WorldWideScience

Sample records for long-term processes part

  1. Analysing long term discursive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    which extend beyond the single interaction, for instance negotiations or planning processes, seems to have played a less important role, with studies such as Iedema 2001 and Wodak 2000 as exceptions. These long term processes, however, are central to the constitution and workings of organizations......What do timescales - the notion that processes take place or can be viewed within a shorter or longer temporal range (Lemke 2005) - mean for the analysis of discourse? What are the methodological consequences of analyzing discourse at different timescales? It may be argued that discourse analysis...... in general has favored either the analysis of short term processes such as interviews, discussions, and lessons, or the analysis of non-processual entities such as (multimodal) texts, arguments, discursive repertoires, and discourses (in a Foucaultian sense). In contrast, analysis of long term processes...

  2. Long Term Monitoring of Microbial Induced Soil Strengthening Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneiyan, S.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Werkema, D. D., Jr.; Colwell, F. S.; Ohan, J.

    2016-12-01

    Soil strengthening/stabilization processes are used to address some of soil quality issues. Microbial induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a promising soil stabilization process that could offer long term solution by overcoming problems of commonly used methods (e.g. injecting cement slurry). MICP can be applied in larger spatial scales, allowing the enhanced soils to be maintained in an economic sustainable and environmental friendly way. Methods are sought for the long term monitoring of MICP enhanced soils. The spectral induced polarization (SIP) method is one promising method due to sensitivity on such processes and the ability for long term, even autonomous, operation as well as cost effectiveness. Previous laboratory tests showed the sensitivity of the SIP method on soil strengthening as a result of abiotic calcite precipitation. We extended this work to biotic calcite precipitation through MICP. Early results suggest that the MICP formed calcite is denser and could provide improved strengthening capabilities. Our results are supported by geophysical (SIP and shear-wave velocity), geo-chemical and microbiological monitoring. Destructive analysis and visualization (scanning electron imaging - SEM) is expected to provide conclusive evidence on the MICP long term effectiveness.

  3. Long term file migration. Part I: file reference patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1978-08-01

    In most large computer installations, files are moved between on-line disk and mass storage (tape, integrated mass storage device) either automatically by the system or specifically at the direction of the user. This is the first of two papers which study the selection of algorithms for the automatic migration of files between mass storage and disk. The use of the text editor data sets at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) computer installation is examined through the analysis of thirteen months of file reference data. Most files are used very few times. Of those that are used sufficiently frequently that their reference patterns may be examined, about a third show declining rates of reference during their lifetime; of the remainder, very few (about 5%) show correlated interreference intervals, and interreference intervals (in days) appear to be more skewed than would occur with the Bernoulli process. Thus, about two-thirds of all sufficiently active files appear to be referenced as a renewal process with a skewed interreference distribution. A large number of other file reference statistics (file lifetimes, interference distributions, moments, means, number of uses/file, file sizes, file rates of reference, etc.) are computed and presented. The results are applied in the following paper to the development and comparative evaluation of file migration algorithms. 17 figures, 13 tables

  4. Long-term athletic development- part 1: a pathway for all youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Rhodri S; Oliver, Jon L; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Howard, Rick; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Williams, Craig A; Best, Thomas M; Alvar, Brent A; Micheli, Lyle J; Thomas, D Phillip; Hatfield, Disa L; Cronin, John B; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-05-01

    The concept of developing talent and athleticism in youth is the goal of many coaches and sports systems. Consequently, an increasing number of sporting organizations have adopted long-term athletic development models in an attempt to provide a structured approach to the training of youth. It is clear that maximizing sporting talent is an important goal of long-term athletic development models. However, ensuring that youth of all ages and abilities are provided with a strategic plan for the development of their health and physical fitness is also important to maximize physical activity participation rates, reduce the risk of sport- and activity-related injury, and to ensure long-term health and well-being. Critical reviews of independent models of long-term athletic development are already present within the literature; however, to the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive examination and review of the most prominent models does not exist. Additionally, considerations of modern day issues that may impact on the success of any long-term athletic development model are lacking, as are proposed solutions to address such issues. Therefore, within this 2-part commentary, Part 1 provides a critical review of existing models of practice for long-term athletic development and introduces a composite youth development model that includes the integration of talent, psychosocial and physical development across maturation. Part 2 identifies limiting factors that may restrict the success of such models and offers potential solutions.

  5. Sunray project - A long-term, nationwide educational process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikula, Anneli

    2000-01-01

    The Sunray project is a nationwide educational process coordinated by the Economic Information Bureau (TaT Group) for ninth graders in Finnish comprehensive schools. The project aims at giving thorough and versatile information on radiation within the framework of various subjects (physics, biology, domestic science, history, European languages, mother tongue, health education etc.). The Sunray project covers all ninth graders of the existing 600 Finnish comprehensive schools; in all involving some 65 000 pupils. The project, which has been repeated five times, was initiated as part of the European Science and Technology week in 1995. During the first two years it was strongly linked with the science week as natural sciences were seen as a good framework for the chosen perspective. Since 1997, the project has been run as an event in its own right. The project has applied the method of processing integrated groups of themes, which is an objective of the comprehensive school system and the experimental method of science. As schools make their own decisions about the educational programmes to be adopted every semester, the project has been marketed to schools at the beginning of May. The TaT Group has arranged marketing events in some 10 localities in Finland. The Economic Information Bureau of Finland coordinates the project and in 1995-2000 the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), the Finnish Energy Industries' Federation, the Finnish Electricity Association, Fortum Oyj and Teollisuuden Voima Oy have participated in the project

  6. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  7. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part I: theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun – either now or in the past, the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.

    Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  8. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.

    Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  9. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part I: theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun – either now or in the past, the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  10. Working memory, long-term memory and language processing : issues and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Collette, Fabienne; Van der Linden, Martial; Poncelet, Martine

    2000-01-01

    We examined different views of the relationships between working memory, long-term memory and language processing : working memory considered as a gateway between sensory input and long-term memory or rather as a workspace; working memory considered as not strictly tied to any particular cognitive system (and consequently viewed as separated from the language system) or rather as drawing on the operation and storage capacities of a subset of components involved in language processing. It is a...

  11. Two-part pricing structure in long-term gas sales contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum, J.C.; Lee, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    Although the incremental electricity generation market has the potential to be a major growth area for natural gas demand in the U.S., it may never live up to such promise unless gas suppliers are more willing to enter into long-term gas sales agreements necessary to nurture this segment of the industry. The authors submit that producer reluctance to enter into such long-term sales agreements can be traced, at least in part to the differing contract price requirements between gas producers and buyers. This paper will address an evolving solution to this contracting dilemma - the development of a two-part pricing structure for the gas commodity. A two-part pricing structure includes a usage or throughput charge established in a way to yield a marginal gas cost competitive with electric utility avoided costs, and a reservation charge established to guarantee a minimum cash flow to the producer. Moreover, the combined effect of the two charges may yield total revenues that better reflect the producer's replacement cost of the reserves committed under the contract. 2 tabs

  12. Long-term exposure to noise impairs cortical sound processing and attention control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury; Winkler, Istvan; Saher, Marieke; Tervaniemi, Mari; Sallinen, Mikael; Teder-Sälejärvi, Wolfgang; Alho, Kimmo; Reinikainen, Kalevi; Näätänen, Risto

    2004-11-01

    Long-term exposure to noise impairs human health, causing pathological changes in the inner ear as well as other anatomical and physiological deficits. Numerous individuals are daily exposed to excessive noise. However, there is a lack of systematic research on the effects of noise on cortical function. Here we report data showing that long-term exposure to noise has a persistent effect on central auditory processing and leads to concurrent behavioral deficits. We found that speech-sound discrimination was impaired in noise-exposed individuals, as indicated by behavioral responses and the mismatch negativity brain response. Furthermore, irrelevant sounds increased the distractibility of the noise-exposed subjects, which was shown by increased interference in task performance and aberrant brain responses. These results demonstrate that long-term exposure to noise has long-lasting detrimental effects on central auditory processing and attention control.

  13. Automatic and Controlled Processing in Sentence Recall: The Role of Long-Term and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, E.; Lambon Ralph, M.A.; Baddeley, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    Immediate serial recall is better for sentences than word lists presumably because of the additional support that meaningful material receives from long-term memory. This may occur automatically, without the involvement of attention, or may require additional attentionally demanding processing. For example, the episodic buffer model (Baddeley,…

  14. Competitive short-term and long-term memory processes in spatial habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, David J; Bannerman, David M

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to a spatial location leads to habituation of exploration such that, in a novelty preference test, rodents subsequently prefer exploring a novel location to the familiar location. According to Wagner's (1981) theory of memory, short-term and long-term habituation are caused by separate and sometimes opponent processes. In the present study, this dual-process account of memory was tested. Mice received a series of exposure training trials to a location before receiving a novelty preference test. The novelty preference was greater when tested after a short, rather than a long, interval. In contrast, the novelty preference was weaker when exposure training trials were separated by a short, rather than a long interval. Furthermore, it was found that long-term habituation was determined by the independent effects of the amount of exposure training and the number of exposure training trials when factors such as the intertrial interval and the cumulative intertrial interval were controlled. A final experiment demonstrated that a long-term reduction of exploration could be caused by a negative priming effect due to associations formed during exploration. These results provide evidence against a single-process account of habituation and suggest that spatial habituation is determined by both short-term, recency-based memory and long-term, incrementally strengthened memory.

  15. Simulation of long-term behavior in HLW near-field by centrifugal model test. Part 4. Model test of coupled THM processes in isotropic stress conditions using heatable overpack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Soshi; Okada, Tetsuji; Sawada, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated the equivalent long-term behavior in the near-field of a geological repository for high level radioactive waste disposal, using the centrifugal near-field model test under the coupled thermo-hydraulic-mechanical condition. The model consisted of a sedimentary bedrock, buffer, and heating type model overpack, and was enclosed within a pressure vessel. Tests were conducted with a centrifugal force field of 30 G under isotropic stress-constrain conditions with confining pressures and injection of pore water. The temperature condition of the overpack was constantly 95°C. As the result, the values showed similar behaviors to that of the normal temperature tests partially. However, the different behaviors were measured such as the displacement of overpack change from the settlement to the heave, the extreme drop in the soil pressure of the buffer and the strain of side wall of bedrock change from the tension to the compression after injecting pore water of hundreds hours. In addition, the flow rate of the injection pore water suddenly changed after hundreds of hours. Furthermore, the density of the buffer was lower than that of the normal temperature tests by X-ray CT imaging in the post-tests. We infer that the high temperature overpack influenced the stiffness and the pore water distribution of the buffer, and the density and the soil pressure of the buffer decreased. As a result of the change of stiffness in the disposal hole (buffer), the tendency to the strain of the surrounding bedrock and the displacement of the overpack changed. (author)

  16. Evaluating the feasibility of biological waste processing for long term space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J. L.; Alazraki, M. P.; Atkinson, C. F.; Finger, B. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Recycling waste products during orbital (e.g., International Space Station) and planetary missions (e.g., lunar base, Mars transit mission, Martian base) will reduce storage and resupply costs. Wastes streams on the space station will include human hygiene water, urine, faeces, and trash. Longer term missions will contain human waste and inedible plant material from plant growth systems used for atmospheric regeneration, food production, and water recycling. The feasibility of biological and physical-chemical waste recycling is being investigated as part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. In-vessel composting has lower manpower requirements, lower water and volume requirements, and greater potential for sanitization of human waste compared to alternative bioreactor designs such as continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR). Residual solids from the process (i.e. compost) could be used a biological air filter, a plant nutrient source, and a carbon sink. Potential in-vessel composting designs for both near- and long-term space missions are presented and discussed with respect to the unique aspects of space-based systems.

  17. Monitoring the Long-Term Performance of Engineered Containment Systems: Role of Ecological Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traynham, B.; Clarke, J.H.; Burger, J.; Waugh, J.

    2009-01-01

    Engineered covers have been widely used to minimize water infiltration into landfills used by U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the disposal of radioactive and hazardous chemical waste. The degradation of engineered covers over time is a complex process that is influenced by site specific characteristics, the structure and dynamics of the indigenous plant community, and the interplay of physical and biological factors at contaminated sites. It is necessary to develop a rigorous method to evaluate long-term performance of covers and other engineered barriers with quantification of risk and uncertainty. Because many of the contaminants of concern are long-lived, this methodology must consider changes in the environmental setting (e.g., precipitation, temperature) and cover components for long time periods (>100 years). Current monitoring approaches focus solely on hydrologic properties of the cover system. Additionally, cover design guidelines, such as those from RCRA, are not performance based and do not consider long-term site-specific influences such as climate, vegetation, and soils. Fundamental ecological processes such as succession are not even factored into current models, yet they directly affect the integrity of landfill covers through biointrusion, erosion, and water balance. Therefore, it is useful to identify ecological parameters and processes most important to performance for prioritization of site characterization and long-term monitoring activities. This investigation into the role of ecological monitoring of isolation containment systems utilizes the software platform GoldSim to identify important parameters and processes for performance verification and monitoring. (authors)

  18. Winery wastewater treatment by a combined process: long term aerated storage and Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marco S; Mouta, Maria; Pirra, António; Peres, José A

    2009-01-01

    The degradation of the organic pollutants present in winery wastewater was carried out by the combination of two successive steps: an aerobic biological process followed by a chemical oxidation process using Fenton's reagent. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the temporal characteristics of solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) present in winery wastewater in a long term aerated storage bioreactor. The performance of different air dosage daily supplied to the biologic reactor, in laboratory and pilot scale, were examined. The long term hydraulic retention time, 11 weeks, contributed remarkably to the reduction of COD (about 90%) and the combination with the Fenton's reagent led to a high overall COD reduction that reached 99.5% when the mass ratio (R = H(2)O(2)/COD) used was equal to 2.5, maintaining constant the molar ratio H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+)=15.

  19. Radiobiology in clinical radiation therapy - Part IV: Long term risks - Carcinogenic, hereditary, and teratogenetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, David J.

    1996-01-01

    The long-term risks induced by radiation are of much concern to patients and clinicians alike. As an example, perceived radiation risks are frequently cited in a woman's decision to choose a radical mastectomy over lumpectomy + radiation. In consequence, the actual radiation risks are often considerably overstated, or unreasonably downplayed. In this lecture we will discuss just what is known about the long term risks following radiotherapy, both from the human experience and from the laboratory. We will discuss risks both to the patient and to radiotherapy personnel. A good deal is known about the carcinogenic effects of high and low doses of radiation, in large part thanks to the careful study of the survivors of the atomic bombing in Japan, as well as studies of individuals exposed to medical x rays. It is possible to make an estimate, which is probably good to within a factor of, perhaps, three to five, of the cancer risks faced by a patient of a particular age and sex who is going to undergo a particular radiotherapeutic regimen. It is also possible to make an estimate of the risks faced by radiotherapy and nursing staff exposed to low doses. Brachytherapy related risk estimates are likely to be somewhat more uncertain, due to the poorly known sparing effects of the low dose rates used; for the radiotherapy personnel in brachytherapy, because of the doses which can be received, the risks can be quite significant. A recent complication in external-beam radiotherapy is the advent of high-energy linacs, which can produce a significant fast neutron dose which, dose for dose, may be ten to fifty times more carcinogenic than gamma rays. Data relating to the risks of hereditary effects of radiation come almost entirely from laboratory experiments in animals. Studies involving several million mice form the basis of most of our current understanding of hereditary effects. The results of these studies indicate that radiation is a relatively inefficient mutagen. The

  20. Automatic and controlled processing in sentence recall: The role of long-term and working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Baddeley, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    Immediate serial recall is better for sentences than word lists presumably because of the additional support that meaningful material receives from long-term memory. This may occur automatically, without the involvement of attention, or may require additional attentionally demanding processing. For example, the episodic buffer model (Baddeley, 2000) proposes that the executive component of working memory plays a crucial role in the formation of links between different representational formats...

  1. Long-term Impact of Prevention Programs to Promote Effective Parenting: Lasting Effects but Uncertain Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sandler, Irwin; Schoenfelder, Erin; Wolchik, Sharlene; MacKinnon, David

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to twenty years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting progr...

  2. Impact of process variations and long term degradation on 6T-SRAM cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Th. Fischer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern deep-submicron CMOS technologies voltage scaling can not keep up with the scaling of the dimensions of transistors. Therefore the electrical fields inside the transistors are not constant anymore, while scaling down the device area. The rising electrical fields bring up reliability problems, such as hot carrier injection. Also other long term degradation mechanisms like Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI come into the focus of circuit design.

    Along with process device parameter variations (threshold voltage, mobility, variations due to the degradation of devices form a big challenge for designers to build circuits that both yield high under the influence of process variations and remain functional with respect to long term device drift.

    In this work we present the influence of long term degradation and process variations on the performance of SRAM core-cells and parametric yield of SRAM arrays. For different use cases we show the performance degradation depending on temperature and supply voltage.

  3. Temporal information processing in short- and long-term memory of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Steffen; Steingen, Joerg; Eppert, Yvonne; Niedermeyer, Ulrich; van der Meer, Elke; Krueger, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive deficits of patients with schizophrenia have been largely recognized as core symptoms of the disorder. One neglected factor that contributes to these deficits is the comprehension of time. In the present study, we assessed temporal information processing and manipulation from short- and long-term memory in 34 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 34 matched healthy controls. On the short-term memory temporal-order reconstruction task, an incidental or intentional learning strategy was deployed. Patients showed worse overall performance than healthy controls. The intentional learning strategy led to dissociable performance improvement in both groups. Whereas healthy controls improved on a performance measure (serial organization), patients improved on an error measure (inappropriate semantic clustering) when using the intentional instead of the incidental learning strategy. On the long-term memory script-generation task, routine and non-routine events of everyday activities (e.g., buying groceries) had to be generated in either chronological or inverted temporal order. Patients were slower than controls at generating events in the chronological routine condition only. They also committed more sequencing and boundary errors in the inverted conditions. The number of irrelevant events was higher in patients in the chronological, non-routine condition. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia imprecisely access temporal information from short- and long-term memory. In short-term memory, processing of temporal information led to a reduction in errors rather than, as was the case in healthy controls, to an improvement in temporal-order recall. When accessing temporal information from long-term memory, patients were slower and committed more sequencing, boundary, and intrusion errors. Together, these results suggest that time information can be accessed and processed only imprecisely by patients who provide evidence for impaired time comprehension

  4. Periglacial processes incorporated into a long-term landscape evolution model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, D.L.; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou

    Little is known about the long-term influence of periglacial processes on landscape evolution in cold areas, even though the efficiency of frost cracking on the breakdown of rocks has been documented by observations and experiments. Cold-room laboratory experiments show that a continuous water...... supply and sustained sub- zero temperatures are essential to develop fractures in porous rocks (e.g. Murton, 2006), but the cracking efficiency for harder rock types under natural conditions is less clear. However, based on experimental results for porous rocks, Hales and Roering (2007) proposed a model...... by their model and the elevation of scree deposits in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. This result suggests a link between frost-cracking efficiency and long-term landscape evolution and thus merits further investigations. Anderson et al. (2012) expanded this early model by including the effects of latent heat...

  5. Testing seasonal and long-term controls of streamwater DOC using empirical and process-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futter, Martyn N; de Wit, Heleen A

    2008-12-15

    Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters are increasing across Europe and parts of North America. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain these increases including reductions in acid deposition, change in frequency of winter storms and changes in temperature and precipitation patterns. We used two modelling approaches to identify the mechanisms responsible for changing surface water DOC concentrations. Empirical regression analysis and INCA-C, a process-based model of stream-water DOC, were used to simulate long-term (1986--2003) patterns in stream water DOC concentrations in a small boreal stream. Both modelling approaches successfully simulated seasonal and inter-annual patterns in DOC concentration. In both models, seasonal patterns of DOC concentration were controlled by hydrology and inter-annual patterns were explained by climatic variation. There was a non-linear relationship between warmer summer temperatures and INCA-C predicted DOC. Only the empirical model was able to satisfactorily simulate the observed long-term increase in DOC. The observed long-term trends in DOC are likely to be driven by in-soil processes controlled by SO4(2-) and Cl(-) deposition, and to a lesser extent by temperature-controlled processes. Given the projected changes in climate and deposition, future modelling and experimental research should focus on the possible effects of soil temperature and moisture on organic carbon production, sorption and desorption rates, and chemical controls on organic matter solubility.

  6. Long-term performance of structures comprising nuclear power plants PART 1: Deterioration assessment of nuclear power station buildings PART 2: Long-term stability and the leak-tightness of reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, D.C.; Worthington, J.C.; Oberpichler, R.; Van Exel, H.; Beukelmann, D.; Huth, R.; Rose, B.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the long-term performance of structures comprising nuclear power plants. The time period of interest for this study is 140 years (this figure is based on maximum periods of 40 years for operation and 100 years of storage). It was divided in two parts: - the first based on four UK nuclear power plants examine the principle deterioration mechanism of reinforced structure which is chloride ingress and carbonation penetration - the second based on 2 German nuclear power plants examine the long term behaviour of reinforced and prestressed concrete and also the corrosion of steel containments with particular reference on plastic seals and potential risk areas

  7. Long-term release from high level waste glass. Part IV. The effect of leaching mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freude, E.; Grambow, B.; Lutze, W.; Rabe, H.; Ewing, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A linear time dependence for the corrosion under near saturation conditions is considered, and a rate equation in the QTERM code is used to model the long-term behavior of the German glass, C-31-3EC, JSS A, and SRL TDS 131. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Interpersonal and group processes in long-term spaceflight crews: perspectives from social and organizational psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Kenneth L

    2004-07-01

    The issues of interpersonal and group processes in long-term spacecrews from the perspectives of social and organizational psychology are considered here. A contrast between the Amundsen vs. Scott expeditions to the South Pole 90 yrs. ago highlights the importance of personnel selection and attention to interpersonal and group dynamics in expeditions to extreme and dangerous environments, such as long-term spaceflights today. Under the rubric of personnel selection, some further psychological "select-in" and "select-out" criteria are suggested, among them implicit measures of human motivation, intergroup attitudes ("implicit" and "explicit" measures of prejudice, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism), attachment styles, and dispositional hardiness. The situational interview and the idea of "selection for teams," drawn from current advances in organizational psychology, are recommended for selecting members for future spacecrews. Under the rubrics of interpersonal and group processes, the social relations model is introduced as a technique for modeling and understanding interdependence among spacecrew members and partialling out variance in behavioral and perceptual data into actor/perceiver, partner/target, and relationship components. Group cohesion as a multidimensional construct is introduced, along with a consideration of the groupthink phenomenon and its controversial link to cohesion. Group composition issues are raised with examples concerning cultural heterogeneity and gender composition. Cultural value dimensions, especially power distance and individual-collectivism, should be taken into account at both societal and psychological levels in long-term space missions. Finally, intergroup processes and language issues in crews are addressed. The recategorization induction from the common ingroup identity model is recommended as a possible intervention for overcoming and inhibiting intergroup biases within spacecrews and between space

  9. Factors affecting long-term-care residents' decision-making processes as they formulate advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Heather C; McColl, Mary Ann; Gilbert, Julie; Wong, Jiahui; Murray, Gale; Shortt, Samuel E D

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe factors contributing to the decision-making processes of elderly persons as they formulate advance directives in long-term care. This study was qualitative, based on grounded theory. Recruitment was purposive and continued until saturation was reached. Nine residents of a long-term-care facility were interviewed by use of a semistructured format. Open and axial coding of interview transcripts were carried out and the factors contributing to the decision process were defined. Elders based their decisions primarily on information gathered from personal experiences with death and illness. They obtained very little information from professionals or the media. Major factors considered by elders as they weighed information included spiritual, emotional, and social considerations. The factors considered during the decision-making process were oriented more toward the individual's experiences and less on contributions from objective sources than anticipated. Decision making for advance directives is a highly personalized process. The approach of health professionals when assisting with end-of-life decision making should be planned with these contributing factors in mind, so that the services offered to the individuals in this population best meet their needs.

  10. Episodic events in long-term geological processes: A new classification and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Ruban

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term geological processes are usually described with curves reflecting continuous changes in the characteristic parameters through the geological history, and such curves can be employed directly for recognition of episodic (relatively long-term events linked to these changes. The episodic events can be classified into several categories according to their scale (ordinary and anomalous events, “shape” (positive, negative, and neutral events, and relation to long-term trend change (successive, interruptive, facilitative, stabilizing, transformative, increasing, and decreasing. Many types of these events can be defined depending on the combination of the above-mentioned patterns. Of course, spatial rank, duration, and origin can be also considered in description of these events. The proposed classification can be applied to events in some real long-term geological processes, which include global sea-level changes, biodiversity dynamics, lithospheric plate number changes, and palaeoclimate changes. Several case examples prove the usefulness of the classification. It is established that the Early Valanginian (Early Cretaceous eustatic lowstand (the lowest position of the sea level in the entire Cretaceous was negative, but ordinary and only interruptive event. In the other case, it becomes clear that the only end-Ordovician and the Permian/Triassic mass extinctions transformed the trends of the biodiversity dynamics (from increase to decrease and from decrease to increase respectively, and the only Cretaceous/Paleogene mass extinction was really anomalous event on the Phanerozoic biodiversity curve. The new palaeontological data are employed to reconstruct the diversity dynamics of brachiopods in Germany (without the Alps and the Swiss Jura Mountains. The further interpretation of the both diversity curves implies that the Early Toarcian mass extinction affected the regional brachiopod faunas strongly, but this event was only decreasing

  11. Alterations to global but not local motion processing in long-term ecstasy (MDMA) users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Claire; Brown, John; Edwards, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the main psychoactive ingredient in the illegal drug "ecstasy" (methylendioxymethamphetamine) causes reduced activity in the serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems in humans. On the basis of substantial serotonin input to the occipital lobe, recent research investigated visual processing in long-term users and found a larger magnitude of the tilt aftereffect, interpreted to reflect broadened orientation tuning bandwidths. Further research found higher orientation discrimination thresholds and reduced long-range interactions in the primary visual area of ecstasy users. The aim of the present research was to investigate whether serotonin-mediated V1 visual processing deficits in ecstasy users extend to motion processing mechanisms. Forty-five participants (21 controls, 24 drug users) completed two psychophysical studies: A direction discrimination study directly measured local motion processing in V1, while a motion coherence task tested global motion processing in area V5/MT. "Primary" ecstasy users (n = 18), those without substantial polydrug use, had significantly lower global motion thresholds than controls [p = 0.027, Cohen's d = 0.78 (large)], indicating increased sensitivity to global motion stimuli, but no difference in local motion processing (p = 0.365). These results extend on previous research investigating the long-term effects of illicit drugs on visual processing. Two possible explanations are explored: defuse attentional processes may be facilitating spatial pooling of motion signals in users. Alternatively, it may be that a GABA-mediated disruption to V5/MT processing is reducing spatial suppression and therefore improving global motion perception in ecstasy users.

  12. Natural physical and biological processes compromise the long-term performance of compacted soil caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Compacted soil barriers are components of essentially all caps placed on closed waste disposal sites. The intended functions of soil barriers in waste facility caps include restricting infiltration of water and release of gases and vapors, either independently or in combination with synthetic membrane barriers, and protecting other manmade or natural barrier components. Review of the performance of installed soil barriers and of natural processes affecting their performance indicates that compacted soil caps may function effectively for relatively short periods (years to decades), but natural physical and biological processes can be expected to cause them to fail in the long term (decades to centuries). This paper addresses natural physical and biological processes that compromise the performance of compacted soil caps and suggests measures that may reduce the adverse consequences of these natural failure mechanisms

  13. Long-term variations in the geomagnetic activity level Part II: Ascending phases of sunspot cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mussino

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Monthly averages of the Helsinki Ak-values have been reduced to the equivalent aa-indices to extend the aa-data set back to 1844. A periodicity of about five cycles was found for the correlation coefficient (r between geomagnetic indices and sunspot numbers for the ascending phases of sunspot cycles 9 to 22, confirming previous findings based on a minor number of sunspot cycles. The result is useful to researchers in topics related to solar-terrestrial physics, particularly for the interpretation of long-term trends in geomagnetic activity during the past, and to forecast geomagnetic activity levels in the future.

  14. Impact of microbial activity on the radioactive waste disposal: long term prediction of biocorrosion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, Marie; Schütz, Marta Kerber; Esnault, Loïc; Féron, Damien; Bildstein, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    This study emphasizes different experimental approaches and provides perspectives to apprehend biocorrosion phenomena in the specific disposal environment by investigating microbial activity with regard to the modification of corrosion rate, which in turn can have an impact on the safety of radioactive waste geological disposal. It is found that iron-reducing bacteria are able to use corrosion products such as iron oxides and "dihydrogen" as new energy sources, especially in the disposal environment which contains low amounts of organic matter. Moreover, in the case of sulphate-reducing bacteria, the results show that mixed aerobic and anaerobic conditions are the most hazardous for stainless steel materials, a situation which is likely to occur in the early stage of a geological disposal. Finally, an integrated methodological approach is applied to validate the understanding of the complex processes and to design experiments aiming at the acquisition of kinetic data used in long term predictive modelling of biocorrosion processes. © 2013.

  15. Long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joanna Cahall; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether child maltreatment has a long-term impact on emotion processing abilities in adulthood and whether IQ, psychopathology, or psychopathy mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and emotion processing in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed up into adulthood. Potential mediators (IQ, Post-Traumatic Stress [PTSD], Generalized Anxiety [GAD], Dysthymia, and Major Depressive [MDD] Disorders, and psychopathy) were assessed in young adulthood with standardized assessment techniques. In middle adulthood (Mage=47), the International Affective Picture System was used to measure emotion processing. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation models. Individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment were less accurate in emotion processing overall and in processing positive and neutral pictures than matched controls. Childhood physical abuse predicted less accuracy in neutral pictures and childhood sexual abuse and neglect predicted less accuracy in recognizing positive pictures. MDD, GAD, and IQ predicted overall picture recognition accuracy. However, of the mediators examined, only IQ acted to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and emotion processing deficits. Although research has focused on emotion processing in maltreated children, these new findings show an impact child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in middle adulthood. Research and interventions aimed at improving emotional processing deficiencies in abused and neglected children should consider the role of IQ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term sea surface temperature baselines - time series, spatial covariation and implications for biological processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Schiedek, D.

    2007-01-01

    to 2 years. These differences suggest that spatial variations in physical oceanographic phenomena and sampling heterogeneities associated with opportunistic sampling could affect perceptions of biological responses to temperature fluctuations. The documentation that the coastally measured temperatures...... questions at large spatial scales, such as the response of species distributions and phenologies to climate change. In this study we investigate the spatial synchrony of long-term sea surface temperatures in the North Sea-Baltic Sea region as measured daily at four coastal sites (Marsdiep, Netherlands...... at coastal sites co-varied strongly with each other and with opportunistically measured offshore temperatures despite separation distances between measuring locations of 20-1200 km. This covariance is probably due to the influence of large-scale atmospheric processes on regional temperatures...

  17. Involvement of translation and transcription processes into neurophysiological mechanisms of long-term memory reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, S A; Nikitin, V P

    2013-03-01

    We studied the involvement of translation and transcription processes into behavioral and neuronal mechanisms of reconsolidation of the long-term memory of the conditioned taste aversion in edible snails. Injection of cycloheximide (an inhibitor of protein synthesis) to the snails in 48 h after training combined with subsequent reminder and presentation of the conditional stimulus resulted in the development of persistent amnesia and depression of the responses of the defensive behavior command neurons LPl1 and RPl1 to the conditional stimulus. Injection of mRNA synthesis inhibitors actinomycin D or DRB (5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidasole) in 48 h after conditioning with subsequent reminding procedure produced no effects on memory retention and on the responses of the command neurons to the conditional stimulus. The study suggests that the proteins translated from previously synthesized and stored mRNA were involved in the mechanisms of reconsolidation of the memory responsible for conditioned taste aversion.

  18. Long-term impact of prevention programs to promote effective parenting: lasting effects but uncertain processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N; Schoenfelder, Erin N; Wolchik, Sharlene A; MacKinnon, David P

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to 20 years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting programs: (a) through program effects on parenting skills, perceptions of parental efficacy, and reduction in barriers to effective parenting; (b) through program-induced reductions in short-term problems of youth that persist over time, improvements in youth adaptation to stress, and improvements in youth belief systems concerning the self and their relationships with others; and (c) through effects on contexts in which youth become involved and on youth-environment transactions.

  19. Event-related cortical processing in neuropathic pain under long-term spinal cord stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Ralf; Capelle, H Holger; Flor, Herta; Krauss, Joachim K

    2015-01-01

    discomfort discontinuation of SCS therapy was not prolonged over a 24 hour period. Further limitations were the low number of patients who agreed to discontinue SCS therapy for research purposes. Long-term SCS for treatment of neuropathic pain influenced both pain thresholds and cortical signalling. Source localization of P1 suggests involvement of regions involved in cognitive/associative processing of pain.

  20. Realistic integration of sorption processes in transport codes for long-term safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseck, Ulrich; Fluegge, Judith; Britz, Susan; Schneider, Anke [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Brendler, Vinzenz; Stockmann, Madlen; Schikora, Johannes [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany); Lampe, Michael [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Goethe Center for Scientific Computing

    2012-09-15

    One important aspect in long-term safety assessment is related to radionuclide transport in geologic formations. In order to assess its consequences over assessment periods of one million years numerical models describing flow and transport are applied. Sorption on mineral surfaces is the most relevant process retarding radionuclide transport. On the one hand an increased transport time might cause a decrease in radionuclide concentration by radioactive decay. On the other hand it might increase concentrations of dose-relevant daughter nuclides in decay chains. In order to treat the radionuclide sorption processes in natural systems close to reality the so-called smart K{sub d}-concept is implemented into the transport program r{sup 3}t, which is applied to large model areas and very long time scales in long-term safety assessment. In the first stage this approach is developed for a typical sedimentary system covering rock salt and clay formations in Northern Germany. The smart K{sub d}-values are based on mechanistic surface complexation models (SCM), varying in time and space and de-pending on the actual geochemical conditions, which might change in the future e. g. due to the impact of climate changes. The concept developed and introduced here is based on a feasible treatment of the most relevant geochemical parameters in the transport code as well as on a matrix of smart K{sub d}-values calculated in dependence on these parameters. The implementation of the concept comprises the selection of relevant elements and minerals to be considered, an experimental program to fill data gaps of the thermody-namic sorption database, an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis to identify the most important environmental parameters influencing sorption of long-term relevant radionu-clides, the creation of a matrix with K{sub d}-values dependent on the selected environmental parameters, and the development and realisation of the conceptual model for treatment of temporal and

  1. Two-time scale subordination in physical processes with long-term memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Weron, Karina

    2008-01-01

    We describe dynamical processes in continuous media with a long-term memory. Our consideration is based on a stochastic subordination idea and concerns two physical examples in detail. First we study a temporal evolution of the species concentration in a trapping reaction in which a diffusing reactant is surrounded by a sea of randomly moving traps. The analysis uses the random-variable formalism of anomalous diffusive processes. We find that the empirical trapping-reaction law, according to which the reactant concentration decreases in time as a product of an exponential and a stretched exponential function, can be explained by a two-time scale subordination of random processes. Another example is connected with a state equation for continuous media with memory. If the pressure and the density of a medium are subordinated in two different random processes, then the ordinary state equation becomes fractional with two-time scales. This allows one to arrive at the Bagley-Torvik type of state equation

  2. “Death Is Part of the Job” in Long-Term Care Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Marcella

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For long-term care (LTC home staff who work directly with residents, death, dying, and grief are day-to-day experiences in their working life. However, staff are often overlooked for grief and bereavement support. This exploratory research used a qualitative approach to understand LTC staff’s grief and bereavement experience and to identify the perceived support needs of nurses and personal support workers who work in two faith-based non-profit care homes in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. Findings indicated that participants’ experiences are complex, shaped by the emotional impact of each loss, the cumulative burden of ongoing grief, an organizational culture in LTC where death is hidden, and the lack of organizational attention to staffs’ support and education needs. Eight recommendations were developed from the findings. It is hoped that this research will assist in the development of organizational policy and procedures, addressing the health and well-being of direct care workers in LTC homes.

  3. Electrophysiological indices of altered working memory processes in long-term ecstasy users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulsen, Claire; Fox, Allison; Hammond, Geoff

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of light long-term ecstasy consumption on verbal short-term and working memory and to identify the cognitive processes contributing to task performance. Electroencephalogram was recorded while ecstasy users (N = 11), polydrug users (N = 13), and non-users (N = 13) completed forward and backward serial recognition tasks designed to engage verbal short-term memory and verbal working memory, respectively. All three groups displayed significantly lower digit-backward span than digit-forward span with ecstasy users displaying the greatest difference. The parietally distributed P3b was significantly smaller in the digits backward task than in the digits forward task in non-ecstasy-using controls. Ecstasy users did not show the reduced P3b component in the backward task that was seen in both non-ecstasy-using control groups. Ecstasy users' performance was suppressed more by the concurrent processing demands of the working memory task than that of the non-ecstasy-using controls. Non-ecstasy-using controls showed differential event-related potential wave forms in the short-term and working memory tasks, and this pattern was not seen in the ecstasy users. This is consistent with a reduction in the cognitive resources allocated to processing in working memory in ecstasy users. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Long-Term Alterations in Neural and Endocrine Processes Induced by Motherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The reproductive experience of pregnancy, lactation and motherhood can significantly remodel the female’s biological state, affecting endocrine, neuroendocrine, neural, and immunological processes. The brain, pituitary gland, liver, thymus, and mammary tissue are among the structures that are modified by reproductive experience. The present review that focuses on rodent research, but also includes pertinent studies in sheep and other species, identifies specific changes in these processes brought about by the biological states of pregnancy, parturition, and lactation and how the components of reproductive experience contribute to the remodeling of the maternal brain and organ systems. Findings indicate that prior parity alters key circulating hormone levels and neural receptor gene expression. Moreover, reproductive experience results in modifications in neural processes and glial support. The possible role of pregnancy-induced neurogenesis is considered in the context of neuroplasticity and behavior, and the effects of reproductive experience on maternal memory, i.e. the retention of maternal behavior, together with anxiety and learning are presented. Together, these sets of findings support the concept that the neural and biological state of the adult female is significantly and dramatically altered on a long-term basis by the experiences of parity and motherhood. Remodeling of the maternal brain and other biological systems is posited to help facilitate adaptations to environmental/ecological challenges as the female raises young and ages. PMID:26388065

  5. Consequences of Early Conductive Hearing Loss on Long-Term Binaural Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Kelley; Rance, Gary; Dowell, Richard; Van Dun, Bram

    The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of early conductive hearing loss on binaural processing in school-age children. One hundred and eighteen children participated in the study, 82 children with a documented history of conductive hearing loss associated with otitis media and 36 controls who had documented histories showing no evidence of otitis media or conductive hearing loss. All children were demonstrated to have normal-hearing acuity and middle ear function at the time of assessment. The Listening in Spatialized Noise Sentence (LiSN-S) task and the masking level difference (MLD) task were used as the two different measures of binaural interaction ability. Children with a history of conductive hearing loss performed significantly poorer than controls on all LiSN-S conditions relying on binaural cues (DV90, p = binaural cues. Fifteen children with a conductive hearing loss history (18%) showed results consistent with a spatial processing disorder. No significant difference was observed between the conductive hearing loss group and the controls on the MLD task. Furthermore, no correlations were found between LiSN-S and MLD. Results show a relationship between early conductive hearing loss and listening deficits that persist once hearing has returned to normal. Results also suggest that the two binaural interaction tasks (LiSN-S and MLD) may be measuring binaural processing at different levels. Findings highlight the need for a screening measure of functional listening ability in children with a history of early otitis media.

  6. Long-term storage of irradiated potatoes for use in processed products, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shohei; Umeda, Keiji; Kameyama, Keiji.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of reconditioning of irradiated potatoes on the decrease of reducing sugar was studied. As a result, a suitable storage condition to maintain the desirable processing properties is proposed. The reducing sugar content was temporarily increased by irradiation at the early or last period of dormancy. The increase of reducing sugar was easily suppressed at the early period of dormancy by reconditioning immediately after irradiation. Reducing sugar did not decrease by the reconditioning when the irraditaion was carried out the early period of dormancy, but decreased when carried out at the last period of dormancy. A desirable procedure to maintain the processing properties of irradiated potatoes is as follows: Harvest the potatoes, store in bulk or containers and cure for 10 days at 10 0 C, RH90%. Irradiate the cured potatoes and recondition for 2 weeks under 15 0 C and RH80%. Long-term storage is then carried out at 7 - 8 0 C. Before processing, recondition the stored potatoes for 2 to 4 weeks at 15 0 C and RH 80%. (author)

  7. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  8. Alternative processes for the long-term storage of Kr-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzhorn, R.D.

    1977-12-01

    The forseeable problems which are characteristic of the long-term storage of Kr-85, are discussed on the basis of the chemical, physical and radiological properties of the fission noble gases krypton and xenon as well as rubidium, the daughter nuclide of Kr-85. The various alternatives suggested in the literature for the long-term storage of Kr-85 are reviewed. The technological realization of each of the proposed alternatives is analyzed. (orig.) [de

  9. Hydrogeochemistry of prairie pothole region wetlands: Role of long-term critical zone processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; Morrison, Jean M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Mushet, David M.; LaBaugh, James W.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the geologic and hydrogeochemical processes operating at a range of scales within the prairie pothole region (PPR). The PPR is a 750,000 km2portion of north central North America that hosts millions of small wetlands known to be critical habitat for waterfowl and other wildlife. At a local scale, we characterized the geochemical evolution of the 92-ha Cottonwood Lake study area (CWLSA), located in North Dakota, USA. Critical zone processes are the long-term determinant of wetland water and groundwater geochemistry via the interaction of oxygenated groundwater with pyrite in the underlying glacial till. Pyrite oxidation produced a brown, iron oxide-bearing surface layer locally over 13 m thick and an estimated minimum of 1.3 × 1010 g sulfate (SO42 −) at CWLSA. We show that the majority of this SO42− now resides in solid-phase gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) and gypsum-saturated groundwater.

  10. Technology for the long-term management of defense HLW at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, B.A.; Berreth, J.R.; Knecht, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Defense Waste Management Plan of June 1983 includes a reference plan for the long-term management of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) high-level waste (HLW), with a goal of disposing of the annual output in 500 canisters a year by FY-2008. Based on the current vitrification technology, the ICPP base-glass case would produce 1700 canisters per year after FY-2007. Thus, to meet the DWMP goal processing steps including fuel dissolution, waste treatment, and waste immobilization are being studied as areas where potential modifications could result in HLW volume reductions for repository disposal. It has been demonstrated that ICPP calcined wastes can be densified by hot isostatic pressing to multiphase ceramic forms of high loading and density. Conversion of waste by hot isostatic pressing to these forms has the potential of reducing the annual ICPP waste production to volumes near those of the goal of the DWMP. This report summarizes the laboratory-scale information currently available on the development of these forms

  11. U.S. GLOBEC Georges Bank Long-Term Moored Program. Part 1. Mooring Configuration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irish, J. D; Kerry, S; Fucile, P; Beardsley, R. C; Lord, J; Brink, K. H

    2005-01-01

    As part of the U.S. GLOBEC Northwest Atlantic/Georges Bank program, moorings were deployed on Georges Bank as part of the broad-scale survey component to help measure the temporal variability of both physical...

  12. Long-term Trend and Fractal of Annual Runoff Process in Mainstream of Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jianhua; CHEN Yaning; LI Weihong; DONG Shan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the time series data from the Aral hydrological station for the period of 1958-2005, the paper re-veals the long-term trend and fractal of the annual runoff process in the mainstream of the Tarim River by using thewavelet analysis method and the fractal theory. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) From a large time scale pointof view, i.e. the time scale of 16 (24) years, the annual runoff basically shows a slightly decreasing trend as a wholefrom 1958 to 2005. If the time scale is reduced to 8 (23) or 4 (22) years, the annual runoff still displays the basic trendas the large time scale, but it has fluctuated more obviously during the period. 2) The correlation dimension for theannual runoff process is 3.4307, non-integral, which indicates that the process has both fractal and chaotic characteris-tics. The correlation dimension is above 3, which means that at least four independent variables are needed to describethe dynamics of the annual runoff process. 3) The Hurst exponent for the first period (1958-1973) is 0.5036, whichequals 0.5 approximately and indicates that the annual runoff process is in chaos. The Hurst exponents for the second(1974-1989) and third (1990-2005) periods are both greater than 0.50, which indicate that the annual runoff processshowed a long-enduring characteristic in the two periods. The Hurst exponent for the period from 1990 to 2005 indi-cates that the annual runoffwill show a slightly increasing trend in the 16 years after 2005.

  13. Similarities and Differences between Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: Evidence from the Levels-of-Processing Span Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nathan S.; Myerson, Joel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Hale, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments compared the effects of depth of processing on working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) using a levels-of-processing (LOP) span task, a newly developed WM span procedure that involves processing to-be-remembered words based on their visual, phonological, or semantic characteristics. Depth of processing had minimal effect on…

  14. Family Processes in Child Anxiety: the Long-Term Impact of Fathers and Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart Parrigon, Kaela L; Kerns, Kathryn A

    2016-10-01

    The current study investigated links between parent and child anxiety, and family process factors, over a 9 year period. Specifically, we examined the role of partner conflict, attachment security and parental autonomy granting in explaining changes in child, father, and mother anxiety symptoms. We utilized data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 661), from when target children were in first grade (6 years), fifth grade (10 years), and 15 years of age. We tested a longitudinal path model including both fathers and mothers, and found that the model was a good fit for the data. We also found that lower attachment security to fathers and a restriction of maternal autonomy granting predicted which children maintained anxiety into adolescence. Partner conflict explained the association between earlier and later parental anxiety, which is a novel finding in the literature. Together, these findings suggest that fathers play an important long-term role in child anxiety, alongside the role of mothers.

  15. Modeling coupled thermal, flow, transport and geochemical processes controlling near field long-term evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W.; Arthur, R.; Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Bentonite is planned for use as a buffer material in the Swedish nuclear waste disposal concept (KBS-3). Upon emplacement, the buffer is expected to experience a complex set of coupled processes involving heating, re-saturation, reaction and transport of groundwater imbibed from the host rock. The effect of these processes may eventually lead to changes in desirable physical and rheological properties of the buffer, but these processes are not well understood. In this paper, a new quantitative model is evaluated to help improve our understanding of the long-term performance of buffer materials. This is an extension of a previous study [1] that involved simple thermal and chemical models applied to a fully saturated buffer. The thermal model in the present study uses heating histories for spent fuel in a single waste package [2]. The model uses repository dimensions, such as borehole and tunnel spacings [2], which affect the temperature distribution around the waste package. At the time of emplacement, bentonite is partially saturated with water having a different composition than the host-rock groundwater. The present model simulates water imbibition from the host rock into the bentonite under capillary and hydraulic pressure gradients. The associated chemical reactions and solute transport are simulated using Aespoe water composition [3]. The initial mineralogy of bentonite is assumed to be dominated by Na-smectite with much smaller amounts of anhydrite and calcite. Na-smectite dissolution is assumed to be kinetically-controlled while all other reactions are assumed to be at equilibrium controlled. All equilibrium and kinetic constants are temperature dependent. The modeling tool used is TOUGHREACT, developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [4]. TOUGHREACT is a numerical model that is well suited for near-field simulations because it accounts for feedback between porosity and permeability changes from mineral

  16. Reversal of long-term potentiation-like plasticity processes after motor learning disrupts skill retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Gabriela; Lloyd, Ashley; Celnik, Pablo

    2013-07-31

    Plasticity of synaptic connections in the primary motor cortex (M1) is thought to play an essential role in learning and memory. Human and animal studies have shown that motor learning results in long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity processes, namely potentiation of M1 and a temporary occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. Moreover, biochemical processes essential for LTP are also crucial for certain types of motor learning and memory. Thus, it has been speculated that the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity after learning, indicative of how much LTP was used to learn, is essential for retention. Here we provide supporting evidence of it in humans. Induction of LTP-like plasticity can be abolished using a depotentiation protocol (DePo) consisting of brief continuous theta burst stimulation. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess whether application of DePo over M1 after motor learning affected (1) occlusion of LTP-like plasticity and (2) retention of motor skill learning. We found that the magnitude of motor memory retention is proportional to the magnitude of occlusion of LTP-like plasticity. Moreover, DePo stimulation over M1, but not over a control site, reversed the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity induced by motor learning and disrupted skill retention relative to control subjects. Altogether, these results provide evidence of a link between occlusion of LTP-like plasticity and retention and that this measure could be used as a biomarker to predict retention. Importantly, attempts to reverse the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity after motor learning comes with the cost of reducing retention of motor learning.

  17. Studying frequency processing of the brain to enhance long-term memory and develop a human brain protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Wernher; Du, Shengzhi; Balt, Karlien

    2015-01-01

    The temporal lobe in conjunction with the hippocampus is responsible for memory processing. The gamma wave is involved with this process. To develop a human brain protocol, a better understanding of the relationship between gamma and long-term memory is vital. A more comprehensive understanding of the human brain and specific analogue waves it uses will support the development of a human brain protocol. Fifty-eight participants aged between 6 and 60 years participated in long-term memory experiments. It is envisaged that the brain could be stimulated through binaural beats (sound frequency) at 40 Hz (gamma) to enhance long-term memory capacity. EEG recordings have been transformed to sound and then to an information standard, namely ASCII. Statistical analysis showed a proportional relationship between long-term memory and gamma activity. Results from EEG recordings indicate a pattern. The pattern was obtained through the de-codification of an EEG recording to sound and then to ASCII. Stimulation of gamma should enhance long term memory capacity. More research is required to unlock the human brains' protocol key. This key will enable the processing of information directly to and from human memory via gamma, the hippocampus and the temporal lobe.

  18. Forest landscape models, a tool for understanding the effect of the large-scale and long-term landscape processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong S. He; Robert E. Keane; Louis R. Iverson

    2008-01-01

    Forest landscape models have become important tools for understanding large-scale and long-term landscape (spatial) processes such as climate change, fire, windthrow, seed dispersal, insect outbreak, disease propagation, forest harvest, and fuel treatment, because controlled field experiments designed to study the effects of these processes are often not possible (...

  19. Tie-Up Cycles in Long-Term Mating. Part I: Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Lucchi Basili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new approach to couple formation and dynamics that abridges findings from sexual strategies theory and attachment theory to develop a framework where the sexual and emotional aspects of mating are considered in their strategic interaction. Our approach presents several testable implications, some of which find interesting correspondences in the existing literature. Our main result is that, according to our approach, there are six typical dynamic interaction patterns that are more or less conducive to the formation of a stable couple, and that set out an interesting typology for the analysis of real (as well as fictional, as we will see in the second part of the paper mating behaviors and dynamics.

  20. A Long-Term Tourism Strategy within a Networked Urban Regeneration Process for Historical Quarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jie

    2012-12-01

    agencies, institutions, stake holders, and local residents. This paper highlights that for urban historical quarters, instead of replacing all the community and functions, a long-term tourism should adapt into an integrated and participatory network of urban regeneration process, which is largely beyond its physical aspects and would provide a new perspective for urban tourism.

  1. Microbial processes relevant for the long-term performance of radioactive waste repositories in clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meleshyn, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A number of investigations on occurrence and viability of microbes in compacted clays have been aimed at studying possible microbial effects on long-term performance of a deep geological repository (DGR) for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SF). Compacted clays are considered in current DGR designs either as a buffer material or as a host rock. The primary purpose of the present work was to qualitatively evaluate the relevance of microbial activity for the long-term performance of a DGR and to identify which safety-relevant processes and properties can be potentially influenced by this activity. The present analysis identified eight clay properties essential for maintaining safety functions of containment and retardation of the disposal system - swelling pressure, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, anion sorption capacity, porosity, permeability, fluid pressure, plasticity - which can potentially be influenced by microbial processes in clay buffer and Clay-stone within a DGR for HLW/SF. Iron(III)- and sulphate-reducing, fermentative, methane-producing and oxidizing microbes can be considered to be present in any clay formation. Each habitat includes a massive number of microbial niches with perhaps only a small proportion of the species being metabolically active at the habitat's conditions, the remainder becoming not extinct. Moreover, clays contain electron donors and electron acceptors in amounts sufficient for these microbes to remain active during very long periods of time. Additional sources of electron donors or electron acceptors will inevitably be added to the repository system as a result of DGR excavation, placement of radioactive waste as well as backfilling and sealing of the DGR. In no case should the potential impact of microbes be underestimated based on a possible argument of comparably low biomass of the microbes in contact with metal surfaces or dissolved

  2. Instrument packages to study long-term sediment transport processes in a shallow bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahle, William J.; Martini, Marinna A.; Davis, Ray E.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure and near-surface and near-bottom measurements of current, temperature, salinity and light transmission were required in Mobile Bay, a 3 m deep estuary on the Gulf of Mexico. This environment presented several obstacles to obtaining long term observations. Boat traffic, soft estuary bottom, heavy biofouling, rapid sample rates and large data storage were overcome by using instrumentation techniques that are applicable to other estuary systems. Nearly two years of continuous data was collected.

  3. Early and long-term mantle processing rates derived from xenon isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Parai, R.; Tucker, J.; Middleton, J. L.; Langmuir, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Noble gases, particularly xenon (Xe), in mantle-derived basalts provide a rich portrait of mantle degassing and surface-interior volatile exchange. The combination of extinct and extant radioactive species in the I-Pu-U-Xe systems shed light on the degassing history of the early Earth throughout accretion, as well as the long-term degassing of the Earth's interior in association with plate tectonics. The ubiquitous presence of shallow-level air contamination, however, frequently obscures the mantle Xe signal. In a majority of the samples, shallow air contamination dominates the Xe budget. For example, in the gas-rich popping rock 2ΠD43, 129Xe/130Xe ratios reach 7.7±0.23 in individual step-crushes, but the bulk composition of the sample is close to air (129Xe/130Xe of 6.7). Thus, the extent of variability in mantle source Xe composition is not well-constrained. Here, we present new MORB Xe data and explore constraints placed on mantle processing rates by the Xe data. Ten step-crushes were obtained on a depleted popping glass that was sealed in ultrapure N2 after dredge retrieval from between the Kane-Atlantis Fracture Zone of the Mid Atlantic Ridge in May 2012. 9 steps yielded 129Xe/130Xe of 7.50-7.67 and one yielded 7.3. The bulk 129Xe/130Xe of the sample is 7.6, nearly identical to the estimated mantle source value of 7.7 for the sample. Hence, the sample is virtually free of shallow-level air contamination. Because sealing the sample in N2upon dredge retrieval largely eliminated air contamination, for many samples, contamination must be added after sample retrieval from the ocean bottom. Our new high-precision Xe isotopic measurements in upper mantle-derived samples provide improved constraints on the Xe isotopic composition of the mantle source. We developed a forward model of mantle volatile evolution to identify solutions that satisfy our Xe isotopic data. We find that accretion timescales of ~10±5 Myr are consistent with I-Pu-Xe constraints, and the last

  4. APPLICATION OF THE ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS TO COMPARE ALTERNATIVES FOR THE LONG-TERM MANAGEMENT OF SURPLUS MERCURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes a systematic method for comparing options for the long-term management of surplus elemental mercury in the U.S., using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) as embodied in commercially available Expert Choice software. A limited scope multi-criteria decision-a...

  5. Ecosystem processes and human influences regulate streamflow response to climate change at long-term ecological research sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia A. Jones; Irena F. Creed; Kendra L. Hatcher; Robert J. Warren; Mary Beth Adams; Melinda H. Benson; Emery Boose; Warren A. Brown; John L. Campbell; Alan Covich; David W. Clow; Clifford N. Dahm; Kelly Elder; Chelcy R. Ford; Nancy B. Grimm; Donald L Henshaw; Kelli L. Larson; Evan S. Miles; Kathleen M. Miles; Stephen D. Sebestyen; Adam T. Spargo; Asa B. Stone; James M. Vose; Mark W. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of long-term records at 35 headwater basins in the United States and Canada indicate that climate change effects on streamflow are not as clear as might be expected, perhaps because of ecosystem processes and human influences. Evapotranspiration was higher than was predicted by temperature in water-surplus ecosystems and lower than was predicted in water-...

  6. Parameter estimation and long-term process simulation of a biogas reactor operated under trace elements limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lübken, Manfred; Koch, Konrad; Gehring, Tito; Horn, Harald; Wichern, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Estimation of ADM1 parameter uncertainty by nonlinear, correlated parameter analysis. • Unbounded confidence regions were obtained for single hydrolysis rate constants. • ADM1 carbohydrates were divided into a slowly and readily degradable part. • Bioavailability of trace metals explained discrepancies between modeled and measured data. - Abstract: The Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was modified to describe the long-term process stability of a two-stage agricultural biogas system operated for 494 days with a mono-substrate. The ADM1 model fraction for carbohydrates was divided into a slowly and readily degradable part. Significant different hydrolysis rate constants were found for proteins and single fractions of carbohydrates in batch experiments. Degradation of starch, xylan (hemicellulose), cellulose and zein (protein) were modeled with first order hydrolysis rate coefficients of 1.20 d −1 , 0.70 d −1 , 0.18 d −1 and 0.30 d −1 , respectively. While the hydrolysis rate coefficients found in batch experiments could be used for predicting continuous process data, the statistically calculated confidence regions (nonlinear parameter estimation) showed that the upper limits were unbounded. Single discrepancies between measured and modeled process data of the two-stage pilot system could be explained by the lack of bioavailability of trace elements. Addition of iron, as Fe(III)Cl 3 , allowed stable process conditions for an organic loading rate (OLR) up to 2.5 g VS L −1 d −1 . Additional supplement of trace elements was necessary for process operation at OLRs above 2.5 g VS L −1 d −1

  7. Long term scheduling technique for wastewater minimisation in multipurpose batch processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonyane, DR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available (2011) xxx?xxx Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Applied Mathematical Modelling doi:10.1016/j.apm.2011.08.007 The effect of industrial activities on freshwater resources has become more apparent in the past few decades. This has led... journal homepage: www.elsevier .com/locate /apm e, T. Majozi, Long term scheduling technique for wastewater minimisation in multipurpose :10.1016/j.apm.2011.08.007 Nomenclature Sets P {p|p = time point} J {j|j = unit} C {c|c = contaminant} Sin {sin...

  8. On Modelling Long Term Stock Returns with Ergodic Diffusion Processes: Arbitrage and Arbitrage-Free Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Wong

    2009-01-01

    martingale component is based on an ergodic diffusion with a specified stationary distribution. These models are particularly useful for long horizon asset-liability management as they allow the modelling of long term stock returns with heavy tail ergodic diffusions, with tractable, time homogeneous dynamics, and which moreover admit a complete financial market, leading to unique pricing and hedging strategies. Unfortunately the standard specifications of these models in literature admit arbitrage opportunities. We investigate in detail the features of the existing model specifications which create these arbitrage opportunities and consequently construct a modification that is arbitrage free.

  9. Assessing Transformations of Algal Organic Matter in the Long-Term: Impacts of Humification-Like Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Leloup

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Algae and cyanobacteria are important contributors to the natural organic matter (NOM of eutrophic water resources. The objective of this work is to increase knowledge on the modifications of algal organic matter (AOM properties in the long term to anticipate blooms footprint in such aquatic environments. The production of AOM from an alga (Euglena gracilis and a cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa was followed up and characterized during the stationary phase and after one year and four months of cultivation, in batch experiments. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA index, organic matter fractionation according to hydrophobicity and apparent molecular weight were combined to assess the evolution of AOM. A comparison between humic substances (HS mainly derived from allochthonous origins and AOM characteristics was performed to hypothesize impacts of AOM transformation processes on the water quality of eutrophic water resources. Each AOM fraction underwent a specific evolution pattern, depending on its composition. Impacts of humification-like processes were predominant over release of biopolymers due to cells decay and led to an increase in the hydrophobic compounds part and molecular weights over time. However, the hydrophilic fraction remained the major fraction whatever the growth stage. Organic compounds generated by maturation of these precursors corresponded to large and aliphatic structures.

  10. Monitoring the Long-Term Effectiveness of Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Implementation Through Use of a Performance Dashboard Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, Michael D.; Barrick, William D.

    2008-01-01

    This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) to examine long-term maintenance of DOE Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) criteria, including safety culture attributes, as well as identification of process improvement opportunities. This process was initially developed in the summer of 2000 and has since been expanded to recognize the importance of safety culture attributes, and associated safety culture elements, as defined in DOE M 450.4-1, 'Integrated Safety Management System Manual'. This process has proven to significantly enhance collective awareness of the importance of long-term ISMS implementation as well as support commitments by NNSA/NSO personnel to examine the continued effectiveness of ISMS processes

  11. Get the gist? The effects of processing depth on false recognition in short-term and long-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Flegal, Kristin E.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Gist-based processing has been proposed to account for robust false memories in the converging-associates task. The deep-encoding processes known to enhance verbatim memory also strengthen gist memory and increase distortions of long-term memory (LTM). Recent research has demonstrated that compelling false memory illusions are relatively delay-invariant, also occurring under canonical short-term memory (STM) conditions. To investigate the contributions of gist to false memory at short and lon...

  12. Immunomodulatory Effects of Macrolide Antibiotics - Part 2 : Advantages and Disadvantages of Long-Term, Low-Dose Macrolide Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, J.; de Graaff, C. S.; van der Werf, T. S.; Boersma, W. G.

    2011-01-01

    The available evidence for long-term, low-dose treatment with 14- and 15-membered ring macrolides in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, COPD, chronic sinusitis, and asthma is reviewed with special attention to possible adverse effects and the emergence of resistance during long-term macrolide

  13. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  14. The importance of the relationship between scale and process in understanding long-term DOC dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J M; Bottrell, S H; Evans, C D; Monteith, D T; Bartlett, R; Rose, R; Newton, R J; Chapman, P J

    2010-06-01

    Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon have increased in many, but not all, surface waters across acid impacted areas of Europe and North America over the last two decades. Over the last eight years several hypotheses have been put forward to explain these increases, but none are yet accepted universally. Research in this area appears to have reached a stalemate between those favouring declining atmospheric deposition, climate change or land management as the key driver of long-term DOC trends. While it is clear that many of these factors influence DOC dynamics in soil and stream waters, their effect varies over different temporal and spatial scales. We argue that regional differences in acid deposition loading may account for the apparent discrepancies between studies. DOC has shown strong monotonic increases in areas which have experienced strong downward trends in pollutant sulphur and/or seasalt deposition. Elsewhere climatic factors, that strongly influence seasonality, have also dominated inter-annual variability, and here long-term monotonic DOC trends are often difficult to detect. Furthermore, in areas receiving similar acid loadings, different catchment characteristics could have affected the site specific sensitivity to changes in acidity and therefore the magnitude of DOC release in response to changes in sulphur deposition. We suggest that confusion over these temporal and spatial scales of investigation has contributed unnecessarily to the disagreement over the main regional driver(s) of DOC trends, and that the data behind the majority of these studies is more compatible than is often conveyed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Barriers and enablers to returning to work from long-term sickness absence: Part I-A quantitative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Belinda J; Brown, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in the United Kingdom labor market has become a major health issue in recent years. In contrast to short-term sickness absence, rates for LTSA have been on the increase. This paper, part 1 of a two-part paper, identifies individual domain barriers to returning to work (RTW) from LTSA across the work disability timeline in the UK labor market. This is a retrospective cohort study of 6,246 workers from an occupationally diverse Police Force within the UK using a large administrative database. A series of chi-squared analyses were conducted to analyze the between and within group associations. Next, multiple logistic regression analyses using the Enter method were performed to develop a predictive model for RTW and Absence Phase. Findings substantiated the presence of individual domain barriers to RTW and predictors of RTW outcome and established the absence phase specificity of a number of risk factors of prolonged work disability. In particular, injury/illness especially mental ill health (MIH), physical job demands, sex, and number of episodes of LTSA are significant individual domain barriers to RTW and represent important risk factors for prolonged work disability. Duration of work disability is associated with medical diagnosis, especially MIH, physical job demands, sex, and number of LTSA episodes. Findings also support the importance of using the outcome measure of absence phase of risk factors in addition to RTW outcome. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. LISA package user guide. Part II: LISA (Long Term Isolation Safety Assessment) program description and user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, P.; Saltelli, A.; Homma, T.

    1992-01-01

    This manual is subdivided into three parts. In this second part, this document describes the LISA (Long term Isolation Safety Assessment) Code and its submodels. LISA is a tool for analysis of the safety of an underground disposal of nuclear waste. It has the capability to handle nuclide chain of arbitrary length and to evaluate the migration of nuclide through a geosphere medium composed of an arbitrary number of segments. LISA makes use of Monte Carlo methodology to evaluate the uncertainty in the quantity being assessed (eg dose) arising from the uncertainty in the model input parameters. In the present version LISA is equipped with a very simple source term submodel, a relatively complex geosphere and a simplified biosphere. The code is closely associated with its statistical pre-processor code (PREP), which generates the input Monte Carlo sample from the assigned parameter probability density functions and with its post-processor code (SPOP) which provides useful statistics on the output sample (uncertainty and sensitivity analysis). This report describes the general structure of LISA, its subroutines and submodels, the code input ant output files. It is intended to provide the user with enough information to know and run the code as well as the capacity to incorporate different submodels. 15 refs., 6 figs

  17. Riverbank Collapse on the lower Murray River: recent phenomenon or long-term geomorphic process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carli, E.; Hubble, T.; Jaksa, M.; Clarke, S. L.; Airey, D.; O'Toole, J.; Carpenter, G.

    2013-12-01

    The lower Murray River connects the Murray-Darling River Basin to the Southern Ocean and drains 14% of Australia's landmass. During the Millennium Drought (1997-2011) record low inflows for the Basin were recorded and the lower Murray River received only 19% of its long-term average inflow for 2008-2009, causing the pool-level in the lowermost reaches near Goolwa to fall 1 m below sea level. This event triggered widespread mass failure in the alluvial river banks and ground subsidence in some river-adjacent floodplain deposits between Blanchetown and Lake Alexandrina. Multi-beam bathymetry, sediment core and geotechnical data are presented for a number of sites investigated between Mannum and White Sands. Interpretation of this data indicates three different bank-failure slide morphologies present in the banks and adjacent channel. Type 1, ';recent' (2009-2011) deep-seated rotational slumps characterised by distinct, sharply-defined failure scars and associated debris fields of angular blocks shed from the failure site. Type 2, ';relatively-recent' shallow planar-failures, with less well-defined smoother failure scars and associated debris fields of smoothed or rounded blocks and pinnacles. Type 3, ';relatively-old' shallow planar-failures characterised by subdued relief slump scars that do not present an associated debris field. It is suspected that successive floods or high-flow events progressively erode and redistribute material, smoothing the landslide scars and redistributing the slide-debris deposits. Bank-failure and the delivery of material from the slides into the channel is interpreted as an ongoing and long-term geomorphic characteristic of the lower Murray River, rather than a new phenomenon that occurred as a response to unusually low river levels during the Millennium Drought. The larger size and rotational style of the recent Type 1 failures is most likely to be a consequence of the drought and anthropogenic modifications of the river channel and

  18. Long term developments in irradiated natural uranium processing costs. Optimal size and siting of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, L.

    1964-01-01

    processing plants are shown, different from those in part two. The indirect effect of these reprocessing programmes on the availability of plutonium, and therefore on the possibility.of undertaking plutonium burning reactor programmes, must be taken into account. (authors) [fr

  19. IMPACT OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION PROCESSES ON THE NECESSITY OF LONG-TERM BUDGET PLANNING INTRODUCTION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Muzychenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Association Agreement between Ukraine and the European Union was ratified in September 2014. Ukraine has undertaken to implement and enforce EU standards, including in the financial sphere, which are regulated by international law. The purpose of the study is to determine the impact of European integration processes on the necessity of the long-term budget forecasting process introduction into the budget process of Ukraine and the revelation of special budgetary rules regulated this process in the EU. The methodology. The list of requirements (budget procedures and rules for their introduction by law into the budget process of Ukraine was determined based on the generalization and systematization of normative legal acts that regulate the medium-term financial planning as the EU standard. The results showed that the long-term budget forecast developing procedure in the budget process will allow the government to timely identify the unfavourable trend in the state’s fiscal policy and introduce preventive measures, determine the full scale of economy’s and business’ reaction to the reforms’ introduction and new laws adoption, estimate fiscal space for fiscal policy implementation for coming years, take into consideration the budget forecast’s indicators during the annual adoption of budget decisions. The study defines the difference between the budget forecast and the planned budget: the forecast is for five years and more, the plan is for one year only; forecast indicators are not mandatory for implementation, they are only guidelines, and planned indicators are mandatory for implementation; the budget forecast is approved by the order of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and annually specified, the planned budget (for the current budget year is approved by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine by adopting the relevant law, amendments are an exception and also approved by law. The practical implementation. Governments of countries that

  20. Modelling long-term redox processes and oxygen scavenging in fractured crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidborn, Magnus

    2007-10-01

    Advanced plans for the construction of a deep geological repository for highly radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants have evolved during the past decades in many countries including Sweden. As part of the Swedish concept, the waste is to be encapsulated in canisters surrounded by low permeability backfill material. The copper canisters will be deposited at around 500 metres depth in granitic rock, which acts as a natural barrier for the transport of radionuclides to the ground surface. These natural and engineered barriers are chosen and designed to ensure the safety of the repository over hundred of thousands of years. One issue of interest for the safety assessment of such a repository is the redox evolution over long times. An oxidising environment would enhance the corrosion of the copper canisters, and increases the mobility of any released radionuclides. In the first part of the present thesis, the ability of the host rock to ensure a reducing environment at repository depth over long times was studied. A model framework was developed with the aim to capture all processes that are deemed to be important for the scavenging of intruding oxygen from the ground surface over long times. Simplifications allowing for analytical solutions were introduced for transparency reasons so that evaluation of results is straight-forward, and so that uncertain parameter values easily can be adjusted. More complex systems were solved numerically for cases when the analytical simplifications are not applicable, and to validate the simplifications underlying the analytical solutions. Results were presented for prevailing present day conditions as well as for conditions deemed to be likely during the melting phase of a period of glaciation. It was shown that the hydraulic properties have a great influence on the oxygen intrusion length downstream along flow-paths in the rock. An important parameter that determines the extent of interaction between the dissolved oxygen and

  1. Confronting data requirements and data provision in Space Weather: The Contribution of Long Term Archives. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Alexi; Heynderickx, Daniel

    Operational space weather services rely heavily on reliable data streams from spacecraft and ground-based facilities, as well as from services providing processed data products. This event focuses on an unusual solar maximum viewed from several different perspectives, and as such highlights the important contribution of long term archives in supporting space weather studies and services. We invite the space weather community to contribute to a discussion on the key topics listed below, with the aim of formulating recommendations and guidelines for policy makers, stakeholders, data and service providers: - facilitating access to and awareness of existing data resources - establishing clear guidelines for space weather data archives including data quality, interoperability and metadata standards - ensuring data ownership and terms of (re)use are clearly identified such that this information can be taken into account when (potentially commercial) services are developed based on data provided without charge for scientific purposes only All participants are invited to submit input for the discussion to the authors ahead of the Assembly. The outcome of the session will be formulated as a set of proposed panel recommendations.

  2. Confronting data requirements and data provision in Space Weather: The Contribution of Long Term Archives. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heynderickx, Daniel; Glover, Alexi

    Operational space weather services rely heavily on reliable data streams from spacecraft and ground-based facilities, as well as from services providing processed data products. This event focuses on an unusual solar maximum viewed from several different perspectives, and as such highlights the important contribution of long term archives in supporting space weather studies and services. We invite the space weather community to contribute to a discussion on the key topics listed below, with the aim of formulating recommendations and guidelines for policy makers, stakeholders, data and service providers: - facilitating access to and awareness of existing data resources - establishing clear guidelines for space weather data archives including data quality, interoperability and metadata standards - ensuring data ownership and terms of (re)use are clearly identified such that this information can be taken into account when (potentially commercial) services are developed based on data provided without charge for scientific purposes only All participants are invited to submit input for the discussion to the authors ahead of the Assembly. The outcome of the session will be formulated as a set of proposed panel recommendations.

  3. Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms and Social Cognitive Processing in Partners of Long-Term Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohee, Andrea A; Adams, Rebecca N; Fife, Betsy L; Von Ah, Diane M; Monahan, Patrick O; Zoppi, Kathleen A; Cella, David; Champion, Victoria L

    2017-01-01

    To determine (a) if depressive symptoms in partners of long-term breast cancer survivors (BCSs) could be predicted by social cognitive processing theory and (b) if partners of younger and older BCSs were differentially affected by the cancer experience.
. A cross-sectional, descriptive study using self-report questionnaires.
. Indiana University in Bloomington and 97 ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group sites in the United States.
. 508 partners of BCSs diagnosed three to eight years prior to the study. 
. Secondary data mediation analyses were conducted to determine if cognitive processing mediated the relationship between social constraints and depressive symptoms. Age-related differences on all scales were tested.
. Depressive symptoms; secondary variables included social constraints, cognitive processing (avoidance and intrusive thoughts), and potentially confounding variables.
. Cognitive processing mediated the relationship between social constraints and depressive symptoms for partners. Partners of younger BCSs reported worse outcomes on all measures than partners of older BCSs.
. As predicted by the social cognitive processing theory, cognitive processing mediated the relationship between social constraints and depressive symptoms. In addition, partners of younger BCSs fared worse on social constraints, intrusive thoughts, and depressive symptoms than partners of older BCSs. 
. Results provide support for using the social cognitive processing theory in an intervention design with partners of long-term BCSs to decrease depressive symptoms.

  4. Immunomodulatory effects of macrolide antibiotics - part 2: advantages and disadvantages of long-term, low-dose macrolide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburg, J; de Graaff, C S; van der Werf, T S; Boersma, W G

    2011-01-01

    The available evidence for long-term, low-dose treatment with 14- and 15-membered ring macrolides in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, COPD, chronic sinusitis, and asthma is reviewed with special attention to possible adverse effects and the emergence of resistance during long-term macrolide treatment. Macrolide maintenance therapy has been proven to be of benefit in diffuse panbronchiolitis and CF, presumably due to an anti-inflammatory mechanism of action in addition to its direct antimicrobial effect. Solid evidence to justify this treatment regimen for non-CF bronchiectasis, asthma, or sinusitis is still lacking, although a beneficial effect of long-term macrolide therapy has been found in small clinical trials on these subjects. Data from randomized trials of long-term macrolide treatment in COPD are conflicting. A sufficiently long duration of treatment and the careful selection of patients appears to be crucial. Aside from its beneficial effects, possible side effects of macrolide treatment should be taken into account, the most important of these being gastrointestinal upset and cardiac arrhythmias. Development of macrolide resistance among respiratory pathogens is very common during long-term macrolide treatment. Whether this finding is clinically significant is a matter of debate. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Part I: the effect of long-term exposure to organic solvents on memory: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzon, N Z; Vakil, E; Derazne, E; Sculsky, M

    1998-01-01

    This study focuses on a wide range of different aspects of memory functions trying to ascertain a possible profile of memory changes, which take place following long-term exposure to organic solvents. The research design was cross-sectional. Study population included 31 industrial painters who were exposed at work to organic solvents and 31 unexposed workers. Workers after long-term exposure to organic solvents showed significant decline in memory as indicated in all three standard memory tests (i.e. Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised, Benton Revised Visual Retention Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test). The results of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test showed a negative correlation with exposure index indicating that the more intensive and longer the time of exposure was, the more impaired is the verbal memory. It was also found that the affect of age on memory was stronger among workers after long-term exposure to organic solvents compared to the unexposed workers.

  6. Serotonergic neurotransmission in emotional processing: New evidence from long-term recreational poly-drug ecstasy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Helle Ruff; Henningsson, Susanne; Macoveanu, Julian; Jernigan, Terry L; Siebner, Hartwig R; Holst, Klaus K; Skimminge, Arnold; Knudsen, Gitte M; Ramsoy, Thomas Z; Erritzoe, David

    2016-12-01

    The brain's serotonergic system plays a crucial role in the processing of emotional stimuli, and several studies have shown that a reduced serotonergic neurotransmission is associated with an increase in amygdala activity during emotional face processing. Prolonged recreational use of ecstasy (3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) induces alterations in serotonergic neurotransmission that are comparable to those observed in a depleted state. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated the responsiveness of the amygdala to emotional face stimuli in recreational ecstasy users as a model of long-term serotonin depletion. Fourteen ecstasy users and 12 non-using controls underwent fMRI to measure the regional neural activity elicited in the amygdala by male or female faces expressing anger, disgust, fear, sadness, or no emotion. During fMRI, participants made a sex judgement on each face stimulus. Positron emission tomography with 11 C-DASB was additionally performed to assess serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in the brain. In the ecstasy users, SERT binding correlated negatively with amygdala activity, and accumulated lifetime intake of ecstasy tablets was associated with an increase in amygdala activity during angry face processing. Conversely, time since the last ecstasy intake was associated with a trend toward a decrease in amygdala activity during angry and sad face processing. These results indicate that the effects of long-term serotonin depletion resulting from ecstasy use are dose-dependent, affecting the functional neural basis of emotional face processing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Biogeochemical cycles of Chernobyl-born radionuclides in the contaminated forest ecosystems: long-term dynamics of the migration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Ol'ga; Klyashtorin, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    Biogeochemical migration is a dominant factor of the radionuclide transport through the biosphere. In the early XX century, V.I. Vernadskii, a Russian scientist known, noted about a special role living things play in transport and accumulation of natural radionuclide in various environments. The role of biogeochemical processes in migration and redistribution of technogenic radionuclides is not less important. In Russia, V. M. Klechkovskii and N.V. Timofeev-Ressovskii showed some important biogeochemical aspects of radionuclide migration by the example of global fallout and Kyshtym accident. Their followers, R.M. Alexakhin, M.A. Naryshkin, N.V. Kulikov, F.A. Tikhomirov, E.B. Tyuryukanova, and others also contributed a lot to biogeochemistry of radionuclides. In the post-Chernobyl period, this area of knowledge received a lot of data that allowed building the radioactive element balance and flux estimation in various biogeochemical cycles [Shcheglov et al., 1999]. Regrettably, many of recent radioecological studies are only focused on specific radionuclide fluxes or pursue some applied tasks, missing the holistic approach. Most of the studies consider biogeochemical fluxes of radioactive isotopes in terms of either dose estimation or radionuclide migration rates in various food chains. However, to get a comprehensive picture and develop a reliable forecast of environmental, ecological, and social consequences of radioactive pollution in a vast contaminated area, it is necessary to investigate all the radionuclide fluxes associated with the biogeochemical cycles in affected ecosystems. We believe such an integrated approach would be useful to study long-term environmental consequences of the Fukushima accident as well. In our long-term research, we tried to characterize the flux dynamics of the Chernobyl-born radionuclides in the contaminated forest ecosystems and landscapes as a part of the integrated biogeochemical process. Our field studies were started in June of

  8. A Gaussian mixture copula model based localized Gaussian process regression approach for long-term wind speed prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jie; Chen, Kuilin; Mori, Junichi; Rashid, Mudassir M.

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing wind power generation and controlling the operation of wind turbines to efficiently harness the renewable wind energy is a challenging task due to the intermittency and unpredictable nature of wind speed, which has significant influence on wind power production. A new approach for long-term wind speed forecasting is developed in this study by integrating GMCM (Gaussian mixture copula model) and localized GPR (Gaussian process regression). The time series of wind speed is first classified into multiple non-Gaussian components through the Gaussian mixture copula model and then Bayesian inference strategy is employed to incorporate the various non-Gaussian components using the posterior probabilities. Further, the localized Gaussian process regression models corresponding to different non-Gaussian components are built to characterize the stochastic uncertainty and non-stationary seasonality of the wind speed data. The various localized GPR models are integrated through the posterior probabilities as the weightings so that a global predictive model is developed for the prediction of wind speed. The proposed GMCM–GPR approach is demonstrated using wind speed data from various wind farm locations and compared against the GMCM-based ARIMA (auto-regressive integrated moving average) and SVR (support vector regression) methods. In contrast to GMCM–ARIMA and GMCM–SVR methods, the proposed GMCM–GPR model is able to well characterize the multi-seasonality and uncertainty of wind speed series for accurate long-term prediction. - Highlights: • A novel predictive modeling method is proposed for long-term wind speed forecasting. • Gaussian mixture copula model is estimated to characterize the multi-seasonality. • Localized Gaussian process regression models can deal with the random uncertainty. • Multiple GPR models are integrated through Bayesian inference strategy. • The proposed approach shows higher prediction accuracy and reliability

  9. Short-and long-term effects of ammonia and nitrite on the anammox process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, I.; Campos, J. L.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Mendez, R.

    2009-01-01

    Auto trophic anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is a feasible alternative to treat industrial wastewater with high ammonia concentration but low content of organic matter. In this process ammonium and nitrite are used by Planctomycete-type bacteria under anoxic conditions to generate nitrogen gas. Both substrates can exert inhibitory effects on the process, causing the decrease of the specific activity of the biomass and the loss of the performance and stability of reactors. (Author)

  10. Analysis of the potential impact of capillarity on long-term geochemical processes in sulphidic waste-rock dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Lassin, Arnault; Beckie, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Capillarity may affect geochemical reactions generating acid-rock drainage. • We studied its impact in a simplified, synthetic WRD. • Capillarity mainly affects the formation of secondary minerals. • It can strongly control long-term formation of gypsum and in turn sulfate release. • Capillarity can be also important for the analysis of calcite passivation. - Abstract: Assessing long-term production of acid rock drainage (ARD) from waste-rock dumps (WRDs) requires a careful analysis of the processes controlling acid-generating geochemical reactions under unsaturated conditions. In this work, we focus on the potential control of capillarity on these reactions, as previous studies showed that capillarity affects the activity of water and solutes in the unsaturated zone through the pore water pressure. We used capillarity-corrected thermodynamic databases and compared calculated speciation and solubility results with those from databases that do not account for capillarity. We developed a simple dynamic model with reduced geochemical components to analyze in detail the effect of capillarity. Results indicate that under low pH conditions simulations with capillarity-controlled reactions generate relatively larger dissolved sulfate concentrations from the WRDs over longer time scales, when compared against simulations without capillarity control. This occurs because capillarity strongly controls the formation of secondary sulfate-bearing minerals such as gypsum. When sufficient oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures are maintained within WRDs (such as in well-ventilated systems) and calcite content is insufficient to buffer acidity, the amount of secondary gypsum was calculated to be much larger in capillarity-corrected models. No appreciable effects of capillarity were observed under conditions where gypsum was not generated. Model results are also insensitive to temperature changes in typical climatic ranges. These results indicate some of

  11. Modelling of degradation processes in creep resistant steels through accelerated creep tests after long-term isothermal ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklenicka, V.; Kucharova, K.; Svoboda, M.; Kroupa, A.; Kloc, L. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics of Materials; Cmakal, J. [UJP PRAHA a.s., Praha-Zbraslav (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    Creep behaviour and degradation of creep properties of creep resistant materials are phenomena of major practical relevance, often limiting the lives of components and structures designed to operate for long periods under stress at elevated and/or high temperatures. Since life expectancy is, in reality, based on the ability of the material to retain its high-temperature creep strength for the projected designed life, methods of creep properties assessment based on microstructural evolution in the material during creep rather than simple parametric extrapolation of short-term creep tests are necessary. In this paper we will try to further clarify the creep-strength degradation of selected advanced creep resistant steels. In order to accelerate some microstructural changes and thus to simulate degradation processes in long-term service, isothermal ageing at 650 C for 10 000 h was applied to P91 and P23 steels in their as-received states. The accelerated tensile creep tests were performed at temperature 600 C in argon atmosphere on all steels both in the as-received state and after long-term isothermal ageing, in an effort to obtain a more complete description of the role of microstructural stability in high temperature creep of these steels. Creep tests were followed by microstructural investigations by means of both transmission and scanning electron microscopy and by the thermodynamic calculations. The applicability of the accelerated creep tests was verified by the theoretical modelling of the phase equilibria at different temperatures. It is suggested that under restructed oxidation due to argon atmosphere microstructural instability is the main detrimental process in the long-term degradation of the creep rupture strength of these steels. (orig.)

  12. Long-term high-solids anaerobic digestion of food waste: Effects of ammonia on process performance and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuya; Zhang, ShangYi; Li, Lei; Zhao, Xiaofei; Ma, Yao; Shi, Dezhi

    2018-04-22

    A long-term high solids anaerobic digestion of food waste was conducted to identify microbial mechanisms of ammonia inhibition during digestion and to clarify correlations between ammonia accumulation, microbial community dynamics (diversity, composition, and interactions), and process stability. Results show that the effects of ammonia on process performance and microbial community were indirectly caused by volatile fatty acid accumulation. Excess free ammonia blocked acetate metabolism, leading to process instability. Accumulated acetate caused feedback inhibition at the acetogenesis stage, which resulted in considerable accumulation of propionate, valerate, and other long-chain fatty acids. This high concentration of volatile fatty acids reduced the abundance of syntrophic acetogenic bacteria and allowed hydrolytic fermentative bacteria to dominate. The normally interactive and orderly metabolic network was broken, which further exacerbated the process instability. These results improve the understanding of microbial mechanisms which contribute to process instability and provide guidance for the microbial management of anaerobic digesters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coupled Environmental Processes and Long-term Performance of Landfill Covers in the northern Mojave Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Shafer; Michael Young; Stephen Zitzer; Eric McDonald; Todd Caldwell

    2004-05-12

    Evapotransiration (ET) covers have gained widespread acceptance as a closure feature for waste disposal sites, particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern U.S. But as landforms, ET covers are subject to change over time because of processes such as pedogenesis, hydrologic processes, vegetation establishment and change, and biological processes. To better understand the effects of coupled process changes to ET covers, a series of four primary analog sites in Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site, along with measurements and observations from other locations in the Mojave Desert, were selected to evaluate changes in ET covers over time. The analog sites, of varying ages, were selected to address changes in the early post-institutional control period, the 1,000-year compliance period for disposal of low-level and mixed low-level waste, and the 10,000-year compliance period for transuranic waste sites.

  14. Coupled Environmental Processes and Long-term Performance of Landfill Covers in the northern Mojave Desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Shafer; Michael Young; Stephen Zitzer; Eric McDonald; Todd Caldwell

    2004-01-01

    Evapotransiration (ET) covers have gained widespread acceptance as a closure feature for waste disposal sites, particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern U.S. But as landforms, ET covers are subject to change over time because of processes such as pedogenesis, hydrologic processes, vegetation establishment and change, and biological processes. To better understand the effects of coupled process changes to ET covers, a series of four primary analog sites in Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site, along with measurements and observations from other locations in the Mojave Desert, were selected to evaluate changes in ET covers over time. The analog sites, of varying ages, were selected to address changes in the early post-institutional control period, the 1,000-year compliance period for disposal of low-level and mixed low-level waste, and the 10,000-year compliance period for transuranic waste sites

  15. Kinetics of varnish long-term drying process monitored by a heterogeneous optical sensor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccon, F A M; De Oliveira, F M D R; Ribas, M O; Zambianchi, P Jr; Muller, M; Fabris, J L

    2013-01-01

    The drying process of an acrylic varnish film was monitored over 24 h by a heterogeneous optical sensor system. The system employs a fibre optic transducer based on Bragg gratings and optical coherence tomography, operating respectively around 1.55 and 1.3 µm. The sensor is able to provide information about the temporal evolution of temperature, mechanical deformation, thickness and average refractive index of the coating during the drying process. Resolutions for these optically measured parameters are 0.05 °C (temperature), 0.5 µε (strain), 1.5 µm (thickness) and 0.004 (refractive index). Besides, the sensor can detect the growth of a surface dry skin and supply information about the film bulk uniformity. A model for the mass loss of solvent as the drying process evolves is also discussed. (paper)

  16. Assessment of the Impact of GNSS Processing Strategies on the Long-Term Parameters of 20 Years IWV Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Baldysz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Advanced processing of collected global navigation satellite systems (GNSS observations allows for the estimation of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD, which in turn can be converted to the integrated water vapour (IWV. The proper estimation of GNSS IWV can be affected by the adopted GNSS processing strategy. To verify which of its elements cause deterioration and which improve the estimated GNSS IWV, we conducted eight reprocessings of 20 years of GPS observations (01.1996–12.2015. In each of them, we applied a different mapping function, the zenith hydrostatic delay (ZHD a priori value, the cut-off angle, software, and the positioning method. Obtained in such a way, the ZTD time series were converted to the IWV using the meteorological parameters sourced from the ERA-Interim. Then, based on them, the long-term parameters were estimated and compared to those obtained from the IWV derived from the radio sounding (RS observations. In this paper, we analyzed long-term parameters such as IWV mean values, linear trends, and amplitudes of annual and semiannual oscillations. A comparative analysis showed, inter alia, that in terms of the investigation of the IWV linear trend the precise point positioning (PPP method is characterized by higher accuracy than the differential one. It was also found that using the GPT2 model and the higher elevation mask brings benefits to the GNSS IWV linear trend estimation.

  17. Project SAFE. Modelling of long-term concrete degradation processes in the Swedish SFR repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, L.O. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-04-01

    This study concerns the leaching of concrete barriers, in particular the silo construction, in the Swedish SFR repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. A conceptual model for the leaching of concrete in a saline groundwater has been proposed based on the increased understanding achieved from research studies presented in the literature. The conceptual model has been used to set up a numerical model for the complex chemical interactions between the cement minerals of the concrete with the groundwater. The calculations show that various chemical reactions are expected to occur in the concrete over time. Different cases have been calculated. The results show that the chemical conditions in the concrete barriers will maintain alkaline for long time. In the most exposed parts of the concrete a high degree of leaching can be expected during the considered 10,000 years, whereas only for the most unfavourable assumptions (initially fractured concrete with groundwater flow-through) the inner parts of the concrete will be degraded to any significant degree.

  18. Project SAFE. Modelling of long-term concrete degradation processes in the Swedish SFR repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeglund, L.O.

    2001-04-01

    This study concerns the leaching of concrete barriers, in particular the silo construction, in the Swedish SFR repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. A conceptual model for the leaching of concrete in a saline groundwater has been proposed based on the increased understanding achieved from research studies presented in the literature. The conceptual model has been used to set up a numerical model for the complex chemical interactions between the cement minerals of the concrete with the groundwater. The calculations show that various chemical reactions are expected to occur in the concrete over time. Different cases have been calculated. The results show that the chemical conditions in the concrete barriers will maintain alkaline for long time. In the most exposed parts of the concrete a high degree of leaching can be expected during the considered 10,000 years, whereas only for the most unfavourable assumptions (initially fractured concrete with groundwater flow-through) the inner parts of the concrete will be degraded to any significant degree

  19. Where innovation processes make a difference in products' short- and long-term market success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enzing, C.; Batterink, M.H.; Janszen, F.H.A.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to investigate with reference to which factors the innovation processes of new and improved products differ and how these factors relate to the products' success on the market, with a specific focus on technology- and market-related factors. Design/methodology approach –

  20. Complex Network Structure Influences Processing in Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Chan, Kit Ying; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Complex networks describe how entities in systems interact; the structure of such networks is argued to influence processing. One measure of network structure, clustering coefficient, C, measures the extent to which neighbors of a node are also neighbors of each other. Previous psycholinguistic experiments found that the C of phonological…

  1. A qualitative approach of psychosocial adaptation process in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chih; Han, Chin-Yen; Pan, I-Ju

    2015-03-01

    Professional hemodialysis (HD) nursing tends to be task-oriented and lack consideration of the client's viewpoint. This study aims to interpret the process of psychosocial adaptation to dealing with HD in people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). A grounded theory guided this study. Theoretical sampling included 15 people receiving HD at the HD center of a hospital from July to November 2010. Participants received an information sheet in writing, a verbal invitation, and informed consent forms before interviews were conducted. A constant comparative data analysis was analyzed using open, axial and selective coding. The computer software ATLAS.ti assisted data management. Credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability ensured the rigor of study process. This study identified "adopting life with hemodialysis", which captures the process of the psychosocial adaptation in people with ESRD as one transformation. Four categories that evolved from "adopting HD life" are (a) slipping into, (b) restricted to a renal world, (c) losing self control, and (d) stuck in an endless process. The findings of this investigation indicate the multidimensional requirements of people receiving maintenance dialysis, with an emphasis on the deficiency in psychosocial and emotional care. The study's findings contribute to clinical practice by increasing the understanding of the experience of chronic HD treatment from the recipient's viewpoint. The better our understanding, the better the care provided will meet the needs of the people receiving HD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Verbal Processing Speed and Executive Functioning in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    AuBuchon, Angela M.; Pisoni, David B.; Kronenberger, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report how "verbal rehearsal speed" (VRS), a form of covert speech used to maintain verbal information in working memory, and another verbal processing speed measure, perceptual encoding speed, are related to 3 domains of executive function (EF) at risk in cochlear implant (CI) users: verbal…

  3. The role of reconsolidation and the dynamic process of long-term memory formation and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M Alberini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that the processes of memory formation and storage are exquisitely dynamic. Elucidating the nature and temporal evolution of the biological changes that accompany encoding, storage and retrieval is key to understand memory formation. For explicit or medial temporal lobe-dependent memories that form after a discrete event and are stored for a long time, the physical changes underlying the encoding and processing of the information (memory trace or engram remain in a fragile state for some time. However, over time, the new memory becomes increasingly resistant to disruption until it is consolidated. Retrieval or reactivation of an apparently consolidated memory can render the memory labile again, and reconsolidation is the process that occurs to mediate its restabilization. Reconsolidation also evolves with the age of the memory: Young memories are sensitive to postreactivation disruption, but older memories are more resistant. Why does a memory become labile again if it is retrieved or reactivated? Here I suggest that the main function of reconsolidation is to contribute to the lingering consolidation process and mediate memory strengthening. I also discuss the literature and results regarding the influence of the passage of time on the reconsolidation of memory. These points have important implications for the use of reconsolidation in therapeutic settings.

  4. Ex post and ex ante evaluation of the long term management plan for sole and plaice in the North Sea (part 1): ex post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, D.C.M.; Poos, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the first part of an ex post and ex ante evaluation of the long term management plan for sole and plaice in the North Sea as laid out in Council Regulation (EC) No 676/2007. This plan has been in place since 2007. The plan aims to ensure, in its first stage, that the stocks of

  5. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2006-01-01

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  6. Dynamics of microbial community during the extremely long-term fermentation process of a traditional soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Deng, Yue; Jin, Yulan; Liu, Yanxi; Xia, Baixue; Sun, Qun

    2017-08-01

    Soy sauce produced by long-term natural fermentation is a traditional specialty in Asia, with a reputation for superior quality and rich flavour. In this study, both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches were used to investigate the microbial diversity and community dynamics during an extremely long-term (up to 4 years) natural fermentation of Xianshi Soy Sauce, a national intangible cultural heritage. Genera of Bacillus, Aspergillus and Cladosporium were detected by both methods above. The relative abundance of the genera Bacillus and Weissella was significantly higher in the late stage than in the early one, while the genera Klebsiella and Shimwellia were opposite (P fermentation time, while there was a fair homogeneousness among samples of the same year, especially during the late fermentation stage. The clustering analysis tended to separate the fermented mashes of the 4th year from the earlier stages, suggesting the necessity of the long fermentation period for developing distinctive microbiota and characteristic quality-related compounds. This is the first report to explore the temporal changes in microbial dynamics over a period of 4 years in traditional fermentation of soy sauce, and this work illustrated the importance of isolation of appropriate strains to be used as starter cultures in brewing processes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effects of Long-Term Cultivation on Medium with Alpha-Ketoglutarate Supplementation on Metabolic Processes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Burdyliuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During last years, alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG, an important intermediate in the Krebs cycle, has been intensively studied as a dietary supplement with stress-protective and potential antiaging effects. Here, we examined the effects of exogenous AKG on metabolic processes and survival of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during long-term cultivation. Growth on AKG had no effect on the total cell number but increased the number of reproductively active cells at the late days of cultivation (from day 7 to day 15. A gradual increase in levels of total protein, glycogen, and trehalose was found over 7-day cultivation with more pronounced effects in AKG-grown cells. In control cells, metabolic activity and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased, whereas levels of carbonyl proteins and low-molecular-mass thiols increased during 7-day cultivation. This suggests development of oxidative stress in stationary phase cells. Meanwhile, stationary phase cells cultured on AKG possessed higher levels of low-molecular-mass thiols and lower levels of carbonyl proteins and α-dicarbonyl compounds when compared to control ones. Collectively, higher levels of storage carbohydrates and an activation of antioxidant defense with diminishing oxidative protein damage can prevent a loss of reproductive ability in yeast cells during long-term cultivation on AKG-supplemented medium.

  8. Stormwater Pollutant Process Analysis with Long-Term Online Monitoring Data at Micro-Scale Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Leutnant

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater runoff quality was measured with online turbidity sensors at four common types of small urban subcatchments: (i a flat roof; (ii a parking lot; (iii a residential catchment; and (iv a high-traffic street. Samples were taken to estimate site-specific correlations between total suspended solids (TSS and turbidity. Continuous TSS time series were derived from online turbidity measurements and were used to estimate event loads and event mean concentrations. Rainfall runoff event characteristics were subjected to correlation analysis to TSS loads. Significant correlations were found for rainfall intensities at sites with high imperviousness and decrease with increasing catchment size. Antecedent dry weather periods are only correlated at the parking lot site. Intra-event TSS load distributions were studied with M (V-curves. M (V-curves are grouped at runoff quantiles and statistically described with boxplots. All sites show, in general, a more pronounced first-flush effect. While wash-off of the flat roof tends to be source-limited, the parking lot and high-traffic street sites show a more transport-limited behavior. Wash-off process of the residential catchment appears to be influenced by a composition of different subcatchments.

  9. Long-term storage of irradiated potatoes for processing use, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shohei; Umeda, Keiji; Kameyama, Kenji.

    1984-01-01

    In order to develop suitable storage conditions in potatoes for processing use, non-irradiated and irradiated potatoes var. Norin No. 1 were stored in containers and in bulk. The contents of reducing sugars were determined and the properties of potato chips were analysed. Reconditioning at 10 deg C and RH 90 % for 4 weeks during an early period of dormancy lowered the content of reducing sugars remarkably in both the non-irradiated and irradiated potatoes which were either stored in containers or in bulk. The optimum conditions for the storage of potatoes were 8 deg C and RH 90 %, which enabled the potatoes to retain their hardness while the content reducing sugars decreased. The potatoes stored under the above conditions gave chips with a fairly good color. In contrast, the non-irradiated potatoes stored for a period of 6 months or longer sprouted and aged, resulting in chips with unsatisfactory color. It was found necessary to use potatoes with low contents of both amino acids and reducing sugars to avoid the browning of chips. Bulk storage which was found to be effective for air circulation through potatoes caused creeping phenomenon. (author)

  10. Process-oriented guided-inquiry learning improves long-term retention of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanags, Thea; Pammer, Kristen; Brinker, Jay

    2013-09-01

    Many chemistry educators have adopted the process-oriented guided instructional learning (POGIL) pedagogy. However, it is not clear which aspects of POGIL are the most important in terms of actual learning. We compared 354 first-year undergraduate psychology students' learning in physiological psychology using four teaching methods: control, POGIL, POGIL without reporting [no report out (NRO)], and POGIL run by untrained graduate students [new facilitator (NF)]. Student activities were identical across POGIL variations and highly similar for control. Participants' knowledge was evaluated before (pretest), immediately after (posttest), and 2 wk later (followup). Control and POGIL groups showed no improvement at posttest, whereas NRO and NF groups both recalled more material than at pretest (P = 0.002 and P < 0.0005, respectively). In a surprise test 2 wk later, control (P < 0.0005), NRO (P = 0.03), and NF (P < 0.0005) groups recalled less than at posttest. The POGIL group showed the smallest drop in knowledge (P = 0.05). Importantly, the control group's knowledge was below pretest levels (P < 0.0005), whereas the POGIL, NRO, and NF groups' knowledge was not. Self-assessment of knowledge was consistent across groups at pretest, but POGIL participants had the lowest confidence at posttest and 2 wk later. At followup, the control, NRO, and NF groups showed greater confidence in their knowledge than the POGIL group (P = 0.03, P = 0.002, and P = 0.004, respectively). POGIL and its variations appear to consolidate existing knowledge against memory decay even when student confidence does not match performance.

  11. Long term management of wastes to be produced by the conversion process. PNGMDR 2013-2015. Study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    Within the frame of the French national plan for the management of radioactive wastes (PNGMDR), this report addresses the issue of long term management of wastes to be produced by Comurhex installation in Malvesi (the first step of natural uranium processing in France, with purification and transformation into uranium tetrafluoride). The author studied how these wastes could be stored, and also a possible synergy with some uranium-containing or thorium-containing wastes in order to design optimised industrial processes. After a recall of the origin and an inventory of the concerned wastes, this document reports a preliminary acceptability study in a context of very-low-level wastes, and a preliminary acceptability study for a shallow storage

  12. Statistical package for improved analysis of hillslope monitoring data collected as part of the Board of Forestry's long-term monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Lewis; Jim Baldwin

    1997-01-01

    The State of California has embarked upon a Long-Term Monitoring Program whose primary goal is to assess the effectiveness of the Forest Practice Rules and Review Process in protecting the beneficial uses of waters from the impacts of timber operations on private timberlands. The Board of Forestry's Monitoring Study Group concluded that hillslope monitoring should...

  13. Part I. Alternative fuel-cycle and deployment strategies: their influence on long-term energy supply and resource usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Rudolph, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    This report examines the implications of alternative fast breeder fuel cycles and deployment strategies on long-term energy supply and uranium resource utilization. An international-aggregate treatment for nuclear energy demand and resource base assumptions was adopted where specific assumptions were necessary for system analyses, but the primary emphasis was placed on understanding the general relationships between energy demand, uranium resource and breeder deployment option. The fast breeder deployment options studied include the reference Pu/U cycle as well as alternative cycles with varying degrees of thorium utilization

  14. A Processing Approach to the Working Memory/Long-Term Memory Distinction: Evidence from the Levels-of-Processing Span Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nathan S.; Craik, Fergus I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories suggest that performance on working memory (WM) tasks involves retrieval from long-term memory (LTM). To examine whether WM and LTM tests have common principles, Craik and Tulving's (1975) levels-of-processing paradigm, which is known to affect LTM, was administered as a WM task: Participants made uppercase, rhyme, or…

  15. A model integrating longshore and cross-shore processes for predicting long-term shoreline response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick; Limber, Patrick W.; Erikson, Li; Cole, Blake

    2017-01-01

    We present a shoreline change model for coastal hazard assessment and management planning. The model, CoSMoS-COAST (Coastal One-line Assimilated Simulation Tool), is a transect-based, one-line model that predicts short-term and long-term shoreline response to climate change in the 21st century. The proposed model represents a novel, modular synthesis of process-based models of coastline evolution due to longshore and cross-shore transport by waves and sea-level rise. Additionally, the model uses an extended Kalman filter for data assimilation of historical shoreline positions to improve estimates of model parameters and thereby improve confidence in long-term predictions. We apply CoSMoS-COAST to simulate sandy shoreline evolution along 500 km of coastline in Southern California, which hosts complex mixtures of beach settings variably backed by dunes, bluffs, cliffs, estuaries, river mouths, and urban infrastructure, providing applicability of the model to virtually any coastal setting. Aided by data assimilation, the model is able to reproduce the observed signal of seasonal shoreline change for the hindcast period of 1995-2010, showing excellent agreement between modeled and observed beach states. The skill of the model during the hindcast period improves confidence in the model's predictive capability when applied to the forecast period (2010-2100) driven by GCM-projected wave and sea-level conditions. Predictions of shoreline change with limited human intervention indicate that 31% to 67% of Southern California beaches may become completely eroded by 2100 under sea-level rise scenarios of 0.93 to 2.0 m.

  16. Get the gist? The effects of processing depth on false recognition in short-term and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, Kristin E; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A

    2014-07-01

    Gist-based processing has been proposed to account for robust false memories in the converging-associates task. The deep-encoding processes known to enhance verbatim memory also strengthen gist memory and increase distortions of long-term memory (LTM). Recent research has demonstrated that compelling false memory illusions are relatively delay-invariant, also occurring under canonical short-term memory (STM) conditions. To investigate the contributions of gist to false memory at short and long delays, processing depth was manipulated as participants encoded lists of four semantically related words and were probed immediately, following a filled 3- to 4-s retention interval, or approximately 20 min later, in a surprise recognition test. In two experiments, the encoding manipulation dissociated STM and LTM on the frequency, but not the phenomenology, of false memory. Deep encoding at STM increases false recognition rates at LTM, but confidence ratings and remember/know judgments are similar across delays and do not differ as a function of processing depth. These results suggest that some shared and some unique processes underlie false memory illusions at short and long delays.

  17. Home grown hydro, part 3: Vision, leadership needed to develop and implement crucial long-term strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, P.A

    1994-09-01

    The Asian Pacific area offers good prospects for Canadian exports of equipment and expertise in the area of hydropower development. Rapidly growing economies in this area have large unsatisfied power demands, and many of these countries have significant undeveloped hydroelectric potential (notably China). Recent Canadian successes in Asia-Pacific hydropower developments are outlined, including the Chamera project in Himachal Pradesh, India; the feasibility study of the Three Gorges project, China; and technical assistance on a 5,000 MW hydroelectric project in Longtan, China. The issues facing Canada for developing and implementing long-term hydro development strategies are discussed. These issues are: establishing Canada's own energy needs; coordination and integration of Canadian hydro resource development; environmental issues and sustainable development; and realizing that energy exports are ethical. Benefits of domestic and international hydro development include environmental friendliness, creation of jobs and markets for Canadian products and expertise, and stimulation of technological and economic development. 1 tab.

  18. Home grown hydro, part 3: Vision, leadership needed to develop and implement crucial long-term strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Asian Pacific area offers good prospects for Canadian exports of equipment and expertise in the area of hydropower development. Rapidly growing economies in this area have large unsatisfied power demands, and many of these countries have significant undeveloped hydroelectric potential (notably China). Recent Canadian successes in Asia-Pacific hydropower developments are outlined, including the Chamera project in Himachal Pradesh, India; the feasibility study of the Three Gorges project, China; and technical assistance on a 5,000 MW hydroelectric project in Longtan, China. The issues facing Canada for developing and implementing long-term hydro development strategies are discussed. These issues are: establishing Canada's own energy needs; coordination and integration of Canadian hydro resource development; environmental issues and sustainable development; and realizing that energy exports are ethical. Benefits of domestic and international hydro development include environmental friendliness, creation of jobs and markets for Canadian products and expertise, and stimulation of technological and economic development. 1 tab

  19. Long-Term Impairment of Sound Processing in the Auditory Midbrain by Daily Short-Term Exposure to Moderate Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most citizen people are exposed daily to environmental noise at moderate levels with a short duration. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of daily short-term exposure to moderate noise on sound level processing in the auditory midbrain. Sound processing properties of auditory midbrain neurons were recorded in anesthetized mice exposed to moderate noise (80 dB SPL, 2 h/d for 6 weeks and were compared with those from age-matched controls. Neurons in exposed mice had a higher minimum threshold and maximum response intensity, a longer first spike latency, and a higher slope and narrower dynamic range for rate level function. However, these observed changes were greater in neurons with the best frequency within the noise exposure frequency range compared with those outside the frequency range. These sound processing properties also remained abnormal after a 12-week period of recovery in a quiet laboratory environment after completion of noise exposure. In conclusion, even daily short-term exposure to moderate noise can cause long-term impairment of sound level processing in a frequency-specific manner in auditory midbrain neurons.

  20. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  1. Processing, microstructure, leaching, and long-term stability studies related to titanate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.; Headley, T.J.; Northrup, C.J.; Hlava, P.F.

    1983-05-01

    A process leading to titanate-based waste forms for commercial high-level nuclear waste is described. Radionuclides are fixed on hydrous calcium titanate by ion exchange/sorption reactions and the material is converted to a dense, ceramic form by hot pressing. Transmission electron microscopy-electron microprobe characterization was done to determine the effects of compositional changes and process variations on microstructure. Leaching studies in the range of 22 to 150 0 C and pH 2 to 12 were done to assess the effects of the same variables on leaching behavior. Samples of a reference borosilicate glass waste form were leached under the same conditions to provide a direct comparison between the two waste forms. Lead-ion implantation was used to simulate long-term α-recoil damage in the crystalline titanate phases. Comparison of α-recoil damage in natural minerals with damage induced in synthesized samples of the same mineral suggest that Pb-ion implantation is a valid technique for simulating α-recoil effects. All the titanate phases sustained significant lattice damage at equivalent α-doses of 1 x 10 19 /cm 3 ; however, Rutherford backscattering and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that the damage did not result in significant matrix dissolution in these leaching tests

  2. Effects of long-term voluntary exercise on learning and memory processes: dependency of the task and level of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Capdevila, Sílvia; Portell-Cortés, Isabel; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Costa-Miserachs, David

    2009-09-14

    The effect of long-term voluntary exercise (running wheel) on anxiety-like behaviour (plus maze and open field) and learning and memory processes (object recognition and two-way active avoidance) was examined on Wistar rats. Because major individual differences in running wheel behaviour were observed, the data were analysed considering the exercising animals both as a whole and grouped according to the time spent in the running wheel (low, high, and very-high running). Although some variables related to anxiety-like behaviour seem to reflect an anxiogenic compatible effect, the view of the complete set of variables could be interpreted as an enhancement of defensive and risk assessment behaviours in exercised animals, without major differences depending on the exercise level. Effects on learning and memory processes were dependent on task and level of exercise. Two-way avoidance was not affected either in the acquisition or in the retention session, while the retention of object recognition task was affected. In this latter task, an enhancement in low running subjects and impairment in high and very-high running animals were observed.

  3. Long-term monitoring of UK river basins: the disconnections between the timescales of hydrological processes and watershed management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T.; Worrall, F.

    2016-12-01

    The UK has a wealth of hydrological monitoring data that has both good coverage in space since the early 1970s, and also a few locations where records have been kept continuously for almost 150 years. Such datasets offer unique opportunities for the hydrologist to consider how the concepts of stationarity, change, and definitions of "baseline" resources should be used to shape how we build models of these systems, and how we devise appropriate and sustainable watershed management strategies. In this paper we consider some of the UK's longest hydrological and biogeochemical records, to explore how long records can be used to shape such understanding and, in some cases, how they can be used to identify new modes of behaviour that need to be incorporated into management planning, from the scale of individual watersheds right up to the national scale. We also consider how key timescales of hydrological responses that are evident within the data may pose major problems for watershed management unless appropriate attention is paid to the potential impacts of processes that work over decadal timescales - much longer than sub-decadal water industry investment cycles or short-term projects for watershed management planning. We use our long-term records to show how key processes can be identified, and to illustrate how careful interpretation of shorter term records will improve decision-making for water resource management.

  4. Recreational noise exposure and its effects on the hearing of adolescents. Part I: an interdisciplinary long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Mario R; Biassoni, Ester C; Richter, Utz; Minoldo, Gloria; Franco, Graciela; Abraham, Silvia; Carignani, Jorge A; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R

    2005-02-01

    This interdisciplinary long-term study examined the effects of recreational noise exposure on the hearing of adolescents. Boys and girls (aged 14-17 years) were examined during a four-year period. Audiological, psychosocial, and sound measurements were performed yearly to determine the hearing threshold level (HTL) of participants in the 250-16000 Hz range, their participation in recreational activities, and the sound levels at discos and through personal music player use. A tendency of the mean HTL to increase in both genders during the study was observed, especially at 14000 Hz and 16000 Hz. Boys had a higher mean HTL than girls. The participation in musical activities increased yearly, 'attendance at discos' being the favourite musical activity for both groups. In general, boys were more exposed to high sound levels than girls. The equivalent sound levels in discos ranged between 104.3 and 112.4 dBA, and between 75 and 105 dBA from personal music players.

  5. Evaluation of different nitrous oxide production models with four continuous long-term wastewater treatment process data series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spérandio, Mathieu; Pocquet, Mathieu; Guo, Lisha; Ni, Bing-Jie; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-03-01

    Five activated sludge models describing N2O production by ammonium oxidising bacteria (AOB) were compared to four different long-term process data sets. Each model considers one of the two known N2O production pathways by AOB, namely the AOB denitrification pathway and the hydroxylamine oxidation pathway, with specific kinetic expressions. Satisfactory calibration could be obtained in most cases, but none of the models was able to describe all the N2O data obtained in the different systems with a similar parameter set. Variability of the parameters can be related to difficulties related to undescribed local concentration heterogeneities, physiological adaptation of micro-organisms, a microbial population switch, or regulation between multiple AOB pathways. This variability could be due to a dependence of the N2O production pathways on the nitrite (or free nitrous acid-FNA) concentrations and other operational conditions in different systems. This work gives an overview of the potentialities and limits of single AOB pathway models. Indicating in which condition each single pathway model is likely to explain the experimental observations, this work will also facilitate future work on models in which the two main N2O pathways active in AOB are represented together.

  6. Corrosion resistance and long-term durability of super-hydrophobic nickel film prepared by electrodeposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorsand, S.; Raeissi, K.; Ashrafizadeh, F.

    2014-01-01

    A super-hydrophobic nickel film with micro-nano structure was successfully fabricated by electrodeposition process. By controlling electrodeposition parameters and considering different storage times for the coatings in air, various nickel films with different wettability were fabricated. Surface morphology of nickel films was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the micro-nano nickel film was well-crystallized and exhibited pine cone-like microstructure with nano-cone arrays randomly dispersed on each micro-protrusion. The wettability of the micro-nano nickel film varied from super-hydrophilicity (water contact angle 5.3°) to super-hydrophobicity (water contact angle 155.7°) by exposing the surface in air at room temperature. The corrosion resistance of the super-hydrophobic film was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization measurements. The potentiodynamic curves revealed that the corrosion rate of superhydrophobic surface was only 0.16% of the bare copper substrate. Moreover, EIS measurements and appropriate equivalent circuit models revealed that the corrosion resistance of nickel films considerably improved with an increase in the hydrophobicity. The superhydrophobic surface also exhibited an excellent long-term durability in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

  7. Investigation of Geochemical Characteristics and Controlling Processes of Groundwater in a Typical Long-Term Reclaimed Water Use Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The usage of reclaimed water can efficiently mitigate water crises, but it may cause groundwater pollution. To clearly understand the potential influences of long-term reclaimed water usage, a total of 91 samples of shallow and deep groundwater were collected from a typical reclaimed water use area during the dry and rainy seasons. The results suggest both shallow and deep groundwater are mainly naturally alkaline freshwater, which are composed mainly of Ca-HCO3, followed by mixed types such as Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-HCO3. A seasonal desalination trend was observed in both shallow and deep aquifers due to dilution effects in the rainy season. Groundwater chemical compositions in both shallow and deep aquifers are still dominantly controlled by natural processes such as silicate weathering, minerals dissolution and cation exchange. Human activities are also the factors influencing groundwater chemistry. Urbanization has been found responsible for the deterioration of groundwater quality, especially in shallow aquifers, because of the relative thin aquitard. Reclaimed water usage for agricultural irrigation and landscape purposes has nearly no influences on groundwater quality in rural areas due to thick aquitards. Therefore, reclaimed water usage should be encouraged in arid and semiarid areas with proper hydrogeological condition.

  8. Field Phenotyping and Long-Term Platforms to Characterise How Crop Genotypes Interact with Soil Processes and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S. George

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable agronomic practices and environmental change necessitate a revolution in agricultural production to ensure food security. A new generation of crops that yield more with fewer inputs and are adapted to more variable environments is needed. However, major changes in breeding programmes may be required to achieve this goal. By using the genetic variation in crop yield in specific target environments that vary in soil type, soil management, nutrient inputs and environmental stresses, robust traits suited to specific conditions can be identified. It is here that long-term experimental platforms and field phenotyping have an important role to play. In this review, we will provide information about some of the field-based platforms available and the cutting edge phenotyping systems at our disposal. We will also identify gaps in our field phenotyping resources that should be filled. We will go on to review the challenges in producing crop ideotypes for the dominant management systems for which we need sustainable solutions, and we discuss the potential impact of three-way interactions between genetics, environment and management. Finally, we will discuss the role that modelling can play in allowing us to fast-track some of these processes to allow us to make rapid gains in agricultural sustainability.

  9. Long-Term Reliability of a Hard-Switched Boost Power Processing Unit Utilizing SiC Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Iannello, Christopher J.; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have demonstrated many performance advantages over their silicon (Si) counterparts. As the inherent material limitations of Si devices are being swiftly realized, wide-band-gap (WBG) materials such as SiC have become increasingly attractive for high power applications. In particular, SiC power metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors' (MOSFETs) high breakdown field tolerance, superior thermal conductivity and low-resistivity drift regions make these devices an excellent candidate for power dense, low loss, high frequency switching applications in extreme environment conditions. In this paper, a novel power processing unit (PPU) architecture is proposed utilizing commercially available 4H-SiC power MOSFETs from CREE Inc. A multiphase straight boost converter topology is implemented to supply up to 10 kilowatts full-scale. High Temperature Gate Bias (HTGB) and High Temperature Reverse Bias (HTRB) characterization is performed to evaluate the long-term reliability of both the gate oxide and the body diode of the SiC components. Finally, susceptibility of the CREE SiC MOSFETs to damaging effects from heavy-ion radiation representative of the on-orbit galactic cosmic ray environment are explored. The results provide the baseline performance metrics of operation as well as demonstrate the feasibility of a hard-switched PPU in harsh environments.

  10. On the long-term development of population dose in radioactively contaminated parts of Korma County (Belarus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dederichs, H.; Pillath, J.; Heuel-Fabianek, B.; Hill, P.; Lennartz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2007 in a region in Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants in the village of Volincy (Korma County) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precaution over time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. The external exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, the internal exposure has only increased slightly and has no significant negative influence on the health of the people. The internal dose will decrease to less than 0.2 mSv/a in 2011 and to below 0.1 mSv/a in 2020. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than normal background values due to external exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and advice is offered on an individual basis, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former prohibited areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules. (orig.)

  11. DAT genotype modulates striatal processing and long-term memory for items associated with reward and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Bianca C; Tan, Geoffrey C; Lisman, John E; Dolan, Raymond J; Düzel, Emrah

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that appetitive motivation enhances episodic memory formation via a network including the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), striatum and hippocampus. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study now contrasted the impact of aversive and appetitive motivation on episodic long-term memory. Cue pictures predicted monetary reward or punishment in alternating experimental blocks. One day later, episodic memory for the cue pictures was tested. We also investigated how the neural processing of appetitive and aversive motivation and episodic memory were modulated by dopaminergic mechanisms. To that end, participants were selected on the basis of their genotype for a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene. The resulting groups were carefully matched for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene. Recognition memory for cues from both motivational categories was enhanced in participants homozygous for the 10-repeat allele of the DAT, the functional effects of which are not known yet, but not in heterozygous subjects. In comparison with heterozygous participants, 10-repeat homozygous participants also showed increased striatal activity for anticipation of motivational outcomes compared to neutral outcomes. In a subsequent memory analysis, encoding activity in striatum and hippocampus was found to be higher for later recognized items in 10-repeat homozygotes compared to 9/10-repeat heterozygotes. These findings suggest that processing of appetitive and aversive motivation in the human striatum involve the dopaminergic system and that dopamine plays a role in memory for both types of motivational information. In accordance with animal studies, these data support the idea that encoding of motivational events depends on dopaminergic processes in the hippocampus. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Complex sound processing during human REM sleep by recovering information from long-term memory as revealed by the mismatch negativity (MMN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienza, M; Cantero, J L

    2001-05-18

    Perceptual learning is thought to be the result of neural changes that take place over a period of several hours or days, allowing information to be transferred to long-term memory. Evidence suggests that contents of long-term memory may improve attentive and pre-attentive sensory processing. Therefore, it is plausible to hypothesize that learning-induced neural changes that develop during wakefulness could improve automatic information processing during human REM sleep. The MMN, an objective measure of the automatic change detection in auditory cortex, was used to evaluate long-term learning effects on pre-attentive processing during wakefulness and REM sleep. When subjects learned to discriminate two complex auditory patterns in wakefulness, an increase in the MMN was obtained in both wake and REM states. The automatic detection of the infrequent complex auditory pattern may therefore be improved in both brain states by reactivating information from long-term memory. These findings suggest that long-term learning-related neural changes are accessible during REM sleep as well.

  13. Simulation of ultra-long term behavior in HLW near-field by centrifugal model test. Part 1. Development of centrifugal equipment and centrifuge model test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Soshi; Okada, Tetsuji; Sawada, Masataka

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a centrifugal equipment which can continuously be run for a long time and a model test method in order to evaluate a long term behavior which is a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the high level wastes geological disposal repository and the neighborhood (called 'near-field'). The centrifugal equipment of CRIEPI, 'CENTURY5000-THM', developed in the present study is able to run continuously up to six months. Therefore, a long term behavior in the near-field can be simulated in a short term, for instance, the behavior for 5000 equivalent years can be simulated in six months by centrifugalizing 100 G using a 1/100 size model. We carried out a test using a nylon specimen in a centrifugal force field of 30 G and confirmed the operations of CENTURY5000-THM, control and measurement for 11 days. As the results, it was able to control the stress in the pressure vessel and measure the values of strain, temperature and pressure. And, as a result of scanning the small model of near-field including the metal overpack, bentonite buffer and rock by a medical X-rays CT scanner, the internal structure of the model was able to be evaluated when the metal artifact was reduced. From these results, the evaluation for a long term behavior of a disposal repository by the method of centrifugal model test became possible. (author)

  14. Presynaptic D2 dopamine receptors control long-term depression expression and memory processes in the temporal hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Jill; Isingrini, Elsa; Dal Bo, Gregory; Sagheby, Sara; Menegaux, Aurore; Tronche, François; Levesque, Daniel; Moquin, Luc; Gratton, Alain; Wong, Tak Pan; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Giros, Bruno

    2015-03-15

    Dysfunctional mesocorticolimbic dopamine signaling has been linked to alterations in motor and reward-based functions associated with psychiatric disorders. Converging evidence from patients with psychiatric disorders and use of antipsychotics suggests that imbalance of dopamine signaling deeply alters hippocampal functions. However, given the lack of full characterization of a functional mesohippocampal pathway, the precise role of dopamine transmission in memory deficits associated with these disorders and their dedicated therapies is unknown. In particular, the positive outcome of antipsychotic treatments, commonly antagonizing D2 dopamine receptors (D2Rs), on cognitive deficits and memory impairments remains questionable. Following pharmacologic and genetic manipulation of dopamine transmission, we performed anatomic, neurochemical, electrophysiologic, and behavioral investigations to uncover the role of D2Rs in hippocampal-dependent plasticity and learning. Naïve mice (n = 4-21) were used in the different procedures. Dopamine modulated both long-term potentiation and long-term depression in the temporal hippocampus as well as spatial and recognition learning and memory in mice through D2Rs. Although genetic deletion or pharmacologic blockade of D2Rs led to the loss of long-term potentiation expression, the specific genetic removal of presynaptic D2Rs impaired long-term depression and performances on spatial memory tasks. Presynaptic D2Rs in dopamine fibers of the temporal hippocampus tightly modulate long-term depression expression and play a major role in the regulation of hippocampal learning and memory. This direct role of mesohippocampal dopamine input as uncovered here adds a new dimension to dopamine involvement in the physiology underlying deficits associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Constraining Silicate Weathering Processes in an Active Volcanic Complex: Implications for the Long-term Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, K.; West, A. J.; Hartmann, J.; Amann, T.; Hosono, T.; Ide, K.

    2017-12-01

    While analyzing geochemical archives and carbon cycle modelling can further our understanding of the role of silicate weathering as a sink in the long-term carbon cycle, it is necessary to study modern weathering processes to inform these efforts. A recent compilation of data from rivers draining basaltic catchments estimates that rock weathering in active volcanic fields (AVFs) consumes atmospheric CO2 approximately three times faster than in inactive volcanic fields (IVFs), suggesting that the eruption and subsequent weathering of large igneous provinces likely played a major role in the carbon cycle in the geologic past [1]. The study demonstrates a significant correlation between catchment mean annual temperature (MAT) and atmospheric CO2 consumption rate for IVFs. However CO2 consumption due to weathering of AVFs is not correlated with MAT as the relationship is complicated by variability in hydrothermal fluxes, reactive surface area, and groundwater flow paths. To investigate the controls on weathering processes in AVFs, we present data for dissolved and solid weathering products from Mount Aso Caldera, Japan. Aso Caldera is an ideal site for studying the how the chemistry of rivers draining an AVF is impacted by high-temperature water/rock interactions, volcanic ash weathering, and varied groundwater flow paths and residence times. Samples were collected over five field seasons from two rivers and their tributaries, cold groundwater springs, and thermal springs. These samples capture the region's temperature and precipitation seasonality. Solid samples of unaltered volcanic rocks, hydrothermally-altered materials, volcanic ash, a soil profile, and suspended and bedload river sediments were also collected. The hydrochemistry of dissolved phases were analyzed at the University of Hamburg, while the mineralogy and geochemical compositions of solid phases were analyzed at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles. This work will be discussed in the context of

  16. Tie-Up Cycles in Long-Term Mating. Part II: Fictional Narratives and the Social Cognition of Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Lucchi Basili

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this paper, we have introduced a novel theoretical approach to mating dynamics, known as Tie-Up Theory (TU. In this second part, in the context of the bio-cultural approach to literature, that assigns to fictional narratives an important valence of social cognition, we apply the conceptual tools presented in the first part to the analysis of mating-related interaction dynamics in some blockbuster Hollywood movies from WWII to today. The interaction dynamics envisioned by our theory accurately reflect, to a significant level of detail, the narrative development of the movies under exam from the viewpoint of the mating dynamics of the couple of main characters, accounting for the specific reasons that lead them to react to certain situations via certain behaviors, and for the reasons why such behaviors lead to certain outcomes. Our analysis seems thus to bring some further legitimacy to the bio-cultural foundation of the narrative structure of the movies that we analyze, and moreover to the idea that it is possible to ‘inquire’ characters about their choices according to the narratological-experimental lines suggested by some proponents of the bio-cultural approach.

  17. Long-term potentiation and memory processes in the psychological works of Sigmund Freud and in the formation of neuropsychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centonze, D; Siracusano, A; Calabresi, P; Bernardi, G

    2005-01-01

    Far from disproving the model of mind functioning proposed by psychoanalysis, the recent advances in neuropsychiatrical research confirmed the crucial ideas of Sigmund Freud. The hypothesis that the origin of mental illnesses lies in the impossibility for a subject to erase the long-term effects of a remote adverse event is in tune with the view that several psychiatric disturbances reflect the activation of aberrant unconscious memory processes. Freud's insights did not stop here, but went on to describe in an extremely precise manner the neural mechanisms of memory formation almost a century before the description of long-term synaptic potentiation.

  18. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 1: Overall trends and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanyun; Lin, Weili; Xu, Xiaobin; Tang, Jie; Huang, Jianqing; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Xiaochun

    2016-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and atmospheric pollutant at the same time. The oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, climate, human and vegetation health can be impacted by the increase of the ozone level. Therefore, long-term determination of trends of baseline ozone is highly needed information for environmental and climate change assessment. So far, studies on the long-term trends of ozone at representative sites are mainly available for European and North American sites. Similar studies are lacking for China and many other developing countries. Measurements of surface ozone were carried out at a baseline Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Mt Waliguan, 36°17' N, 100°54' E, 3816 m a.s.l.) for the period of 1994 to 2013. To uncover the variation characteristics, long-term trends and influencing factors of surface ozone at this remote site in western China, a two-part study has been carried out, with this part focusing on the overall characteristics of diurnal, seasonal and long-term variations and the trends of surface ozone. To obtain reliable ozone trends, we performed the Mann-Kendall trend test and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) analysis on the ozone data. Our results confirm that the mountain-valley breeze plays an important role in the diurnal cycle of surface ozone at Waliguan, resulting in higher ozone values during the night and lower ones during the day, as was previously reported. Systematic diurnal and seasonal variations were found in mountain-valley breezes at the site, which were used in defining season-dependent daytime and nighttime periods for trend calculations. Significant positive trends in surface ozone were detected for both daytime (0.24 ± 0.16 ppbv year-1) and nighttime (0.28 ± 0.17 ppbv year-1). The largest nighttime increasing rate occurred in autumn (0.29 ± 0.11 ppbv year-1), followed by spring (0.24 ± 0.12 ppbv year-1), summer (0.22 ± 0

  19. A qualitative evaluation of long-term processes governing the behaviour of uranium mill tailings placed in deep lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, Paul; Snodgrass, William; Lush, D.L.; Ross, P.

    1982-03-01

    The emplacement of uranim mill tailings in deep lakes may provide an acceptable method of tailings disposal at certain sites in Canada. Disposal in a depositional environment typical of deep lakes appears to offer greater prospects for long-term stability than present methods of land-based management. From the regulatory point of view, it is necessary to know which factors should be taken into account in assessing the acceptability of such an approach. This report examines the environmental variables governing the behaviour of radionuclides and trace elements in the groundwater systems, lake water, and finally in the biosphere over the short and long-term. Physical, chemical and biological factors are each considered. Conclusions are presented in terms of points for and against disposal in deep lakes

  20. A qualitative evaluation of long-term processes governing the behaviour of uranium mill tailings placed in deep lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The emplacement of uranium mill tailings in deep lakes may provide an acceptable method of tailings disposal at certain sites in Canada. Disposal in a depositional environment typical of deep lakes appears to offer greater prospects for long-term stability than present methods of land-based management. From the regulatory point of view, it is necessary to know which factors should be taken into account in assessing the acceptability of such an approach. This report examines the environmental variables governing the behaviour of radionuclides and trace elements in the groundwater systems, lake water, and finally in the biosphere over the short and long term. Physical, chemical and biological factors are each considered. Conclusions are presented in terms of points for and against disposal in deep lakes. This report summarizes the data and conclusions presented in an annex volume

  1. Long term effects of preventive activities of youth health care in The Netherlands: results of a four-part study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter A. Wiegersma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background. In this article the results are presented of a four part study on the effect of screening for scoliosis and (repeated well-care visits and freely accessible consultation hours at secondary schools, on the incidence and prevalence of (parasuicide, mental health, adolescent health compromising behaviour and lastly obesity.

    Methods. An ecologic case-referent study design was used with data from the Netherlands Bureau of Statistics, the Ministry of Defence, the 1992 High-School Student Study, all of the youth health care departments in The Netherlands and relevant censuses.

    Results. Attention to mental and physical health and health compromising behaviour, either during screening, open consultation hours or during well-care visits seems to be ineffective and in some instances even detrimental to youth health.

    Of the 18 different outcome measurements, 5 were significantly negative and none were significantly positive.

    Conclusions. This four part study does not support the hypothesis that on a population level, the preventive activities of youth health care departments such as screening for scoliosis, (more frequent well-care visits or offering open consultation hours at secondary schools, have a beneficial effect on prevention of (parasuicide, poor mental health, health compromising behaviour or obesity.

  2. ClimaDat: A long-term network to study at different scales climatic processes and interactions between climatic compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgui, Josep Anton; Agueda, Alba; Batet, Oscar; Curcoll, Roger; Ealo, Marina; Grossi, Claudia; Occhipinti, Paola; Sánchez-García, Laura; Arias, Rosa; Rodó, Xavi

    2013-04-01

    ClimaDat (www.climadat.es) is a pioneer project of the Institut Català de Ciències del Clima (IC3) in collaboration with and funded by "la Caixa" Foundation. This project aims at studying the interactions between climate and ecosystems at different spatial and temporal scales. The ClimaDat project consists of a network of eight long-term observatory stations distributed over Spain, installed at natural and remote areas, and covering different climatic domains (e.g. Mediterranean, Atlantic, subtropics) and natural systems (e.g. delta, karsts, high mountain areas). Data obtained in the ClimaDat network will help us to understand how ecosystems are influenced by and eventually might feedback different processes in the climate system. The point of focus of these studies will be taken into account regional-and-local conditions to understand climatic global scale eventsThe data gathered will be used to study the behavior of the global element cycles and associated greenhouse gas emissions. The network is expected to offer near real-time (NRT) data free for the scientific community. Instrumentation installed at these stations mainly consists of: CO2, CH4, H2O, CO, N2O, SF6 and 222Rn analyzers, isotopic CO2, CH4 and H2O analyzers, meteorological sensors, eddy covariance equipment, four-component radiometers, soil moisture and temperature sensors, and sap flow meters. Each station may have a more focused subset of all this equipment, depending on the specific characteristics of the site. Instrumentation selected for this network has been chosen to comply with standards established in international research infrastructure projects, such as ICOS (http://www.icos-infrastructure.eu/home) or InGOS (http://www.ingos-infrastructure.eu/). Preliminary data time-series of greenhouse gases concentrations and meteorological variables are presented in this study for three currently operational ClimaDat stations: the Natural Park of the Ebre Delta (lat 40.75° N - long 0.79° E), the

  3. Influence of Silver nanoparticles on nutrient removal and microbial communities in SBR process after long-term exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhaohan [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, No 43, Songfa Street, Daoli District, Harbin 150001 (China); Gao, Peng, E-mail: hitzzh@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Li, Moqing; Cheng, Jiaqi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Liu, Wei [Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, No 43, Songfa Street, Daoli District, Harbin 150001 (China); Feng, Yujie, E-mail: yujief@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2016-11-01

    The widespread utilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in industrial and commercial products inevitably raises the release into wastewater that might cause potential negative impacts on sewage treatment system. In this paper, long-term exposure experiments at four levels were conducted to determine whether AgNPs caused adverse impacts on nutrient removals in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and changes of microbial community structure. Compared with the control reactor (without AgNPs), carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal in presence of 0.1 mg/L AgNPs was no difference. However, presence of 1.0 and 10 mg/L AgNPs decreased the average removal efficiencies of COD from 95.4% to 85.2% and 68.3%, ammonia nitrogen from 98.8% to 71.2% and 49%, SOP from 97.6% to 75.5% and 54.1%, respectively. It was found that AgNPs could accumulate in sludge with the distribution coefficients of 39.2–114 L/g, inhibit the protein and polysaccharide production in EPS, reduce the SOUR of sludge, and greatly increase LDH release from microbial cells. The illumina high-throughput sequencing results indicated that AgNPs concentration changed the structures of bacterial communities, associating with the effects of AgNPs on reactor performance. Sequence analyses showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were the dominant phyla. It was notable that AgNPs addition reduced the contents of several nitrifying bacteria at genera level in sludge, leading to the lower removal of nitrogen. - Highlights: • More than 1.0 mg/L AgNPs evidently reduce COD, NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and SOP removal in SBR process. • AgNPs decrease the protein and polysaccharide contents of EPS. • AgNPs increase LDH release for 1.46–2.41 times. • AgNPs are apt to accumulate on surface and even into microbial cells. • AgNPs levels affect microbial community structure and composition.

  4. Influence of Silver nanoparticles on nutrient removal and microbial communities in SBR process after long-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhaohan; Gao, Peng; Li, Moqing; Cheng, Jiaqi; Liu, Wei; Feng, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    The widespread utilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in industrial and commercial products inevitably raises the release into wastewater that might cause potential negative impacts on sewage treatment system. In this paper, long-term exposure experiments at four levels were conducted to determine whether AgNPs caused adverse impacts on nutrient removals in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and changes of microbial community structure. Compared with the control reactor (without AgNPs), carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal in presence of 0.1 mg/L AgNPs was no difference. However, presence of 1.0 and 10 mg/L AgNPs decreased the average removal efficiencies of COD from 95.4% to 85.2% and 68.3%, ammonia nitrogen from 98.8% to 71.2% and 49%, SOP from 97.6% to 75.5% and 54.1%, respectively. It was found that AgNPs could accumulate in sludge with the distribution coefficients of 39.2–114 L/g, inhibit the protein and polysaccharide production in EPS, reduce the SOUR of sludge, and greatly increase LDH release from microbial cells. The illumina high-throughput sequencing results indicated that AgNPs concentration changed the structures of bacterial communities, associating with the effects of AgNPs on reactor performance. Sequence analyses showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were the dominant phyla. It was notable that AgNPs addition reduced the contents of several nitrifying bacteria at genera level in sludge, leading to the lower removal of nitrogen. - Highlights: • More than 1.0 mg/L AgNPs evidently reduce COD, NH_4"+-N and SOP removal in SBR process. • AgNPs decrease the protein and polysaccharide contents of EPS. • AgNPs increase LDH release for 1.46–2.41 times. • AgNPs are apt to accumulate on surface and even into microbial cells. • AgNPs levels affect microbial community structure and composition.

  5. Commissioning of self-management support for people with long-term conditions: an exploration of commissioning aspirations and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Claire; Kennedy, Anne; Pope, Catherine; Ballinger, Claire; Vassilev, Ivo; Rogers, Anne

    2016-07-15

    To explore how self-management support (SMS) is considered and conceptualised by Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) and whether this is reflected in strategic planning and commissioning. SMS is an essential element of long-term condition (LTC) management and CCGs are responsible for commissioning services that are coordinated, integrated and link into patient's everyday lives. This focus provides a good test and exemplar for how commissioners communicate with their local population to find out what they need. A multisite, quasi-ethnographic exploration of 9 CCGs. National Health Service (NHS) CCGs in southern England, representing varied socioeconomic status, practice sizes and rural and urban areas. Content analysis of CCG forward plans for mention of SMS. Semistructured interviews with commissioners (n=10) explored understanding of SMS and analysed thematically. The practice of commissioning explored through the observations of Service User Researchers (n=5) attending Governing Body meetings (n=10, 30 hours). Observations illuminate the relative absence of SMS and gateways to active engagement with patient and public voices. Content analysis of plans point to tensions between local aspirations and those identified by NHS England for empowering patients by enhancing SMS services ('person-centred', whole systems). Interview data highlight disparities in the process of translating the forward plans into practice. Commissioners reference SMS as a priority yet details of local initiatives are notably absent with austerity (cost-containment) and nationally measured biomedical outcomes taking precedence. Commissioners conceptualise locally sensitive SMS as a means to improve health and reduce service use, but structural and financial constraints result in prioritisation of nationally driven outcome measures and payments relating to biomedical targets. Ultimately, there is little evidence of local needs driving SMS in CCGs. CCGs need to focus more on early strategic

  6. Influence of long-term Sahaja Yoga meditation practice on emotional processing in the brain: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, N V; Pavlov, S V; Loktev, K V; Korenyok, V V; Aftanas, L I

    2014-12-05

    Despite growing interest in meditation as a tool for alternative therapy of stress-related and psychosomatic diseases, brain mechanisms of beneficial influences of meditation practice on health and quality of life are still unclear. We propose that the key point is a persistent change in emotional functioning, specifically the modulation of the early appraisal of motivational significance of events. The main aim was to study the effects of long-term meditation practice on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during affective picture viewing. ERPs were recorded in 20 long-term Sahaja Yoga meditators and 20 control subjects without prior experience in meditation. The meditators' mid-latency (140-400ms) ERPs were attenuated for both positive and negative pictures (i.e. there were no arousal-related increases in ERP positivity) and this effect was more prominent over the right hemisphere. However, we found no differences in the long latency (400-800ms) responses to emotional images, associated with meditation practice. In addition we found stronger ERP negativity in the time window 200-300ms for meditators compared to the controls, regardless of picture valence. We assume that long-term meditation practice enhances frontal top-down control over fast automatic salience detection, based on amygdala functions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Trophic position and metabolic rate predict the long-term decay process of radioactive cesium in fish: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Doi

    Full Text Available Understanding the long-term behavior of radionuclides in organisms is important for estimating possible associated risks to human beings and ecosystems. As radioactive cesium (¹³⁷Cs can be accumulated in organisms and has a long physical half-life, it is very important to understand its long-term decay in organisms; however, the underlying mechanisms determining the decay process are little known. We performed a meta-analysis to collect published data on the long-term ¹³⁷Cs decay process in fish species to estimate biological (metabolic rate and ecological (trophic position, habitat, and diet type influences on this process. From the linear mixed models, we found that 1 trophic position could predict the day of maximum ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish; and 2 the metabolic rate of the fish species and environmental water temperature could predict ecological half-lives and decay rates for fish species. These findings revealed that ecological and biological traits are important to predict the long-term decay process of ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish.

  8. Brokering: a process for establishing long-term and stable links with gay male communities for research and public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, A J

    1994-02-01

    The success of efforts to prevent continued transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to increase compliance with HIV prophylactic interventions among homosexual and bisexual men will depend in part on health care professionals' understanding of and ability to establish linkages with these men. In order to recruit men into a research project and an educational program, staff at the Pitt Men's Study, an epidemiological investigation of HIV infection, developed a process described here as "brokering," which was based on community organizing and marketing principles. Brokering is a dynamic process by which researchers and public health professionals exchange goods and services with formal and informal leaders of the gay community in order to establish strong, long-term linkages. To date, this process yielded 2,989 homosexual and bisexual recruits into the study, which began in 1983. After 8 years, 79% of those still alive continue to return for follow-up. While recruitment techniques will need to vary from city to city, the importance of establishing linkages with the local indigenous leadership remains of major importance.

  9. The marker: A precious link between generations and a part of the long-term safety story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massart, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste brings us face to face with a social, emotional, ethical, political and environmental situation at the heart of which lies the security of the living world. From now on, mankind has to make commitments to protect itself. Building an artistic device, a continuous creation that links and reveals the situation will inform and shed some light on the objectives. In co-operation with industries that manage geological repositories, the installation of markers above ground introduces non-technical aspects that can increase safety. In the art world, many works of art produced throughout the 20. century associate art with waste as vestiges for keeping. The use of waste has shaken the nature of art since Marcel Duchamp, the eye of Man Ray as well as the definition of the artist. The waste recycling industry has modified the way we see it. For what is waste? It embodies above all the imperfect and also a 'time capsule'. In the case that concerns us, waste stays buried in our doubt, secured by our current financial means that are substantial. The notion of time for its decay is calculated and, at the end, it vanishes. Its visibility is next to nil, whereas its presence remains very powerful and thrills the imagination. The hosting community is permeated with it. At the same time the laboratory at the disposal facility provides economic dynamism, an analysis of upheavals in this territory, an exhibition of artistic devices and an awareness of danger. The proposals that are described here are the result of a decade of research. It seems that from the beginning there has been negligence on the part of the nuclear industry regarding the storage of high-level radioactive waste. The general public is not very knowledgeable about the subject. Projects for geological disposal often give the local population the feeling of an ablation of a piece of territory. To sum it up, in the long run, we consider the study of two barriers for the safety of high

  10. GEOSAF Part II. Demonstration of the operational and long-term safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. IAEA international intercomparison and harmonization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Yumiko; Bruno, Gerard [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Vienna International Centre; Tichauer, Michael [IRSN, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Hedberg, Bengt [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    International intercomparison and harmonization projects are one of the mechanisms developed by the IAEA for examining the application and use of safety standards, with a view to ensuring their effectiveness and working towards harmonization of approaches to the safety of radioactive waste management. The IAEA has organized a number of international projects on the safety of radioactive waste management; in particular on the issues related to safety demonstration for radioactive waste management facilities. In 2008, GEOSAF, Demonstration of The Operational and Long-Term Safety of Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste, project was initiated. This project was completed in 2011 by delivering a project report focusing on the safety case for geological disposal facilities, a concept that has gained in recent years considerable prominence in the waste management area and is addressed in several international safety standards. During the course of the project, it was recognized that little work was undertaken internationally to develop a common view on the safety approach related to the operational phase of a geological disposal although long-term safety of disposal facility has been discussed for several decades. Upon completion of the first part of the GEOSAF project, it was decided to commence a follow-up project aiming at harmonizing approaches on the safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste through the development of an integrated safety case covering both operational and long-term safety. The new project was named as GEOSAF Part II, which was initiated in 2012 initially as 2-year project, involving regulators and operators. GEOSAF Part II provides a forum to exchange ideas and experience on the development and review of an integrated operational and post-closure safety case for geological disposal facilities. It also aims at providing a platform for knowledge transfer. The project is of particular interest to regulatory

  11. Wear, creep, and frictional heating of femoral implant articulating surfaces and the effect on long-term performance--Part II, Friction, heating, and torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J A; Schwartz, G; Lynch, G; Gir, S

    1988-04-01

    In Part I, (J.A. Davidson and G. Schwartz, "Wear, creep, and frictional heating of femoral implant articulating surfaces and the effect on long-term performance--Part I, A review," J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 21, 000-000 (1987) it was shown that lubrication of the artificial hip joint was complex and that long-term performance is governed by the combined wear, creep, and to a lesser extent, oxidation degradation of the articulating materials. Importantly, it was shown that a tendency for heating exists during articulation in the hip joint and that elevated temperatures can increase the wear, creep, and oxidation degradation rate of UHMWPE. The present study was performed to examine closely the propensity to generate heat during articulation in a hip joint simulator. The systems investigated were polished Co-Cr-Mo alloy articulating against UHMWPE, polished alumina ceramic against UHMWPE, and polished alumina against itself. Frictional torque was also evaluated for each system at various levels of applied loads. A walking load history was used in both the frictional heating and torque tests. The majority of tests were performed with 5 mL of water lubricant. However, the effect of various concentrations of hyaluronic acid was also evaluated. Results showed frictional heating to occur in all three systems, reaching an equilibrium after roughly 30 min articulation time. Ceramic systems showed reduced levels of heating compared to the cobalt alloy-UHMWPE system. The level of frictional torque for each system ranked similar to their respective tendencies to generate heat. Hyaluronic acid had little effect, while dry conditions and the presence of small quantities of bone cement powder in water lubricant significantly increased frictional torque.

  12. Delayed Complications and Long-term Management of Sulfur Mustard Poisoning: Recent Advances by Iranian Researchers (Part І of ІІ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emadodin Darchini-Maragheh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical warfare agents are the most brutal weapons among the weapons of mass destruction. Sulfur mustard (SM is a potent toxic alkylating agent known as “the King of the Battle Gases”. SM has been the most widely used chemical weapon during the wars. It was widely used in World War I. Thereafter, it was extensively employed by the Iraqi troops against the Iranian military personnel and even civilians in the border cities of Iran and Iraq in the period between 1983 and 1988. Long-term incapacitating properties, significant environmental persistence, lack of an effective antidote, and relative ease of manufacturing have kept SM a potential agent for both terrorist and military uses. Even 3 decades after SM exposure, numerous delayed complications among Iranian victims are still being reported by researchers. The most common delayed complications have been observed in the respiratory tracts of chemically injured Iranian war veterans. Also, skin lesions and eye disorders have been observed in most Iranian SM-exposed war veterans in the delayed phase of SM intoxication. Thus, extensive research has been conducted on Iranian war veterans during the past decades. Nevertheless, major gaps still continue to exist in the SM literature. Part І of this paper will discuss the delayed complications and manifestations of exposure to SM among Iranian victims of the Iran–Iraq conflict. Part ІІ, which will appear in the next issue of Iran J Med Sci, will discuss the long-term management and therapy of SM-exposed patients.

  13. Construction and use of a microfluidic dissection platform for long-term imaging of cellular processes in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberts, Daphne H E W; Sik Lee, Sung; Gonzáles, Javier; Janssens, Georges E; Vizcarra, Ima Avalos; Heinemann, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    This protocol describes the production and operation of a microfluidic dissection platform for long-term, high-resolution imaging of budding yeast cells. At the core of this platform is an array of micropads that trap yeast cells in a single focal plane. Newly formed daughter cells are subsequently washed away by a continuous flow of fresh culture medium. In a typical experiment, 50-100 cells can be tracked during their entire replicative lifespan. Apart from aging-related research, the microfluidic platform can also be a valuable tool for other studies requiring the monitoring of single cells over time. Here we provide step-by-step instructions on how to fabricate the silicon wafer mold, how to produce and operate the microfluidic device and how to analyze the obtained data. Production of the microfluidic dissection platform and setting up an aging experiment takes ~7 h.

  14. Long-Term Effect of Different Carbon Management Strategies on Water Flow and Related Processes for Three Loamy Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Schjønning, Per; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2013-01-01

    on preferential flow and loss of colloids during heavy irrigation events. The field sites were all under long-term management and therefore represent up to 30 years of pairwise different management strategies. One field in each field pair was managed with a more C-repleting strategy (HighC) than the other (Low......The decline in organic matter of arable land, induced and accelerated by modern agriculture, has been identified as a threat to sustained soil quality. In this article, we studied strategies to counter this decrease by building up soil organic carbon (SOC) levels in the soils using several......C). Only small differences in SOC contents were identified, and none of the management strategies had succeeded in building up SOC pools large enough to saturate the soil with C. Only at one field site was the content of water-dispersible colloids lower in the HighC than the LowC treatment. Preferential...

  15. Factors Influencing the Decision-Making Process and Long-Term Interpersonal Outcomes for Parents Who Undergo Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for Fanconi Anemia: a Qualitative Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haude, K; McCarthy Veach, P; LeRoy, B; Zierhut, H

    2017-06-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by congenital malformations, progressive bone marrow failure, and predisposition to malignancy. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is used to treat FA, and best results are attained with sibling donors who are human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical matches. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) offers parents of an affected child the opportunity to have an unaffected child who is an HLA match. While some research has investigated parents' experiences during the PGD process, no published studies specifically address factors influencing their decision-making process and long-term interpersonal outcomes. The aims of this study are to: (1) examine parents' expectations and the influence of media, bioethics, and religion on their decision to undergo PGD; (2) examine parents' social support and emotional experiences during their PGD process; and (3) characterize long-term effects of PGD on relationship dynamics (partner, family, friends), others' attitudes, and parental regret. Nine parents participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis revealed their decision to use PGD was variously influenced by media, bioethics, and religion, in particular, affecting parents' initial confidence levels. Moreover, the PGD process was emotionally complex, with parents desiring varying amounts and types of support from different sources at different times. Parents reported others' attitudes towards them were similar or no different than before PGD. Parental regret regarding PGD was negligible. Results of this study will promote optimization of long-term care for FA families.

  16. Different effects of long-term haloperidol administration on GABA/sub A/ and benzodiazepine receptors in various parts of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasar, Oe.Oe.; Nurk, A.M.; Maimets, M.O.; Soosaar, A.H.; Allikmets, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    The data described in this paper are evidence that long-term administration of haloperidol has an opposite effect on the density of GABA/sub A/ and benzodiazepine receptors in the fore- and hindbrain. These changes are reflected at the molecular level as reversal of behavioral effect of the GABA/sub A/ agonist muscimol and the benzodiazepine agonist Ro15-1788. By means of parallel behavioral tests, binding of 3 H-muscimol in the fore- and hindbrain of rats was investigated in experiments in vitro. 3 H-flunitrazepam binding experiments were carried out in vivo on mice. Parallel with reversal of the behavioral effects of muscimol and Ro15-1788, the number of binding sites both for 3 H-muscimol and for 3 H-flunitrazepam in the forebrain was reduced; in the hindbrain the opposite process took place

  17. The role of natural glasses as analogues in projecting the long-term alteration of high-level nuclear waste glasses: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazer, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The common observation of glasses persisting in natural environments for long periods of time (up to tens of millions of years) provides compelling evidence that these materials can be kinetically stable in a variety of subsurface environments. This paper reviews how natural and historical synthesized glasses can be employed as natural analogues for understanding and projecting the long-term alteration of high-level nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion of basaltic glass results in many of the same alteration features found in laboratory testing of the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses. Evidence has also been found indicating similarities in the rate controlling processes, such as the effects of silica concentration on corrosion in groundwater and in laboratory leachates. Naturally altered rhyolitic glasses and tektites provide additional evidence that can be used to constrain estimates of long-term waste glass alteration. When reacted under conditions where water is plentiful, the corrosion for these glasses is dominated by network hydrolysis, while the corrosion is dominated by molecular water diffusion and secondary mineral formation under conditions where water contact is intermittent or where water is relatively scarce. Synthesized glasses that have been naturally altered result in alkali-depleted alteration features that are similar to those found for natural glasses and for nuclear waste glasses. The characteristics of these alteration features appear to be dependent on the alteration conditions which affect the dominant reaction processes during weathering. In all cases, care must be taken to ensure that the information being provided by natural analogues is related to nuclear waste glass corrosion in a clear and meaningful way

  18. Long-term effect of fee-for-service-based reimbursement cuts on processes and outcomes of care for stroke: interrupted time-series study from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yu-Chi; Chang, Guann-Ming; Cheng, Shou-Hsia

    2015-01-01

    As healthcare spending continues to increase, reimbursement cuts have become 1 type of healthcare reform to contain costs. Little is known about the long-term impact of cuts in reimbursement, especially under a global budget cap with fee-for-service (FFS) reimbursement, on processes and outcomes of care. The FFS-based reimbursement cuts have been implemented since July 2002 in Taiwan. We examined the long-term association of FFS-based reimbursement cuts with trends in processes and outcomes of care for stroke. We analyzed all 411,487 patients with stroke admitted to general acute care hospitals in Taiwan during the period 1997 to 2010 through Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We used a quasi-experimental design with quarterly measures of healthcare utilization and outcomes and used segmented autoregressive integrated moving average models for the analysis. After accounting for secular trends and other confounders, the implementation of the FFS-based reimbursement cuts was associated with trend changes in computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging scanning (0.31% per quarter; P=0.013), antiplatelet/anticoagulant use (-0.20% per quarter; Pprocesses and outcomes of care over time. However, the reimbursement cuts from the FFS-based global budget cap are associated with trend changes in processes and outcomes of care for stroke. The FFS-based reimbursement cuts may have long-term positive and negative associations with stroke care. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, W.R.; Tullis, J.A.; Smith, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these open-quotes geomorphic hazardsclose quotes include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC

  20. The Melting Point of Palladium Using Miniature Fixed Points of Different Ceramic Materials: Part II—Analysis of Melting Curves and Long-Term Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, F.; Huang, K.

    2016-12-01

    Fifteen miniature fixed-point cells made of three different ceramic crucible materials (Al2O3, ZrO2, and Al2O3(86 %)+ZrO2(14 %)) were filled with pure palladium and used to calibrate type B thermocouples (Pt30 %Rh/Pt6 %Rh). A critical point by using miniature fixed points with small amounts of fixed-point material is the analysis of the melting curves, which are characterized by significant slopes during the melting process compared to flat melting plateaus obtainable using conventional fixed-point cells. The method of the extrapolated starting point temperature using straight line approximation of the melting plateau was applied to analyze the melting curves. This method allowed an unambiguous determination of an electromotive force (emf) assignable as melting temperature. The strict consideration of two constraints resulted in a unique, repeatable and objective method to determine the emf at the melting temperature within an uncertainty of about 0.1 μ V. The lifetime and long-term stability of the miniature fixed points was investigated by performing more than 100 melt/freeze cycles for each crucible of the different ceramic materials. No failure of the crucibles occurred indicating an excellent mechanical stability of the investigated miniature cells. The consequent limitation of heating rates to values below {± }3.5 K min^{-1} above 1100° C and the carefully and completely filled crucibles (the liquid palladium occupies the whole volume of the crucible) are the reasons for successfully preventing the crucibles from breaking. The thermal stability of the melting temperature of palladium was excellent when using the crucibles made of Al2O3(86 %)+ZrO2(14 %) and ZrO2. Emf drifts over the total duration of the long-term investigation were below a temperature equivalent of about 0.1 K-0.2 K.

  1. Ecosystem function in complex mountain terrain: Combining models and long-term observations to advance process-based understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, William R.; Knowles, John F.; Blanken, Peter D.; Swenson, Sean C.; Suding, Katharine N.

    2017-04-01

    Abiotic factors structure plant community composition and ecosystem function across many different spatial scales. Often, such variation is considered at regional or global scales, but here we ask whether ecosystem-scale simulations can be used to better understand landscape-level variation that might be particularly important in complex terrain, such as high-elevation mountains. We performed ecosystem-scale simulations by using the Community Land Model (CLM) version 4.5 to better understand how the increased length of growing seasons may impact carbon, water, and energy fluxes in an alpine tundra landscape. The model was forced with meteorological data and validated with observations from the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research Program site. Our results demonstrate that CLM is capable of reproducing the observed carbon, water, and energy fluxes for discrete vegetation patches across this heterogeneous ecosystem. We subsequently accelerated snowmelt and increased spring and summer air temperatures in order to simulate potential effects of climate change in this region. We found that vegetation communities that were characterized by different snow accumulation dynamics showed divergent biogeochemical responses to a longer growing season. Contrary to expectations, wet meadow ecosystems showed the strongest decreases in plant productivity under extended summer scenarios because of disruptions in hydrologic connectivity. These findings illustrate how Earth system models such as CLM can be used to generate testable hypotheses about the shifting nature of energy, water, and nutrient limitations across space and through time in heterogeneous landscapes; these hypotheses may ultimately guide further experimental work and model development.

  2. A computational simulation of long-term synaptic potentiation inducing protocol processes with model of CA3 hippocampal microcircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świetlik, D; Białowąs, J; Kusiak, A; Cichońska, D

    2018-01-01

    An experimental study of computational model of the CA3 region presents cog-nitive and behavioural functions the hippocampus. The main property of the CA3 region is plastic recurrent connectivity, where the connections allow it to behave as an auto-associative memory. The computer simulations showed that CA3 model performs efficient long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) induction and high rate of sub-millisecond coincidence detection. Average frequency of the CA3 pyramidal cells model was substantially higher in simulations with LTP induction protocol than without the LTP. The entropy of pyramidal cells with LTP seemed to be significantly higher than without LTP induction protocol (p = 0.0001). There was depression of entropy, which was caused by an increase of forgetting coefficient in pyramidal cells simulations without LTP (R = -0.88, p = 0.0008), whereas such correlation did not appear in LTP simulation (p = 0.4458). Our model of CA3 hippocampal formation microcircuit biologically inspired lets you understand neurophysiologic data. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 2: 210-220).

  3. Assessment of long-term effects of radionuclides discharged from a phosphate ore processing plant to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degetti, S.; Mazzoti, D.; Dall'Ara, S.; DeJoanna, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Northern Adriatic Sea was interested by continuous direct discharge of phosphogypsum from a local phosphate fertilizer industry up to 1985 following a productive activity of about twenty years.As it is known, due to the remarkable amounts of natural radioactivity connected with the productive cycle of fertilizers from phosphate ores, the release to the environment of huge amounts of potentially hazardous wastes might be in principle of major radioecological concern.In this respect Ra-226 and its decay products are expected to be the main responsible of radioactivity background enhancement.Taking into account that discharge at sea (depth 30-35 m) was interrupted over ten years ago, following the closing of the plant, the main scope of this investigation was to assess the long-term effect of the disposal of phosphogypsum in the marine environment and in particular the possible enrichment of the radioactive fraction after solubilization of the gypsum carrier. In order to assess the actual radioecological influence of discharged slurries on the marine environment a preliminary sampling was carried out.Radioactivity data obtained from sediment cores clearly indicate anomalies in respect to typical 'background' values obtained from homologous samples collected in an unaffected area in proximity of the disposal site.As an example, Ra-226 activities in sediment were found to be one hundred fold higher than natural background.Radioactivity data from sediments cores collected in sites interested by bottom sea currents coming from discharge area will be also reported and discussed.(authors)

  4. Daily cognitive appraisals, daily affect, and long-term depressive symptoms: the role of self-esteem and self-concept clarity in the stress process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Flynn, Sharon C; Pomaki, Georgia; Delongis, Anita; Biesanz, Jeremy C; Puterman, Eli

    2011-02-01

    The current study investigated how self-esteem and self-concept clarity are implicated in the stress process both in the short and long term. Initial and 2-year follow-up interviews were completed by 178 participants from stepfamily unions. In twice-daily structured diaries over 7 days, participants reported their main family stressor, cognitive appraisals (perceived stressor threat and stressor controllability), and negative affect. Results of multilevel modeling indicated that high self-esteem ameliorated the effect of daily negative cognitive appraisals on daily negative affect. Self-concept clarity also buffered the effect of low self-self-esteem on depressive symptoms 2 years later. Our findings point to the vulnerability of those having low self-esteem or low self-concept clarity in terms of both short- and long-term adaptation to stress. They indicate the need for the consideration of such individual differences in designing stress management interventions.

  5. Summary report of the screening process to determine reasonable alternatives for long-term storage and disposition of weapons-usable fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials (primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium) have become surplus to national defense needs both in the US and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety and health consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. As announced in the Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Department of Energy is currently conducting an evaluation process for disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials determined surplus to National Security needs, and long-term storage of national security and programmatic inventories, and surplus weapons-usable fissile materials that are not able to go directly from interim storage to disposition. An extensive set of long-term storage and disposition options was compiled. Five broad long-term storage options were identified; thirty-seven options were considered for plutonium disposition; nine options were considered for HEU disposition; and eight options were identified for Uranium-233 disposition. Section 2 discusses the criteria used in the screening process. Section 3 describes the options considered, and Section 4 provides a detailed summary discussions of the screening results

  6. Summary report of the screening process to determine reasonable alternatives for long-term storage and disposition of weapons-usable fissile materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-29

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials (primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium) have become surplus to national defense needs both in the US and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety and health consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. As announced in the Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Department of Energy is currently conducting an evaluation process for disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials determined surplus to National Security needs, and long-term storage of national security and programmatic inventories, and surplus weapons-usable fissile materials that are not able to go directly from interim storage to disposition. An extensive set of long-term storage and disposition options was compiled. Five broad long-term storage options were identified; thirty-seven options were considered for plutonium disposition; nine options were considered for HEU disposition; and eight options were identified for Uranium-233 disposition. Section 2 discusses the criteria used in the screening process. Section 3 describes the options considered, and Section 4 provides a detailed summary discussions of the screening results.

  7. The long-term impacts of anthropogenic and natural processes on groundwater deterioration in a multilayered aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhy Narany, Tahoora; Sefie, Anuar; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2018-07-15

    In many regions around the world, there are issues associated with groundwater resources due to human and natural factors. However, the relation between these factors is difficult to determine due to the large number of parameters and complex processes required. In order to understand the relation between land use allocations, the intrinsic factors of the aquifer, climate change data and groundwater chemistry in the multilayered aquifer system in Malaysia's Northern Kelantan Basin, twenty-two years hydrogeochemical data set was used in this research. The groundwater salinisation in the intermediate aquifer, which mainly extends along the coastal line, was revealed through the hydrogeochemical investigation. Even so, there had been no significant trend detected on groundwater salinity from 1989 to 2011. In contrast to salinity, as seen from the nitrate contaminations there had been significantly increasing trends in the shallow aquifer, particularly in the central part of the study area. Additionally, a strong association between high nitrate values and the areas covered with palm oil cultivations and mixed agricultural have been detected by a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), which implies that the increasing nitrate concentrations are associated with nitrate loading from the application of N-fertilisers. From the process of groundwater salinisation in the intermediate aquifer, could be seen that it has a strong correlation the aquifer lithology, specifically marine sediments which are influenced by the ancient seawater trapped within the sediments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A process-based {sup 222}radon flux map for Europe and its comparison to long-term observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karstens, U. [Max-Planck-Instistut fuer Biogeochemie, Jena (Germany); Schwingshackl, C.; Schmithuesen, D.; Levin, I. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik

    2015-07-01

    Detailed {sup 222}radon ({sup 222}Rn) flux maps are an essential pre-requisite for the use of radon in atmospheric transport studies. Here we present a high-resolution {sup 222}Rn flux map for Europe, based on a parameterization of {sup 222}Rn production and transport in the soil. The {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate is parameterized based on soil properties, uranium content, and modelled soil moisture from two different land-surface reanalysis data sets. Spatial variations in exhalation rates are primarily determined by the uranium content of the soil, but also influenced by soil texture and local water-table depth. Temporal variations are related to soil moisture variations as the molecular diffusion in the unsaturated soil zone depends on available air-filled pore space. The implemented diffusion parameterization was tested against campaign-based {sup 222}Rn soil profile measurements. Monthly {sup 222}Rn exhalation rates from European soils were calculated with a nominal spatial resolution of 0.083 x 0.083 and compared to long-term direct measurements of {sup 222}Rn exhalation rates in different areas of Europe. The two realizations of the {sup 222}Rn flux map, based on the different soil moisture data sets, both realistically reproduce the observed seasonality in the fluxes but yield considerable differences for absolute flux values. The mean {sup 222}Rn flux from soils in Europe is estimated to be 10 mBq m{sup -2} s{sup -1} (ERA-Interim/Land soil moisture) or 15 mBq m{sup -2} s{sup -1} (GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) Noah soil moisture) for the period 2006-2010. The corresponding seasonal variations with low fluxes in winter and high fluxes in summer range in the two realizations from ca. 7 to ca. 14 mBq m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and from ca. 11 to ca. 20 mBq m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, respectively. These systematic differences highlight the importance of realistic soil moisture data for a reliable estimation of {sup 222}Rn exhalation rates. Comparison with

  9. A process-based 222radon flux map for Europe and its comparison to long-term observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, U.; Schwingshackl, C.; Schmithüsen, D.; Levin, I.

    2015-11-01

    Detailed 222radon (222Rn) flux maps are an essential pre-requisite for the use of radon in atmospheric transport studies. Here we present a high-resolution 222Rn flux map for Europe, based on a parameterization of 222Rn production and transport in the soil. The 222Rn exhalation rate is parameterized based on soil properties, uranium content, and modelled soil moisture from two different land-surface reanalysis data sets. Spatial variations in exhalation rates are primarily determined by the uranium content of the soil, but also influenced by soil texture and local water-table depth. Temporal variations are related to soil moisture variations as the molecular diffusion in the unsaturated soil zone depends on available air-filled pore space. The implemented diffusion parameterization was tested against campaign-based 222Rn soil profile measurements. Monthly 222Rn exhalation rates from European soils were calculated with a nominal spatial resolution of 0.083° × 0.083° and compared to long-term direct measurements of 222Rn exhalation rates in different areas of Europe. The two realizations of the 222Rn flux map, based on the different soil moisture data sets, both realistically reproduce the observed seasonality in the fluxes but yield considerable differences for absolute flux values. The mean 222Rn flux from soils in Europe is estimated to be 10 mBq m-2 s-1 (ERA-Interim/Land soil moisture) or 15 mBq m-2 s-1 (GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) Noah soil moisture) for the period 2006-2010. The corresponding seasonal variations with low fluxes in winter and high fluxes in summer range in the two realizations from ca. 7 to ca. 14 mBq m-2 s-1 and from ca. 11 to ca. 20 mBq m-2 s-1, respectively. These systematic differences highlight the importance of realistic soil moisture data for a reliable estimation of 222Rn exhalation rates. Comparison with observations suggests that the flux estimates based on the GLDAS Noah soil moisture model on average better

  10. A process-based 222radon flux map for Europe and its comparison to long-term observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karstens, U.; Schwingshackl, C.; Schmithuesen, D.; Levin, I.

    2015-01-01

    Detailed 222 radon ( 222 Rn) flux maps are an essential pre-requisite for the use of radon in atmospheric transport studies. Here we present a high-resolution 222 Rn flux map for Europe, based on a parameterization of 222 Rn production and transport in the soil. The 222 Rn exhalation rate is parameterized based on soil properties, uranium content, and modelled soil moisture from two different land-surface reanalysis data sets. Spatial variations in exhalation rates are primarily determined by the uranium content of the soil, but also influenced by soil texture and local water-table depth. Temporal variations are related to soil moisture variations as the molecular diffusion in the unsaturated soil zone depends on available air-filled pore space. The implemented diffusion parameterization was tested against campaign-based 222 Rn soil profile measurements. Monthly 222 Rn exhalation rates from European soils were calculated with a nominal spatial resolution of 0.083 x 0.083 and compared to long-term direct measurements of 222 Rn exhalation rates in different areas of Europe. The two realizations of the 222 Rn flux map, based on the different soil moisture data sets, both realistically reproduce the observed seasonality in the fluxes but yield considerable differences for absolute flux values. The mean 222 Rn flux from soils in Europe is estimated to be 10 mBq m -2 s -1 (ERA-Interim/Land soil moisture) or 15 mBq m -2 s -1 (GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) Noah soil moisture) for the period 2006-2010. The corresponding seasonal variations with low fluxes in winter and high fluxes in summer range in the two realizations from ca. 7 to ca. 14 mBq m -2 s -1 and from ca. 11 to ca. 20 mBq m -2 s -1 , respectively. These systematic differences highlight the importance of realistic soil moisture data for a reliable estimation of 222 Rn exhalation rates. Comparison with observations suggests that the flux estimates based on the GLDAS Noah soil moisture model on

  11. Long-term effects on biotransformation of labelled choline in different parts of the rat brain induced by single choline injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, A.; Wahlstroem, G.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term effects of single choline (Ch) injections on the uptake and metabolism of a tracer dose of /sup 3/H-Ch were studied in male rats. Choline was administered as a threshold infusion to obtain convulsions 10 and 4 weeks before sacrific (group 1). At a single threshold infusion of choline 4 weeks before sacrifice no convulsions were induced in 50% of the animals in a second group (group 2-) whereas convulsions were induced in the remainder of the animals in this group (group 2+). Group 3 contained control animals. One min. after administration of a tracer dose of /sup 3/H-Ch the animals were sacrificed and examined for /sup 3/H-total activity, /sup 3/H-Ch, /sup 3/H-acetylcholine (/sup 3/H-ACh) and /sup 3/H-phosphorylcholine (/sup 3/-H-PhCh). These activities were determined in three parts of the brain (cortex, striatum, midbrain + medulla oblongata). In the cortex a significant negative correlation between brain weight and /sup 3/H-ACh synthesis was seen in group 1. A comparison between group 2+ and group 2- indicated that induced convulsions were not critical for this effect. In the striatum there was a significant reduction in the total uptake of radioactivity in group 1 and group 2- when values were compared to the control group. Furthermore a significant positive correlation was detected between the concentration of radiolabel and /sup 3/H-ACh synthesis and a negative relationship with the level of /sup 3/H-Ch. In the midbrain preparation the synthesis of /sup 3/H-ACh was reduced in group 1 where a significant negative correlation was found between the average threshold dose of choline and both /sup 3/H-Ach and /sup 3/H-PhCh synthesis. Thus the Ch threshold doses given several weeks before testing seem to have long term effects on the uptake and utilization of a tracer dose of /sup 3/H-Ch in the cortex and striatum.

  12. Long-term patterns of air temperatures, daily temperature range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA Great Plains: Part I. Spatial trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.

    2016-11-01

    Due to their substantial spatio-temporal behavior, long-term quantification and analyses of important hydrological variables are essential for practical applications in water resources planning, evaluating the water use of agricultural crop production and quantifying crop evapotranspiration patterns and irrigation management vs. hydrologic balance relationships. Observed data at over 800 sites across the Great Plains of USA, comprising of 9 states and 2,307,410 km2 of surface area, which is about 30% of the terrestrial area of the USA, were used to quantify and map large-scale and long-term (1968-2013) spatial trends of air temperatures, daily temperature range (DTR), precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) at monthly, growing season and annual time steps. Air temperatures had a strong north to south increasing trend, with annual average varying from -1 to 24 °C, and growing season average temperature varying from 8 to 30 °C. DTR gradually decreased from western to eastern parts of the region, with a regional annual and growing season averages of 14.25 °C and 14.79 °C, respectively. Precipitation had a gradual shift towards higher magnitudes from west to east, with the average annual and growing season (May-September) precipitation ranging from 163 to 1486 mm and from 98 to 746 mm, respectively. ETo had a southwest-northeast decreasing trend, with regional annual and growing season averages of 1297 mm and 823 mm, respectively. AI increased from west to east, indicating higher humidity (less arid) towards the east, with regional annual and growing season averages of 0.49 and 0.44, respectively. The spatial datasets and maps for these important climate variables can serve as valuable background for climate change and hydrologic studies in the Great Plains region. Through identification of priority areas from the developed maps, efforts of the concerned personnel and agencies and resources can be diverted towards development

  13. Mantle wedge structure beneath the Yamato Basin, southern part of the Japan Sea, revealed by long-term seafloor seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, M.; Nakahigashi, K.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamada, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Shiobara, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Japanese Islands are located at subduction zones where Philippine Sea (PHS) plate subducts from the southeast beneath the Eurasian plate and the Pacific plate descends from the east beneath the PHS and Eurasian plates and have a high density of seismic stations. Many seismic tomography studies using land seismic station data were conducted to reveal the seismic structure. These studies discussed the relationship between heterogeneous structures and the release of fluids from the subducting slab, magma generation and movement in the subduction zone. However, regional tomography using the land station data did not have a sufficient resolution to image a deep structure beneath the Japan Sea.To obtain the deep structure, observations of natural earthquakes within the Japan Sea are essential. Therefore, we started the repeating long-term seismic observations using ocean bottom seismometers(OBSs) in the Yamato Basin from 2013 to 2016. We apply travel-time tomography method to the regional earthquake and teleseismic arrival-data recorded by OBSs and land stations. In this presentation, we will report the P and S wave tomographic images down to a depth of 300 km beneath the southern part of the Japan Sea. This study was supported by "Integrated Research Project on Seismic and Tsunami Hazards around the Sea of Japan" conducted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) of Japan.

  14. Returning to work - a long-term process reaching beyond the time frames of multimodal non-specific back pain rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Therese; Jensen, Irene; Bergström, Gunnar; Busch, Hillevi

    2015-01-01

    To explore and describe health professionals' experience of working with return to work (RTW) in multimodal rehabilitation for people with non-specific back pain. An interview study using qualitative content analysis. Fifteen participants were interviewed, all were working with multimodal rehabilitation for people with non-specific back pain in eight different rehabilitation units. The participants experienced RTW as a long-term process reaching beyond the time frames of the multimodal rehabilitation (MMR). Their attitudes and, their patients' condition, impacted on their work which focused on psychological and physical well-being as well as participation in everyday life. They often created an action plan for the RTW process, however the responsibility for its realisation was transferred to other actors. The participants described limited interventions in connection with patients' workplaces. Recommended support in the RTW process in MMR comprises the provision of continuous supervision of vocational issues for the health care professionals, the development of guidelines and a checklist for how to work in close collaboration with patients' workplaces and employers, the provision of long-term follow-up in relation to the patients' work, and the development of proper interventions in order to promote transitions between all the different actors involved. Rehabilitation programs targeting return to work (RTW) for people with non-specific back pain needs to include features concretely focusing on vocational issues. Health and RTW is often seen as a linear process in which health comes before RTW. Rehabilitation programs could be tailored to better address the reciprocal relationship between health and work, in which they are interconnected and affect each other. The RTW process is reaching beyond the time frames of the multimodal rehabilitation but further support from the patients are asked for. The rehabilitation programs needs to be designed to provide long-term

  15. Understanding the relationship between DOC and nitrate export and dominant rainfall-runoff processes through long-term high frequency measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Michael; Klaus, Julian; Pfister, Laurent; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, stream sampling protocols for hydro-geochemical parameters were often limited by logistical and technological constraints. While long-term monitoring protocols were typically based on weekly sampling intervals, high frequency sampling was commonly limited to a few single events. In our study, we combined high frequency and long-term measurements to understand the DOC and nitrate behaviour and dynamics for different runoff events and seasons. Our study area is the forested Weierbach catchment (0.47 km2) in Luxembourg. The fractured schist bedrock is covered by cambisol soils. The runoff response of the catchment is characterized by a double peak behaviour. A first discharge peak occurs during or right after a rainfall event (triggered by fast near surface runoff generation processes), while a second delayed peak lasts several days (generated by subsurface flow/ shallow groundwater flow). Peaks in DOC concentrations are closely linked to the first discharge peak, whereas nitrate concentrations follow the second peak. Our observations were carried out with the field deployable instrument spectro::lyser (scan Messtechnik GmbH). This instrument relies on the principles of UV-Vis spectrometry and measures DOC and nitrate concentrations. The measurements were carried out at a high frequency of 15 minutes in situ in the Weierbach creek for more than two years. In addition, a long-term validation was carried out with data obtained from the analysis of water collected with automatic samplers. The long-term, high-frequency measurements allowed us to calculate a complete and detailed balance of DOC and nitrate export over two years. Transport behaviour of the DOC and nitrate showed different dynamics between the first and second hydrograph peaks. DOC is mainly exported during first peaks, while nitrate is mostly exported during the delayed second peaks. In combination with other measurements in the catchment, the long and detailed observations have

  16. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  17. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  18. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables.

  19. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables

  20. Dynamics of volume of competition practice and facilities of training of jumpers in length and triple in the process of long-term preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovenko S.P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysed and systematized information in relation to the volume of competition practice and facilities of different primary orientation of jumpers in length and triple in the process of long-term preparation. The expert questioning is conducted 16 trainers. The documents of planning of training process are analysed, the analysis of diaries of sportsmen is carried out (n=22. The volume of competition practice of sportsmen and facilities of training of different primary orientation is certain. The results of analysis in relation to the construction of training process are reflected by the leading trainers of Ukraine on track-and-field. An approach classification of facilities of training taking into account the specific of training process of sportsmen is presented. It is set that the volume of facilities of general preparation is most on the initial stages of long-term perfection, then stabilized on the stages specialized base and preparations to higher achievements and a few diminishes on maximal implementation of individual possibilities and maintainance of higher sporting trade phases. It is related to diminishing of duration of the general preparatory stages of annual preparation.

  1. Modelling of the long-term fate of pesticide residues in agricultural soils and their surface exchange with the atmosphere: Part II. Projected long-term fate of pesticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, M T; Bidleman, T F

    2007-05-01

    In the first part of this paper, a simple coupled dynamic soil-atmosphere model for studying the gaseous exchange of pesticide soil residues with the atmosphere is described and evaluated by comparing model results with published measurements of pesticide concentrations in air and soil. In Part II, the model is used to study the concentration profiles of pesticide residues in both undisturbed and annually tilled agricultural soils. Future trends are estimated for the measured air and soil concentrations of lindane and six highly persistent pesticides (toxaphene, p,p'-DDE, dieldrin, cis- and trans-chlordane and trans-nonachlor) over a twenty-year period due to volatilization and leaching into the deeper soil. Wet deposition and particle associated pesticide deposition (that increase soil residue concentrations) and soil erosion, degradation in the soil (other than for lindane) and run-off in precipitation are not considered in this study. Estimates of the rain deposition fluxes are reported that show that, other than for lindane, net volatilization fluxes greatly exceed rain deposition fluxes. The model shows that the persistent pesticides studied are highly immobile in soil and that loss of these highly persistent residues from the soil is by volatilization rather than leaching into the deeper soil. The soil residue levels of these six pesticides are currently sources of net volatilization to the atmosphere and will remain so for many years. The maximum rate of volatilization from the soil was simulated by setting the atmospheric background concentration to zero; these simulations show that the rates of volatilization will not be significantly increased since soil resistance rather than the atmospheric concentration controls the volatilization rates. Annual tilling of the soils increases the volatilization loss to the atmosphere. Nonetheless, the model predicts that, if only air-soil exchange is considered, more than 76% of current persistent pesticide residues

  2. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 2--long-term health effects among participants of U.S. military chemical warfare agent testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns about how their participation affected their health. A companion article describes the history of these experiments, and how the lack of clinical data hampers evaluation of long-term health consequences. Conversely, much information is available about specific agents tested and their long-term health effects in other populations, which may be invaluable for helping clinicians respond effectively to the health care and other needs of affected veterans. The following review describes tested agents and their known long-term health consequences. Although hundreds of chemicals were tested, they fall into only about a half-dozen pharmaceutical classes, including common pharmaceuticals; anticholinesterase agents including military nerve agents and pesticides; anticholinergic glycolic acid esters such as atropine; acetylcholine reactivators such as 2-PAM; psychoactive compounds including cannabinoids, phencyclidine, and LSD; and irritants including tear gas and riot control agents.

  3. Geologic factors in the isolation of nuclear waste: evaluation of long-term geomorphic processes and events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mara, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    In this report the rate, duration, and magnitude of changes from geomorphic processes and events in the Southwest and the Gulf Coast over the next million years are projected. The projections were made by reviewing the pertinent literature; evaluating the geomorphic history of each region, especially that during the Quaternary Period; identifying the geomorphic processes and events likely to be significant in the two regions of interest; and estimating the average and worst-case conditions expected over the next million years

  4. Recharge processes and vertical transfer investigated through long-term monitoring of dissolved gases in shallow groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montety, V.; Aquilina, L.; Labasque, T.; Chatton, E.; Fovet, O.; Ruiz, L.; Fourré, E.; de Dreuzy, J. R.

    2018-05-01

    We investigated temporal variations and vertical evolution of dissolved gaseous tracers (CFC-11, CFC-12, SF6, and noble gases), as well as 3H/3He ratio to determine groundwater recharge processes of a shallow unconfined, hard-rock aquifer in an agricultural catchment. We sampled dissolved gas concentration at 4 locations along the hillslope of a small experimental watershed, over 6 hydrological years, between 2 and 6 times per years, for a total of 20 field campaigns. We collected groundwater samples in the fluctuation zone and the permanently saturated zone using piezometers from 5 to 20 m deep. The purpose of this work is i) to assess the benefits of using gaseous tracers like CFCs and SF6 to study very young groundwater with flows suspected to be heterogeneous and variable in time, ii) to characterize the processes that control dissolved gas concentrations in groundwater during the recharge of the aquifer, and iii) to understand the evolution of recharge flow processes by repeated measurement campaigns, taking advantage of a long monitoring in a site devoted to recharge processes investigation. Gas tracer profiles are compared at different location of the catchment and for different hydrologic conditions. In addition, we compare results from CFCs and 3H/3He analysis to define the flow model that best explains tracer concentrations. Then we discuss the influence of recharge events on tracer concentrations and residence time and propose a temporal evolution of residence times for the unsaturated zone and the permanently saturated zone. These results are used to gain a better understanding of the conceptual model of the catchment and flow processes especially during recharge events.

  5. Introduction: Long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.

    2003-01-01

    Making a decision upon the right choice of a material appropriate to a given application should be based on taking into account several parameters as follows: cost, standards, regulations, safety, recycling, chemical properties, supplying, transformation, forming, assembly, mechanical and physical properties as well as the behaviour in practical conditions. Data taken from a private communication (J.H.Davidson) are reproduced presenting the life time range of materials from a couple of minutes to half a million hours corresponding to applications from missile technology up to high-temperature nuclear reactors or steam turbines. In the case of deep storage of nuclear waste the time required is completely different from these values since we have to ensure the integrity of the storage system for several thousand years. The vitrified nuclear wastes should be stored in metallic canisters made of iron and carbon steels, stainless steels, copper and copper alloys, nickel alloys or titanium alloys. Some of these materials are passivating metals, i.e. they develop a thin protective film, 2 or 3 nm thick - the so-called passive films. These films prevent general corrosion of the metal in a large range of chemical condition of the environment. In some specific condition, localized corrosion such as the phenomenon of pitting, occurs. Consequently, it is absolutely necessary to determine these chemical condition and their stability in time to understand the behavior of a given material. In other words the corrosion system is constituted by the complex material/surface/medium. For high level nuclear wastes the main features for resolving problem are concerned with: geological disposal; deep storage in clay; waste metallic canister; backfill mixture (clay-gypsum) or concrete; long term behavior; data needed for modelling and for predicting; choice of appropriate solution among several metallic candidates. The analysis of the complex material/surface/medium is of great importance

  6. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  7. Influence of caseload and surgical speciality on outcome following surgery for colorectal cancer: a review of evidence. Part 2: long-term outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lene H.; Harling, H; Laurberg, S

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We reviewed recent literature to assess the impact of hospital caseload, surgeon's caseload and education on long-term outcome following colorectal cancer surgery. METHOD: We searched the MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases for relevant literature starting from 1992. We selected...

  8. Short- and long-term efficacy of intra-articular injections with betamethasone as part of a treat-to-target strategy in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete Lund; Østergaard, Mikkel; Ejbjerg, Bo

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the short-term and long-term efficacy of intra-articular betamethasone injections, and the impact of joint area, repeated injections, MRI pathology, anticyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) and immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) status in patients with early rheumatoid arthr...

  9. Development and beyond: Strategy for long-term maintenance of an online laser diffraction particle size method in a spray drying manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medendorp, Joseph; Bric, John; Connelly, Greg; Tolton, Kelly; Warman, Martin

    2015-08-10

    The purpose of this manuscript is to present the intended use and long-term maintenance strategy of an online laser diffraction particle size method used for process control in a spray drying process. A Malvern Insitec was used for online particle size measurements and a Malvern Mastersizer was used for offline particle size measurements. The two methods were developed in parallel with the Mastersizer serving as the reference method. Despite extensive method development across a range of particle sizes, the two instruments demonstrated different sensitivities to material and process changes over the product lifecycle. This paper will describe the procedure used to ensure consistent alignment of the two methods, thus allowing for continued use of online real-time laser diffraction as a surrogate for the offline system over the product lifecycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Critical Choice of PEDOT: PSS Additives for Long Term Stability of Roll‐to‐Roll Processed OPVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Bérenger; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Corazza, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The impact of additives mixed with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on the stability of organic photovoltaic modules is investigated for fully ambient roll-to-roll (R2R) processed indium tin oxide free modules. Four different PEDOT:PSS inks from two different...... on organic photovoltaic stability (ISOS). For the harsh indoor test (ISOS-L-3) only a slight difference in stability is observed between the different modules. During both ISOS-L-3 and ISOS-D-3 one new failure mode is observed as a result of tiny air inclusions in the barrier foil and a R2R method...

  11. Long Term Processing Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis plus Hydroconversion (IH2) for the Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, Terry [Gas Technology Institute; Roberts, Michael [Gas Technology Institute; Linck, Martin [Gas Technology Institute; Felix, Larry [Gas Technology Institute; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro [Gas Technology Institute; Wangerow, Jim [Gas Technology Institute; McLeod, Celeste [CRI Catalyst; Del Paggio, Alan [CRI Catalyst; Gephart, John [Johnson Timber; Starr, Jack [Cargill; Hahn, John [Cargill

    2013-06-09

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of a new, economical, technology named integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The life cycle analysis (LCA) shows that the use of the IH2 process to convert wood to gasoline and diesel results in a greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emission compared to that found with fossil derived fuels. The technoeconomic analysis showed the conversion of wood using the IH2 process can produce gasoline and diesel at less than $2.00/gallon. In this project, the previously reported semi-continuous small scale IH2 test results were confirmed in a continuous 50 kg/day pilot plant. The continuous IH2 pilot plant used in this project was operated round the clock for over 750 hours and showed good pilot plant operability while consistently producing 26-28 wt % yields of high quality gasoline and diesel product. The IH2 catalyst showed good stability, although more work on catalyst stability is recommended. Additional work is needed to commercialize the IH2 technology including running large particle size biomass, modeling the hydropyrolysis step, studying the effects of process variables and building and operating a 1-50 ton/day demonstration scale plant. The IH2 is a true game changing technology by utilizing U.S. domestic renewable biomass resources to create transportation fuels, sufficient in quantity and quality to substantially reduce our reliance on foreign crude oil. Thus, the IH2 technology offers a path to genuine energy independence for the U. S., along with the creation of a significant number of new U.S. jobs to plant, grow, harvest, and process biomass crops into fungible

  12. Successful long-term maintenance following Nutrition Care Process Terminology implementation across a state-wide health-care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Angela; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Porter, Jane; Hogg, Marion

    2017-09-01

    Three years following a state-wide Nutrition Care Process Terminology (NCPT) implementation project, the present study aimed to (i) assess changes in NCPT knowledge and attitudes, (ii) identify implementation barriers and enablers and (iii) seek managers' opinions post-implementation. Pre-implementation and three years post-implementation, all Queensland Government hospitals state-wide were invited to repeat a validated NCPT survey. Additionally, a separate survey sought dietetic managers' opinions regarding NCPT's use and acceptance, usefulness for patient care, role in service planning and continued use. A total of 238 dietitians completed the survey in 2011 and 82 dietitians in 2014. Use of diagnostic statement in the previous six months improved (P  0.05). Key elements in sustaining NCPT implementation over three years included ongoing management support, workshops/tutorials, discussion and mentor and peer support. The most valued resources were pocket guides, ongoing workshops/tutorials and mentor support. Dietetic managers held many positive NCPT views, however, opinions differed around the usefulness of service planning, safer practice, improving patient care and facilitating communication. Some managers would not support NCPT unless it was recommended for practice. Immediate improvements following the NCPT implementation project were sustained over three years. Moving forward, a professional focus on continuing to incorporate NCPT into standard practice will provide structure for process and outcomes assessment. © 2017 State of Queensland. Nutrition and Dietetics © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  13. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  14. Long-term biodosimetry Redux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits and reiterates the needs, purposes and requirements of bio-dosimetric assays for long-term dose and health risk assessments. While the most crucial need for bio-dosimetric assays is to guide medical response for radiation accidents, the value of such techniques for improving our understanding of radiation health risk by supporting epidemiological (long-term health risk) studies is significant. As new cohorts of exposed persons are identified and new health risk studies are undertaken with the hopes that studying the exposed will result in a deeper understanding of radiation risk, the value of reliable dose reconstruction is underscored. The ultimate application of biodosimetry in long-term health risk studies would be to completely replace model-based dose reconstruction-a complex suite of methods for retrospectively estimating dose that is commonly fraught with large uncertainties due to the absence of important exposure-related information, as well as imperfect models. While biodosimetry could potentially supplant model-based doses, there are numerous limitations of presently available techniques that constrain their widespread application in health risk research, including limited ability to assess doses received far in the past, high cost, great inter-individual variability, invasiveness, higher than preferred detection limits and the inability to assess internal dose (for the most part). These limitations prevent the extensive application of biodosimetry to large cohorts and should be considered a challenge to researchers to develop new and more flexible techniques that meet the demands of long-term health risk research. Events in recent years, e.g. the Fukushima reactor accident and the increased threat of nuclear terrorism, underscore that any event that results in significant radiation exposures of a group of people will also produce a much larger population, exposed at lower levels, but that likewise needs (or demands) an exposure

  15. Evaluating long term forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lady, George M. [Department of Economics, College of Liberal Arts, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), and its predecessor organizations, has published projections of U.S. energy production, consumption, distribution and prices annually for over 30 years. A natural issue to raise in evaluating the projections is an assessment of their accuracy compared to eventual outcomes. A related issue is the determination of the sources of 'error' in the projections that are due to differences between the actual versus realized values of the associated assumptions. One way to do this would be to run the computer-based model from which the projections are derived at the time the projected values are realized, using actual rather than assumed values for model assumptions; and, compare these results to the original projections. For long term forecasts, this approach would require that the model's software and hardware configuration be archived and available for many years, possibly decades, into the future. Such archival creates many practical problems; and, in general, it is not being done. This paper reports on an alternative approach for evaluating the projections. In the alternative approach, the model is run many times for cases in which important assumptions are changed individually and in combinations. A database is assembled from the solutions and a regression analysis is conducted for each important projected variable with the associated assumptions chosen as exogenous variables. When actual data are eventually available, the regression results are then used to estimate the sources of the differences in the projections of the endogenous variables compared to their eventual outcomes. The results presented here are for residential and commercial sector natural gas and electricity consumption. (author)

  16. Experimentation of a LiBr–H2O absorption process for long-term solar thermal storage: Prototype design and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'Tsoukpoe, K.E.; Le Pierrès, N.; Luo, L.

    2013-01-01

    The long-term thermal storage by absorption process studied in this paper is devoted to building heating. A demonstrative prototype that can store 8 kWh of heat and produce a heating power of 1 kW has been designed and built. It has been tested in static and dynamic operating conditions, which are compatible with domestic solar thermal and heating plants. The process operating principle, the prototype design and first experimental results are presented and discussed in this contribution. The charging process has been proved successful. The observed power during the charging phases is satisfactory, according to the process design for a real plant (2–5 kW). Absorption during discharging phase is also verified. Discharging tests show that absorption operates in conditions that could allow house heating as the absorber outlet solution temperature can reach 40 °C. However, some problems related to the absorber design have not allowed observing the heat recovery by the heat transfer fluid as expected. Some avenues are explored prior to a new and more appropriate design and eventually a new operating mode. Various aspects such as the use of a heat and mass transfer enhancement additive and stratification in the solution storage tank have also been addressed. - Highlights: ► A long-term thermal storage prototype is tested under practical conditions. ► For the prototype design, a separate reactor is used with integrated components. ► The observed powers during the charging phases are satisfactory (2–5 kW). ► Following crystallisation phases, discharging tests enabled the crystal dissolution. ► Absorber temperature that could allow house heating (up to 40°C) has been observed

  17. Essays on long-term mortality and interest rate risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kort, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation comprises a study of long-term risks which play a major role in actuarial science. In Part I we analyse long-term mortality risk and its impact on consumption and investment decisions of economic agents, while Part II focuses on the mathematical modelling of long-term interest

  18. Long term developments in irradiated natural uranium processing costs. Optimal size and siting of plants; Perspectives a long terme des couts de traitement de l'uranium naturel irradie. Tailles et localisations optimales des usines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Oger, C; Vaumas, P de [Saint-Gobain Nucleaire, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    1964-07-01

    processing plants are shown, different from those in part two. The indirect effect of these reprocessing programmes on the availability of plutonium, and therefore on the possibility.of undertaking plutonium burning reactor programmes, must be taken into account. (authors) [French] L'objet de cette communication est d'apporter une contribution a la solution du probleme du choix des tailles et des localisations optimales des usines de traitement des combustibles nucleaires irradies, associees a des programmes de puissance electrique installee. Dans une premiere partie, on etudie la structure des couts d'investissements et d'exploitation des usines de traitement de l'uranium naturel irradie, l'influence de la taille des usines sur ces couts et ces structures de couts. Au cout de traitement de l'uranium naturel irradie s'ajoute d'autre part le cout du transport des combustibles irradies des lieux de production aux sites des usines de traitement. La recherche du cout minimum pour la production d'un pays ou d'un ensemble de pays fait donc intervenir a la fois la taille et la localisation des usines. On indique les couts de transport previsibles pour l'uranium naturel irradie et la structure de ces couts (transport, assurance, couts et amortissement des containers). Dans une deuxieme partie, et pour differents echeanciers de combustibles irradies a traiter chaque annee, on determine les tailles et les localisations optimales des usines de traitement et la sensibilite de ces resultats, aux hypotheses de base concernant le cout du traitement, le cout du transport, l'annee de demarrage du programme d'usines, l'horizon choisi. - le probleme de nature combinatoire, assez complexe, est resolu par l'application des methodes de la programmation dynamique. - on montre que les methodes sont egalement applicables au probleme du choix des tailles et des localisations optimales des usines de traitement des elements du type MTR, associees aux programmes de reacteurs de recherche ainsi qu

  19. Examining the need assessment process by identifying the need profiles of elderly care recipients in the Ten-year Long-Term Care Project (TLTCP) of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Fan; Yao, Hui-Ping

    2014-12-01

    To deal with the increasing long-term care (LTC) needs of elderly people in Taiwan, the government launched the Ten-year Long-term Care Project (TLTCP) in 2007, and through the care management system, care plans for those in need were distributed and implemented by care managers according to the single assessment process. Based on the emphasis of linking the right need assessment to the care plan, this study aimed to explore the need profiles of LTC recipients with regard to their health indicators to serve as a validity check on the identified dependency levels and care plans in the current care management system. A model based on latent class analysis (LCA) was used for dealing with the issue of health heterogeneity. LCA provides an empirical method that examines the interrelationships among health indicators and characterizes the underlying set of mutually exclusive latent classes that account for the observed indicators. The analysis included a total of 2901 elderly care recipients in the LTC dataset from a southern city, 1 of the 5 major metropolitan areas in Taiwan. The identified dependency levels of the samples and their care plans in need assessment were compared and discussed. Four need profiles were explored in the LTC dataset. Apart from the low (LD) (32.95%) and moderate dependent groups (MD) (17.48%), there were 2 groups identified among the high-dependency levels, including the severe physical and psychological dependency (SPP) (26.37%) and the comorbidities and severe dependency (CSD) groups (23.20%), which in sum were approximately identified as high dependency (HD) by care managers in the LTC dataset. In addition, the CSD group currently costs more for their care plans on average in LTC services (NT. 277,081.15, approximately 9200 USD) than the SPP group (NT. 244,084.21) and the other groups. Need assessment is a key to success in care management in LTC. The results of this study showed the importance of focusing on multifacet indicators

  20. Part 3. Assessment of adaptation reactions in the participants of the long-term medical & ecological investigations during the experiment Mars-500

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman M. Baevsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the long-term medical & ecological investigations conducted during the experiment Mars-500. Methodology of conducting the long-term medical & ecological investigations and the applied methods are considered. The results are presented in the materials of the research conducted in Russian Federation and Republic of Belarus (Moscow, Syktyvkar, Yekaterinburg, Izhevsk, Magadan and Minsk. For comparative evaluation of the functional state of different reference groups the notion of “ecological stress” was introduced. It depends upon the degree of dominance of the activity of the sympathetic member of the regulatory system over the parasympathetic member. Application of probabilistic approach to the assessment of the functional state and adaptation level with the FR (functional reserve and the DT (the degree of tension of the regulatory mechanisms proved the detected peculiarities of the heart rhythm vegetative regulation. Clear dependency of the functional state of the volunteers on geographic location of regions and climatic parameters is observed. Almost every HRV indicator is characterized by seasonal dynamics. Seasonal dynamics data is exemplified by the research conducted in Yekaterinburg and Syktyvkar. During the earth-bound experiment Mars-500 flight conditions to Mars were simulated. Results of the long-term medical & ecological investigations conducted simultaneously with the experiment Mars-500 showed that health changes in practically healthy people do not usually exceed the limits of the prenosological state.

  1. Trinity of Quality Improvement : Studies on structure, process and outcome related to quality improvement in long-term care in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.M. Winters-van der Meer (Sjenny)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis discusses quality improvement in long-term care organisations in the Netherlands. It explores the influencing factors on quality improvement and aims at identifying opportunities for long-term care organisations to ‘improve their improvement’. This

  2. Long-term governance for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, M.

    2007-01-01

    Meritxell Martell spoke of the long-term aspects of radioactive waste management. She pointed out that decision-making processes need to be framed within the context of sustainability, which means that a balance should be sought between scientific considerations, economic aspects and structural conditions. Focusing on structural aspects, Working Group 3 of COWAM-Spain came to the conclusion that the activity of the regulator is a key factor of long-term management. Another finding is that from a sustainability perspective multi-level governance is more effective for coping with the challenges of radioactive waste management than one tier of government-making decisions. The working group also felt that the current Local Information Committees need to evolve towards more institutionalized and legitimized mechanisms for long-term involvement. Ms. Martell introduced a study comparing the efficiency of economic instruments to advance sustainable development in nuclear communities vs. municipalities in mining areas. The study found that funds transferred to nuclear zones had become a means to facilitate local acceptance of nuclear facilities rather than a means to promote socio-economic development. Another finding is that economic instruments are not sufficient guarantees of sustainable development by themselves; additional preconditions include leadership, vision and entrepreneur-ship on the part of community leaders, private or public investments, among others. Finally, Ms. Martell summarised the challenges faced by the Spanish radioactive waste management programme, which include the need for strategic thinking, designing the future in a participatory fashion, and working with local and regional governments and citizens to devise mechanisms for social learning, economic development and environmental protection. (author)

  3. A national strategy for a long-term monitoring of permafrost and periglacial processes and their relationship to natural hazard prevention in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Bartsch, Annett; Gitschthaler, Christoph; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Weyss, Gernot; Riedl, Claudia; Avian, Michael

    2016-04-01

    About 2.5% (~2000 km²) of the national territory of Austria is influenced by permafrost conditions. A slightly smaller area of Austria is additionally affected by deep seasonal frost which is, however, similarly exposed to intensive physical weathering and related geomorphic processes. Currently, 23 skiing resorts, 31 water reservoirs and 42 mountain huts are either directly or indirectly influenced by permafrost and associated processes in Austria as determined from regional permafrost models. Ground thermal changes most likely affect the ground stability and infrastructure in those areas. Therefore, changes in the distribution and characteristics of permafrost and seasonal frost are of high economic and ecological importance. A range of Austrian institutions are interested in systematic permafrost monitoring (several universities, geological surveys, the Austrian torrent and avalanche control agency or several different alpine clubs). However, to date no coordinated monitoring network has been established on a national scale and a strategy for long-term permafrost/periglacial observation did not exist so far. Such a national strategy has been developed in 2015 within the permAT project funded through the StartClim2014-program. During permAT an extensive literature review and data search as well as a workshop with 40 participants (scientists, stakeholder and policy maker) were accomplished. The workshop allowed the integration of national as well as international colleagues into the strategy development. Results of permAT clearly demonstrate that the number of present permafrost/periglacial monitoring sites is far too little in Austria. Only few alpine areas of Austria are well represented by the existing monitoring activities but large areas lack such instrumentations. Furthermore, permafrost boreholes exist at only three sites in central Austria (all contribution to the GTN-P network) and there is a lack of knowledge about thermal conditions and recent changes

  4. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...

  5. Long-term dynamic and pseudo-state modeling of complete partial nitrification process at high nitrogen loading rates in a sequential batch reactor (SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Moomen; Eldyasti, Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Recently, partial nitrification has been adopted widely either for the nitrite shunt process or intermediate nitrite generation step for the Anammox process. However, partial nitrification has been hindered by the complexity of maintaining stable nitrite accumulation at high nitrogen loading rates (NLR) which affect the feasibility of the process for high nitrogen content wastewater. Thus, the operational data of a lab scale SBR performing complete partial nitrification as a first step of nitrite shunt process at NLRs of 0.3-1.2kg/(m 3 d) have been used to calibrate and validate a process model developed using BioWin® in order to describe the long-term dynamic behavior of the SBR. Moreover, an identifiability analysis step has been introduced to the calibration protocol to eliminate the needs of the respirometric analysis for SBR models. The calibrated model was able to predict accurately the daily effluent ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, alkalinity concentrations and pH during all different operational conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long Term Financing of Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Sidharth

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure projects, given their long life, require long term financing. The main sources of long term financings are insurance and pension funds who seek long term investments with low credit risk. However, in India household financial savings are mainly invested in bank deposits. Insurance and pension funds account for only a small percentage of household financial savings. In addition most infrastructure projects do not qualify for investment by insurance and pension funds because of t...

  7. The use of data for process and quality improvement in long term care and home care: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Anne E; Bostrom, Anne-Marie; Bucknall, Tracey; Draper, Kellie; Fraser, Kimberly; Schalm, Corinne; Warren, Sharon

    2012-02-01

    Standardized resident or client assessments, including the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI), have been available in long term care and home care settings (continuing care sector) in many jurisdictions for a number of years. Although using these data can make quality improvement activities more efficient and less costly, there has not been a review of the literature reporting quality improvement interventions using standardized data. To address 2 questions: (1) How have RAI and other standardized data been used in process or quality improvement activities in the continuing care sector? and (2) Has the use of RAI and similar data resulted in improvements to resident or other outcomes? Searches using a combination of keyword and controlled vocabulary term searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and PsychINFO. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: English language publications from database inception to October 2008 were included. Eligibility criteria included the following: (1) set in continuing care (long-term care facility or home care), (2) involved some form of intervention designed to improve quality or process of care, and (3) used standardized data in the quality or process improvement intervention. After reviewing the articles, we grouped the studies according to the type of intervention used to initiate process improvement. Four different intervention types were identified. We organized the results and discussion by these 4 intervention types. Key word searches identified 713 articles, of which we excluded 639 on abstract review because they did not meet inclusion criteria. A further 50 articles were excluded on full-text review, leaving a total of 24 articles. Of the 24 studies, 10 used a defined process improvement model, 8 used a combination of interventions (multimodal), 5 implemented new guidelines or protocols, and 1 used an education

  8. Firewood harvest from forests of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Part 1: Long-term, sustainable supply available from native forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, P.W.; Cawsey, E.M.; Stol, J.; Freudenberger, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin is a 1 million km 2 agricultural region of south-eastern Australia, although 29% of it retains native forests. Some are mallee eucalypt types, whilst the 'principal' types are dominated mainly by other eucalypt species. One-third of the 6-7 million oven-dry tonne of firewood burnt annually in Australia is obtained from these forests, principally through collection of coarse woody debris. There are fears that removal of this debris may prejudice the floral and faunal biodiversity of the Basin. The present work considers what silvicultural management practices will allow the long-term maintenance of the native forests of the Basin and their continued contribution to its biodiversity. It then estimates that the maximum, long-term, annual, sustainable yield of firewood which could be harvested, by collection of coarse woody debris, from principal forest types of the Basin would be 10 million oven-dry tonne yr -1 . An alternative, harvest of firewood from live trees by thinning the principal forests and clear-felling mallee forests, would be able to supply 2.3 million tonne yr -1 sustainably. Whilst coarse woody debris harvests could supply far more than the present demand for firewood from the Basin, they would lead to substantial reductions of the debris remaining in the forests; this may be detrimental to biodiversity maintenance. Live tree harvest does not lead to this problem, but would barely be able to supply existing firewood demand

  9. Long-term leaching behavior of simulated Savannah River Plant waste glass: Part 1, MCC-1 leachability results, four-year leaching data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Stone, J.A.; Chandler, G.T.; Williams, S.

    1986-08-01

    Long-term leaching data were obtained on SRP 131/TDS waste glass using MCC-1 or slightly modified MCC-1 standard leaching tests. Experiments were conducted out to four years at 40 0 C and 3-1/2 years at 90 0 C. These experiments have produced the longest standardized leaching data currently available in the waste management community. Long-term leaching data provide important input to modeling of waste glass behavior and ultimate prediction of waste glass performance. In this study, the leaching behavior of SRP waste glass was found to be excellent; leachates based on a variety of elements were not only very low, but also improved with increasing time. In addition to these data, results are also reported from another independent Savannah River study. Leaching behavior at 40 0 C and 90 0 C was assessed not only for a similar SRP 131 waste glass composition, but also for extreme waste glass compositions involving high-iron and high-aluminum waste. In addition, these experiments were performed using not only a standard deionized water leachant, but also simplified brine and silicate groundwater simulations. These two large data bases will be summarized and correlated along with some of the more interesting results recently reported in another study, a two-year leaching program performed on a similar SRP waste glass composition at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories

  10. Long term radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, I.

    2001-01-01

    A major issue to secure the development of nuclear energy in future is the radioactive waste minimization, both inside the fuel cycle and in a deep geological storage. The aim of this paper is to establish the physical principles which provide an inherent minimization of the radioactive wastes. A new concept is introduced to characterize the radiotoxicity associated to various nuclei families in equilibrium state. The analysis shows the potential of evolutionary nuclear systems, mostly based on known technologies and the potential of more futuristic systems, like accelerator-driven systems and Th-fuel cycle. Several groups of the toxicity sources are object of the studies: Actinides as a part of the nuclear fuel which is remaining unusable after irradiation in nuclear power plants; long-lived fission products as the inevitable result of nuclear energy production; Lanthanides as an important part of fission products which separation from Actinides is technologically difficult because of similar chemical properties

  11. Financial Incentives in Long-Term Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L.H. Bakx (Pieter)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Long-term care (ltc) aims to help individuals to cope with their impairments. In my thesis, I describe ltc financing alternatives and their consequences for the allocation of ltc. This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part, I investigate how alternative ways

  12. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  13. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt. Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 1: Overall trends and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W. Y.; Lin, W. L.; Xu, X. B.; Tang, J.; Huang, J. Q.; Wu, H.; Zhang, X. C.

    2015-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and atmospheric pollutant at the same time. The level of tropospheric ozone, particularly in the surface layer, is impacted by emissions of precursors and is subjected to meteorological conditions. Due its importance, the long-term variation trend of baseline ozone is highly needed for environmental and climate change assessment. So far, studies about the long-term trends of ozone at representative sites are mainly available for European and North American sites. Similar studies are lacking for China, a country with rapid economic growth for recent decades, and many other developing countries. To uncover the long-term characteristics and trends of baseline surface ozone, concentration in western China, measurements at a global baseline Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Mt. Waliguan) for the period of 1994 to 2013 were analysed in this study, using a modified Mann-Kendall test and the Hilbert-Huang Transform analysis for the trend and periodicity analysis, respectively. Results reveal higher surface ozone during the night and lower during the day at Waliguan, due to mountain-valley breezes. A seasonal maximum in summer was found, which was probably caused by enhanced stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange events and/or by tropospheric photochemistry. Analysis suggests that there is a season-diurnal cycle in the three-dimensional winds on top of Mt. Waliguan. Season-dependent daytime and nighttime ranges of 6 h were determined based on the season-diurnal cycle in the three-dimensional winds and were used to sort subsets of ozone data for trend analysis. Significant increasing trends in surface ozone were detected for both daytime (1.5-2.7 ppbv 10 a-1) and nighttime (1.3-2.9 ppbv 10 a-1). Autumn and spring revealed the largest increase rates, while summer and winter showed relatively weaker increases. The HHT spectral analysis confirmed the increasing

  14. Long-term usability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, M.

    1998-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of the usability of a computer based system for process control has been performed. The whole life-cycle of one system has been of interest, as the problems are varying over time. Repeated measurements of the operators' experiences of this system have been made during 15 years. Of main interest have been the advantages/ disadvantages of computer based system for process control compared with conventional instrumentation. The results showed among other things that (1) computer based systems made it easier to control the process and increased security (2) age differences could be explained by other factors (3 ) expectations before the installation may influence the attitudes and use of equipment for quite some time In some questions the attitudes changed over time while in others they were quite stable, for example, in questions concerning preference for type of equipment. What do operators appreciate in a computer based system for process control? About 300 operators were asked about that. The main factor seems to include a reliable system with valid information that functions during disturbances. Hopefully new systems are designed with that in mind. (author)

  15. Freeze drying optimization of polymeric nanoparticles for ocular flurbiprofen delivery: effect of protectant agents and critical process parameters on long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Yacasi, Gladys Rosario; Calpena Campmany, Ana Cristina; Egea Gras, María Antonia; Espina García, Marta; García López, María Luisa

    2017-04-01

    The stabilization of flurbiprofen loaded poly-ɛ-caprolactone nanoparticles (FB-PɛCL-NPs) for ocular delivery under accurate freeze-drying (FD) process provides the basis for a large-scale production and its commercial development. Optimization of the FD to improve long-term stability of ocular administration's FB-PɛCL-NPs. FB-PɛCL-NPs were prepared by solvent displacement method with poloxamer 188 (P188) as stabilizer. Freezing and primary drying (PD) were studied and optimized through freeze-thawing test and FD microscopy. Design of experiments was used to accurate secondary drying (SD) conditions and components concentration. Formulations were selected according to desired physicochemical properties. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study interactions components. Optimized FB-PɛCL-NPs, stabilized with 3.5% (w/w) P188 and protected with 8% (w/w) poly(ethylene glycol), was submitted to precooling at +10 °C for 1 h, freezing at -50 °C for 4 h, PD at +5 °C and 0.140 mbar for 24 h and a SD at +45 °C during 10 h. These conditions showed 188.4 ± 1.3 nm, 0.087 ± 0.014, 85.5 ± 1.4%, 0.61 ± 0.12%, -16.4 ± 0.1 mV and 325 ± 7 mOsm/kg of average size, polydispersity index, entrapment efficiency, residual moisture, surface charge and osmolality, respectively. It performed a long-term stability >12 months. DSC and XRD spectra confirmed adequate chemical interaction between formulation components and showed a semi-crystalline state after FD. An optimal freeze dried ocular formulation was achieved. Evidently, the successful design of this promising colloidal system resulted from rational cooperation between a good formulation and the right conditions in the FD process.

  16. Migrants' decision-process shaping work destination choice: the case of long-term care work in the United Kingdom and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Karen; Hussein, Shereen; Ismail, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    Escalating demands for formal long-term care (LTC) result in the reliance on migrant workers in many developed countries. Within Europe, this is currently framed by progressive European immigration policies favouring inter-European mobility. Using the UK and Norway as case studies, this article has two main aims: (1) to document changes in the contribution of European Union (EU) migrants to the LTC sectors in Western Europe, and (2) to gain further understanding of migrants' decision-processes relating to destination and work choices. The UK and Norway provide examples of two European countries with different immigration histories, welfare regimes, labour market characteristics and cultural values, offering a rich comparison platform. The analysis utilizes national workforce datasets and data obtained from migrants working in the LTC sector in the UK and Norway ( n  = 248) and other stakeholders ( n  = 136). The analysis establishes a significant increase in the contribution of EU migrants (particularly from Eastern Europe) to the LTC sector in both the UK and Norway despite their different welfare regimes. The findings also highlight how migrant care workers develop rational decision-processes influenced by subjective perspectives of investments and returns within a context of wider structural migration barriers. The latter includes welfare and social care policies framing the conditions for migrants' individual actions.

  17. A Tissue Retrieval and Postharvest Processing Regimen for Rodent Reproductive Tissues Compatible with Long-Term Storage on the International Space Station and Postflight Biospecimen Sharing Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Collection and processing of tissues to preserve space flight effects from animals after return to Earth is challenging. Specimens must be harvested with minimal time after landing to minimize postflight readaptation alterations in protein expression/translation, posttranslational modifications, and expression, as well as changes in gene expression and tissue histological degradation after euthanasia. We report the development of a widely applicable strategy for determining the window of optimal species-specific and tissue-specific posteuthanasia harvest that can be utilized to integrate into multi-investigator Biospecimen Sharing Programs. We also determined methods for ISS-compatible long-term tissue storage (10 months at −80°C that yield recovery of high quality mRNA and protein for western analysis after sample return. Our focus was reproductive tissues. The time following euthanasia where tissues could be collected and histological integrity was maintained varied with tissue and species ranging between 1 and 3 hours. RNA quality was preserved in key reproductive tissues fixed in RNAlater up to 40 min after euthanasia. Postfixation processing was also standardized for safe shipment back to our laboratory. Our strategy can be adapted for other tissues under NASA’s Biospecimen Sharing Program or similar multi-investigator tissue sharing opportunities.

  18. Long-term Follow-up Results of Regeneration Process of Fungiform Taste Buds After Severing the Chorda Tympani Nerve During Middle Ear Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takehisa; Ito, Tetsufumi; Ito, Yumi; Manabe, Yasuhiro

    2016-05-01

    To elucidate the regeneration process of fungiform taste buds after severing the chorda tympani nerve (CTN) by confocal laser scanning microscopy in vivo. In 7 consecutive patients whose CTN was severed during tympanoplasty, an average of 10 fungiform papillae in the midlateral region of the tongue were periodically observed, and the number of taste buds was counted until 12 to 24 months after surgery. Gustatory function was assessed by EGM. EGM thresholds showed no response within 1 month after surgery in any patient. All taste buds had disappeared until 13 to 71 days after surgery. Regenerated taste buds were first detected 5 to 8 months after surgery in 5 of the 7 patients. EGM thresholds recovered to their preoperative values in 2 patients. In these 2 patients, the number of regenerated taste buds gradually increased in combination with a recovered taste function. However, a time lag existed between taste bud regeneration and taste function recovery. EGM thresholds did not recover in the other 3 patients with regenerated taste buds, suggesting that these taste buds were immature without gustatory function. The long-term regeneration process of fungiform taste buds could be clarified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Delayed Complications and Long-Term Management of Sulfur Mustard Poisoning: A Narrative Review of Recent Advances by Iranian Researchers Part ІІ: Clinical Management and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Etemad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to review and discuss the recommended and recently suggested protocols by Iranian researchers for a long-term treatment of delayed complications of sulfur mustard (DCSM in veterans. As indicated clinically, patients who suffer from delayed ocular complications of sulfur mustard (DOCS benefit from treatments for dry eyes, therapeutic contact lenses, amniotic membrane transplantation; blepharorrhaphy, tarsorrhaphy, limbal stem cell transplantation; corneal transplantation, topical steroids, and immunosuppressive. In spite of penetrating keratoplasty, lamellar keratoplasty and keratolimbal allograft had a good long-term survival. Delayed respiratory complications (DRCS are the most common effects and life-threatening in Iranian veterans. The recommended treatment protocols include regular clinical evaluations, respiratory physiotherapy and rehabilitation, N-acetyl cysteine; warm humidified air, long-acting 2-agonists, and inhaled corticosteroids. Azithromycin has also been effective in improving clinical conditions, pulmonary function tests, inflammatory indexes, and life quality of the veterans. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ and helium: oxygen combination were also used in severe DRCS with good results. Some of the delayed cutaneous complications (DCCS such as itching affects the quality of life of victims. Regular but not frequent showering and bathing, applying sunscreen compounds, topical corticosteroids, and systemic antihistamines reduce the problems of DCCS patients. Several compounds such as capsaicin cream, pimecrolimus, IFN-γ, phenol-menthol; Aloe vera/olive oil cream, cetirizine, doxepine, and hydroxyzine were evaluated in DCCS patients with some benefits. The physicians in charge of veterans emphasize the importance of a healthy lifestyle, appropriate financial/social/cultural supports, and a degree of reassurance and supportive care on the clinical improvement of patients.

  20. Accessibility Long Term Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Axhausen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Improved accessibility and its correlate lower generalized cost of contact, travel and transport have been sought by dynamic human societies for their economic and social benefits through- out recorded history. The paper will reflect about this process at a number of different spatial and temporal scales based on a conceptual model. Looking back at European history, it will trace the interaction between Christaller's logic of local market areas and the idea of (low contact cost network cities. Focusing on Switzerland since 1950 it will show how network investment changed the relative distribution of population and employment and how this interacted with changes in the preferences of the travelers. Using a recent snapshot of how a substantial sample of Swiss maintain their social networks over often very large areas, it will try to answer the question of what will happen in the future, if the current trend of ever lower costs of contact will persist.

  1. Long-term Potentiation Decay and Poor Long-lasting Memory Process in the Wild Rodents Proechimys from Brazil's Amazon Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Marques, Marcia J; Reyes-Garcia, Selvin Z; Marques-Carneiro, José E; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo B; Andersen, Monica L; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Scorza, Fulvio A; Scorza, Carla A

    2018-01-01

    Proechimys are small terrestrial rodents from Amazon rainforest. Each animal species is adapted to a specific environment in which the animal evolved therefore without comparative approaches unique characteristics of distinct species cannot be fully recognized. Laboratory rodents are exceedingly inbred strains dissociated from their native habitats and their fundamental ecological aspects are abstracted. Thus, the employment of exotic non-model species can be informative and complement conventional animal models. With the aim of promoting comparative studies between the exotic wildlife populations in the laboratory and traditional rodent model, we surveyed a type of synaptic plasticity intimately related to memory encoding in animals. Using theta-burst paradigm, in vitro long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 subfield of hippocampal slices was assessed in the Amazon rodents Proechimys and Wistar rats. Memory, learning and anxiety were investigated through the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT) and object recognition test. In PM-DAT, both animal species were submitted to two test sessions (3-h and 24-h) after the conditioning training. Proechimys exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the training session but during test sessions both species exhibited similar patterns of anxiety-related behavior. After 3-h of the training, Proechimys and Wistar spent significantly less time in the aversive enclosed arm than in the non-aversive arm. But, at 24-h after training, Wistar rats remained less time in the aversive closed arm in comparison with the non-aversive one, while Proechimys rodents spent the same amount of time in both enclosed arms. In the object recognition test, both species were evaluated at 24-h after the acquisition session and similar findings than those of the PM-DAT (24-h) were obtained, suggesting that long-term memory duration did not persist for 24-h in the Amazon rodent. Field excitatory post-synaptic potentials recordings revealed

  2. Long-term Potentiation Decay and Poor Long-lasting Memory Process in the Wild Rodents Proechimys from Brazil’s Amazon Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia J. Guimarães Marques

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Proechimys are small terrestrial rodents from Amazon rainforest. Each animal species is adapted to a specific environment in which the animal evolved therefore without comparative approaches unique characteristics of distinct species cannot be fully recognized. Laboratory rodents are exceedingly inbred strains dissociated from their native habitats and their fundamental ecological aspects are abstracted. Thus, the employment of exotic non-model species can be informative and complement conventional animal models. With the aim of promoting comparative studies between the exotic wildlife populations in the laboratory and traditional rodent model, we surveyed a type of synaptic plasticity intimately related to memory encoding in animals. Using theta-burst paradigm, in vitro long-term potentiation (LTP in the CA1 subfield of hippocampal slices was assessed in the Amazon rodents Proechimys and Wistar rats. Memory, learning and anxiety were investigated through the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT and object recognition test. In PM-DAT, both animal species were submitted to two test sessions (3-h and 24-h after the conditioning training. Proechimys exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the training session but during test sessions both species exhibited similar patterns of anxiety-related behavior. After 3-h of the training, Proechimys and Wistar spent significantly less time in the aversive enclosed arm than in the non-aversive arm. But, at 24-h after training, Wistar rats remained less time in the aversive closed arm in comparison with the non-aversive one, while Proechimys rodents spent the same amount of time in both enclosed arms. In the object recognition test, both species were evaluated at 24-h after the acquisition session and similar findings than those of the PM-DAT (24-h were obtained, suggesting that long-term memory duration did not persist for 24-h in the Amazon rodent. Field excitatory post-synaptic potentials

  3. Long-term Potentiation Decay and Poor Long-lasting Memory Process in the Wild Rodents Proechimys from Brazil’s Amazon Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Marques, Marcia J.; Reyes-Garcia, Selvin Z.; Marques-Carneiro, José E.; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo B.; Andersen, Monica L.; Cavalheiro, Esper A.; Scorza, Fulvio A.; Scorza, Carla A.

    2018-01-01

    Proechimys are small terrestrial rodents from Amazon rainforest. Each animal species is adapted to a specific environment in which the animal evolved therefore without comparative approaches unique characteristics of distinct species cannot be fully recognized. Laboratory rodents are exceedingly inbred strains dissociated from their native habitats and their fundamental ecological aspects are abstracted. Thus, the employment of exotic non-model species can be informative and complement conventional animal models. With the aim of promoting comparative studies between the exotic wildlife populations in the laboratory and traditional rodent model, we surveyed a type of synaptic plasticity intimately related to memory encoding in animals. Using theta-burst paradigm, in vitro long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 subfield of hippocampal slices was assessed in the Amazon rodents Proechimys and Wistar rats. Memory, learning and anxiety were investigated through the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT) and object recognition test. In PM-DAT, both animal species were submitted to two test sessions (3-h and 24-h) after the conditioning training. Proechimys exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the training session but during test sessions both species exhibited similar patterns of anxiety-related behavior. After 3-h of the training, Proechimys and Wistar spent significantly less time in the aversive enclosed arm than in the non-aversive arm. But, at 24-h after training, Wistar rats remained less time in the aversive closed arm in comparison with the non-aversive one, while Proechimys rodents spent the same amount of time in both enclosed arms. In the object recognition test, both species were evaluated at 24-h after the acquisition session and similar findings than those of the PM-DAT (24-h) were obtained, suggesting that long-term memory duration did not persist for 24-h in the Amazon rodent. Field excitatory post-synaptic potentials recordings revealed

  4. Long-Term Trends, Variability and Extremes of In Situ Sea Surface Temperature Measured Along the Eastern Adriatic Coast and its Relationship to Hemispheric Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbec, Branka; Matić, Frano; Beg Paklar, Gordana; Morović, Mira; Popović, Ružica; Vilibić, Ivica

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines long-term series of in situ sea surface temperature (SST) data measured at nine coastal and one open sea stations along the eastern Adriatic Sea for the period 1959-2015. Monthly and yearly averages were used to document SST trends and variability, while clustering and connections to hemispheric indices were achieved by applying the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method. Both PCA and SOM revealed the dominance of temporal changes with respect to the effects of spatial differences in SST anomalies, indicating the prevalence of hemispheric processes over local dynamics, such as bora wind spatial inhomogeneity. SST extremes were connected with blocking atmospheric patterns. A substantial warming between 1979 and 2015, in total exceeding 1 °C, was preceded by a period with a negative SST trend, implying strong multidecadal variability in the Adriatic. The strongest connection was found between yearly SST and the East Atlantic (EA) pattern, while North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and East Atlantic/West Russia (EAWR) patterns were found to also affect February SST values. Quantification of the Adriatic SST and their connection to hemispheric indices allow for more precise projections of future SST, considered to be rather important for Adriatic thermohaline circulation, biogeochemistry and fisheries, and sensitive to ongoing climate change.

  5. Long-term operation of oxygen-limiting membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the development of simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuanqi; Wang, Gang; Xu, Xiaochen; Yang, Yuesuo; Yang, Fenglin

    2017-07-18

    In this study, an oxygen-limiting membrane bioreactor (MBR) with recirculation of biogas for relieving membrane fouling was successfully operated to realize the simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process. The MBR operation was considered effective in the long-term test with total nitrogen (TN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 94.86% and 98.91%, respectively. Membrane fouling was significantly alleviated due to the recirculation of biogas and the membrane had been cleaned four times with a normal filtration period of 52 days. The co-existence of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), anammox and denitrifying bacteria in MBR was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH) analysis. Furthermore, AOB were found close to the granule surface, while denitrifying bacteria and anammox were in the deeper layer of granules. Potential in excellent TN and COD removal, operational stability and sustainability, as well as in alleviating membrane fouling is expected by using this oxygen-limiting MBR.

  6. Distributed simulation of long-term hydrological processes in a medium-sized periurban catchment under changing land use and rainwater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbas, Mériem; Braud, Isabelle; Branger, Flora; Kralisch, Sven

    2013-04-01

    Growing urbanization and related anthropogenic processes have a high potential to influence hydrological process dynamics. Typical consequences are an increase of surface imperviousness and modifications of water flow paths due to artificial channels and barriers (combined and separated system, sewer overflow device, roads, ditches, etc.). Periurban catchments, at the edge of large cities, are especially affected by fast anthropogenic modifications. They usually consist of a combination of natural areas, rural areas with dispersed settlements and urban areas mostly covered by built zones and spots of natural surfaces. In the context of the European Water Framework Directive (2000) and the Floods Directive (2007), integrated and sustainable solutions are needed to reduce flooding risks and river pollution at the scale of urban conglomerations or whole catchments. Their thorough management requires models able to assess the vulnerability of the territory and to compare the impact of different rainwater management options and planning issues. To address this question, we propose a methodology based on a multi-scale distributed hydrological modelling approach. It aims at quantifying the impact of ongoing urbanization and stormwater management on the long-term hydrological cycle in medium-sized periurban watershed. This method focuses on the understanding and formalization of dominant periurban hydrological processes from small scales (few ha to few km2) to larger scales (few hundred km2). The main objectives are to 1) simulate both urban and rural hydrological processes and 2) test the effects of different long-term land use and water management scenarios. The method relies on several tools and data: a distributed hydrological model adapted to the characteristics of periurban areas, land use and land cover maps from different dates (past, present, future) and information about rainwater management collected from local authorities. For the application of the method, the

  7. Participation in water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery: Experiences of significant factors for continuing exercising as a part of cancer rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enblom, A; Lindquist, H; Bergmark, K

    2018-01-01

    Although physical exercising has great benefits, little is known regarding factors of significance for cancer survivors to continue exercising within their rehabilitation. The objective was to describe factors experienced to be of significance for cancer survivors to continue with water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery. Women (n = 29) who had undergone breast cancer surgery (mastectomy 79%, axillary surgery 86%, and radiotherapy 86%) for median (md) 13 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) was followed up regarding their rehabilitation, arm function Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (md 14, IQR 7-32), EQ-5D score (md 0.8, IQR 0.73-1.0) and quality of life EQ health barometer (md 80, IQR 64-95). We performed qualitative focus-group interviews regarding the women's views (n = 24). The women had participated in water-exercising 1-46 semesters, md 8 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) semesters. Nearly all, 97%, participated in the water-exercising group every week, and 21 (72%) had participated in the water-exercising group at least half of the time since their breast cancer surgery, without complications. The women experienced that factors of significance to continue with water-exercising were the convenience of easily modified weightless exercising in the water, social interaction, and access to a private dressing room. These factors would be important to consider to encourage continuing in exercising. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing: Part III. Long-term aluminum hydroxide precipitation tests in borated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Chi Bum; Kasza, Ken E.; Shack, William J.; Natesan, Ken; Klein, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Aluminum hydroxide precipitation boundary is similar to that for amorphous phase. → Various precipitation tests are combined into one map in temperature-'pH + p[Al] T '. → Flocculation tendency of precipitates depend on pH and total Al concentration. → DLVO theory explains qualitatively the dependency of flocculation tendency on pH. - Abstract: Long-term aluminum (Al) hydroxide precipitation tests were conducted in slightly alkaline solutions containing 2500 ppm boron. The solution temperature was cycled to obtain a temperature history more representative of emergency core cooling system temperatures after a loss-of-coolant accident. The observed Al precipitation boundary was close to predicted results for amorphous precipitates, which are higher than the solubility expected for crystalline forms. Bench-scale and loop head loss test results under various conditions were successfully combined into single map in a temperature - 'pH + p[Al] T ' domain, which yielded two bounding lines for Al hydroxide solubility in borated alkaline water that depend on whether or not loop head loss tests with Al alloy coupons are included. Precipitates were observed to form either as fine, cloudy suspensions, which showed very little tendency to settle, or as flocculated precipitates. The flocculation tendency of the precipitates can be qualitatively explained by a colloid stability theory or a phase diagram for protein solutions.

  9. Opportunities for exercise during pullet rearing, Part II: Long-term effects on bone characteristics of adult laying hens at the end-of-lay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey-Trott, T M; Korver, D R; Guerin, M T; Sandilands, V; Torrey, S; Widowski, T M

    2017-08-01

    Osteoporosis in laying hens has been a production and welfare concern for several decades. The objective of this study was to determine whether differing opportunities for exercise during pullet rearing influences long-term bone quality characteristics in end-of-lay hens. A secondary objective was to assess whether differing opportunities for exercise in adult housing systems alters bone quality characteristics in end-of-lay hens. Four flock replicates of 588 Lohmann Selected Leghorn-Lite pullets were reared in either conventional cages (Conv) or an aviary rearing system (Avi) and placed into conventional cages (CC), 30-bird furnished cages (FC-S), or 60-bird furnished cages (FC-L) for adult housing. Wing and leg bones were collected at the end-of-lay to quantify bone composition and strength using quantitative computed tomography and bone breaking strength (BBS). At the end-of-lay, Avi hens had greater total and cortical cross-sectional area (P lay. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  10. Long term complications of diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long-term complications of diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, ... other tests. All these may help you keep complications of diabetes away. You will need to check your blood ...

  11. Long term planning for wind energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinick, M.

    1995-01-01

    In a planning system intended to be governed primarily by policies in statutory plans a reasonable horizon for long term planning is 10 years or longer. Because of statutory requirements, developers have no option but to pay due regard to, and take a full part in, long term planning. The paper examines the type of policies which have emerged in the last few years to cater for wind energy development. It canvasses the merits of different types of policies. Finally, it discusses the policy framework which may emerge to cater for development outside NFFO. (Author)

  12. Planning ahead : although Canada could experience a shortage of some 300,000 workers within the next 20 years, long-term strategies can help companies cope : part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.

    2007-01-15

    This article is the second in a 2-part series examining the impacts of the labour shortage in the energy industry. Most oil and gas companies are implementing long-term strategies in order to deal with the anticipated labour crisis. Labour, material, services and other factors are taken into consideration when developing business plans, and industry will adjust projects accordingly to accommodate labour constraints and uneconomic cost environments. Companies are collecting and analyzing data in order to define strategies to address retirement and longer-term workforce planning issues. EnCana is supporting a heavy equipment operator training program jointly with the government of British Columbia to help recruit aboriginal communities. EnCana is also recognizing the value of new immigrant professionals and has identified the group as an emerging recruitment talent pool. Shell Canada's long term plans for recruiting experienced staff include dedicating significant resources to a campus recruitment campaign, and connecting with Royal Dutch Shell to extend their recruitment reach. Shell Canada is also strengthening its on-boarding program for both new permanent full-time and part-time employees. The company recently announced its largest single community investment in the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology's Building on Demand campaign. The $3 million will be used to create the Shell Manufacturing Centre, as well as to provide bursaries for students pursuing apprenticeships and technical training. Petro-Canada's long-term recruitment strategy includes continually identifying and bringing in talented employees to meet the company's business goals. Devon Canada is also focusing on career path development and has established significant budgets for training and professional development. It was concluded that employers in the oil and gas industry must develop effective recruitment strategies to attract and retain critical talent for the short and

  13. Planning ahead : although Canada could experience a shortage of some 300,000 workers within the next 20 years, long-term strategies can help companies cope : part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.

    2007-01-01

    This article is the second in a 2-part series examining the impacts of the labour shortage in the energy industry. Most oil and gas companies are implementing long-term strategies in order to deal with the anticipated labour crisis. Labour, material, services and other factors are taken into consideration when developing business plans, and industry will adjust projects accordingly to accommodate labour constraints and uneconomic cost environments. Companies are collecting and analyzing data in order to define strategies to address retirement and longer-term workforce planning issues. EnCana is supporting a heavy equipment operator training program jointly with the government of British Columbia to help recruit aboriginal communities. EnCana is also recognizing the value of new immigrant professionals and has identified the group as an emerging recruitment talent pool. Shell Canada's long term plans for recruiting experienced staff include dedicating significant resources to a campus recruitment campaign, and connecting with Royal Dutch Shell to extend their recruitment reach. Shell Canada is also strengthening its on-boarding program for both new permanent full-time and part-time employees. The company recently announced its largest single community investment in the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology's Building on Demand campaign. The $3 million will be used to create the Shell Manufacturing Centre, as well as to provide bursaries for students pursuing apprenticeships and technical training. Petro-Canada's long-term recruitment strategy includes continually identifying and bringing in talented employees to meet the company's business goals. Devon Canada is also focusing on career path development and has established significant budgets for training and professional development. It was concluded that employers in the oil and gas industry must develop effective recruitment strategies to attract and retain critical talent for the short and long term, and not

  14. Magnitude of long-term non-lithostatic pressure variations in lithospheric processes: insight from thermo-mechanical subduction/collision models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerya, Taras

    2014-05-01

    On the one hand, the principle of lithostatic pressure is habitually used in metamorphic geology to calculate paleo-depths of metamorphism from mineralogical pressure estimates given by geobarometry. On the other hand, it is obvious that this lithostatic (hydrostatic) pressure principle should only be valid for an ideal case of negligible deviatoric stresses during the long-term development of the entire tectono-metamorphic system - the situation, which newer comes to existence in natural lithospheric processes. The question is therefore not "Do non-lithostatic pressure variations exist?" but " What is the magnitude of long-term non-lithostatic pressure variations in various lithospheric processes, which can be recorded by mineral equilibria of respective metamorphic rocks?". The later question is, in particular, relevant for various types of high-pressure (HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks, which are often produced in convergent plate boundary settings (e.g., Hacker and Gerya, 2013). This question, can, in particular, be answered with the use of thermo-mechanical models of subduction/collision processes employing realistic P-T-stress-dependent visco-elasto-brittle/plastic rheology of rocks. These models suggest that magnitudes of pressure deviations from lithostatic values can range >50% underpressure to >100% overpressure, mainly in the regions of bending of rheologically strong mantle lithosphere (Burg and Gerya, 2005; Li et al., 2010). In particular, strong undepresures along normal faults forming within outer rise regions of subducting plates can be responsible for downward water suction and deep hydration of oceanic slabs (Faccenda et al., 2009). Weaker HP and UHP rocks of subduction/collision channels are typically subjected to lesser non-lithostatic pressure variations with characteristic magnitudes ranging within 10-20% from the lithostatic values (Burg and Gerya, 2005; Li et al., 2010). The strength of subducted crustal rocks and the degree of

  15. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; P<001); diagnoses of psychological development disorders (OR=9.7; CI95%: 4.5-20.6; P<.001); mental retardation (OR=4.5; CI95%: 2.5-8.2; P<.001): schizophrenia (OR=3.0; CI95%: 1.7-5.2; P<.001); compulsory hospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; P<.001); having experienced therapeutic isolation (OR=1.8; CI95%: 1.5-2.1; P<.001). Variations of long-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had

  16. THE GREEN RENOVATION AND EXPANSION OF THE AIKEN CENTER: A SUSTAINABLE GREEN BUILDING DESIGN, COLLABORATIVE PLANNING PROCESS AND LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION AND RESEARCH PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    One important outcome of this project will be the development of a long-term demonstration program that will provide teaching and research tools for many decades. In addition, we will develop models that will be available for others to use, present our findings to others, and ...

  17. Attention, Working Memory, and Long-Term Memory in Multimedia Learning: An Integrated Perspective Based on Process Models of Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models of multimedia learning such as the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer 2009) or the Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller 1999) are based on different cognitive models of working memory (e.g., Baddeley 1986) and long-term memory. The current paper describes a working memory model that has recently gained popularity in basic…

  18. Long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei in the Amazon rain forest – Part 1: Aerosol size distribution, hygroscopicity, and new model parametrizations for CCN prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Pöhlker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Size-resolved long-term measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations and hygroscopicity were conducted at the remote Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO in the central Amazon Basin over a 1-year period and full seasonal cycle (March 2014–February 2015. The measurements provide a climatology of CCN properties characteristic of a remote central Amazonian rain forest site.The CCN measurements were continuously cycled through 10 levels of supersaturation (S  =  0.11 to 1.10 % and span the aerosol particle size range from 20 to 245 nm. The mean critical diameters of CCN activation range from 43 nm at S  =  1.10 % to 172 nm at S  =  0.11 %. The particle hygroscopicity exhibits a pronounced size dependence with lower values for the Aitken mode (κAit  =  0.14 ± 0.03, higher values for the accumulation mode (κAcc  =  0.22 ± 0.05, and an overall mean value of κmean  =  0.17 ± 0.06, consistent with high fractions of organic aerosol.The hygroscopicity parameter, κ, exhibits remarkably little temporal variability: no pronounced diurnal cycles, only weak seasonal trends, and few short-term variations during long-range transport events. In contrast, the CCN number concentrations exhibit a pronounced seasonal cycle, tracking the pollution-related seasonality in total aerosol concentration. We find that the variability in the CCN concentrations in the central Amazon is mostly driven by aerosol particle number concentration and size distribution, while variations in aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition matter only during a few episodes.For modeling purposes, we compare different approaches of predicting CCN number concentration and present a novel parametrization, which allows accurate CCN predictions based on a small set of input data.

  19. Development of photoacoustic water vapor and total water measuring instrument with a long term objective of becoming part of the IAGOS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatrai, David; Bors, Noemi; Gulyas, Gabor; Szabo, Gabor; Smit, Herman G. J.; Petzold, Andreas; Bozoki, Zoltan

    2016-04-01

    Airborne hygrometry is one of the key topics in atmospheric and climate research that is why airborne hygrometers are almost always included in aircraft based measurement campaigns (see e.g. MOZAIC and CARIBIC). However for its successful application an airborne hygrometer has to be able to measure humidity in a wide range (1 60000 ppmV) at various total pressures with high accuracy and short response time. In addition, an instrument capable of measuring water vapor and condensed water selectively has considerable added value as the water content of clouds seems to be a very uncertain parameter in climate models. At the University of Szeged, a dual channel, photoacoustic spectroscopy based hygrometer system had been developed, that measures water vapor concentration and total water content simultaneously from the ground level up to cruising altitude [1, 2]. An early version of this system is the core hygrometer of the CARIBIC project. In the past few years efforts were made to improve further the performance and long term reliability of the system [3] while also reducing its size and weight. Most important of the recent achievements is a new data acquisition and control system with more precise control performance [4]. Many of these results have been proved by various laboratory (AquaVIT2a-b) and in-flight (DANCHAR-IFCC, AIRTOSS I-II) measurement campaigns. Based on these results the system received invitation into the IAGOS ESFRI project to become one of its core instruments. The presented work was funded by EUFAR contract no. 227159, by the Hungarian Research and Technology Innovation Fund (OTKA), project no. NN109679 and by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 312311. [1] Szakáll, M et.al: Infrared Physics & Technology. 2006. 48, (3) 192-201 [2] Szakáll, M. et.al: Infrared Physics & Technology, 2007. 51, (2) 113-121 [3] Tátrai, D. et.al: Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 33-42, 2015 [4] Tátrai, D. et

  20. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    charges and fees levied from the waste producers. Altogether, financial resources for decommissioning are needed for the following steps: the post-operational phase in which the facility is prepared for dismantling after its final shut-down, dismantling of the radioactive part of the facility, management, storage and disposal of the radioactive waste, restoration of the site, licensing and regulatory supervision of all these steps. Additional means are necessary for the management, storage and disposal of the spent fuel. The way in which the availability of financial resources is secured differs between public owned installations and installations of the private power utilities. In Germany, past practices has resulted in singular contaminated sites of limited extent, mainly during the first half of the 20. century. Those contaminated sites have been or are being cleaned up and redeveloped. In large areas of Saxony and Thuringia, the geological formations permitted the surface and underground mining of Uranium ore. Facilities of the former Soviet-German WISMUT Ltd. where ore was mined and processed from 1946 until the early 1990's can be found at numerous sites. In the course of the re-unification of Germany, the soviet shares of the WISMUT were taken over by the Federal Republic of Germany and the closure of the WISMUT facilities was initiated. In that phase the extent of the damages to the environment and of the necessary remediation work became clear. All mining and milling sites are now closed and are under decommissioning. A comprehensive remediation concept covers all WISMUT sites. Heaps and mill-tailing ponds are transferred into a long-term stable condition. The area of the facilities to be remediated amounts to more than 30 km 2 . Heaps cover a total area of ca. 15,5 km 2 , tailing ponds in which the tailings resulting from the Uranium production are stored as sludges cover 6,3 km 2 ). In total, the remediation issues are very complex and without precedent. The

  1. New Gene Markers for Metabolic Processes and Homeostasis in Porcine Buccal Pouch Mucosa during Cells Long Term-Cultivation—A Primary Culture Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The oral mucosal tissue is a compound structure composed of morphologically and physiologically different cell types. The morphological modification involves genetically determined lifespan, which may be recognized as the balance between cell survival and apoptosis. Although the biochemical processes and pathways in oral mucosa, with special regards to drug transport, delivery, and metabolism, are well known, the cellular physiological homeostasis in this tissue requires further investigation. The porcine buccal pouch mucosal cells (BPMCs collected from 20 pubertal crossbred Landrace gilts, were used in this study. Immediately after recovery, the oral mucosa was separated micro-surgically, and treated enzymatically. The dispersed cells were transferred into primary in vitro culture systems for a long-term cultivation of 30 days. After each step of in vitro culture (IVC, the cells were collected for isolation of total RNA at 24 h, 7, 15, and 30 days of IVC. While the expression was analyzed for days 7, 15, and 30, the 24th hour was used as a reference for outcome calibration. The gene expression profile was determined using Affymetrix microarray assays and necessary procedures. In results, we observed significant up-regulation of SCARB1, PTGS2, DUSP5, ITGB3, PLK2, CCL2, TGFB1, CCL8, RFC4, LYN, ETS1, REL, LIF, SPP1, and FGER1G genes, belonging to two ontological groups, namely “positive regulation of metabolic process”, and “regulation of homeostatic process” at 7 day of IVC as compared to down-regulation at days 15 and 30. These findings suggest that the metabolic processes and homeostatic regulations are much more intense in porcine mucosal cells at day 7 of IVC. Moreover, the increased expression of marker genes, for both of these ontological groups, may suggest the existence of not only “morphological lifespan” during tissue keratinization, but also “physiological checkpoint” dedicated to metabolic processes in oral mucosa

  2. Experiences of long-term tranquillizer use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinhoj, K T; Larsson, S; Helweg-Joergensen, S

    2001-01-01

    , the psychodynamic perspective is integrated within a multi-dimensional model that considers biological, cognitive, identity, gender and social learning factors. The analysis reveals the possibility of achieving a detailed understanding of the dynamic processes involved in the development of long-term tranquillizer...

  3. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt Waliguan GAW station, China - Part 2: The roles of anthropogenic emissions and climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanyun; Xu, Xiaobin; Lin, Meiyun; Lin, Weili; Tarasick, David; Tang, Jie; Ma, Jianzhong; Zheng, Xiangdong

    2018-01-01

    Inter-annual variability and long-term trends in tropospheric ozone are both environmental and climate concerns. Ozone measured at Mt Waliguan Observatory (WLG, 3816 m a.s.l.) on the Tibetan Plateau over the period of 1994-2013 has increased significantly by 0.2-0.3 ppbv yr-1 during spring and autumn but shows a much smaller trend in winter and no significant trend in summer. Here we explore the factors driving the observed ozone changes at WLG using backward trajectory analysis, chemistry-climate model hindcast simulations (GFDL AM3), a trajectory-mapped ozonesonde data set, and several climate indices. A stratospheric ozone tracer implemented in GFDL AM3 indicates that stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) can explain ˜ 60 % of the simulated springtime ozone increase at WLG, consistent with an increase in the NW air-mass frequency inferred from the trajectory analysis. Enhanced STT associated with the strengthening of the mid-latitude jet stream contributes to the observed high ozone anomalies at WLG during the springs of 1999 and 2012. During autumn, observations at WLG are more heavily influenced by polluted air masses originating from South East Asia than in the other seasons. Rising Asian anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors are the key driver of increasing autumnal ozone observed at WLG, as supported by the GFDL AM3 model with time-varying emissions, which captures the observed ozone increase (0.26 ± 0.11 ppbv yr-1). AM3 simulates a greater ozone increase of 0.38 ± 0.11 ppbv yr-1 at WLG in autumn under conditions with strong transport from South East Asia and shows no significant ozone trend in autumn when anthropogenic emissions are held constant in time. During summer, WLG is mostly influenced by easterly air masses, but these trajectories do not extend to the polluted regions of eastern China and have decreased significantly over the last 2 decades, which likely explains why summertime ozone measured at WLG shows no significant trend

  4. Body size and geographic range do not explain long term variation in fish populations: a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to testing assembly processes in stream fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Jacquemin

    Full Text Available We combine evolutionary biology and community ecology to test whether two species traits, body size and geographic range, explain long term variation in local scale freshwater stream fish assemblages. Body size and geographic range are expected to influence several aspects of fish ecology, via relationships with niche breadth, dispersal, and abundance. These traits are expected to scale inversely with niche breadth or current abundance, and to scale directly with dispersal potential. However, their utility to explain long term temporal patterns in local scale abundance is not known. Comparative methods employing an existing molecular phylogeny were used to incorporate evolutionary relatedness in a test for covariation of body size and geographic range with long term (1983 - 2010 local scale population variation of fishes in West Fork White River (Indiana, USA. The Bayesian model incorporating phylogenetic uncertainty and correlated predictors indicated that neither body size nor geographic range explained significant variation in population fluctuations over a 28 year period. Phylogenetic signal data indicated that body size and geographic range were less similar among taxa than expected if trait evolution followed a purely random walk. We interpret this as evidence that local scale population variation may be influenced less by species-level traits such as body size or geographic range, and instead may be influenced more strongly by a taxon's local scale habitat and biotic assemblages.

  5. New Developments in Long-Term Downhole Monitoring Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Kück

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term observation of active geological processes is a major research goal in an increasing number of scientific drilling projects. An extended monitoring phase within a potentially hostile environment (e.g., temperature, pressure, salinity requires new long-lasting and robust instrumentation currently unavailable from either industry or academia. Extended exposure of instrument packages to extreme conditions will typically cause seals to weaken and fail,electronic parts to break under permanent load, and sensors to degrade or develop strong drift. In the framework of scientific exploration, there are currently several major research projects targeting fault zone drilling and in situ measurements to monitor physical and chemical conditions before, during, and after seismic events. Planning has now begun for tool development, testing, and continuous long-term monitoring for the San Andreas Fault Zone Observatory at Depth, SAFOD (Parkfi eld, Calif., U.S.A.; See article on page 32..

  6. Feasibility of storing CO2 in the Utsira formation as part of a long term Dutch CCS strategy. An evaluation based on a GIS/MARKAL toolbox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, M.A.; Ramirez-Ramirez, A.; Turkenburg, W.; Faaij, A; Groenenberg, H.; Neele, F.P.; Viebahn, P.

    2009-09-01

    This study provides insight into the feasibility of a CO2 trunkline from the Netherlands to the Utsira formation in the Norwegian part of the North Sea, which is a large geological storage reservoir for CO2. The feasibility is investigated in competition with CO2 storage in onshore and near-offshore sinks in the Netherlands. Least-cost modelling with a MARKAL model in combination with ArcGIS was used to assess the cost-effectiveness of the trunkline as part of a Dutch greenhouse gas emission reduction strategy for the Dutch electricity sector and CO2 intensive industry. The results show that under the condition that a CO2 permit price increases from 25 euro per tCO2 in 2010 to 60 euro per tCO2 in 2030, and remains at this level up to 2050, CO2 emissions in the Netherlands could reduce with 67% in 2050 compared to 1990, and investment in the Utsira trunkline may be cost-effective from 2020-2030 provided that Belgian and German CO2 is transported and stored via the Netherlands as well. In this case, by 2050 more than 2.1 GtCO2 would have been transported from the Netherlands to the Utsira formation. However, if the Utsira trunkline is not used for transportation of CO2 from Belgium and Germany, it may become cost-effective 10 years later, and less than 1.3 GtCO2 from the Netherlands would have been stored in the Utsira formation by 2050. On the short term, CO2 storage in Dutch fields appears more cost-effective than in the Utsira formation, but as yet there are major uncertainties related to the timing and effective exploitation of the Dutch offshore storage opportunities.

  7. Lean Six Sigma Project - Defense Logistics Agency/Honeywell Long-Term Contract Model Using One-Pass Pricing for Sole-Source Spare Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    achieve their goals. Five-Step Data-Driven Process. LSS uses a modern problem-solving method, Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve- Control ( DMAIC ). DMAIC uses...documents for each DMAIC phase , please send an e-mail to audacm@dodig.mil. See Appendix A for acronyms and abbreviations and Appendix B for...Level Repairable DMAIC Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control DORRA DLA Office of Research and Resource Analysis DPAP Defense Procurement and

  8. Enhanced long-term and impaired short-term spatial memory in GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit knockout mice: evidence for a dual-process memory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, David J; Good, Mark A; Skelton, Kathryn; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H; Rawlins, J Nicholas P; Bannerman, David M

    2009-06-01

    The GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit is a key mediator of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and is especially important for a rapidly-induced, short-lasting form of potentiation. GluA1 gene deletion impairs hippocampus-dependent, spatial working memory, but spares hippocampus-dependent spatial reference memory. These findings may reflect the necessity of GluA1-dependent synaptic plasticity for short-term memory of recently visited places, but not for the ability to form long-term associations between a particular spatial location and an outcome. This hypothesis is in concordance with the theory that short-term and long-term memory depend on dissociable psychological processes. In this study we tested GluA1-/- mice on both short-term and long-term spatial memory using a simple novelty preference task. Mice were given a series of repeated exposures to a particular spatial location (the arm of a Y-maze) before their preference for a novel spatial location (the unvisited arm of the maze) over the familiar spatial location was assessed. GluA1-/- mice were impaired if the interval between the trials was short (1 min), but showed enhanced spatial memory if the interval between the trials was long (24 h). This enhancement was caused by the interval between the exposure trials rather than the interval prior to the test, thus demonstrating enhanced learning and not simply enhanced performance or expression of memory. This seemingly paradoxical enhancement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning may be caused by GluA1 gene deletion reducing the detrimental effects of short-term memory on subsequent long-term learning. Thus, these results support a dual-process model of memory in which short-term and long-term memory are separate and sometimes competitive processes.

  9. The reaction of glass during gamma irradiation in a saturated tuff environment: Part 3, long-term experiments at 1 x 10{sup 4}rad/hour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.; Ebert, W.L.

    1988-02-01

    Savannah River Laboratory 165 type glass was leached with equilibrated J-13 groundwater at 90{degree}C for times up to 182 days. These experiments were performed as part of an effort by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project to assess the importance of radiation effects on repository performance and waste glass corrosion. The gamma radiation field used in this work was 1. 0 +- 0.2 x 10{sup 4} rad/h. Glass dissolution is notably incongruent throughout the entire experimental periods and normalized releases follow the sequence Li {ge} Na {ge} B {approx_equal} U {ge} Si. The normalized leach rates of these elements, as well as the measured growth rates of the reaction layers, decreased with time. The only significant variation observed in the abundance of anions is the systematic decrease in NO{sub 3}/sup {minus}//NO{sub 2}/sup {minus}/ ratio from the starting EJ-13 groundwater to the EJ-13 blank experiments to the tuff- and glass-containing experiments. A leaching model that is consistent with the observed solution data and depth profiles is presented. The applicability and limitation of the present results in predicting the actual interactions that may occur in the NNWSI repository are discussed. 35 refs., 30 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Comparing long term energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumo, M.; Simbolotti, G.

    2001-01-01

    Major projection studies by international organizations and senior analysts have been compared with reference to individual key parameters (population, energy demand/supply, resources, technology, emissions and global warming) to understand trends and implications of the different scenarios. Then, looking at the long term (i.e., 2050 and beyond), parameters and trends have been compared together to understand and quantify whether and when possible crisis or market turbulence might occur due to shortage of resources or environmental problems [it

  11. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  12. The Fate of Iliopsoas Muscle in the Long-term Follow-up After Open Reduction of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip by Medial Approach. Part 1: MRI Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Serdar; Aksahin, Ertugrul; Duran, Semra; Bicimoglu, Ali

    2017-09-01

    There has been little information about the long-term status of the iliopsoas, which is the main flexor of the hip, after iliopsoas tenotomy in the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The aim of this study was to assess the status of the iliopsoas muscle and other flexors and extensors of the hip in long-term follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging after complete iliopsoas tenotomy in patients with unilateral DDH treated with open reduction with a medial approach. The study included 20 patients who underwent open reduction with a medial approach for unilateral DDH and had long-term follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of iliopsoas, rectus femoris, tensor fasia lata, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles was applied and the muscles of the hip that was operated on were compared with the unoperated hip. In addition, the iliopsoas muscle was examined for reattachment and the effect of reattachment was evaluated. The mean age at the time of operation was 10.53±3.61 months (range, 5 to 18 mo), and mean follow-up was 16.65±2.16 years (range, 13 to 20 y). Spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas was observed in 18 patients (90%), either in the lesser trochanter (65%) or the superior part of it (25%). There was no significant difference between the hips that were operated on and those that were not with regard to the mean cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the tensor fascia lata, rectus femoris, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles. The CSA of the tensor fascia lata, rectus femoris, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles showed no significant difference (P>0.05); however, CSA of iliopsoas muscle was significantly reduced in the operated hip (P<0.001). Although the iliopsoas tendon was atrophied after complete iliopsoas tenotomy, it was reattached in 90% of the patients spontaneously in long-term follow-up. There was no statistically significant compensatory hypertrophy in any muscles in response to iliopsoas atrophy. Level IV-Therapeutic.

  13. CERN Services for Long Term Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie; Blomer, Jakob; Ganis, Gerardo; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Simko, Tibor; Cancio Melia, German; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the services that are offered by CERN for Long Term preservation of High Energy Physics (HEP) data, with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a key use case. Data preservation is a strategic goal for European High Energy Physics (HEP), as well as for the HEP community worldwide and we position our work in this global content. Specifically, we target the preservation of the scientific data, together with the software, documentation and computing environment needed to process, (re-)analyse or otherwise (re-)use the data. The target data volumes range from hundreds of petabytes (PB – 10^15 bytes) to hundreds of exabytes (EB – 10^18 bytes) for a target duration of several decades. The Use Cases driving data preservation are presented together with metrics that allow us to measure how close we are to meeting our goals, including the possibility for formal certification for at least part of this work. Almost all of the services that we describe are fully generic – the exception being A...

  14. The long-term behavior of lightweight and heavyweight meshes used to repair abdominal wall defects is determined by the host tissue repair process provoked by the mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Gemma; Hernández-Gascón, Belén; Rodríguez, Marta; Sotomayor, Sandra; Peña, Estefania; Calvo, Begoña; Bellón, Juan M

    2012-11-01

    Although heavyweight (HW) or lightweight (LW) polypropylene (PP) meshes are widely used for hernia repair, other alternatives have recently appeared. They have the same large-pore structure yet are composed of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). This study compares the long-term (3 and 6 months) behavior of meshes of different pore size (HW compared with LW) and composition (PP compared with PTFE). Partial defects were created in the lateral wall of the abdomen in New Zealand White rabbits and then repaired by the use of a HW or LW PP mesh or a new monofilament, large-pore PTFE mesh (Infinit). At 90 and 180 days after implantation, tissue incorporation, gene and protein expression of neocollagens (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction/immunofluorescence), macrophage response (immunohistochemistry), and biomechanical strength were determined. Shrinkage was measured at 90 days. All three meshes induced good host tissue ingrowth, yet the macrophage response was significantly greater in the PTFE implants (P .05). Host collagen deposition is mesh pore size dependent whereas the macrophage response induced is composition dependent with a greater response shown by PTFE. In the long term, macroporous meshes show comparable biomechanical behavior regardless of their pore size or composition. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Passive air sampler as a tool for long-term air pollution monitoring: Part 1. Performance assessment for seasonal and spatial variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanova, Jana; Kohoutek, Jiri; Hamplova, Lenka; Urbanova, Petra; Holoubek, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    The potential of passive air sampling devices (polyurethane foam disks) to assess the influence of local sources on the quality of the surrounding environment was investigated. DEZA Valasske Mezirici, a coal tar and mixed tar oils processing plant, and Spolana Neratovice, a chemical factory with the history of high production of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), were selected as the point sources of PAHs, and OCPs, respectively. Levels of PCBs, OCPs and PAHs were determined for all sampling sites and sampling periods. The study brought useful data about the air concentrations of POPs in the investigated regions. More important, it provided information on the transport and fate of POPs in the vicinity of local sources of contamination useful for the estimation of their influence. Very good capability of passive samplers to reflect temporal and spatial fluctuation in concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the ambient air was confirmed which makes them applicable for monitoring on the local scale. - Passive air sampling techniques can indicate seasonal and spatial variations in the ambient concentrations of persistent organic compounds near point sources

  16. Carbon steel corrosion under anaerobic-aerobic cycling conditions in near-neutral pH saline solutions - Part 1: Long term corrosion behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherar, B.W.A.; Keech, P.G.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Anaerobic-aerobic cycling on pipeline steel forms two distinct surface morphologies. → Seventy-five percentage of the surface was covered by a black, compact layer ∼4.5 μm thick. → A tubercle, ∼3 to 4 mm in cross section, covered the remaining 25% of surface. → The tubercle cross section showed a single large pit ∼275 μm deep. - Abstract: The influence of anaerobic-aerobic cycling on pipeline steel corrosion was investigated in near-neutral carbonate/sulphate/chloride solution (pH 9) over 238 days. The corrosion rate increased and decreased as exposure conditions were switched between redox conditions. Two distinct corrosion morphologies were observed. The majority of the surface corroded uniformly to produce a black magnetite/maghemite layer approximately 4.5 μm thick. The remaining surface was covered with an orange tubercle, approximately 3-4 mm in cross section. Analysis of the tubercle cross section revealed a single large pit approximately 275 μm deep. Repeated anaerobic-aerobic cycling localized the corrosion process within this tubercle-covered pit.

  17. Analysis of long-term energy scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1998-09-01

    When addressing the role of fusion energy in the 21. century, the evaluation of possible future structures in the electricity market and the energy sector as a whole, can be a useful tool. Because fusion energy still needs demonstration, commercialized fusion energy is not likely to be a reality within the next few decades. Therefore long-term scenarios are needed describing the energy markets, which fusion energy eventually will be part of. This report performs an analysis of two of the most detailed existing long-term scenarios describing possible futures of the energy system. The aim is to clarify the frames in which the future development of the global energy demand, as well as the structure of the energy system can be expected to develop towards the year 2100. (au) 19 refs.

  18. Long-term Studies of Marine Halogen Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschritter, J.; Holla, R.; Frieß, U.; Platt, U.

    2009-04-01

    Institute of Enviromental Physics, Heidelberg, Germany. Long term measurements of atmospheric trace gases using multi-axis DOAS instruments are pursued at the new SOLAS observatory on the island of Sao Vicente, (Cape Verde). This research is part of the SOPRAN (Surface Ocean Processes in the ANthropocene) project (Fördernummer:03F0462F). Reactive halogen species (RHS) such as bromine- and iodine- containing species play major roles in the chemistry of ozone in both the troposphere and lower stratosphere and thus possibly influence the ozone budget on a global scale. In addition iodine-species emitted from the ocean surface have been shown to be responsible for the production of new atmospheric particles in the marine boundary layer. This may have an effect on cloud formation and radiation transfer on local and global scales. Long term measurements of RHS abundances will help to identify their key regions and processes for formation. A new long term Multi-MAX-DOAS instrument has been installed at the SOLAS observatory on the island of Sao Vicente, (Cape Verde). The main focus of these unique measurements is the investigation of reactive halogen chemistry in the subtropical marine boundary layer based on measurements of BrO, IO, and possibly OIO. Because of its wide spectral range also the use for O4-retrievals to gain aerosol profiles is possible. IO has been detected with mixing ratios up to 1.3 ppt. For BrO an upper limit of 2 ppt could be determined.

  19. Long-term particulate matter modeling for health effect studies in California - Part 2: Concentrations and sources of ultrafine organic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Jathar, Shantanu; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi; Chen, Shu-Hua; Cappa, Christopher D.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2017-04-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) is a major constituent of ultrafine particulate matter (PM0. 1). Recent epidemiological studies have identified associations between PM0. 1 OA and premature mortality and low birth weight. In this study, the source-oriented UCD/CIT model was used to simulate the concentrations and sources of primary organic aerosols (POA) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in PM0. 1 in California for a 9-year (2000-2008) modeling period with 4 km horizontal resolution to provide more insights about PM0. 1 OA for health effect studies. As a related quality control, predicted monthly average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) total organic carbon at six major urban sites had mean fractional bias of -0.31 to 0.19 and mean fractional errors of 0.4 to 0.59. The predicted ratio of PM2. 5 SOA / OA was lower than estimates derived from chemical mass balance (CMB) calculations by a factor of 2-3, which suggests the potential effects of processes such as POA volatility, additional SOA formation mechanism, and missing sources. OA in PM0. 1, the focus size fraction of this study, is dominated by POA. Wood smoke is found to be the single biggest source of PM0. 1 OA in winter in California, while meat cooking, mobile emissions (gasoline and diesel engines), and other anthropogenic sources (mainly solvent usage and waste disposal) are the most important sources in summer. Biogenic emissions are predicted to be the largest PM0. 1 SOA source, followed by mobile sources and other anthropogenic sources, but these rankings are sensitive to the SOA model used in the calculation. Air pollution control programs aiming to reduce the PM0. 1 OA concentrations should consider controlling solvent usage, waste disposal, and mobile emissions in California, but these findings should be revisited after the latest science is incorporated into the SOA exposure calculations. The spatial distributions of SOA associated with different sources are not sensitive to the choice of

  20. Long-term data storage in diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV?) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV? optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multic...

  1. Long-Term Environmental Research Programs - Evolving Capacity for Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term forestry, watershed, and ecological research sites have become critical, productive nodes for environmental science research and in some cases for work in the social sciences and humanities. The Forest Service's century-old Experimental Forests and Ranges and the National Science Foundation's 28- year-old Long-Term Ecological Research program have been remarkably productive in both basic and applied sciences, including characterization of acid rain and old-growth ecosystems and development of forest, watershed, and range management systems for commercial and other land use objectives. A review of recent developments suggests steps to enhance the function of collections of long-term research sites as interactive science networks. The programs at these sites have evolved greatly, especially over the past few decades, as the questions addressed, disciplines engaged, and degree of science integration have grown. This is well displayed by small, experimental watershed studies, which first were used for applied hydrology studies then more fundamental biogeochemical studies and now examination of complex ecosystem processes; all capitalizing on the legacy of intensive studies and environmental monitoring spanning decades. In very modest ways these collections of initially independent sites have functioned increasingly as integrated research networks addressing inter-site questions by using common experimental designs, being part of a single experiment, and examining long-term data in a common analytical framework. The network aspects include data sharing via publicly-accessible data-harvester systems for climate and streamflow data. The layering of one research or environmental monitoring network upon another facilitates synergies. Changing climate and atmospheric chemistry highlight a need to use these networks as continental-scale observatory systems for assessing the impacts of environmental change on ecological services. To better capitalize on long-term

  2. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Long term physical and chemical stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grooth, Joris; Haakmeester, Brian; Wever, Carlos; Potreck, Jens; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a detailed investigation into the long term stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) modified membranes, a key factor for the application of these membranes in water purification processes. Although PEM modified membranes have been frequently investigated, their long term

  4. Radiation induced processes in moss cells. Short term and long term radiation responses of special interest after microbeam uv irradiation of the haploid moss cells of Funaria hygrometrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doehren, R v [Mainz Univ. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemie

    1975-01-01

    The moss F.h. shows apical growth in the protonema cells which spread radially from the spor. Every apical daughter cell during the state of 'Caulonema' and just before in the state of 'Caulonema Primanen' initiates cell division as soon as more than twice the length of the mother cell is reached. All this allows to follow radiation effects in single cells conveniently. UV irradiation on the range of 254 nm and 280 nm delivered at different parts of the cell area delays cell division markedly may suppress it, and is able to stop the process of growing in relation to the delivered dose and to the irradiated area as well. In case of irradiation of the area next to where the membrane is just being formed - that is to say next to the phragmoplast - the new membrane will be wrongly oriented. In particular giant cells are occurring in the case of nucleus irradiation during early prophase.

  5. Self-referential processing is distinct from semantic elaboration: evidence from long-term memory effects in a patient with amnesia and semantic impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jie; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2013-11-01

    We report data demonstrating that self-referential encoding facilitates memory performance in the absence of effects of semantic elaboration in a severely amnesic patient also suffering semantic problems. In Part 1, the patient, GA, was trained to associate items with the self or a familiar other during the encoding phase of a memory task (self-ownership decisions in Experiment 1 and self-evaluation decisions in Experiment 2). Tests of memory showed a consistent self-reference advantage, relative to a condition where the reference was another person in both experiments. The pattern of the self-reference advantage was similar to that in healthy controls. In Part 2 we demonstrate that GA showed minimal effects of semantic elaboration on memory for items he semantically classified, compared with items subject to physical size decisions; in contrast, healthy controls demonstrated enhanced memory performance after semantic relative to physical encoding. The results indicate that self-referential encoding, not semantic elaboration, improves memory in amnesia. Self-referential processing may provide a unique scaffold to help improve learning in amnesic cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of different bulking agents on water variation and thermal balance and their respective contribution to bio-generated heat during long-term storage sludge biodrying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiantian; Cui, Chongwei; He, Junguo; Tang, Jian

    2018-04-17

    Biodrying was first used for the post-treatment of long-term storage sludge with vinasse as bulking agents. The effect of different bulking agents on water and heat variation and their respective contributions to bio-generated heat during storage sludge biodrying were investigated. Three different bulking agents (beer lees and distillers grains, with conventional straw used for comparison) were mixed with storage sludge for biodrying for an 18-day period. The results revealed the treatment with beer lees as bulking agent achieved the best performance with the highest water removal capacity (658 g kg -1 initial water). The extent of organic degradation in the mixture was related to the degradation ability of the bulking agents. The degradation of C- and H-containing materials (e.g., carboxylic acid) accounted for volatile solids (VS) loss. Water and thermal analyses showed that evaporation was the main way of water loss (accounting for 90%), while evaporation heat was the main component of heat consumption (accounting for 56.67-60.62%).The biodegradation of bulking agents contributed a high proportion of the bio-generated heat consumed by water evaporation (82.35-86.67%).

  7. Navigating Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Holt MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Americans over age 65 constitute a larger percentage of the population each year: from 14% in 2010 (40 million elderly to possibly 20% in 2030 (70 million elderly. In 2015, an estimated 66 million people provided care to the ill, disabled, and elderly in the United States. In 2000, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 15 million Americans used some form of long-term care: adult day care, home health, nursing home, or hospice. In all, 13% of people over 85 years old, compared with 1% of those ages 65 to 74, live in nursing homes in the United States. Transitions of care, among these various levels of care, are common: Nursing home to hospital transfer, one of the best-studied transitions, occurs in more than 25% of nursing home residents per year. This article follows one patient through several levels of care.

  8. The Development of a Long-Term, Continually Updated Global Solar Resource at 10 km Resolution: Preliminary Results From Test Processing and Continuing Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, P.; Perez, R.; Sengupta, M.; Knapp, K.; Cox, Stephen; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Zhang, T.; Hemker, K.; Schlemmer, J.; Kivalov, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considering the likelihood of global climatic weather pattern changes and the global competition for energy resources, there is an increasing need to provide improved and continuously updated global Earth surface solar resource information. Toward this end, a project was funded under the NASA Applied Science program involving the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the State University of New York/Albany (SUNY) and the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) to provide NREL with a global long-term advanced global solar mapping production system for improved depiction of historical solar resources and variability and to provide a mechanism for continual updates of solar resource information. This new production system is made possible by the efforts of NOAA and NASA to completely reprocess the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data set that provides satellite visible and infrared radiances together with retrieved cloud and surface properties on a 3-hourly basis beginning from July 1983. The old version of the ISCCP data provided this information for all the world TMs available geosynchronous satellite systems and NOAA TMs AVHRR data sets at a 30 km effective resolution. This new version aims to provide a new and improved satellite calibration at an effective 10 km resolution. Thus, working with SUNY, NASA will develop and test an improved production system that will enable NREL to continually update the Earth TM solar resource. Objective and Methods: In this presentation, we provide a general overview of this project together with samples of the new solar irradiance mapped data products and comparisons to surface measurements at various locations across the world. An assessment of the solar resource values relative to calibration uncertainty and assumptions are presented. Errors resulting assumptions in snow cover and background aerosol

  9. Long term study of mechanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, properties of limestone cement concrete containing different replacement levels of limestone powder were examined. It includes 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of limestone powder as a partial replacement of cement. Silica fume was added incorporated with limestone powder in some mixes to enhance the concrete properties. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were determined. Also, durability of limestone cement concrete with different C3A contents was examined. The weight loss, length change and cube compressive strength loss were measured for concrete attacked by 5% sodium sulfate using an accelerated test up to 525 days age. The corrosion resistance was measured through accelerated corrosion test using first crack time, cracking width and steel reinforcement weight loss. Consequently, for short and long term, the use of limestone up to 10% had not a significant reduction in concrete properties. It is not recommended to use blended limestone cement in case of sulfate attack. The use of limestone cement containing up to 25% limestone has insignificant effect on corrosion resistance before cracking.

  10. Long-term competence restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas R; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    While the United States Supreme Court's Jackson v. Indiana decision and most state statutes mandate determinations of incompetent defendants' restoration probabilities, courts and forensic clinicians continue to lack empirical evidence to guide these determinations and do not yet have a consensus regarding whether and under what circumstances incompetent defendants are restorable. The evidence base concerning the restoration likelihood of those defendants who fail initial restoration efforts is even further diminished and has largely gone unstudied. In this study, we examined the disposition of a cohort of defendants who underwent long-term competence restoration efforts (greater than six months) and identified factors related to whether these defendants were able to attain restoration and adjudicative success. Approximately two-thirds (n = 52) of the 81 individuals undergoing extended restoration efforts were eventually deemed restored to competence. Lengths of hospitalization until successful restoration are presented with implications for the reasonable length of time that restoration efforts should persist. Older individuals were less likely to be restored and successfully adjudicated, and individuals with more severe charges and greater factual legal understanding were more likely to be restored and adjudicated. The significance of these findings for courts and forensic clinicians is discussed.

  11. Uranium ... long-term confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Half way through 1983 the outlook for the world's uranium producers was far from bright if one takes a short term view. The readily accessible facts present a gloomy picture. The spot prices of uranium over the past few years decreased from a high of $42-$43/lb to a low of $17 in 1982. It now hovers between $23 and $24. the contract prices negotiated between producers and consumers are not so accessible but they do not reflect the spot price. The reasons why contractual uranium prices do not follow the usual dictates of supply and demand are related to the position in which uranium and associated power industries find themselves. There is public reaction with strong emotional overtones as well as much reduced expectations about the electric power needs of the world. Furthermore the supply of uranium is not guaranteed despite present over production. However the people in the industry, taking the medium- and long-term view, are not despondent

  12. Long-term corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this activity is to assess the long-term corrosion properties of metallic materials under consideration for fabricating waste package containers. Three classes of metals are to be assessed: corrosion resistant, intermediate corrosion resistant, and corrosion allowance. Corrosion properties to be evaluated are general, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and galvanic corrosion. The performance of these materials will be investigated under conditions that are considered relevant to the potential emplacement site. Testing in four aqueous solutions, and vapor phases above them, and at two temperatures are planned for this activity. (The environmental conditions, test metals, and matrix are described in detail in Section 3.0.) The purpose and objective of this activity is to obtain the kinetic and mechanistic information on degradation of metallic alloys currently being considered for waste package containers. This information will be used to provide assistance to (1) waste package design (metal barrier selection) (E-20-90 to E-20-92), (2) waste package performance assessment activities (SIP-PA-2), (3) model development (E-20-75 to E-20-89). and (4) repository license application

  13. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  14. Long-term stability of FeSO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} treated chromite ore processing residue (COPR): Importance of H{sup +} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Jingdong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Linling, E-mail: wanglinling@mail.hust.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Jing, E-mail: chenjing@mail.hust.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hou, Huijie; Yang, Jiakuan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lu, Xiaohua [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • The long-term stability of the FeSO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} treated COPR was evaluated. • Reliable long-term stability for samples curing 400 days was achieved. • H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} significantly enhanced the stabilization efficiency of COPR using FeSO{sub 4}. • H{sup +} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} both reinforced Cr(VI) release from COPR core to react with Fe(II). - Abstract: In this study, the long-term stability of Cr(VI) in the FeSO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (FeSO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) treated chromite ore processing residue (COPR) after 400 curing days and the stabilization mechanisms were investigated. FeSO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} treatment significantly reduced toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) Cr(VI) concentrations to lower than the regulatory limit of 1.5 mg L{sup −1} (HJ/T 301-2007, China EPA) even for the samples curing 400 days, achieving an outstanding long-term stability. Our independent leaching tests revealed that H{sup +} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} have synergistic effect on promoting the release of Cr(VI), which would make Cr(VI) easier accessed by Fe(II) during stabilization. The contributions of H{sup +} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} to Cr(VI) release ratio were 25%–44% and 19%–38%, respectively, as 5 mol H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} per kg COPR was used. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and alkaline digestion analyses were also employed to interpret the possible stabilization mechanism. Cr(VI) released from COPR solid was reduced to Cr(III) by Fe(II), and then formed stable Fe{sub x}Cr{sub (1−x)}(OH){sub 3} precipitate. This study provides a facile and reliable scheme for COPR stabilization, and verifies the excellent long-term stability of the FeSO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} treated COPR.

  15. Evaluation of long term leaching of borosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, F.; Parnisari, E.

    1978-01-01

    For the evaluation of long term hazard of glass, data on long term glass leaching are needed. Moreover for long term leaching a model of homogeneous dissolution seems reasonable and ask for confirmation. Tests were performed at 30 0 , 80 0 , 100 0 , using an apparatus of the Soxhlet type, to 3.600 hours. Results were obtained as a weight loss and analysed following a relation with time composed by a parabolic and a linear part. Analysis of the surface layer using energy dispersion X ray spectrometry were performed. A critical analysis of the results and of the apparatus is presented

  16. Institutionalization and Organizational Long-term Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Fleck

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalization processes have an ambivalent effect on organizational long-term success. Even though they foster organizational stability and permanence, they also bring about rigidity and resistance to change. As a result, successful organizations are likely to lose their competitive advantage over time. The paper addresses this issue through the investigation of the institutionalization processes of two long-lived companies: General Electric, a firm that has been a long-term success and its rival, Westinghouse, which was broken up after eleven decades of existence. The longitudinal, multilevel analysis of firms and industry has identified two different modes of organizational institutionalization. The reactive mode gives rise to rigidity and change resistance, much like institutional theory predicts; the proactive mode, on the other hand, neutralizes those negative effects of institutionalization processes. In the reactive mode, structure predominates. In the proactive mode, agency plays a major role in organizational institutionalization, and in managing the organization’s relations with the environment, clearly contributing to environmental institutionalization.

  17. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  18. Long story short: an introduction to the short-term and long-term Six Sigma quality and its importance in the laboratory medicine for the management of extra-analytical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialongo, Cristiano; Bernardini, Sergio

    2018-06-18

    There is a compelling need for quality tools that enable effective control of the extra-analytical phase. In this regard, Six Sigma seems to offer a valid methodological and conceptual opportunity, and in recent times, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine has adopted it for indicating the performance requirements for non-analytical laboratory processes. However, the Six Sigma implies a distinction between short-term and long-term quality that is based on the dynamics of the processes. These concepts are still not widespread and applied in the field of laboratory medicine although they are of fundamental importance to exploit the full potential of this methodology. This paper reviews the Six Sigma quality concepts and shows how they originated from Shewhart's control charts, in respect of which they are not an alternative but a completion. It also discusses the dynamic nature of process and how it arises, concerning particularly the long-term dynamic mean variation, and explains why this leads to the fundamental distinction of quality we previously mentioned.

  19. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

    2005-06-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source.

  20. Long-term preservation of anammox bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Vanotti, Matias B; Szögi, Ariel A; Gonzalez, Maria Cruz Garcia; Fujii, Takao

    2011-10-01

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass was frozen or lyophilized at two different freezing temperatures (-60°C and in liquid nitrogen (-200°C)) in skim milk media (with and without glycerol), and the reactivation of anammox activity was monitored after a 4-month storage period. Of the different preservation treatments tested, only anammox biomass preserved via freezing in liquid nitrogen followed by lyophilization in skim milk media without glycerol achieved stoichiometric ratios for the anammox reaction similar to the biomass in both the parent bioreactor and in the freshly harvested control treatment. A freezing temperature of -60°C alone, or in conjunction with lyophilization, resulted in the partial recovery of the anammox bacteria, with an equal mixture of anammox and nitrifying bacteria in the reactivated biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful reactivation of anammox biomass preserved via sub-zero freezing and/or lyophilization. The simple preservation protocol developed from this study could be beneficial to accelerate the integration of anammox-based processes into current treatment systems through a highly efficient starting anammox biomass.

  1. long term energy long term energy performan performan power pla

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    roviding an energy performance analysis of Egbin thermal power plan tive Rankine .... effects [8]. The Egbin Electric power business unit is a steam thermal plant that makes use of steam to drive its ..... cogeneration plant- a case study.” Part A: ...

  2. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-01-01

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used to determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality

  3. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  4. Persistent traditions : a long-term perspective on communities in the process of Neolithisation in the Lower Rhine Area (5500-2500 cal BC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amkreutz, Luc Winand Sophia Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of agriculture is one of the major developments in human history. Archaeological studies have demonstrated that the trajectories of Neolithisation in Northwest Europe were diverse. This book presents a study into the archaeology of the indigenous communities involved in the process of

  5. Long-term control of root growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  6. Introduction: Long term economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyka, Andreas; Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2012-01-01

    The general theme of the 13th International Joseph A. Schumpeter Society Conference, held during June 21st–24th, 2010 at Aalborg University in Denmark, was the exploration of the interrelated phenomena of innovation, organization, sustainability and crises. By addressing these phenomena an attemp...... was made to confront some of the underexplored parts the Schumpeterian legacy, but there was also room for new results concerning more well-developed parts of evolutionary economics....

  7. Parental divorce during early adolescence in Caucasian families: the role of family process variables in predicting the long-term consequences for early adult psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, P; Forehand, R; Armistead, L; Tannenbaum, L

    1998-04-01

    The relationship between parental divorce occurring during adolescence and young adult psychosocial adjustment was examined, as was the role of family process variables in clarifying this relationship. Participants were young Caucasian adults from divorced (n = 119) and married (n = 123) families. Assessments were conducted during adolescence and 6 years later during early adulthood. Young adults from married families reported more secure romantic attachments than those from divorced families; however, differences were not evident in other domains of psychosocial adjustment after demographic variables were controlled. Three family process variables (parent-adolescent relationship, interparental conflict, and maternal depressive symptoms) were examined as potential mediators and moderators of the association between parental divorce and young adult adjustment. No evidence supporting mediation or moderation was found; however, the parent-adolescent and parent-young adult relationships, particularly when the identified parent was the father, emerged as significant predictors of young adult psychosocial adjustment.

  8. Energy in 2010 - 2020. Long term challenges; Energie 2010-2020. Les defis du long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, Benjamin [ed.] [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-02-02

    This report presents the results of a workshop intending to anticipate the long term challenges, to guide better the short term power options, to understand the available political, economical and technical assumptions for the prospective world situation, to give some strategic hints on the necessary transition. Indeed, the difficult issue which the workshop tried to tackle was how should we prepare to reveal the energetic challenge of the development of the eight to ten billion inhabitants of our Planet in the next century without jeopardizing its existence. The energetic problems, a hardcore of the international preoccupation of both growth and environment, as it was recently evidenced by the climatic conference in Kyoto, have ever been the object of a particular attention on the part of General Commissariat of Plan. Thus, the commission 'Energy in 2010 - 2020' has been instituted in April 1996 in order to update the works done in 1990 - 1991 by the commission 'Energy 2010'. Soon it occurred to this new commission the task of illuminating its works by a long term (2050 - 2100) world prospective analysis of the challenges and problems linked to energy, growth and environment. In conclusion, this document tried to find answers to questions like: - which are the risks the energy consumption augmentation entail? - can we control them by appropriate urbanism and transport policies or technological innovation?. Four options for immediate action are suggested: - the energy efficiency should become a priority objective of policies; -coping with the long term challenges requires acting at present; - building the transition between governmental leadership and market; - taking profit of all the possible synergies between short and long term planning.

  9. Method for on-state measurement, trend analysis and long-term monitoring of radiation exposures in the private environment, and device for implementing the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jitschin, W.; Kalwar, K.

    1987-01-01

    Plans are made to carry out measurements by means of a radiation detector, to transmit the data to a data processing computer and to display the calculated data on one or several data output devices. The data output device can be a monitor of the computer, a television set, or an electronic printer. The computer can be a cheap, commercially available, programmable minicomputer, a home computer or a personal computer. (orig./HP) [de

  10. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    are part of long-term site management. In response to post-closure care requirements set forth in UMTRCA, DOE Headquarters established the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Program in 1988 at the DOE office in Grand Junction, Colorado. The program assumed long-term management responsibility for sites remediated under UMTRCA and other programs. Since its inception, the LTS&M Program has evolved in response to changing stakeholder needs, improvements in technology, and the addition of more DOE sites as remediation is completed. The mission of the LTS&M Program was to fulfill DOE's responsibility to implement all activities necessary to ensure regulatory compliance and to protect the public and the environment from long-lived wastes associated with the nation's nuclear energy, weapons, and research activities. Key components of the LTS&M Program included stakeholder participation, site monitoring and maintenance, records and information management, and research and technology transfer. This report presents summaries of activities conducted in 2003 in fulfillment of the LTS&M Program mission. On December 15, 2003, DOE established the Office of Legacy Management (LM) to allow for optimum management of DOE's legacy responsibilities. Offices are located in Washington, DC, Grand Junction, Colorado, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to perform long-term site management, land management, site transition support, records management, and other related tasks. All activities formerly conducted under the LTS&M Program have been incorporated into the Office of Land and Site Management (LM-50), as well as management of remedies involving ground water and surface water contaminated by former processing activities

  11. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    are part of long-term site management. In response to post-closure care requirements set forth in UMTRCA, DOE Headquarters established the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Program in 1988 at the DOE office in Grand Junction, Colorado. The program assumed long-term management responsibility for sites remediated under UMTRCA and other programs. Since its inception, the LTS&M Program has evolved in response to changing stakeholder needs, improvements in technology, and the addition of more DOE sites as remediation is completed. The mission of the LTS&M Program was to fulfill DOE’s responsibility to implement all activities necessary to ensure regulatory compliance and to protect the public and the environment from long-lived wastes associated with the nation’s nuclear energy, weapons, and research activities. Key components of the LTS&M Program included stakeholder participation, site monitoring and maintenance, records and information management, and research and technology transfer. This report presents summaries of activities conducted in 2003 in fulfillment of the LTS&M Program mission. On December 15, 2003, DOE established the Office of Legacy Management (LM) to allow for optimum management of DOE’s legacy responsibilities. Offices are located in Washington, DC, Grand Junction, Colorado, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to perform long-term site management, land management, site transition support, records management, and other related tasks. All activities formerly conducted under the LTS&M Program have been incorporated into the Office of Land and Site Management (LM–50), as well as management of remedies involving ground water and surface water contaminated by former processing activities.

  12. Long-term Simulation Study about the Impact of submerse Macrophytes on thermal Stratification Dynamics and Transport Processes in an extreme shallow water lake - Lake Federsee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Thomas; Pöschke, Franziska; Pflugbeil, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Lake Federsee is formed primarily by ice age processes and was subjected to strong siltation processes in post-glacial times, while in the last two centuries anthropogenic impact due to amelioration projects became more important and determined it's morphometry. Lake Federsee has a maximum length of 2.4 km, a maximum width of 1.1 km and an area of approx. 1.4 km2. With respect to it's area Lake Federsee is the third largest lake in the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg situated in the south of Germany. It is characterized by its very flat bathymetry with a maximum depth of about 3.15 m and an average depth of about 1 m. In recent years Lake Federsee has undergone a strong reduction of the nutrient content, thus developing from hypertrophic states in the years 1980ies to eutrophic conditions in the years 2000ies. Since 2005 this development is accompanied by a change of the general habitus of the lake converting from a lake dominated by algae to a lake dominated by macrophytes. Changing successions of aquatic plants have been observed in the lake with strong seasonal variations in the composition and density of the vegetation cover, however forming often an almost complete coverage of the lake. In the present study the implementation of the hydrodynamic, three-dimensional model DELFT3D - FLOW for this extreme shallow water lake will be presented. The impact of some numerical parameters will be investigated in a sensitivity study, which is aiming to set up the hydrodynamic model in an optimal way. This 3-dim hydrodynamic model is used to simulate the 3-dim flow field and to investigate the thermal stratification as well as the mixing processes taking place in this lake. The model is run for the simulation time period 2000 - 2016 having a horizontal resolution of dx=dy=50 m and 10 or 20 equidistantly spaced fixed vertical layers giving a vertical resolution of 0.32 or 0.16 m respectively. The timestep is choosen to be dt = 10 s. Analysis of the simulated vertical

  13. Reconstruction of peak water levels, peak discharges and long-term occurrence of extreme- as well as smaller pre-instrumental flood events of river Aare, Limmat, Reuss, Rhine and Saane in Switzerland. Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver; Tuttenuj, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    systematically analysed the period from 1446-1542 and could prove a large number of pre-instrumental flood events of river Rhine, Birs, Birsig and Wiese in Basel. All in all the weekly led account books contained 54 Rhine flood events, whereas chroniclers and annalists only recorded seven floods during the same period. This is a ratio of almost eight to one. This large difference points to the significantly sharper "observation skills" of the account books towards smaller floods, which may be explained by the fact that bridges can be endangered by relatively small floods because of driftwood, whereas it is known that chroniclers or annalists were predominantly focussing on spectacular (extreme) flood events. We [Oliver Wetter and Daniel Tuttenuj] are now able to present first preliminary results of reconstructed peak water levels and peak discharges of pre instrumental river Aare-, Emme-, Limmat-, Reuss-, Rhine- and Saane floods. These first results clearly show the strengths as well as the limits of the data and method used, depending mainly on the river types. Of the above mentioned rivers only the floods of river Emme could not be reconstructed whereas the long-term development of peak water levels and peak discharges of the other rivers clearly correlate with major local and supra-regional Swiss flood corrections over time. PhD student Daniel Tuttenuj is going to present the results for river Emme and Saane (see Abstract Daniel Tuttenuj), whereas Dr Oliver Wetter is going to present the results for the other rivers and gives a first insight on long-term recurring periods of smaller river Birs-, Birsig-, Rhine- and Wiese flood events based on the analysis of the weekly led account books "Wochenausgabenbücher der Stadt Basel" (see also Abstract of Daniel Tuttenuj).

  14. Compromised quality of life in adult patients who have received a radiation dose towards the basal part of the brain. A case-control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löfdahl Elisabet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders have compromised quality of life (QoL. Whether this is due to their endocrine consequences (hypopituitarism, their underlying hypothalamic-pituitary disorder or both is still under debate. The aim of this trial was to measure quality of life (QoL in long-term cancer survivors who have received a radiation dose to the basal part of the brain and the pituitary. Methods Consecutive patients (n=101 treated for oropharyngeal or epipharyngeal cancer with radiotherapy followed free of cancer for a period of 4 to10 years were identified. Fifteen patients (median age 56 years with no concomitant illness and no hypopituitarism after careful endocrine evaluation were included in a case-control study with matched healthy controls. Doses to the hypothalamic-pituitary region were calculated. QoL was assessed using the Symptom check list (SCL-90, Nottingham Health Profile (NHP, and Psychological Well Being (PGWB questionnaires. Level of physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. Results The median accumulated dose was 1.9 Gy (1.5–2.2 Gy to the hypothalamus and 2.4 Gy (1.8–3.3 Gy to the pituitary gland in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 6.0–9.3 Gy and 33.5–46.1 Gy, respectively in patients with epipharyngeal cancer (n=2. The patients showed significantly more anxiety and depressiveness, and lower vitality, than their matched controls. Conclusion In a group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who hade received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region and who had no endocrine consequences of disease or its treatment QoL was compromised as compared with well matched healthy controls.

  15. Compromised quality of life in adult patients who have received a radiation dose towards the basal part of the brain. A case-control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfdahl, Elisabet; Berg, Gertrud; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Zachrisson, Maria Leonsson; Malmgren, Helge; Mercke, Claes; Olsson, Erik; Wiren, Lena; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2012-10-29

    Adult patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders have compromised quality of life (QoL). Whether this is due to their endocrine consequences (hypopituitarism), their underlying hypothalamic-pituitary disorder or both is still under debate. The aim of this trial was to measure quality of life (QoL) in long-term cancer survivors who have received a radiation dose to the basal part of the brain and the pituitary. Consecutive patients (n=101) treated for oropharyngeal or epipharyngeal cancer with radiotherapy followed free of cancer for a period of 4 to10 years were identified. Fifteen patients (median age 56 years) with no concomitant illness and no hypopituitarism after careful endocrine evaluation were included in a case-control study with matched healthy controls. Doses to the hypothalamic-pituitary region were calculated. QoL was assessed using the Symptom check list (SCL)-90, Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), and Psychological Well Being (PGWB) questionnaires. Level of physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. The median accumulated dose was 1.9 Gy (1.5-2.2 Gy) to the hypothalamus and 2.4 Gy (1.8-3.3 Gy) to the pituitary gland in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 6.0-9.3 Gy and 33.5-46.1 Gy, respectively in patients with epipharyngeal cancer (n=2). The patients showed significantly more anxiety and depressiveness, and lower vitality, than their matched controls. In a group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who hade received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region and who had no endocrine consequences of disease or its treatment QoL was compromised as compared with well matched healthy controls.

  16. Compromised quality of life in adult patients who have received a radiation dose towards the basal part of the brain. A case-control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Löfdahl, Elisabet; Berg, Gertrud; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Zachrisson, Maria Leonsson; Malmgren, Helge; Mercke, Claes; Olsson, Erik; Wiren, Lena; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2012-01-01

    Adult patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders have compromised quality of life (QoL). Whether this is due to their endocrine consequences (hypopituitarism), their underlying hypothalamic-pituitary disorder or both is still under debate. The aim of this trial was to measure quality of life (QoL) in long-term cancer survivors who have received a radiation dose to the basal part of the brain and the pituitary. Consecutive patients (n=101) treated for oropharyngeal or epipharyngeal cancer with radiotherapy followed free of cancer for a period of 4 to10 years were identified. Fifteen patients (median age 56 years) with no concomitant illness and no hypopituitarism after careful endocrine evaluation were included in a case-control study with matched healthy controls. Doses to the hypothalamic-pituitary region were calculated. QoL was assessed using the Symptom check list (SCL)-90, Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), and Psychological Well Being (PGWB) questionnaires. Level of physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. The median accumulated dose was 1.9 Gy (1.5–2.2 Gy) to the hypothalamus and 2.4 Gy (1.8–3.3 Gy) to the pituitary gland in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 6.0–9.3 Gy and 33.5–46.1 Gy, respectively in patients with epipharyngeal cancer (n=2). The patients showed significantly more anxiety and depressiveness, and lower vitality, than their matched controls. In a group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who hade received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region and who had no endocrine consequences of disease or its treatment QoL was compromised as compared with well matched healthy controls

  17. Upward appraisal as a means for improving supervisory performance and promoting process improvement, with long-term implications for organizational change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfeldt, Denise V.

    1994-01-01

    This study represents the implementation phase of an organizational development project which was initiated last year in the Management Support Division (MSD) at Langley Research Center to diagnose organizational functioning. As a result of MSD survey data from last year's effort, a Quality Action Team was created to address the responses compiled from the MSD Organizational Assessment Questionnaire and Follow-Up Questionnaire. The team was officially named the MSD Employee Relations Improvement Team (MERIT). MERIT's goal was to analyze major concerns generated by the questionnaires and to present feasible solutions to management which would improve supervisory performance, promote process improvement; and ultimately, lead to a better organization. The team met weekly and was very disciplined in following guidelines needed to ensure a fully functioning team. Several TQM tools were used during the team process, including brainstorming and the cause and effect diagram. One of the products produced by MERIT was a 'report card', more formally known as an upward appraisal system, to evaluate supervisory performance in the division office, its three branches, and in teams. Major areas of emphasis on the 47 item report card were those identified by employees through the previously administered questionnaires as needing to be improved; specifically, training, recognition, teamwork, supervision and leadership, and communication. MERIT created an enlarged and modified version of the report card which enabled scores for each individual supervisor to be recorded on a separate form, along with summary results and employee comments. Report card results have been compiled and fed back to the Division Chief and Assistant Division Chief. These individuals will in turn, feed the results back to the remaining supervisors and the team leaders. Although results differ among supervisors, some similarities exist. Communication generally appears to be adequate, which represents an

  18. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic factors in the isolation of nuclear waste: evaluation of long-term geomorphic processes and catastrophic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mara, S.J.

    1980-03-01

    SRI International has projected the rate, duration, and magnitude of geomorphic processes and events in the Southwest and Gulf Coast over the next million years. This information will be used by the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as input to a computer model, which will be used to simulate possible release scenarios and the consequences of the release of nuclear waste from geologic containment. The estimates in this report, although based on best scientific judgment, are subject to considerable uncertainty. An evaluation of the Quaternary history of the two study areas revealed that each had undergone geomorphic change in the last one million years. Catastrophic events were evaluated in order to determine their significance to the simulation model. Given available data, catastrophic floods are not expected to occur in the two study areas. Catastrophic landslides may occur in the Southwest, but because the duration of the event is brief and the amount of material moved is small in comparison to regional denudation, such events need not be included in the simulation model. Ashfalls, however, could result in removal of vegetation from the landscape, thereby causing significant increases in erosion rates. Because the estimates developed during this study may not be applicable to specific sites, general equations were presented as a first step in refining the analysis. These equations identify the general relationships among the important variables and suggest those areas of concern for which further data are required. If the current model indicates that geomorphic processes (taken together with other geologic changes) may ultimately affect the geologic containment of nuclear waste, further research may be necessary to refine this analysis for application to specific sites

  19. Long-term process of reforming the economy of Republic of Serbia in order to achieve macroeconomic stabilization: From transient changes to the activist approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's economy, which is burdened by problems such as non-productive economy, high unemployment rates, constant inflationary pressures, great attention is paid to the interaction of monetary and fiscal policies in order to achieve macroeconomic stability. There is no universal model of economic policy even in countries around the world, nor in the Serbian economy, and policy makers are looking for the optimal design of monetary and fiscal strategies and their synchronization with other non-negligible specific economic policy objectives (in terms of balance of payments, objectives related to foreign currency course, the distribution of income, implemented stage of market reforms of the nineties, and then phase of reforms in the first decade of the 21st century. How good coordination of monetary and fiscal measures can be no qualitative basis, or as it is not possible to reconstruct and degrade previous economic structure, and that there is no definition of the new strategy, and continued the process of reforming and in the period from the time of deepening global financial crisis in 2008 . The Republic of Serbia, a country whose economy in the long process of reforming, seeks better use of comparative advantages, encouraging production and employment, adequate planning and allocation of available resources of its own and charge, absorption of new technologies, intensifying exports, encouraging investment, and with a constant potential danger which increase the vulnerability of small economies. The solid foundations of macroeconomic stability and discipline must be in production, proper allocation of resources, which will run the economy, and then increase the employment rate, and therefore national income. of crucial importance of good projections of macroeconomic aggregates, because of them depend on public revenue and public expenditure.

  20. Adverse event reporting in Czech long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hěib, Zdenřk; Vychytil, Pavel; Marx, David

    2013-04-01

    To describe adverse event reporting processes in long-term care facilities in the Czech Republic. Prospective cohort study involving a written questionnaire followed by in-person structured interviews with selected respondents. Long-term care facilities located in the Czech Republic. Staff of 111 long-term care facilities (87% of long-term care facilities in the Czech Republic). None. Sixty-three percent of long-term health-care facilities in the Czech Republic have adverse event-reporting processes already established, but these were frequently very immature programs sometimes consisting only of paper recording of incidents. Compared to questionnaire responses, in-person interview responses only partially tended to confirm the results of the written survey. Twenty-one facilities (33%) had at most 1 unconfirmed response, 31 facilities (49%) had 2 or 3 unconfirmed responses and the remaining 11 facilities (17%) had 4 or more unconfirmed responses. In-person interviews suggest that use of a written questionnaire to assess the adverse event-reporting process may have limited validity. Staff of the facilities we studied expressed an understanding of the importance of adverse event reporting and prevention, but interviews also suggested a lack of knowledge necessary for establishing a good institutional reporting system in long-term care.

  1. Long-term Agroecosystem Research in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmer, M.; Sanderson, M.; Liebig, M. A.; Wienhold, B.; Awada, T.; Papiernik, S.; Osborne, S.; Kemp, W.; Okalebo, J. A.; Riedall, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Great Plains is the bread basket of the United States, accounting for a substantial portion of U.S. agricultural production. This region faces critical challenges regarding balancing food needs, resource conservation (e.g Ogallala aquifer), environmental concerns, and rural economy development. Developing transformative, multifunctional systems will require equally imaginative and efficient tools to help farmers manage complex agroecosystems in a rapidly changing climate. The Northern Plains long-term agroecosystem research (LTAR) site at Mandan, ND and the Platte River High Plains LTAR (ARS/University of Nebraska-Lincoln) at Lincoln, NE in collaboration with USDA-ARS research units in Brookings, SD and Fargo, ND are collaborating to address the grand challenge of providing and sustaining multiple service provisions from Northern Great Plains agroecosystems. We propose to attain these goals through sustainable intensification based on the adoption of conservation agriculture principles including reduced soil disturbance, livestock integration, and greater complexity and diversity in the cropping system. Here, we summarize new concepts these locations have pioneered in dynamic cropping systems, resource use efficiency, and agricultural management technologies. As part of the LTAR network, we will conduct long-term cross-site research to design and assess new agricultural practices and systems aimed at improving our understanding of decision making processes and outcomes across an array of agricultural systems.

  2. The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's advice to ministers on the process for formulation of future policy for the long term management of UK solid radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This report sets out the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's (RWMAC's) view of the way in which policy for the long-term management of the United Kingdom's (UK's) solid radioactive waste should be developed. It does not cover subsequent policy implementation stages, which will need to be the subject of separate consideration. It is RWMAC's view that 'do nothing' or 'decide-announce-defend' approaches to policy formulation are inappropriate, and what is needed is a consensus-building approach involving full and open discussion of the issues. Such an approach now offers the best chance of identifying a policy that can ultimately be delivered. This process must be founded on a set of clear guiding principles. These should be: provision of adequate time for exploration and resolution of complex issues; early involvement of the public and other stakeholders; openness and transparency; a deliberative and accessible process in decision-making; and commitment to appropriate peer review of scientific and other expert input. The issue of equity, that is the extent to which both the process for deciding policy and the policy itself are generally perceived and accepted to be fair, will also need to be explored. The process should provide for all the practicable options for the long-term management of the UK's radioactive waste to be assessed against a set of common evaluation criteria. Both the list of practicable options and the criteria against which they are evaluated should be developed through a process of open discussion.

  3. Fuel ethanol production from granular corn starch using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a long term repeated SSF process with full stillage recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, Wojciech; Szymanowska, Daria; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2010-05-01

    A major problem with fermentative ethanol production is the formation of large amounts of numerous organic pollutants. In an industrial distillery, stillage, fermenter and condenser cooling water are the main sources of wastewater. However, the selection of a proper technology makes it possible to almost completely avoid emissions of such kind of wastewater to the environment. This study examines the effect of stillage recirculation on fuel ethanol production. It is based on the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process using a native starch obtained from corn flour. It was shown that the yield of the ethanol production was not influenced by the recycled stillage, a mean yield being 83.38% of the theoretical value. No significant trend for change in the ethanol concentration or in the residual starch was observed during any particular run, even after the 75% of fresh water was replaced with stillage. Thus, by applying this new clean technology it is possible to significantly reduce the rate of water consumption and in this way the production of by-products such as stillage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Process stability and the recovery control associated with inhibition factors in a UASB-anammox reactor with a long-term operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qigui; He, Shilong; Zhang, Yanlong; Ma, Haiyuan; Liu, Yuan; Li, Yu-You

    2016-03-01

    A UASB-anammox reactor was operated for 900 days to study its process stability. The negative effects of free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) were investigated over three separate inhibitions and recoveries. The IC10, IC50 and IC90 (inhibitory concentration/a 10%, 50% and 90% activity loss) of FNA and FA responding to the NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N and TN removal efficiency were evaluated. In the 1st inhibition, the average FNA-IC10 observed was 0.67 μg L(-1) and the FA-IC10 for TN removal was 4.85 mg L(-1). In the 2nd inhibition, an FNA-IC10 of 0.44μ g L(-1) and an FA-IC10 of 3.56 were found. In the 3rd inhibition, however, both the FNA-IC10 and FA-IC10 were found to have increased, with values of 0.50 μg L(-1) and 4.42 mg L(-1), respectively. A clear control region was established for multiple inhibitions and the recoveries, which followed (pH 7.5-8.5, FA below 10mg/100mg NH4(+)-N and an FNA below 0.005 mg/100 mg NO2(-)-N) for the purpose of optimizing the operation conditions of the UASB-anammox reactor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Characteristics of long-term persisting strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus in different forms of the chronic process in animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, T V; Pogodina, V V; Frolova, M P; Karmysheva, V Ia

    1982-01-01

    The properties of the Vasilchenko strain of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and its 3 variants isolated at various stages of persistent infection (383, 453, and 535 days) in Macaca rhesus monkeys and Syrian hamsters with different forms of the chronic TBE were studied. The process characterized by chronic focal inflammatory-degenerative changes in the brains of hamsters without the disturbance of motor functions was associated with persistence of different kinds of virus-specific antigens without virulent virus production. Brain explants of this group of hamsters yielded a virus with cytopathogenic properties but not pathogenic for mice. In a chronic disease developing without the initial acute period, a virus was recovered from hamsters which proved to be virulent for mice and to possess the hemagglutinating and high invasive activity. The most virulent strain was isolated from monkeys with continuously progressive chronic encephalitis with steady paralysis of the extremities. This isolate differed from the parental Vasilchenko strain by a high pathogenicity for hamsters by intracerebral and subcutaneous routes, and thermostability at 50 degrees C.

  6. Data Acquisition for Low-Temperature Geothermal Well Tests and Long-Term Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P J

    1992-03-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  7. Data acquisition for low-temperature geothermal well tests and long-term monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  8. Catalytic heat exchangers - a long-term evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik A. [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A long-term evaluation concerning catalytic heat exchangers (CHEs) has been performed. The idea concerning CHEs was originally described in a number of reports issued by Catator almost a decade ago. The general idea with CHEs is to combust a fuel with a catalyst inside a heat exchanger to enable an effective heat transfer. The first design approaches demonstrated the function and the possibilities with CHEs but were defective concerning the heat exchanger design. Consequently, a heat exchanger company (SWEP International AB), which was specialised on brazed plate-type heat exchangers, joined the continued development project. Indeed, the new design approach containing Catator's wire-mesh catalysts and SWEP's plate-type heat exchangers enabled us to improve the concept considerably. The new design complied with a number of relevant technical demands, e.g.: Simplicity; Compactness and integration (few parts); High thermal efficiency; Low pressure drop; Excellent emissions; High turn-down ratio; Reasonable production cost. Spurred by the technical progresses, the importance of a long-term test under realistic conditions was clear. A long-term evaluation was initialised at Sydkraft Gas premises in Aastorp. The CHE was installed on a specially designed rig to enable accelerated testing with respect to the number of transients. The rig was operated continuously for 5000 hours and emission mapping was carried out at certain time intervals. Following some problems during the initial phase of the long-term evaluation, which unfortunately also delayed the project, the results indicated very stable conditions of operation. The emissions have been rather constant during the course of the test and we cannot see any tendencies to decreased performances. Indeed, the test verifies the function, operability and reliability of the CHE-concept. Apart from domestic boilers we foresee a number of interesting and relevant applications in heating and process technology. Since

  9. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  10. Science framework for conservation and restoration of the sagebrush biome: Linking the Department of the Interior’s Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy to long-term strategic conservation actions, Part 1. Science basis and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bradford, John B.; Bybee, Jared; Campbell, Steve; Carlson, John; Christiansen, Thomas J; Clause, Karen J.; Collins, Gail; Crist, Michele R.; Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Edwards, Fred; Espinosa, Shawn; Griffin, Kathleen A.; Griffin, Paul; Haas, Jessica R.; Hanser, Steven E.; Havlina, Douglas W.; Henke, Kenneth F.; Hennig, Jacob D.; Joyce, Linda A; Kilkenny, Francis F.; Kulpa, Sarah M; Kurth, Laurie L; Maestas, Jeremy D; Manning, Mary E.; Mayer, Kenneth E.; Mealor, Brian A.; McCarthy, Clinton; Pellant, Mike; Perea, Marco A.; Prentice, Karen L.; Pyke, David A.; Wiechman , Lief A.; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2017-01-01

    The Science Framework is intended to link the Department of the Interior’s Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy with long-term strategic conservation actions in the sagebrush biome. The Science Framework provides a multiscale approach for prioritizing areas for management and determining effective management strategies within the sagebrush biome. The emphasis is on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems and Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). The approach provided in the Science Framework links sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative, invasive plant species to species habitat information based on the distribution and abundance of focal species. A geospatial process is presented that overlays information on ecosystem resilience and resistance, species habitats, and predominant threats and that can be used at the mid-scale to prioritize areas for management. A resilience and resistance habitat matrix is provided that can help decisionmakers evaluate risks and determine appropriate management strategies. Prioritized areas and management strategies can be refined by managers and stakeholders at the local scale based on higher resolution data and local knowledge. Decision tools are discussed for determining appropriate management actions for areas that are prioritized for management. Geospatial data, maps, and models are provided through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ScienceBase and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Landscape Approach Data Portal. The Science Framework is intended to be adaptive and will be updated as additional data become available on other values and species at risk. It is anticipated that the Science Framework will be widely used to: (1) inform emerging strategies to conserve sagebrush ecosystems, sagebrush dependent species, and human uses of the sagebrush system, and (2) assist managers in prioritizing and planning on-the-ground restoration and mitigation actions across the sagebrush biome.

  11. A Long-term Plan for Kalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In this case, the author demonstrates together with the owner-manager of KALK A/S, Mr Rasmus Jorgensen, how to use the Family Business Map to frame a constructive discussion about long-term planning. The Family Business Map is a tool for long-term planning in family firms developed by Professor...

  12. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  13. Modelling the Long-term Periglacial Imprint on Mountain Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David Lundbek; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou

    Studies of periglacial processes usually focus on small-scale, isolated phenomena, leaving less explored questions of how such processes shape vast areas of Earth’s surface. Here we use numerical surface process modelling to better understand how periglacial processes drive large-scale, long-term...

  14. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, John V. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Gueretta, Jeanie [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the

  15. Exploring the role nurses play at different stages of the birthing process. Developing strong and long-term relationships with women by examining relationship-building stages prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, J W; Schibrowski, J A; Westfall, J

    2000-01-01

    The health care community is becoming increasingly aware of the need to develop strong and long-term relationships with the women who make up the majority of the health care market. The perceived quality of obstetric care positively impacts future revenue streams by creating "family" loyalty for an umbrella of other health services offered by the provider organization. This article examines the differential impact that various service performance dimensions have on women's perceptions of quality for different stages of the birthing process, and how relationship-marketing principles can be utilized to develop loyal partnerships. The three distinct relationship-building stages are examined--birthing experiences prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery--along with their implications for perceptions of quality analyzed.

  16. Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, D.D.; Wood, W.T.; Guenther, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The concepts discussed include floor wells, vertical and horizontal sleeves, warehouse storage on vertical racks, and modular storage units. Issues/factors considered in determining a preferred design include operational efficiency, maintenance and repair, environmental impact, radiation and criticality safety, safeguards and security, heat removal, waste minimization, international inspection requirements, and construction and operational costs

  17. Observation of long term potentiation in papain-based memory devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.

    2014-06-01

    Biological synaptic behavior in terms of long term potentiation has been observed in papain-based (plant protein) memory devices (memristors) for the first time. Improvement in long term potentiation depends on pulse amplitude and width (duration). Continuous/repetitive dc voltage sweep leads to an increase in memristor conductivity leading to a long term memory in the \\'learning\\' processes.

  18. Observation of long term potentiation in papain-based memory devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.; Hota, Mrinal Kanti; Mallik, Sandipan B.; Maì ti, Chinmay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Biological synaptic behavior in terms of long term potentiation has been observed in papain-based (plant protein) memory devices (memristors) for the first time. Improvement in long term potentiation depends on pulse amplitude and width (duration). Continuous/repetitive dc voltage sweep leads to an increase in memristor conductivity leading to a long term memory in the 'learning' processes.

  19. THE LIS STUDY (LYUBERTSY STUDY ON MORTALITY RATE IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. EVALUATION OF DRUG THERAPY. PART 2. INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS DRUG TREATMENT ON LONG-TERM LIFE PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate drug therapy received by patients who had survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the framework of the AMI register (the “LIS” study and estimate this therapy influence on long-term outcomes of the disease. Material and methods. The total of 961 patients of 1133 enrolled in the “LIS” study , were discharged from hospital. 191 patients had died during follow-up. 632 patients (who had survived and consented to visit out-patient clinic underwent repeated examination (median of follow-up 1.6 [1.0; 2.4] years. Data about treatment before and during AMI were received from patient’s charts; data about treatment after AMI were obtained from out-patient medical records. Results. Before reference AMI only a small number of the patients received the main drug groups (antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, at that ACE inhibitors were prescribed more often than the others. Use of β-blockers and ACE inhibitors before reference AMI significantly improved long-term life prognosis [relative risk (RR 0.70 and 0.66, respectively]. Rate of the main drug groups prescribed in hospital was rather high with the exception of thrombolytics (less than 10%. Thrombolytics, β-blockers and antiplatelet agents prescribed in hospital significantly improved long-term life prognosis of patients (RR 0.42, 0.65 and 0.58 respectively. At the second visit (according to data of out-patient medical records rate of antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, β-blockers and statins prescription exceeded 60%. Conclusion. Very low prevalence of adequate drug therapy preceding AMI determines high mortality rate among survived acute stage of myocardial infarction patients in long-term period.

  20. DECOVALEX-THMC Task D: Long-Term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THM and THC Processes in Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems, Status Report October 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E.; Barr, D.

    2005-01-01

    The DECOVALEX project is an international cooperative project initiated by SKI, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, with participation of about 10 international organizations. The name DECOVALEX stands for DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against Experiments. The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. Three multi-year project stages of DECOVALEX have been completed in the past decade, mainly focusing on coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes. Currently, a fourth three-year project stage of DECOVALEX is under way, referred to as DECOVALEX-THMC. THMC stands for Thermal, Hydrological, Mechanical, and Chemical processes. The new project stage aims at expanding the traditional geomechanical scope of the previous DECOVALEX project stages by incorporating geochemical processes important for repository performance. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads Task D of the new DECOVALEX phase, entitled ''Long-term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THC and THM Processes for Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems''. In its leadership role for Task D, DOE coordinates and sets the direction for the cooperative research activities of the international research teams engaged in Task D

  1. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  2. Industrial Foundations as Long-Term Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen; Poulsen, Thomas; Børsting, Christa Winther

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for corporate governance, and this has inspired a search for institutional arrangements to promote long-term decision-making. In this paper, we call attention to long-term ownership by industrial foundations, which is common in Northern Europe but little...... known in the rest of the world. We use a unique Danish data set to document that industrial foundations are long-term owners that practice long-term governance. We show that foundation ownership is highly stable compared to other ownership structures. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less...... frequently. They have conservative capital structures with low financial leverage. They score higher on an index of long-termism in finance, investment, and employment. They survive longer. Overall, our paper supports the hypothesis that corporate time horizons are influenced by ownership structures...

  3. Coping with PH over the Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a job, a volunteer commitment, or even a hobby can take a toll on long-term survivors ... people find solace in meditation, faith, humor, writing, hobbies and more. Find an outlet that you enjoy ...

  4. Long term effects of radiation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Chih Ping; Idris Besar

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the long term effects of radiation in man is presented, categorizing into somatic effects, genetic effects and teratogenic effects, and including an indication of the problems that arise in their determination. (author)

  5. Long term liquidity analysis of the firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Gonos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquidity control is a very difficult and important function. If the business is not liquid in the long term, it is under threatof bankruptcy, and on the other hand surplus of the cash in hand threaten its future efficiency, because the cash in hand is a sourceof only limited profitability. Long term liquidity is related to the ability of the short term and long term liabilities payment. Articleis trying to point out to the monitoring and analyzing of the long term liquidity in the concrete business, in this case the printing industrycompany. Hereby at the end of the article mentioned monitored and analyzed liquidity is evaluated in the five years time period.

  6. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  7. Nurse as a support of long - term hospitalized senior

    OpenAIRE

    TUŠLOVÁ, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    This thesis "Nurse as a support of long-term hospitalized senior" is divided into a theoretical and an empirical part. It deals with the issue of long-term hospitalization of seniors at the aftercare department, especially with the nurses' support to seniors and their interrelationships. Three main goals were appointed. It was examined how the seniors perceive nurses who takes care of them. Then in which areas nurses are supportive and which techniques they try to use to be a support for seni...

  8. Long-term survival and causes of death after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Davidsen, M; Thorvaldsen, P

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Danish contribution to the World Health Organization (WHO) MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) Project, a register of patients with stroke was established in 1982. The purpose of the present study was to analyze long-term survival and causes of death...

  9. Long term agreements energy efficiency. Progress 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    Long Term Agreements (LTAs) on energy efficiency have been contracted with various business sectors since 1992, as part of energy conservation policy: industrial sectors, commercial services, agrarian sectors and non-profit services. LTAs are voluntary agreements between a specific sector and the Minister of Economic Affairs. In some cases, the Minister of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries is also involved. The sector commits to an effort to improve energy efficiency by a particular percentage within an agreed period. As at 31 December 1999, a total of 29 LTAs had been contracted with industrial sectors and 14 with non-industrial ones. This report describes the progress of the LTAs in 1999. It reviews the energy efficiency improvements realised through the LTAs, both overall and in each individual sector. The aim is to make the efforts and results in the various sectors accessible to the general public. Appendix 1 describes the positioning of the LTA instrument. This Appendix provides and insight into the position of the LTAs within the overall set of policy instruments. It also covers the subsidy schemes and fiscal instruments that support the LTAs, the relationships between LTAs and environmental policy and new developments relating to the LTAs in the years ahead. Appendices 2 to 6 contain the reports on the LTAs and a list of abbreviations (Appendix 7)

  10. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  11. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig

  12. On the relationship between short- and long-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    James (1890) divided memory into separate stores; primary and secondary – or short-term and long-term memory. The interaction between the two stores often assumes that information initially is represented in volatile short-term store before entering and consolidating in the more durable long-term......, accepted). Counter to popular beliefs this suggest that long-term memory precedes short-term memory and not vice versa....... memory system (e.g. Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). Short-term memory seems to provide a surprising processing bottleneck where only a very limited amount of information can be represented at any given moment (Miller, 1956; Cowan, 2001). A number of studies have investigated the nature of this processing...

  13. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    authorities' previous review comments. Furthermore, definitions are given of terms and abbreviations used in SAR- 08, General Part 2, 'Long-term safety'. Chapter 2 Method. The chapter provides an overall description of the method used for the safety assessment and some aspects of the methodology are presented, such as time periods, safety principles, management of uncertainties, quality assurance and risk management. Chapter 3 Identification, ranking and handling of FEPs. The chapter systematically describes the factors to be taken into account in the assessment in the form of features, events and processes (FEPs). Interaction matrices are used to structure the information. Chapter 4 Initial state in the repository and its environs. The chapter describes the initial state, defined as the expected state of the repository and its environs, at closure in 2040. The description of the initial state is based on the technical design of the repository, present-day knowledge concerning conditions in the repository and its environs, and the expected evolution of the repository up until 2040. Chapter 5 Safety functions and safety performance indicators. Safety functions and safety performance indicators are identified and described in this chapter. A safety function is a role by means of which a repository component contributes to safety. Chapter 6 Reference evolution for the repository and its environs. This chapter describes the reference evolution of the repository and its environs and how the safety functions of the repository can be affected by this evolution up until 100,000 years after closure. Chapter 7 Selection of scenarios. This chapter describes how scenarios are selected based on safety performance indicators and interaction matrices. The selected scenarios illustrate the most important processes leading to the migration of radionuclides in the repository and to exposure of man and environment. The description of the processes is based on the evolution of the repository

  14. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    authorities' previous review comments. Furthermore, definitions are given of terms and abbreviations used in SAR- 08, General Part 2, 'Long-term safety'. Chapter 2 Method. The chapter provides an overall description of the method used for the safety assessment and some aspects of the methodology are presented, such as time periods, safety principles, management of uncertainties, quality assurance and risk management. Chapter 3 Identification, ranking and handling of FEPs. The chapter systematically describes the factors to be taken into account in the assessment in the form of features, events and processes (FEPs). Interaction matrices are used to structure the information. Chapter 4 Initial state in the repository and its environs. The chapter describes the initial state, defined as the expected state of the repository and its environs, at closure in 2040. The description of the initial state is based on the technical design of the repository, present-day knowledge concerning conditions in the repository and its environs, and the expected evolution of the repository up until 2040. Chapter 5 Safety functions and safety performance indicators. Safety functions and safety performance indicators are identified and described in this chapter. A safety function is a role by means of which a repository component contributes to safety. Chapter 6 Reference evolution for the repository and its environs. This chapter describes the reference evolution of the repository and its environs and how the safety functions of the repository can be affected by this evolution up until 100,000 years after closure. Chapter 7 Selection of scenarios. This chapter describes how scenarios are selected based on safety performance indicators and interaction matrices. The selected scenarios illustrate the most important processes leading to the migration of radionuclides in the repository and to exposure of man and environment. The description of the processes is based on the evolution of the repository

  15. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    regulatory authorities' previous review comments. Furthermore, definitions are given of terms and abbreviations used in SAR- 08, General Part 2, 'Long-term safety'. Chapter 2 Method. The chapter provides an overall description of the method used for the safety assessment and some aspects of the methodology are presented, such as time periods, safety principles, management of uncertainties, quality assurance and risk management. Chapter 3 Identification, ranking and handling of FEPs. The chapter systematically describes the factors to be taken into account in the assessment in the form of features, events and processes (FEPs). Interaction matrices are used to structure the information. Chapter 4 Initial state in the repository and its environs. The chapter describes the initial state, defined as the expected state of the repository and its environs, at closure in 2040. The description of the initial state is based on the technical design of the repository, present-day knowledge concerning conditions in the repository and its environs, and the expected evolution of the repository up until 2040. Chapter 5 Safety functions and safety performance indicators. Safety functions and safety performance indicators are identified and described in this chapter. A safety function is a role by means of which a repository component contributes to safety. Chapter 6 Reference evolution for the repository and its environs. This chapter describes the reference evolution of the repository and its environs and how the safety functions of the repository can be affected by this evolution up until 100,000 years after closure. Chapter 7 Selection of scenarios. This chapter describes how scenarios are selected based on safety performance indicators and interaction matrices. The selected scenarios illustrate the most important processes leading to the migration of radionuclides in the repository and to exposure of man and environment. The description of the processes is based on the

  16. GLAS Long-Term Archive: Preservation and Stewardship for a Vital Earth Observing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, D. K.; Moses, J. F.; Zwally, J.; Schutz, B. E.; Hancock, D.; McAllister, M.; Webster, D.; Bond, C.

    2012-12-01

    Data Stewardship, preservation, and reproducibility are fast becoming principal parts of a data manager's work. In an era of distributed data and information systems, it is of vital importance that organizations make a commitment to both current and long-term goals of data management and the preservation of scientific data. Satellite missions and instruments go through a lifecycle that involves pre-launch calibration, on-orbit data acquisition and product generation, and final reprocessing. Data products and descriptions flow to the archives for distribution on a regular basis during the active part of the mission. However there is additional information from the product generation and science teams needed to ensure the observations will be useful for long term climate studies. Examples include ancillary input datasets, product generation software, and production history as developed by the team during the course of product generation. These data and information will need to be archived after product data processing is completed. NASA has developed a set of Earth science data and information content requirements for long term preservation that is being used for all the EOS missions as they come to completion. Since the ICESat/GLAS mission was one of the first to end, NASA and NSIDC, in collaboration with the science team, are collecting data, software, and documentation, preparing for long-term support of the ICESat mission. For a long-term archive, it is imperative to preserve sufficient information about how products were prepared in order to ensure future researchers that the scientific results are accurate, understandable, and useable. Our experience suggests data centers know what to preserve in most cases. That is, the processing algorithms along with the Level 0 or Level 1a input and ancillary products used to create the higher-level products will be archived and made available to users. In other cases, such as pre-launch, calibration/validation, and test

  17. Long-term data storage in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies. PMID:27819045

  18. Long-term data storage in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A

    2016-10-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV - ) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV - optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV - ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center's charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV - ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  19. ERDA's long-term waste management goals and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perge, A.F.; Trice, V.G. Jr.; Walton, R.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ERDA's major program for the long-term waste management of radioactive waste and provides a perspective for symposium participants with regard to the interrelationship of specific components of the program that are discussed in detail in other ERDA-sponsored papers. Needs, goals, and plans are reviewed for ERDA's management of the commercially generated wastes which are expected to be delivered to ERDA in accordance with Federal regulations. At present, ERDA responsibilities include long-term management of commercial-level wastes. Possible future regulations may give ERDA responsibility for the long-term management of commercial low-level solid wastes contaminated with transuranic nuclides. Primary planning goals and programs for the development of terminal storage facilities and waste processing technology to produce acceptable waste forms for long-term management are reviewed for each of the waste types identified above. The status of development programs for the long-term management of airborne radionuclides, which may be required at some time in the future, is also reviewed. (author)

  20. Long-Term Retardation of Uranium in the KURT Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Shin, Joo Do; Park, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    One of possibilities resolving this issue is to study the migration and retardation processes of radionuclides in the subsurface environments by using naturally occurring radionuclides as analogues of radioactive waste. To date, however, the long-term behavior of radionuclides in a granitic groundwater system is not yet fully understood. The ubiquitous presence of uranium (U) in rocks makes it an ideal natural analogue for studying the behaviors of radionuclides in a deep geological repository for the final disposal of HLW. In this study, long-term retardation behavior of natural uranium was investigated using granite rock samples taken from the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel), located in Daejeon city. The distribution of uranium and its binding mechanism in granite samples were investigated using the sequential chemical extraction (SCE) technique combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ICP-MS methods. In this study, the long-term retardation of uranium in the KURT environment was investigated using SCE and EPMA techniques combined with ICP-MS and XRD. Results showed that long-term interaction of rock with groundwater can change U species and mineralize dissolved U, which can consequently contribute to the retardation of U in the fractured granitic rock environment. This study will help us to understand the long-term behavior of radionuclides migrating through the fractured granite rock and then enhance the reliability of the safety assessment for a HLW repository

  1. Very long-term sequelae of craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Mark; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Janssen, Joseph A M J L; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Michiels, Erna M C; van Veelen-Vincent, Marie-Lise C; Dallenga, Alof H G; van den Berge, J Herbert; van Rij, Carolien M; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M

    2017-06-01

    Studies investigating long-term health conditions in patients with craniopharyngioma are limited by short follow-up durations and generally do not compare long-term health effects according to initial craniopharyngioma treatment approach. In addition, studies comparing long-term health conditions between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma report conflicting results. The objective of this study was to analyse a full spectrum of long-term health effects in patients with craniopharyngioma according to initial treatment approach and age group at craniopharyngioma presentation. Cross-sectional study based on retrospective data. We studied a single-centre cohort of 128 patients with craniopharyngioma treated from 1980 onwards (63 patients with childhood-onset disease). Median follow-up since craniopharyngioma presentation was 13 years (interquartile range: 5-23 years). Initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches included gross total resection ( n  = 25), subtotal resection without radiotherapy ( n  = 44), subtotal resection with radiotherapy ( n  = 25), cyst aspiration without radiotherapy ( n  = 8), and 90 Yttrium brachytherapy ( n  = 21). Pituitary hormone deficiencies (98%), visual disturbances (75%) and obesity (56%) were the most common long-term health conditions observed. Different initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches resulted in similar long-term health effects. Patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma experienced significantly more growth hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, panhypopituitarism, morbid obesity, epilepsy and psychiatric conditions compared with patients with adult-onset disease. Recurrence-/progression-free survival was significantly lower after initial craniopharyngioma treatment with cyst aspiration compared with other therapeutic approaches. Survival was similar between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma. Long-term health conditions were comparable after

  2. Exploring factors relevant in the assessment of the return-to-work process of employees on long-term sickness absence due to a depressive disorder: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the Return-to-Work (RTW process need to be sufficient in order to optimize the quality of the RTW process. The purpose of this study was to explore factors relevant to Return-to-Work Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with a Depressive Disorder (DD. Method A case of a long-term sick-listed employee with a DD applying for disability benefits was used to gather arguments and grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES. Two focus group meetings were held, consisting of Labor Experts working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Sixteen factors relevant to RTW-ES assessment in a case of DD were found, categorized in the ICF-model under activities (e.g. functional capacity, personal (e.g. competencies, attitude and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship, or categorized under interventions, job accommodations and measures. Conclusions This study shows that 16 factors are relevant in the assessment of RTW-ES in employees sick-listed due to DD. Further research is necessary to expand this knowledge to other health conditions, and to investigate the impact of these results on the quality of the RTW-ES assessment.

  3. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application.

  4. On the long-term analysis with finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Following a presentation of concrete creep, a brief summary of the direct and incremental calculation methods on long-term behaviour is given. This is followed by a survey of the method of the inner state variables, which on the one hand gives a uniform framework for the various formulations of concrete creep, and on the other hand leads to a computer-ready calculation process. Two examples on long-term behaviour illustrate the regions of application of the computer methods. (orig./LH) [de

  5. Long term governance for radioactive waste management. Final report of Cowan2 - work package 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Th.; Schieber, C.; Lavele, S.

    2006-12-01

    This report aims at identifying key features for the long term governance of radioactive waste. It is proposed by the COWAN2 Work Package 4 the purpose of which was to identify, discuss and analyse the institutional, ethical, economic and legal considerations raised by long term radioactive waste storage or disposal on the three interrelated issues of: responsibility and ownership of radioactive waste on the long term, continuity of local dialogue between stakeholders and monitoring of radioactive waste management facilities, and compensation and sustainable development. The aim is also to propose guidelines in order to better address long term issues in decision-making processes and start long term governance

  6. Long term governance for radioactive waste management. Final report of Cowan2 - work package 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Th.; Schieber, C.; Lavele, S.

    2006-12-15

    This report aims at identifying key features for the long term governance of radioactive waste. It is proposed by the COWAN2 Work Package 4 the purpose of which was to identify, discuss and analyse the institutional, ethical, economic and legal considerations raised by long term radioactive waste storage or disposal on the three interrelated issues of: responsibility and ownership of radioactive waste on the long term, continuity of local dialogue between stakeholders and monitoring of radioactive waste management facilities, and compensation and sustainable development. The aim is also to propose guidelines in order to better address long term issues in decision-making processes and start long term governance

  7. Long-term prisoner in prison isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Grudzińska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term prisoner belongs to a particular category of people who are imprisoned in prisons. On the one hand in this group are often heavily demoralized people who committed the most serious crimes, on the other hand it is a group of prisoners, who should be well thought out and programmed the impact of rehabilitation. The situation of man trapped for years poses in a complicated situation not only the prisoners, but also the entire prison staff. They have to take care of the fact that the prison isolation did not cause the state in which convicts form itself in learned helplessness and lack of skills for self-planning and decision-making. In addition, planning the rehabilitation impact of long-term prisoners should not be forgotten that these prisoners in the short or the long term will return to the libertarian environment therefore, should prevent any negative effects of long-term imprisonment. This article presents the main issues related to the execution of imprisonment against long-term prisoners. It is an attempt to systematize the knowledge of this category of people living in prison isolation.

  8. Speech parts as Poisson processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalamenti, A F

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents evidence that six of the seven parts of speech occur in written text as Poisson processes, simple or recurring. The six major parts are nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, with the interjection occurring too infrequently to support a model. The data consist of more than the first 5000 words of works by four major authors coded to label the parts of speech, as well as periods (sentence terminators). Sentence length is measured via the period and found to be normally distributed with no stochastic model identified for its occurrence. The models for all six speech parts but the noun significantly distinguish some pairs of authors and likewise for the joint use of all words types. Any one author is significantly distinguished from any other by at least one word type and sentence length very significantly distinguishes each from all others. The variety of word type use, measured by Shannon entropy, builds to about 90% of its maximum possible value. The rate constants for nouns are close to the fractions of maximum entropy achieved. This finding together with the stochastic models and the relations among them suggest that the noun may be a primitive organizer of written text.

  9. Interviews for the assessment of long-term incapacity for work: a study on adherence to protocols and principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Wout E. L.; Wind, Haije; van Dijk, Frank J. H.; Willems, Han H. B. M.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Social insurance assessments for long-term incapacity for work are performed by Social Insurance Physicians (SIPs) who rely on interviews with claimants as an important part of the process. These interviews, however, are susceptible to bias. For that reason, in the Netherlands

  10. Emergence of Long-Term Memory in Popularity

    OpenAIRE

    Soh, Hyungjoon; Hong, Joo Hyung; Jeong, Jaeseung; Jeong, Hawoong

    2017-01-01

    Popularity describes the dynamics of mass attention, and is a part of a broader class of population dynamics in ecology and social science literature. Studying accurate model of popularity is important for quantifying spreading of novelty, memes, and influences in human society. Although logistic equation and similar class of nonlinear differential equation formulates traditional population dynamics well, part of the deviation in long-term prediction is stated, yet fully understood. Recently,...

  11. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  12. The long-term nuclear explosives predicament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swahn, J.

    1992-01-01

    A scenario is described, where the production of new military fissile materials is halted and where civil nuclear power is phased out in a 'no-new orders' case. It is found that approximately 1100 tonnes of weapons-grade uranium, 233 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium and 3795 tonnes of reactor-grade plutonium have to be finally disposed of as nuclear waste. This material could be used for the construction of over 1 million nuclear explosives. Reactor-grade plutonium is found to be easier to extract from spent nuclear fuel with time and some physical characteristics important for the construction of nuclear explosives are improved. Alternative methods for disposal of the fissile material that will avoid the long-term nuclear explosives predicament are examined. Among these methods are dilution, denaturing or transmutation of the fissile material and options for practicably irrecoverable disposal in deep boreholes, on the sea-bed, and in space. It is found that the deep boreholes method for disposal should be the primary alternative to be examined further. This method can be combined with an effort to 'forget' where the material was put. Included in the thesis is also an evaluation of the possibilities of controlling the limited civil nuclear activities in a post-nuclear world. Some surveillance technologies for a post-nuclear world are described, including satellite surveillance. In a review part of the thesis, methods for the production of fissile material for nuclear explosives are described, the technological basis for the construction of nuclear weapons is examined, including use of reactor-grade plutonium for such purposes; also plans for the disposal of spent fuel from civil nuclear power reactors and for the handling of the fissile material from dismantled warheads is described. The Swedish plan for the handling and disposal of spent nuclear fuel is described in detail. (490 refs., 66 figs., 27 tabs.)

  13. The dynamics of the oesophageal squamous epithelium 'normalisation' process in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease treated with long-term acid suppression or anti-reflux surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, L; Fiocca, R; Engström, C; Attwood, S; Ell, C; Galmiche, J P; Hatlebakk, J G; Långström, G; Eklund, S; Lind, T; Lundell, L

    2017-05-01

    Proton pump inhibitors and laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery (LARS) offer long-term symptom control to patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). To evaluate the process of 'normalisation' of the squamous epithelium morphology of the distal oesophagus on these therapies. In the LOTUS trial, 554 patients with chronic GERD were randomised to receive either esomeprazole (20-40 mg daily) or LARS. After 5 years, 372 patients remained in the study (esomeprazole, 192; LARS, 180). Biopsies were taken at the Z-line and 2 cm above, at baseline, 1, 3 and 5 years. A severity score was calculated based on: papillae elongation, basal cell hyperplasia, intercellular space dilatations and eosinophilic infiltration. The epithelial proliferative activity was assessed by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. A gradual improvement in all variables over 5 years was noted in both groups, at both the Z-line and 2 cm above. The severity score decreased from baseline at each subsequent time point in both groups (P refluxate seems to play the predominant role in restoring tissue morphology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Investigation of the long-term behaviour of residues of brown coal upgrading processes in an underground deposit in the geogenic conditions of potassium and rock salt mining. Text volume. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Residues of brown coal upgrading processes are problematic substances that require extensive monitoring. In East Germany, these residues were usually stored above ground in abandoned open pits and industrial waste dumps. In the Land of Thuringia, the most urgent poblems are posed by the ''Neue Sorge'' abandoned open pit near Rositz and the Rusendorf industrial waste dump. In both cases, large volumes of highly polluted waste materials must be disposed of. The method of choice recommended for disposal is the combustion in a hazardous-waste incinerator in accordance with the specifications of the Waste Management Technical Guide (TA Abfall). Preliminary studies are currently being made for the construction of a waste incinerating plant in this region. An alternative option for disposal would be underground storage in an abandoned salt mine. Thuringia has a number of abandoned potassium mines that appear to be well suited for this purpose. On the other hand, there have been no systematic investigations so far on the long-term behaviour of hazardous waste under the geogenic conditions of potassium and rock salt mining, so that further studies will be necessary. (orig.)

  15. Consolidation of long-term memory: Evidence and alternatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Memory loss in retrograde amnesia has long been held to be larger for recent periods than for remote periods, a pattern usually referred to as the Ribot gradient. One explanation for this gradient is consolidation of long-term memories. Several computational models of such a process have shown how

  16. North American long-term soil productivity research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks; Robert F. Powers; Jerry F. Ragus; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Felix Ponder; Douglas M. Stone

    1997-01-01

    The National Long-term Soil Productivity research program was chartered to address National Forest Management Act concerns over possible losses n soil productivity on national forest lands. The program supports validation of soil quality monitoring standards and process-level productivity research. Summarized results are supplied to forests as collected. National...

  17. Long-Term Forest Hydrologic Monitoring in Coastal Carolinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Ge Sun; Carl C. Trettin; R. Wayne Skaggs

    2003-01-01

    Long-term hydrologic data are essential for understanding the hydrologic processes, as base line data for assessment of impacts and conservation of regional ecosystems, and for developing and testing eco-hydrological models. This study presents 6-year (1996-2001) of rainfall, water table and outflow data from a USDA Forest Service coastal experimental watershed on a...

  18. Long-Term Soil Chemistry Changes in Aggrading Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Wayne T. Swank

    1994-01-01

    Assessing potential long-term forest productivity requires identification of the processes regulating chemical changes in forest soils. We resampled the litter layer and upper two mineral soil horizons, A and AB/BA, in two aggrading southern Appalachian watersheds 20 yr after an earlier sampling. Soils from a mixed-hardwood watershed exhibited a small but significant...

  19. Long-Term Prognosis of Plantar Fasciitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Liselotte; Krogh, Thøger Persson; Ellingsen, Torkell

    2018-01-01

    , exercise-induced symptoms, bilateral heel pain, fascia thickness, and presence of a heel spur) could predict long-term outcomes, (3) to assess the long-term ultrasound (US) development in the fascia, and (4) to assess whether US-guided corticosteroid injections induce atrophy of the heel fat pad. Study....... The risk was significantly greater for women (P heel...... regardless of symptoms and had no impact on prognosis, and neither did the presence of a heel spur. Only 24% of asymptomatic patients had a normal fascia on US at long-term follow-up. A US-guided corticosteroid injection did not cause atrophy of the heel fat pad. Our observational study did not allow us...

  20. Long-term dependence in exchange rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karytinos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which exchange rates of four major currencies against the Greek Drachma exhibit long-term dependence is investigated using a R/S analysis testing framework. We show that both classic R/S analysis and the modified R/S statistic if enhanced by bootstrapping techniques can be proven very reliable tools to this end. Our findings support persistence and long-term dependence with non-periodic cycles for the Deutsche Mark and the French Franc series. In addition a noisy chaos explanation is favored over fractional Brownian motion. On the contrary, the US Dollar and British Pound were found to exhibit a much more random behavior and lack of any long-term structure.

  1. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, N; Kuwabara, K

    2010-01-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called 'OPERA film' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  2. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.

    2010-02-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called ``OPERA film'' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  3. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  4. Long term storage techniques for 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.A.; Pence, D.T.; Staples, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    As new nuclear fuel reprocessing plants go on stream, the collection of fission product 85 Kr will be required to avoid potential local release problems and long-term atmospheric buildup. Storage of the collected 85 Kr for a period of at least 100 years will be necessary to allow approximately 99.9 percent decay before it is released. A program designed to develop and evaluate proposed methods for long-term storage of 85 Kr is discussed, and the results of a preliminary evaluation of three methods, high pressure steel cylinders, zeolite encapsulation, and clathrate inclusion are presented. (U.S.)

  5. The Fate of the Iliopsoas Muscle in Long-term Follow-up After Open Reduction With a Medial Approach in Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip. Part 2: Isokinetic Muscle Strength Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Serdar; Aksahin, Ertugrul; Ersoz, Murat; Bicimoglu, Ali

    2017-09-01

    The impact on long-term weakness of hip flexion of complete iliopsoas tenotomy during open reduction of developmental hip dysplasia with a medial approach has not yet been fully clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the isokinetic muscle strength (IMS) of hip flexor and extensor muscles in these patients and also to analyze the effect of spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas muscle on IMS measurements. The study included 20 patients. Earlier magnetic resonance imaging examination of all the patients revealed spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas in 18 (90%) patients. IMS measurements were performed at 60 and 150 degrees/s. The peak torque, total work (TW), average power (AP), work fatigue, and agonist to antagonist muscle ratio of the operated and nonoperated hips were recorded separately for flexors and extensors. The effect of iliopsoas reattachment on IMS was also evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 16.65±2.16 (13 to 20) years. Total work (P=0.013) and average power (P=0.009) of the flexor muscles and work fatigue of the extensor muscles (P=0.030) of the operated hip were significantly decreased when compared with the nonoperated hips at 150 degrees/s. There was no significant difference between the flexor muscles of the operated and nonoperated hips (Phips. Flexor muscle strength was decreased in the operated hip against low resistance in long-term follow-up after iliopsoas tenotomy. This may reflect that hip muscle strength was decreased after prolonged activities such as sports. However, in forceful activities flexor muscle strength was retained due to iliopsoas reattachment. On the basis of this study we thought that spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas tendon substantially preserves muscle strength. Nonetheless possible efforts should be made to surgically reattach the psoas tendon to preserve strength of the muscle. Therapeutic level IV.

  6. HLW Long-term Management Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Won; Kang, C. H.; Ko, Y. K.

    2010-02-01

    Permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuels from the power generation is considered to be the unique method for the conservation of human being and nature in the present and future. In spite of spent nuclear fuels produced from power generation, based on the recent trends on the gap between supply and demand of energy, the advance on energy price and reduction of carbon dioxide, nuclear energy is expected to play a role continuously in Korea. It means that a new concept of nuclear fuel cycle is needed to solve problems on spent nuclear fuels. The concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle including PYRO processing and SFR was presented at the 255th meeting of the Atomic Energy Commission. According to the concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle, actinides and long-term fissile nuclides may go out of existence in SFR. And then it is possible to dispose of short term decay wastes without a great risk bearing. Many efforts had been made to develop the KRS for the direct disposal of spent nuclear fuels in the representative geology of Korea. But in the case of the adoption of Advanced nuclear fuel cycle, the disposal of PYRO wastes should be considered. For this, we carried out the Safety Analysis on HLW Disposal Project with 5 sub-projects such as Development of HLW Disposal System, Radwaste Disposal Safety Analysis, Feasibility study on the deep repository condition, A study on the Nuclide Migration and Retardation Using Natural Barrier, and In-situ Study on the Performance of Engineered Barriers

  7. Long term plan of atomic energy development and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The atomic energy utilization and development in Japan have progressed remarkably, and already nuclear power generation has borne an important part in electric power supply, while radiation has been utilized in the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine and so on. Now, atomic energy is indispensable for national life and industrial activity. The former long term plan was decided in September, 1978, and the new long term plan should be established since the situation has changed largely. The energy substituting for petroleum has been demanded, and the expectation to nuclear power generation has heightened because it enables stable and economical power supply. The independently developed technology related to atomic energy must be put in practical use. The peaceful utilization of atomic energy must be promoted, while contributing to the nuclear non-proliferation policy. The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan decided the new long term plan to clearly show the outline of the important measures related to atomic energy development and utilization in 10 years hereafter, and the method of its promotion. The basic concept of atomic energy development and utilization, the long term prospect and the concept on the promotion, the method of promoting the development and utilization, and the problems of funds, engineers and location are described. (kako, I.)

  8. Long-Term Orientation in Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2008-01-01

    Trust does not work in the same way across cultures. This paper presents an agent model of behavior in trade across Hofstedes cultural dimension of long-term vs. short-term orientation. The situation is based on a gaming simulation, the Trust and Tracing game. The paper investigates the

  9. Safety of long-term PPI therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of medical treatment of acid-related disorders. Long-term use is becoming increasingly common, in some cases without a proper indication. A large number of mainly observational studies on a very wide range of possible associations have been publishe...... to a careful evaluation of the indication for PPI treatment....

  10. Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinsey, B.H.; Hoddinott, J; Alderman, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects - instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long term panel data set. Representations of civil war and drought shocks are used to identify

  11. Long-term outcomes of patellofemoral arthroplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonbergen, J.P.W. van; Werkman, D.M.; Barnaart, L.F.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate the long-term survival of patellofemoral arthroplasty with primary diagnosis, age, sex, and body mass index. One hundred eighty-five consecutive Richards type II patellofemoral arthroplasties were performed in 161 patients with isolated patellofemoral

  12. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  13. The 2013 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    number of years, leading to substantial additional federal spending. For example, the nation could experience a massive earthquake, a nuclear meltdown...budget surpluses remaining after paying down publicly held debt available for redemption . a. For comparison with the current long-term projections, CBO

  14. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Alexander; Burkart, Werner; Grosche, Bernd; Jung, Thomas; Martignoni, Klaus; Stephan, Guenther

    1997-01-01

    This paper approaches the long-term effects of ionizing radiation considering the common thought that killing of cells is the basis for deterministic effects and that the subtle changes in genetic information are important in the development of radiation-induced cancer, or genetic effects if these changes are induced in germ cells

  15. Pituitary diseases : long-term psychological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, pituitary adenomas can be appropriately treated, but patients continue to report impaired quality of life (QoL) despite long-term remission or cure. In patients with Cushing’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly, doctors should be aware of subtle cognitive impairments and the

  16. The long term stability of lidar calibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. One of the requirements for the data to be accepted in support of project financing (so-called ‘banka-bility’) is to demonstrate the long-term stability of lidar cali-brations. Calibration results for six Leosphere WindCube li...

  17. Rebalancing for Long-Term Investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Joost; Kuiper, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    In this study we show that the rebalance frequency of a multi-asset portfolio has only limited impact on the utility of a long-term passive investor. Although continuous rebalancing is optimal, the loss of a suboptimal strategy corresponds to up to only 30 basis points of the initial wealth of the

  18. Commercial Parts Technology Qualification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Many high-reliability systems, including space systems, use selected commercial parts (including Plastic Encapsulated Microelectronics or PEMs) for unique functionality, small size, low weight, high mechanical shock resistance, and other factors. Predominantly this usage is subjected to certain 100% tests (typically called screens) and certain destructive tests usually (but not always) performed on the flight lot (typically called qualification tests). Frequently used approaches include those documented in EEE-INST-002 and JPL DocID62212 (which are sometimes modified by the particular aerospace space systems manufacturer). In this study, approaches from these documents and several space systems manufacturers are compared to approaches from a launch systems manufacturer (SpaceX), an implantable medical electronics manufacturer (Medtronics), and a high-reliability transport system process (automotive systems). In the conclusions section, these processes are outlined for all of these cases and presented in tabular form. Then some simple comparisons are made. In this introduction section, the PEM technology qualification process is described, as documented in EEE-INST-002 (written by the Goddard Space Flight Center, GSFC), as well as the somewhat modified approach employed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Approaches used at several major NASA contractors are also described

  19. Blocking Synaptic Removal of GluA2-Containing AMPA Receptors Prevents the Natural Forgetting of Long-Term Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migues, Paola Virginia; Liu, Lidong; Archbold, Georgina E B; Einarsson, Einar Ö; Wong, Jacinda; Bonasia, Kyra; Ko, Seung Hyun; Wang, Yu Tian; Hardt, Oliver

    2016-03-23

    The neurobiological processes underpinning the natural forgetting of long-term memories are poorly understood. Based on the critical role of GluA2-containing AMPA receptors (GluA2/AMPARs) in long-term memory persistence, we tested in rats whether their synaptic removal underpins time-dependent memory loss. We found that blocking GluA2/AMPAR removal with the interference peptides GluA23Y or G2CT in the dorsal hippocampus during a memory retention interval prevented the normal forgetting of established, long-term object location memories, but did not affect their acquisition. The same intervention also preserved associative memories of food-reward conditioned place preference that would otherwise be lost over time. We then explored whether this forgetting process could play a part in behavioral phenomena involving time-dependent memory change. We found that infusing GluA23Y into the dorsal hippocampus during a 2 week retention interval blocked generalization of contextual fear expression, whereas infusing it into the infralimbic cortex after extinction of auditory fear prevented spontaneous recovery of the conditioned response. Exploring possible physiological mechanisms that could be involved in this form of memory decay, we found that bath application of GluA23Y prevented depotentiation, but not induction of long-term potentiation, in a hippocampal slice preparation. Together, these findings suggest that a decay-like forgetting process that involves the synaptic removal of GluA2/AMPARs erases consolidated long-term memories in the hippocampus and other brain structures over time. This well regulated forgetting process may critically contribute to establishing adaptive behavior, whereas its dysregulation could promote the decline of memory and cognition in neuropathological disorders. The neurobiological mechanisms involved in the natural forgetting of long-term memory and its possible functions are not fully understood. Based on our previous work describing the

  20. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task D. Long-Term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THM and THC Processes in Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems. Phase 1 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E.; Barr, D.

    2007-02-01

    The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. Three multi-year project stages of DECOVALEX have been completed in the past decade, mainly focusing on coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes. Currently, a fourth three-year project stage of DECOVALEX is under way, referred to as DECOVALEX-THMC. THMC stands for Thermal, Hydrological, Mechanical, and Chemical processes. The new project stage aims at expanding the traditional geomechanical scope of the previous DECOVALEX project stages by incorporating geochemical processes important for repository performance. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads Task D of the new DECOVALEX phase, entitled 'Long-term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THC and THM Processes for Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems.' In its leadership role for Task D, DOE coordinates and sets the direction for the cooperative research activities of the international research teams engaged in Task D. The research program developed for Task D of DECOVALEX-THMC involves geomechanical and geochemical research areas. THM and THC processes may lead to changes in hydrological properties that are important for performance because the flow processes in the vicinity of emplacement tunnels will be altered from their initial state. Some of these changes can be permanent (irreversible), in which case they persist after the thermal conditions have returned to ambient; i.e., they will affect the entire regulatory compliance period. Geochemical processes also affect the water and gas chemistry close to the waste packages, which are relevant for waste package corrosion, buffer stability, and radionuclide transport. Research teams participating in Task D evaluate long-term THM and THC processes in two generic geologic

  1. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task D. Long-Term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THM and THC Processes in Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems. Phase 1 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States); Barr, D. [Office of Repository Development, DOE (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. Three multi-year project stages of DECOVALEX have been completed in the past decade, mainly focusing on coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes. Currently, a fourth three-year project stage of DECOVALEX is under way, referred to as DECOVALEX-THMC. THMC stands for Thermal, Hydrological, Mechanical, and Chemical processes. The new project stage aims at expanding the traditional geomechanical scope of the previous DECOVALEX project stages by incorporating geochemical processes important for repository performance. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads Task D of the new DECOVALEX phase, entitled 'Long-term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THC and THM Processes for Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems.' In its leadership role for Task D, DOE coordinates and sets the direction for the cooperative research activities of the international research teams engaged in Task D. The research program developed for Task D of DECOVALEX-THMC involves geomechanical and geochemical research areas. THM and THC processes may lead to changes in hydrological properties that are important for performance because the flow processes in the vicinity of emplacement tunnels will be altered from their initial state. Some of these changes can be permanent (irreversible), in which case they persist after the thermal conditions have returned to ambient; i.e., they will affect the entire regulatory compliance period. Geochemical processes also affect the water and gas chemistry close to the waste packages, which are relevant for waste package corrosion, buffer stability, and radionuclide transport. Research teams participating in Task D evaluate long-term THM and THC processes in two generic geologic

  2. Do Adaptive Comanagement Processes Lead to Adaptive Comanagement Outcomes? A Multicase Study of Long-term Outcomes Associated with the National Riparian Service Team's Place-based Riparian Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Smedstad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive comanagement (ACM is a novel approach to environmental governance that combines the dynamic learning features of adaptive management with the linking and network features of collaborative management. There is growing interest in the potential for ACM to resolve conflicts around natural resource management and contribute to greater social and ecological resilience, but little is known about how to catalyze long lasting ACM arrangements. We contribute to knowledge on this topic by evaluating the National Riparian Service Team's (NRST efforts to catalyze ACM of public lands riparian areas in seven cases in the western U.S. We found that the NRST's approach offers a relatively novel model for integrating joint fact-finding, multiple forms of knowledge, and collaborative problem solving to improve public lands riparian grazing management. With this approach, learning and dialogue often helped facilitate the development of shared understanding and trust, key features of ACM. Their activities also influenced changes in assessment, monitoring, and management approaches to public lands riparian area grazing, also indicative of a transition to ACM. Whereas these effects often aligned with the NRST's immediate objectives, i.e., to work through a specific issue or point of conflict, there was little evidence of long-term effects beyond the specific issue or intervention; that is, in most cases the initiative did not influence longer term changes in place-based governance and institutions. Our results suggest that the success of interventions aimed at catalyzing the transformation of governance arrangements toward ACM may hinge on factors external to the collaborative process such as the presence or absence of (1 dynamic local leadership and (2 high quality agreements regarding next steps for the group. Efforts to establish long lasting ACM institutions may also face significant constraints and barriers, including existing laws and regulations

  3. Long-term care insurance matures as a benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elaine; Leach, Tom

    2002-12-01

    Forty-eight percent of U.S. businesses now offer long-term care insurance (LTCI) coverage, an increase of 15% since 1998. As more organizations realize the added value of LTCI in the employee benefit package, they have also found that motivation to buy varies with employee financial standing, gender and age, and that targeted employee education as part of retirement planning is essential.

  4. Data of long term atmospheric diffusion experiments (Winter, 1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Takashi; Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-10-01

    The data were obtained in the long-term atmospheric diffusion experiments in the Tokai area, autumn, 1991 which were a part of the Evaluation Safety Demonstration Experiments of Environmental Radiation entrusted with the Science and Technology Agency. The experiments were conducted by JAERI in cooperation with the Japan Weather Association. The report includes tracer concentration data of surface sampling points and meteorological data. (author)

  5. Callosal window between prefrontal cortices: cognitive interaction to retrieve long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, I; Fukushima, T; Ihara, T; Miyashita, Y

    1998-08-07

    A perceptual image can be recalled from memory without sensory stimulation. However, the neural origin of memory retrieval remains unsettled. To examine whether memory retrieval can be regulated by top-down processes originating from the prefrontal cortex, a visual associative memory task was introduced into the partial split-brain paradigm in monkeys. Long-term memory acquired through stimulus-stimulus association did not transfer via the anterior corpus callosum, a key part interconnecting prefrontal cortices. Nonetheless, when a visual cue was presented to one hemisphere, the anterior callosum could instruct the other hemisphere to retrieve the correct stimulus specified by the cue. Thus, although visual long-term memory is stored in the temporal cortex, memory retrieval is under the executive control of the prefrontal cortex.

  6. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.; Lavelle, S.

    2006-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  7. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lavelle, S. [ICAM, 59 - Lille (France)

    2006-07-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  8. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    2002-03-01

    Micro-structure of rock plays a essential role for their long-term behavior. For elucidating long-term characteristics of granite we here present the followings: 1) Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope (LSM) observation of joint surfaces of granite and Fourier analysis, 2) characterization of the mechanism of microcrack initiation and propagation observed by stereoscopic microscope under uniaxial/triaxial compression and relaxation tests, 3) observation of microcrack initiation and propagation by LSM under uniaxial compression, and 4) a viscoelastic homogenization theory to predict the long-term behavior of micro/macro-level stress for granite. Rock image processing and analysis become a fundamental procedure to determine rock surface discontinuities. But the complexity of rock surface discontinuities seems beyond the manual image processing method. In Chapter 2 a Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope that can acquire three-dimensional images is introduced to observe the rock roughness of a discontinuity. Then, scanning three-dimensional images are changed its data form in order to adapt various image analysis programs, and granitic rock roughness of discontinuities are displayed by graphic images. For example, these datas are analyzed by Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT) program and Inverse Discrete Fourier Transformation (IDFT) program. Microcrack generation and propagation play an essential role to predict the long-term behavior of rock. In Chapter 3 a progressive development of cracking in granite is revealed by using stereoscopic microscope under triaxial compression condition and by using LSM under uniaxial compression condition. With a viscoelastic theory applied in homogenization method, we can calculate macro behavior of medium influenced by its micro structure by analyse the long-term time-dependent behavior of granite under the same condition to the relaxation experiment. (author)

  9. Long-Term Stewardship At DOE's Hanford Site - 12575

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moren, R.J.; Grindstaff, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeast Washington and consists of 1,518 square kilometers (586 square miles) of land. Established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford workers produced plutonium for our nation's nuclear defense program until the mid 1980's. Since then, the site has been in cleanup mode that is being accomplished in phases. As we achieve remedial objectives and complete active cleanup, DOE will manage Hanford land under the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program until completion of cleanup and the site becomes ready for transfer to the post cleanup landlord - currently planned for DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM). We define Hanford's LTS Program in the ''Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan,'' (DOE/RL-201 0-35)(1), which describes the scope including the relationship between the cleanup projects and the LTS Program. DOE designed the LTS Program to manage and provide surveillance and maintenance (S and M) of institutional controls and associated monitoring of closed waste sites to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. DOE's Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and Hanford cleanup and operations contractors collaboratively developed this program over several years. The program's scope also includes 15 key activities that are identified in the DOE Program Plan (DOE/RL-2010-35). The LTS Program will transition 14 land segments through 2016. The combined land mass is approximately 570 square kilometers (220 square miles), with over 1,300 active and inactive waste sites and 3,363 wells. Land segments vary from buffer zone property with no known contamination to cocooned reactor buildings, demolished support facilities, and remediated cribs and trenches. DOE-RL will transition land management responsibilities from cleanup contractors to the Mission Support Contract (MSC), who will then administer the LTS Program for DOE-RL. This process requires an environment of cooperation

  10. Long-term selenium status in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, C.K.; Spate, V.L.; Mason, M.M.; Nichols, T.A.; Williams, A.; Dubman, I.M.; Gudino, A.; Denison, J.; Morris, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The association of sub-optimal selenium status with increased risk factors for some cancers has been reported in two recent epidemiological studies. In both studies the same threshold in selenium status was observed, below which, cancer incidence increased. To assess the use of nails as a biologic monitor to measure the long-term selenium status, an eight-year longitudinal study was undertaken with a group of 11 adult subjects, 5 women and 6 men. Selenium has been measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Differences between fingernails and toenails with be discussed. In addition, the results will be discussed in the context of the long-term stability of the nail monitor to measure selenium status during those periods when selenium determinants are static; and the changes that occur as a result of selenium supplementation. (author)

  11. Influenza in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansbury, Louise E; Brown, Caroline S; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2017-09-01

    Long-term care facility environments and the vulnerability of their residents provide a setting conducive to the rapid spread of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens. Infections may be introduced by staff, visitors or new or transferred residents, and outbreaks of influenza in such settings can have devastating consequences for individuals, as well as placing extra strain on health services. As the population ages over the coming decades, increased provision of such facilities seems likely. The need for robust infection prevention and control practices will therefore remain of paramount importance if the impact of outbreaks is to be minimised. In this review, we discuss the nature of the problem of influenza in long-term care facilities, and approaches to preventive and control measures, including vaccination of residents and staff, and the use of antiviral drugs for treatment and prophylaxis, based on currently available evidence. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long......-term in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...... the hypothesis that time horizons are influenced by ownership structures and particularly that industrial foundations promote longtermism. Policymakers which are interested in promoting longtermism should allow and perhaps even encourage the creation of industrial foundations. More generally they should consider...

  13. Long-term effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Smith, T.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that sources of long-term damage from radiation are two-fold. People who have been exposed to doses of radiation from initial early fallout but have recovered from the acute effects may still suffer long-term damage from their exposure. Those who have not been exposed to early fallout may be exposed to delayed fallout, the hazards from which are almost exclusively from ingesting strontium, caesium and carbon isotopes present in food; the damage caused is relatively unimportant compared with that caused by the brief doses from initial radiation and early fallout. A brief discussion is presented of the distribution of delayed long-lived isotope fallout, and an outline is sketched of late biological effects, such as malignant disease, cataracts, retarded development, infertility and genetic effects. (U.K.)

  14. Long term economic relationships from cointegration maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos de B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-07-01

    We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the sorting points into neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates (USIR), monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates.

  15. Murine model of long term obstructive jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Masayo; Yang, Jing; Katsuta, Eriko; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Woelfel, Ingrid A.; Wang, Xuan; Spiegel, Sarah; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background With the recent emergence of conjugated bile acids as signaling molecules in cancer, a murine model of obstructive jaundice by cholestasis with long-term survival is in need. Here, we investigated the characteristics of 3 murine models of obstructive jaundice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were used for total ligation of the common bile duct (tCL), partial common bile duct ligation (pCL), and ligation of left and median hepatic bile duct with gallbladder removal (LMHL) models. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Fibrotic change was determined by Masson-Trichrome staining and Collagen expression. Results 70% (7/10) of tCL mice died by Day 7, whereas majority 67% (10/15) of pCL mice survived with loss of jaundice. 19% (3/16) of LMHL mice died; however, jaundice continued beyond Day 14, with survival of more than a month. Compensatory enlargement of the right lobe was observed in both pCL and LMHL models. The pCL model demonstrated acute inflammation due to obstructive jaundice 3 days after ligation but jaundice rapidly decreased by Day 7. The LHML group developed portal hypertension as well as severe fibrosis by Day 14 in addition to prolonged jaundice. Conclusion The standard tCL model is too unstable with high mortality for long-term studies. pCL may be an appropriate model for acute inflammation with obstructive jaundice but long term survivors are no longer jaundiced. The LHML model was identified to be the most feasible model to study the effect of long-term obstructive jaundice. PMID:27916350

  16. Long-term course of opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed.

  17. Long-term economic outlook. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This review provides economic growth forecast tables for Ontario, Canada, the US, Western Europe, and Japan. Economic growth, government policy, the long-term prospects for inflation, interest rates and foreign exchange rates, trends in the Canadian dollar, and energy markets and prices are also reviewed. Data generally cover 1965-2025. Appendices give a summary of historical and forecast data. 18 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. French Approach for Long Term Storage Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, Jacob; Carreton, Jean-Pierre; Lizot, Marie Therese; Lhomme, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    IRSN presents its statement regarding long-term storage facilities; in France, the regulatory documents do not define the long term duration. The storage facility lifetime can only be appreciated according to the needs and materials stored therein. However, the magnitude of the long-term can be estimated at a few hundred years compared to a few decades for current storage. Usually, in France, construction of storage facilities is driven from the necessity various necessities, linked to the management of radioactive material (eg spent fuel) and to the management of radioactive waste. Because of the variety of 'stored materials and objects' (fission product solutions, plutonium oxide powders, activated solids, drums containing technological waste, spent fuel...), a great number of storage facility design solutions have been developed (surface, subsurface areas, dry or wet conditions...) in the World. After describing the main functions of a storage facility, IRSN displays the safety principles and the associated design principles. The specific design principles applied to particular storage (dry or wet spent fuel storage, depleted uranium or reprocessed uranium storage, plutonium storage, waste containing tritium storage, HLW and ILLW storage...) are also presented. Finally, the concerns due to the long-term duration storage and related safety assessment are developed. After discussing these issues, IRSN displays its statement. The authorization procedures governing the facility lifetime are similar to those of any basic nuclear installation, the continuation of the facility operation remaining subject to periodic safety reviews (in France, every 10 years). The applicant safety cases have to show, that the safety requirements are always met; this requires, at minimum, to take into account at the design stage, comfortable design margins. (author)

  19. Accounting of Long-Term Biological Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriy Mossakovskyy; Vasyl Korytnyy

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to generalization of experience in valuation of long-term biological assets of plant-growing and animal-breeding, and preparation of suggestions concerning improvement of accounting in this field. Recommendations concerning accounting of such assets are given based on the study of accounting practice at specific agricultural company during long period of time. Authors believe that fair value is applicable only if price level for agricultural products is fixed by the gov...

  20. Optimal long-term contracting with learning

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhiguo; Wei, Bin; Yu, Jianfeng; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We introduce uncertainty into Holmstrom and Milgrom (1987) to study optimal long-term contracting with learning. In a dynamic relationship, the agent's shirking not only reduces current performance but also increases the agent's information rent due to the persistent belief manipulation effect. We characterize the optimal contract using the dynamic programming technique in which information rent is the unique state variable. In the optimal contract, the optimal effort is front-loaded and decr...

  1. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  2. Inflation Hedging for Long-Term Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Shaun K. Roache; Alexander P. Attie

    2009-01-01

    Long-term investors face a common problem-how to maintain the purchasing power of their assets over time and achieve a level of real returns consistent with their investment objectives. While inflation-linked bonds and derivatives have been developed to hedge the effects of inflation, their limited supply and liquidity lead many investors to continue to rely on the indirect hedging properties of traditional asset classes. In this paper, we assess these properties over different time horizons,...

  3. Long term evolution 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoub, Michel; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Tronco, Tania

    2016-01-01

    This book focus on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond. The chapters describe different aspects of research and development in LTE, LTE-Advanced (4G systems) and LTE-450 MHz such as telecommunications regulatory framework, voice over LTE, link adaptation, power control, interference mitigation mechanisms, performance evaluation for different types of antennas, cognitive mesh network, integration of LTE network and satellite, test environment, power amplifiers and so on. It is useful for researchers in the field of mobile communications.

  4. Long-Term Care Services for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-14

    includes but is not limited to home physical , occupational, or speech therapy ; wound care; and intravenous (IV) care. A VA physician determines that a...restoring/rehabilitating the veteran’s health, such as skilled nursing care, physical therapy , occupational therapy , and IV therapy Same as HBPC... geriatric evaluation,  palliative care,  adult day health care,  homemaker/home health aide care,  respite care, Long-Term Care Services for

  5. Long term adequacy of uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the adequacy of world economic uranium resources to meet requirements in the very long term, that is until at least 2025 and beyond. It does so by analysing current requirements forecasts, existing and potential production centre supply capability schedules and national resource estimates. It takes into account lead times from resource discovery to production and production rate limitations. The institutional and political issues surrounding the question of adequacy are reviewed. (author)

  6. Manitoba Hydro long-term high-voltage transmission line magnetic field monitoring project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.S.; Ng, C.K.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the licensing process to construct a new 230 kV transmission line on an existing right-of-way in Manitoba, an electrical effects study was conducted in 1998. The study was part of the environmental assessment program crucial in obtaining government approval to construct the line. Some residents living adjacent to the new transmission circuit expressed concerns about alleged adverse health effects associated with long-term exposure to magnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines. In order to verify the accuracy of the predicted magnetic field levels submitted to the regulatory body in the the electrical effects study and to instill confidence in the residents of the affected communities, a three-year magnetic monitoring project was conducted between 2003 and 2005 along the right-of-way after the new 230kV transmission line was energized by Manitoba Hydro. This paper described the monitoring program, with reference to location; equipment; data analysis; and discussion of results. It was concluded that the long-term monitoring project demonstrated that the magnetic field prediction methodology was well understood and accurate, and provided valuable long-term magnetic field characteristics at the edge of the right-of-way. In addition, when there is opposition to a transmission line, public consultation and education were found to be the best options to arrive at a solution. 3 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs

  7. COMPARISON OF THE INFLUENCE OF LONG-TERM TREATMENT BASED ON CARVEDILOL OR BISOPROLOL ON METABOLIC PARAMETERS IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH OVERWEIGHT OR OBESITY RESULTS OF THE RANDOMIZED OPEN-LABEL PARALLEL-GROUPS STEPPED TRIAL CABRIOLET (PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Martsevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare antihypertensive and metabolic effects of long-term treatment with carvedilol or bisoprolol in patients with arterial hypertension (HT of 1-2 degree and overweight/obesity. Material and methods. A total of 105 patients were enrolled into open-label comparative stepped trial in two parallel groups. The patients were randomized into two groups: the group 1 (n=53 started treatment with carvedilol 25 mg daily and the group 2 (n=52 – with bisoprolol 5 mg daily. If the effect was insufficient a dose of a beta-blocker was doubled, then amlodipine was added in the dose of 5 mg daily with its further increase if necessary or indapamide in dose 1.5 mg daily. The follow-up for each patient was 24 weeks. At the start and then 12 and 24 weeks later the frequency of target blood pressure (BP achievement, body mass index, biochemical indices, ECG and treatment safety were evaluated. Results. Significant distinctions in antihypertensive therapy effect between the groups were absent (ΔBP=-29.5±11.3/17.8±8.4 and -30.4±12.8/18.7±8 mm Hg for groups 1 and 2, respectively , p<0.001 for the both groups as well as the necessity for additional therapy. All the patients completed the study had achieved target BP level. The patients of the both groups decreased body mass index after 6-month treatment (-0.57±1.1, p=0.001 and -0.53±0.8 kg/m2, p<0.001 for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Patients of the group 1 demonstrated significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose level (-0.45±1.2 mM/l, p=0.01, uric acid (-0.05±0.01 mM/l, p<0.001 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (-0.28±0.9 mM/l, p<0.05 as well as a trend for HOMA index decrease. Serum creatinine level increased in patients of the group 2 (6.35±22.4 mcM/l, p=0.05 with no significant dynamics in metabolic indices. Glomerular filtration rate did not change significantly in the group 1, while there was significant decrease in the group 2 (Δ-3.8±15.2 ml/min/1,73m2, р=0.01. The

  8. COMPARISON OF THE INFLUENCE OF LONG-TERM TREATMENT BASED ON CARVEDILOL OR BISOPROLOL ON METABOLIC PARAMETERS IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH OVERWEIGHT OR OBESITY RESULTS OF THE RANDOMIZED OPEN-LABEL PARALLEL-GROUPS STEPPED TRIAL CABRIOLET (PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Martsevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare antihypertensive and metabolic effects of long-term treatment with carvedilol or bisoprolol in patients with arterial hypertension (HT of 1-2 degree and overweight/obesity. Material and methods. A total of 105 patients were enrolled into open-label comparative stepped trial in two parallel groups. The patients were randomized into two groups: the group 1 (n=53 started treatment with carvedilol 25 mg daily and the group 2 (n=52 – with bisoprolol 5 mg daily. If the effect was insufficient a dose of a beta-blocker was doubled, then amlodipine was added in the dose of 5 mg daily with its further increase if necessary or indapamide in dose 1.5 mg daily. The follow-up for each patient was 24 weeks. At the start and then 12 and 24 weeks later the frequency of target blood pressure (BP achievement, body mass index, biochemical indices, ECG and treatment safety were evaluated. Results. Significant distinctions in antihypertensive therapy effect between the groups were absent (ΔBP=-29.5±11.3/17.8±8.4 and -30.4±12.8/18.7±8 mm Hg for groups 1 and 2, respectively , p<0.001 for the both groups as well as the necessity for additional therapy. All the patients completed the study had achieved target BP level. The patients of the both groups decreased body mass index after 6-month treatment (-0.57±1.1, p=0.001 and -0.53±0.8 kg/m2, p<0.001 for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Patients of the group 1 demonstrated significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose level (-0.45±1.2 mM/l, p=0.01, uric acid (-0.05±0.01 mM/l, p<0.001 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (-0.28±0.9 mM/l, p<0.05 as well as a trend for HOMA index decrease. Serum creatinine level increased in patients of the group 2 (6.35±22.4 mcM/l, p=0.05 with no significant dynamics in metabolic indices. Glomerular filtration rate did not change significantly in the group 1, while there was significant decrease in the group 2 (Δ-3.8±15.2 ml/min/1,73m2, р=0.01. The

  9. Reconstruction of peak water levels, peak discharges and long-term occurrence of extreme- as well as smaller pre-instrumental flood events of river Aare, Limmat, Reuss, Rhine and Saane in Switzerland. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttenuj, Daniel; Wetter, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    contained 54 Rhine flood events, whereas chroniclers and annalists only recorded seven floods during the same period. This is a ratio of almost eight to one. This large difference points to the significantly sharper "observation skills" of the account books towards smaller floods, which may be explained by the fact that bridges can be endangered by relatively small floods because of driftwood, whereas it is known that chroniclers or annalists were predominantly focussing on spectacular (extreme) flood events. We [Oliver Wetter and Daniel Tuttenuj] are now able to present first preliminary results of reconstructed peak water levels and peak discharges of pre instrumental river Aare-, Emme-, Limmat-, Reuss-, Rhine- and Saane floods. These first results clearly show the strengths as well as the limits of the data and method used, depending mainly on the river types. Of the above mentioned rivers only the floods of river Emme could not be reconstructed whereas the long-term development of peak water levels and peak discharges of the other rivers clearly correlate with major local and supra-regional Swiss flood corrections over time. PhD student Daniel Tuttenuj is going to present the results of river Emme and Saane, whereas Dr Oliver Wetter is going to present the results for the other rivers and gives a first insight on long-term recurring periods of smaller river Birs, Birsig, Rhine and Wiese flood events based on the analysis of the weekly led account books "Wochenausgabenbücher der Stadt Basel" (see Abstract Oliver Wetter).

  10. Cell response to long term mechanical interaction with nanopipettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Singhal, Riju; Vitol, Elina; Bouchard, Michael; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane; Layton, Bradley; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury

    2009-03-01

    Traditional microinjection into cells is performed over a relatively short term. Pipettes are typically withdrawn following any kind of injection. On the other hand, there is growing interest in using nanopipettes for cellular and subcellular probing. This interest is partly due to new developments in nanopipette technology which employ carbon nanotubes and provide robustness, flexibility, and biocompatibility. However, as far as we know, no systematic study of physiological, biochemical, and biophysical processes associated with cell response to lengthy mechanical stimulations by nanopipette probing have been performed so far. We present a detailed investigation of a wide range of effects of long term pipette insertion into a cell. Both traditional glass micropipettes and the novel carbon nanotube-tipped probes were involved in this study. The mechanism of Ca2+ response to the mechanical stimuli introduced by the nanopipette, and the role of different organelles in this mechanism were studied. We hypothesize that the calcium response is a function of cytoskeleton integrity and the mode of coupling between the cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane domains.

  11. Redesigning nursing work in long-term care environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, L M; O'Brien-Pallas, L

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a highly statistically oriented argument for examining work attitudes and activities among three groups of caregivers [RNs, RPNs, and HCAs] working in long-term care. The investigators used both work sampling, written surveys, and interviews with a sample of 46 caregivers in a large university-affiliated LTC facility in Toronto, Canada. While RNs stated their strong affinity for direct patient care activities, they perform the lowest percentage of direct care, chiefly due to their accountability for planning and coordinating the care provided by others. The HCAs who provided the bulk of direct patient care "valued it the least," apparently finding little gratification with this aspect of their role. This study suggests that there is a need to examine and clarify work roles and perceptions for all caregivers as part of any work redesign process. A higher level of RN involvement in direct patient care activities, along with "attention to enhancing the importance" of these activities for staff employed in the HCA role, could be beneficial.

  12. On the long-term development of population dose in radioactively contaminated parts of Korma County (Belarus); Langzeitentwicklung der Strahlenexposition der Bevoelkerung in radioaktiv kontaminierten Gebieten des Kreises Korma (Belarus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dederichs, H.; Pillath, J.; Heuel-Fabianek, B.; Hill, P.; Lennartz, R. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz

    2009-07-01

    Radiological long-term measurements were performed between 1998 and 2007 in a region in Belarus that was affected by the Chernobyl accident. The internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants in the village of Volincy (Korma County) - caused by the existing contamination and an increasing lack of precaution over time with regard to eating home-grown food - has experienced a significant decrease from a very high level. The external exposure, however, reveals a different picture. Although an overall decrease was observed, the organic constituents of the soil show an increase in contamination. This increase was not observed in soils from cultivated land or gardens. In addition to the measurements, a relationship based on mutual trust allowed us to offer the inhabitants individual advice on how to reduce internal contamination. As a result of this advice and the decreasing environmental contamination (topsoil and crops), the internal dose was reduced significantly. Today, the internal exposure has only increased slightly and has no significant negative influence on the health of the people. The internal dose will decrease to less than 0.2 mSv/a in 2011 and to below 0.1 mSv/a in 2020. Despite this, the cumulative dose will remain significantly higher than normal background values due to external exposure. If internal exposure is checked on a regular basis and advice is offered on an individual basis, there should be no specific danger for the people in the region in the near future. Resettlement may even be possible in former prohibited areas provided that people comply with appropriate dietary rules. (orig.)

  13. Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Winkler, R. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was investigated from 1982 to 1992 at a semi-natural location 10 km north of Munich, southern Germany. For this period the continuous measurement yielded a long-term average of 8.6 Bq.m{sup -3} (arithmetic mean) and 6.9 Bq.m{sup -3} (geometric mean), from which an average annual effective dose of 0.14 mSv due to outdoor radon can be derived. A long-term trend of the radon concentration was not detectable over the whole period of observation. However, by time series analysis, a long-term cyclic pattern was identified with two maxima (1984-1986, 1989-1991) and two minima (1982-1983, 1987-1988). The seasonal pattern is characterized by an autumn maximum and an early summer minimum. On average, the seasonal maximum in October was found to be higher by a factor of 2 than the June minimum. The diurnal variation of the radon concentration shows a maximum in the early morning and a minimum in the afternoon. On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.5 in winter compared with 3.5 in the summer months. The radon concentration is correlated with a meteorological parameter (stagnation index) which takes into account horizontal and vertical exchange processes and the wash-out of aerosols in the lower atmosphere. (orig.)

  14. Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was investigated from 1982 to 1992 at a semi-natural location 10 km north of Munich, southern Germany. For this period the continuous measurement yielded a long-term average of 8.6 Bq.m -3 (arithmetic mean) and 6.9 Bq.m -3 (geometric mean), from which an average annual effective dose of 0.14 mSv due to outdoor radon can be derived. A long-term trend of the radon concentration was not detectable over the whole period of observation. However, by time series analysis, a long-term cyclic pattern was identified with two maxima (1984-1986, 1989-1991) and two minima (1982-1983, 1987-1988). The seasonal pattern is characterized by an autumn maximum and an early summer minimum. On average, the seasonal maximum in October was found to be higher by a factor of 2 than the June minimum. The diurnal variation of the radon concentration shows a maximum in the early morning and a minimum in the afternoon. On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.5 in winter compared with 3.5 in the summer months. The radon concentration is correlated with a meteorological parameter (stagnation index) which takes into account horizontal and vertical exchange processes and the wash-out of aerosols in the lower atmosphere. (orig.)

  15. Long term contracts signed in Slovak timber business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2005-01-01

    The Slovak timber business is changing. The state-owned company, SR Forests, which cuts more then 50% of Slovak timber has signed long term agreements with major domestic timber processing companies - Smrecina, the Rettenmeier Tatra Timber saw mill in Liptovsky Mikulas and two paper mills - Mondi SCP Ruzomberok and Kappa Sturovo. In the past, only quarterly contracts were signed. Now, for the first time, two-year contracts have been signed that should help the timber processing industry and the forestry sector. The General Director of Lesy SR (SR Forests), Karol Vins, hopes for better sale prices. Company headquarters wants to maintain better control of prices than under the old system of timber sales by its branches. In the opinion of the General Director of the Forestry Section at the Ministry of Agriculture, long term contracts will guarantee a stable delivery of timber to processing companies, giving investors in new production capacity a better position in negotiations with banks regarding financing. According to K. Vins, long term contracts have so far only been negotiated with major timber processing companies which are mostly controlled by foreign capital and therefore have good payment discipline. The Association of the Timber Processing Industry is unhappy regarding developments and Lesy SR has not invited domestic companies to these negotiations

  16. Advancing nursing leadership in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer; Ringland, Margaret; Wilson, Susan

    2010-05-01

    Nurses working in the long-term care (LTC) sector face unique workplace stresses, demands and circumstances. Designing approaches to leadership training and other supportive human-resource strategies that reflect the demands of the LTC setting fosters a positive work life for nurses by providing them with the skills and knowledge necessary to lead the care team and to address resident and family issues. Through the St. Joseph's Health Centre Guelph demonstration site project, funded by the Nursing Secretariat of Ontario's Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, the Excelling as a Nurse Leader in Long Term Care training program and the Mentor Team program were developed to address these needs. Evaluation results show that not only have individual nurses benefitted from taking part in these programs, but also that the positive effects were felt in other parts of the LTC home (as reported by Directors of Care). By creating a generally healthier work environment, it is anticipated that these programs will also have a positive effect on recruitment and retention.

  17. Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste: practical issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste is a key part of making progress on the radioactive waste management issue. A survey of member countries has shown that differences exist both in the protection criteria being applied and in the methods for demonstrating compliance, reflecting historical and cultural differences between countries which in turn result in a diversity of decision-making approaches and frameworks. At the same time, however, these differences in criteria are unlikely to result in significant differences in long-term protection, as all the standards being proposed are well below levels at which actual effects of radiological exposure can be observed and a range of complementary requirements is foreseen. In order to enable experts from a wide range of backgrounds to debate the various aspects of these findings, the NEA organised an international workshop in November 2006 in Paris, France. Discussions focused on diversity in regulatory processes; the basis and tools for assuring long-term protection; ethical responsibilities of one generation to later generations and how these can be discharged; and adapting regulatory processes to the long time frames involved in implementing geological disposal. These proceedings include a summary of the viewpoints expressed as well as the 22 papers presented at the workshop. (author)

  18. The developmental environment, epigenetic biomarkers and long-term health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, K M; Costello, P M; Lillycrop, K A

    2015-10-01

    Evidence from both human and animal studies has shown that the prenatal and early postnatal environments influence susceptibility to chronic disease in later life and suggests that epigenetic processes are an important mechanism by which the environment alters long-term disease risk. Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNAs, play a central role in regulating gene expression. The epigenome is highly sensitive to environmental factors in early life, such as nutrition, stress, endocrine disruption and pollution, and changes in the epigenome can induce long-term changes in gene expression and phenotype. In this review we focus on how the early life nutritional environment can alter the epigenome leading to an altered susceptibility to disease in later life.

  19. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care: Sexuality, long term care, capacity assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literatur...

  20. Cognitive performance in long-term abstinent elderly alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, George; McGillivray, Shannon

    2007-11-01

    To date, there is a wealth of literature describing the deleterious effects of active alcoholism on cognitive function. There is also a growing body of literature on the extent of cognitive recovery that can occur with abstinence. However, there is still a dearth of published findings on cognitive functioning in very long-term abstinence alcoholics, especially in the elderly population. The current study examines 91 elderly abstinent alcoholics (EAA) (49 men and 42 women) with an average age of 67.3 years, abstinent for an average of 14.8 years (range 0.5 to 45 years), and age and gender comparable light/nondrinking controls. The EAA group was divided into 3 subgroups: individuals that attained abstinence before age 50 years, between the ages 50 and 60 years, and after age 60 years. Attention, verbal fluency, abstraction/cognitive flexibility, psychomotor, immediate memory, delayed memory, reaction time, spatial processing, and auditory working memory were assessed. The AMNART and cranium size were used as estimates of brain reserve capacity, and the association of all variables with alcohol use measures was examined. Overall, the EAA groups performed comparably to controls on the assessments of cognitive function. Only the abstinent in group before 50 years of age performed worse than controls, and this was only in the domain of auditory working memory. EAAs had larger craniums than their controls. This effect was strongest for those who drank the longest and had the shortest abstinence. Such individuals also performed better cognitively. Our data showed that elderly alcoholics that drank late into life, but with at least 6 months abstinence can exhibit normal cognitive functioning. Selective survivorship and selection bias probably play a part in these findings. Cognitively healthier alcoholics, with more brain reserve capacity, may be more likely to live into their 60s, 70s, or 80s of age with relatively intact cognition, and to volunteer for studies such as

  1. How much radiation dose, to whom? Long-term storage, surveillance, retrieval and long processes cause additional dose to employees; Wie viel Strahlendosis fuer wen? Lange Lagerung, Offenhaltung und ein langer Entsorgungsprozess bedeuten zusaetzliche Dosis fuer Beschaeftigte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Clemens [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz; Riemann, Moritz [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Philosophie und Ethik der Umwelt

    2017-09-01

    In the case of final nuclear waste disposal there are concurrent interests with respect to radiation protection: The realization of a disposal option with minimum required follow-up care needs time causing additional radiation exposure for the employees, also the option of long-term storage, surveillance and retrieval possibilities cause additional dose to employees. The contribution discusses possible consideration of requests for the different options.

  2. Consolidation of long-term memory: Evidence and alternatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Meeter, M.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Memory loss in retrograde amnesia has long been held to be larger for recent periods than for remote periods, a pattern usually referred to as the Ribot gradient. One explanation for this gradient is consolidation of long-term memories. Several computational models of such a process have shown how consolidation can explain characteristics of amnesia, but they have not elucidated how consolidation must be envisaged. Here findings are reviewed that shed light on how consolidation may be impleme...

  3. The long-term stock market valuation of customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Lerzan

    2008-01-01

    Firm valuation has been an important domain of interest for finance. However, most financial models do not include customer-related metrics in this process. Studies in marketing have found that one particular customer metric, customer satisfaction, improves the ability to predict future cash flows, long-term financial measures, stock performance, and shareholder value. However, most of these studies predominantly employ models that are not directly used in finance practice. This article exten...

  4. Long-Term Photometry of Very Slow Novae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chochol D.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term photographic, photoelectric and recent CCD photometry of the classical nova V723 Cas and symbiotic novae V1329 Cyg, PU Vul, V1016 Cyg and HM Sge were used to find their orbital periods. The arguments in favor of the presence of the third components in these systems are given. Physical processes, responsible for the brightness variations, are discussed.

  5. LONG-TERM OUTCOME IN PEDIATRIC TRICHOTILLOMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Maya C; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Bloch, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    To examine long-term outcome in children with trichotillomania. We conducted follow-up clinical assessments an average of 2.8 ± 0.8 years after baseline evaluation in 30 of 39 children who previously participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for pediatric trichotillomania. Our primary outcome was change in hairpulling severity on the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Hospital Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HPS) between the end of the acute phase and follow-up evaluation. We also obtained secondary measures examining styles of hairpulling, comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as continued treatment utilization. We examined both correlates and predictors of outcome (change in MGH-HPS score) using linear regression. None of the participants continued to take NAC at the time of follow-up assessment. No significant changes in hairpulling severity were reported over the follow-up period. Subjects reported significantly increased anxiety and depressive symptoms but improvement in automatic pulling symptoms. Increased hairpulling symptoms during the follow-up period were associated with increased depression and anxiety symptoms and increased focused pulling. Older age and greater focused pulling at baseline assessment were associated with poor long-term prognosis. Our findings suggest that few children with trichotillomania experience a significant improvement in trichotillomania symptoms if behavioral treatments are inaccessible or have failed to produce adequate symptom relief. Our findings also confirm results of previous cross-sectional studies that suggest an increased risk of depression and anxiety symptoms with age in pediatric trichotillomania. Increased focused pulling and older age among children with trichotillomania symptoms may be associated with poorer long-term prognosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Long-term EEG in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D

    2015-03-01

    Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24 h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  7. Long term aspects of uranium tailings management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, K.

    1980-05-01

    This paper sets out the background issues which lead to the development of interim close-out criteria for uranium mill tailings. It places the current state-of-the-art for tailings management into both a national and international perspective and shows why such interim criteria are needed now. There are seven specific criteria proposed dealing with the need to have: passive barriers, limits on surface water recharge, durable systems, long term performance guarantees, limits to access, controls on water and airborne releases and finally to have a knowledge of exposure pathways. This paper is intended to serve as a focus for subsequent discussions with all concerned parties. (auth)

  8. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  9. Optimal Long-Term Financial Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M. DeMarzo; Michael J. Fishman

    2007-01-01

    We develop an agency model of financial contracting. We derive long-term debt, a line of credit, and equity as optimal securities, capturing the debt coupon and maturity; the interest rate and limits on the credit line; inside versus outside equity; dividend policy; and capital structure dynamics. The optimal debt-equity ratio is history dependent, but debt and credit line terms are independent of the amount financed and, in some cases, the severity of the agency problem. In our model, the ag...

  10. Long-term trends of surface ozone and its influencing factors at the Mt Waliguan GAW station, China – Part 2: The roles of anthropogenic emissions and climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter-annual variability and long-term trends in tropospheric ozone are both environmental and climate concerns. Ozone measured at Mt Waliguan Observatory (WLG, 3816 m a.s.l. on the Tibetan Plateau over the period of 1994–2013 has increased significantly by 0.2–0.3 ppbv yr−1 during spring and autumn but shows a much smaller trend in winter and no significant trend in summer. Here we explore the factors driving the observed ozone changes at WLG using backward trajectory analysis, chemistry–climate model hindcast simulations (GFDL AM3, a trajectory-mapped ozonesonde data set, and several climate indices. A stratospheric ozone tracer implemented in GFDL AM3 indicates that stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT can explain ∼ 60 % of the simulated springtime ozone increase at WLG, consistent with an increase in the NW air-mass frequency inferred from the trajectory analysis. Enhanced STT associated with the strengthening of the mid-latitude jet stream contributes to the observed high ozone anomalies at WLG during the springs of 1999 and 2012. During autumn, observations at WLG are more heavily influenced by polluted air masses originating from South East Asia than in the other seasons. Rising Asian anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors are the key driver of increasing autumnal ozone observed at WLG, as supported by the GFDL AM3 model with time-varying emissions, which captures the observed ozone increase (0.26 ± 0.11 ppbv yr−1. AM3 simulates a greater ozone increase of 0.38 ± 0.11 ppbv yr−1 at WLG in autumn under conditions with strong transport from South East Asia and shows no significant ozone trend in autumn when anthropogenic emissions are held constant in time. During summer, WLG is mostly influenced by easterly air masses, but these trajectories do not extend to the polluted regions of eastern China and have decreased significantly over the last 2 decades, which likely explains why

  11. Long-term complications of splenectomy in adult immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Lan-Huong; Mahévas, Matthieu; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Limal, Nicolas; Languille, Laetitia; Dumas, Guillaume; Khellaf, Mehdi; Bierling, Philippe; Michel, Marc; Godeau, Bertrand

    2016-11-01

    The recent large decrease in splenectomy use for chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is partly due to still-unsolved questions about long-term safety. We performed the first single-center exposed/unexposed cohort study evaluating the long-term incidence of splenectomy complications in patients with primary ITP. Overall, 83 patients who underwent splenectomy more than 10 years ago (exposed) were matched with 83 nonsplenectomized patients (unexposed) on the date of ITP diagnosis ±5 years, age and gender. After a median follow-up of 192 months (range 0.5-528), 43 patients (52%) achieved overall response after splenectomy. Splenectomized patients experienced more venous thromboembolism (VTE) than controls (n = 13 vs n = 2, P = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, splenectomy was an independent risk factor of VTE (hazard ratio = 4.006, P = 0.032 [95% confidence interval: 1.13-14.21]). Splenectomized patients presented more severe infections on long-term follow-up: all required hospitalization, and 5/26 (19%) infections led to severe sepsis or septic shock and to death for 3 cases (none in controls). However, the incidence of malignancy was similar in both groups, as was cardiovascular risk, which appeared to be related more to ITP than splenectomy. Finally, splenectomy did not significantly decrease overall survival. Despite the risk of thrombosis and severe sepsis, splenectomy remains an effective and curative treatment for ITP.

  12. DRIVERS OF LONG-TERM CONVERGENCE. FOCUS ON ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUELA UNGURU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With initial low levels of income per capita, a declining population and relatively modest economic growth rates, there are little prospects of diminishing the gap between Romania and the EU countries. Nevertheless, in the long term, convergence is expected. The question then arises, “What are the drivers and their likely potential to boost economic growth and the catching-up process?”. This paper presents shortly the theoretical background of economic convergence and then focuses on the assessment of possible paths of Romania’s convergence towards the EU. Based on the existing long-term macroeconomic projections and the assessment of the possible future developments of the drivers of economic growth, we have built three scenarios of economic convergence, highlighting the possible timespan of convergence. We have employed growth accounting methods to decompose output growth rate into production factors’ contributions (capital and labour and total factor productivity.

  13. Long-term ecophysiological responses to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Kristine Stove; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    Plant physiology is affected by climate change. Acclimations of photosynthetic processes are induced by short-term changes in climatic conditions. Further acclimation can be caused by longterm adjustments to climate change due to ecosystem-feedbacks. The aim of this PhD was to investigate plant...... term responses of plant physiology to the climate change factors were investigated. In the CLIMAITE-experiment it has been shown that 2 years of treatment altered physiological responses in Deschampsiaand Calluna. In the work of this PhD similar responses were observed after 6 years of treatment...... physiological responses to climate change in a seasonal and long-term perspective. The effects of elevated CO2, passive night time warming and periodic summer drought as single factor and in combination, on plant physiology were investigated in the long-term multifactorial field experiment CLIMAITE in a Danish...

  14. Nursing unit leaders' influence on the long-term sustainability of evidence-based practice improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiszer, Andrea R; Semenic, Sonia E; Ritchie, Judith A; Richer, Marie-Claire; Denis, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-01

    To describe how actions of nursing unit leaders influenced the long-term sustainability of a best practice guidelines (BPG) program on inpatient units. Several factors influence the initial implementation of evidence-based practice improvements in nursing, with leadership recognized as essential. However, there is limited knowledge about enduring change, including how frontline nursing leaders influence the sustainability of practice improvements over the long term. A qualitative descriptive case study included 39 in-depth interviews, observations, and document reviews. Four embedded nursing unit subcases had differing levels of program sustainability at 7 years (average) following implementation. Higher levels of BPG sustainability occurred on units where formal leadership teams used an integrated set of strategies and activities. Two key strategies were maintaining priorities and reinforcing expectations. The coordinated use of six activities (e.g., discussing, evaluating, integrating) promoted the continuation of BPG practices among staff. These leadership processes, fostering exchange and learning, contributed to sustainability-promoting environments characterized by teamwork and accountability. Unit leaders are required to strategically orchestrate several overlapping and synergistic efforts to achieve long-term sustainability of BPG-based practice improvements. As part of managing overall unit performance, unit leaders may influence practice improvement sustainability by aligning vision, strategies, and activities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cues, context, and long-term memory: the role of the retrosplenial cortex in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M P Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial navigation requires representations of landmarks and other navigation cues. The retrosplenial cortex (RSC is anatomically positioned between limbic areas important for memory formation, such as the hippocampus and the anterior thalamus, and cortical regions along the dorsal stream known to contribute importantly to long-term spatial representation, such as the posterior parietal cortex. Damage to the RSC severely impairs allocentric representations of the environment, including the ability to derive navigational information from landmarks. The specific deficits seen in tests of human and rodent navigation suggest that the RSC supports allocentric representation by processing the stable features of the environment and the spatial relationships among them. In addition to spatial cognition, the RSC plays a key role in contextual and episodic memory. The RSC also contributes importantly to the acquisition and consolidation of long-term spatial and contextual memory through its interactions with the hippocampus. Within this framework, the RSC plays a dual role as part of the feedforward network providing sensory and mnemonic input to the hippocampus and as a target of the hippocampal-dependent systems consolidation of long-term memory.

  16. Cues, context, and long-term memory: the role of the retrosplenial cortex in spatial cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam M P; Vedder, Lindsey C; Law, L Matthew; Smith, David M

    2014-01-01

    Spatial navigation requires memory representations of landmarks and other navigation cues. The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is anatomically positioned between limbic areas important for memory formation, such as the hippocampus (HPC) and the anterior thalamus, and cortical regions along the dorsal stream known to contribute importantly to long-term spatial representation, such as the posterior parietal cortex. Damage to the RSC severely impairs allocentric representations of the environment, including the ability to derive navigational information from landmarks. The specific deficits seen in tests of human and rodent navigation suggest that the RSC supports allocentric representation by processing the stable features of the environment and the spatial relationships among them. In addition to spatial cognition, the RSC plays a key role in contextual and episodic memory. The RSC also contributes importantly to the acquisition and consolidation of long-term spatial and contextual memory through its interactions with the HPC. Within this framework, the RSC plays a dual role as part of the feedforward network providing sensory and mnemonic input to the HPC and as a target of the hippocampal-dependent systems consolidation of long-term memory.

  17. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M.

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, ii) modelling, iii) countermeasures, iv) runoff v) spatial variations, and vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239-240 Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  18. Craniopharyngioma in Children: Long-term Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEINBOK, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The survival rate for childhood craniopharyngioma has been improving, with more long-term survivors. Unfortunately it is rare for the patient to be normal, either from the disease itself or from the effects of treatment. Long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma suffer a number of impairments, which include visual loss, endocrinopathy, hypothalamic dysfunction, cerebrovascular problems, neurologic and neurocognitive dysfunction. Pituitary insufficiency is present in almost 100%. Visual and hypothalamic dysfunction is common. There is a high risk of metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cerebrovascular disease, including stroke and Moyamoya syndrome. Cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional problems are prevalent. Finally, there is a higher risk of premature death among survivors of craniopharyngioma, and often this is not from tumor recurrence. It is important to consider craniopharyngioma as a chronic disease. There is no perfect treatment. The treatment has to be tailored to the individual patient to minimize dysfunction caused by tumor and treatments. So “cure” of the tumor does not mean a normal patient. The management of the patient and family needs multidisciplinary evaluation and should involve ophthalmology, endocrinology, neurosurgery, oncology, and psychology. Furthermore, it is also important to address emotional issues and social integration. PMID:26345668

  19. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J; Brack, H P; Geiger, F; Buechi, F N; Tsukada, A; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  20. Neo bladder long term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhr, I.; Mohamed, A. M.; Moustafa, A.; Al-Sherbiny, M.; Salama, M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the commonest forms of orthotopic bladder substitution for bladder cancer surivors, used in our institute, is the use of ileocecal segment. Sometimes, the need for Indiana pouch heterotropic continent diversion arises. Aim: To compare the long-term effect of orthotopic ileocecal bladder and heterotropic Indiana pouch following radical cystectomy in bladder cancer patients. Patients and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, 91 patients underwent radical cystectomy/anterior pelvic exentration and ortho topic ileocecal bladder reconstruction (61 patients) and Indiana pouch (30 patients), when orthotopic diversion could not be technically or oncologically feasible. Results: Convalescence was uneventful in most patients. All minor and major urinary leakage cases, in both diversions groups, where successfully conservatively treated. Only one patient in the ileocecal group with major urinary leak required re-exploration with successful revision of uretro-colonic anastomosis. Only one patient in the Indiana pouch group had accidentally discovered sub-centimetric stone, which was simply expelled. The overall survival proportion of ileocecal group was 100% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p < 0.001). The disease free survival proportion of ileocecal group was 90.8% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p = 0.076). Effective comparative daytime and nighttime urinary continence as well as renal function deterioration were not statistically significant between both reconstruction types. Conclusion: Both ileocecal bladder and Indiana pouch are safe procedures in regard to long-term effects over kidney function following radical cystectomy

  1. Long term ground movement of TRISTAN synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Ohsawa, Y.; Miyahara, M.

    1989-01-01

    The long term ground movement is estimated through the geological survey before a big accelerator is planned. For the case of TRISTAN-MR (main ring), its site was surveyed to reflect the underground information to the building prior to the construction. The movement of the synchrotron magnet mainly results from the structure of the tunnel. If an individual movement of the magnet exceeds a certain threshold limit, it gives a significant effect on the particle behavior in a synchrotron. Height of the quadrupole magnets were observed periodically during past two years at the TRISTAN-MR and their height differences along the 3 km circumference of the accelerator ring were decomposed into the Fourier components depicting the causes of the movements. Results shows the movement of the tunnel foundation which was also observed by the simultaneous measurement of both magnets and fiducial marks on the tunnel wall. The long term movement of the magnets is summarized with the geological survey prior to construction. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  3. Andra long term memory project - 59277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charton, Patrick; Boissier, Fabrice; Martin, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Long term memory of repositories is required by safety, reversibility and social expectations. Thus Andra has implemented since 2010 a long-term memory project to reinforce and diversify its current arrangements in this field, as well as to explore opportunities to extend memory keeping over thousands years. The project includes opportunity studies of dedicated facilities. The 'Ecotheque' and 'Geotheque' projects contribute to memory respectively through environmental and geological samples preservation. The options of creating (i) an archive centre for Andra's interim and permanent archives, (ii) an artist center to study the contribution of arts to memory preservation, (iii) a museum of radioactive waste disposal history and technology (radium industry..., sea disposal, current solutions...) are considered. Other studies provided by the project examine our heritage. This includes the continuity of languages and symbolic systems, the continuity of writing and engraving methods, the archaeology of landscapes (memory of the earths evolution, multi-century memory of industrial and agricultural landscapes), the archaeology practices (how might a future archaeologist be interested in our current activity?), the preservation of historical sites and industrial memory, the continuity of institutional organizations, the memory and history of science evolution as well as broad history

  4. Long term creep behavior of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, T.W.

    1975-01-01

    This report presents the findings of an experimental investigation to evaluate the long term creep behavior of concrete subjected to sustained uniaxial loads for an extended period of time at 75 0 F. The factors investigated were (1) curing time (90, 183, and 365 days); (2) curing history (as-cast and air-dried); and (3) uniaxial stress (600 and 2400 psi). The experimental investigation applied uniaxial compressive loads to cylindrical concrete specimens and measured strains with vibrating wire strain gages that were cast in the concrete specimen along the axial and radial axes. Specimens cured for 90 days prior to loading were subjected to a sustained load for a period of one year, at which time the loads were removed; the specimens which were cured for 183 or 365 days, however, were not unloaded and have been under load for 5 and 4.5 years, respectively. The effect of each of the above factors on the instantaneous and creep behavior is discussed and the long term creep behavior of the specimens cured for 183 or 365 days is evaluated. The findings of these evaluations are summarized. (17 figures, 10 tables) (U.S.)

  5. Long-term care financing: lessons from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: France's model of third-party coverage for long-term services and supports (LTSS) combines a steeply income-adjusted universal public program for people 60 or older with voluntary supplemental private insurance. French and US policies differ: the former pay cash; premiums are lower; and take-up rates are higher, in part because employer sponsorship, with and without subsidization, is more common-but also because coverage targets higher levels of need and pays a smaller proportion of costs. Such inexpensive, bare-bones private coverage, especially if marketed as a supplement to a limited public benefit, would be more affordable to those Americans currently most at risk of "spending down" to Medicaid. An aging population leads to a growing demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS). In 2002, France introduced universal, income-adjusted, public long-term care coverage for adults 60 and older, whereas the United States funds means-tested benefits only. Both countries have private long-term care insurance (LTCI) markets: American policies create alternatives to out-of-pocket spending and protect purchasers from relying on Medicaid. Sales, however, have stagnated, and the market's viability is uncertain. In France, private LTCI supplements public coverage, and sales are growing, although its potential to alleviate the long-term care financing problem is unclear. We explore whether France's very different approach to structuring public and private financing for long-term care could inform the United States' long-term care financing reform efforts. We consulted insurance experts and conducted a detailed review of public reports, academic studies, and other documents to understand the public and private LTCI systems in France, their advantages and disadvantages, and the factors affecting their development. France provides universal public coverage for paid assistance with functional dependency for people 60 and older. Benefits are steeply income

  6. Safety aspects in the dry storage of spent nuclear fuel in long term operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodarim, Claudir J.; Silva, Viviane B. da; Fontes, Gladson S. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Saldanha, Pedro L.C., E-mail: claudirnodari@gmail.com, E-mail: vivisborges@gmail.com, E-mail: gsfontes@hotmail.com, E-mail: Saldanha@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the safety assessment of the Dry Storage Unit (DSU), taking into account the long term operation and the operational experience already evidenced in similar facilities. In this sense, the RIDM (Risk-Informed Decision-Making) concept will be adopted for the regulatory decision-making process. Potential technical issues associated with the aging of materials from the dry storage unit will be considered. The work will be done using the rules and requirements of 10 CFR Part 72 and the U.S. NRC (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission) regulatory guides. (author)

  7. Long-term scenarios and strategies for the deployment of renewable energies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregger, Thomas; Nitsch, Joachim; Naegler, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The transformation of the energy supply in Germany (the “Energiewende”) as described in the German Federal government’s ‘Energy Concept’ (Energiekonzept, 2010) is based on a political consensus about long-term targets for energy efficiency and renewable energies. The aim of this article is to present a consistent scenario for this transformation process reflecting the long-term implementation of renewable energies and the possible future structure of the German energy system as a whole. Structural and economic effects of this development are derived and discussed. It summarizes results of scenario analyses done by the department of Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment of the German Aerospace Center as part of a three-year research project for the German Federal Ministry for the Environment. The underlying study provides a detailed data base reflecting a long-term roadmap for the energy system transformation in Germany. The scenarios show that the policy targets are consistent and can be achieved, if appropriate policy measures are to be implemented. The economic analysis shows the amount of investments and the strong market dynamics required for new generation technologies but also the huge economic benefits that can result from this development path in terms of fuel cost savings and lower fuel imports. - Highlights: • Long-term scenario for the German energy system according to the political targets. • Comparison of three variants with differing developments of the fleets of vehicles. • Analysis of economic effects: investments, generation and differential costs. • Importance of strategies in the sectors electricity, heat, and transportation. • Recommended measures for the successful implementation of the CO 2 reductions

  8. Prediction of long-term behaviour for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.; Ikeda, B.M.; King, F.; Sunder, S.

    1996-09-01

    The modelling procedures developed for the long-term prediction of the corrosion of used fuel and of titanium and copper nuclear waste containers are described. The corrosion behaviour of these materials changes with time as the conditions within the conceptual disposal vault evolve from an early warm, oxidizing phase to an indefinite period of cool, anoxic conditions. For the two candidate container materials, this evolution of conditions means that the containers will be initially susceptible to localized corrosion but that in the long-term, corrosion should be more general in nature. The propagation of the pitting of Cu and of the crevice corrosion of Ti alloys is modelled using statistical models. General corrosion processes are modelled deterministically. For the fuel, deterministic electrochemical models have been developed to predict the long-term dissolution rate of U0 2 . The corrosion behaviour of materials in the disposal vault can be influenced by reengineering the vault environment. For instance, increasing the areal loading of containers will produce higher vault temperatures resulting in more extensive drying of the porous backfill materials. The initiation of crevice corrosion on Ti may then be delayed, leading to longer container lifetimes. For copper containers, minimizing the amount Of O 2 initially trapped in the pores of the backfill, or adding reducing agents to consume this O 2 faster, will limit the extent of corrosion, permitting a reduction of the container wall thickness necessary for containment. (author). 55 refs., 19 figs

  9. Disrupted Bone Metabolism in Long-Term Bedridden Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimori, Keiko; Endo, Naoto; Uchiyama, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kei

    2016-01-01

    Bedridden patients are at risk of osteoporosis and fractures, although the long-term bone metabolic processes in these patients are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to determine how long-term bed confinement affects bone metabolism. This study included 36 patients who had been bedridden from birth due to severe immobility. Bone mineral density and bone metabolism markers were compared to the bedridden period in all study patients. Changes in the bone metabolism markers during a follow-up of 12 years were studied in 17 patients aged bedridden period. During the follow-up, osteocalcin and parathyroid hormone were decreased, and the 25(OH) vitamin D was increased. NTX at baseline was negatively associated with bone mineral density after 12 years. Unique bone metabolic abnormalities were found in patients who had been bedridden for long periods, and these metabolic abnormalities were altered by further bed confinement. Appropriate treatment based on the unique bone metabolic changes may be important in long-term bedridden patients.

  10. Disrupted Bone Metabolism in Long-Term Bedridden Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Eimori

    Full Text Available Bedridden patients are at risk of osteoporosis and fractures, although the long-term bone metabolic processes in these patients are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to determine how long-term bed confinement affects bone metabolism.This study included 36 patients who had been bedridden from birth due to severe immobility. Bone mineral density and bone metabolism markers were compared to the bedridden period in all study patients. Changes in the bone metabolism markers during a follow-up of 12 years were studied in 17 patients aged <30 years at baseline.The bone mineral density was reduced (0.58±0.19 g/cm3, and the osteocalcin (13.9±12.4 ng/mL and urine N-terminal telopeptide (NTX levels (146.9±134.0 mM BCE/mM creatinine were greater than the cutoff value for predicting fracture. Among the bone metabolism markers studied, osteocalcin and NTX were negatively associated with the bedridden period. During the follow-up, osteocalcin and parathyroid hormone were decreased, and the 25(OH vitamin D was increased. NTX at baseline was negatively associated with bone mineral density after 12 years.Unique bone metabolic abnormalities were found in patients who had been bedridden for long periods, and these metabolic abnormalities were altered by further bed confinement. Appropriate treatment based on the unique bone metabolic changes may be important in long-term bedridden patients.

  11. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    2004-02-01

    Micro-structure of rock plays an essential role for their long-term behavior. For understanding long-term characteristics of granite we here present the followings: 1) observation of microcrack initiation and propagation by Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) under uniaxial compression (before loading and at each loading stage), 2) characterization of the mechanism of microcrack initiation and propagation observed by stereoscopic microscope under uniaxial/triaxial compression and relaxation tests, and 3) a study of strong discontinuity analysis included in the homogenization theory to predict the long-term behavior of micro/macro-level stress for granite. First, CLSM was used to acquire clearly focused three-dimensional images of granite specimens, and observed the change of microscale structure including the mineral configuration under applying uniaxial compression stress. Then though microcracks have ever thought to be initiated and propagated on intergranular boundaries, we understand through the CLSM observation that new microcracks are generated from the ends of pre-existing cracks which are distributed in quartz and biotite. Second, we showed the results of stress-relaxation test of granite specimens observed by an optical microscope under water-saturated triaxial compression condition. Since microcrack generation and propagation play an essential role to predict the long-term behavior of rock, we managed the experiments with careful attention of 1) keeping constant edge-displacement and constant strain in the whole specimen accurately, and 2) measuring the relaxed stress exactly. Next, in order to simulate the experimental results which indicate that initiation and propagation of microcracks control the stress-relaxation phenomenon, we introduce a homogenization analysis procedure together with the strong discontinuity analysis which has recently established the mechanical implication and mathematical foundation. The numerical results show that we can

  12. Study on behaviour in long term of vitrified materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.

    1993-01-01

    In collaboration with EDF (Electricite de France), after testing fusion of Refiom (Residus d'Epuration des Fumees d'Incineration d'Ordures Menageres), residues from purification of incineration smokes of household rubbish, realised at Porcheville and at the Laboratory of Renardieres with experimental processing of vitrification by plasma, CEA (Centre d'Etudes Atomiques), atomic center of research, began study on resistance in long term of vitrified products. From about thirty five years, CEA carries out research to confine radioactive waste of high activity in stable materials. Glass was the first best one which allowed to incorporate about thirty different chemical elements found in fission products solutions into a stable die with a good chemical durability; three vitrification shops raised, one at Marcoule ('AVM', 1978) in the south of France, the two other ones at La Hague ('R7', 1989 and 'T7', 1992) in Normandy. To determine a possible impact of a deep radioactive waste disposal on human and environment, several studies began. In particular, studies on aqueous corrosion of glasses to determine behaviour in long term of glass package (first barrier of confinement) and to estimate kinetics of releasing confined toxical elements on periods of several thousands years. Principal results are exposed in this conference. Experience shows that safety analysis cannot be based on long term extrapolation of a simple lixiviation result. This analysis must include: a sufficient knowledge in basic mechanisms of alteration to predict the kinetic evolution in a long term. To take in account environment conditions with a normal or accidental scheme (acidity, clay, organic compounds,...). This knowledge broadly developed by CEA for nuclear glasses seems to be easily transposable to different wastes (industrial ones or from hospitals) and takes place in a contract of research CEA/EDF to valorize vitrified products. 9 figs. 4 refs

  13. Structured, intensive education maximising engagement, motivation and long-term change for children and young people with diabetes: a cluster randomised controlled trial with integral process and economic evaluation - the CASCADE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Deborah; Thompson, Rebecca; Sawtell, Mary; Allen, Elizabeth; Cairns, John; Smith, Felicity; Jamieson, Elizabeth; Hargreaves, Katrina; Ingold, Anne; Brooks, Lucy; Wiggins, Meg; Oliver, Sandy; Jones, Rebecca; Elbourne, Diana; Santos, Andreia; Wong, Ian C K; O'Neill, Simon; Strange, Vicki; Hindmarsh, Peter; Annan, Francesca; Viner, Russell

    2014-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children and young people is increasing worldwide with a particular increase in children under the age of 5 years. Fewer than one in six children and young people achieve glycosylated fraction of haemoglobin (HbA1c) values in the range identified as providing best future outcomes. There is an urgent need for clinic-based pragmatic, feasible and effective interventions that improve both glycaemic control and quality of life (QoL). The intervention offers both structured education, to ensure young people know what they need to know, and a delivery model designed to motivate self-management. To assess the feasibility of providing a clinic-based structured educational group programme incorporating psychological approaches to improve long-term glycaemic control, QoL and psychosocial functioning in a diverse range of young people. The study was a pragmatic, cluster randomised control trial with integral process and economic evaluation. Twenty-eight paediatric diabetes services across London, south-east England and the Midlands. Minimised by clinic size, age (paediatric or adolescent) and specialisation (district general hospital clinic or teaching hospital/tertiary clinic). Half of the sites were randomised to the intervention arm and half to the control arm. Allocation was concealed until after clinics had consented and the first participant was recruited. Where possible, families were blind to allocation until recruitment finished. Forty-three health-care practitioners (14 teams) were trained in the intervention. The study recruited 362 children aged 8-16 years, diagnosed with T1D for > 12 months, with a mean 12-month HbA1c level of ≥ 8.5%. Two 1-day workshops taught intervention delivery. A detailed manual and resources were provided. The intervention consists of four group education sessions led by a paediatric diabetes specialist nurse with another team member. The primary outcome was glycaemic control, assessed at the individual level

  14. Long-term stability of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    either stored in small vials or spiked to polyester Salivette tampons before analysis for cortisol using Spectria RIA kits. The effects of storage were evaluated by a linear regression model (mixed procedure) on a logarithmic scale. No effects on cortisol concentrations were found after storage of saliva......The measurement of salivary cortisol provides a simple, non-invasive, and stress-free measure frequently used in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In research projects, samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the protocol...... of the project or because of lack of funding for analysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term storage of samples on the amounts of measurable cortisol. Ten pools of saliva were collected on polyester Salivette tampons from five subjects. After centrifugation the samples were...

  15. Long-term cryogenic space storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. A.; Chronic, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the design, fabrication and testing of a 225-cu ft spherical cryogenic storage system for long-term subcritical applications under zero-g conditions in storing subcritical cryogens for space vehicle propulsion systems. The insulation system design, the analytical methods used, and the correlation between the performance test results and analytical predictions are described. The best available multilayer insulation materials and state-of-the-art thermal protection concepts were applied in the design, providing a boiloff rate of 0.152 lb/hr, or 0.032% per day, and an overall heat flux of 0.066 Btu/sq ft hr based on a 200 sq ft surface area. A six to eighteen month cryogenic storage is provided by this system for space applications.

  16. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes

  17. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  18. Prediction of long-term creep curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Kouichi

    1992-01-01

    This paper aims at discussing how to predict long-term irradiation enhanced creep properties from short-term tests. The predictive method based on the θ concept was examined by using creep data of ferritic steels. The method was successful in predicting creep curves including the tertiary creep stage as well as rupture lifetimes. Some material constants involved in the method are insensitive to the irradiation environment, and their values obtained in thermal creep are applicable to irradiation enhanced creep. The creep mechanisms of most engineering materials definitely change at the athermal yield stress in the non-creep regime. One should be aware that short-term tests must be carried out at stresses lower than the athermal yield stress in order to predict the creep behavior of structural components correctly. (orig.)

  19. Hanford grout: predicting long-term performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewart, G.H.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; McMakin, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Grouted disposal is being planned for the low-level portion of liquid radioactive wastes at the Hanford site in Washington state. The performance of the disposal system must be such that it will protect people and the environment for thousands of years after disposal. To predict whether a specific grout disposal system will comply with existing and foreseen regulations, a performance assessment (PA) is performed. Long-term PAs are conducted for a range of performance conditions. Performance assessment is an inexact science. Quantifying projected impacts is especially difficult when only scant data exist on the behavior of certain components of the disposal system over thousands of years. To develop defensible results, we are honing the models and obtaining experimental data. The combination of engineered features and PA refinements is being used to ensure that Hanford grout will meet its principal goal: to protect people and the environment in the future

  20. The discovery of long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lømo, Terje

    2003-04-29

    This paper describes circumstances around the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP). In 1966, I had just begun independent work for the degree of Dr medicinae (PhD) in Per Andersen's laboratory in Oslo after an eighteen-month apprenticeship with him. Studying the effects of activating the perforant path to dentate granule cells in the hippocampus of anaesthetized rabbits, I observed that brief trains of stimuli resulted in increased efficiency of transmission at the perforant path-granule cell synapses that could last for hours. In 1968, Tim Bliss came to Per Andersen's laboratory to learn about the hippocampus and field potential recording for studies of possible memory mechanisms. The two of us then followed up my preliminary results from 1966 and did the experiments that resulted in a paper that is now properly considered to be the basic reference for the discovery of LTP.

  1. Long-term opioid therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, H; Ekholm, Ola; Sjøgren, P

    2017-01-01

    significantly associated with initiation of L-TOT in individuals with CNCP at baseline. During follow-up, L-TOT in CNCP patients increased the likelihood of negative changes in pain interference with work (OR 9.2; 95% CI 1.9-43.6) and in moderate activities (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.1-12.6). The analysis of all......,145). A nationally representative subsample of individuals (n = 2015) completed the self-administered questionnaire in both 2000 and 2013. Collected information included chronic pain (≥6 months), health behaviour, self-rated health, pain interference with work activities and physical activities. Long-term users were...... individuals indicated a dose-response relationship between longer treatment duration and the risk of experiencing negative changes. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals on L-TOT seemed not to achieve the key goals of opioid therapy: pain relief, improved quality of life and functional capacity. SIGNIFICANCE: Long...

  2. Long Term Planning at IQ Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This is a Danish version. This case about long term planning at the owner-managed manufacturing firm IQ Metal shows how the future management and ownership may be organized to utilize owner assets and minimize roadblocks. Initially, the owner-manager Bo Fischer Larsen explains how he acquired...... a stake in 2007 in the company which at that time was named Braendstrup Maskinfabrik. He furthermore expalins how he has developed the company based on a strategic plan focusing on professionalization and outsourcing. Next, the video shows how to type Bo Fischer Larsen's replies to the questions...... in The Owner Strategy Map into the questionnaire available on www.ejerstrategi-kortet.dk. Lastly, the Owner Strategy Map's recommendation of how to organize the future management and ownership of IQ Metal is explained....

  3. Long-term Consequences of Early Parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Eva Rye; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Verner, Mette

    (and to lesser extent employment), as fathers appear to support the family, especially when early parenthood is combined with cohabitation with the mother and the child. Heterogeneous effects reveal that individuals with a more favorable socioeconomic background are affected more severely than......Having children at an early age is known to be associated with unfavorable economic outcomes, such as lower education, employment and earnings. In this paper, we study the long-term consequences of early parenthood for mothers and fathers. Our study is based on rich register-based data that......, importantly, merges all childbirths to the children’s mothers and fathers, allowing us to study the consequences of early parenthood for both parents. We perform a sibling fixed effects analysis in order to account for unobserved family attributes that are possibly correlated with early parenthood...

  4. Long-term assessment of psychologic outcomes of orthognathic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazaridou-Terzoudi, T.; Kiyak, H.A.; Moore, R.

    2003-01-01

    . The level of body image and self-esteem approximated but did not reach that of a nonpatient population. In view of the current psychologic and social environment, patients should be offered the appropriate treatment to correct a disfigurement if it is subjectively perceived by them as a handicap, in part......This long-term study of post-orthognathic surgery patients aimed at assessing perceptions of problems with physical and psychologic functioning, self-concept, body image, and satisfaction with the surgical outcome based on subjective evaluations. In addition, the patient's perception of self...

  5. Long-term assessment of psychologic outcomes of orthognathic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazaridou-Terzoudi, T.; Kiyak, H.A.; Moore, R.

    2003-01-01

    This long-term study of post-orthognathic surgery patients aimed at assessing perceptions of problems with physical and psychologic functioning, self-concept, body image, and satisfaction with the surgical outcome based on subjective evaluations. In addition, the patient's perception of self-concept....... The level of body image and self-esteem approximated but did not reach that of a nonpatient population. In view of the current psychologic and social environment, patients should be offered the appropriate treatment to correct a disfigurement if it is subjectively perceived by them as a handicap, in part...

  6. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreie, Ken [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, CO (United States); Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) prepared this Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (LTSMP) for the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (the Gnome site). The Gnome site is approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad in Eddy County, New Mexico (Figure 1). The site was the location of a 3-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test and radioisotope groundwater tracer test. The tests resulted in residual contamination and post-detonation features that require long-term oversight. Long-term responsibility for the site was transferred from the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office to LM on October 1, 2006. Responsibilities include surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of institutional controls (ICs) as part of the long-term stewardship of the site. Long-term stewardship is designed to ensure protection of human health and the environment.

  7. Long term radiological impact of thorium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, S.; Schapira, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Thorium extraction produces a certain amount of radioactive wastes. Potential long term radiological impact of these residues has been calculated using the recent ICRP-68 ingestion dose factors in connection with the computing code DECAY, developed at Orsay and described in this work. This code solves the well known Bateman's equations which govern the time dependence of a set of coupled radioactive nuclei. Monazites will be very likely the minerals to be exploited first, in case of an extensive use of thorium as nuclear fuel. Because monazites contain uranium as well, mining residues will contain not only the descendants of 232 Th and a certain proportion of non-extracted thorium (taken here to be 5%), but also this uranium, if left in the wastes for economical reasons. If no uranium would be present at all in the mineral, the potential radiotoxicity would strongly decrease in approximately 60 years, at the pace of the 5.8 years period of 228 Ra, which becomes the longest-lived radionuclide of the 4n radioactive family in the residues. Moreover, there is no risk due to radon exhalation, because of the very short period of 220 Rn. These significant differences between uranium and thorium mining have to be considered in view of some estimated long term real radiological impacts due to uranium residues, which could reach a value of the order of 1 mSv/year, the dose limit recommended for the public by the recent ICRP-60. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs., 43 appendices

  8. NUMO's approach for long-term safety assessment - 59404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebashi, Takeshi; Kaku, Kenichi; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    One of NUMO's policies for ensuring safety is staged and flexible project implementation and decision-making based on iterative confirmation of safety. The safety assessment takes the central role in multiple lines of reasoning and argumentation by providing a quantitative evaluation of long-term safety; a key aspect is uncertainty management. This paper presents NUMO's basic strategies for long-term safety assessment based on the above policy. NUMO's approach considering Japanese boundary conditions is demonstrated as a starting-point for evaluating the long-term safety of an actual site. In Japan, the Act on Final Disposal of Specified Radioactive Waste states that the siting process shall consist of three stages. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) is responsible for geological disposal of vitrified high-level waste and some types of TRU waste. NUMO has chosen to implement a volunteer approach to siting. NUMO decided to prepare the so-called 2010 technical report, which sets out three safety policies, one of which is staged project implementation and decision-making based on iterative confirmation of safety. Based on this policy, NUMO will gradually integrate relevant interdisciplinary knowledge to build a safety case when a formal volunteer application is received that would allow site investigations to be initiated. The safety assessment takes the central role in multiple lines of reasoning and argumentation by providing a quantitative evaluation of long-term safety; one of a key aspect is uncertainty management. This paper presents the basic strategies for NUMO's long-term safety assessment based on the above policy. In concrete terms, the common procedures involved in safety assessment are applied in a stepwise manner, based on integration of knowledge obtained from site investigations/evaluations and engineered measures. The results of the safety assessment are then reflected in the planning of site investigations and engineered

  9. Modeling flood events for long-term stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schruben, T.; Portillo, R.

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective for the disposal of uranium mill tailings in the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is isolation and stabilization to prevent their misuse by man and dispersal by natural forces such as wind, rain, and flood waters (40 CFR-192). Stabilization of sites that are located in or near flood plains presents unique problems in design for long-term performance. This paper discusses the process involved with the selection and hydrologic modeling of the design flood event; and hydraulic modeling with geomorphic considerations of the design flood event. The Gunnison, Colorado, and Riverton, Wyoming, sites will be used as examples in describing the process

  10. Fluoxetine Inhibits Natural Decay of Long-Term Memory via Akt/GSK-3β Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jee Hyun; Zhang, JiaBao; Ko, Sang Yoon; Kwon, Huiyoung; Jeon, Se Jin; Park, Se Jin; Jung, Jiwook; Kim, Byung C; Lee, Young Choon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2018-02-09

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the natural decay of long-term memory can help us find means of extending the duration of long-term memory. However, the neurobiological processes involved in the decay of long-term memory are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of acute and chronic treatment of fluoxetine on natural decay of long-term memory and the possible mechanism. Late administration of fluoxetine prolonged the persistence of long-term memory in mice, as demonstrated by object location recognition and Barnes maze tests. Fluoxetine altered Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/β-catenin signaling in the hippocampus. Late short- and long-term pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3β mimicked the effect of fluoxetine on memory persistence. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt blocked the effect of fluoxetine on memory persistence. Finally, late infusion of fluoxetine increased hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3β blocked the natural decline in LTP. These results demonstrate that GSK-3β might be a key molecule in memory decay process, and fluoxetine extends the period of long-term memory maintenance via Akt/GSK-3β signaling.

  11. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso

    2002-01-01

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  12. Long-Term Clock Behavior of GPS IIR Satellites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Epstein, Marvin; Dass, Todd; Rajan, John; Gilmour, Paul

    2007-01-01

    .... Rubidium clocks, as opposed to cesium clocks, have significant long-term drift. The current literature describes an initial model of drift aging for rubidium atomic clocks followed by a long-term characteristic...

  13. Elevated rheumatoid factor and long term risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Schnohr, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis.......To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis....

  14. Planning ahead : although Canada could experience a shortage of some 300,000 workers within the next 20 years, long-term strategies can help companies cope : part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.

    2006-12-15

    This article is the first in a 2-part series examining the current labour shortage in the energy industry. Factors that are expected to exacerbate the shortage were reviewed, as well as some of the steps that the petroleum industry is now taking to manage labour challenges in the future. A critical talent crisis is expected to occur in the next 5 to 10 years as baby boomers plan to retire, and fewer graduates are expected to enter the marketplace. While some organizations have responded to shortages by merely offering high salaries to employees, many oil and gas companies are now looking to develop the skills and capabilities of employees in order to retain them. In addition, employers are attempting to strengthen social networks within their organizations by providing coaching and mentoring programs. A recent report published by the Conference Board of Canada has suggested that the oil and gas industry can improve manpower shortages by improving training programs; attracting more immigrants; and creating better mechanisms for recognizing foreign credentials and prior learning assessments. Many organizations are successfully using internal referral programs to hire employees with the appropriate skill levels. Petro-Canada is now using electronic recruiting methods to draw upon a wider resource pool and is currently building relationships with key post-secondary institutions as well as providing programs to give educational awards to students. Devon Canada has recently implemented an employee referral program and has also focused on improving conditions at its Jackfish steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) project at Fort McMurray by hiring certified chefs, installing satellite televisions and providing top-notch recreation facilities. 2 figs.

  15. Abrupt vegetation transitions characterise long-term Amazonian peatland development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roucoux, K. H.; Baker, T. R.; Gosling, W. D.; Honorio Coronado, E.; Jones, T. D.; Lahteenoja, O.; Lawson, I. T.

    2012-04-01

    Recent investigations of wetlands in western Amazonia have revealed the presence of extensive peatlands with peat deposits of up to 8 m-thick developing under a variety of vegetation types (Lähteenoja et al. 2012). Estimated to cover 150,000 km2 (Schulman et al. 1999), these peatlands make a valuable contribution to landscape and biological diversity and represent globally important carbon stores. In order to understand the processes leading to peat formation, and the sensitivity of these environments to future climatic change, it is necessary to understand their long-term history. The extent to which peatland vegetation changes over time, the stability of particular communities, the controls on transitions between vegetation types and how these factors relate to the accumulation of organic matter are not yet known. We report the first attempt to establish the long-term (millennial scale) vegetation history of a recently-described peatland site: Quistococha, a palm swamp, or aguajal, close to Iquitos in northern Peru. The vegetation is dominated by Mauritia flexuosa and Mauritiella armata and occupies a basin which is thought to be an abandoned channel of the River Amazon. We obtained a 4 m-long peat sequence from the deepest part of the basin. AMS-radiocarbon dating yielded a maximum age of 2,212 cal yr BP for the base of the peat, giving an average accumulation rate of 18 cm per century. Below the peat are 2 m of uniform, largely inorganic pale grey clays of lacustrine origin, which are underlain by an unknown thickness of inorganic sandy-silty clay of fluvial origin. Pollen analysis, carried out at c. 88-year intervals, shows the last 2,212 years to be characterised by the development of at least four distinct vegetation communities, with peat accumulating throughout. The main phases were: (1) Formation of Cyperaceae (sedge) fen coincident with peat initiation; (2) A short-lived phase of local Mauritia/Mauritiella development; (3) Development of mixed wet

  16. Life assessment of gas turbine blades after long term service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerkari, Pertti; Salonen, Jorma [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Maekinen, Sari [Helsingin Energia, Helsinki (Finland); Karvonen, Ikka; Tanttari, Heikki [Lappeenrannan Laempoevoima, Lappeenranta (Finland); Kangas, Pekka [Neste Oil, Kilpilahti (Finland); Scholz, Alfred [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Vacchieri, Erica [Ansaldo Richerche, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Turbine blade samples from three land based gas turbines have been subjected to systematic condition and life assessment after long term service (88000 - 109000 equivalent operating hours, eoh), when approaching the nominal or suggested life limits. The blades represent different machine types, materials and design generations, and uncooled blading outside the hottest front end of the turbine, i.e. blades with relatively large size and considerable expected life. For a reasonable assessment, a range of damage mechanisms need to be addressed and evaluated for the impact in the residual life. The results suggested significant additional safe life for all three blade sets. In some cases this could warrant yet another life cycle comparable to that of new blades, even after approaching the nominal end of life in terms of recommended equivalent operating hours. This is thought to be partly because of base load combined cycle operation and natural gas fuel, or modest operational loading if the design also accounted for more intensive cycling operation and more corrosive oil firing. In any case, long term life extension is only appropriate if not intervened by events of overloading, overheating or other sudden events such as foreign object damage (FOD), and if supported by the regular inspection and maintenance program to control in-service damage. Condition based assessment therefore remains an important part of the blade life management after the decision of accepted life extension. (orig.)

  17. Long term results of mandibular distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Puneet

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has become a popular surgical modality due to its many advantages over conventional orthognathic surgical procedures. However, in spite of the technique having been used for over 15 years, no concrete long term results are available regarding the stability of results. We discuss the various studies which have reported either in favour or against the stablility of results after distraction. We report a series of 6 cases (3 unilateral and 3 bilateral distraction where distraction was carried out before puberty and followed them up to seven years after removal of distractors. This case series shows that results achieved by distraction osteogenesis are unstable or best unpredictable with respect to producing a permanent size increase in the mandible. The role of the distraction osteogenesis in overcoming the pterygomassetric sling is questionable. We suggest a multicenter study with adequate patient numbers treated with a similar protocol and documented after growth cessation to have meaningful conclusions on the debate of distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery.

  18. [Perioperative management of long-term medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel Kahmann, I; Ruppen, W; Lurati Buse, G; Tsakiris, D A; Bruggisser, M

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesiologists and surgeons are increasingly faced with patients who are under long-term medication. Some of these drugs can interact with anaesthetics or anaesthesia and/or surgical interventions. As a result, patients may experience complications such as bleeding, ischemia, infection or severe circulatory reactions. On the other hand, perioperative discontinuation of medication is often more dangerous. The proportion of outpatient operations has increased dramatically in recent years and will probably continue to increase. Since the implementation of DRGs (pending in Switzerland, introduced in Germany for some time), the patient enters the hospital the day before operation. This means that the referring physician as well as anesthesiologists and surgeons at an early stage must deal with issues of perioperative pharmacotherapy. This review article is about the management of the major drug classes during the perioperative period. In addition to cardiac and centrally acting drugs and drugs that act on hemostasis and the endocrine system, special cases such as immunosuppressants and herbal remedies are mentioned.

  19. Long-term outcome of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Francesconi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM is a term used to describe the invasion of the central nervous system by the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. NPCM has been described sporadically in some case reports and small case series, with little or no focus on treatment outcome and long-term follow-up. METHODS: All patients with NPCM from January 1991 to December 2006 were analyzed and were followed until December 2009. RESULTS: Fourteen (3.8% cases of NPCM were identified out of 367 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. A combination of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP was the regimen of choice, with no documented death due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Residual neurological deficits were observed in 8 patients. Residual calcification was a common finding in neuroimaging follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: All the patients in this study responded positively to the association of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, a regimen that should be considered a treatment option in cases of NPCM. Neurological sequela was a relatively common finding. For proper management of these patients, anticonvulsant treatment and physical therapy support were also needed.

  20. Long term prospects for world gas trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from a world gas trade model used to forecast long term gas markets. Assumptions that went into the model are described, including the extent of current proven gas reserves, production ratios, total energy and gas demand, gas supply cost curves for each producing country, available gas liquefaction and transportation facilities, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) shipping costs. The results indicate that even with generally very low supply costs for most gas producing basins, gas trade will continue to be restricted by the relatively high cost of transportation, whether by pipeline or tanker. As a consequence, future gas trade will tend to be regionally oriented. United States gas imports will come mostly from Canada, Venezuela, and Mexico; Western Europe will largely be supplied by the Soviet Union and Africa, and Japan's requirements will generally be met by Pacific Rim producers. Although the Middle East has vast quantities of gas reserves, its export growth will continue to be hampered by its remote location from major markets. 16 figs

  1. Long term results of childhood dysphonia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, Hanna; Sinkiewicz, Anna; Bielecka, Arleta; Owczarzak, Hanna; Mackiewicz-Milewska, Magdalena; Winiarski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the long term results of treatment and rehabilitation of childhood dysphonia. This study included a group of adolescents (n=29) aged from 15 to 20 who were treated due to pediatric hyperfunctional dysphonia and soft vocal fold nodules during their pre-mutational period (i.e. between 5 and 12 years of age). The pre-mutational therapy was comprised of proper breathing pattern training, voice exercises and psychological counseling. Laryngostroboscopic examination and perceptual analysis of voice were performed in each patient before treatment and one to four years after mutation was complete. The laryngostroboscopic findings, i.e. symmetry, amplitude, mucosal wave and vocal fold closure, were graded with NAPZ scale, and the GRBAS scale was used for the perceptual voice analysis. Complete regression of the childhood dysphonia was observed in all male patients (n=14). Voice disorders regressed completely also in 8 out of 15 girls, but symptoms of dysphonia documented on perceptual scale persisted in the remaining seven patients. Complex voice therapy implemented in adolescence should be considered as either the treatment or preventive measure of persistent voice strain, especially in girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10 3 -10 5 years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., open-quotes natural analoguesclose quotes) provide perhaps the only means of partial open-quotes validation,close quotes as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10 3 -10 8 years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the open-quotes validationclose quotes of performance assessments

  3. Long-term effects of islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Walker, D Jane; Kay, Thomas W H

    2016-10-01

    Islet transplantation has made great progress in recent years. This is a remarkable technical feat but raises the question of what the long-term benefits and risks are for type I diabetes recipients. Graft survival continues to improve, and recent multicenter studies show that islet transplantation is particularly effective to prevent hypoglycemic events even in those who do not become insulin-independent and to achieve excellent glycemic control. Concerns include histocompatability leucocyte antigen (HLA) sensitization and other risks including from immunosuppression that islet transplantation shares with other forms of allotransplantation. Reversal of hypoglycemia unawareness and protection from severe hypoglycemia events are two of the main benefits of islet transplantation and they persist for the duration of graft function. Islet transplantation compares favorably with other therapies for those with hypoglycemia unawareness, although new technologies have not been tested head-to-head with transplantation. HLA sensitization increases with time after transplantation especially if immunosuppression is ceased and is a risk for those who may require future transplantation as well as being associated with loss of graft function.

  4. Containment long-term operational integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammataro, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Periodic integrated leak rate tests are required to assure that containments continue to meet allowable leakage limits. Although overall performance has been quite good to date, several major containment aging and degradation mechanisms have been identified. Two pilot plant life extension (PLEX) studies serve as models for extending the operational integrity of present containments for light-water cooled nuclear power plants in the United States. One study is for a Boiling-Water Reactor (BWR) and the second is for a Pressurized-Water Reactor (PWR). Research and testing programs for determining the ultimate pressure capacity and failure mechanisms for containments under severe loading conditions and studies for extending the life of current plants beyond the present 40-year licensed lifetime are under way. This paper presents an overview of containment designs in the United States. Also presented are a discussion of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code) and regulatory authority requirements for the design, construction, inservice inspection, leakage testing and repair of steel and concrete containments. Findings for containments from the pilot PLEX studies and continuing containment integrity research and testing programs are discussed. The ASME Code and regulatory requirements together with recommendations from the PLEX studies and containment integrity research and testing provide a basis for continued containment long-term operational integrity. (orig./GL)

  5. Long term results of compression sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labas, P; Ohradka, B; Cambal, M; Reis, R; Fillo, J

    2003-01-01

    To compare the short and long term results of different techniques of compression sclerotherapy. In the past 10 years the authors treated 1622 pts due to chronic venous insufficiency. There were 3 groups of patients: 1) Pts treated by Sigg's technique using Aethoxysclerol, 2) Pts treated by Fegan's technique with Fibrovein, and 3) Pts treated by Fegan's procedure, but using a combination of both sclerosants. In all cases, the techniques of empty vein, bubble air, uninterrupted 6-week compression and forced mobilisation were used. In the group of pats. treated by Sigg's procedure, the average cure rate was 67.47% after 6 months, 60.3% after 5 years of follow-up. In Fegan's group this rate was 83.6% after 6 months and 78.54% after 5 year assessment. Statistically, significant differences were found only by the disappearance of varices and reduction of pain in favour of Fegan's technique. In the group of pts treated by Fegan's (Aethoxysclerol + Fibrovein) this rate after 5 years was 86%. The only statistically significant difference was found by the disappearance of varices in favour of Fegan's technique using a combination of 2 detergent sclerosants. Sclerotherapy is effective when properly executed in any length of vein no matter how dilated it has become. The recurrences are attributed more to inadequate technique than to the shortcoming of the procedure. Sclerotherapy is miniinvasive, with few complications, and can be repeated on out-patient basis. (Tab. 1, Ref. 22.).

  6. The long-term health of vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J

    2016-08-01

    Vegetarians, who do not eat any meat, poultry or fish, constitute a significant minority of the world's population. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume dairy products and/or eggs, whereas vegans do not eat any foods derived wholly or partly from animals. Concerns over the health, environmental and economic consequences of a diet rich in meat and other animal products have focussed attention on those who exclude some or all of these foods from their diet. There has been extensive research into the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets, but less is known about the long-term health of vegetarians and vegans. We summarise the main findings from large cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies in western countries with a high proportion of vegetarian participants. Vegetarians have a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity and a lower risk of IHD compared with non-vegetarians from a similar background, whereas the data are equivocal for stroke. For cancer, there is some evidence that the risk for all cancer sites combined is slightly lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians, but findings for individual cancer sites are inconclusive. Vegetarians have also been found to have lower risks for diabetes, diverticular disease and eye cataract. Overall mortality is similar for vegetarians and comparable non-vegetarians, but vegetarian groups compare favourably with the general population. The long-term health of vegetarians appears to be generally good, and for some diseases and medical conditions it may be better than that of comparable omnivores. Much more research is needed, particularly on the long-term health of vegans.

  7. Long-term variability of the spring taryn-aufeises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term variability of large taryn-aufeises was studied for several decades in different regions of the USA (Alaska and Russia (Chukotka, Kolyma, Southern Yakutia, Transbaikalia, and Eastern Sayan. Differences between volumes of individual ice massifs and the recorded maximal values change from 2–3 to 95–100%, and they do not depend on sizes of ice fields and their geographical locations. No statistically significant dependence of the aufeis volumes on the atmospheric precipitation amount and the air temperature was revealed in the most of the above areas. However, a general tendency for decreasing of the annual maxima of the ice reserves due to the climate warming was noticed. The long-term variations of the aufeises show existence of cycles of increase and decrease in their maximum sizes with their durations of 3, 7 and 11 years with the 25–30% amplitude of variations relative to the mean long-term values. In the Arctic areas, some of the giant aufeises do not melt completely during the summer and remain for a next winter. The volume of pereletoks (shortterm permafrost varies within the range of 5–25%, averaging 16% of the spring ice reserves. In the southern geocryological zone, a clearly pronounced dependence of activity of the aufeis processes on the snow thickness was found: when the snow depth increased from 70 to 100 cm, volumes of aufeises decreased by a factor of three, and the aufeises disappeared completely under the thickness larger 120 cm. It should be noted that the processes producing the aufeis-forming sources of subsurface water, and the factors of their layered-ice accumulation remain almost unexplored.

  8. Holistic processing from learned attention to parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kao-Wei; Richler, Jennifer J; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Attention helps us focus on what is most relevant to our goals, and prior work has shown that aspects of attention can be learned. Learned inattention to parts can abolish holistic processing of faces, but it is unknown whether learned attention to parts is sufficient to cause a change from part-based to holistic processing with objects. We trained subjects to individuate nonface objects (Greebles) from 2 categories: Ploks and Glips. Diagnostic information was in complementary halves for the 2 categories. Holistic processing was then tested with Plok-Glip composites that combined the kind of part that was diagnostic or nondiagnostic during training. Exposure to Greeble parts resulted in general failures of selective attention for nondiagnostic composites, but face-like holistic processing was only observed for diagnostic composites. These results demonstrated a novel link between learned attentional control and the acquisition of holistic processing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Monitoring long-term oral corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Lewis; Lindemann, Roberta; Douglas, James

    2017-01-01

    Corticosteroids are synthetic analogues of human hormones normally produced by the adrenal cortex. They have both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid properties. The glucocortoid components are anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, anti-proliferative and vasoconstrictive. They influence the metabolism of carbohydrate and protein, in addition to playing a key role in the body's stress response. Mineralocorticoid's main significance is in the balance of salt and water concentrations. Due to the combination of these effects, corticosteroids can cause many adverse effects. Oral corticosteroids are absorbed systemically and are therefore more likely to cause adverse effects than topical or inhaled corticosteroids. Furthermore, it is assumed that greater duration of treatment will lead to a greater number of adverse effects, and therefore the most at risk group are those taking high dose, long-term oral corticosteroids (LTOC). High dose is defined as a prescription of >5 mg oral prednisolone and long term as duration of treatment >1 month (based on National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance for patient's 'at risk' of systemic side effects). Parameters to be monitored in primary care include weight, blood pressure, triglycerides, glucose and urea and electrolytes. From clinical experience within the general practice setting, the authors propose that these patients do not receive adequate baseline monitoring before starting corticosteroids nor are these markers monitored consistently thereafter. This project intended to evidence this claim, evaluate the adverse effect profile and improve monitoring in this patient group. The initial audit of 22 patients, within a single general practice, detected at least one documented adverse effect in 64% of patients, while 41% reported more than one adverse effect. 45% had recorded weight gain, 18% had recorded osteoporosis, 18% had at least one recorded cataract, 14% had recorded Hypertension, 14% had recorded

  10. A security/safety survey of long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acorn, Jonathan R

    2010-01-01

    What are the major security/safety problems of long term care facilities? What steps are being taken by some facilities to mitigate such problems? Answers to these questions can be found in a survey of IAHSS members involved in long term care security conducted for the IAHSS Long Term Care Security Task Force. The survey, the author points out, focuses primarily on long term care facilities operated by hospitals and health systems. However, he believes, it does accurately reflect the security problems most long term facilities face, and presents valuable information on security systems and practices which should be also considered by independent and chain operated facilities.

  11. Long term results of pyeloplasty in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayib, Abdul Malik

    2004-01-01

    To determine the presenting systems, complications, stone coincidence in adult patients with primary ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction seen at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We are also reporting the success rate and long term results of adult pyeloplasty. We reviewed the records of 34 patients who underwent 37 pyeloplasty operations during the period January 1992 through to June 2002. The preoperative radiological diagnosis made by intravenous urogram or renal isotopes scan. We excluded from our study patients with previous history of passage of stones, renal or ureteral surgeries, large renal pelvis stone that may cause UPJ obstruction or abnormalities that may lead to secondry UPJ obstruction such as vesicoureteral reflux. There were 28 male patients and 8 females, their age varied between 16 and 51-years, the mean age was 36.1 years, and 18 (52.9%) patients had concomitant renal stones. Ispsilateral split renal function improved by 3-7% post pyeloplasty in 23 patients, while in one patient the function stayed the same, and in another patient the split function reduced by 4%. T1/2 renal isotopes washout time became less than 15 minutes in 19 patients and less than 20 minutes in 6 patients. Intravenous urogram revealed disappearence of the obstruction at UPJ in 7 patients while in 2 patients it became poorly functioning. Anderson Hynes pyeloplasty is an excellent procedure for treating UPJ obstruction in adults. Our success rate is comparable to the international repoted rates, while our study revealed a higher incidence of concomitant renal stones than the international studies. (author)

  12. Nutritional deficit and Long Term Potentiation alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrosino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we examined the ability of prenatally malnourished offspring to produce and maintain long-term potentiation (LTP of the perforant path/dentate granule cell synapse in freely moving rats at 15,30, and 90 days of age. Population spike amplitude (PSA was calculated from dentate field potential recordings prior to and at 15, 30, 60 min. and 3, 5, 18 and 24 h following tetanization of the perforant pathway. All animals of both malnourished and well-nourished diet groups at 15 days of age showed potentiation of PSA measures but the measures obtained from 15-day-old prenatally malnourished animals were significantly less than that of age-matched, well-nourished controls. At 30 days of age, remarkable effect of tetanization was likely observed from PSA measures for this age group followed much the same pattern. At 90 days of age, PSA measures obtained from malnourished animals decreased from pretetanization levels immediately following tetanization. At this age, however, at three hours time recordings, this measure growing up to a level which did not differ significantly from that of the control group. These results indicate that the width of tetanization induced enhancement of dentate granule cell response in preweanling rats (15-day-old animals is signifacantly affected fromgestational protein malnutrition and this trend is kept in animals tested at 30 and 90 days of age. The fact, however, that considerable limitation in LTP generation was gained from prenatally malnourished animals at 90 days of age, implying that dietary rehabilitation starting at birth is an intervention strategy not capable to imbrove the effects of the gestational stress.

  13. Perinatal respiratory infections and long term consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Indinnimeo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most important pathogen in the etiology of respiratory infections in early life. 50% of children are affected by RSV within the first year of age, and almost all children become infected within two years. Numerous retrospective and prospective studies linking RSV and chronic respiratory morbidity show that RSV bronchiolitis in infancy is followed by recurrent wheezing after the acute episod. According to some authors a greater risk of wheezing in children with a history of RSV bronchiolitis would be limited to childhood, while according to others this risk would be extended into adolescence and adulthood. To explain the relationship between RSV infection and the development of bronchial asthma or the clinical pathogenetic patterns related to a state of bronchial hyperreactivity, it has been suggested that RSV may cause alterations in the response of the immune system (immunogenic hypothesis, activating directly mast cells and basophils and changing the pattern of differentiation of immune cells present in the bronchial tree as receptors and inflammatory cytokines. It was also suggested that RSV infection can cause bronchial hyperreactivity altering nervous airway modulation, acting on nerve fibers present in the airways (neurogenic hypothesis.The benefits of passive immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab, which seems to represent an effective approach in reducing the sequelae of RSV infection in the short- and long-term period, strengthen the implementation of prevention programs with this drug, as recommended by the national guidelines of the Italian Society of Neonatology. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the

  14. Short and long term maintenance strategy for reactor vessel head penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, A.; Heuze, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents elements based on : surveys, operating inspection, theoretical studies, safety analysis, laboratory results, that enabled to determine maintenance options and short and long term strategies for processing on reactor vessel head leaks. (TEC). 1 tab

  15. Book Reviews The Physiology of Reproduction Long-term Studies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    classes of ecological phenomena for which long-term stu- dies are .... influenced by processes, interactions and man's activities ... Moving up the evolutionary ladder, George Hughes, .... mary pollinators of most plants, controllers of plant com-.

  16. Long-term persistence, density dependence and effects of climate change on rosyside dace (Cyprinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary D. Grossman; Gary Sundin; Robert E. Ratajczak

    2016-01-01

    SummaryWe used long-term population data for rosyside dace (Clinostomus funduloides), a numerically dominant member of a stochastically organised fish assemblage, to evaluate the relative importance of density-dependent and density-independent processes to population...

  17. Informing the Long-Term Learner Model: Motivating the Adult Learner (Phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    memory systems: 1) short - term memory , 2) working memory , and 3) long - term memory . The short - term memory stores the information for brief periods of...and the episodic buffer, which is linked to long - term memory . The visual working memory shares parts and interacts with attention (Gazzaley and...Nobre 2012; Zanto et al. 2011). Short - term memory is limited in its importance to

  18. Merging of long-term memories in an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathryn L; Chittka, Lars

    2015-03-16

    Research on comparative cognition has largely focused on successes and failures of animals to solve certain cognitive tasks, but in humans, memory errors can be more complex than simple failures to retrieve information [1, 2]. The existence of various types of "false memories," in which individuals remember events that they have never actually encountered, are now well established in humans [3, 4]. We hypothesize that such systematic memory errors may be widespread in animals whose natural lifestyle involves the processing and recollection of memories for multiple stimuli [5]. We predict that memory traces for various stimuli may "merge," such that features acquired in distinct bouts of training are combined in an animal's mind, so that stimuli that have never been viewed before, but are a combination of the features presented in training, may be chosen during recall. We tested this using bumblebees, Bombus terrestris. When individuals were first trained to a solid single-colored stimulus followed by a black and white (b/w)-patterned stimulus, a subsequent preference for the last entrained stimulus was found in both short-term- and long-term-memory tests. However, when bees were first trained to b/w-patterned stimuli followed by solid single-colored stimuli and were tested in long-term-memory tests 1 or 3 days later, they only initially preferred the most recently rewarded stimulus, and then switched their preference to stimuli that combined features from the previous color and pattern stimuli. The observed merging of long-term memories is thus similar to the memory conjunction error found in humans [6]. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Plant Life Management Approaches for Long Term Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kisig

    2012-01-01

    Plant life management can be defined as the integration of ageing and economic planning to maintain a high level of safety and optimize operations. Many Member States have given high priority to long term operation of nuclear power plants beyond the