing for reductions in GHG emissions varying between 50 and 100% compared to the conventional processes. Our finding regarding the chemical industry and our earlier findings regarding options in the steel, cement and pulp and paper industries show that promising breakthrough abatement technologies are available for European energy-intensive industries to contribute to a low-carbon economy. However, large scale deployment requires an integrated EU industry and energy policy allowing for a resource efficient and sustainable use of available biomass, CCS storage capacity and renewable energy capacity.

  16. Long-term trends in tourism climate index scores for 40 stations across Iran: the role of climate change and influence on tourism sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Yousefi, Robabe; Fitchett, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    Tourism is a rapidly growing international sector and relies intrinsically on an amenable climate to attract visitors. Climate change is likely to influence the locations preferred by tourists and the time of year of peak travel. This study investigates the effect of climate change on the Tourism Climate Index (TCI) for Iran. The paper first calculates the monthly TCI for 40 cities across Iran for each year from 1961 to 2010. Changes in the TCI over the study period for each of the cities are then explored. Increases in TCI are observed for at least one station in each month, whilst for some months no decreases occurred. For October, the maximum of 45% of stations demonstrated significant changes in TCI, whilst for December only 10% of stations demonstrated change. The stations Kashan, Orumiyeh, Shahrekord, Tabriz, Torbat-e-Heidarieh and Zahedan experienced significant increases in TCI for over 6 months. The beginning of the change in TCI is calculated to have occurred from 1970 to 1980 for all stations. Given the economic dependence on oil exports, the development of sustainable tourism in Iran is of importance. This critically requires the identification of locations most suitable for tourism, now and in the future, to guide strategic investment.

  17. Long-term trends in tourism climate index scores for 40 stations across Iran: the role of climate change and influence on tourism sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Yousefi, Robabe; Fitchett, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Tourism is a rapidly growing international sector and relies intrinsically on an amenable climate to attract visitors. Climate change is likely to influence the locations preferred by tourists and the time of year of peak travel. This study investigates the effect of climate change on the Tourism Climate Index (TCI) for Iran. The paper first calculates the monthly TCI for 40 cities across Iran for each year from 1961 to 2010. Changes in the TCI over the study period for each of the cities are then explored. Increases in TCI are observed for at least one station in each month, whilst for some months no decreases occurred. For October, the maximum of 45 % of stations demonstrated significant changes in TCI, whilst for December only 10 % of stations demonstrated change. The stations Kashan, Orumiyeh, Shahrekord, Tabriz, Torbat-e-Heidarieh and Zahedan experienced significant increases in TCI for over 6 months. The beginning of the change in TCI is calculated to have occurred from 1970 to 1980 for all stations. Given the economic dependence on oil exports, the development of sustainable tourism in Iran is of importance. This critically requires the identification of locations most suitable for tourism, now and in the future, to guide strategic investment.

  18. What makes a sustainability tool valuable, practical and useful in real-world healthcare practice? A mixed-methods study on the development of the Long Term Success Tool in Northwest London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Laura; Doyle, Cathal; Reed, Julie E; Bell, Derek

    2017-09-24

    Although improvement initiatives show benefits to patient care, they often fail to sustain. Models and frameworks exist to address this challenge, but issues with design, clarity and usability have been barriers to use in healthcare settings. This work aimed to collaborate with stakeholders to develop a sustainability tool relevant to people in healthcare settings and practical for use in improvement initiatives. Tool development was conducted in six stages. A scoping literature review, group discussions and a stakeholder engagement event explored literature findings and their resonance with stakeholders in healthcare settings. Interviews, small-scale trialling and piloting explored the design and tested the practicality of the tool in improvement initiatives. National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care for Northwest London (CLAHRC NWL). CLAHRC NWL improvement initiative teams and staff. The iterative design process and engagement of stakeholders informed the articulation of the sustainability factors identified from the literature and guided tool design for practical application. Key iterations of factors and tool design are discussed. From the development process, the Long Term Success Tool (LTST) has been designed. The Tool supports those implementing improvements to reflect on 12 sustainability factors to identify risks to increase chances of achieving sustainability over time. The Tool is designed to provide a platform for improvement teams to share their own views on sustainability as well as learn about the different views held within their team to prompt discussion and actions. The development of the LTST has reinforced the importance of working with stakeholders to design strategies which respond to their needs and preferences and can practically be implemented in real-world settings. Further research is required to study the use and effectiveness of the tool in practice and assess engagement with

  19. 1年持续载荷下GFRP-混凝土组合梁长期性能试验%Long-term property test of GFRP-concrete composite beam under sustained load for one year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛伟辰; 张士前; 梁智殷

    2016-01-01

    玻璃纤维增强树脂(GFRP)-混凝土组合梁由上部混凝土板和下部 GFRP型材以及连接二者的抗剪连接件组成。开展了2根 GFRP-混凝土组合梁(非预应力及施加体外预应力组合梁各1根)在1年持续载荷下行为的试验研究。考虑混凝土收缩徐变及 GFRP型材蠕变耦合的影响,开展了50年的24根 GFRP-混凝土组合梁时随有限元参数分析。结果表明:在1年持续载荷下,非预应力与施加体外预应力组合梁长期挠度分别为其初始挠度的1.42倍及2.91倍;非预应力与预应力组合梁中连接件的长期滑移分别为0.230 mm及0.164 mm,相比初始滑移2种组合梁的最终滑移分别增加了53.3%和58.2%;50年后,非预应力组合梁长期挠度与初始挠度的比值在1.50~1.56之间;而施加体外预应力组合梁长期挠度与初始挠度的比值在3.03~6.08之间。基于以上研究提出了 GFRP-混凝土组合梁长期挠度的计算建议。%The glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP)-concrete composite beam consists of a concrete slab on the upper side,a GFRP profile on the lower side and shear connectors to connect these two sides.A test study was con-ducted on the behaviors of two GFRP-concrete composite beams (non-prestressed and external prestressed composite beams each had one)under sustained load for one year.A time-dependent finite element parametric analysis of 24 GFRP-concrete composite beams,taking coupling effect of the shrinkage and creep of concrete and creep of GFRP profile into account,was carried out for 50 years.The results show that long-term deflections of the non-prestressed and external prestressed composite beams are 1.42 and 2.91 times of their respective instantaneous deflections under sustained load for one year.The long-term slips of the non-prestressed and external prestressed composite beams are 0.230 mm and 0.164 mm,respectively.Compared with initial slips,the terminal slips of the two composite beams increase by 53

  20. Sustainability of large-scale constructed stormwater treatment areas (STAs) in the Everglades basin: Long-term stability and phosphorus removal performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhomia, R. K.; Reddy, R.

    2012-12-01

    Treatment wetlands are utilized globally to reduce the amount of nutrients discharged into downstream water bodies. Sustainability of these wetlands depend on accumulation of stable (non-reactive) forms of retained nutrients. Storage of such stable pools of nutrients is influenced by a range of environmental factors such as hydrology, temperature, vegetation and nutrient loading. Our focus was to characterize phosphorus (P) retained by treatment wetlands in the Everglades Agricultural Area Basin. Six stormwater treatment areas (STAs) covering approx. 18,000 ha area are currently operational in south Florida. To date STAs have removed over 1,400 mt of P. The importance of wetland vegetation in P removal is well documented, however limited information is available on the role of different vegetation types on stability of accreted P. Based on dominant vegetation species, existing cells of these STAs are designated and maintained as emergent aquatic vegetation (EAV) and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) cells. We characterized soil P into reactive and stable pools and compared these pools between SAV and EAV. By using operationally defined P fractionation scheme we determined inorganic, organic and residual P fractions, of which first two fractions constituted reactive forms, while residual P represented stable form. Intact soil cores were collected from 44 sites spanning STA-1W and STA-2. Soil cores were divided into 3 layers- floc, RAS and pre-STA soil. Floc and RAS accumulated after STA became operational, while underlying peat represented pre-STA soils. Across the sites, SAV and EAV cells did not differ significantly in relative proportion of reactive and stable P pools. Reactive P constituted 75% of TP in floc sections of EAV cells and 62% of TP in SAV cells. In RAS, the reactive P was 64% of TP for EAV and 67% of TP for SAV cells. However, floc and RAS sections of EAV cells showed higher organic P fractions (50% and 40% of TP) compared to SAV (23% and 37% of TP

  1. Flexible procurement systems is key to supply chain sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Bag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this dynamic business environment, manufacturers are focusing primarily on delivery performance and competitive pricing to win orders. It is essential that manufacturers adopt flexible procurement systems (FPSs in such an uncertain environment for business sustainability.Objectives: The purpose of the study is to identify the elements of FPSs and model the interrelationships between elements of FPSs and, finally, to understand how FPSs are linked with supply chain sustainability.Method: Besides providing a brief conceptual review of FPSs, the study largely illustrates the use of an innovative multi-criteria decision-making approach called total interpretive structural modelling (TISM.Results: The total interpretive structural modelling–based model evaluates the causality and illustrates elements with interpretation of relations and suggests that bottom-level elements are vital for sustainability in FPSs and avert risks. Secondly, strategic sourcing is positively influencing supplier integration. Thirdly, supplier integration positively influences supplier responsiveness. Fourthly, skills of flexible procurement workforce positively influence supplier integration. Fifthly, it is found that supplier integration positively influences flexible transportation. The sixth finding suggests that supplier integration positively influences eco-friendly packaging. The seventh finding highlights that supplier integration positively influences ISO 14001 certifications. The eighth finding explains that supplier responsiveness positively influences customer satisfaction. It is also observed that flexible transport reduces operational cost and environmental costs. The second last finding explains eco-friendly packaging and reduction in environmental cost by careful selection of packing material and chemicals. Lastly, it is found that ISO 14001/environmental certifications reduce environmental costs by greening suppliers and pressurises them to

  2. Sustainable Ecosystems: Enabled by Supply and Demand Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chandrakant D.

    Continued population growth, coupled with increased per capita consumption of resources, poses a challenge to the quality of life of current and future generations. We cannot expect to meet the future needs of society simply by extending existing infrastructures. The necessary transformation can be enabled by a sustainable IT ecosystem made up of billions of service-oriented client devices and thousands of data centers. The IT ecosystem, with data centers at its core and pervasive measurement at the edges, will need to be seamlessly integrated into future communities to enable need-based provisioning of critical resources. Such a transformation requires a systemic approach based on supply and demand of resources. A supply side perspective necessitates using local resources of available energy, alongside design and management that minimizes the energy required to extract, manufacture, mitigate waste, transport, operate and reclaim components. The demand side perspective requires provisioning resources based on the needs of the user by using flexible building blocks, pervasive sensing, communications, knowledge discovery and policy-based control. This paper presents a systemic framework for supply-demand management in IT - in particular, on building sustainable data centers - and suggests how the approach can be extended to manage resources at the scale of urban infrastructures.

  3. Sustainable supply chain management practices in Indian automotive industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathivathanan, Deepak; Kannan, Devika; Haq, A. Noorul

    2017-01-01

    managerial, environmental, societal, and governmental associations. We propose a framework model, using the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory method, to evaluate automotive industry SSCM practices specifically situated in the emerging economy of India. Through a questionnaire survey......As one of the largest manufacturing sectors, the automotive industry has a deep impact on the society and environment. Automotive products provide mobility to millions and create jobs, but also threaten the environment. Consumer pressure, government regulations, and stakeholder demands...... into the traditional supply chain and that help an industry shift towards a sustainable supply chain are called SSCM practices. Firms have difficulty identifying the most useful practices and learning how these practices impact each other. Unfortunately, no existing research has studied the interrelated influences...

  4. 我国失能老人的长期照料需求与供给分析%Long - term Care of Chinese Disabled Elderly Demand and Supply Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏群; 彭斌霞

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this study is from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey(CHRALS)in 2011. Through analyzing the demand and supply of long - term care of disabled elder,this article shows the current life situation of disabled elderly and puts up with policies to solve the contradiction between supply and demand. The result shows that 13. 02 percent elder those activity of daily living are damaged,and must rely on others to provide care for life. As the growth of the age,the likelihood of disability increased. The rural people have more demand of long - term care than the urban. Womenˊs care needs are more 2. 33 percent than menˊs. Most disabled elderly rely mainly on family - based care;institutional care resources are scarce,structural imbalanced;and community care is at an early stage of development. Based on disabled elderly own special characteristics and economic and social environment,our country should continue to encourage and support family caregivers,while vigorously explore the development of appropriate community care services.%本文利用2011年“中国健康与养老追踪调查(CHRALS)”的数据,通过对我国失能老人的照料需求与供给的分析,揭示出我国失能老人的生活现状并针对供需之间的矛盾提出解决的对策。研究结果表明我国有13.02℅的老年人由于日常生活活动能力受损,表现为失能状态,需要他人提供日常生活照料;随着年龄的增长,失能的可能性加大;农村照料需求高于城镇,女性的照料需求比男性高出2.33℅。大多数失能老人主要依靠家庭照料为主;机构照料资源匮乏,结构失调;社区照料更是处于起步发展阶段。基于失能老人自身特征及我国特殊的经济社会环境,应建立以家庭照料为基础,社区照料和机构照料相融合的长期照料服务体系。

  5. A tale of integrated regional water supply planning: Meshing socio-economic, policy, governance, and sustainability desires together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefa, Tirusew; Adams, Alison; Kajtezovic-Blankenship, Ivana

    2014-11-01

    In 1998, Tampa Bay Water, the largest wholesale water provider in South East USA with over 2.3 million customers, assumed the role of planning, developing, and operating water supply sources from six local water supply utilities through an Interlocal Agreement. Under the agreement, cities and counties served by the agency would have their water supply demands met unequivocally and share the cost of delivery and/or development of new supplies based on their consumption, allowing a more holistic approach to manage resources in the region. Consequently, the agency was able to plan and execute several components of its Long-Term Master Water Plan to meet the region's demand, as well as diversify its sources of water supply. Today, the agency manages a diverse and regionally interconnected water supply system that includes 13 wellfields, two surface water supply sources, off-site reservoir storage, a sea water desalination plant, a surface water treatment plant, and 14 pumping/booster stations. It delivers water through 390 km of large diameter pipe to 19 potable water connections. It uses state-of-the-practice computer tools to manage short and long-term operations and planning. As a result, after the agency's inception, groundwater pumpage was reduced by more than half in less than a decade-by far one of the largest cutback and smaller groundwater utilization rate compared to other utilities in Florida or elsewhere. The region was able to witness a remarkable recovery in lake and wetland water levels through the agency's use of this diverse mix of supply sources. For example, in the last three years, 45-65% of water supply came from groundwater sources, 35-45% from surface water sources and 1-9% from desalinated seawater-very different from 100% groundwater only supply just few years ago. As an "on demand" wholesale water provider, the agency forecasts water supply availability and expected water demands from seasonal to decadal time frames using a suite of

  6. The impact of Green Information Systems on sustainable supply chain and organizational performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunyemi, T; Aktas, E

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports about a research in progress focusing on the impact of green information systems on sustainable supply chain performance. Green information systems, supply chains and their relation to sustainability and performance measurement are explained. The preliminary literature review resulted in a draft conceptual framework where sustainable supply chain measures focusing on economic, environmental and social aspects are combined with traditional supply chain performance measures o...

  7. Scenarios for a robust policy mix: the final report of the German study commission on sustainable energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennicke, P. E-mail: peter.hennicke@wupperinst.org

    2004-10-01

    In February 2000, the German Bundestag established a Study Commission on 'Sustainable Energy Supplies in View of Globalisation and Liberalisation' (cf. Final Report, 2002). The Commission's Final Report is a contribution made by Germany toward implementing the sustainable development objectives defined in 1992 at the World Summit in Rio de Janeiro (Agenda 21). Despite minority votes of several members of the Study Commission, the main outcomes of the Final Report are worthwhile discussing in other industrial countries. The Commission had been given the mandate to identify 'robust, sustainable development paths' for the energy sector for the period up to 2050, which represent a scientific basis for the German parliament's further decision-making in the field of long-term energy policy. The applied backcasting approach showed that an ambitious climate-protection goal--reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 80% by 2050 - is technically and economically feasible. The main strategies and instruments for protecting the climate while ensuring a sustainable energy supply are summarised.

  8. Scenarios for a robust policy mix: the final report of the German study commission on sustainable energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Hennicke [Environment and Energy GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany). Wuppertal Institute for Climate

    2004-10-01

    In February 2000, the German Bundestag established a Study Commission on 'Sustainable Energy Supplies in View of Globalisation and Liberalisation'. The Commission's Final Report is a contribution made by Germany toward implementing the sustainable development objectives defined in 1992 at the World Summit in Rio de Janeiro (Agenda 21). Despite minority votes of several members of the Study Commission, the main outcomes of the Final Report are worthwhile discussing in other industrial countries. The Commission had been given the mandate to identify 'robust, sustainable development paths' for the energy sector for the period up to 2050, which represent a scientific basis for the German parliament's further decision-making in the field of long-term energy policy. The applied backcasting approach showed that an ambitious climate-protection goal reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 80% by 2050is technically and economically feasible. The main strategies and instruments for protecting the climate while ensuring a sustainable energy supply are summarised. 1 fig.

  9. A Framework of Sustainable Service Supply Chain Management: A Literature Review and Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Weihua Liu; Enze Bai; Liwei Liu; Wanying Wei

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the interdisciplinary research of supply chains and sustainability has received extensive, yet gradual, attention; when compared to the rapid economic growth of the service industry, however, sustainable supply chain management has not been systematically explored yet. It has not only great theoretical significance, but also positive practical significance to provide a framework for the operation of a sustainable service supply chain from a sustainable development point of vi...

  10. Sustainability of Hydrogen Supply Chain. Part II: Prioritizing and Classifying the Sustainability of Hydrogen Supply Chains based on the Combination of Extension Theory and AHP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Toniolo, Sara;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a method for prioritizing and classifying the sustainability of hydrogen supply chains and assist decision-making for the stakeholders/decision-makers. Multiple criteria for sustainability assessment of hydrogen supply chains are considered and multiple...... decision-makers are allowed to participate in the decision-making using linguistic terms. In this study, extension theory and analytic hierarchy process are combined to rate the sustainability of hydrogen supply chains. The sustainability of hydrogen supply chains could be identified according...... to the synthesis correlation degrees to each classical domain. Finally, an illustrative case is studied by the proposed method, and the results show that the proposed method is feasible for prioritizing and classifying the sustainability of hydrogen supply chains....

  11. Multi-Recombination and Welfare Governance:Research on the Supply of Elders Long-Term Care Service%多元复合与福利治理:老年人长期照护服务供给探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵怀娟; 刘玥

    2016-01-01

    老年人长期照护服务是准公共物品,宜复合供给。当前老年人长期照护服务主体亟待拓展,服务供给亟待统整,供给能力亟待提高。可从福利治理视角出发,构建现代长期照护体系,在多元主体之间建立合作伙伴关系,共同处理社会福利事务。为此须做到四个协同:主体协同、服务协同、平台协同、供需协同。%The elder long-term care belongs to quasi-public goods and it is suitable for composite supply. Currently, the subject of elder long-term care still needs to be explored, the public service supply system tends to be integrated, and supplying capacity needs to be improved. The building of the elder long-term care system should be introduced into the welfare governance perspective, establish the relations of cooperation between multi-subject and joint handle social welfare affairs. From the perspective of welfare governance, in order to build the elder long-term care system, the cooperation consists of the following aspects:subject, private-state, service, platform and supply-demand.

  12. Sustainable Supply Chain Based on News Articles and Sustainability Reports: Text Mining with Leximancer and DICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwook Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explore sustainable supply chain management (SSCM trends, and firms’ strategic positioning and execution with regard to sustainability in the textile and apparel industry based on news articles and sustainability reports. Further analysis of the rhetoric in Chief executive officer (CEO letters within sustainability reports is used to determine firms’ resoluteness, positive entailments, sharing of values, perception of reality, and sustainability strategy and execution feasibility. Computer-based content analysis is used for this research: Leximancer is applied for text analysis, while dictionary-based text mining program DICTION and SPSS are used for rhetorical analysis. Overall, contents similar to the literature on environmental, social, and economic aspects of the triple bottom line (TBL are observed, however, topics such as regulation, green incentives, and international standards are not readily observed. Furthmore, ethical issues, sustainable production, quality, and customer roles are emphasized in texts analyzed. The CEO letter analysis indicates that listed firms show relatively low realism and high commonality, while North American firms exhibit relatively high commonality, and Europe firms show relatively high realism. The results will serve as a baseline for providing academia guidelines in SSCM research, and provide an opportunity for businesses to complement their sustainability strategies and executions.

  13. Sustainable and Resilient Garment Supply Chain Network Design with Fuzzy Multi-Objectives under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Irshad Mari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and practitioners are taking more interest in developing sustainable garment supply chains in recent times. On the other hand, the supply chain manager drops sustainability objectives while coping with unexpected natural and man-made disruption risks. Hence, supply chain managers are now trying to develop sustainable supply chains that are simultaneously resilient enough to cope with disruption risks. Owing to the importance of the considered issue, this study proposed a network optimization model for a sustainable and resilient supply chain network by considering sustainability via embodied carbon footprints and carbon emissions and resilience by considering resilience index. In this paper, initially, a possibilistic fuzzy multi-objective sustainable and resilient supply chain network model is developed for the garment industry considering economic, sustainable, and resilience objectives. Secondly, a possibilistic fuzzy linguistic weight-based interactive solution method is proposed. Finally, a numerical case example is presented to show the applicability of the proposed model and solution methodology.

  14. Consider long-term care as service alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, L S

    1987-04-01

    The increasing demand for elderly care services, pressures on inpatient average length of stay and payment levels, and potential financial rewards from providing additional services, makes long-term care look attractive to hospitals. Long-term care, however, is not for every hospital. Before deciding to establish long-term care services, management should examine how the service fits within the hospital's strategic plan. The action plan below provides guidance in evaluating a decision to use hospital facilities for long-term care. Examine how long-term care services fit within the hospital's strategic plan. Study area demographics and competitors to assess the need and supply of long-term care services. Survey the medical staff, consumers and payers to determine attitudes, perceptions and interests regarding long-term care services. Develop a facility plan that identifies areas of excess capacity that can be most easily converted into long-term care with minimal effects on hospital operations. Prepare a financial feasibility analysis of the contribution margin and return on investment attributable to long-term care services. Include an impact analysis on hospital operations. Establish a management task force to develop a detailed implementation plan including assigned individual responsibilities and related timetable. Develop an effective marketing plan designed to generate increased patient market share.

  15. Sustained increase in food supplies reduces broodmate aggression in black-legged kittiwakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J.; Leclaire, S.; Kriloff, M.; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The amount of food ingested by chicks has often been suggested as being the main proximate factor controlling broodmate aggression in facultatively siblicidal species. Although several experiments have demonstrated that short-term food deprivation causes a temporary increase in aggression, no study has, to our knowledge, experimentally manipulated overall food supplies and considered long-term effects on chick behaviour and life history traits. We provided supplemental food to breeding pairs of black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, over an entire breeding season and compared the aggressive behaviour of their chicks with that of chicks of control pairs. Control A-chicks (first to hatch) showed more frequent and intense aggression than their experimental counterparts. Furthermore, the more A-chicks begged and the lower their growth rate the more aggressive they were. The consequences of increased aggression for B-chicks (second to hatch) were lower begging rate, lower growth rate and lower survival. We thus provide evidence that a sustained increase in food availability affects broodmate aggression and chick survival at the nest and we discuss the various proximate and ultimate causes involved in the evolution of broodmate aggression. ?? 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  16. Commitment to and preparedness for sustainable supply chain management in the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Ahmad, Wan Nurul K; Rezaei, Jafar; Tavasszy, Lóránt A; de Brito, Marisa P

    2016-09-15

    Our current dependency on the oil and gas (O&G) industry for economic development and social activities necessitates research into the sustainability of the industry's supply chains. At present, studies on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) practices in the industry do not include firm-internal factors that affect the sustainability strategies employed by different functional areas of its supply chains. Our study aims to address this gap by identifying the relevant internal factors and exploring their relationship with SSCM strategies. Specifically, we discuss the commitment to and preparedness for sustainable practices of companies that operate in upstream and downstream O&G supply chain. We study the impact of these factors on their sustainability strategies of four key supply chain functions: supplier management, production management, product stewardship and logistics management. The analyses of data collected through a survey among 81 companies show that management preparedness may enhance sustainable supply chain strategies in the O&G industry more than commitment does. Among the preparedness measures, management of supply chain operational risks is found to be vital to the sustainability of all supply chain functions except for production management practices. The findings also highlight the central importance of supplier and logistics management to the achievement of sustainable O&G supply chains. Companies must also develop an organizational culture that encourages, for example, team collaboration and proactive behaviour to finding innovative sustainability solutions in order to translate commitment to sustainable practices into actions that can produce actual difference to their SSCM practices.

  17. A global perspective on changing sustainable urban water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrel Jenerette, G.; Larsen, Larissa

    2006-04-01

    Ensuring the sustainable supply of water for the world's largest cities has been and is a current challenge. Future trends in urban water consumption patterns will be determined by changes in population concentration, per-capita water use, climate, and the proportion of water retained for the production of instream ecosystem services. The objective of our research was to identify patterns of renewable water availability and urban consumption throughout the globe between the years 2000 and 2015. To better understand the interactions between urban consumption and regional availability of renewable water we used a modified ecological footprint (EF) approach. Urban water footprint areas were differentially sensitive to changes in consumption and changes in water availability; our results suggest climate induced reductions in water availability may be more of a concern than population growth or increased per-capita for securing continued supplies of water to large cities. Our results provide a comprehensive description of global urban water demand and highlight the variation between consumption and availability relationships for the 524 largest cities.

  18. Analysing long term discursive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    What do timescales - the notion that processes take place or can be viewed within a shorter or longer temporal range (Lemke 2005) - mean for the analysis of discourse? What are the methodological consequences of analyzing discourse at different timescales? It may be argued that discourse analysis...... in general has favored either the analysis of short term processes such as interviews, discussions, and lessons, or the analysis of non-processual entities such as (multimodal) texts, arguments, discursive repertoires, and discourses (in a Foucaultian sense). In contrast, analysis of long term processes...... which extend beyond the single interaction, for instance negotiations or planning processes, seems to have played a less important role, with studies such as Iedema 2001 and Wodak 2000 as exceptions. These long term processes, however, are central to the constitution and workings of organizations...

  19. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K.; Cai, Hao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Hartley, Damon; Searcy, Erin; Tan, Eric; Jones, Sue; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2016-03-31

    This report describes the supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA) of renewable gasoline and diesel produced via fast pyrolysis of a blended woody feedstock. The metrics considered in this analysis include supply chain greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and water consumption.

  20. Maturity Models in Supply Chain Sustainability: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Correia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic literature review of supply chain maturity models with sustainability concerns is presented. The objective is to give insights into methodological issues related to maturity models, namely the research objectives; the research methods used to develop, validate and test them; the scope; and the main characteristics associated with their design. The literature review was performed based on journal articles and conference papers from 2000 to 2015 using the SCOPUS, Emerald Insight, EBSCO and Web of Science databases. Most of the analysed papers have as main objective the development of maturity models and their validation. The case study is the methodology that is most widely used by researchers to develop and validate maturity models. From the sustainability perspective, the scope of the analysed maturity models is the Triple Bottom Line (TBL and environmental dimension, focusing on a specific process (eco-design and new product development and without a broad SC perspective. The dominant characteristics associated with the design of the maturity models are the maturity grids and a continuous representation. In addition, results do not allow identifying a trend for a specific number of maturity levels. The comprehensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the maturity model literature represent an important contribution to the organization of this research area, making possible to clarify some confusion that exists about concepts, approaches and components of maturity models in sustainability. Various aspects associated with the maturity models (i.e., research objectives, research methods, scope and characteristics of the design of models are explored to contribute to the evolution and significance of this multidimensional area.

  1. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative ef...

  2. Comparison of Long-term World Energy Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Schade, Burkhard; WIESENTHAL TOBIAS

    2007-01-01

    The POLES (Prospective Outlook for the Long-term Energy System) model is a global sectoral simulation model for the development of long-term energy supply and demand scenarios until 2050. The model is used to calculate global energy scenarios, such as the World Energy, Technology and Climate Policy Outlook (WETO) and the WETO-H2 update. In addition, dedicated greenhouse gas emission reduction scenarios are increasingly produced to support the assessment of climate change policies and measures...

  3. [Developing the core competencies of long-term care professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huey-Tzy; Lee, Kuang-Ting

    2012-12-01

    Longer average life expectancies and an ageing society have made long-term care an urgent and important issue in Taiwan. Although the implementation of Long-Term Care Ten-year Project four years ago has begun showing success in terms of assessing Taiwan's needs in terms of long-term care services and resources, there has been little forward progress in terms of training, recruiting and maintaining more competent professionals in the long-term care sector. This paper explores the current state of long-term care competency in Taiwan and educational strategies in place to improve the competency of long-term care professionals. Results indicate that the term geriatric competency embraces sub-competencies in direct care, communication, assessment, teamwork, cultural sensitivities and career care competencies. The term long-term care competency embraces the sub-competencies of supervision, management, information technology, resource management, and organizational skill. As a main contributor to effective long-term care, the nursing profession must employ effective strategies to develop competency-based education. Also, the profession must have an adequate supply of competent manpower to effectively respond to Taiwan's aging society.

  4. A short rotation cultivation for a long-term yield. Energy wood from rapidly growing trees; Kurzer Umtrieb fuer langfristigen Ertrag. Energieholz aus schnell wachsenden Baumsorten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, Frank [KWB Biomasseheizungen, Mertingen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Wood becomes popular ever more. The demand of wood grows while the areas of forest globally shrink at the same time. Therefore, the cultivation of energy wood in short rotation is an important and long-term source of income for surface owners apart from environmental protection and valuable contribution to the sustainable power supply.

  5. An intelligent traceability system: Efficient tool for a supply chain sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougdira, Abdesselam; Ahaitouf, Abdelaziz; Akharraz, Ismail

    2016-07-01

    The supply chain sustainability becomes a necessity for a smooth, a rapid and a fluid economic transaction. To reach a sustainable supply chain, we propose to focus attention on products and their lifecycle. So, we consider the traceability as a major success key to ensure the supply chain sustainability. For that, we consider a supply chain design that use an intelligent products traced by an intelligent traceability system. This system identifies, restores history and properties of a product, besides it tracks, in real-time a product. This solution can, also, bring, in the product environment, appropriate adjustments to prevent any risk of threatening qualities for the product. So, it helps supply chain contributors making the sustainable adjustments and the instant benchmark of the supply chain sustainability.

  6. A Framework of Sustainable Service Supply Chain Management: A Literature Review and Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interdisciplinary research of supply chains and sustainability has received extensive, yet gradual, attention; when compared to the rapid economic growth of the service industry, however, sustainable supply chain management has not been systematically explored yet. It has not only great theoretical significance, but also positive practical significance to provide a framework for the operation of a sustainable service supply chain from a sustainable development point of view. Based on the triple bottom line (TBL, we have analyzed related sustainable supply chain management research between 2006 and 2015, reviewed papers involving two or three bottom lines as well, and then introduced some classical frameworks for manufacturing supply chain management and service supply chain management. Afterward, by analyzing the differences between the manufacturing and service industries, we propose a framework of sustainable service supply chain management (SSSCM. Based on the impacts of sustainable development TBL on service supply chain participants, we have finally made a framework for sustainable operation facing triads service supply chain and proposed a future research agenda.

  7. Ensuring sustained ACT production and reliable artemisinin supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olliaro Piero

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This paper reviews recent trends in the production, supply and price of the active ingredients as well as finished ACT products. Production and cost data provided in this paper are based on an ongoing project (Artepal. Stability data are derived from a development project on rectal artesunate. Discussion The artemisinin raw material and its derivatives appear to be very stable compared to the finished products. Supply of artemisinin changed in May 2004 when the Global Fund shifted financial support to qualified countries from chloroquine or sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to an ACT for treatment of malaria. First, there was a sudden shortage of the starting material, and short term scarcity led to a steep rise in API price: it increased dramatically in 2004, from $350 per kg to more than $1000. Second, there was a parallel increase in the number of companies extracting artemisinin from 10 to 80 between 2003 and 2005 in China, and from 3 to 20 in Vietnam. Commercial cultivation began also in East Africa and Madagascar. A steady and predictable demand for the crop can eliminate such wide fluctuations and indirectly contribute to price stability of the herb, the API and ACT. With appropriate mechanisms to reduce those fluctuations, the cost of artemisinin might decrease sustainably to US$ 250–300 per kg. Conclusion Today the global health community is facing the risk of another cyclical swing with lower demand feeding into reduced planting of A. annua and, thereafter, a new shortage of the raw material and higher API prices. International donors, the largest purchasers for ACTs could better coordinate their activities, in order to guarantee purchase of ACTs and consequently of API with manufacturers. In parallel, the base of quality producers of APIs and finished ACT products needs to be broadened. While the ACT programme is still in its early stages, the consequences of another wave of artemisinin and ACT shortages would

  8. Climate protection and reliability of supply. Development of a sustainable power supply concept; Klimaschutz und Versorgungssicherheit. Entwicklung einer nachhaltigen Stromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus, Thomas; Loreck, Charlotte; Mueschen, Klaus

    2009-09-15

    Germany, like other states, committed itself to sustainable development in the Rio declaration of 1992. The boundary conditions for this are set by nature itself, whose laws must be respected if goals like reliability of supply and economic efficiency are to be achieved. This study of the Federal Environmental Office shows how sustainable power supply can be achieved. It is possible to combine climate protection, reliability of supply and economic efficiency, even without nuclear power and without constructing new conventional power plants that do not have the function of combined heat and power generation. (orig.)

  9. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Accelerating the transition towards sustainability dynamics into supply chain relationship management and governance structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Seuring, Stefan; Zhu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    , sustainable, post-fossil carbon societies by working with all relevant stakeholders. This Special Volume of Journal of Cleaner Production is focused upon on diverse types of supply chain relationships, governance mechanisms, and innovations, which can foster effective and efficient sustainable supply chain...

  11. Designing Energy Supply Chains with the P-graph Framework under Cost Constraints and Sustainability Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains is presented using the P-graph framework to develop supply chain structures which are analyzed using cost, the cost of producing electricity, and two sustainability metrics: ecological footprint and emergy. They...

  12. Designing Energy Supply Chains with the P-graph Framework under Cost Constraints and Sustainability Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains is presented using the P-graph framework to develop supply chain structures which are analyzed using cost, the cost of producing electricity, and two sustainability metrics: ecological footprint and emergy. They...

  13. Purchasing & supply management for a sustainable world: Introduction to the IPSERA 2013 conference special issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, T. E.; Giannakis, M.; Miemczyk, J.

    2014-01-01

    Special issue of best papers of the 22nd annual IPSERA conference 2013: Purchasing & Supply Management for a Sustainable World......Special issue of best papers of the 22nd annual IPSERA conference 2013: Purchasing & Supply Management for a Sustainable World...

  14. Developing and sustaining human resources in the health supply chain in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Traulsen, Janine M; Damene Kabtimer, Woynabeba

    2016-01-01

    is on the way to developing a nationwide viable system for health supply chain management. However, there are still challenges. Short-term challenges include the importance of highlighting strategies and programs for human resources in health supply chain management. In the long term, commitments to financial......INTRODUCTION: The health supply chain is often the weakest link in achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals and universal health coverage, requiring trained professionals who are often unavailable. In Ethiopia there have been recent developments in the area of health supply chain...... management. The aim of this study was to explore the current status of the development of human resources in health supply chain management in Ethiopia and to identify important factors affecting this development. METHODS: A series of face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders was carried out in 2014...

  15. Sustained energy supply under globalisation and liberalisation conditions; Nachhaltige Energieversorgung unter den Bedingungen der Globalisierung und Liberalisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempelmann, Rolf [Enquete-Kommission des Deutschen Bundestags, Berlin (Germany)

    2002-06-06

    The major challenge at the threshold of this century is to structure the energy supply in the sense of sustained development. The Committee of Enquiry of the Federal German Parliament 'Sustained energy supply under globalisation and liberalisation conditions' is developing medium to long-term concepts in this respect. Analysis of the boundary conditions of future energy policy shows that the consequences of future enrichment of climatic gases in the atmosphere and no longer the availability and productiveness of the energy deposits could become the limiting factor. Following the analysis of the technological and non-technological future potentials for sustained energy supply the Committee of Enquiry is currently working on the formulation of strategies for the energy industry transformation process. (orig.) [German] An der Schwelle dieses Jahrhunderts stellt sich die grosse Herausforderung, die Energieversorgung im Sinne einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung zu strukturieren. Die Enquete-Kommission des Deutschen Bundestags 'Nachhaltige Energieversorgung unter den Bedingungen der Globalisierung und Liberalisierung' entwickelt hierzu mittel- bis laengerfristige Konzepte. Die Analyse der Rahmenbedingungen kuenftiger Energiepolitik zeigt, dass die Folgen einer weiteren Anreicherung von Klimagasen in der Atmosphaere und nicht mehr die Verfuegbarkeit und Ergiebigkeit der Energielagerstaetten zum limitierenden Faktor werden koennten. Nach der Analyse der technologischen und nicht-technologischen Zukunftspotentiale fuer eine nachhaltige Energieversorgung arbeitet die Enquete-Kommission derzeit an der Formulierung von Strategien fuer den energiewirtschaftlichen Transformationsprozess. Vortrag gehalten auf der GVSt-Konferenz 'Kohle - Energie fuer die Zukunft' anlaesslich der E-World of Energy am 14. Februar 2002. (orig.)

  16. On the Distribution of Net Benefits from Sustainability Initiatives in Agri-Food Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Brent; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Ross, Kara L.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainability initiatives are frequently imposed on upstream supply chain members by their more powerful downstream partners. This paper assesses the challenges of estimating costs and benefits for participants and the difficulties associated with identifying their locations and effects in the supply chain. The paper argues that the success and endurance of agri-food supply chains that purport to pursue sustainability objectives depend critically on the distribution of the associated costs a...

  17. Consumers’ Sustainability Perceptions of the Supply Chain of Locally Produced Food

    OpenAIRE

    Ari Paloviita

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative focus group study regarding consumer perceptions about the sustainability of locally produced food supply chains. Sustainability perceptions were analyzed through thematic content analysis, where the most important economic, environmental and social themes of the supply chain were emphasized. According to the research findings, the socio-cultural aspects encompassing locally produced food form the most important sustainability dimension for consumers. Al...

  18. Sustainability Comparison between EnDev and not-EnDev Micro-Hydro Power (MHP) in Indonesia : Analysis of the long-term technical, social, environmental and economic sustainability of the rural energy infrastructure of MHP in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ranzanici, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The Energising Development (EnDev) initiative, for which the GIZ acts as implementing agency, promotes the supply of modern energy technologies to households and small‐scale businesses in the rural communities of 24 countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia. In Indonesia, this has been achieved through off‐grid micro‐hydro (MHP) and solar power mini‐grids and since 2006 230 MHP and 117 solar projects have been supported to varying degree at substantial cost, reaching more than 167 thousand ...

  19. Managerial Long-Term Responsibility in Family-Controlled Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Sternad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that long-term orientation (LTO as a dominantstrategic logic contributes to the sustainable performance offamily-controlled firms (FCFS. Combining a review of the literatureon lto with stewardship theory and upper echelons theoryreasoning, this article presents a typology of managerial responsibilityand introduces the concept of long-term responsibility as amanagerial characteristic constituting a major driving force behindcreating lto. The antecedents of long-term responsibilityunder family firm-specific conditions (stemming from the familysystem, the governance system, and family-firm managers’ personalcharacteristics are also identified and presented in an integratedmodel. The paper contributes to a more comprehensiveunderstanding of intertemporal choice in fcfs and explains whythey tend to be more long-term oriented than other types of firms.

  20. Integrating short-term and long-term forecasting with reservoir optimisation; Mantaro Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. A.; Lasarte, A.; Butts, M. B.

    2009-04-01

    Operational water management often requires a trade-off between short-term and long-term water demands, where short-term demands are driven for example by hydropower generation and flood protection requirements and the long-term demands by water and irrigation supply, sustainable reservoir management and the seasonal impacts of snow melt or climate. This paper presents an operational decision support system designed to forecast and optimise reservoir operations in both the short-term and long-term. The system has been established for the 20,000 km2 Mantaro river basin located in the high Andes with altitudes ranging from 3500 to nearly 6000 m.a.s.l.. The two main power stations at Tablachaca have a combined capacity of more than 1000 MW that supplies 30% of Peru's electrical energy. In addition, the basin's water resources supply extensive agricultural areas, an urban population and mining activities and sustain important ecological habitats. In this paper, the methodologies used for the integrating short-term and long-term forecasting are presented together with their application to the optimal operation of reservoirs. A key element in the system is the MIKE BASIN modelling tool. The system uses several modelling capabilities of MIKE BASIN: rainfall-runoff, reservoir operation, hydropower production, and river flow routing. The system also takes advantage of long-term forecasts (based on statistical information) and short-term forecasts (based on telemetry data). The continually updated runoff and flow forecasts enter the optimization, which applies the Model Predictive Control principle for MIKE BASIN as the core simulation model. For each optimization, a non-linear program algorithm is used to find the best release strategy. On the basis of the forecasted inflows and the real time data the system suggests to the user from which reservoirs to release water for alleviation of possible forecasted deficits. In addition to the Tablachaca scheme the model accounts for

  1. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic versions of ... form, they are used exclusively for long-term control; they are not very effective for acute symptoms. ...

  2. Long term complications after radical cystoprostatectomy with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long term complications after radical cystoprostatectomy with orthotopic diversion in male ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Objective: To evaluate the long-term outcomes beyond 1 year, both ...

  3. Gratitude in Long Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Abrams Sunding

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a group gratitude intervention with 29 permanent residents at a long term care/skilled nursing facility in improving elder mood, behavior and well- being over a 3 week time period. The sample included individuals diagnosed with dementia, other cognitive impairment, major depressive disorder, insomnia and generalized anxiety disorder. The gratitude intervention consisted of asking elders to share what they are thankful for at the dinner table each day. Measures included the Elder Well Being Scale and The Dinner Rating Scale. On both measures, higher scores indicated better functioning. To test the hypothesis that post treatment elder well-being will be significantly higher than pretreatment elder well-being ratings, a one-way ANOVA was conducted. Post-hoc tests revealed a statistically significant increase in Elder Well Being Scale scores. An ANOVA of comparing Dinner Ratings demonstrated a nonsignificant increase over the 3 week experiment. Implications are discussed.

  4. Pricing Policies of a Dual-Channel Supply Chain Considering Channel Environmental Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dual-channel supply chain in which the differentiation of the environmental sustainability of channels is considered. We analyze the influences of the level of environmental sustainability of channels on the pricing policies for the supply chain members in both centralized and decentralized models using the Stackelberg game model under inconsistent price policy. We obtain the optimal level of environmental sustainability of channels and pricing decisions for the players in the centralized and decentralized dual-channel supply chains. Results show that the influence mechanisms of the level of environmental sustainability of channels on the pricing decisions are different in the centralized and decentralized models. Furthermore, numerical analysis has been conducted to investigate the effects of the cross-environmental-sustainability sensitivity factor and the initial proportion of consumers who prefer the retail channel on the level of environmental sustainability of channels, pricing policies and players’ profits.

  5. Experimental study on long-term toxicity of sustained-release dropping pills of Rhynchophylla total alkaloids in rats%钩藤总碱缓释滴丸的长期毒性实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盟; 孙清海; 刘卫

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the long-term toxicity of sustained-release dropping pills of Rhynchophylla total alkaloids in rats.Methods 80 Wistar rats were randomly divided into high dose group, middle dose group, low dose group and normal group. The rats were consecutively drenched for 12 weeks. The general status of the animals was observed daily in medication duration and body weight, daily appetite, quantity were recorded every 2 weeks. All animals were sacrificed on drenched 12 weeks and 2 weeks after discontinuation, then the content of WBC, RBC, Hb, PLT, LYM, NEU and ALT, AST, ALP, BUN, Cr were detected. Ratio of viscera was measured and the major organs were examined by the pathology.Results Continuous intragastric administration for 12 weeks after high dose group rats, poor diet, weight growth was slow;no significant changes of Hematology was found;The ALT, AST and ALP of high dose group rats increased[respectively(77.5±11.9)U/L,(210.4±21.7)U/L,(220.6±19.8)U/L], compared with the blank control group[respectively(55.2±12.1)U/L,(180.4±21.3)U/L,(190.3±22.6)U/L], the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). The ratio of liver body in high dose group(3.86±0.29)was higher than the control group(3.52±0.25), the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). And liver degeneration, focal necrosis was found.Conclusion The main chronic toxic damage is liver damage caused by sustained-release dropping pills of Rhynchophylla total alkaloids of long-term large delivery.%目的:探讨钩藤总碱(RTA)缓释滴丸的长期毒性。方法将80只Wister大鼠按体质量随机分为空白对照组、RTA缓释滴丸高、中、低剂量组,每组20只。每天观察大鼠的一般状态、每2周记录一次体质量、日食量。连续灌胃12周后和停药2周后分别检测大鼠白细胞(WBC)、红细胞(RBC)、血红蛋白(Hb)、血小板(PLT)、淋巴细胞(LYM)、中性粒细胞(NEU)等血液学

  6. Design of sustainable second-generation biomass supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazan, Devrim Yazar; Duren, van Iris; Mes, Martijn; Kersten, Sascha; Clancy, Joy; Zijm, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Operational and economic trade-offs in the design of second-generation biomass (SGB) supply chains guide the decisions about plant scale and location as well as biomass collection routes. This paper compares different SGB supply chain designs with a focus on mobile pyrolysis plants and centralized v

  7. Rethinking Sustainability, Scaling Up, and Enabling Environment: A Framework for Their Implementation in Drinking Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urooj Q. Amjad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The terms sustainability, scaling up, and enabling environment are inconsistently used in implementing water supply projects. To clarify these terms we develop a framework based on Normalization Process Theory, and apply the framework to a hypothetical water supply project in schools. The resulting framework provides guidance on how these terms could be implemented and analyzed in water supply projects. We conclude that effective use of the terms sustainability, scaling up, and enabling environment would focus on purpose, process, and perspective. This is the first known attempt to analyze the implementation of the three terms together in the context of water supply services.

  8. Balancing gas supply and demand with a sustainable gas supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof. dr. Wim van Gemert; Ir. J. Bekkering; A.A. Broekhuis; Drs. E.J. Hengeveld

    2013-01-01

    The possibilities of balancing gas supply and demand with a green gas supply chain were analyzed. The considered supply chain is based on co-digestion of cow manure and maize, the produced biogas is upgraded to (Dutch) natural gas standards. The applicability of modeling yearly gas demand data in a

  9. Introduction: Long term economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyka, Andreas; Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2012-01-01

    The general theme of the 13th International Joseph A. Schumpeter Society Conference, held during June 21st–24th, 2010 at Aalborg University in Denmark, was the exploration of the interrelated phenomena of innovation, organization, sustainability and crises. By addressing these phenomena an attempt...

  10. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed preprocessing supply system designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, jr., David J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Langholtz, Matthew H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jacobson, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Argo, Andrew [Sundrop Fuels, Golden, CO (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cafferty, Kara [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chiu, Yi-Wen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eaton, Laurence M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-03-31

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to

  11. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan; Tröger, Josephine; Muñoz, Katherine; Frör, Oliver; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2016-04-15

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  12. Designing long-term policy: rethinking transition management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voß, J.P.; Smith, A.; Grin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term policy is enjoying something of a come-back in connection with sustainable development. The current revival tries to avoid the pitfalls of an earlier generation of positivistic long-range planning and control approaches. Instead, this new generation of policy design emphasises reflexive go

  13. 24 CFR 971.5 - Long-term viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term viability. 971.5 Section...-term viability. (a) Reasonable investment. (1) Proposed revitalization costs for viability must be... ensure viability and to sustain the operating costs that are described in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  14. Designing long-term policy: rethinking transition management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voß, J.P.; Smith, A.; Grin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term policy is enjoying something of a come-back in connection with sustainable development. The current revival tries to avoid the pitfalls of an earlier generation of positivistic long-range planning and control approaches. Instead, this new generation of policy design emphasises reflexive

  15. Sustainable future energy technology and supply chains a multi-perspective analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cucchiella, Federica

    2015-01-01

    This book shows business professionals, researchers and students the beneficial role of sustainable energy inside the supply chain. It is organized around case studies and features examples that will contribute to the solution of real-world problems.

  16. The sustainability of urban water supply in low income countries: a livelihoods model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadipuro, W.; Wiering, M.A.; Naerssen, A.L. van

    2013-01-01

    Urban water supply can be managed by public institutions, private companies, communities, or by combinations thereof. Controversy continues over which system can most effectively improve livelihoods. Responding to this discussion, an extended model of sustainable livelihoods analysis is proposed tha

  17. The sustainability of urban water supply in low income countries: a livelihoods model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadipuro, W.; Wiering, M.A.; Naerssen, A.L. van

    2013-01-01

    Urban water supply can be managed by public institutions, private companies, communities, or by combinations thereof. Controversy continues over which system can most effectively improve livelihoods. Responding to this discussion, an extended model of sustainable livelihoods analysis is proposed tha

  18. Microbatteries for self-sustained hybrid micropower supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, John N.; LaFollette, Rodney M.; Selfridge, Richard H.; Howell, Larry L.

    This paper describes the characteristics of microbatteries suitable for use in a hybrid micropower supply for powering autonomous MEMS and other microsystems. The hybrid power supply includes an energy conversion device, microscopic batteries for energy storage, and control/interface circuitry. Comparison of the hybrid approach with single power sources (either a battery or energy conversion device alone) shows that it offers several potential advantages including reduced size, increased flexibility, long lifetime and increased reliability. Such an approach is well suited to the expected duty cycles of remote microsensors. Realization of the advantages of a hybrid system depends on the availability of a battery with the required characteristics. Initial experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating microbatteries with the proper characteristics and the use of these batteries as part of a hybrid micropower supply. It is anticipated that hybrid micropower supplies with suitable microbatteries will play a critical role in the successful implementation of a wide variety of autonomous microsystems.

  19. Design for Environment as a Tool for the Development of a Sustainable Supply Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Bevilacqua, Maurizio; Giacchetta, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Design is becoming an increasingly significant agenda for many manufacturing companies and yet there is no standard to their approaches, strategies or their levels of execution. Applying Design for Environment (DfE) methodologies to develop a more sustainable supply chain has formed procedures and techniques which allow designers to integrate these methods with environmental supply chain management. Design for Environment as a Tool for the Development of a Sustainable Supply Chain aims to define relevant target specifications for a product throughout its life cycle; from conception and design to the end of its operating life.  Be considering this new approach to the supply chain, environmental responsiveness can work in tandem with sounds business management. The usual focus on suppliers, manufacturers and customers is expanded in Design for Environment as a Tool for the Development of a Sustainable Supply Chain to include stakeholders such as government bodies and recycling companies. The infl...

  20. Identifying and Managing Acquisition and Sustainment Supply Chain Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Electronics semiconductor plant in Albuquerque, New Mexico (Latour, 2001). The fire adversely affected the supply of critical computer chips for both Nokia ...and Ericsson cell phones. Nokia noticed a problem with its chip supply before Phillips notified it of the fire. As soon as it realized that chip...production would not be resumed quickly, Nokia “redesigned chips on the fly, sped up a project to boost production, and flexed the company’s muscle to

  1. Social and Economic Concern of Supply Chain Sustainability (SCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz Mokhtar, Mohd; Omar, Badrul; Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik; Fazlinda Mohd Pauzi, Nur; Hassan, Sulaiman; Mohamed, W. A. Wan

    2016-11-01

    Sustainability issues will provide impact on the environment, social and economy. The importance of these three aspects of sustainability must be look at in tandem. Some issues of these three pillars getting more attention by companies since they are more interested to identify issues that may affect performances related to their people or profit. Through CSRs report released by various international companies, this paper identified the value which companies place for social and economic sustainability. Result shows that human right and, occupational and safety have highest concern by companies while Product Utilities is less concern from other social issues. From an economic aspect, sales and net profit are the most influencing factors of sustainability while the raw material cost is shown as of the least concern. Based on the results, companies should consider the issues on social and economic aspects following these priorities.

  2. The security of electricity supply as the determinant of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Denona Bogović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is defined the term security of energy supply and identified its segments in the article. The role of electricity in sustainable development is analyzed. The article emphasize the importance of a secure electricity supply that is a key prerequisite to well-functioning modern society.

  3. The applicability of industrial symbiosis praxis to improving the environmental sustainability of supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    BATISTA, Luciano

    2010-01-01

    The environmental impact of supply chains is a complex problem which involves interconnected and interdependent organisations from different industries, sectors and geographical areas. Finding ways of involving the parts of a supply chain system in synergistic relationships aimed at minimising the overall impact of the whole system on the environment is likely to achieve better results than each part trying to do its best in isolation. The adoption of sustainable practices in supply chains is...

  4. Iron ore Development and supplies from Third world: A Potential for Sustainable Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrauf A. Ibrahim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss the qualitative leaching of iron ore in hydrochloric acid and multi gravity separation method as new strategies for reducing lost of iron during production. The focus of the paper is on the potential of iron ore development and supplies from Third world for Sustainable Development and to enter and sustain in the export global competitive Market..

  5. Government interventions in sustainable supply chain governance: Experience in Dutch front-running cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, W.J.V.; Kok, M.T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous multi-actor governance systems have recently emerged, ensuring sustainability of international traded products. Business and civil society actors play a dominant role in initiating and governing ‘sustainable supply chain governance systems’ (SSCG systems). Within specific product markets we

  6. Synthesis of Sustainable Energy Supply Chain by the P-Graph Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present work proposes a computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains in terms of sustainability metrics by utilizing the P-graph framework. The methodology is an outcome of the collaboration between the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the U.S...

  7. Innovative Approaches to Improve Sustainability of Physical Distribution in Dutch Agrifood Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Reinder; Beek, van P.; Glöckner, H.H.; Omta, S.W.F.; Weijers, S.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become an important issue in all aspects of corporate
    policy. This also applies to organizations operating in agrifood supply chains. Most literature on sustainability in the agrifood industry focuses on food security or prevention of food losses. However, little attention has

  8. 中国中长期劳动力供需趋势分析%Analysis on China’s Labor Supply and Demand Trend for a Long-term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏伦

    2014-01-01

    文章采用Leslie方法预测2015-2050年中国人口总量及其年龄分布结构,据此预测劳动年龄人口的劳动力供给总量,根据经济增长的就业弹性预测劳动力的需求总量,计算劳动力供需缺口。结果表明,劳动力供给和需求总量都呈现减少趋势,供给减少更快,2015年后,劳动力市场将出现供不应求的现象,供需缺口将长期存在并有扩大趋势。面对劳动力市场出现的供需缺口问题,提出了相应的政策建议。%The paper take Leslie method to forecast China’s total population and its age distribution structure from 2015 to 2050,and then predict the total labor supply of the working-age population,estimate the total demand for labor according to the employment elasticity of the economic growth,calculated the gap between labor supply and demand. The results show that both the labor supply and demand showed a decreasing trend,but the supply reduced faster than demand,after 2015,the labor market appears shortage,the gap between supply and demand will exist for a long time and have a tendency to expand. Facing of the new situation and new problems of the labor market, we recommend some corresponding policy.

  9. Biofuel Supply Chains: Impacts, Indicators and Sustainability Metrics(Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel supply chains in the United States are expected to expand considerably, in part due to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. This law mandates through the EPA’s Renewable Fuel Standard an expansion to 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels per year by 2...

  10. What Hybrid Business Models can Teach Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy L.

    2017-01-01

    businesses in catastrophe-ridden Haiti were performed. The insights provided by the entrepreneurs of these businesses showed organizations that target TBL objectives from their inception, the specific social capabilities employed to obtain the desired TBL objectives and the specific supply chain structures...

  11. HOME LONG-TERM CARE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kułagowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The considerable proportion of the elderly, the chronically ill and the disabled in community is an economic and organizational challenge for the state social policy. It requires a large, steadily increasing financing from the public funds and creating an optional care model to fulfill the needs of citizens and guarantee high quality services. Development of the long-term care is one of the problems to be solved. This paper presents: – a long-term care forms, organization and tasks; – a role of long-term care but particularly home longterm care to protect health in Poland; – problems related with home long-term care functioning.

  12. Long-term dynamics simulation: Modeling requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morched, A.S.; Kar, P.K.; Rogers, G.J.; Morison, G.K. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    1989-12-01

    This report details the required performance and modelling capabilities of a computer program intended for the study of the long term dynamics of power systems. Following a general introduction which outlines the need for long term dynamic studies, the modelling requirements for the conduct of such studies is discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on models for system elements not normally modelled in power system stability programs, which will have a significant impact in the long term time frame of minutes to hours following the initiating disturbance. The report concludes with a discussion of the special computational and programming requirements for a long term stability program. 43 refs., 36 figs.

  13. Sustainable Rent-Based Closed-Loop Supply Chain for Fashion Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hua Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The textile and clothing industry generates much pollution and consumes a large amount of resources. Improper uses and disposal of clothing products make the problems much more severe. Fast fashion products shorten the valid lifecycle and generate more waste than regular clothing products. Considering the features of fashion products, a system of a rent-based closed-loop supply chain is developed to improve the sustainability of fashion products. The supply chain processes (fashion design and manufacturing, laundry, logistics and disposal, the operations management issues (inventory management, closed-loop logistics, human-clothing matching, booking system and the rental pricing and the sustainability promotion aspects (customization, responsive system, culture and policy aspects are investigated by devising sustainable strategies. The rationalities of the developed system and strategies are reviewed and elucidated in detail. The results may contribute to building sustainable closed-loop fashion supply chains, the related information systems and operational and managerial mechanisms.

  14. 混合供应链的长期合作客户选择研究——以汽车零部件企业为例%Study on Long-Term cooperation customer choice of mixed supply chain—a case study of Auto parts enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳懿; 吴昉; 顾锋

    2013-01-01

    随着市场竞争的日趋激烈,汽车零部件企业正在不断地寻求新方式增强企业的竞争力,而选择合适的长期合作客户是一个有利于双方企业长期、稳定、可持续发展的双赢举措.本文选择适当的指标建立混合供应链绩效评估体系,以TH公司的A、B供应链为例,帮助企业选择与其整体发展目标和战略最为吻合的长期合作客户.本文是站在结合运营和市场营销的新高度,从理论和实证两方面为汽车零部件企业挑选长期合作客户提供好的依据和标准.%With the increasingly fierce competition of the market, Auto parts companies are constantly finding new ways to enhance the competitiveness of the enterprises. Selecting appropriate long-term partnership customers will help both companies to develop stably and continuously and promote the common prosperity of the whole industry. In this paper, we choose suitable indicators to establish mixed supply chain evaluation system, set A、 B mixed supply chain from TH company as examples and help the company to select long-term partnership customers which can keep strategy and target consistency with the company. This is a new way that combines the operation and marketing so that we are able to provide better standards for the auto parts enterprise long-term partnership customer selection.

  15. Issues and Challenges in Self-Sustaining Response Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-28

    nodes supply items such as water, food, or fuel. Examples of the suppliers can be found in the private, military, and public sectors. The franchises ...Santa Monica, CA: RAND. Retrieved from www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2005/RAND_MG342. pdf Plambeck, E., & Denend, L. (2010, September/October). The...13-026. http://www.acquisitionresearch.net/files/FY2013/NPS-LM-13-026. pdf Robeson, J. F., & Copacino, W. C. (Eds.). (1994). The logistics handbook

  16. Roadmap to sustainable textiles and clothing regulatory aspects and sustainability standards of textiles and the clothing supply chain

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the elements involved in achieving sustainability in textiles and clothing sector. The chapters covered in three volumes of this series title cover all the distinctive areas earmarked for achieving sustainable development in textiles and clothing industry. This third volume highlights the areas pertaining to the regulatory aspects and sustainability standards applicable to textiles and clothing supply chain. There are various standards earmarked for measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of textile products. There are also plenty of certification schemes available along with the index systems applicable to textile sector. Brands and manufactures are also venturing into new developments to achieve sustainable development in textile sector. This third volume addresses all these important aspects.

  17. Blueberry Supply Chain in Italy: Management, Innovation and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Peano

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing trend market of fresh products is driven by a consumer oriented to new lifestyles and environmental issues. The berries market in Europe represents a good example of a consumer driven supply chain, due to the capacity to answer all the sequences of the system. To explore the process developed by fruit growers’ associated groups in Italy, the research is organized into four stages. The first stage provides a review of the organization of the fresh fruit supply chain (FFSC and the need to innovate it in light of the driven demand. The second section focuses on the innovation displayed towards storing, managing and maintaining the quality of fruit during the supply. The third section considers the case study. The manuscript concludes by summarising the main results and discussing the implications for future research. The use of a modified active packaging system (MAP with “green” films has enabled the maintenance of the quality of the fruits for two months, as well as the presence of the company blueberries market for longer periods, and has finally led to improving the exports, thus reaching new European countries, increasing the turnover of the associated group and better remuneration for the fruit growers as a consequence.

  18. Long-term survival after perforated diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vermeulen (Jan); M.P. Gosselink (Martijn Pieter); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); E. van der Harst (Erwin); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); G.H.H. Mannaerts (Guido); P-P. Coene (Peter Paul); W.F. Weidema (Wibo); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAim: Short-term survival after emergency surgery for perforated diverticulitis is poor. Less is known about long-term survival. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term survival after discharge from hospital and to identify factors associated with prognosis. Method: All patients

  19. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  20. With Climate Change Expanding Trade Routes in the Arctic and the Resultant Pursuit of Resources, it is Crucial that the Eight Arctic Nations Find Paths Towards Sustainability and Peace in the Region. Traditional Arctic Games are an Essential Scenario that Provide an Important Scale for Analysis Aimed at Medium-long term Sustainability in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    With climate change expanding trade routes in the Arctic and the resultant pursuit of oil, gas, mineral deposits, and fish, it is imperative that the eight Arctic countries find paths towards sustainability and peace in the region. Revisiting and understanding the traditional games of the indigenous people of these regions can go a long way towards helping those determining the region's future to work cooperatively towards these goals. Traditional games are an essential scenario that provide an important scale for analysis aimed at medium-long term sustainability in the Arctic. Throughout history the games we have played have been a testament about who we were, and are. From early Inuit bone and hunting games, to the gladiator contests of Ancient Rome, to the modern American game of baseball, the games we play have served as a statement of and a rehearsal for the life-world of that period and place. By reconnecting with and understanding the games of our past, we can build meaningful bridges between our past and present, and hopefully gain a better understanding of our modern world. The aforesaid are timely and important, especially as they relate to indigenous people throughout the world who are trying to preserve their traditions in a fast changing modern world. This presentation/paper will offer, based on my research and experiences in the Arctic, lessons learned from traditional Sámi and Inuit games that may help promote sustainability and peace in the Arctic world. Hopefully by acknowledging these lessons we can pursue a path forward, together reconnecting with the traditional games of the Arctic with the hope of building meaningful bridges between the past and present and moreover, helping to enhance our understanding of the important role traditional games can play in shaping an Arctic where sustainability and peace flourish.

  1. Long Term Energy Consumption Forecasting Using Genetic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    KARABULUT, Korhan; Alkan, Ahmet; YILMAZ, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    Managing electrical energy supply is a complex task. The most important part of electric utility resource planning is forecasting of the future load demand in the regional or national service area. This is usually achieved by constructing models on relative information, such as climate and previous load demand data. In this paper, a genetic programming approach is proposed to forecast long term electrical power consumption in the area covered by a utility situated in the southeast of Turkey. ...

  2. Exploring themes and challenges in developing sustainable supply chains – A complexity theory perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Maisam

    in developing sustainable supply chain activities from theoretical and empirical perspectives. Six research studies (RS) were designed and carried out. Two explored the patterns of the themes and challenges in making supply chains environmentally and socially sustainable in general (RS1, RS2). One explored...... freight transport (RS3), one, urban freight distribution (RS4), and one, logistical services (RS5) in particular. RS6 explored a complexity theory perspective (CTP) on managing, governing, and developing sustainable supply chains activities. A CTP was chosen because of its applicability and ability...... influenced by my interpretation of what had been said, observed, or scientifically written. The results were also relative (related to what had been said, observed, or scientifically written), and influenced by the different methods for collection and analysis of data. By combining the thirty...

  3. Packaging as source of efficient and sustainable advantages in supply chain management. An analysis of briks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus García-Arca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In higher competitive markets, the suitable supply chain management (particularly, in logistic processes and the adoptionof sustainability programs are strategic points in companies. In this context, no many companies have devoted special attentionto the impact of packaging design on logistic efficiency and sustainability.Thus, the integration of logistics and the packaging design has been conceptualized in the term «packaging logistics», par ticularly emphasizing its operational and organizational impact on supply chain performance. Going beyond, authors consider that a greater emphasis should be given to the important strategic connotations to do with packaging design,in many cases this being one of the supports of competitive advantages in the supply chain management from an overall perspective of efficiency and sustainability.To illustrate this statement, in this paper, not only the conceptual field of this concept is developed, but also in its application, analysing a case study in dairy sector, particularly, focused on brik products .

  4. Landscape conservation materials. Optimization of the supply of sustainable raw materials by means of implementation of biomass farms; Landschaftpflegematerial. Optimierung einer nachhaltigen Rohstoffbereitstellung durch die Einbindung von Biomassehoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirkner, Ronny [Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Within the analysis it could be determined the traditional resource wood is a key factor in the context of using renewable energies with a particular focus on biomass. Its multi-functionality leads to an increasing shortage of wood supply, characterized by growing competition in the overlapping fields of material and energy utilization pathways and consequent increased the pressure on a sustainable, ecologically oriented forest management. To increase the wood supply it's necessary to improve the mobilization of sustainable potential of the forest areas, woody biomass from landscape planning, wood waste and alternative options to accelerate the mobilization of wood (fast-growing tree species) and promote long-term adaptation of existing forest management concepts. The optimized provision of woody biomass from landscape planning is more likely to be short-to medium-term options moreover it has the advantage of a targeted use of residual material. But the supply of the material is discontinuous and includes very heterogeneous qualities, which shows the necessity to establish central co-ordination and processing centres to provide a customized marketing. (orig.)

  5. Understanding Pharmaceutical Sustainable Supply chains - A Case Study Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Santos Bravo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A major paradigmchange is occurring in the pharmaceutical industry and an increase of returnsand recalls has been seen; although this industry in known for the continuoussearch for quality and regulatory compliance.Hence, in this paperwe combine the findings of previous literature reviews conducted by theauthors. Essentially, explore the links between pharmaceutical drugs quality,reverse logistics, and sustainability. A case study on a global corporationmanufacturing in the area of generic drug products has been selected andcorrelations are done with regards to returns and recalls from hospitalpharmacies, in particular. With this approach it is expected to link bothparties in the application of a quality by design risk management approach aswell as reduce variability and risk of noncompliance.

  6. Sustainability of hydrogen supply chain. Part I: Identification of critical criteria and cause–effect analysis for enhancing the sustainability using DEMATEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Toniolo, Sara;

    2013-01-01

    The enhancement of sustainability of hydrogen supply chain is of vital importance for the stakeholders/decision-makers to design a sustainable hydrogen supply chain. The objective of this paper is to develop a method for prioritizing the influential factors, identifying the key driving factors...... that influence the sustainability of hydrogen supply chain and mapping the cause–effect relationships to improve the sustainability of hydrogen supply chain. In this paper, thirty seven criteria in four aspects including economic, technological, environmental and societal aspects are considered for enhancing...... the sustainability of hydrogen supply chain, and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory has been used to analyze the relationships among these criteria. The status of hydrogen supply chain in China has been studied by the proposed method, and the results are consistent with the actual conditions. It could...

  7. Sustainable Rent-Based Closed-Loop Supply Chain for Fashion Products

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Hua Hu; Qing Li; Xian-Juan Chen; Yan-Feng Wang

    2014-01-01

    The textile and clothing industry generates much pollution and consumes a large amount of resources. Improper uses and disposal of clothing products make the problems much more severe. Fast fashion products shorten the valid lifecycle and generate more waste than regular clothing products. Considering the features of fashion products, a system of a rent-based closed-loop supply chain is developed to improve the sustainability of fashion products. The supply chain processes (fashion design and...

  8. Synchronizing new product development projects and supply chain retrofitting for financial sustainability in the pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lainez Aguirre, José Miguel; Puigjaner Corbella, Lluís; Reklaitis, Gintaras V.

    2009-01-01

    In today's highly competitive marketplace, supply chain and product development activities should be coordinated and synchronized so that market demand, product release and capacity requirements are matched in a financially sustainable fashion. In this work an integrated model is developed which incorporates simultaneous treatment of supply chain design-planning and R&D decisions in the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, the aforementioned cross-functional model embeds a capita...

  9. Assessment of Sustainability of Urban Water Supply and Demand Management Options: A Comprehensive Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kumudu Rathnayaka; Hector Malano; Meenakshi Arora

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation framework that can assess a wide range of water supply and demand management policy options in terms of economic, social, environmental, risk-based, and functional performance is crucial to ascertain their level of sustainability. However, such a detailed, generic, and holistic policy evaluation framework is not found in the literature. This paper reviews studies to evaluate water supply and/or demand management options conducted during 2000–2016. Primarily, the pap...

  10. Sustainable supply chain management : The influence of local stakeholder expectations in China's agri-food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Pao T.; Redekop, William; Mark-Herbert, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Multinational food processing corporations are facing rapid growth in emerging markets like China and a concurrent need for sustainable supply chain management (SSCM). These firms attempt to address supply risk and threat to the triple bottom line through managing suppliers and inputs, and at the same time need to overcome the uncertainty raised by the unfamiliar host environment. An exploratory qualitative case study of two multinational food processing corporations in China finds their SSCM...

  11. Synchronizing new product development projects and supply chain retrofitting for financial sustainability in the pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lainez Aguirre, José Miguel; Puigjaner Corbella, Lluís; Reklaitis, Gintaras V

    2009-01-01

    In today's highly competitive marketplace, supply chain and product development activities should be coordinated and synchronized so that market demand, product release and capacity requirements are matched in a financially sustainable fashion. In this work an integrated model is developed which incorporates simultaneous treatment of supply chain design-planning and R&D decisions in the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, the aforementioned cross-functional model embeds a capita...

  12. Closed-loop Supply Chain as an Agent of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-San Gan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability has recently become an important issue which received growing attentions from government, society, industries as well as academia. There have been concerns on relatively rapid growth in population and increased quality of life despite limited natural resources and landfill capacity. Closed-loop Supply Chain (CLSC is one of many approaches to mitigate the abovementioned disproportion. This article aims to study closed-loop supply chain by explaining the definition, description, pros and contras, relevance, case studies from literature, and potential research; such that its role as an agent of sustainable development can be recognized.

  13. How to Bring Sustainability Issues in Global Supply Chains into the Classroom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Hans-Joachim; Anderluh, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability is one of the major key terms in our modern globalized world affected by such different but nevertheless closely interrelated issues like prosperity of worldwide trade, globally-spanning supply chains, the growing social gap and the threatening effects of climate change...... thought-out didactic approach and extraordinary commitment and dedication by the instructors is inevitable to ensure the success of such a course. Original/value: This paper explains in a compact way, how sustainability issues in global supply chain management can be tackled successfully even in such time...

  14. FORMING OF THE SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAINS BASED ON INCREASING OF THEIR INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHVETS V. J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Key challenges and barriers of mining machinery enterprises in the context of forming sustainable supply chains in the mining industry are specified. Methodology. The algorithm of forming the industrial relations, which are carried out by the enterprises of mining machinery in order to increase the sustainable development of a mining industry, is offered. Conclusions.. Modern supply chains are confronted with dynamic trends and developments that are hard to predict. In order to respond to these changes and remain competitive advantage, companies should be able to identify and understand new sustainability issues in their branches. It is established that in the conditions of globalization of the market and the general orientation of Ukraine’s economy to the European principles of development, for mining machinery enterprises a proof of the commitment and observance of requirements of energy efficiency, i.e. energy saving, energy safety and social energy responsibility are very important. Supply channels should increase not only energy efficiency, economic and production stability of the company, but also strengthen the stability of all participants in the production chain, as well as other stakeholders (business partners, customers, investors, local communities, etc.. Originality. The interrelation of an indicator of energy efficiency in forming sustainable supply chain in a mining industry is established. Practical value. Using the principles of sustainable development in the forming of value chains will improve energy efficiency of industry in general; provide a competitive advantage to entry into the global production chains in terms of European integration of Ukraine.

  15. Organizational design in the context of supply chain sustainability: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhowmick

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a study examining organizational design features used by organizations in pursuing their sustainable supply chain objectives. The research purpose was to gain a better understanding of the organizational design features that firms currently use or may use in the future. The results should encourage organizations to address design issues as they relate to overall supply chain effectiveness. The ever-increasing influences of the wider perspectives such as the pursuit of sustainability drive for industry consolidation/ rationalization and the need for responding to changing customer preferences may mean the conventional wisdom of organizing for success is increasingly becoming grossly inadequate, if not obsolete. There are numerous reasons why companies start to rethink about organizational design, organizational structure and its performance to attain a supply chain sustainability journey. Primary among them is to ensure compliance with laws and regulations and to adhere to and support international principles for sustainable business conduct. In addition, companies are increasingly taking actions that result in better social, economic and environmental impacts because society expects this and because there are business benefits to doing so. Given the dynamics of the current competitive global supply landscape, organizational design concerns are critical to sustained organizational success.

  16. Ethics in the Supply Chain: Improving Sustainability in Food and Clothing Retail Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ugboma, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to identify issues ethical issues food and clothing retailers face in their supply chain and identify appropriate tools for tackling such issues. Before recommending such tools, four sub questions were asked and answered using a secondary analysis of data which had been put together by previous researchers. The questioned aimed at answering whether the objectives of a company interfered with its capability to be ethical, whether the length and nature of the...

  17. Effects of alpha-linolenic acid vs. docosahexaenoic acid supply on the distribution of fatty acids among the rat cardiac subcellular membranes after a short- or long-term dietary exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseau-Ralliard Delphine

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work showed that the functional cardiac effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA in rats requires a long feeding period (6 months, although a docosahexaenoic (DHA acid-supply affects cardiac adrenergic response after 2 months. However, the total cardiac membrane n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA composition remained unchanged after 2 months. This delay could be due to a specific reorganization of the different subcellular membrane PUFA profiles. This study was designed to investigate the evolution between 2 and 6 months of diet duration of the fatty acid profile in sarcolemmal (SL, mitochondrial (MI, nuclear (NU and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR membrane fractions. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 3 dietary groups (n = 10/diet/period, either n-3 PUFA-free diet (CTL, or ALA or DHA-rich diets. After 2 or 6 months, the subcellular cardiac membrane fractions were separated by differential centrifugations and sucrose gradients. Each membrane profile was analysed by gas chromatography (GC after lipid extraction. Results As expected the n-3 PUFA-rich diets incorporated n-3 PUFA instead of n-6 PUFA in all the subcellular fractions, which also exhibited individual specificities. The diet duration increased SFA and decreased PUFA in SL, whereas NU remained constant. The SR and MI enriched in n-3 PUFA exhibited a decreased DHA level with ageing in the DHA and CTL groups. Conversely, the n-3 PUFA level remained unchanged in the ALA group, due to a significant increase in docosapentaenoic acid (DPA. N-3 PUFA rich diets lead to a better PUFA profile in all the fractions and significantly prevent the profile modifications induced by ageing. Conclusion With the ALA diet the n-3 PUFA content, particularly in SR and SL kept increasing between 2 and 6 months, which may partly account for the delay to achieve the modification of adrenergic response.

  18. Assessment of key sustainability indicators in a UK fast food supply chain: a life cycle perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the understanding of businesses and end consumers of key sustainability measures in the UK fast food Supply Chain. A quantitative method was used in which two sets of well-structured questionnaires were designed separately for fast food businesses and end consumers. The data analysis was conducted through “cluster analysis”. It was found that social responsibility was scored as the most important fast food sustainability concern for businesses, wh...

  19. Packaging as source of efficient and sustainable advantages in supply chain management. An analysis of briks

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus García-Arca; A.T. González-Portela; Prado-Prado, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    In higher competitive markets, the suitable supply chain management (particularly, in logistic processes) and the adoptionof sustainability programs are strategic points in companies. In this context, no many companies have devoted special attentionto the impact of packaging design on logistic efficiency and sustainability. Thus, the integration of logistics and the packaging design has been conceptualized in the term «packaging logistics», par ticularly emphasizing its operational and organi...

  20. A framework for planning sustainable seawater desalination water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Maedeh P; McHugh, Adam; Anda, Martin; Ho, Goen

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative framework for sustainable desalination planning in metropolitan areas, which integrates the tools of mixed integer linear programming and life cycle assessment, is presented. The life cycle optimisation framework allows for optimal desalination planning by considering choices over intake type, staging and location of the infrastructure under different land-use, environmental and economic policies. Optimality is defined by the decision maker's selected objective function, being either an environmental impact or a levelised cost indicator. The framework was tested for future desalination planning scenarios in the northern metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. Results indicate that multi-staged construction and decentralised planning solutions may produce lower life cycle environmental impacts (58%) and at a lower levelised cost (24%) than a centralised desalination solution currently being considered by Western Australian water planners. Sensitivity analysis results suggest that the better environmental and economic performance of decentralised planning over centralised planning is highly sensitive to the proportion of land that can be made available for the siting of decentralised plants near the demand zone. Insight into land use policies is a critical factor to the initiation and success of decentralised solution in developed metropolitan areas.

  1. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for businesses and policy makers and this has inspired a search for governance arrangement to promote long term decision making. In this paper we study a particularly long-term ownership structure, which is fairly common in Northern Europe, particularly...... in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long-term...... in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...

  2. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  3. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  4. Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strategic Plan Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program ( ... Prevention HIV/AIDS Nutrition Services Oral Health Elder Justice & Adult Protective Services Elder Justice Coordinating Council Prevention ...

  5. Pituitary diseases : long-term clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaauw, Agatha Apolonia van der

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies during the long-term follow-up of patients after treatment for pituitary diseases. The focus of this thesis is acromegaly, growth hormone deficiency, sleep and quality of life. Various aspects are described.

  6. Long-term outcome of meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Ostenberg, A; Roos, H;

    2001-01-01

    To describe the long-term influence of meniscectomy on pain, functional limitations, and muscular performance. To assess the effects of radiographic osteoarthritis (OA), gender and age on these outcomes in patients with meniscectomy....

  7. Pituitary diseases : long-term clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaauw, Agatha Apolonia van der

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies during the long-term follow-up of patients after treatment for pituitary diseases. The focus of this thesis is acromegaly, growth hormone deficiency, sleep and quality of life. Various aspects are described.

  8. Factors influencing long-term adherence to two previously implemented hospital guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Knops; M.N. Storm-Versloot; A.P.M. Mank; D.T. Ubbink; H. Vermeulen; P.M.M. Bossuyt; A. Goossens

    2010-01-01

    After successful implementation, adherence to hospital guidelines should be sustained. Long-term adherence to two hospital guidelines was audited. The overall aim was to explore factors accounting for their long-term adherence or non-adherence. A fluid balance guideline (FBG) and body temperature gu

  9. Long-term effects of HIV treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: from access to quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boender, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    As HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa mature, there are rising concerns about the long-term sustainability and quality of these programs. Increasing levels of HIV drug resistance have been measured in sub-Saharan Africa, and could jeopardize long-term treatment success. This thesis present

  10. Local and Sustainable Food Supply: The Role of European Retail Consumer Co-operatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hingley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  This paper investigates the rationale for local and sustainable food systems and retailer co-operatives as their entry points within local conditions. Emphasis is on localised food networks and connection between socially as well as environmentally sustainable production, distribution and consumption. Investigated is the premise that co-operative organisational structures, for reasons of their long-term socially responsible origins are at the forefront of development of local and sustainable food systems and are thereby in a position to offer a specific contribution to market development. Two key research questions are proposed: Firstly, is there a pre-determination of co-operatives to issues of sustainable and local food sourcing given the historical and practical context of their ethical/socially responsible and stakeholder-based business model? Secondly, do co-ops express support for re-localising food systems and what contribution do they make concerning sustainable food and their relationships with local food suppliers? The method of investigation is through a two country retailer co-operative sector analysis and comparison (Finland and Italy. The enquiry is qualitative and exploratory in nature in the form of an embedded, multiple case design. The paper makes practical and theoretical contribution to knowledge concerning interpretation of ‘localness’ in food, the role of co-operatives and the co-operative ethos in sustainable food systems and the development of the local food economy. Results of the study show a positive relationship between co-operative ethos and (social sustainability in local food, but the de-centralised nature of retailer co-operation also provides a barrier to replication of good practice.

  11. Long-term outcomes after severe shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M

    2015-02-01

    Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 μg/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below U.S. population norms (P shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely critically ill patients have similar outcomes to general intensive care unit survivor populations.

  12. Anticipating Long-Term Stock Market Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Christian; Loch, Karin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between long-term U.S. stock market risks and the macroeconomic environment using a two component GARCH-MIDAS model. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of counter-cyclical behavior of long-term stock market volatility. Among the various macro variables in our dataset the term spread, housing starts, corporate profits and the unemployment rate have the highest predictive ability for stock market volatility . While the term spread and housing starts are...

  13. Long-Term follow up after intra-Uterine transfusionS; the LOTUS study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Verduin, Esther P; Lindenburg, Irene T M; Smits-Wintjens, Vivianne E H J; van Klink, Jeanine M M; Schonewille, Henk; van Kamp, Inge L; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J; Kanhai, Humphrey H H; Doxiadis, Ilias I N; Lopriore, Enrico; Brand, Anneke

    2010-01-01

    .... We set up a large long-term observational follow-up study (LOTUS study), in cooperation with the Sanquin Blood Supply Foundation and the LUMC departments of Obstetrics, Neonatology and ImmunoHematology...

  14. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lavelle, S. [ICAM, 59 - Lille (France)

    2006-07-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  15. Long Term Monitoring of Microbial Induced Soil Strengthening Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneiyan, S.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Werkema, D. D., Jr.; Colwell, F. S.; Ohan, J.

    2016-12-01

    Soil strengthening/stabilization processes are used to address some of soil quality issues. Microbial induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a promising soil stabilization process that could offer long term solution by overcoming problems of commonly used methods (e.g. injecting cement slurry). MICP can be applied in larger spatial scales, allowing the enhanced soils to be maintained in an economic sustainable and environmental friendly way. Methods are sought for the long term monitoring of MICP enhanced soils. The spectral induced polarization (SIP) method is one promising method due to sensitivity on such processes and the ability for long term, even autonomous, operation as well as cost effectiveness. Previous laboratory tests showed the sensitivity of the SIP method on soil strengthening as a result of abiotic calcite precipitation. We extended this work to biotic calcite precipitation through MICP. Early results suggest that the MICP formed calcite is denser and could provide improved strengthening capabilities. Our results are supported by geophysical (SIP and shear-wave velocity), geo-chemical and microbiological monitoring. Destructive analysis and visualization (scanning electron imaging - SEM) is expected to provide conclusive evidence on the MICP long term effectiveness.

  16. Geographical scheme of sustainable development and self-supply in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Plut

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the crisis, both on global and regional levels, does not mean to continue the traditional developmental practice but to implement a sustainable development concept. In Slovenia, it should be implemented in the country as a whole and in all its individual regions in order to pursue the welfare of the citizens of the present and future generations and also to balance economic, social and environmental development. Slovenia has all the essential developmental-protective geographical potentials (environmental resources that are necessary for its transition to sustainable development, sustainable reinvigoration of economy and a safe degree of food and energy levels for its self-supply.

  17. Nanotechnology and clean energy: sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromer, Neil A., E-mail: nafromer@caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Resnick Sustainability Institute (United States); Diallo, Mamadou S., E-mail: diallo@wag.caltech.edu [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water and Sustainability (EEWS) (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving the sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials in clean and renewable energy technologies could be addressed using (i) nanostructured materials with enhanced electronic, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties and (ii) nanotechnology-based separation materials and systems that can recover critical materials from non-traditional sources including mine tailings, industrial wastewater and electronic wastes with minimum environmental impact. This article discusses the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve materials sustainability for energy generation, conversion and storage. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address materials sustainability for clean and renewable energy technologies.

  18. Designing Sustainable Production and Distribution Scenarios for the Beef and Pork Supply Chains in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Dondè

    2016-08-01

    The core improvements that can be extracted from the scenarios are: increased chain collaboration, information sharing in the chain, and governmental involvement in the Brazilian beef and pork supply chains. A major value of the paper lays in the three-phase methodology set-up. This paper will also contribute to the debate on sustainable improvements feasible in these Brazilian food chains.

  19. Simulation modelling for food supply chain redesign; integrated decision making on product quality, sustainability and logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vorst, J.G.A.J.; Tromp, S.O.; van der Zee, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food supply chains are confronted with increased consumer demands on food quality and sustainability. When redesigning these chains the analysis of food quality change and environmental load of new scenarios is as important as the analysis of efficiency and responsiveness requirements. Simulation to

  20. EPA Hosts International G7 Workshop on Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - On March 22-23, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Gina McCarthy welcomes public and private sector representatives from G7 nations to a workshop on sustainable supply chain management. At their annual Summit in 2015, th

  1. Netchain innovation for sustainable pork supply chains in an EU context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhoff-Savvaki, R.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at providing insight in the need for innovations in the European pork sector in order to construct sustainable pork supply netchains. It provides an overview of sustainabilitypressures on netchain actors such as societal conformity, environmental impact, and economicsustainability. T

  2. Investment and export opportunities in a sustainable pig supply chain in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoste, R.; Hu, D.; Tolkamp, J.

    2013-01-01

    Given the increasing average income of the Chinese consumer, increasing awareness of food safety and giant performance arrears there is a large need for investments in the entire pig supply chain. The Netherlands can contribute to a more sustainable Chinese pig production system, both by exporting

  3. Simulation modelling for food supply chain redesign; integrated decision making on product quality, sustainability and logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vorst, J.G.A.J.; Tromp, S.O.; van der Zee, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food supply chains are confronted with increased consumer demands on food quality and sustainability. When redesigning these chains the analysis of food quality change and environmental load of new scenarios is as important as the analysis of efficiency and responsiveness requirements. Simulation

  4. Workshop on the Design of Sustainable Product Systems and Supply Chains; Final Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABOUT THE WORKSHOP The Workshop on the Design of Sustainable Product Systems and Supply Chains was held September 12–13, 2011 at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) offices in Arlington, Virginia. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (...

  5. Multinational Companies’ (MNC’s) Implementation of Sustainable Supply Chain Management in Chinese Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chaojun; Lehmann, Martin

    This paper studies what factors may facilitate or hinder the implementation of Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) in multinational companies’ (MNC’s) Chinese subsidiaries by focusing on two factors, (i) the Chinese subsidiaries’ absorptive capacity , and (ii) institutional factors. A case...

  6. Investment and export opportunities in a sustainable pig supply chain in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoste, R.; Hu, D.; Tolkamp, J.

    2013-01-01

    Given the increasing average income of the Chinese consumer, increasing awareness of food safety and giant performance arrears there is a large need for investments in the entire pig supply chain. The Netherlands can contribute to a more sustainable Chinese pig production system, both by exporting p

  7. Design of Sustainable Biofuel Processes and Supply Chains: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George G. Zaimes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current methodological approach for developing sustainable biofuel processes and supply chains is flawed. Life cycle principles are often retrospectively incorporated in the design phase resulting in incremental environmental improvement rather than selection of fuel pathways that minimize environmental impacts across the life cycle. Further, designing sustainable biofuel supply chains requires joint consideration of economic, environmental, and social factors that span multiple spatial and temporal scales. However, traditional life cycle assessment (LCA ignores economic aspects and the role of ecological goods and services in supply chains, and hence is limited in its ability for guiding decision-making among alternatives—often resulting in sub-optimal solutions. Simultaneously incorporating economic and environment objectives in the design and optimization of emerging biofuel supply chains requires a radical new paradigm. This work discusses key research opportunities and challenges in the design of emerging biofuel supply chains and provides a high-level overview of the current “state of the art” in environmental sustainability assessment of biofuel production. Additionally, a bibliometric analysis of over 20,000 biofuel research articles from 2000-to-present is performed to identify active topical areas of research in the biofuel literature, quantify the relative strength of connections between various biofuels research domains, and determine any potential research gaps.

  8. Impacts of Returning Unsold Products in Retail Outsourcing Fashion Supply Chain: A Sustainability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available l outsourcing with a return policy is quite commonly adopted in the fashion supply chain. Under the return policy, the supplier as a brand owner may focus on production, and then outsource retailing to the retailer. In the meanwhile, the retailer may receive some support money from the supplier for subsidizing the loss of unsold products at the end of the selling season and be asked for shipping back. Motivated by this real practice in the fashion industry, we examine a two-echelon supply chain with one supplier and one retailer under the return policy. Several interesting findings are obtained from our analysis. First, we find that when the supply chain achieves channel coordination, the cost of physical return is at least partially borne by the supplier, no matter who is responsible for it in reality. Second, we find that the cost of physical return is significantly affecting the sustainability factors such as the expected amount leftover (which represents environmental friendliness, the expected sales to expected goods leftover ratio (which implies both environmental friendliness and economic sustainability, and the rate of return on investment (which indicates economic sustainability. Third, from a sustainability perspective, we find that the pure wholesale price contract is more sustainable than the coordinating return policy. A numerical study by the real company data is conducted and managerial insights from analysis are discussed.

  9. Small Producers and Retailers Network Supply Chains Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Davidovic

    2010-01-01

    The retailers network with e-supplying system can be main sales channel for small local and regional producers and their supply chain. Small producers and retailers network supply chains integration based on modern supply chain management systems (SCM) reduce cost of coordination, increase efficiency and effectiveness of logistics and retail, and create long-term mutual benefit relationship between small producers and retailers in logistics and retailing, branding and their impact on sustain ...

  10. Small Producers and Retailers Network Supply Chains Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Davidovic

    2010-01-01

    The retailers network with e-supplying system can be main sales channel for small local and regional producers and their supply chain. Small producers and retailers network supply chains integration based on modern supply chain management systems (SCM) reduce cost of coordination, increase efficiency and effectiveness of logistics and retail, and create long-term mutual benefit relationship between small producers and retailers in logistics and retailing, branding and their impact on sustain ...

  11. GIS Operations at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site: A Review of the Current Status and a Proposed Action to Ensure Long-Term Data Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Andre M.; Webber, William D.

    2005-07-27

    This paper provides a current state of spatial data collections, use, management, and challenges at the Hanford Site through the use and development of a Spatial Data Infrastructure. Recommendations designed to ensure data quality, usability and sustainability now and into the future are presented.

  12. Availability, Sustainability, and Suitability of Ground Water, Rogers Mesa, Delta County, Colorado - Types of Analyses and Data for Use in Subdivision Water-Supply Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    Mesa consists of alluvial-fan deposits that overlie shale and, locally, sandstone. Maps of the base of the aquifer, the water table, and the saturated thickness of the aquifer were prepared from data from the well files of the Colorado Division of Water Resources. The base of the aquifer generally is topographically higher than the valleys of the North Fork Gunnison River and Leroux Creek, and direct hydraulic connection of the aquifer to North Fork Gunnison River and Leroux Creek is limited. The aquifer is recharged primarily by infiltration of surface water diverted for irrigation. Ground water discharges to seeps and springs and through slope deposits at the boundaries of the aquifer. Data from the well files also were used to estimate the specific capacity of wells and to estimate the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. A water budget was used to estimate recharge to and discharge from the aquifer. Although storage within the aquifer likely varies seasonally and from year to year, it was assumed that there were no long-term changes in ground-water storage. Estimated average annual recharge to and discharge from the aquifer during November 1998 through October 2006 were about 30,767 acre-feet per year. Although sufficient ground water is available on Rogers Mesa for additional domestic water supplies, conversion of irrigated land to residential land use likely would reduce recharge to the aquifer, affecting the sustainability of ground-water supplies on Rogers Mesa. Stream-depletion analyses indicate that the ground water in the aquifer likely would be considered tributary ground water and additional uses of ground water to supply new subdivisions likely would require implementation of augmentation plans. Although sufficient ground water is available on Rogers Mesa for additional domestic water supplies, conversion of irrigated land to residential land use likely would reduce recharge to the aquifer, affecting the sustainability

  13. A Framework for Sustainable Urban Water Management through Demand and Supply Forecasting: The Case of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalçıntaş

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan city of Istanbul is becoming overcrowded and the demand for clean water is steeply rising in the city. The use of analytical approaches has become more and more critical for forecasting the water supply and demand balance in the long run. In this research, Istanbul’s water supply and demand data is collected for the period during 2006 and 2014. Then, using an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model, the time series water supply and demand forecasting model is constructed for the period between 2015 and 2018. Three important sustainability metrics such as water loss to supply ratio, water loss to demand ratio, and water loss to residential demand ratio are also presented. The findings show that residential water demand is responsible for nearly 80% of total water use and the consumption categories including commercial, industrial, agriculture, outdoor, and others have a lower share in total water demand. The results also show that there is a considerable water loss in the water distribution system which requires significant investments on the water supply networks. Furthermore, the forecasting results indicated that pipeline projects will be critical in the near future due to expected increases in the total water demand of Istanbul. The authors suggest that sustainable management of water can be achieved by reducing the residential water use through the use of water efficient technologies in households and reduction in water supply loss through investments on distribution infrastructure.

  14. The Trends and Long-Term Scenarios in EU and the Member States Concerning Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Dumitrescu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past 20 years the European Union has been working continually to promote green energy. Renewable energy has a number of social, economic and environmental benefits. A major advantage of using renewable energy is that it has a low environmental impact, therefore, can support growth on a sustainable basis. The study analyzes the EU progress and long-term trends and scenarios in the field of renewable resources. It also presents the experience of other Member States and their green energy orientations. This can be for Romania an example to promote an energy policy that ensures a permanent balance between security of supply, competitiveness and economic viability and the last, but not the least environment protection.

  15. The Forecasting Procedure for Long-Term Wind Speed in the Zhangye Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhai Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy crisis has made it urgent to find alternative energy sources for sustainable energy supply; wind energy is one of the attractive alternatives. Within a wind energy system, the wind speed is one key parameter; accurately forecasting of wind speed can minimize the scheduling errors and in turn increase the reliability of the electric power grid and reduce the power market ancillary service costs. This paper proposes a new hybrid model for long-term wind speed forecasting based on the first definite season index method and the Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA models or the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH forecasting models. The forecasting errors are analyzed and compared with the ones obtained from the ARMA, GARCH model, and Support Vector Machine (SVM; the simulation process and results show that the developed method is simple and quite efficient for daily average wind speed forecasting of Hexi Corridor in China.

  16. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  17. Capsosomes as Long-Term Delivery Vehicles for Protein Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, James W; Richardson, Joseph J; Chandrawati, Rona; Kempe, Kristian; van Koeverden, Martin P; Caruso, Frank

    2015-07-21

    We report the preparation of polymer capsules containing liposomal subcompartments, termed capsosomes, and their ability for the sustained delivery of protein therapeutics. Capsosomes were formed through the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polymers and protein-loaded liposomes, followed by the formation of a capsule membrane based on disulfide cross-linked poly(methacrylic acid). The loading capacities of a model cargo (lysozyme) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important neurotrophin that has significant physiological functions on the nervous system, were determined, and the long-term release kinetics of the proteins was investigated in simulated physiological conditions. The capsosomes exhibited protein loading and release behavior that can be tuned by the lipid composition of the liposomal compartments, where inclusion of anionic lipids resulted in enhanced protein loading and slower release over the course of 80 days. These findings highlight the potential of capsosomes for the long-term delivery of protein therapeutics.

  18. Designing Energy Supply Chains with the P-Graph Framework under Cost Constraints andSustainability Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains is presented using the P-graph framework to develop supply chain structures which are analyzed using cost, the cost of producing electricity, and two sustainability metrics: ecological footprint and emergy. They...

  19. Long-term Multiwavelength Observations of Polars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Joshua; Mason, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Polars are cataclysmic variables with the highest magnetic field strengths (10-250 MG). Matter is accreted after being funneled by the strong magnetic field of the white dwarf. We perform a meta-study of multi-wavelength data of polars. Many polars have been observed in surveys, such as SDSS, 2MASS, ROSAT, just to name a few. Some polars have now been detected by the JVLA, part of an expanding class of radio CVs. A large subset of polars have long-term optical light curves from CRTS and AAVSO. We suggest that the long term light curves of polars display a variety of signature behaviors and may be grouped accordingly. Additional characteristics such a binary period, magnetic field strengths, X-ray properties, and distance estimates are examined in context with long-term observations.

  20. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Tröger, Josephine [Department of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Interdisciplinary Research Group on Environmental Issues, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Muñoz, Katherine [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Interdisciplinary Research Group on Environmental Issues, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Frör, Oliver [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental Economics, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen, E-mail: schaumann@uni-landau.de [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  1. Sustainability Assessment in Automotive and Electronics Supply Chains—A Set of Indicators Defined in a Multi-Stakeholder Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef-Peter Schöggl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In automotive and electronics supply chains, sustainability assessment is gaining increasing importance. More stringent regulations and growing customer pressure are driving the change towards more environmentally, socially and economically responsible supply chains. Since this implies a rising use of resources for data collection, monitoring, exchange and assessment, the objective of this paper is to facilitate supply chain sustainability assessment. The present paper first provides a tailored set of 69 supply chain sustainability indicators for the European automotive and electronics industries. These were derived on the basis of a systematic literature review, together with 13 semi-structured interviews and five focus group workshops, all of which involved sustainability and industry experts. Second, the paper provides a case example of software-based supply chain sustainability data exchange. The extent to which sustainability information is currently exchanged in the two industries is also analyzed. The set of indicators is scientifically relevant since it considers all three dimensions of sustainability and is intended to allow for supply chain-wide sustainability assessment in two specific industries. It is also of high practical relevance since it was developed with and validated by industry experts, and also since it considers industrial and technical requirements for supply chain sustainability assessment in order to increase the efficiency of the work processes.

  2. Sustainability Analysis and Buy-Back Coordination in a Fashion Supply Chain with Price Competition and Demand Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain sustainability has become significantly important in the fashion industry, and more and more fashion brands have invested in developing sustainable supply chains. We note that dual channel system comprising a brand-owned direct channel and retail outsourcing channel is quite common in the fashion industry, and in the latter, buy-back contract is popular between brands and retailers. Therefore, we build a stylized dual channel model with price competition and demand uncertainty to characterize the main properties of a fashion supply chain. Our foci are the sustainability analysis and the channel coordination mechanism. We first design a buy-back contract with return cost to coordinate the channel. We then study supply chain sustainability and examine the effect of two key influencing factors, i.e., price competition and demand uncertainty. Interestingly, we find that a fiercer price competition will lead to a more sustainable supply chain. From the perspective of supply chain managers, we conclude that (1 if managers care about environmental sustainability, fierce price competition is not a suggested strategy; (2 if managers care about economic sustainability, fierce price competition is an advantageous strategy. We also find that high demand uncertainty results in a less sustainable supply chain, in both an environmental and economic sustainability sense.

  3. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  4. [Fetal pain: immediate and long term consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houfflin Debarge, Véronique; Dutriez, Isabelle; Pusniak, Benoit; Delarue, Eléonore; Storme, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    Several situations are potentially painful for fetuses, such as malformations and invasive procedures. Nociceptive pathways are known to be functional at 26 weeks. Even if it is not possible to evaluate the fetal experience of pain, it is essential to examine its immediate and long-term consequences. As early as the beginning of the second trimester, hemodynamic and hormonal responses are observed following fetal nociceptive stimulation, In experimental studies, long-term changes have been noted in the corticotrop axis, subsequent responses to pain, and behavior after perinatal nociceptive stimulation.

  5. Keratoprosthesis: a long-term review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnham, J J; Roper-Hall, M J

    1983-07-01

    A keratoprosthesis (KP), is an artificial cornea which is inserted into an opacified cornea in an attempt to restore useful vision or, less commonly, to make the eye comfortable in painful keratopathy. Results o a retrospective study of 35 patients, with 55 KP insertions, are reviewed with regard to visual acuity, length of time vision is maintained, retention time, and complication. Overall there were a number of long-term real successes, eith retention of the KP and maintenance of improved vision in eyes not amenable to conventional treatment. Careful long-term follow-up was needed, with further surgical procedures often being necessary.

  6. Water supply in the long term: a risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Integrated water assessment studies are often confined to a study of physical aspects, considering the relation between surface and groundwater, water quantity and water quality, and between water, land and climate. The interaction between changes in the water system and socio-economic development i

  7. The Feedback Control Cycle of Mineral Supply, Increase of Raw Material Efficiency, and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich-W. Wellmer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development with regard to non-renewable resources can best be defined in terms of the inter-generational challenge of the Brundtland commission and the intra-generational challenge worked out in Agenda 21 of the 1992 Rio de Janeiro conference of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED. In meeting these challenges, the trilemma of security of supply under conditions of economic viability and environmental sustainability also needs to be addressed in order to achieve sustainable development. To fulfil the natural resources needs of future generations we have three resources at our disposal: (1 the geosphere or primary resources; (2 the technosphere or secondary resources and (3 human ingenuity and creativity driving innovation. Man does not need natural resources as such, only the intrinsic property of a material that enables the fulfilment of a function is required. Any material that can perform the same function more efficiently or cheaply can replace any other material. In our constant drive to secure the supply of efficient raw materials, the feedback control cycle plays an indispensable role by virtue of it reacting to price signals on both the supply and demand sides. The feedback cycle of course goes hand in hand with a continuous learning process. On the supply side, the learning effects are in technology development around primary resources and the increased use of secondary resources; on the demand side with thriftier use of raw materials.

  8. Addressing the challenges for sustainable production of algal biofuels: I. Algal strains and nutrient supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Leite, Gustavo B; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae hold promise for the production of sustainable replacement of fossil fuels due to their high growth rates, ability to grow on non-arable land and their high content, under the proper conditions, of high energy compounds that can be relatively easily chemically converted to fuels using existing technology. However, projected large-scale algal production raises a number of sustainability concerns concerning land use, net energy return, water use and nutrient supply. The state-of-the-art of algal production of biofuels is presented with emphasis on some possible avenues to provide answers to the sustainability questions that have been raised. Here, issues concerning algal strains and supply of nutrients for large-scale production are discussed. Since sustainability concerns necessitate the use of wastewaters for supply of bulk nutrients, emphasis is placed on the composition and suitability of different wastewater streams. At the same time, algal cultivation has proven useful in waste treatment processes, and thus this aspect is also treated in some detail.

  9. Sustainability Assessment Framework for Food Supply Chain Logistics: Empirical Findings from Dutch Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack G.A.J. van der Vorst

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Food companies are increasingly challenged to balance business performance and economic gains with environmental and social performance. Therefore, in 2012, we started a collaborative project on this topic named SCALE (Step Change in Agri-food Logistics Ecosystems. SCALE aims to improve the sustainability of food and drink supply chain logistics in the context of rising food demands, increasing energy prices and the need to reduce environmentally damaging emissions. More in particular, SCALE aims to deliver a number of tools and frameworks valuable for the agri-food sector to secure a step change in operational practices, which will improve the efficiency and sustainability of supply chain logistics. In the paper we present the first results of this project. Aim of this paper is (1 to present a sustainability research framework for food supply chains logistics including drivers, strategies, performance indicators, metrics and improvement opportunities to measure and potentially enhance sustainability performances; and (2 to analyse and diagnose the current status of Dutch food & drinks companies and logistics service providers using this framework. Results are found via a literature review, web-based research and structured interviews with Dutch food and logistics service industry.

  10. Carbon Footprint estimation for a Sustainable Improvement of Supply Chains: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Cordero

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper examines the current methodologies and approaches developed to estimate carbon footprint in supply chains and the studies existing in the literature review about the application of these methodologies and other new approaches proposed by some authors.Design/methodology/approach: Literature review about methodologies developed by some authors for determining greenhouse gases emissions throughout the supply chain of a given sector or organization.Findings and Originality/value: Due to its usefulness for the design and management of a sustainable supply chain management, methodologies for calculating carbon footprint across the supply chain are recommended by many authors not only to reduce GHG emissions but also to optimize it in a cost-effective manner. Although these approaches are in first stages of development and the literature is scarce, different methodologies for estimating CF emissions which include EIO analysis models and standardized methods and guidance have been developed, some of them applicable to supply chains especially methodologies for calculating CF of a specific economic sector supply chain in a territory or country and for calculating CF of an organization applicable to the estimation of GHG emissions of a specific company supply chain.

  11. Sustainable supply chains in the world of industry 4.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietro, Erika Di; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    , economical and environmental level. The sustainable aspect in Industry 4.0 is highly correlated with digitization at a process, product and organizational level (Reichel, 2017). This paper presents a framework for the implementation of Industry 4.0 technologies in new and current bussiness processes while......Purpose: Industry 4.0 introduces a series of changes for the supply chain, in particular in terms of technology, structure, connectivity and communication. This presents companies with new opportunities but also new challenges. These emerging trends are affecting the supply chain at a social...

  12. Consequences of long-term hyperparathyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graal, M B; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    1998-01-01

    We describe a young woman with long-term untreated hyperparathyroidism with a superimposed vitamin D deficiency and an extremely decreased bone mineral density that was complicated by a vertebral fracture. Despite pretreatment with intravenous pamidronate and short-term vitamin D supplementation, se

  13. Long-term prevention of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoedt, K J; Hansen, H P; Tarnow, L

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria not receiving antihypertensive treatment, an increase in urinary AER (UAER) of 6-14%/year and a risk of developing diabetic nephropathy (DN) of 3-30%/year have been reported. We audited the long-term effect of blocking the renin-a...

  14. Long Term Transfer Effect of Metaphoric Allusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David A.; Mateja, John A.

    A study was conducted to investigate the long term transfer effect of metaphoric allusion used to clarify unfamiliar subject matter. Forty-nine high school students were given unfamiliar prose materials variously augmented by metaphoric allusion. The subjects' immediate performance on a transfer task was compared to their performance on an…

  15. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  16. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  17. The long term characteristics of greenschist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo-An

    2016-04-01

    The greenschist in the Jinping II Hydropower Station in southwest China exhibits continuous creep behaviour because of the geological conditions in the region. This phenomenon illustrates the time-dependent deformation and progressive damage that occurs after excavation. In this study, the responses of greenschist to stress over time were determined in a series of laboratory tests on samples collected from the access tunnel walls at the construction site. The results showed that the greenschist presented time-dependent behaviour under long-term loading. The samples generally experienced two stages: transient creep and steady creep, but no accelerating creep. The periods of transient creep and steady creep increased with increasing stress levels. The long-term strength of the greenschist was identified based on the variation of creep strain and creep rate. The ratio of long-term strength to conventional strength was around 80% and did not vary much with confining pressures. A quantitative method for predicting the failure period of greenschist, based on analysis of the stress-strain curve, is presented and implemented. At a confining pressure of 40 MPa, greenschist was predicted to fail in 5000 days under a stress of 290 MPa and to fail in 85 days under the stress of 320 MPa, indicating that the long-term strength identified by the creep rate and creep strain is a reliable estimate.

  18. Pituitary diseases : long-term psychological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, pituitary adenomas can be appropriately treated, but patients continue to report impaired quality of life (QoL) despite long-term remission or cure. In patients with Cushing’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly, doctors should be aware of subtle cognitive impairments and the

  19. Elderly and long-term care trends and policy in Taiwan: Challenges and opportunities for health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Hung Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to address the trends and policy of elderly and long-term care in Taiwan. In response to the increasing demand of an aging society, healthcare professionals play crucial roles in elderly and long-term care and quality assurance of services. This article focuses on the current situation of elderly health care, demands of long-term care, long-term care policy in Taiwan, draft of the Long-term Care Services Act, and draft of the Long-term Care Insurance Act. After the 10-year long-term care project was proposed by the Taiwan government, the supply of health care services and demand for long-term care have created many challenges and opportunities for innovative health professional development. Challenges consist of low old dependency ratio caused by low birth rate, lack of elderly and long-term care related manpower, services and education reform related to long-term care for the future society, and interprofessional collaboration and team work of long-term care. Opportunities include expanding the roles and the career pathways of healthcare professionals, promoting the concepts of active aging and good quality of life, and developing industrial cooperation related to long-term care services. Under these circumstances, healthcare professonals are actively involved in practice, education and research of long-term care services that ensure elderly and disabled people can live a healthier and better life.

  20. Supply Chains in the Apparel Industry: Do Transnational Initiatives for Social Sustainability Improve Workers’ Situation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Meier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-state driven Transnational Initiatives for Social Sustainability (TISSs have increasingly attempted to approach social issues like labour laws in global supply chains. The reason is that state-laws are territorially confined. But can TISSs contribute to effective solutions of issues on which they are focused? This examination presents a theoretical framework explaining the effectiveness of TISSs. For the empirical case study, the Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI and the Fair Wear Foundation (FWF were selected. Data was collected from expert interviews and documents. The results led to the conclusion that stakeholder-involving approaches are adequate to support social sustainability in the future.

  1. Improved Sustainability of Water Supply Options in Areas with Arsenic-Impacted Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. McBean

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The supply of water for rural populations in developing countries continues to present enormous problems, particularly where there is arsenic contamination in the groundwater, as exists over significant parts of Bangladesh. In response, improvements in the sustainability of water supplies are feasible through the use of a combination of water sources wherein rainwater harvesting is employed for a portion of the year. This can potentially reduce the duration of the year during which arsenic-contaminated groundwater is utilized. As demonstrated, a rainwater cistern volume of 0.5 m3 in the Jessore district area of Bangladesh can provide rainwater for periods averaging 266 days of the year, which allows groundwater at 184 µg/L arsenic to be used as a water supply for the remainder of the year. This dual supply approach provides the body burden equivalent to the interim drinking water guideline of arsenic concentration of 50 µg/L for 365 days of the year (assuming the water consumption rate is 4 L/cap/day for a family of five with a rainwater collection area of 15 m2. If the water use rate is 20 L/cap/day, the same cistern can provide water for 150 days of the year; however, although this is insufficient to supply water to meet the body burden equivalent guideline of 50 µg/L. Results are provided also for different rooftop areas, sizes of cisterns and alternative arsenic guidelines [World Health Organization (WHO and Bangladeshi]. These findings provide useful guidelines on supply options to meet sustainability targets of water supply. However, they also demonstrate that the use of cisterns cannot assist the meeting of the 10 µg/L WHO target arsenic body burden, if the arsenic contamination in the groundwater is high (e.g., at 100 µg/L.

  2. Rationale and Safety Assessment of a Novel Intravaginal Drug-Delivery System with Sustained DL-Lactic Acid Release, Intended for Long-Term Protection of the Vaginal Microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Verstraelen

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis is a prevalent state of dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiota with wide-ranging impact on human reproductive health. Based on recent insights in community ecology of the vaginal microbiome, we hypothesize that sustained vaginal DL-lactic acid enrichment will enhance the recruitment of lactobacilli, while counteracting bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria. We therefore aimed to develop an intravaginal device that would be easy to insert and remove, while providing sustained DL-lactic acid release into the vaginal lumen. The final prototype selected is a vaginal ring matrix system consisting of a mixture of ethylene vinyl acetate and methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate copolymer loaded with 150 mg DL-lactic acid with an L/D-lactic acid ratio of 1:1. Preclinical safety assessment was performed by use of the Slug Mucosal Irritation test, a non-vertebrate assay to evaluate vaginal mucosal irritation, which revealed no irritation. Clinical safety was evaluated in a phase I trial with six healthy nulliparous premenopausal volunteering women, with the investigational drug left in place for 7 days. Colposcopic monitoring according to the WHO/CONRAD guidelines for the evaluation of vaginal products, revealed no visible cervicovaginal mucosal changes. No adverse events related to the investigational product occurred. Total release from the intravaginal ring over 7 days was estimated through high performance liquid chromatography at 37.1 (standard deviation 0.9 mg DL-lactic acid. Semisolid lactic acid formulations have been studied to a limited extent in the past and typically consist of a large volume of excipients and very high doses of lactic acid, which is of major concern to mucosal safety. We have documented the feasability of enriching the vaginal environment with pure DL-lactic acid with a prototype intravaginal ring. Though the efficacy of this platform remains to be established possibly requiring further development, this

  3. Long-term neurotoxic effects of dimethylamine borane intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Hung; Wang, Hsuan-Min; Lin, Kun-Ju; Kuo, Hung-Chou; Weng, Yi-Hsin; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Huang, Chin-Chang

    2012-08-15

    To investigate the long-term neurotoxic effects in a patient with acute dimethylamine borane (DMAB) intoxication. A 38-year-old man, working in a semiconductor factory, with acute DMAB intoxication presented with confusion, and drowsiness, followed by cognitive impairments and motor-predominant axonal polyneuropathy. We performed serial neurobehavioral assessments and functional neuroimaging studies, including brain (99m)Tc-TRODAT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and brain positron emission tomography (PET) scan to monitor the long-term central nervous system (CNS) effects of DMAB intoxication. Neurobehavioral tests revealed a persistent impairment in episodic memory of visual retention semantic category retrieval and working memory of digit span (backward). Brain (99m)Tc-TRODAT SPECT scan showed a lower radioactivity uptake in the left striatum and F-18 FDG PET scan revealed a relatively decreased cerebral metabolism at the anterior cingulate gyrus and both frontal regions. Follow-up neurobehavioral tests showed that the cognitive improvements were mainly documented in intelligence, attention function, conceptual shift, perceptual motor speed, verbal learning and working memory but were limited in visual memory and executive functions. Patients with acute DMAB intoxication may have a long-lasting CNS toxicity on the cognitive dysfunction, parkinsonism, and an impaired metabolic activity of the brain. Clinical improvements may sustain during the long-term follow-up period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Electronic dura mater for long-term multimodal neural interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minev, Ivan R.; Musienko, Pavel; Hirsch, Arthur; Barraud, Quentin; Wenger, Nikolaus; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Gandar, Jérôme; Capogrosso, Marco; Milekovic, Tomislav; Asboth, Léonie; Torres, Rafael Fajardo; Vachicouras, Nicolas; Liu, Qihan; Pavlova, Natalia; Duis, Simone; Larmagnac, Alexandre; Vörös, Janos; Micera, Silvestro; Suo, Zhigang; Courtine, Grégoire; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical mismatch between soft neural tissues and stiff neural implants hinders the long-term performance of implantable neuroprostheses. Here, we designed and fabricated soft neural implants with the shape and elasticity of dura mater, the protective membrane of the brain and spinal cord. The electronic dura mater, which we call e-dura, embeds interconnects, electrodes, and chemotrodes that sustain millions of mechanical stretch cycles, electrical stimulation pulses, and chemical injections. These integrated modalities enable multiple neuroprosthetic applications. The soft implants extracted cortical states in freely behaving animals for brain-machine interface and delivered electrochemical spinal neuromodulation that restored locomotion after paralyzing spinal cord injury.

  5. CLIPPERS and the need for long-term immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkur, Tarig M; Kearney, Hugh; Hennessy, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation with Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids (CLIPPERS) is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. Herein, we describe the case of a 62-year-old female who presented with right sided facial tingling, gait ataxia and diplopia. Neuroimaging revealed pontine curvilinear enhancing lesions with extension into cerebellar peduncles, characteristic of CLIPPERS. This report discusses the differential diagnosis and the importance of prolonged immunomodulatory treatment for this rare neuro-inflammatory disorder. Long-term immunosuppression appears to be mandatory in order to achieve sustained remission and prevent disability related to atrophy of the structures involved in repeated attacks.

  6. A Sustainable Performance Assessment Framework for Plastic Film Supply Chain Management from a Chinese Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Academics’ and practitioners’ interest in sustainable supply chain management has received great concern in recent years. The application of biaxially-oriented polypropylene (BOPP plastic film has had a significant influence on the economic, environmental and social performance of supply chain management. However, research on the integration of these three sustainable dimensions is still rare in this field. In this paper, we identify sustainability criteria based on a triple bottom line approach (economic benefit, environmental protection and social responsibility from the supply chain perspective, develop a hybrid multi-criteria decision making framework to evaluate the criteria and select alternatives and apply the proposed approach to a real case study at a focal BOPP plastic film company in China. In the framework, a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP is used to determine the performance criteria weights and a fuzzy technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is applied to rank the alternatives. The case study finds that the economic dimension was the most important aspect with environmental second and social third. The results also verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework. This paper develops an effective and systematic approach for decision makers to conduct evaluations and select optimal alternatives for focal plastic film companies.

  7. Social Sustainable Supply Chain Management in the Textile and Apparel Industry—A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Köksal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available So far, a vast amount of studies on sustainability in supply chain management have been conducted by academics over the last decade. Nevertheless, socially related aspects are still neglected in the related discussion. The primary motivation of the present literature review has arisen from this shortcoming, thus the key purpose of this study is to enrich the discussion by providing a state-of-the-art, focusing exclusively on social issues in sustainable supply chain management (SSCM by considering the textile/apparel sector as the field of application. The authors conduct a literature review, including content analysis which covers 45 articles published in English peer-reviewed journals, and proposes a comprehensive map which integrates the latest findings on socially related practices in the textile/apparel industry with the dominant conceptualization in order to reveal potential research areas in the field. The results show an ongoing lack of investigation regarding the social dimension of the triple bottom line in SSCM. Findings indicate that a company’s internal orientation is the main assisting factor in sustainable supply chain management practices. Further, supplier collaboration and assessment can be interpreted as an offer for suppliers deriving from stakeholders and a focal company’s management of social risk. Nevertheless, suppliers do also face or even create huge barriers in improving their social performance. This calls for more empirical research and qualitative or quantitative survey methods, especially at the supplier level located in developing countries.

  8. Sustainable Traceability in the Food Supply Chain: The Impact of Consumer Willingness to Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the sustainable traceability issue in the food supply chain from the sourcing perspective in which consumer willingness to pay for traceability is considered. There are two supplier types: traceable suppliers, which are costly but can carry a precise recall in food safety events, and non-traceable suppliers, which are less expensive but may suffer a higher cost in food safety events. A portion of consumers display traceability consciousness, and are willing to pay a premium for traceable food products. Four possible strategies in a transparent food supply chain and three sourcing strategies in a nontransparent food supply chain are identified and we determine when each strategy is optimal. We show that efforts to improve traceability that focus on consumers, by increasing their willingness to pay for traceability or expanding the portion of traceability consciousness consumers, may lead to an unintended consequence, such as a decrease in the provision of traceable food products. However, efforts that focus on revealing and penalizing the buyer always lead to a higher provision of traceable food products. We further find that efforts focusing on eliminating the information asymmetry may not be helpful for sustainable traceability in the food supply chain.

  9. Long-term effects of synthetic fibers on concrete pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi Gozarchi, Sasan

    The studies undertaken by this research were to evaluate the long-term performance and durability of synthetic fiber-reinforced concrete pipes. The target long-term performance is for 9000 hours. Two sets of pipes 8 ft. (2400 mm) long with inside diameters of 24 in. (600 mm) and 36 in. (1200 mm) were manufactured, with a wall thickness of 3 and 4 in., respectively. The pipes were produced based on ASTM C76, for a Class III type with a Wall B. The two set of pipes included RCP's (as control) and SYN-FRCP's. The SYN-FRCP's had several fiber dosages ranging from 6 lb/yd3 (3.5 kg/m 3) to 12 lb/yd3 (7.0 kg/m3) in order to evaluate the long-term performance of synthetic fiber-reinforced concrete pipes. The pipes were pre-cracked until the first visible crack was observed in the three-edge bearing test. As a result, the sustained load simulated, was calculated from the Peak D-load observed; and also the appropriate fiber dosages required for the 24. in (600 mm) and 36 in. (900 mm) pipes were obtained. Three of the 24 in. and three of the 36 in. pipes were installed in 7 ft. (2100 mm) and 8 ft. (2400 mm) wide trenches with 16 ft. (4800 mm) and 18 ft. (5500 mm) of cover respectively. The pipe was initially backfilled with native soil up to 2 ft. (600 mm) and 4 ft. (1200 mm) over the top of the pipe then backfilled again with pea-gravel weighing 100 lb/ft3, to a height of 14ft. to simulate the sustained loading. A type two installation was used during the development of the test setup. Once the long-term test set up was complete, the data was immediately recorded, and vertical deflections were observed from the time-dependent behavior of the pipes. It was observed from results obtained from the three-edge bearing test, that synthetic fibers improve the mechanical properties of concrete pipes, in dry-cast manufacturing. Also, it was observed from the time-dependent deformation, that there was no significant deformation of SYN-FRCP, while the shear capacity was enhanced. Based

  10. Long-term outcomes of epilepsy surgery in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelvik, Anna; Rydenhag, Bertil; Olsson, Ingrid; Flink, Roland; Kumlien, Eva; Källén, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate prospective, population-based long-term outcomes concerning seizures and antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment after resective epilepsy surgery in Sweden. Methods: Ten- and 5-year follow-ups were performed in 2005 to 2007 for 278/327 patients after resective epilepsy surgery from 1995 to 1997 and 2000 to 2002, respectively. All patients had been prospectively followed in the Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register. Ninety-three patients, who were presurgically evaluated but not operated, served as controls. Results: In the long term (mean 7.6 years), 62% of operated adults and 50% of operated children were seizure-free, compared to 14% of nonoperated adults (p seizure freedom since surgery, compared to none of the controls (p seizures/month at baseline and long epilepsy duration as negative predictors and positive MRI to be a positive predictor of long-term seizure-free outcome. Ten years after surgery, 86% of seizure-free children and 43% of seizure-free adults had stopped AEDs in the surgery groups compared to none of the controls (p seizure outcomes after resective epilepsy surgery. The majority of the patients who are seizure-free after 5 and 10 years have sustained seizure freedom since surgery. Many patients who gain seizure freedom can successfully discontinue AEDs, more often children than adults. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that more patients are seizure-free and have stopped AED treatment in the long term after resective epilepsy surgery than nonoperated epilepsy patients. PMID:23966252

  11. Scotland’s Food and Drink Policy Discussion: Sustainability Issues in the Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Revoredo-Giha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is two-fold. First, to identify the main sustainability issues that Scottish food supply chain actors are concerned with and any differences that exist between primary producers, processors and distributors and consumers; and second, to explore the implications of respondents’ views for the direction of food and drink policy in Scotland. The analysis was based on a dataset assembled from the written responses to the National Food Policy discussion in Scotland, which contains opinions on the different dimensions of sustainability (economic, environmental and social from a broad range of individuals and organizations representing different segments of the Scottish population. The empirical analyses involved comparing the responses according to two criteria: by food supply chain stakeholder and by geographical region. The results indicated that whilst there were differences among the studied groups, the importance of social and economic sustainability were strongly evident in the foregoing analysis, highlighting issues such as diet and nutrition, the importance of local food, building sustainability on sound economic performance, the market power of supermarkets, and regulation and support in building human and technical capabilities.

  12. Ecosystem service information to benefit sustainability standards for commodity supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Jonell, Malin; Guerry, Anne; Lambin, Eric F; Morgan, Alexis J; Pennington, Derric; Smith, Nathan; Franch, Jane Atkins; Polasky, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    The growing base of information about ecosystem services generated by ecologists, economists, and other scientists could improve the implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of commodity-sourcing standards being adopted by corporations to mitigate risk in their supply chains and achieve sustainability goals. This review examines various ways that information about ecosystem services could facilitate compliance with and auditing of commodity-sourcing standards. We also identify gaps in the current state of knowledge on the ecological effectiveness of sustainability standards and demonstrate how ecosystem-service information could complement existing monitoring efforts to build credible evidence. This paper is a call to the ecosystem-service scientists to engage in this decision context and tailor the information they are generating to the needs of the standards community, which we argue would offer greater efficiency of standards implementation for producers and enhanced effectiveness for standard scheme owners and corporations, and should thus lead to more sustainable outcomes for people and nature.

  13. Sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply. Political and legal challenges of the 21th century; Nachhaltigkeit, Energiewende, Klimawandel, Welternaehrung. Politische und rechtliche Herausforderungen des 21. Jahrhunderts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertel, Ines (ed.)

    2014-07-01

    The book on sustainability, energy policy, climatic change, world food supply as political challenges in the 21th century includes contributions on the following topics: sustainability and environment, energy and climatic change, agriculture and world food supply.

  14. A technique for long term continent gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, D L; Foster, J E; Craun, M L; Torma, M J

    1985-01-01

    The use of the continent gastrostomy described herein offers several advantages: 1, the elimination of an indwelling catheter; 2, prevention of soiling at skin level; 3, long term access to the normal gastrointestinal track for alimentation without fear of tube erosion; 4, little compromise to gastric volume, and 5, ease of stoma care. We recommend this operation in instances when long term tube feedings are indicated either because of damage to the central nervous system or as a palliative treatment for patients with higher obstructing gastrointestinal malignant disease. The procedure may also be useful for patients in whom esophagogastric continuity has been interrupted (surgically or traumatically) and in whom reconstruction of the gastrointestinal tract would not seem feasible within a three to six month interval.

  15. Long-term opioid therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, H; Ekholm, O; Sjøgren, P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Longitudinal population-based studies of long-term opioid therapy (L-TOT) in chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) patients are sparse. Our study investigated incidence and predictors for initiating L-TOT and changes in self-rated health, pain interference and physical activities in long......-term opioid users. METHODS: Data were obtained from the national representative Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys and The Danish National Prescription Registry. Respondents with no dispensed opioids the year before the survey were followed from 2000 and from 2005 until the end of 2012 (n = 12...... defined as those who were dispensed at least one opioid prescription in six separate months within a year. RESULTS: The incidence of L-TOT was substantially higher in CNCP patients at baseline than in others (9/1000 vs. 2/1000 person-years). Smoking behaviour and dispensed benzodiazepines were...

  16. Case presentation: long-term treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucksman, Myron L

    2013-01-01

    The long-term (14 years) psychodynamic psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of a depressed, suicidal, self-mutilating female patient is described. Her diagnoses included Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Recurrent Major Depression. Treatment was punctuated with repeated hospitalizations for self-mutilation (cutting) and suicidal ideation. A major determinant for her psychopathology was sexual abuse by her father from ages 6 to 14. This resulted in feelings of guilt and rage that she repressed and acted out through self-mutilating and suicidal behavior. A prolonged negative transference gradually became ambivalent, then positive. This was associated with her internalization of the healing qualities of the therapeutic relationship. She also gained insight into the reasons for her need to punish herself. Her initial self-representation as unworthy and bad was transformed into perceiving herself as a worthwhile, loving person. This case illustrates the role of long-term treatment for a complex, life-threatening, psychiatric disorder.

  17. Long-Term Hearing Results After Ossiculoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Matthew D; Trinidade, Aaron; Russell, James Shep; Dornhoffer, John L

    2017-04-01

    To determine if the OOPS index is predictive of long-term hearing results after ossiculoplasty. Case series with retrospective chart review. Tertiary care otology practice. Adult and pediatric patients (3-88 years of age). Ossiculoplasty with cartilage tympanoplasty, with or without mastoidectomy. Primary outcome measures included short-term hearing results (pure-tone average air-bone gap [PTA-ABG] measured between 60 days and 1 year after surgery), long-term hearing results (PTA-ABG measured ≥5 years after surgery), and the rate of successful ABG closure to ≤20 dB. Secondary measures included the need for revision surgery, delayed tympanic membrane graft failure, worsening conductive hearing loss (after an initially satisfactory hearing result), and recurrence of cholesteatoma. There was no significant difference between adults and children for short-term hearing results (average post-op PTA-ABG was 18.9 dB vs. 19.8 dB, respectively; p = 0.544), long-term hearing results (average final PTA-ABG was 19.3 dB vs. 19.4 dB, respectively; p = 0.922), or rate of ABG closure to less than 20 dB (63.1% vs. 58.0%, p = 0.282). Spearman's rank-order correlation (ρ) identified a strong positive correlation between OOPS index score and average post-operative PTA-ABG (ρ = 0.983; p hearing outcomes in adult and pediatric patients undergoing ossiculoplasty in both the short term and the long term.

  18. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  19. Cutaneous oxalosis after long-term hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, J G; Schwartz, S T; Reginato, A J

    1992-07-01

    A 27-year-old woman undergoing long-term hemodialysis developed cutaneous calcifications on her fingers. A skin biopsy specimen showed that the deposits were calcium oxalate. To our knowledge, only one previous article has reported pathologic and crystallographic studies on calcifications of the skin resulting from dialysis oxalosis. We speculate that vitamin C supplements, liberal tea consumption, an increased serum ionized calcium concentration, and the long duration of hemodialysis contributed to the production of these deposits.

  20. Long term evolution 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoub, Michel; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Tronco, Tania

    2016-01-01

    This book focus on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond. The chapters describe different aspects of research and development in LTE, LTE-Advanced (4G systems) and LTE-450 MHz such as telecommunications regulatory framework, voice over LTE, link adaptation, power control, interference mitigation mechanisms, performance evaluation for different types of antennas, cognitive mesh network, integration of LTE network and satellite, test environment, power amplifiers and so on. It is useful for researchers in the field of mobile communications.

  1. Consequences of long-term hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graal, M B; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    1998-07-01

    We describe a young woman with long-term untreated hyperparathyroidism with a superimposed vitamin D deficiency and an extremely decreased bone mineral density that was complicated by a vertebral fracture. Despite pretreatment with intravenous pamidronate and short-term vitamin D supplementation, severe and long-standing hypocalcaemia ('hungry bone syndrome') developed after parathyroidectomy. We discuss the consequences of hyperparathyroidism, especially the effects on bone, the complications of parathyroidectomy and the possibilities of preoperative treatment with bisphosphonates.

  2. Long-term behaviour of GRP pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, H; A Vieira; Reis, J; Marques, A. T.; Guedes, R.M.; Ferreira, A. J. M.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the research programme /1/ described is the study of creep and relaxation behaviour of glass-rein forced thermosetting (GRP) pipes, in order to find alternative methods to predict the long-term properties, rendering a considerable reduction of the time needed for testing and assuring, as far as possible, equivalent reliability when compared to the existing methods. Experimental procedures were performed and are presented here, together with discussion of results, as well...

  3. Early Life Environments and Long Term Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bolbocean, Corneliu

    2015-01-01

    A large literature has linked “in utero” environment to health and socio-economic outcomes in adulthood. We consider the effect of early life environments on health and skill formation outcomes. We first evaluate the impact of perinatal-neonatal level of technology at birth, which varies across delivery institutions, on the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with Cerebral Palsy. The level of technology at delivery determines the type of therapy newborns receive immediately afte...

  4. Long term economic relationships from cointegration maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos de B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-07-01

    We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the sorting points into neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates (USIR), monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates.

  5. The role of geoethics in the framework of a sustainable development of georesources supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttinelli, Mauro; Barba, Salvatore; Di Capua, Giuseppe; Peppoloni, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    Geoethics consists of the researches and reflections on those values upon which are based the appropriate practices concerning human activities interesting Geosphere. Since Geoethics deals with ethical, social and cultural implications of geological research, it also reflects the opportunity for any researcher to become more conscious of the social role and responsibilities in conducting activities related to the environmental management and geo-resources exploitation. In this context Geoethics would also represent a concrete tool to sensitize and influence the awareness of society opening questions on the reliability and sustainability of the technological options presently proposed as a way to answer the huge global energy demand. Aim of this note is to generally discuss the role of geoscientists in the framework of the development of a sustainable energy supply chain related to georesources exploitation, in terms of making ethical choices during each phase of the process, from the research of potential sources of energy to their feasible and reliable exploitation. Since the beginning of energetic revolution, the well established energy supply chain technological models often force the research community to approach such system unconsciously accepting it, or conversely refusing it at all. We would point out that make geoethical choices for georesources supply purposes should not be to prejudicially counteract the whole supply system, but rather to base the research activity on a solid background scheme of perspectives, principles and criteria which could make the people aware of the improvements and drawbacks of their work. This basically means to avoid the overexploitation of non-renewable resources, to fairly develop more efficient technological and green procedures abating the local and/or the diffuse pollution, or consciously and carelessly expose vulnerable elements like humans and infrastructures to natural and artificial geological hazards. This process

  6. In the wake of liberalisation: long-term developments in the EU air transport market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Burghouwt; J.G. de Wit

    2015-01-01

    Using a 24-year analysis period (1990-2013), a new perspective is offered on long-term first- and second-order developments following liberalisation of the intra-EU air transport market. The focus of the analysis is on supply-side issues, such as airline output, structure of supply, yields, business

  7. Towards a Multidisciplinary Approach on Creating Value: Sustainability through the Supply Chain and ERP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter De Soete

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP is a widely used approach through manufacturing environments in a variety of sectors. With a tendency to go to specialized, smaller lot sizes in several industries (e.g., the pharmaceutical sector, companies are dealing with capacity bottlenecks if the planning rhythm wheel is not well calibrated or when production lines are not flexible enough in terms of changeover (C/O and set-up times (S/U (OEE is too small. A well-established communication system including other enterprise resources or production factors (e.g., Enterprise Resource Planning, ERP is favorable to any extent. More and more questions arise from stakeholder communities and end-users on whether or not supply chains and manufacturing environments are sustainable and safe. Departments such as Environmental Health, Safety & Sustainability (EHS & S and Product Stewardship are too often at the “blind” side of the ICT interface. When it comes to product and organizational sustainability, data seems to be lacking in order to conduct sustainability assessments proficiently. Years of intensive research and experience proved that primary data to perform sustainability assessments often are measured through equipment control sensors (e.g., flow rates, temperatures, etc. and sent to PLCs and many other systems. Nevertheless, these data measurements are in many cases simply not penetrating through the Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES because these bottom-up engineering data seems to be of little value to planning, procurement, etc. This communication paper deals with how sustainability assessments can be embedded in business operational management systems. After all, who does not want a “live Carbon Footprint” for process improvements and external sustainability reporting instead of a series of expensive resource consuming studies of 4 to 6 months digging into data logs in traditional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA? This communication paper has

  8. Sustainability is the best policy. Research challenges for a sustainable energy supply; Duurzaamheid duurt het langst. Onderzoeksuitdagingen voor een duurzame energievoorziening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Energy is vital to society, but our fossil fuel reserves are not inexhaustible and are also a serious source of environmental pollution. Research is required to ensure the long-term supply of energy. Dedicated scientific research can help us to access new sources of energy that will be less harmful to the environment. There is no one plan for energy transition. The research must focus on a system approach to the entire chain, from primary source of energy to end-user. This will involve exploring an extensive portfolio of potential energy options on a world scale. None of the options should be ruled out in advance. Dutch research efforts should be prioritised in association with research being carried out elsewhere. One requirement for ultimately achieving an energy transition that results in a sustainable energy supply is close collaboration between the public and private sectors and centres of expertise. A key factor is that the majority of the parties involved should share the same view of their ultimate goal. The main focus of research should be on energy sources that can make a considerable contribution to a sustainable global energy supply. Another requirement is that these sources must offer the Dutch research community opportunities in both fundamental and applied research. The Foresight Committee advocates the setting up of multidisciplinary research teams. Their long-term task (from idea generation to implementation) will be to analyse and offer guidance to a particular branch of industry or field of energy. Particular attention will go to creating opportunities for excellent young researchers who are pursuing a career in academia. The Foresight Committee has chosen to set up its report according to the various energy options. In Section 2, it notes that there are various ways of approaching energy systems. In addition to energy conservation, another key word is integration. The various options are reviewed in Section 3. The Foresight Committee has

  9. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN M. ANAWAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  10. Sustaining the benefits of rural water supply investments: Experience from Cochabamba and Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer; Lukacs, Heather; Jeuland, Marc; Alvestegui, Alfonso; Soto, Betty; LizáRraga, Gloria; Bakalian, Alex; Wakeman, Wendy

    2008-12-01

    Many rural water supply interventions in developing countries have been marked by a poor record of sustainability. Considerable progress has been made over the past several decades on the development of lower-cost technologies that are easier for communities in developing countries to maintain and also on improving project design and implementation to enhance sustainability of outcomes. Less attention has been given to the necessary and sufficient supports for water system maintenance in the postconstruction period. This study explores the contribution of various types of postconstruction support (PCS) to the sustainability of rural water supply systems in Bolivia. Using regression and matched pair statistical analyses, the effects of PCS on water system performance and user satisfaction with service are modeled. Communities that received management-oriented PCS visits from external agencies, and those whose system operators attended training workshops, had better performing systems than communities that received no such support. Engineering-oriented PCS visits to communities had no measurable impact on system functioning or user satisfaction.

  11. Sustainable management and supply of natural and recycled aggregates in a medium-size integrated plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleschini, Flora; Zanini, Mariano Angelo; Pellegrino, Carlo; Pasinato, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The consumption of natural aggregates in civil engineering applications can cause severe environmental impacts on a regional scale, depleting the stock of bulk resources within a territory. Several methods can improve the environmental sustainability of the whole aggregates' supply process, including natural and recycled aggregates' productive chains, for instance promoting the use of recycled aggregates (RA). However, when quarrying and recycling activities are considered as stand-alone processes, also the RA supply chain may not be as sustainable as expected, due to the high environmental loads associated to transportation, if high distances from the production to the use sites are involved. This work gives some insights on the environmental impact assessment of the aggregates' industry in the Italian context, through a comparative assessment of the environmental loads of natural and recycled aggregates' productive chains. An integrated plant for the extraction of virgin aggregates and recycling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) was analyzed as significant case study, with the aim to identify the influence of sustainable solutions on the overall emissions of the facility. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach was used, using site-specific data and paying particular attention on transportation-related impacts, land use, avoided landfill and non-renewable resources preservation. From this work it was possible to evaluate the influence of transportation and PV energy use on the overall environmental emissions of natural and recycled aggregates' productive chains.

  12. Production and supply of high-quality food protein for human consumption: sustainability, challenges, and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao; Fanzo, Jessica; Miller, Dennis D; Pingali, Prabhu; Post, Mark; Steiner, Jean L; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E

    2014-08-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 843 million people worldwide are hungry and a greater number suffer from nutrient deficiencies. Approximately one billion people have inadequate protein intake. The challenge of preventing hunger and malnutrition will become even greater as the global population grows from the current 7.2 billion people to 9.6 billion by 2050. With increases in income, population, and demand for more nutrient-dense foods, global meat production is projected to increase by 206 million tons per year during the next 35 years. These changes in population and dietary practices have led to a tremendous rise in the demand for food protein, especially animal-source protein. Consuming the required amounts of protein is fundamental to human growth and health. Protein needs can be met through intakes of animal and plant-source foods. Increased consumption of food proteins is associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions and overutilization of water. Consequently, concerns exist regarding impacts of agricultural production, processing and distribution of food protein on the environment, ecosystem, and sustainability. To address these challenging issues, the New York Academy of Sciences organized the conference "Frontiers in Agricultural Sustainability: Studying the Protein Supply Chain to Improve Dietary Quality" to explore sustainable innovations in food science and programming aimed at producing the required quality and quantity of protein through improved supply chains worldwide. This report provides an extensive discussion of these issues and summaries of the presentations from the conference.

  13. The application of the triple bottom line approach to sustainability assessment: The case study of the UK automotive supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Azevedo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this paper is to assess the level of sustainability of the UK automotive supply chain considering simultaneously the three dimensions of sustainability (economic, social and environmental representing the Triple Bottom Line (TBL approach. Design/methodology/approach: The assessment of the automotive SC’ sustainability is based on the framework proposed by Salvado, Azevedo, Matias and Ferreira (2011 and uses the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW method to aggregate economic, environmental and social indicators into a unique index. A case study on the UK automotive industry is used and the data do perform this study is collected from the sustainability reports of the UK’ automotive companies. Findings and Originality/value: The proposed framework represents an important benchmarking tool, offering managers the possibility for assessing the sustainability behaviour of its supply chain and compare it with other supply chains. Once identified the dimension of sustainability where the company or the supply chain is worst performer managers can work closer to their supply chain’ partners in order to improve the performance of those dimension of sustainability. Research limitations/implications: One limitation of the suggested approach is related to the ambiguity of the sustainability’ indicators selection and the definition of weights for each sustainability dimension. Practical implications: The assessment of the SC sustainability by using the suggested framework to compute a SC sustainability index offers managers an opportunity for assessing the level of sustainability of each individual company and the corresponding SC in a very easy way. It also represents an opportunity for improving company performance. In this way managers can use the information on the sustainability index to help adjust their company's behaviour and improve their economic, social and environmental performance. Originality/value: The proposed

  14. Design and Modelling of Sustainable Bioethanol Supply Chain by Minimizing the Total Ecological Footprint in Life Cycle Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Toniolo, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for designing the most sustainable bioethanol supply chain. Taking into consideration of the possibility of multiple-feedstock, multiple transportation modes, multiple alternative technologies, multiple transport patterns and multiple waste disposal...... manners in bioethanol systems, this study developed a model for designing the most sustainable bioethanol supply chain by minimizing the total ecological footprint under some prerequisite constraints including satisfying the goal of the stakeholders', the limitation of resources and energy, the capacity...

  15. Long-Term Recency in Anterograde Amnesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Talmi

    Full Text Available Amnesia is usually described as an impairment of a long-term memory (LTM despite an intact short-term memory (STM. The intact recency effect in amnesia had supported this view. Although dual-store models of memory have been challenged by single-store models based on interference theory, this had relatively little influence on our understanding and treatment of amnesia, perhaps because the debate has centred on experiments in the neurologically intact population. Here we tested a key prediction of single-store models for free recall in amnesia: that people with amnesia will exhibit a memory advantage for the most recent items even when all items are stored in and retrieved from LTM, an effect called long-term recency. People with amnesia and matched controls studied, and then free-recalled, word lists with a distractor task following each word, including the last (continual distractor task, CDFR. This condition was compared to an Immediate Free Recall (IFR, no distractors and a Delayed Free Recall (DFR, end-of-list distractor only condition. People with amnesia demonstrated the full long-term recency pattern: the recency effect was attenuated in DFR and returned in CDFR. The advantage of recency over midlist items in CDFR was comparable to that of controls, confirming a key prediction of single-store models. Memory deficits appeared only after the first word recalled in each list, suggesting the impairment in amnesia may emerge only as the participant's recall sequence develops, perhaps due to increased susceptibility to output interference. Our findings suggest that interference mechanisms are preserved in amnesia despite the overall impairment to LTM, and challenge strict dual-store models of memory and their dominance in explaining amnesia. We discuss the implication of our findings for rehabilitation.

  16. Long-Term Recency in Anterograde Amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmi, Deborah; Caplan, Jeremy B; Richards, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2015-01-01

    Amnesia is usually described as an impairment of a long-term memory (LTM) despite an intact short-term memory (STM). The intact recency effect in amnesia had supported this view. Although dual-store models of memory have been challenged by single-store models based on interference theory, this had relatively little influence on our understanding and treatment of amnesia, perhaps because the debate has centred on experiments in the neurologically intact population. Here we tested a key prediction of single-store models for free recall in amnesia: that people with amnesia will exhibit a memory advantage for the most recent items even when all items are stored in and retrieved from LTM, an effect called long-term recency. People with amnesia and matched controls studied, and then free-recalled, word lists with a distractor task following each word, including the last (continual distractor task, CDFR). This condition was compared to an Immediate Free Recall (IFR, no distractors) and a Delayed Free Recall (DFR, end-of-list distractor only) condition. People with amnesia demonstrated the full long-term recency pattern: the recency effect was attenuated in DFR and returned in CDFR. The advantage of recency over midlist items in CDFR was comparable to that of controls, confirming a key prediction of single-store models. Memory deficits appeared only after the first word recalled in each list, suggesting the impairment in amnesia may emerge only as the participant's recall sequence develops, perhaps due to increased susceptibility to output interference. Our findings suggest that interference mechanisms are preserved in amnesia despite the overall impairment to LTM, and challenge strict dual-store models of memory and their dominance in explaining amnesia. We discuss the implication of our findings for rehabilitation.

  17. Impacts of multiple stresses on water demand and supply across the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Jennifer A. Moore Myers; Erika C. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of long-term impacts of projected changes in climate, population, and land use and land cover on regional water resource is critical to the sustainable development of the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to fully budget annual water availability for water supply (precipitation ) evapotranspiration + groundwater supply + return flow...

  18. Long-term policy on gas composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, M.J.M.

    2012-03-13

    This letter sets out the policy of the Dutch cabinet on the long-term change to the composition of low calorific gas that is distributed via the public gas grid. The title of a separate attachment to this letter is 'The composition of low calorific gas in the more distant future and the requirements for gas appliances covered by the Gas Appliances Directive'. The attachment sets out the composition of low calorific gas as network operators can distribute it via the public gas grid from 2021 (or from a later date). This relates to the changes in the 'exit specification' of the gas.

  19. Safety of long-term PPI therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of medical treatment of acid-related disorders. Long-term use is becoming increasingly common, in some cases without a proper indication. A large number of mainly observational studies on a very wide range of possible associations have been published...... is based on a relevant indication. The concern for complications should primarily be directed at elderly, malnourished with significant co-morbidity. In this population an increased risk for enteric infections, fractures and nutritional deficiencies might have clinical consequences and should lead...

  20. Long-term space flights - personal impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, V. V.

    During a final 4-month stage of a 1-year space flight of cosmonauts Titov and Manarov, a physician, Valery Polyakov was included on a crew for the purpose of evaluating their health, correcting physical status to prepare for the spacecraft reentry and landing operations. The complex program of scientific investigations and experiments performed by the physician included an evaluation of adaptation reactions of the human body at different stages of space mission using clinicophysiological and biochemical methods; testing of alternative regimes of exercise and new countermeasures to prevent an unfavourable effect of long-term weightlessness.

  1. The long term stability of lidar calibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. One of the requirements for the data to be accepted in support of project financing (so-called ‘banka-bility’) is to demonstrate the long-term stability of lidar cali-brations. Calibration results for six Leosphere WindCube li-dars......-ters pertaining in the different calibration periods. This is supported by sliding-window analyses of one lidar at one location where the same order of variation is observed as between pre-service and post-service calibrations....

  2. Long-term effects of sibling incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daie, N; Witztum, E; Eleff, M

    1989-11-01

    Although sexual abuse of children is recognized as a serious problem, sibling incest has received relatively little attention. A distinction has been made between power-oriented sibling incest and nurturance-oriented incest. The authors review the relevant literature and present four clinical examples. The cases illustrate the broad range of sibling incest and demonstrate its effects, including the long-term consequences for the perpetrator. Lasting difficulties in establishing and maintaining close relationships, especially sexual ones, are prominent features of each case. Without denying the occurrences of benign sex-play between siblings, the authors emphasize exploitation and abuse as pathogenic aspects of sibling incest.

  3. Long Term Analysis for the BAM device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, D.; Gardiol, D.

    2011-02-01

    Algorithms aimed at the evaluation of critical quantities are based on models with many parameters, which values are estimated from data. The knowledge, with high accuracy, of these values and the control of their temporal evolution are important features. In this work, we focus on the latter subject, and we show a proposed pipeline for the BAM (Basic Angle Monitoring) Long Term Analysis, aimed at the study of the calibration parameters of the BAM device and of the Basic Angle variation, searching for unwanted trends, cyclic features, or other potential unexpected behaviours.

  4. Long-Term Wind Power Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

  5. Terminating a long-term clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimt, C R

    1981-05-01

    Long-term clinical trials often include more than one active treatment group. These may be discontinued independently if found to be ineffective or possibly harmful. Certain subgroups of patients may be discovered, in the course of a clinical trial, who do not respond satisfactorily and are, therefore, excluded during the course of a trial. Yet another kind of termination comes when we have a therapeutic breakthrough or when hope has to be abandoned for demonstrating beneficial effects for one, several, or all treatments included in a trial. Examples from the authors' experience are presented, as are successful and unsuccessful techniques in managing terminations of various types.

  6. The development of the ICME supply-chain: Route to ICME implementation and sustainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, David; Schirra, John

    2011-04-01

    Over the past twenty years, integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) has emerged as a key engineering field with great promise. Models simulating materials-related phenomena have been developed and are being validated for industrial application. The integration of computational methods into material, process and component design has been a challenge, however, in part due to the complexities in the development of an ICME "supply-chain" that supports, sustains and delivers this emerging technology. ICME touches many disciplines, which results in a requirement for many types of computational-based technology organizations to be involved to provide tools that can be rapidly developed, validated, deployed and maintained for industrial applications. The need for, and the current state of an ICME supply-chain along with development and future requirements for the continued pace of introduction of ICME into industrial design practices will be reviewed within this article.

  7. Improving Sustainability in Global Supply Chains with Private Certification Standards: Testing An Approach for Assessing Their Performance and Impact Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Walter; Metselaar, Janneke

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable supply chain governance approaches aim for improvement of environmental and community living conditions at the developing country's side of the global supply chains. Impact evaluation in remote and multiple sourcing countries is hardly done in practice because of its complexity and costs

  8. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  9. Sustainable Operations in Reverse Supply Chain of Shipbuilding Business - Benefits of Green Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshin John

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable operations have become extremely important for survival of present day shipbuilding business wherein triple bottom-line criteria – profit, planet and people, needs to be satisfied. This paper discusses about recapturing value at the end-of-life of a ship and reintroducing it to the value chain through reverse supply chain channel, thereby reducing environmental impact and also benefitting humans and ecology.  It also describes about the advantages of recycling ship vis-à-vis scrapping it in terms of environmental and human impact.

  10. How to Bring Sustainability Issues in Global Supply Chains into the Classroom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Hans-Joachim; Anderluh, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    . The paper shows how responsible citizenship and reflective critical thinking as well as a deeper understanding of these complex interdependencies can be conveyed in a systematic way to a group of international business students in form of a one-week block seminar course in the CEMS Master-in-International-Management...... thought-out didactic approach and extraordinary commitment and dedication by the instructors is inevitable to ensure the success of such a course. Original/value: This paper explains in a compact way, how sustainability issues in global supply chain management can be tackled successfully even in such time...

  11. Analyzing Environmental Continuous Improvement for Sustainable Supply Chain Management: Focusing on Its Performance and Information Disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Murata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the implementation and information disclosure of environmental continuous improvement (e-CI in sustainable supply chain management. The analyzed data relates to e-CI delivered from 19 manufacturing industry types in Japan. A degenerated Charnes-Cooper-Rhodes model, a proposed model for data envelopment analysis, is also used for the analysis. The obtained result is a classification of types of manufacturing industries from the perspective of their capabilities in both e-CI implementation and information disclosure to systematically discover emphatic indicators of these two activities in each manufacturing industry type.

  12. Carbon capture and storage as central modules of a strategy toward a sustainable energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm

    2010-09-15

    Sustainable energy supply must do justice to the equal-ranking goals of economic, environmental and social compatibility. A balance must be sought between the degrees of achievement for these aims. In climate protection, approaches must be pursued that promise achievement at the lowest cost. An approximation of energy-management development to climate-policy necessities is only possible if all cost-efficient options are used. CCS can be regarded as a bridging technology toward an energy sector that is increasingly based almost entirely on electricity from renewables. On the road there, the expansion of renewables and power generation based on fossil energies with CCS complement one another.

  13. Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3 ± 1.3, 131.7 days ± 78.6 and 45.7 L ± 8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by 15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n = 19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200 L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1,500 L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands.

  14. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  15. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J.; Brack, H.P.; Geiger, F.; Buechi, F.N.; Tsukada, A.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  16. Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.

  17. Climate Predictability and Long Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Blender, R.; Fraedrich, K.; Liu, Z.

    2010-09-01

    The benefit of climate Long Term Memory (LTM) for long term prediction is assessed using data from a millennium control simulation with the atmosphere ocean general circulation model ECHAM5/MPIOM. The forecast skills are evaluated for surface temperature time series at individual grid points. LTM is characterised by the Hurst exponent in the power-law scaling of the fluctuation function which is determined by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). LTM with a Hurst exponent close to 0.9 occurs mainly in high latitude oceans, which are also characterized by high potential predictability. Climate predictability is diagnosed in terms of potentially predictable variance fractions. Explicit prediction experiments for various time steps are conducted on a grid point basis using an auto-correlation (AR1) predictor: in regions with LTM, prediction skills are beyond that expected from red noise persistence; exceptions occur in some areas in the southern oceans and over the northern hemisphere continents. Extending the predictability analysis to the fully forced simulation shows large improvement in prediction skills.

  18. Long-term Caspian Sea level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. L.; Pekker, T.; Wilson, C. R.; Tapley, B. D.; Kostianoy, A. G.; Cretaux, J.-F.; Safarov, E. S.

    2017-07-01

    Caspian Sea level (CSL) has undergone substantial fluctuations during the past several hundred years. The causes over the entire historical period are uncertain, but we investigate here large changes seen in the past several decades. We use climate model-predicted precipitation (P), evaporation (E), and observed river runoff (R) to reconstruct long-term CSL changes for 1979-2015 and show that PER (P-E + R) flux predictions agree very well with observed CSL changes. The observed rapid CSL increase (about 12.74 cm/yr) and significant drop ( -6.72 cm/yr) during the periods 1979-1995 and 1996-2015 are well accounted for by integrated PER flux predictions of +12.38 and -6.79 cm/yr, respectively. We show that increased evaporation rates over the Caspian Sea play a dominant role in reversing the increasing trend in CSL during the past 37 years. The current long-term decline in CSL is expected to continue into the foreseeable future, under global warming scenarios.

  19. Pediatric HIV Long-Term Nonprogressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Rimawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients infected with HIV are best categorized along a continuum from rapid progressors to HIV long-term nonprogressors. Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs are those in which AIDS develop many years after being infected with HIV, often beyond the 10-year mark, and represent 15–20% of the HIV infected patients. Many of these patients are able to control their infection and maintain undetectable viral loads for long periods of time without antiretroviral therapy. After a comprehensive literature search, we found extensive data related to HIV LTNPs in the adult population; however, very limited data was available related to LTNPs within the pediatric population. We present a case of pediatric HIV LTNPs, perinatally infected patient with undetectable viral loads, despite never receiving ART. Although there are not many instances of LTNPs among children, this child may be one, though she had intermittent viremia. She has continued to manifest serologic evidence of infection, with yearly ELISA and western blot positive tests. Based on the viral fitness studies that were performed, this case exemplifies an adolescent LTNP.

  20. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.