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Sample records for long-lasting olfactory adaptation

  1. Long-lasting amelioration of walking trajectory in neglect after prismatic adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eRabuffetti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation we explored the effect of prismatic adaptation (PA applied to the upper right limb on the walking trajectory of a neglect patient with more severe neglect in far than in near space. The patient was asked to bisect a line fixed to the floor by walking across it before and after four sessions of PA distributed over a time frame of 67 days. Gait path was analysed by means of an optoelectronic motion analysis system.The walking trajectory improved following PA and the result was maintained at follow-up, fifteen months after treatment. The improvement was greater for the predicted bisection error (estimated on the basis of the trajectory extrapolated from the first walking step then for the observed bisection error (measured at line crossing.These results show that PA may act on high level spatial representation of gait trajectory rather than on lower level sensory-motor gait components and suggest that PA may have a long lasting rehabilitative effect on neglect patients showing a deviated walking trajectory.

  2. Chronic grouped social restriction triggers long-lasting immune system adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Rui; Hou, Gonglin; Song, Liuwei; Zhang, Jianming; Yuan, Ti-Fei

    2017-05-16

    Chronic stress triggers rigorous psychological and physiological changes, including immunological system adaptations. However, the effects of long-term social restriction on human immune system have not been investigated. The present study is to investigate the effect of chronic stress on immune changes in human blood, with the stress stimuli controlled.10 male volunteers were group isolated from the modern society in a 50-meter-square room for 150 days, with enriched nutrition and good living conditions provided. Serum examination of immune system markers demonstrated numerous changes in different aspects of the immune functions. The changes were observed as early as 30 days and could last for another 150 days after the termination of the restriction period (300 days' time point). The results strongly argued for the adaptation of immunological system under chronic social restriction stress in adult human, preceding a clear change in psychological conditions. The changes of these immune system factors could as well act as the serum biomarkers in clinical early-diagnosis of stress-related disorders.

  3. Long lasting decontamination foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  4. A Mathematical Model of the Olfactory Bulb for the Selective Adaptation Mechanism in the Rodent Olfactory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Zu; Nishikawa, Shinya; Kurita, Yuichi; Takiguchi, Noboru; Tsuji, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    To predict the odor quality of an odorant mixture, the interaction between odorants must be taken into account. Previously, an experiment in which mice discriminated between odorant mixtures identified a selective adaptation mechanism in the olfactory system. This paper proposes an olfactory model for odorant mixtures that can account for selective adaptation in terms of neural activity. The proposed model uses the spatial activity pattern of the mitral layer obtained from model simulations to predict the perceptual similarity between odors. Measured glomerular activity patterns are used as input to the model. The neural interaction between mitral cells and granular cells is then simulated, and a dissimilarity index between odors is defined using the activity patterns of the mitral layer. An odor set composed of three odorants is used to test the ability of the model. Simulations are performed based on the odor discrimination experiment on mice. As a result, we observe that part of the neural activity in the glomerular layer is enhanced in the mitral layer, whereas another part is suppressed. We find that the dissimilarity index strongly correlates with the odor discrimination rate of mice: r = 0.88 (p = 0.019). We conclude that our model has the ability to predict the perceptual similarity of odorant mixtures. In addition, the model also accounts for selective adaptation via the odor discrimination rate, and the enhancement and inhibition in the mitral layer may be related to this selective adaptation.

  5. Odor-Specific Habituation Arises from Interaction of Afferent Synaptic Adaptation and Intrinsic Synaptic Potentiation in Olfactory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linster, Christiane; Menon, Alka V.; Singh, Christopher Y.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation of target odorants from background odorants is a fundamental computational requirement for the olfactory system and is thought to be behaviorally mediated by olfactory habituation memory. Data from our laboratory have shown that odor-specific adaptation in piriform neurons, mediated at least partially by synaptic adaptation between…

  6. Background odour induces adaptation and sensitization of olfactory receptors in the antennae of houseflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelling, F.J; Ialenti, F.; den Otter, C.J

    The presence of background odour was found to have a small but significant effect on the sensitivity of the antennal olfactory system of houseflies, Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae), to new pulses of odour. We show that cross-adaptation and cross-sensitization between a background odour

  7. Cross-adaptation between olfactory responses induced by two subgroups of odorant molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroko; Imanaka, Yukie; Hirono, Junzo; Kurahashi, Takashi

    2003-09-01

    It has long been believed that vertebrate olfactory signal transduction is mediated by independent multiple pathways (using cAMP and InsP3 as second messengers). However, the dual presence of parallel pathways in the olfactory receptor cell is still controversial, mainly because of the lack of information regarding the single-cell response induced by odorants that have been shown to produce InsP3 exclusively (but not cAMP) in the olfactory cilia. In this study, we recorded activities of transduction channels of single olfactory receptor cells to InsP3-producing odorants. When the membrane potential was held at -54 mV, application of InsP3-producing odorants to the ciliary region caused an inward current. The reversal potential was 0 +/- 7 mV (mean +/- SD, n = 10). Actually, InsP3-producing odorants generated responses in a smaller fraction of cells (lilial, 3.4%; lyral, 1.7%) than the cAMP-producing odorant (cineole, 26%). But, fundamental properties of responses were surprisingly homologous; namely, spatial distribution of the sensitivity, waveforms, I-V relation, and reversal potential, dose dependence, time integration of stimulus period, adaptation, and recovery. By applying both types of odorants alternatively to the same cell, furthermore, we observed cells to exhibit symmetrical cross-adaptation. It seems likely that even with odorants with different modalities adaptation occurs completely depending on the amount of current flow. The data will also provide evidence showing that olfactory response generation and adaptation are regulated by a uniform mechanism for a wide variety of odorants.

  8. Biological complexity and adaptability of simple mammalian olfactory memory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, P; Keverne, E B

    2015-03-01

    Chemosensory systems play vital roles in the lives of most mammals, including the detection and identification of predators, as well as sex and reproductive status and the identification of individual conspecifics. All of these capabilities require a process of recognition involving a combination of innate (kairomonal/pheromonal) and learned responses. Across very different phylogenies, the mechanisms for pheromonal and odour learning have much in common. They are frequently associated with plasticity of GABA-ergic feedback at the initial level of processing the chemosensory information, which enhances its pattern separation capability. Association of odourant features into an odour object primarily involves anterior piriform cortex for non-social odours. However, the medial amygdala appears to be involved in both the recognition of social odours and their association with chemosensory information sensed by the vomeronasal system. Unusually not only the sensory neurons themselves, but also the GABA-ergic interneurons in the olfactory bulb are continually being replaced, with implications for the induction and maintenance of learned chemosensory responses. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intermediate Leg SBLOCA - Long Lasting Pressure Transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konjarek, D.; Bajs, T.; Vukovic, J.

    2010-01-01

    The basic phenomenology of Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) for PWR plant is described with focus on analysis of scenario in which reactor coolant pressure decreases below secondary system pressure. Best estimate light water reactor transient analysis code RELAP5/mod3.3 was used in calculation. Rather detailed model of the plant was used. The break occurs in intermediate leg on lowest elevation near pump suction. The size of the break is chosen to be small enough to cause cycling of safety valves (SVs) on steam generators (SGs) for some time, but, afterwards, it is large enough to remove decay heat through the break, causing cooling the secondary side. In this case of SBLOCA, when primary pressure decreases below secondary pressure, long lasting pressure transients with significant amplitude occur. Reasons for such behavior are explained.(author).

  10. Multiple Signaling Pathways Coordinately Regulate Forgetting of Olfactory Adaptation through Control of Sensory Responses in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazono, Tomohiro; Hara-Kuge, Sayuri; Matsuda, Osamu; Inoue, Akitoshi; Fujiwara, Manabi; Ishihara, Takeshi

    2017-10-18

    Forgetting memories is important for animals to properly respond to continuously changing environments. To elucidate the mechanisms of forgetting, we used one of the behavioral plasticities of Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite, olfactory adaptation to an attractive odorant, diacetyl, as a simple model of learning. In C. elegans, the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway accelerates forgetting of olfactory adaptation by facilitating neural secretion from AWC sensory neurons. In this study, to identify the downstream effectors of the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of the gain-of-function mutant of tir-1 ( ok1052 ), which shows excessive forgetting. Our screening showed that three proteins-a membrane protein, MACO-1; a receptor tyrosine kinase, SCD-2; and its putative ligand, HEN-1-regulated forgetting downstream of the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway. We further demonstrated that MACO-1 and SCD-2/HEN-1 functioned in parallel genetic pathways, and only MACO-1 regulated forgetting of olfactory adaptation to isoamyl alcohol, which is an attractive odorant sensed by different types of sensory neurons. In olfactory adaptation, odor-evoked Ca 2+ responses in olfactory neurons are attenuated by conditioning and recovered thereafter. A Ca 2+ imaging study revealed that this attenuation is sustained longer in maco-1 and scd-2 mutant animals than in wild-type animals like the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway mutants. Furthermore, temporal silencing by histamine-gated chloride channels revealed that the neuronal activity of AWC neurons after conditioning is important for proper forgetting. We propose that distinct signaling pathways, each of which has a specific function, may coordinately and temporally regulate forgetting by controlling sensory responses. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Active forgetting is an important process to understand the whole mechanisms of memories. Recent papers have reported that the noncell autonomous regulations are required for proper forgetting in

  11. Olfactory host finding, intermediate memory and its potential ecological adaptation in Nasonia vitripennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurmann, Daria; Collatz, Jana; Hagenbucher, Steffen; Ruther, Joachim; Steidle, Johannes L. M.

    2009-03-01

    Associative learning of host-associated chemical cues was studied in Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitoid of fly pupae in nests of hole-nesting birds. When females encountered a fly pupa and performed one sequence of host recognition behaviour including drilling the ovipositor into the host in the presence of the artificial odour furfurylheptanoate (FFH), they were afterwards arrested by FFH in olfactometer experiments. The response vanished after 4 days and could be blocked after 3 days by feeding wasps with ethacrynic acid prior and after the training. This indicates the formation of an intermediate form of memory by one host experience in N. vitripennis. Interestingly, the trained wasps avoided odours that were not present during the host encounter, although naive wasps did not react to these odours. This unique behaviour probably causes wasps to focus during host searching on those chemical cues they have experienced in the host environment. Studies in nests of hole-nesting birds revealed that about 30% of all nests contained only one fly pupa, and laboratory studies showed that N. vitripennis females are able to parasitise around 100 fly pupae in their life. It is discussed that under these conditions, the formation of a non-permanent intermediate memory for host-associated odours after one host encounter is adaptive to avoid costs involved with formation and maintenance of memory for misleading cues. The demonstration of associative olfactory learning in N. vitripennis, the first parasitoid species with sequenced genome, opens the gate to study molecular mechanisms of memory formation and its ecological adaptation in parasitoids.

  12. Effective utilization period of long-lasting insecticide treated nets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the bioefficacy of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs) (PermaNet®2.0) over time and the species composition of Anopheles mosquitoes around Bahir Dar. The space spray collection method was used to determine the species composition of indoor resting Anopheles ...

  13. Long-Lasting Sound-Evoked Afterdischarge in the Auditory Midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Munenori; Bishop, Deborah C; Oliver, Douglas L

    2016-02-12

    Different forms of plasticity are known to play a critical role in the processing of information about sound. Here, we report a novel neural plastic response in the inferior colliculus, an auditory center in the midbrain of the auditory pathway. A vigorous, long-lasting sound-evoked afterdischarge (LSA) is seen in a subpopulation of both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of normal hearing mice. These neurons were identified with single unit recordings and optogenetics in vivo. The LSA can continue for up to several minutes after the offset of the sound. LSA is induced by long-lasting, or repetitive short-duration, innocuous sounds. Neurons with LSA showed less adaptation than the neurons without LSA. The mechanisms that cause this neural behavior are unknown but may be a function of intrinsic mechanisms or the microcircuitry of the inferior colliculus. Since LSA produces long-lasting firing in the absence of sound, it may be relevant to temporary or chronic tinnitus or to some other aftereffect of long-duration sound.

  14. Distributional learning has immediate and long-lasting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Williams, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Evidence of distributional learning, a statistical learning mechanism centered on relative frequency of exposure to different tokens, has mainly come from short-term learning and therefore does not ostensibly address the development of important learning processes. The present longitudinal study examines both short- and long-term effects of distributional learning of phonetic categories on non-native sound discrimination over a 12-month period. Two groups of listeners were exposed to a two-minute distribution of auditory stimuli in which the most frequently presented tokens either approximated or exaggerated the natural production of the speech sounds, whereas a control group listened to a piece of classical music for the same length of time. Discrimination by listeners in the two distribution groups improved immediately after the short exposure, replicating previous results. Crucially, this improvement was maintained after six and 12 months, demonstrating that distributional learning has long-lasting effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Long lasting effects of chronic heavy cannabis abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestoros, Joannis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Alegakis, Athanasios; Skondras, Markos D; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of short-term memory impairment and schizophrenia-like symptoms in heavy and systematic cannabis users and the association between the severity of abuse and the longevity of its persistent symptoms after refraining from such use. A complete psychiatric examination and a psychometric evaluation were performed in 48 solely cannabis users. Additionally, head hair samples were analyzed and the detected cannabinoids levels were correlated with the psychometric findings. A total of 33.3% (n = 16) of the total examined cannabis users were currently imprisoned. The years of abuse ranged from 1 to 35 years and the median daily dose was 5.84.4 gr and 4.84.0 gr for prisoners (n = 16) and non prisoners (n = 32), respectively. A total of 39.6% of the users experienced hallucinations (mostly auditory), 54.2% experienced delusions (mostly ideas of reference and persecution), 85.4% had organic brain dysfunction in a test addressing visual-motor functioning and visual perception skills, and all users (100%) were found to have organic brain dysfunction in a test of visual memory immediate recall. The cannabinoid metabolite levels in the hair samples were consistent with the reported history of substance abuse and total grams of consumption for the participants below 35 years old (p cannabis users seems to be associated with cannabinoid levels in hair. The continuation of persistent symptoms 3 months after the discontinuation of cannabis abuse, was a remarkable finding. We provide evidence that chronic and heavy cannabis abuse results in long-lasting brain dysfunction in all users and in long-lasting schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms in more than half of all users. These findings suggest a reevaluation of the current classification of cannabis as a "soft narcotic" which erroneously, therefore, is typically considered harmless. (Am J Addict 2017;26:335-342). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  16. Ipilimumab in advanced melanoma: reports of long-lasting responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farolfi, Alberto; Ridolfi, Laura; Guidoboni, Massimo; Nicoletti, Stefania Vittoria Luisa; Piciucchi, Sara; Valmorri, Linda; Costantini, Matteo; Scarpi, Emanuela; Amadori, Dino; Ridolfi, Ruggero

    2012-06-01

    Patients with metastatic melanoma have a poor prognosis; the results of chemotherapy remain unsatisfactory. Ipilimumab, an anticytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 antibody, has shown promising results in several clinical trials. In this report, advanced melanoma patients receiving ipilimumab were scored according to novel immune-related response criteria (irRC) in an attempt to capture additional response patterns and to avoid premature treatment cessation. Thirty-six heavily pretreated metastatic melanoma patients recieved ipilimumab within five international clinical trials at our Institution from May 2006 to August 2008. Disease progression was defined as an increase in tumor burden by at least 25% compared with the nadir, irrespective of any initial increase in baseline lesions or the appearance of new lesions. We report unusually long-lasting responses in patients treated with ipilimumab 10 mg/kg. An overall response was observed in six out of 30 patients (20%), a complete response in three (10%), and disease control in 11 (37%), which seemed to be of a long duration (median of 16 months; complete response 36+, 34+, and 41+ months). All irRC patterns seemed to be strongly associated with an improvement in overall survival. Interestingly, we found a correlation between the presence of a grade 3/4 immune-related adverse event and responses, time to progression, and overall survival. Ipilimumab therapy resulted in clinically meaningful responses in advanced melanoma patients, supporting the need for further irRC validation.

  17. Long-lasting antifog plasma modification of transparent plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mundo, Rosa; d'Agostino, Riccardo; Palumbo, Fabio

    2014-10-08

    Antifog surfaces are necessary for any application requiring optical efficiency of transparent materials. Surface modification methods aimed toward increasing solid surface energy, even when supposed to be permanent, in fact result in a nondurable effect due to the instability in air of highly hydrophilic surfaces. We propose the strategy of combining a hydrophilic chemistry with a nanotextured topography, to tailor a long-lasting antifog modification on commercial transparent plastics. In particular, we investigated a two-step process consisting of self-masked plasma etching followed by plasma deposition of a silicon-based film. We show that the deposition of the silicon-based coatings on the flat (pristine) substrates allows a continuous variation of wettability from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic, due to a continuous reduction of carbon-containing groups, as assessed by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. By depositing these different coatings on previously nanotextured substrates, the surface wettability behavior is changed consistently, as well as the condensation phenomenon in terms of microdroplets/liquid film appearance. This variation is correlated with advancing and receding water contact angle features of the surfaces. More importantly, in the case of the superhydrophilic coating, though its surface energy decreases with time, when a nanotextured surface underlies it, the wetting behavior is maintained durably superhydrophilic, thus durably antifog.

  18. Culminating anti-malaria efforts at long lasting insecticidal net?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Dhiman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs are a primary method in malaria control efforts. However, a decline in the biological efficacy and physical integrity over a period of comparatively lesser time than claimed, waning of naturally acquired immunity among regular users and misuse of LLINs are serious concerns. Search and selection of literature: The literature for the current review was searched in PubMed, SCOPUS Database and Google using combined search strings of related key-words. Literature with sufficient data and information on the current subject was selected to reach a valid conclusion. Findings: The World Health Organization (WHO has emphasized that LLINs should be considered a public good for people inhabiting malaria endemic settings. LLINs exhibited a cumulative effect on the vector density and may force anthropophilic mosquito vectors to find alternative animal hosts for blood meal. However, the physical integrity and biological activity of LLINs declines faster than the anticipated time due to different operational conditions and the spread of insecticide resistance. LLINs have been successful in reducing malaria incidences by either reducing or not allowing human exposure to the vector mosquitoes, but at the same time, LLINs debilitate the natural protective immunity against malaria parasite. Misuse of LLINs for deviant purposes is common and is a serious environmental concern, as people believe that traditional methods of prevention against malaria that have enabled them to survive through a long time are effective and sufficient. Moreover, people are often ill-informed regarding the toxic effects of LLINs. Conclusions: Specific criteria for determining the serviceable life and guidelines on the safe washing and disposal of LLINs need to be developed, kept well-informed and closely monitored. Malaria case management, environment management and community awareness to reduce the misuse of LLINs are crucial

  19. FIELD TOPOLOGY ANALYSIS OF A LONG-LASTING CORONAL SIGMOID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savcheva, A. S.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first field topology analysis based on nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) models of a long-lasting coronal sigmoid observed in 2007 February with the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode. The NLFFF models are built with the flux rope insertion method and give the three-dimensional coronal magnetic field as constrained by observed coronal loop structures and photospheric magnetograms. Based on these models, we have computed horizontal maps of the current and the squashing factor Q for 25 different heights in the corona for all six days of the evolution of the region. We use the squashing factor to quantify the degree of change of the field line linkage and to identify prominent quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs). We discuss the major properties of these QSL maps and devise a way to pick out important QSLs since our calculation cannot reach high values of Q. The complexity in the QSL maps reflects the high degree of fragmentation of the photospheric field. We find main QSLs and current concentrations that outline the flux rope cavity and that become characteristically S-shaped during the evolution of the sigmoid. We note that, although intermittent bald patches exist along the length of the sigmoid during its whole evolution, the flux rope remains stable for several days. However, shortly after the topology of the field exhibits hyperbolic flux tubes (HFT) on February 7 and February 12 the sigmoid loses equilibrium and produces two B-class flares and associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The location of the most elevated part of the HFT in our model coincides with the inferred locations of the two flares. Therefore, we suggest that the presence of an HFT in a coronal magnetic configuration may be an indication that the system is ready to erupt. We offer a scenario in which magnetic reconnection at the HFT drives the system toward the marginally stable state. Once this state is reached, loss of equilibrium occurs via the torus instability, producing a CME.

  20. Long lasting attentional-context dependent visuomotor memory

    OpenAIRE

    Im, Hee Yeon; Bédard, Patrick; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Using a dual-task paradigm, we recently reported that visuomotor adaptation acquired under distraction of a secondary attention-demanding discrimination task could be remembered only when a similar distraction was present. In contrast, when tested without the distracting task, performance reverted to untrained levels (Song & Bédard, 2015). Here, we demonstrated that this newfound paradoxical benefits of consistent dual-task context lasts over one day, such that visuomotor memory retrieval is ...

  1. The evaluation of neopterin and antioxidants in long lasting asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mota Pinto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a condition characterised by a chronic immunoinflammatory response to different triggers. Neopterin (NPT is synthesised by human macrophages upon stimulation with interferon-γ and is also capable of enhancing the oxidative potential of reactive oxygen species. NPT is useful for the monitoring of cell-mediated (Th1-type immune activation.This study analysed the behaviour of NPT in long lasting asthma, considering its role as a marker of Th1 environment. Allergic parameters (skin prick tests, Immunoglobin E (IgE, and eosinophil count and NPT were evaluated in an asthmatic group and in a control group. We also analysed the C Reactive Protein (CRP concentration, Total Antioxidant Status (TAS and Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme (SOD in both groups. A group of individuals aged over 65 years old was selected. It included 64 asthmatic patients (72±5 years and 41 healthy individuals (79±7 years.Blood cell counts showed statistically different median values of eosinophils (5.42±4.7 vs 2.8±2.8;p<.04, IgE (493.2±549.8 vs 85.3±194.4UI/ml; p=.000 and NPT was non-statistically decreased (2.4±2.8 vs 4.0±4.7ng/ml in allergic asthmatic patients when compared with non-allergic asthmatic patients. Both allergic and non-allergic asthmatic patients presented a statistically significant decreased expression of TAS (0.84±0.14/0.86±0.11 vs 0.91±0.10 mM and SOD (584.8±108.7/595.6±235.9 vs 822.9±179.5 when compared with normal control subjects.Our results suggest macrophage involvement in asthma pathogenesis. The deficit in antioxidant defence impacts negatively on this disease. The increase of NPT values in non-allergic asthma consolidates these affirmations and mapping this parameter should be part of the work of an analytical study panel as it may lead to allergic asthma being distinguished from nonallergic asthma. Resumo: A asma é uma doença caracterizada por uma resposta imuno-inflamatória a diferentes est

  2. INFLUENCE OF LONG LASTING FREEZING TO BAKING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šmitalová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foodstuff adapted by freezing is able to use for final setting immediately and its important contribution is sparing of working action and time connected to their next setting in our households or in catering corporations. In frame of this topic some baking experiment were realized with application of the main component – smooth wheat flour T 650 and the raw yeasting. It was monitored the baking quality of loafs made of fresh dough and loafs made of dough which was frozen one, two, three, four, five, six and nine months in -18°C. The biggest decline of the quality of bread made from frozen dough was monitored right after the first month. Decline of its size was 19.0%. Strong decline of size was monitored after five months (18.1% and after six months of storage in freezer (23.8%. Decline of baking quality during storage was mainly caused by declining activity of yeasts and by the loss of their yeasty ability. These conditions cased gradual decline of the solidity of the dough.

  3. Olfactory dreams, olfactory interest, and imagery : Relationships to olfactory memory

    OpenAIRE

    Arshamian, Artin

    2007-01-01

    Existing evidence for olfactory imagery is mixed and mainly based on reports from hallucinations and volitional imagery. Using a questionnaire, Stevenson and Case (2005) showed that olfactory dreams provided a good source for olfactory imagery studies. This study applied an extended version of the same questionnaire and examined olfactory dreams and their relation to real-life experienced odors, volitional imagery, and olfactory interest. Results showed that olfactory dreams were similar to r...

  4. Chronic sleep restriction induces long-lasting changes in adenosine and noradrenaline receptor density in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoo; Elmenhorst, David; Weisshaupt, Angela; Wedekind, Franziska; Kroll, Tina; McCarley, Robert W; Strecker, Robert E; Bauer, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Although chronic sleep restriction frequently produces long-lasting behavioural and physiological impairments in humans, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. Here we used a rat model of chronic sleep restriction to investigate the role of brain adenosine and noradrenaline systems, known to regulate sleep and wakefulness, respectively. The density of adenosine A1 and A2a receptors and β-adrenergic receptors before, during and following 5 days of sleep restriction was assessed with autoradiography. Rats (n = 48) were sleep-deprived for 18 h day(-1) for 5 consecutive days (SR1-SR5), followed by 3 unrestricted recovery sleep days (R1-R3). Brains were collected at the beginning of the light period, which was immediately after the end of sleep deprivation on sleep restriction days. Chronic sleep restriction increased adenosine A1 receptor density significantly in nine of the 13 brain areas analysed with elevations also observed on R3 (+18 to +32%). In contrast, chronic sleep restriction reduced adenosine A2a receptor density significantly in one of the three brain areas analysed (olfactory tubercle which declined 26-31% from SR1 to R1). A decrease in β-adrenergic receptors density was seen in substantia innominata and ventral pallidum which remained reduced on R3, but no changes were found in the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that chronic sleep restriction can induce long-term changes in the brain adenosine and noradrenaline receptors, which may underlie the long-lasting neurocognitive impairments observed in chronic sleep restriction. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Efficacy of topical mosquito repellent (picaridin) plus long-lasting insecticidal nets versus long-lasting insecticidal nets alone for control of malaria : A cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluydts, V.; Durnez, L.; Heng, S.; Gryseels, C.; Canier, L.; Kim, S.; Van Roey, K.; Kerkhof, K.; Khim, N.; Mao, S.; Menard, D.; Coosemans, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although effective topical repellents provide personal protection against malaria, whether mass use of topical repellents in addition to long-lasting insecticidal nets can contribute to a further decline of malaria is not known, particularly in areas where outdoor transmission occurs. We

  6. Environmental enrichment of young adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) in different sensory modalities has long-lasting effects on their ability to learn via specific sensory channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolivo, Vassilissa; Taborsky, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Sensory modalities individuals use to obtain information from the environment differ among conspecifics. The relative contributions of genetic divergence and environmental plasticity to this variance remain yet unclear. Numerous studies have shown that specific sensory enrichments or impoverishments at the postnatal stage can shape neural development, with potential lifelong effects. For species capable of adjusting to novel environments, specific sensory stimulation at a later life stage could also induce specific long-lasting behavioral effects. To test this possibility, we enriched young adult Norway rats with either visual, auditory, or olfactory cues. Four to 8 months after the enrichment period we tested each rat for their learning ability in 3 two-choice discrimination tasks, involving either visual, auditory, or olfactory stimulus discrimination, in a full factorial design. No sensory modality was more relevant than others for the proposed task per se, but rats performed better when tested in the modality for which they had been enriched. This shows that specific environmental conditions encountered during early adulthood have specific long-lasting effects on the learning abilities of rats. Furthermore, we disentangled the relative contributions of genetic and environmental causes of the response. The reaction norms of learning abilities in relation to the stimulus modality did not differ between families, so interindividual divergence was mainly driven by environmental rather than genetic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The olfactory receptor gene repertoires in secondary-adapted marine vertebrates: evidence for reduction of the functional proportions in cetaceans

    OpenAIRE

    Kishida, Takushi; Kubota, Shin; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Fukami, Hironobu

    2007-01-01

    An olfactory receptor (OR) multigene family is responsible for the well-developed sense of smell possessed by terrestrial tetrapods. Mammalian OR genes had diverged greatly in the terrestrial environment after the fish–tetrapod split, indicating their importance to land habitation. In this study, we analysed OR genes of marine tetrapods (minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata, dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima, Dall's porpoise Phocoenoides dalli, Steller's sea lion Eumetopias jubatus and loggerhea...

  8. Long-lasting desynchronization in rat hippocampal slice induced by coordinated reset stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tass, P. A.; Barnikol, U. B.; Silchenko, A. N.; Hauptmann, C.; Speckmann, E.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In computational models it has been shown that appropriate stimulation protocols may reshape the connectivity pattern of neural or oscillator networks with synaptic plasticity in a way that the network learns or unlearns strong synchronization. The underlying mechanism is that a network is shifted from one attractor to another, so that long-lasting stimulation effects are caused which persist after the cessation of stimulation. Here we study long-lasting effects of multisite electrical stimulation in a rat hippocampal slice rendered epileptic by magnesium withdrawal. We show that desynchronizing coordinated reset stimulation causes a long-lasting desynchronization between hippocampal neuronal populations together with a widespread decrease in the amplitude of the epileptiform activity. In contrast, periodic stimulation induces a long-lasting increase in both synchronization and amplitude.

  9. Risk of long-lasting negative cognitive consequences after electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne Marie; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes a patient who had a unipolar depression and experienced long-lasting cognitive problems after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Neuropsychological testing revealed lower scores on measures of learning, memory and sustained attention. These results stress the importance...

  10. Olfactory neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, D.; Ahmed, B.; Malik, S.M.; Khan, M.

    2000-01-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma/esthesioneuroblastoma in a rare malignant tumour of the olfactory neuroepithelium. This is a report of 5 cases managed over the last 10 years at Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi. Age of the patients at presentation ranged from 27 to 70 years. The main symptoms were unilateral nasal obstruction and intermittent epistaxis. The mean duration of symptoms at presentation was 11 months. Two patients were staged as B and 3 as C at presentation. The stage of the disease correlated with the duration of symptoms. All the cases were diagnosed on histopathology. Three were offered combination of surgery and radiotherapy. One patient received only surgical treatment and one patient received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Combination of surgery and radiotherapy showed best results. (author)

  11. TCR-contacting residues orientation and HLA-DRβ* binding preference determine long-lasting protective immunity against malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, Martha P.; Suarez, Carlos F.; Varela, Yahson; Patarroyo, Manuel A.; Bermudez, Adriana; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2016-01-01

    Fully-protective, long-lasting, immunological (FPLLI) memory against Plasmodium falciparum malaria regarding immune protection-inducing protein structures (IMPIPS) vaccinated into monkeys previously challenged and re-challenged 60 days later with a lethal Aotus monkey-adapted P. falciparum strain was found to be associated with preferential high binding capacity to HLA-DRβ1* allelic molecules of the major histocompatibility class II (MHC-II), rather than HLA-DRβ3*, β4*, β5* alleles. Complete PPII L 3D structure, a longer distance (26.5 Å ± 1.5 Å) between residues perfectly fitting into HLA-DRβ1*PBR pockets 1 and 9, a gauche − rotamer orientation in p8 TCR-contacting polar residue and a larger volume of polar p2 residues was also found. This data, in association with previously-described p3 and p7 apolar residues having gauche + orientation to form a perfect MHC-II-peptide-TCR complex, determines the stereo-electronic and topochemical characteristics associated with FPLLI immunological memory. - Highlights: • Stereo-electronic and topochemical rules associated with FPLLI immunological memory. • Presence of very high long-lasting antibody titres against Plasmodium falciparum Spz. • Protective memory induction associated with a binding capacity to HLA-DRβ1*. • gauche − rotamer orientation in p8 polar residue is related to is related to immunological memory.

  12. TCR-contacting residues orientation and HLA-DRβ* binding preference determine long-lasting protective immunity against malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba, Martha P.; Suarez, Carlos F. [Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales (UDCA), Bogotá (Colombia); Varela, Yahson [Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Patarroyo, Manuel A.; Bermudez, Adriana [Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Patarroyo, Manuel E., E-mail: mepatarr@gmail.com [Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá D. C. (Colombia)

    2016-09-02

    Fully-protective, long-lasting, immunological (FPLLI) memory against Plasmodium falciparum malaria regarding immune protection-inducing protein structures (IMPIPS) vaccinated into monkeys previously challenged and re-challenged 60 days later with a lethal Aotus monkey-adapted P. falciparum strain was found to be associated with preferential high binding capacity to HLA-DRβ1* allelic molecules of the major histocompatibility class II (MHC-II), rather than HLA-DRβ3*, β4*, β5* alleles. Complete PPII{sub L} 3D structure, a longer distance (26.5 Å ± 1.5 Å) between residues perfectly fitting into HLA-DRβ1*PBR pockets 1 and 9, a gauche{sup −} rotamer orientation in p8 TCR-contacting polar residue and a larger volume of polar p2 residues was also found. This data, in association with previously-described p3 and p7 apolar residues having gauche{sup +} orientation to form a perfect MHC-II-peptide-TCR complex, determines the stereo-electronic and topochemical characteristics associated with FPLLI immunological memory. - Highlights: • Stereo-electronic and topochemical rules associated with FPLLI immunological memory. • Presence of very high long-lasting antibody titres against Plasmodium falciparum Spz. • Protective memory induction associated with a binding capacity to HLA-DRβ1*. • gauche{sup −} rotamer orientation in p8 polar residue is related to is related to immunological memory.

  13. Low-frequency stimulation cancels the high-frequency-induced long-lasting effects in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Pettorossi, V E; Zampolini, M

    1996-05-15

    In rat brainstem slices, we investigated the effects of low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of the primary vestibular afferents on the amplitude of the field potentials evoked in the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN). LFS induced long-term effects, the sign of which depended on whether the vestibular neurons were previously conditioned by HFS. In unconditioned slices, LFS evoked modifications of the responses that were similar to those observed after HFS but had a smaller extension. In fact, LFS caused long-lasting potentiation of the N1 wave in the MVN ventral portion (Vp) and long-lasting depression of the N2 wave in the MVN dorsal portion (Dp), whereas it provoked small and variable effects on the N1 wave. By contrast, when the synaptic transmission was already conditioned, LFS influenced the synaptic responses oppositely, reducing or annulling the HFS long-term effects. This phenomenon was specifically induced by LFS, because HFS was not able to cause it. The involvement of NMDA receptors in mediating the LFS long-term effects was supported by the fact that AP-5 prevented their induction. In addition, the annulment of HFS long-term effects by LFS was also demonstrated by the shift in the latency of the evoked unitary potentials after LFS. In conclusion, we suggest that the reduction of the previously induced conditioning could represent a cancellation mechanism, useful to quickly adapt the vestibular system to continuous different needs and to avoid saturation.

  14. Dearomatized white spirit inhalation exposure causes long-lasting neurophysiological changes in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.; Hass, Ulla

    1996-01-01

    Dearomatized white spirit inhalation exposure causes long-lasting neurophysioloical changes in rats. NEUROTOXICOL TERATOL 18(1), 67-76, 1996. -Exposure for 6 h per day, 5 days per week, during a period of 6 months to the organic solvent dearomatized white spirit (0, 400, and 800 ppm) was studied ...

  15. Monitoring long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) durability to validate net serviceable life assumptions, in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakizimana, E.; Cyubahiro, B.; Rukundo, A.; Kabayiza, A.; Mutabazi, A.; Beach, R.; Patel, R.; Tongren, J.E.; Karema, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background To validate assumptions about the length of the distribution–replacement cycle for long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in Rwanda, the Malaria and other Parasitic Diseases Division, Rwanda Ministry of Health, used World Health Organization methods to independently confirm the three-year

  16. Neonatal oxytocin manipulations have long-lasting, sexually dimorphic effects on vasopressin receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Bales, KL; Plotsky, PM; Young, LJ; Lim, MM; Grotte, N; Ferrer, E; Carter, CS

    2007-01-01

    Developmental exposure to oxytocin (OT) or oxytocin antagonists (OTAs) has been shown to cause long-lasting and often sexually dimorphic effects on social behaviors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Because regulation of social behavior in monogamous mammals involves central receptors for OT, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and dopamine, we examined the hypothesis that the lon...

  17. Long lasting protein synthesis- and activity-dependent spine shrinkage and elimination after synaptic depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmín Ramiro-Cortés

    Full Text Available Neuronal circuits modify their response to synaptic inputs in an experience-dependent fashion. Increases in synaptic weights are accompanied by structural modifications, and activity dependent, long lasting growth of dendritic spines requires new protein synthesis. When multiple spines are potentiated within a dendritic domain, they show dynamic structural plasticity changes, indicating that spines can undergo bidirectional physical modifications. However, it is unclear whether protein synthesis dependent synaptic depression leads to long lasting structural changes. Here, we investigate the structural correlates of protein synthesis dependent long-term depression (LTD mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs through two-photon imaging of dendritic spines on hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We find that induction of mGluR-LTD leads to robust and long lasting spine shrinkage and elimination that lasts for up to 24 hours. These effects depend on signaling through group I mGluRs, require protein synthesis, and activity. These data reveal a mechanism for long lasting remodeling of synaptic inputs, and offer potential insights into mental retardation.

  18. Olfactory Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenbaum, Howard; Robitsek, R. Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Odor-recognition memory in rodents may provide a valuable model of cognitive aging. In a recent study we used signal detection analyses to distinguish odor recognition based on recollection versus that based on familiarity. Aged rats were selectively impaired in recollection, with relative sparing of familiarity, and the deficits in recollection were correlated with spatial memory impairments. These results complement electro-physiological findings indicating age-associated deficits in the ability of hippocampal neurons to differentiate contextual information, and this information-processing impairment may underlie the common age-associated decline in olfactory and spatial memory. PMID:19686208

  19. Assessment of Olfactory Memory in Olfactory Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollndorfer, Kathrin; Reichert, Johanna; Braunsteiner, Josephine; Schöpf, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    To assess all clinically relevant components of olfactory perception, examinations for olfactory sensitivity, discrimination, and identification are performed. Besides the standard perceptual test battery, episodic olfactory memory might offer additional information about olfactory abilities relative to these standard clinical tests. As both olfactory deficits and memory deficits are early symptoms in neurodegenerative disorders, olfactory memory may be of particular interest. However, to date little is known about episodic olfactory memory performance in patients with decreased olfactory function. This study includes the investigation of olfactory memory performance in 14 hyposmic patients (8 female, mean age 52.6 years) completing two episodic odor memory tests (Sniffin' Test of Odor Memory and Odor Memory Test). To control for a general impairment in memory function, a verbal and a figural memory test were carried out. A regression model with multiple predictors was calculated for both odor memory tests separately. Odor identification was identified as the only significant predictor for both odor memory tasks. From our results, we conclude that currently available olfactory memory tests are highly influenced by odor identification abilities, implying the need for the development and validation of additional tests in this field which could serve as additional olfactory perception variables for clinical assessment.

  20. Properties of 13HMF steel welded joints after long-lasting service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, M.

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented of research conducted on the 13HMF steel in the as-received condition after long-lasting service over 100000 hours. Simulation tests have been performed by means of modern research methods. The influence of thermal cycles on the microstructure (continuous cooling TTT diagrams), plastic properties (notch toughness and hardness) of simulated heat affected zones and reheat cracking resistance has been evaluated by using the thermal and strain cycle simulator. Susceptibility to thermal fatigue has been determined, the creep strength estimated and welding heat input was given, as well as the post weld heat treatment conditions of the 13HMF steel after service. properties of the welded joints made of 13HMF steel after long-lasting service are given. (author)

  1. Preventing long-lasting fear recovery using bilateral alternating sensory stimulation: A translational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, H; El-Khoury-Malhame, M; Wilhelm, F H; Michael, T; Beetz, E M; Roques, J; Reynaud, E; Courtin, J; Khalfa, S; Herry, C

    2016-05-03

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly debilitating and prevalent psychological disorder. It is characterized by highly distressing intrusive trauma memories that are partly explained by fear conditioning. Despite efficient therapeutic approaches, a subset of PTSD patients displays spontaneous recurrence of traumatic memories after successful treatment. The development of animal behavioral models mimicking the individual variability in treatment outcome for PTSD patients represent therefore an important challenge as it allows for the identification of predicting factors of resilience or susceptibility to relapse. However, to date, only few animal behavioral models of long-lasting fear recovery have been developed and their predictive validity has not been tested directly. The objectives of this study were twofold. First we aimed to develop a simple animal behavioral model of long-lasting fear recovery based on auditory cued fear conditioning and extinction learning, which recapitulates the heterogeneity of fear responses observed in PTSD patients after successful treatment. Second we aimed at testing the predictive validity of our behavioral model and used to this purpose a translational approach based (i) on the demonstration of the efficiency of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy to reduce conditioned fear responses in PTSD patients and (ii) on the implementation in our behavioral model of an electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid which mimics the core feature of EMDR. Our data indicate that electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid during extinction learning alleviates long-lasting fear recovery of conditioned fear responses and dramatically reduces inter-individual variability. These results demonstrate the face and predictive validity of our animal behavioral model and provide an interesting tool to understand the neurobiological underpinnings of long-lasting fear recovery. Copyright

  2. Characteristics of long-lasting haze episodes observed in Seoul, South Korea, for 2009-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Jung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Cha, Joo Wan; Song, Seungjoo; Ryoo, Sang-Boom; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2018-03-01

    The meteorological, physical, chemical, and optical characteristics of long-lasting haze in Seoul were studied. Four episodes were observed between 2009 and 2014, all in winter. PM10 mass concentration (PM10), chemical species, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) were analyzed along with the synoptic meteorological conditions. During the episodes, the temporal variations of the PM10 generally proceeded from the west along the Yellow Sea. The ground-based AOD was also high in Seoul and other sites. High AOD (MODIS) distributions were observed to move from China to Korea. The high sulfate concentration, along with the high sulfur oxidation ratio value of the third and fourth episodes (Eps. 3 and 4), respectively, corroborated the possible long-range transport of air pollutants. Stagnant meteorological conditions were a reason for the occurrence of long-lasting hazes. An anticyclone system had a dominant influence on the Korean peninsula during all episodes. The air mass over China was able to rise, and that over Korea was more stagnant in terms of climatology except Ep. 2. In addition to transport from outside, locally emitted air pollutants contributed to the PM10 partly due to the stagnant conditions, during which diurnal variations in NO2 and nitrates showed similar peak times during Eps. 3 and 4. Analysis of the episodes consistently showed that the long-lasting haze episodes were influenced by both the long-range transport of air pollutants from outside Seoul, mostly from China, and the accumulation of air pollutants that were locally emitted and transformed.

  3. Risk of long-lasting negative cognitive consequences after electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne Marie; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes a patient who had a unipolar depression and experienced long-lasting cognitive problems after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Neuropsychological testing revealed lower scores on measures of learning, memory and sustained attention. These results stress the importance...... of informing patients who have ECT of the potential cognitive consequences of this treatment as it may influence the patients' functional capabilities. Prospective studies are needed since we do not have sufficient knowledge regarding the 3-5% of these patients who experience sustained cognitive problems....

  4. Olfactory Neuroblastoma: Diagnostic Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya MN,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory neuroblastoma is an uncommon malignant tumor of sinonasal tract arising from the olfactory neuro epithelium. The olfactory neuroblastomas presenting with divergent histomorphologies like, epithelial appearance of cells, lacking a neuro fibrillary background and absence of rosettes are difficult to diagnose. Such cases require immunohistochemistry to establish the diagnosis. We describe the clinical features, pathological and immunohistochemical findings of grade IV Olfactory neuroblastoma in a 57 year old man

  5. TACTILE STIMULATION EVOKES LONG-LASTING POTENTIATION OF PURKINJE CELL DISCHARGE IN VIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan eKanchipuram

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the cerebellar network, a precise relationship between plasticity and neuronal discharge has been predicted. However, the potential generation of persistent changes in PC spike discharge as a consequence of plasticity following natural stimulation patterns has not been clearly determined. Here we show that facial tactile stimuli organized in theta-patterns can induce stereotyped NMDA and GABA-A receptor-dependent changes in Purkinje cell (PCs and molecular layer interneuron (MLIs firing: invariably, all PCs showed a long-lasting increase (spike-related potentiation or SR-P and MLIs a long-lasting decrease (spike-related suppression or SR-S in baseline activity and spike response probability. These observations suggests that natural sensory stimulation engages multiple long-term plastic changes that are distributed along the mossy fiber – parallel fiber pathway and operate synergistically to potentiate spike generation in PCs. In contrast, theta-pattern electrical stimulation of PFs indistinctly induced SR-P and SR-S both in PCs and MLIs, suggesting that natural sensory stimulation preordinates plasticity upstream of the PF-PC synapse. All these effects occurred in the absence of complex spike changes, supporting the theoretical prediction that Purkinje cell activity is potentiated when the mossy fiber - parallel fiber system is activated in the absence of conjunctive climbing fiber activity.

  6. Norepinephrine induces pathway-specific long-lasting potentiation and depression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, D; Sarvey, J M

    1989-01-01

    The study presented here indicates that norepinephrine (NE) selectively induces long-lasting modifications of synaptically mediated responses in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampal slice. A low concentration of NE (1.0 microM; in the presence of 50 microM phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic antagonist) or a 1.0 microM concentration of the specific beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol induced long-lasting pathway-specific alterations of granule cell electrophysiological responses. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spikes evoked by stimulation of the medial perforant pathway (PP) were potentiated for more than 45 min. In contrast, responses to lateral PP stimulation were depressed for the same period. Both potentiation and depression were blocked by the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol (1.0 microM). These results indicate that NE can act differentially on projections to the dentate gyrus arising in the entorhinal cortex. Such selective persistent modifications of cortical circuits may be involved in processes in the mammalian brain underlying attention, learning, and memory. PMID:2734319

  7. Bacterial Urease and its Role in Long-Lasting Human Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczna, Iwona; Żarnowiec, Paulina; Kwinkowski, Marek; Kolesińska, Beata; Frączyk, Justyna; Kamiński, Zbigniew; Kaca, Wiesław

    2012-01-01

    Urease is a virulence factor found in various pathogenic bacteria. It is essential in colonization of a host organism and in maintenance of bacterial cells in tissues. Due to its enzymatic activity, urease has a toxic effect on human cells. The presence of ureolytic activity is an important marker of a number of bacterial infections. Urease is also an immunogenic protein and is recognized by antibodies present in human sera. The presence of such antibodies is connected with progress of several long-lasting diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis or urinary tract infections. In bacterial ureases, motives with a sequence and/or structure similar to human proteins may occur. This phenomenon, known as molecular mimicry, leads to the appearance of autoantibodies, which take part in host molecules destruction. Detection of antibodies-binding motives (epitopes) in bacterial proteins is a complex process. However, organic chemistry tools, such as synthetic peptide libraries, are helpful in both, epitope mapping as well as in serologic investigations. In this review, we present a synthetic report on a molecular organization of bacterial ureases - genetic as well as structural. We characterize methods used in detecting urease and ureolytic activity, including techniques applied in disease diagnostic processes and in chemical synthesis of urease epitopes. The review also provides a summary of knowledge about a toxic effect of bacterial ureases on human body and about occurrence of anti-urease antibodies in long-lasting diseases. PMID:23305365

  8. Neonatal oxytocin manipulations have long-lasting, sexually dimorphic effects on vasopressin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, K L; Plotsky, P M; Young, L J; Lim, M M; Grotte, N; Ferrer, E; Carter, C S

    2007-01-05

    Developmental exposure to oxytocin (OT) or oxytocin antagonists (OTAs) has been shown to cause long-lasting and often sexually dimorphic effects on social behaviors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Because regulation of social behavior in monogamous mammals involves central receptors for OT, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and dopamine, we examined the hypothesis that the long-lasting, developmental effects of exposure to neonatal OT or OTA might reflect changes in the expression of receptors for these peptides. On postnatal day 1, prairie voles were injected intraperitoneally with either OT (1 mg/kg), an OTA (0.1 mg/kg), saline vehicle, or were handled only. At approximately 60 days of age, vasopressin V1a receptors, OT receptors (OTR) and dopamine D2 receptor binding were quantified using receptor autoradiography in brain tissue taken from males and females. Significant treatment effects on V1a binding were found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), cingulate cortex (CgCtx), mediodorsal thalamus (MdThal), medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus (MPOA), and lateral septum (LS). The CgCtx, MPOA, ventral pallidum, and LS also showed significant sex by treatment interactions on V1a binding. No significant treatment or sex differences were observed for D2 receptor binding. No significant treatment difference was observed for OTR receptor binding, and only a marginal sex difference. Changes in the neuropeptide receptor expression, especially the V1a receptor, may help to explain sexually dimorphic changes in behavior that follow comparable neonatal manipulations.

  9. An enigmatic long-lasting gamma-ray burst not accompanied by a bright supernova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Valle, M; Chincarini, G; Panagia, N; Tagliaferri, G; Malesani, D; Testa, V; Fugazza, D; Campana, S; Covino, S; Mangano, V; Antonelli, L A; D'Avanzo, P; Hurley, K; Mirabel, I F; Pellizza, L J; Piranomonte, S; Stella, L

    2006-12-21

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short, intense flashes of soft gamma-rays coming from the distant Universe. Long-duration GRBs (those lasting more than approximately 2 s) are believed to originate from the deaths of massive stars, mainly on the basis of a handful of solid associations between GRBs and supernovae. GRB 060614, one of the closest GRBs discovered, consisted of a 5-s hard spike followed by softer, brighter emission that lasted for approximately 100 s (refs 8, 9). Here we report deep optical observations of GRB 060614 showing no emerging supernova with absolute visual magnitude brighter than M(V) = -13.7. Any supernova associated with GRB 060614 was therefore at least 100 times fainter, at optical wavelengths, than the other supernovae associated with GRBs. This demonstrates that some long-lasting GRBs can either be associated with a very faint supernova or produced by different phenomena.

  10. Design and Optimization of Die Preforming Process for Long Last-stage Blade of Nuclear Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xiaomao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The long last-stage blade is a key component of the steam turbine of nuclear conventional island. The die preforming process for a new technology that provides billets for near-net-shape roll-forging process was designed, the effects of the forging temperature, friction coefficient, flash land’s height and die’s outer fillet radius on the die forging force and forging energy were studied by using the orthogonal experiment method, the primary and secondary order of the four factors were analysed by using range analysis method, and the optimal combination of the factors was obtained. By means of numerical simulation and physical experiment, the die preforming process that can provide qualified billets for the subsequent roll-forging process was verified, and the PZS1120f electric screw press can meet the requirements of the die preforming process.

  11. Energetic ion excited long-lasting ``sword'' modes in tokamak plasmas with low magnetic shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Ruibin; Deng, Wei; Liu, Yi

    2013-10-01

    An m/ n = 1 mode driven by trapped fast ions with a sword-shape envelope of long-lasting (for hundreds of milliseconds) magnetic perturbation signals, other than conventional fishbones, is studied in this paper. The mode is usually observed in low shear plasmas. Frequency and growth rate of the mode and its harmonics are calculated and in good agreements with observations. The radial mode structure is also obtained and compared with that of fishbones. It is found that due to fast ion driven the mode differs from magnetohydrodynamic long lived modes (LLMs) observed in MAST and NSTX. On the other hand, due to the feature of weak magnetic shear, the mode is also significantly different from fishbones. The nonlinear evolution of the mode and its comparison with fishbones are further investigated to analyze the effect of the mode on energetic particle transport and confinement.

  12. Human dignity as a component of a long-lasting and widespread conceptual construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertschi, Bernard

    2014-06-01

    For some decades, the concept of human dignity has been widely discussed in bioethical literature. Some authors think that this concept is central to questions of respect for human beings, whereas others are very critical of it. It should be noted that, in these debates, dignity is one component of a long-lasting and widespread conceptual construct used to support a stance on the ethical question of the moral status of an action or being. This construct has been used from Modernity onward to condemn slavery and torture as violations of human dignity. In spelling it out, we can come to a better understanding of what "dignity" means and become aware that there exists a quite useful place for this notion in our ethical thought, albeit a modest one.

  13. Legal requirements for long-lasting radioactive waste disposal; Rechtliche Anforderungen der Beseitigung hochradioaktiver langlebiger Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesselmann, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    The topic of nuclear disposal has been treated in juridical regard up to now only rudimentary. To this day the federation has not met the legal obligation existing for roughly 40 years to set up a plant for the safekeeping and for the permanent storage of highly-radioactive waste. Repeatedly changed disposal-conceptual approaches have contributed perpetually to a temporal shift of the ''dumping question'' into an uncertain future. Against this background it seems necessary on to examine whether such a ''politics of ephemeral solution attempts'' is legally to be accepted (any longer). Hence, including the recently remitted site selection law the author works out extensively the removal regime applying in Germany for highly radioactive long-lasting rubbish and verifies his compatibility with the European law, the German constitutional law and the thematically relevant International treaty law.

  14. Evaluation of new tools for malaria vector control in Cameroon: focus on long lasting insecticidal nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etang, Josiane; Nwane, Philippe; Piameu, Michael; Manga, Blaise; Souop, Daniel; Awono-Ambene, Parfait

    2013-01-01

    From 2006 to 2011, biological activity of insecticides for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), conventional treatment of nets (CTNs) or long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was evaluated before their approval in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to select the best tools for universal malaria vector control coverage. Bioassays were performed using WHO cones and the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Among tested products, residual activity and wash resistance of Alpha-cypermethrin LLINs (Interceptor) and CTNs (Fendona) were assessed during 5 months in the Ntougou neighborhood. All the 14 tested products were found effective (95-100% knockdown and mortality rates), although a significant decrease of efficacy was seen with lambda-cyhalothrinWP IRS, alpha-cypermethrin CTNs and LLINs (peducation toward universal coverage of malaria vector control in Cameroon.

  15. Long-lasting injection of solar energetic electrons into the heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresing, N.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Klassen, A.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A.

    2018-05-01

    Context. The main sources of solar energetic particle (SEP) events are solar flares and shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). While it is generally accepted that energetic protons can be accelerated by shocks, whether or not these shocks can also efficiently accelerate solar energetic electrons is still debated. In this study we present observations of the extremely widespread SEP event of 26 Dec 2013 To the knowledge of the authors, this is the widest longitudinal SEP distribution ever observed together with unusually long-lasting energetic electron anisotropies at all observer positions. Further striking features of the event are long-lasting SEP intensity increases, two distinct SEP components with the second component mainly consisting of high-energy particles, a complex associated coronal activity including a pronounced signature of a shock in radio type-II observations, and the interaction of two CMEs early in the event. Aims: The observations require a prolonged injection scenario not only for protons but also for electrons. We therefore analyze the data comprehensively to characterize the possible role of the shock for the electron event. Methods: Remote-sensing observations of the complex solar activity are combined with in situ measurements of the particle event. We also apply a graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) model to the coronagraph observations of the two associated CMEs to analyze their interaction. Results: We find that the shock alone is likely not responsible for this extremely wide SEP event. Therefore we propose a scenario of trapped energetic particles inside the CME-CME interaction region which undergo further acceleration due to the shock propagating through this region, stochastic acceleration, or ongoing reconnection processes inside the interaction region. The origin of the second component of the SEP event is likely caused by a sudden opening of the particle trap.

  16. NOVAE WITH LONG-LASTING SUPERSOFT EMISSION THAT DRIVE A HIGH ACCRETION RATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Collazzi, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    We identify a new class of novae characterized by the post-eruption quiescent light curve being more than roughly a factor of 10 brighter than the pre-eruption light curve. Eight novae (V723 Cas, V1500 Cyg, V1974 Cyg, GQ Mus, CP Pup, T Pyx, V4633 Sgr, and RW UMi) are separated out as being significantly distinct from other novae. This group shares a suite of uncommon properties, characterized by the post-eruption magnitude being much brighter than before eruption, short orbital periods, long-lasting supersoft emission following the eruption, a highly magnetized white dwarf (WD), and secular declines during the post-eruption quiescence. We present a basic physical picture which shows why all five uncommon properties are causally connected. In general, novae show supersoft emission due to hydrogen burning on the WD in the final portion of the eruption, and this hydrogen burning will be long-lasting if new hydrogen is poured onto the surface at a sufficient rate. Most novae do not have adequate accretion for continuous hydrogen burning, but some can achieve this if the companion star is nearby (with short orbital period) and a magnetic field channels the matter onto a small area on the WD so as to produce a locally high accretion rate. The resultant supersoft flux irradiates the companion star and drives a higher accretion rate (with a brighter post-eruption phase), which serves to keep the hydrogen burning and the supersoft flux going. The feedback loop cannot be perfectly self-sustaining, so the supersoft flux will decline over time, forcing a decline in the accretion rate and the system brightness. We name this new group after the prototype, V1500 Cyg. V1500 Cyg stars are definitely not progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. The V1500 Cyg stars have similar physical mechanisms and appearances as predicted for nova by the hibernation model, but with this group accounting for only 14% of novae.

  17. Long-lasting increase in axonal excitability after epidurally applied DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Elzbieta; Kaczmarek, Dominik; Bolzoni, Francesco; Hammar, Ingela

    2017-08-01

    Effects of direct current (DC) on nerve fibers have primarily been investigated during or just after DC application. However, locally applied cathodal DC was recently demonstrated to increase the excitability of intraspinal preterminal axonal branches for >1 h. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether DC evokes a similarly long-lasting increase in the excitability of myelinated axons within the dorsal columns. The excitability of dorsal column fibers stimulated epidurally was monitored by recording compound action potentials in peripheral nerves in acute experiments in deeply anesthetized rats. The results show that 1 ) cathodal polarization (0.8-1.0 µA) results in a severalfold increase in the number of epidurally activated fibers and 2 ) the increase in the excitability appears within seconds, 3 ) lasts for >1 h, and 4 ) is activity independent, as it does not require fiber stimulation during the polarization. These features demonstrate an unexplored form of plasticity of myelinated fibers and indicate the conditions under which it develops. They also suggest that therapeutic effects of epidural stimulation may be significantly enhanced if it is combined with DC polarization. In particular, by using DC to increase the number of fibers activated by low-intensity epidural stimuli, the low clinical tolerance to higher stimulus intensities might be overcome. The activity independence of long-lasting DC effects would also allow the use of only brief periods of DC polarization preceding epidural stimulation to increase the effect. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The study indicates a new form of plasticity of myelinated fibers. The differences in time course of DC-evoked increases in the excitability of myelinated nerve fibers in the dorsal columns and in preterminal axonal branches suggest that distinct mechanisms are involved in them. The results show that combining epidural stimulation and transspinal DC polarization may dramatically improve their outcome and

  18. Long-term potentiation and olfactory memory formation in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, M; Anzai, S; Huruno, M

    2005-05-01

    Long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission is considered to be an elementary process underlying the cellular mechanism of memory formation. In the present study we aimed to examine whether or not the dendrodendritic mitral-to-granule cell synapses in the carp olfactory bulb show plastic changes after their repeated activation. It was found that: (1) the dendrodendritic mitral-to-granule cell synapses showed three types of plasticity after tetanic electrical stimulation applied to the olfactory tract-long-term potentiation (potentiation lasting >1 h), short-term potentiation (potentiation lasting 1 h) of the odor-evoked bulbar response accompanied the electrically-induced LTP, and; (4) repeated olfactory stimulation enhanced dendrodendritic mitral-to-granule cell transmission. Based on these results, it was proposed that long-term potentiation (as well as olfactory memory) occurs at the dendrodendritic mitral-to-granule cell synapses after strong and long-lasting depolarization of granule cells, which follows repeated and simultaneous synaptic activation of both the peripheral and deep dendrites (or somata).

  19. Transmitter-controlled properties of α-motoneurones causing long-lasting motor discharge to brief excitatory inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J.; Hultborn, H.; Kiehn, O.

    1986-01-01

    Brief sensory inputs to intact conscious subjects commonly trigger complex long-lasting motor responses, in which higher cerebral mechanisms, or even voluntary action, may be integrative parts. However, long-lasting motor discharge following brief afferent stimulation is also observed in reduced ...... flipflops, which are set at one of two levels by short excitatory or inhibitory inputs. However, when the whole motoneuronal pool is considered, many different levels can be maintained by recruitment of new units.......Brief sensory inputs to intact conscious subjects commonly trigger complex long-lasting motor responses, in which higher cerebral mechanisms, or even voluntary action, may be integrative parts. However, long-lasting motor discharge following brief afferent stimulation is also observed in reduced...

  20. Cocaine Self-Administration Produces Long-Lasting Alterations in Dopamine Transporter Responses to Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Cody A.; Fordahl, Steve C.

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by uncontrolled cocaine intake, which is thought to be driven, at least in part, by cocaine-induced deficits in dopamine system function. A decreased ability of cocaine to elevate dopamine levels has been repeatedly observed as a consequence of cocaine use in humans, and preclinical work has highlighted tolerance to cocaine's effects as a primary determinant in the development of aberrant cocaine taking behaviors. Here we determined that cocaine self-administration in rats produced tolerance to the dopamine transporter-inhibiting effects of cocaine in the nucleus accumbens core, which was normalized following a 14 or 60 d abstinence period; however, although these rats appeared to be similar to controls, a single self-administered infusion of cocaine at the end of abstinence, even after 60 d, fully reinstated tolerance to cocaine's effects. A single cocaine infusion in a naive rat had no effect on cocaine potency, demonstrating that cocaine self-administration leaves the dopamine transporter in a “primed” state, which allows for cocaine-induced plasticity to be reinstated by a subthreshold cocaine exposure. Further, reinstatement of cocaine tolerance was accompanied by decreased cocaine-induced locomotion and escalated cocaine intake despite extended abstinence from cocaine. These data demonstrate that cocaine leaves a long-lasting imprint on the dopamine system that is activated by re-exposure to cocaine. Further, these results provide a potential mechanism for severe cocaine binge episodes, which occur even after sustained abstinence from cocaine, and suggest that treatments aimed at transporter sites may be efficacious in promoting binge termination following relapse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tolerance is a DSM-V criterion for substance abuse disorders. Abusers consistently show reduced subjective effects of cocaine concomitant with reduced effects of cocaine at its main site of action

  1. Risk Factors of Developing Long-Lasting Breast Pain After Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstedt, Dan, E-mail: dan.lundstedt@vgregion.se [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gustafsson, Magnus [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Steineck, Gunnar [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Malmstroem, Per [Skane Department of Oncology, Skane University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Alsadius, David [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Sundberg, Agnetha [Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wilderaeng, Ulrica [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Holmberg, Erik [Oncologic Centre, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Johansson, Karl-Axel [Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Karlsson, Per [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Postoperative radiotherapy decreases breast cancer mortality. However, studies have revealed a long-lasting breast pain among some women after radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors that contribute to breast pain after breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We identified 1,027 recurrence-free women in two cohorts of Swedish women treated for breast cancer. The women had breast-conserving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, the breast was treated to 48 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions or to 50 Gy in 2.0-Gy fractions. Young women received a boost of up to 16 Gy. Women with more than three lymph node metastases had locoregional radiotherapy. Systemic treatments were given according to health-care guidelines. Three to 17 years after radiotherapy, we collected data using a study-specific questionnaire. We investigated the relation between breast pain and potential risk modifiers: age at treatment, time since treatment, chemotherapy, photon energy, fractionation size, boost, loco-regional radiotherapy, axillary surgery, overweight, and smoking. Results: Eight hundred seventy-seven women (85%) returned the questionnaires. Among women up to 39 years of age at treatment, 23.1% had breast pain, compared with 8.7% among women older than 60 years (RR 2.66; 95% CI 1.33-5.36). Higher age at treatment (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.94-0.98, annual decrease) and longer time since treatment (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98, annual decrease) were related to a lower occurrence of breast pain. Chemotherapy increased the occurrence of breast pain (RR 1.72; 95% CI 1.19-2.47). In the multivariable model only age and time since treatment were statistically significantly related to the occurrence of breast pain. We found no statistically significant relation between breast pain and the other potential risk modifiers. Conclusions: Younger women having undergone breast-conserving surgery with postoperative radiotherapy report a higher occurrence of long-lasting

  2. Use and acceptance of long lasting insecticidal net screens for dengue prevention in Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catrin H; Benítez-Valladares, David; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Barrera-Pérez, Mario; Selem-Salas, Celia; Chablé-Santos, Juan; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Kroeger, Axel; O'Dempsey, Timothy; Medina-Barreiro, Anuar; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2014-08-14

    Dengue, recognized by the WHO as the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world, is a growing problem. Currently, the only effective way of preventing dengue is vector control. Standard methods have shown limited effect, and there have been calls to develop new integrated vector management approaches. One novel tool, protecting houses with long lasting insecticidal screens on doors and windows, is being trialled in a cluster randomised controlled trial by a joint UADY/WHO TDR/IDRC study in various districts of Acapulco, Mexico, with exceptionally high levels of crime and insecurity.This study investigated the community's perspectives of long lasting insecticidal screens on doors and windows in homes and in schools, in order to ascertain their acceptability, to identify challenges to further implementation and opportunities for future improvements. This was a sequential mixed-methods study. The quantitative arm contained a satisfaction survey administered to 288 houses that had received the intervention examining their perspectives of both the intervention and dengue prevention in general. The qualitative arm consisted of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with those who had accepted the intervention and key informant interviews with: schoolteachers to discuss the use of the screens in schools, program staff, and community members who had refused the intervention. Overall satisfaction and acceptance of the screens was very high, with only some operational and technical complaints relating to screen fragility and the installation process. However, the wider social context of urban violence and insecurity was a major barrier to screen acceptance. Lack of information dissemination and community collaboration were identified as project weaknesses. The screens are widely accepted by the population, but the project implementation could be improved by reassuring the community of its legitimacy in the context of insecurity. More community engagement and better

  3. Basal Ganglia Activity Mirrors a Benefit of Action and Reward on Long-Lasting Event Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Raphael; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Raymond J; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-12-01

    The expectation of reward is known to enhance a consolidation of long-term memory for events. We tested whether this effect is driven by positive valence or action requirements tied to expected reward. Using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm in young adults, novel images predicted gain or loss outcomes, which in turn were either obtained or avoided by action or inaction. After 24 h, memory for these images reflected a benefit of action as well as a congruence of action requirements and valence, namely, action for reward and inaction for avoidance. fMRI responses in the hippocampus, a region known to be critical for long-term memory function, reflected the anticipation of inaction. In contrast, activity in the putamen mirrored the congruence of action requirement and valence, whereas other basal ganglia regions mirrored overall action benefits on long-lasting memory. The findings indicate a novel type of functional division between the hippocampus and the basal ganglia in the motivational regulation of long-term memory consolidation, which favors remembering events that are worth acting for. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Long lasting clinical response to chemotherapy for advanced uterine leiomyosarcoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Claudio; Pasini, Giuseppe; Drudi, Fabrizio; Barzotti, Eleonora; Santelmo, Carlotta; Polselli, Antonio; Ravaioli, Alberto

    2013-01-24

    Uterine leiomyosarcoma is one of the most frequent uterine sarcomas. In the metastatic setting it is sensitive to doxorubicin, ifosfamide, gemcitabine, docetaxel and a few other drugs, but time to progression is generally short. For this reason prognosis is often poor and there are few reports in the literature of long responders. We report a case of a 40-year-old Caucasian woman with metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma who began treatment six years before the presentation of this case report and for the following six years underwent ten lines of chemotherapy, achieving excellent results and a good quality of life. Among the treatments administered we observed a long response to temolozomide, an unconventional drug for this kind of disease. Although there are few chemotherapeutic options for the management of metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma, a small number of patients have an unexpected long lasting response to treatment. For this reason further research is needed to identify new therapeutic agents and the predictive factors for the achievement of response.

  5. Long lasting clinical response to chemotherapy for advanced uterine leiomyosarcoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridolfi Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Uterine leiomyosarcoma is one of the most frequent uterine sarcomas. In the metastatic setting it is sensitive to doxorubicin, ifosfamide, gemcitabine, docetaxel and a few other drugs, but time to progression is generally short. For this reason prognosis is often poor and there are few reports in the literature of long responders. Case presentation We report a case of a 40-year-old Caucasian woman with metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma who began treatment six years before the presentation of this case report and for the following six years underwent ten lines of chemotherapy, achieving excellent results and a good quality of life. Among the treatments administered we observed a long response to temolozomide, an unconventional drug for this kind of disease. Conclusion Although there are few chemotherapeutic options for the management of metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma, a small number of patients have an unexpected long lasting response to treatment. For this reason further research is needed to identify new therapeutic agents and the predictive factors for the achievement of response.

  6. Subchronic steroid administration induces long lasting changes in neurochemical and behavioral response to cocaine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailanto, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Aino; Seppälä, Timo

    2011-11-01

    The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs), such as nandrolone, is not only a problem in the world of sports but is associated with the polydrug use of non-athletes. Among other adverse effects, AAS abuse has been associated with long term or even persistent psychiatric problems. We have previously found that nandrolone decanoate treatment could produce prolonged changes in rats' brain reward circuits associated to drug dependence. The aim in this study was to evaluate whether AAS-induced neurochemical and behavioral changes are reversible. The increases in extracellular dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) concentration, as well as stereotyped behavior and locomotor activity (LMA) evoked by cocaine were attenuated by pretreatment with nandrolone. The recovery period, which was needed for the DA system to return back to the basic level, was fairly long compared to the dosing period of the steroid. In the 5-HT system, the time that system needed to return back to the basal level, was even longer than in the DA system. The attenuation was still seen though there were no detectable traces of nandrolone in the blood samples. Given that accumbal outflow of DA and 5-HT, as well as LMA and stereotyped behavior are all related to reward of stimulant drugs, this study suggests that nandrolone decanoate has significant, long-lasting but reversible effects on the rewarding properties of cocaine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-lasting solar energetic electron injection during the 26 Dec 2013 widespread SEP event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresing, N.; Klassen, A.; Temmer, M.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Veronig, A.

    2017-12-01

    The solar energetic particle (SEP) event on 26 Dec 2013 was detected all around the Sun by the two STEREO spacecraft and close-to-Earth observers. While the two STEREOs were separated by 59 degrees and situated at the front side of the associated large coronal event, it was a backside-event for Earth. Nevertheless, significant and long-lasting solar energetic electron anisotropies together with long rise times were observed at all three viewpoints, pointing to an extended electron injection. Although the CME-driven shock appears to account for the SEP event at a first glance a more detailed view reveals a more complex scenario: A CME-CME interaction takes place during the very early phase of the SEP event. Furthermore, four hours after the onset of the event, a second component is measured at all three viewpoints on top of the first SEP increase, mainly consisting of high energy particles. We find that the CME-driven shock alone can hardly account for the observed SEP event in total but a trapping scenario together with ongoing particle acceleration is more likely.

  8. Can Long-lasting Insecticide-treated Bednets with Holes Protect Children from Malaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Daisuke; Maazou, Abani; Yamagata, Shigeo; Oumarou, Issofou; Uchida, Takako; Jg Yacouba, Honoré; Toma, Nami; Takeuchi, Rie; Kobayashi, Jun; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2014-09-01

    Although long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets (LLINs) have been widely used for malaria control, little is known about how the condition of LLINs affects the risk of malaria infection. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between the use of LLINs with holes and caregiver-reported malaria diagnosed in children under five years of age (U5). Data were collected in Boboye health district, Niger, in 2010. Surveyors conducted interviews and bednet inspections in 1,034 households. If a household had a U5 child, the surveyor asked the caregiver whether the child had experienced a fever episode in the past two weeks that entailed standard treatment for uncomplicated malaria at a healthcare facility. The authors analyzed the association between the use of LLINs with holes and caregiver-reported malaria episodes in U5 children using logistic regression, adjusted for possible confounders. Of the 1,165 children included in the analysis, approximately half (53.3%) used an intact LLIN while far fewer (10.6%) used a LLIN with holes. Compared to children using an intact LLIN, children using a LLIN with holes were significantly more likely to have a caregiver-reported malaria episode (8.7% vs. 17.1%; odds ratio: 2.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.24-4.01). In this study site, LLINs with holes were less protective than intact LLINs.

  9. Long-lasting effects of perinatal asphyxia on exploration, memory and incentive downshift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Blanco Calvo, Eduardo; Madureira de Oliveira, Diêgo; Cuenya, Lucas; Kamenetzky, Giselle Vanesa; Mustaca, Alba Elisabeth; Barreto, George Emilio; Giraldez-Alvarez, Lisandro Diego; Milei, José; Capani, Francisco

    2011-10-01

    Perinatal asphyxia remains as one of the most important causes of death and disability in children, without an effective treatment. Moreover, little is known about the long-lasting behavioral consequences of asphyxia at birth. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to investigate the motor, emotional and cognitive functions of adult asphyctic rats. Experimental subjects consisted of rats born vaginally (CTL), by cesarean section (C+), or by cesarean section following 19 min of asphyxia (PA). At three months of age, animals were examined in a behavioral test battery including elevated plus maze, open field, Morris water maze, and an incentive downshift procedure. Results indicated that groups did not differ in anxiety-related behaviors, although a large variability was observed in the asphyctic group and therefore, the results are not completely conclusive. In addition, PA and C+ rats showed a deficit in exploration of new environments, but to a much lesser extent in the latter group. Spatial reference and working memory impairments were also found in PA rats. Finally, when animals were downshifted from a 32% to a 4% sucrose solution, an attenuated suppression of consummatory behavior was observed in PA rats. These results confirmed and extended those reported previously about the behavioral alterations associated with acute asphyxia around birth. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Doping and musculoskeletal system: short-term and long-lasting effects of doping agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios D; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Theocharis, Stamatios E

    2011-10-01

    Doping is a problem that has plagued the world of competition and sports for ages. Even before the dawn of Olympic history in ancient Greece, competitors have looked for artificial means to improve athletic performance. Since ancient times, athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A Prohibited List of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, β₂-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. Apart from the unethical aspect of doping, as it abrogates fair-play's principle, it is extremely important to consider the hazards it presents to the health and well-being of athletes. The referred negative effects for the athlete's health have to do, on the one hand, by the high doses of the performance-enhancing agents and on the other hand, by the relentless, superhuman strict training that the elite or amateur athletes put their muscles, bones, and joints. The purpose of this article is to highlight the early and the long-lasting consequences of the doping abuse on bone and muscle metabolism. © 2010 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  11. Maternal-pup interaction disturbances induce long-lasting changes in the newborn rat pulmonary vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrin, Yulia; Sadeghi, Sina; Pan, Jingyi; Jain, Amish; Fajardo, Andres F; McNamara, Patrick J; Belik, Jaques

    2015-11-15

    The factors accounting for the pathological maintenance of a high pulmonary vascular (PV) resistance postnatally remain elusive, but neonatal stressors may play a role in this process. Cross-fostering in the immediate neonatal period is associated with adult-onset vascular and behavioral changes, likely triggered by early-in-life stressors. In hypothesizing that fostering newborn rats induces long-lasting PV changes, we evaluated them at 14 days of age during adulthood and compared the findings with animals raised by their biological mothers. Fostering resulted in reduced maternal-pup contact time when compared with control newborns. At 2 wk of age, fostered rats exhibited reduced pulmonary arterial endothelium-dependent relaxation secondary to downregulation of tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency-induced uncoupling. These changes were associated with neonatal onset-increased ANG II receptor type 1 expression, PV remodeling, and right ventricular hypertrophy that persisted into adulthood. The pulmonary arteries of adult-fostered rats exhibited a higher contraction dose response to ANG II and thromboxane A2, the latter of which was abrogated by the oxidant scavenger Tempol. In conclusion, fostering-induced neonatal stress induces long-standing PV changes modulated via the renin-angiotensin system. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. A Beautician’s Dystonia: Long-Lasting Effect of Botulinum Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siria Di Martino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment options for dystonia are not curative but symptomatic; the treatment of choice for focal dystonias is repeated botulinum toxin injections. Here, we present the case of a 46-year-old beautician with focal dystonia in her left hand that affected her ability to work. Pharmacological treatment with clonazepam and gabapentin failed to resolve her symptoms and was discontinued due to side effects (sleepiness, gastrointestinal disorders. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin (incobotulinumtoxinA, Xeomin into the extensor digitorum communis (35 U, flexor carpi radialis (35 U, and flexor digitorum superficialis (30 U muscles resulted in complete resolution of symptoms at clinical assessments at 1, 3, 6, and 10 months after the injections, confirmed by the results of surface electromyography 10 months after treatment. The patient was able to work again 1 month after treatment. No reinjection has been necessary at the last evaluation (12 months after treatment. In conclusion, botulinum toxin is an effective treatment for focal dystonia that can have long-lasting effects and can improve patients’ ability to work and quality of life.

  13. Long-Lasting Response to Trabectedin in a Patient with Metastatic Uterine Leiomyosarcoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria-Anna Nteli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uterine leiomyosarcoma (uLMS is a rare tumor that accounts for 1% of all uterine malignancies. In spite of adequate surgical resection of uLMS, even in the early stage, patients remain at high risk for local and distant recurrence. Therefore, the treatment of advanced uLMS represents a considerable challenge. Methods: We report the case of a 47-year-old woman who presented with uLMS with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Results: The patient underwent a total hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy, which was followed by 1 year progression-free survival without adjuvant therapy. Thereafter, new lung metastases and local progression at the vaginal stump were observed. Chemotherapy with ifosfamide and doxorubicin was administered. However, after 4 cycles, a CT scan revealed disease progression in the lung metastases. Subsequently, the patient was treated with trabectedin at a dose of 1.5 mg/m2 for 6 cycles resulting in complete remission of the lung metastases as well as partial remission of the mass in the vaginal stump after 9 cycles of trabectedin. The patient is currently on maintenance therapy with trabectedin and has no recurrence. Conclusion: Trabectedin seems to be an efficient option for patients with uLMS as demonstrated by a long-lasting response in a pretreated patient with an acceptable safety profile with no signs of cumulative toxicity.

  14. The benefits of cholinergic enhancement during perceptual learning are long-lasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel eRokem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh regulates many aspects of cognition, including attention and memory. Previous research in animal models has shown that plasticity in sensory systems often depends on the behavioral relevance of a stimulus and/or task. However, experimentally increasing ACh release in the cortex can result in experience-dependent plasticity, even in the absence of behavioral relevance. In humans, the pharmacological enhancement of ACh transmission by administration of the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil during performance of a perceptual task increases the magnitude of perceptual learning (PL and its specificity to physical parameters of the stimuli used for training. Behavioral effects of PL have previously been shown to persist for many months. In the present study, we tested whether enhancement of PL by donepezil is also long-lasting. Healthy human subjects were trained on a motion direction discrimination task during cholinergic enhancement, and follow-up testing was performed 5-15 months after the end of training and without additional drug administration. Increases in performance associated with training under donepezil were evident in follow-up retesting, indicating that cholinergic enhancement has beneficial long-term effects on PL. These findings suggest that cholinergic enhancement of training procedures used to treat clinical disorders should improve long-term outcomes of these procedures.

  15. Evaluation of new tools for malaria vector control in Cameroon: focus on long lasting insecticidal nets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Etang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From 2006 to 2011, biological activity of insecticides for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS, conventional treatment of nets (CTNs or long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs was evaluated before their approval in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to select the best tools for universal malaria vector control coverage. METHODOLOGY: Bioassays were performed using WHO cones and the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Among tested products, residual activity and wash resistance of Alpha-cypermethrin LLINs (Interceptor and CTNs (Fendona were assessed during 5 months in the Ntougou neighborhood. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All the 14 tested products were found effective (95-100% knockdown and mortality rates, although a significant decrease of efficacy was seen with lambda-cyhalothrinWP IRS, alpha-cypermethrin CTNs and LLINs (p< 0.05. However, the efficacy of Interceptor nets did not decrease during the 5 months evaluation, even after 25 washes (0.07

  16. Long-lasting Effects of Minocycline on Behavior in Young but not Adult Fragile X Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansie, Lorraine E.; Phommahaxay, Kelly; Okusanya, Ayodeji G.; Uwadia, Jessica; Huang, Mike; Rotschafer, Sarah E.; Razak, Khaleel A.; Ethell, Douglas W.; Ethell, Iryna M.

    2013-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common single-gene inherited form of intellectual disability with behaviors characteristic of autism. People with FXS display childhood seizures, hyperactivity, anxiety, developmental delay, attention deficits, and visual-spatial memory impairment, as well as a propensity for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Several of these aberrant behaviors and FXS-associated synaptic irregularities also occur in “fragile X mental retardation gene” knock-out (Fmr1 KO) mice. We previously reported that minocycline promotes the maturation of dendritic spines - postsynaptic sites for excitatory synapses - in the developing hippocampus of Fmr1 KO mice, which may underlie the beneficial effects of minocycline on anxiolytic behavior in young Fmr1 KO mice. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of minocycline treatment in young and adult Fmr1 KO mice, and determined the dependence of behavioral improvements on short-term versus long-term minocycline administration. We found that 4 and 8 week long treatments significantly reduced locomotor activity in both young and adult Fmr1 KO mice. Some behavioral improvements persisted in young mice post-treatment, but in adults the beneficial effects were lost soon after minocycline treatment was stopped. We also show, for the first time, that minocycline treatment partially attenuates the number and severity of audiogenic seizures in Fmr1 KO mice. This report provides further evidence that minocycline treatment has immediate and long-lasting benefits on FXS-associated behaviors in the Fmr1 KO mouse model. PMID:23660195

  17. Long-lasting hippocampal synaptic protein loss in a mouse model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

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    Leonie Herrmann

    Full Text Available Despite intensive research efforts, the molecular pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and especially of the hippocampal volume loss found in the majority of patients suffering from this anxiety disease still remains elusive. We demonstrated before that trauma-induced hippocampal shrinkage can also be observed in mice exhibiting a PTSD-like syndrome. Aiming to decipher the molecular correlates of these trans-species posttraumatic hippocampal alterations, we compared the expression levels of a set of neurostructural marker proteins between traumatized and control mice at different time points after their subjection to either an electric footshock or mock treatment which was followed by stressful re-exposure in several experimental groups. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic in vivo study analyzing the long-term neuromolecular sequelae of acute traumatic stress combined with re-exposure. We show here that a PTSD-like syndrome in mice is accompanied by a long-lasting reduction of hippocampal synaptic proteins which interestingly correlates with the strength of the generalized and conditioned fear response but not with the intensity of hyperarousal symptoms. Furthermore, we demonstrate that treatment with the serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI fluoxetine is able to counteract both the PTSD-like syndrome and the posttraumatic synaptic protein loss. Taken together, this study demonstrates for the first time that a loss of hippocampal synaptic proteins is associated with a PTSD-like syndrome in mice. Further studies will have to reveal whether these findings are transferable to PTSD patients.

  18. Long-Lasting Cranial Nerve III Palsy as a Presenting Feature of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

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    Rossella Spataro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP in which an adduction deficit and ptosis in the left eye presented several years before the polyneuropathy. A 52-year-old man presented with a 14-year history of unremitting diplopia, adduction deficit, and ptosis in the left eye. At the age of 45 a mild bilateral foot drop and impaired sensation in the four limbs appeared, with these symptoms showing a progressive course. The diagnostic workup included EMG/ENG which demonstrated reduced conduction velocity with bilateral and symmetrical sensory and motor involvement. Cerebrospinal fluid studies revealed a cytoalbuminologic dissociation. A prolonged treatment with corticosteroids allowed a significant improvement of the limb weakness. Diplopia and ptosis remained unchanged. This unusual form of CIDP presented as a long-lasting isolated cranial nerve palsy. A diagnostic workup for CIDP should therefore be performed in those patients in which an isolated and unremitting cranial nerve palsy cannot be explained by common causes.

  19. Short and long-lasting behavioral consequences of agonistic encounters between male Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trannoy, Séverine; Penn, Jill; Lucey, Kenia; Popovic, David; Kravitz, Edward A

    2016-04-26

    In many animal species, learning and memory have been found to play important roles in regulating intra- and interspecific behavioral interactions in varying environments. In such contexts, aggression is commonly used to obtain desired resources. Previous defeats or victories during aggressive interactions have been shown to influence the outcome of later contests, revealing loser and winner effects. In this study, we asked whether short- and/or long-term behavioral consequences accompany victories and defeats in dyadic pairings between male Drosophila melanogaster and how long those effects remain. The results demonstrated that single fights induced important behavioral changes in both combatants and resulted in the formation of short-term loser and winner effects. These decayed over several hours, with the duration depending on the level of familiarity of the opponents. Repeated defeats induced a long-lasting loser effect that was dependent on de novo protein synthesis, whereas repeated victories had no long-term behavioral consequences. This suggests that separate mechanisms govern the formation of loser and winner effects. These studies aim to lay a foundation for future investigations exploring the molecular mechanisms and circuitry underlying the nervous system changes induced by winning and losing bouts during agonistic encounters.

  20. Cladistic analysis of olfactory and vomeronasal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Gutierrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2011-01-01

    Most tetrapods possess two nasal organs for detecting chemicals in their environment, which are the sensory detectors of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. The seventies' view that the olfactory system was only devoted to sense volatiles, whereas the vomeronasal system was exclusively specialized for pheromone detection was challenged by accumulating data showing deep anatomical and functional interrelationships between both systems. In addition, the assumption that the vomeronasal system appeared as an adaptation to terrestrial life is being questioned as well. The aim of the present work is to use a comparative strategy to gain insight in our understanding of the evolution of chemical "cortex." We have analyzed the organization of the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices of reptiles, marsupials, and placental mammals and we have compared our findings with data from other taxa in order to better understand the evolutionary history of the nasal sensory systems in vertebrates. The olfactory and vomeronsasal cortices have been re-investigated in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica), and rats (Rattus norvegicus) by tracing the efferents of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs using injections of neuroanatomical anterograde tracers (dextran-amines). In snakes, the medial olfactory tract is quite evident, whereas the main vomeronasal-recipient structure, the nucleus sphaericus is a folded cortical-like structure, located at the caudal edge of the amygdala. In marsupials, which are acallosal mammals, the rhinal fissure is relatively dorsal and the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices relatively expanded. Placental mammals, like marsupials, show partially overlapping olfactory and vomeronasal projections in the rostral basal telencephalon. These data raise the interesting question of how the telencephalon has been re-organized in different groups according to the biological relevance of chemical senses.

  1. ANABOLIC STEROIDS HAVE LONG-LASTING EFFECTS ON MALE SOCIAL BEHAVIORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y.; Montalto, Pamela R.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use by adolescents is steadily increasing. Adolescence involves remodeling of steroid-sensitive neural circuits that mediate social behaviors, and previous studies using animal models document effects of AAS on male social behaviors. The present experiments tested whether AAS have persistent and more pronounced behavioral consequences when drug exposure occurs during adolescence as compared to exposure in adulthood. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or adulthood (63-77 days of age). As adults, subjects were tested two or four weeks after the last injection for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or male-male agonistic behavior in a resident-intruder test. Compared with vehicle-treated males, AAS-treated males, regardless of age of treatment, displayed fewer long intromissions and a significant increase in latency to the first long intromission, indicative of reduced potential to reach sexual satiety. Increased aggression was observed in males exposed to AAS compared with males treated with vehicle, independently of age of AAS treatment. However, unlike hamsters exposed to AAS in adulthood, hamsters exposed to AAS during adolescence did not display any submissive or risk-assessment behaviors up to 4 weeks after discontinuation of AAS treatment. Thus, AAS have long-lasting effects on male sexual and agonistic behaviors, with AAS exposure during adolescence resulting in a more pronounced reduction in submissive behavior compared to AAS exposure in adulthood. PMID:20036695

  2. Long-lasting effects of maternal condition in free-ranging cervids.

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    Eric D Freeman

    Full Text Available Causes of phenotypic variation are fundamental to evolutionary ecology because they influence the traits acted upon by natural selection. One such cause of phenotypic variation is a maternal effect, which is the influence of the environment experienced by a female (and her corresponding phenotype on the phenotype of her offspring (independent of the offspring's genotype. While maternal effects are well documented, the longevity and fitness impact of these effects remains unclear because it is difficult to follow free-living individuals through their reproductive lifetimes. For long-lived species, it has been suggested that maternal effects are masked by environmental variables acting on offspring in years following the period of dependence. Our objective was to use indirect measures of maternal condition to determine if maternal effects have long-lasting influences on male offspring in two species of cervid. Because antlers are sexually selected, we used measures of antler size at time of death, 1.5-21.5 years after gestation to investigate maternal effects. We quantified antler size of 11,000 male elk and mule deer born throughout the intermountain western US (6 states over nearly 30 years. Maternal condition during development was estimated indirectly using a suite of abiotic variables known to influence condition of cervids (i.e., winter severity, spring and summer temperature, and spring and summer precipitation. Antler size of male cervids was significantly associated with our indirect measure of maternal condition during gestation and lactation. Assuming the correctness of our indirect measure, our findings demonstrate that antler size is a sexually selected trait that is influenced-into adulthood-by maternal condition. This link emphasizes the importance of considering inherited environmental effects when interpreting population dynamics or examining reproductive success of long-lived organisms.

  3. Increased corticosterone in peripubertal rats leads to long-lasting alterations in social exploration and aggression

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    Vandana eVeenit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress during childhood and adolescence enhances the risk of psychopathology later in life. We have previously shown that subjecting male rats to stress during the peripubertal period induces long-lasting effects on emotion and social behaviors. As corticosterone is increased by stress and known to exert important programming effects, we reasoned that increasing corticosterone might mimic the effects of peripubertal stress. To this end, we injected corticosterone (5 mg/kg on 7 scattered days during the peripuberty period (P28-P30, P34, P36, P40 and P42, following the same experimental schedule as for stress administration in our peripubertal paradigm. We measured play behavior in the homecage and, at adulthood, the corticosterone response to novelty and behavioral responses in tests for anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, aggression and social exploration. As compared to vehicle, corticosterone-treated animals exhibit more aggressive play behavior during adolescence, increased aggressive behavior in a resident-intruder test while reduced juvenile exploration and corticosterone reactivity at adulthood. Whereas the corticosterone treatment mimicked alterations induced by the peripuberty stress protocol in the social domain, it did not reproduce previously observed effects of peripuberty stress on increasing anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, respectively evaluated in the elevated plus maze and the forced swim tests. Our findings indicate that increasing corticosterone levels during peripuberty might be instrumental to program alterations in the social domain observed following stress, whereas other factors might need to be recruited for the programming of long-term changes in emotionality. Our study opens the possibility that individual differences on the degree of glucocorticoid activation during peripuberty might be central to defining differences in vulnerability to develop psychopathological disorders coursing with alterations in

  4. Long-lasting effect of NMDA receptor antagonist memantine on ethanol-cue association and relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengeliene, Valentina; Olevska, Anastasia; Spanagel, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that the glutamatergic system plays a crucial role in alcohol addiction and especially in relapse-like behaviour. However, results of clinical studies on compounds that influence the activity of the glutamatergic system have been disappointing so far. The aim of our study was to establish treatment conditions under which the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist memantine may produce more reliable treatment effect with respect to alcohol relapse-like behaviour. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were trained to associate several discrete stimuli with ethanol delivery. Thereafter, half of the animals received a brief memory reactivation session followed by two administrations of 20 mg/kg of memantine, while the other half received the same treatment without memory reactivation. Afterwards, a cue-induced ethanol-seeking behaviour test was performed followed by repeated extinction sessions and a reacquisition test. Our data show that administration of memantine reduced responding on the ethanol-associated lever in a cue-induced ethanol-seeking test. This reduction did not depend on whether or not a memory reactivation session was introduced prior to memantine administration. Following extinction, however, reacquisition of ethanol self-administration was only impaired in the group where memantine was given after a short memory reactivation session, showing that this schedule of drug administration produced a long-lasting disruption of the association between the conditioned stimuli and the delivery of ethanol. In conclusion, we show that memantine disrupted the drug-cue association, which consequently interfered with relapse-like behaviour supporting the possibility that memantine is a treatment option for alcoholism. Our data supports the possibility that memantine is a treatment option for alcoholism. However, the effectiveness of this drug seems to lie in its ability to disrupt conditioned behaviours and should be given in conjunction

  5. Inter-tester reliability of selected clinical tests for long-lasting temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julsvoll, Elisabeth Heggem; Vøllestad, Nina Køpke; Opseth, Gro; Robinson, Hilde Stendal

    2017-09-01

    Clinical tests used to examine patients with temporomandibular disorders vary in methodological quality, and some are not tested for reliability. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate inter-tester reliability of clinical tests and a cluster of tests used to examine patients with long-lasting temporomandibular disorders. Forty patients with pain in the temporomandibular area treated by health-professionals were included. They were between 18-70 years, had 65 symptomatic (33 right/32 left) and 15 asymptomatic joints. Two manual therapists examined all participants with selected tests. Percentage agreement and the kappa coefficient ( k ) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the tests with categorical outcomes. For tests with continuous outcomes, the relative inter-tester reliability was assessed by the intraclass-correlation-coefficient (ICC 3,1 , 95% CI) and the absolute reliability was calculated by the smallest detectable change (SDC). The best reliability among single tests was found for the dental stick test, the joint-sound test ( k  = 0.80-1.0) and range of mouth-opening (ICC 3,1 (95% CI) = 0.97 (0.95-0.98) and SDC = 4 mm). The reliability of cluster of tests was excellent with both four and five positive tests out of seven. The reliability was good to excellent for the clinical tests and the cluster of tests when performed by experienced therapists. The tests are feasible for use in the clinical setting. They require no advanced equipment and are easy to perform.

  6. System effectiveness of a targeted free mass distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets in Zanzibar, Tanzania

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    Abass Ali K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITN and long-lasting insecticidal treated nets (LLIN are important means of malaria prevention. Although there is consensus regarding their importance, there is uncertainty as to which delivery strategies are optimal for dispensing these life saving interventions. A targeted mass distribution of free LLINs to children under five and pregnant women was implemented in Zanzibar between August 2005 and January 2006. The outcomes of this distribution among children under five were evaluated, four to nine months after implementation. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in May 2006 in two districts of Zanzibar: Micheweni (MI on Pemba Island and North A (NA on Unguja Island. Household interviews were conducted with 509 caretakers of under-five children, who were surveyed for socio-economic status, the net distribution process, perceptions and use of bed nets. Each step in the distribution process was assessed in all children one to five years of age for unconditional and conditional proportion of success. System effectiveness (the accumulated proportion of success and equity effectiveness were calculated, and predictors for LLIN use were identified. Results The overall proportion of children under five sleeping under any type of treated net was 83.7% (318/380 in MI and 91.8% (357/389 in NA. The LLIN usage was 56.8% (216/380 in MI and 86.9% (338/389 in NA. Overall system effectiveness was 49% in MI and 87% in NA, and equity was found in the distribution scale-up in NA. In both districts, the predicting factor of a child sleeping under an LLIN was caretakers thinking that LLINs are better than conventional nets (OR = 2.8, p = 0.005 in MI and 2.5, p = 0.041 in NA, in addition to receiving an LLIN (OR = 4.9, p Conclusions Targeted free mass distribution of LLINs can result in high and equitable bed net coverage among children under five. However, in order to sustain high effective coverage, there

  7. Short-Term Dosage Regimen for Stimulation-Induced Long-Lasting Desynchronization

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    Thanos Manos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we computationally generate hypotheses for dose-finding studies in the context of desynchronizing neuromodulation techniques. Abnormally strong neuronal synchronization is a hallmark of several brain disorders. Coordinated Reset (CR stimulation is a spatio-temporally patterned stimulation technique that specifically aims at disrupting abnormal neuronal synchrony. In networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may ultimately cause an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony. This long-lasting desynchronization was theoretically predicted and verified in several pre-clinical and clinical studies. We have shown that CR stimulation with rapidly varying sequences (RVS robustly induces an anti-kindling at low intensities e.g., if the CR stimulation frequency (i.e., stimulus pattern repetition rate is in the range of the frequency of the neuronal oscillation. In contrast, CR stimulation with slowly varying sequences (SVS turned out to induce an anti-kindling more strongly, but less robustly with respect to variations of the CR stimulation frequency. Motivated by clinical constraints and inspired by the spacing principle of learning theory, in this computational study we propose a short-term dosage regimen that enables a robust anti-kindling effect of both RVS and SVS CR stimulation, also for those parameter values where RVS and SVS CR stimulation previously turned out to be ineffective. Intriguingly, for the vast majority of parameter values tested, spaced multishot CR stimulation with demand-controlled variation of stimulation frequency and intensity caused a robust and pronounced anti-kindling. In contrast, spaced CR stimulation with fixed stimulation parameters as well as singleshot CR stimulation of equal integral duration failed to improve the stimulation outcome. In the model network under consideration, our short-term dosage regimen enables to robustly induce

  8. Short-Term Dosage Regimen for Stimulation-Induced Long-Lasting Desynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Thanos; Zeitler, Magteld; Tass, Peter A

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we computationally generate hypotheses for dose-finding studies in the context of desynchronizing neuromodulation techniques. Abnormally strong neuronal synchronization is a hallmark of several brain disorders. Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation is a spatio-temporally patterned stimulation technique that specifically aims at disrupting abnormal neuronal synchrony. In networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may ultimately cause an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony. This long-lasting desynchronization was theoretically predicted and verified in several pre-clinical and clinical studies. We have shown that CR stimulation with rapidly varying sequences (RVS) robustly induces an anti-kindling at low intensities e.g., if the CR stimulation frequency (i.e., stimulus pattern repetition rate) is in the range of the frequency of the neuronal oscillation. In contrast, CR stimulation with slowly varying sequences (SVS) turned out to induce an anti-kindling more strongly, but less robustly with respect to variations of the CR stimulation frequency. Motivated by clinical constraints and inspired by the spacing principle of learning theory, in this computational study we propose a short-term dosage regimen that enables a robust anti-kindling effect of both RVS and SVS CR stimulation, also for those parameter values where RVS and SVS CR stimulation previously turned out to be ineffective. Intriguingly, for the vast majority of parameter values tested, spaced multishot CR stimulation with demand-controlled variation of stimulation frequency and intensity caused a robust and pronounced anti-kindling. In contrast, spaced CR stimulation with fixed stimulation parameters as well as singleshot CR stimulation of equal integral duration failed to improve the stimulation outcome. In the model network under consideration, our short-term dosage regimen enables to robustly induce long

  9. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Hassan; Shah, Ronak; Schroeder, Karl; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs) due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews.This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z's ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme) certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to readers in the malaria community, especially in developing

  10. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? Discussion A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews. This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z’s ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. Summary With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to

  11. Olfactory Perceptual Learning Requires Action of Noradrenaline in the Olfactory Bulb: Comparison with Olfactory Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinera, Jennifer; Kermen, Florence; Sacquet, Joëlle; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie; Richard, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Noradrenaline contributes to olfactory-guided behaviors but its role in olfactory learning during adulthood is poorly documented. We investigated its implication in olfactory associative and perceptual learning using local infusion of mixed a1-ß adrenergic receptor antagonist (labetalol) in the adult mouse olfactory bulb. We reported that…

  12. Mobility of adult Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) after exposure to long-lasting insecticide netting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stored products represent an enormous economic output, but insects regularly immigrate into stored products from the surrounding landscape throughout the post-harvest supply chain. Long-lasting insecticide netting (LLIN), which usually contains an impregnated pyrethroid, has been used as part of a s...

  13. Severe and long-lasting diarrhea not recognized as adverse effect of metformin : A description of three elderly patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefeber, G.; Jansen, P.; Van Puijenbroek, E.

    Background.- As a result of the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), metformin became the first choice drug for patients with diabetes. In 2009 three patients were admitted to our geriatric department for analysis of disabling long-lasting diarrhea. Metformin as causative agent was

  14. Changes in Olfactory Sensory Neuron Physiology and Olfactory Perceptual Learning After Odorant Exposure in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Marley D; Guang, Stephanie A; Moberly, Andrew H; McGann, John P

    2016-02-01

    The adult olfactory system undergoes experience-dependent plasticity to adapt to the olfactory environment. This plasticity may be accompanied by perceptual changes, including improved olfactory discrimination. Here, we assessed experience-dependent changes in the perception of a homologous aldehyde pair by testing mice in a cross-habituation/dishabituation behavioral paradigm before and after a week-long ester-odorant exposure protocol. In a parallel experiment, we used optical neurophysiology to observe neurotransmitter release from olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) terminals in vivo, and thus compared primary sensory representations of the aldehydes before and after the week-long ester-odorant exposure in individual animals. Mice could not discriminate between the aldehydes during pre-exposure testing, but ester-exposed subjects spontaneously discriminated between the homologous pair after exposure, whereas home cage control mice cross-habituated. Ester exposure did not alter the spatial pattern, peak magnitude, or odorant-selectivity of aldehyde-evoked OSN input to olfactory bulb glomeruli, but did alter the temporal dynamics of that input to make the time course of OSN input more dissimilar between odorants. Together, these findings demonstrate that odor exposure can induce both physiological and perceptual changes in odor processing, and suggest that changes in the temporal patterns of OSN input to olfactory bulb glomeruli could induce differences in odor quality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Ionotropic crustacean olfactory receptors.

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    Elizabeth A Corey

    Full Text Available The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs, the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling.

  16. Olfactory interference during inhibitory backward pairing in honey bees.

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    Matthieu Dacher

    Full Text Available Restrained worker honey bees are a valuable model for studying the behavioral and neural bases of olfactory plasticity. The proboscis extension response (PER; the proboscis is the mouthpart of honey bees is released in response to sucrose stimulation. If sucrose stimulation is preceded one or a few times by an odor (forward pairing, the bee will form a memory for this association, and subsequent presentations of the odor alone are sufficient to elicit the PER. However, backward pairing between the two stimuli (sucrose, then odor has not been studied to any great extent in bees, although the vertebrate literature indicates that it elicits a form of inhibitory plasticity.If hungry bees are fed with sucrose, they will release a long lasting PER; however, this PER can be interrupted if an odor is presented 15 seconds (but not 7 or 30 seconds after the sucrose (backward pairing. We refer to this previously unreported process as olfactory interference. Bees receiving this 15 second backward pairing show reduced performance after a subsequent single forward pairing (excitatory conditioning trial. Analysis of the results supported a relationship between olfactory interference and a form of backward pairing-induced inhibitory learning/memory. Injecting the drug cimetidine into the deutocerebrum impaired olfactory interference.Olfactory interference depends on the associative link between odor and PER, rather than between odor and sucrose. Furthermore, pairing an odor with sucrose can lead either to association of this odor to PER or to the inhibition of PER by this odor. Olfactory interference may provide insight into processes that gate how excitatory and inhibitory memories for odor-PER associations are formed.

  17. Neural correlates of olfactory processing in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, R; Beaulieu-Lefebvre, M; Schneider, F C

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive neuroplastic changes have been well documented in congenitally blind individuals for the processing of tactile and auditory information. By contrast, very few studies have investigated olfactory processing in the absence of vision. There is ample evidence that the olfactory system...... magnetic resonance imaging to measure changes in the blood-oxygenation level-dependent signal in congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects during a simple odor detection task. We found several group differences in task-related activations. Compared to sighted controls, congenitally blind......, linking it also to olfactory processing in addition to tactile and auditory processing....

  18. Prediction of performance in Vasaloppet through long lasting ski- ergometer and rollerski tests in cross-country skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik; Wulff, Kristian; Jensen, Mads Rosenkilde

    2015-01-01

    -ergometer and Rollerski field tests correlate strongly with performance in Vasaloppet and therefore might be useful test tools for recreational skiers who wish to participate in long lasting c-c competitions. Keywords: Cross-country ski training, Upper body, Exercise intensity, Field test, Body composition blood lactate......The main purpose was to investigate if long lasting cross-country (c-c) test procedures could predict performance time in ‘Vasaloppet’ and secondly the effect of a 16 weeks training period on a 90 min double poling performance test. 24 moderate trained c-c skiers participated in the study...... and completed Vasaloppet. All skiers carried out pre and post training tests in a 90 minutes ski-ergometer double poling test and a 120 minutes rollerski field test on a closed paved circuit. 19 skiers provided detailed training logs that could sufficiently establish their training preparation for Vasaloppet...

  19. Mechanisms of translation control underlying long-lasting synaptic plasticity and the consolidation of long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Emanuela; Huynh, Thu N; Klann, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of memory formation and its persistence is a phenomenon that has been studied intensely for centuries. Memory exists in many forms and is stored in various brain regions. Generally speaking, memories are reorganized into broadly distributed cortical networks over time through systems level consolidation. At the cellular level, storage of information is believed to initially occur via altered synaptic strength by processes such as long-term potentiation. New protein synthesis is required for long-lasting synaptic plasticity as well as for the formation of long-term memory. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a critical regulator of cap-dependent protein synthesis and is required for numerous forms of long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. As such, the study of mTORC1 and protein factors that control translation initiation and elongation has enhanced our understanding of how the process of protein synthesis is regulated during memory formation. Herein we discuss the molecular mechanisms that regulate protein synthesis as well as pharmacological and genetic manipulations that demonstrate the requirement for proper translational control in long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Long lasting behavior of Gd2O2S:Eu3+ phosphor synthesized by hydrothermal routine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang Tao; Liu Qun; Mao Dali; Chang Chengkang

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the detailed preparation process and afterglow properties of Eu 3+ activated long lasting Gd 2 O 2 S phosphor by hydrothermal routine. Rod-like Gd(OH) 3 were firstly synthesized by hydrothermal method to serve as the precursor. Long lasting Gd 2 O 2 S:Eu 3+ ,Ti 4+ ,Mg 2+ phosphor was obtained by calcinating the precursor with co-activators and S powder. It was found from the results that the hydrothermally prepared Gd(OH) 3 revealed a rod-like morphology, while the calcinated Gd 2 O 2 S:Eu 3+ ,Ti 4+ ,Mg 2+ phosphor showed a round granular shape. The morphological change can be explained by the etching effect of the melt that was formed by the carbonate and S powder during the high temperature calcination. The obtained Gd 2 O 2 S:Eu 3+ ,Ti 4+ ,Mg 2+ phosphor produced a red emission upon 243 nm UV excitation, which is a typical emission of Eu 3+ from 5 D j to 7 F j states. Long lasting behavior was observed after the UV source was switched off, due to the formation of electron traps with suitable trap depth within the matrix by the codoped Ti 4+ and Mg 2+ ions

  1. Regulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity of olfactory inputs in mitral cells in the rat olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Fei Ma

    Full Text Available The recent history of activity input onto granule cells (GCs in the main olfactory bulb can affect the strength of lateral inhibition, which functions to generate contrast enhancement. However, at the plasticity level, it is unknown whether and how the prior modification of lateral inhibition modulates the subsequent induction of long-lasting changes of the excitatory olfactory nerve (ON inputs to mitral cells (MCs. Here we found that the repetitive stimulation of two distinct excitatory inputs to the GCs induced a persistent modification of lateral inhibition in MCs in opposing directions. This bidirectional modification of inhibitory inputs differentially regulated the subsequent synaptic plasticity of the excitatory ON inputs to the MCs, which was induced by the repetitive pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs with postsynaptic bursts. The regulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP was achieved by the regulation of the inter-spike-interval (ISI of the postsynaptic bursts. This novel form of inhibition-dependent regulation of plasticity may contribute to the encoding or processing of olfactory information in the olfactory bulb.

  2. Changes in olfactory bulb volume following lateralized olfactory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoias, S; Pietsch, K; Hummel, T

    2017-08-01

    Repeated exposure to odors modifies olfactory function. Consequently, "olfactory training" plays a significant role in hyposmia treatment. In addition, numerous studies show that the olfactory bulb (OB) volume changes in disorders associated with olfactory dysfunction. Aim of this study was to investigate whether and how olfactory bulb volume changes in relation to lateralized olfactory training in healthy people. Over a period of 4 months, 97 healthy participants (63 females and 34 males, mean age: 23.74 ± 4.16 years, age range: 19-43 years) performed olfactory training by exposing the same nostril twice a day to 4 odors (lemon, rose, eucalyptus and cloves) while closing the other nostril. Before and after olfactory training, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed to measure OB volume. Furthermore, participants underwent lateralized odor threshold and odor identification testing using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery.OB volume increased significantly after olfactory training (11.3 % and 13.1 % respectively) for both trained and untrained nostril. No significant effects of sex, duration and frequency of training or age of the subjects were seen. Interestingly, PEA odor thresholds worsened after training, while olfactory identification remained unchanged.These data show for the first time in humans that olfactory training may involve top-down process, which ultimately lead to a bilateral increase in olfactory bulb volume.

  3. Acetylcholine and Olfactory Perceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donald A.; Fletcher, Max L.; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2004-01-01

    Olfactory perceptual learning is a relatively long-term, learned increase in perceptual acuity, and has been described in both humans and animals. Data from recent electrophysiological studies have indicated that olfactory perceptual learning may be correlated with changes in odorant receptive fields of neurons in the olfactory bulb and piriform…

  4. Long-lasting insecticidal nets are synergistic with mass drug administration for interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Eigege

    Full Text Available In central Nigeria Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF. The strategy used for interrupting LF transmission in this area is annual mass drug administration (MDA with albendazole and ivermectin, but after 8 years of MDA, entomological evaluations in sentinel villages showed continued low-grade mosquito infection rates of 0.32%. After long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN distribution by the national malaria program in late 2010, however, we were no longer able to detect infected vectors over a 24-month period. This is evidence that LLINs are synergistic with MDA in interrupting LF transmission.

  5. Tennessee and Florida: Continuity and Change in Long-Lasting State Performance Funding Systems for Higher Education. CCRC Brief. Number 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kevin J.; Natow, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes changes over time in long-lasting state performance funding systems for higher education. It addresses two research questions: First, in what ways have long-lasting systems changed over time in funding levels, indicators used to allocate funds, and measures used for those indicators? Second, what political actors, actions, and…

  6. Simultaneous and long-lasting hydrophilization of inner and outer wall surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene tubes by transferring atmospheric pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Faze; Song, Jinlong; Huang, Shuai; Xu, Wenji; Sun, Jing; Liu, Xin; Xu, Sihao; Xia, Guangqing; Yang, Dezheng

    2016-01-01

    Plasma hydrophilization is a general method to increase the surface free energy of materials. However, only a few works about plasma modification focus on the hydrophilization of tube inner and outer walls. In this paper, we realize simultaneous and long-lasting plasma hydrophilization on the inner and outer walls of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubes by atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs). Specifically, an Ar atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is used to modify the PTFE tube’s outer wall and meanwhile to induce transferred He APP inside the PTFE tube to modify its inner wall surface. The optical emission spectrum (OES) shows that the plasmas contain many chemically active species, which are known as enablers for various applications. Water contact angle (WCA) measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to characterize the plasma hydrophilization. Results demonstrate that the wettability of the tube walls are well improved due to the replacement of the surface fluorine by oxygen and the change of surface roughness. The obtained hydrophilicity decreases slowly during more than 180 d aging, indicating a long-lasting hydrophilization. The results presented here clearly demonstrate the great potential of transferring APPs for surface modification of the tube’s inner and outer walls simultaneously. (paper)

  7. Fabrication of flower-like tin/carbon composite microspheres as long-lasting anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae-Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyung-Seok [Department of WCU Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Jin [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Yang-Kook [Department of WCU Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung-Do, E-mail: kdsuh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication of the flower-like tin/carbon (Sn/C) composite microspheres using sulfonated semi-interpenetrating polystyrene (SPS) microspheres as a carbon precursor. The sulfonation degree of SPS has great effects on the resulting particle size, morphology, amount of introduced Sn, and the carbonization yield of the microspheres after heat treatment. The obtained Sn/C composite microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused-ion beam SEM, and X-ray diffraction. The flower-like Sn/C composite electrodes exhibited higher charge-discharge capacities than those of graphite as an anode material for a lithium ion battery. In addition, they show a long lasting cyclability, even through 400 cycles. - Highlights: • Tin nanocrystals are introduced in flower-like carbon spheres with many ripples. • Long lasting cyclability is exhibited at 1 C rate up to 400 cycles. • Tin content of composite spheres depends on chemical treatment of polymer microspheres.

  8. Short-Term, Intermittent Fasting Induces Long-Lasting Gut Health and TOR-Independent Lifespan Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catterson, James H; Khericha, Mobina; Dyson, Miranda C; Vincent, Alec J; Callard, Rebecca; Haveron, Steven M; Rajasingam, Arjunan; Ahmad, Mumtaz; Partridge, Linda

    2018-06-04

    Intermittent fasting (IF) can improve function and health during aging in laboratory model organisms, but the mechanisms at work await elucidation. We subjected fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) to varying degrees of IF and found that just one month of a 2-day fed:5-day fasted IF regime at the beginning of adulthood was sufficient to extend lifespan. This long-lasting, beneficial effect of early IF was not due to reduced fecundity. Starvation resistance and resistance to oxidative and xenobiotic stress were increased after IF. Early-life IF also led to higher lipid content in 60-day-old flies, a potential explanation for increased longevity. Guts of flies 40 days post-IF showed a significant reduction in age-related pathologies and improved gut barrier function. Improved gut health was also associated with reduced relative bacterial abundance. Early IF thus induced profound long-term changes. Pharmacological and genetic epistasis analysis showed that IF acted independently of the TOR pathway because rapamycin and IF acted additively to extend lifespan, and global expression of a constitutively active S6K did not attenuate the IF-induced lifespan extension. We conclude that short-term IF during early life can induce long-lasting beneficial effects, with robust increase in lifespan in a TOR-independent manner, probably at least in part by preserving gut health. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-Lasting Effects of BCG Vaccination on Both Heterologous Th1/Th17 Responses and Innate Trained Immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Quintin, Jessica; Preijers, Frank

    2013-01-01

    '. In the present study we assessed whether BCG was able to induce long-lasting effects on both trained immunity and heterologous T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 immune responses 1 year after vaccination. The production of TNFα and IL-1β to mycobacteria or unrelated pathogens was higher after 2 weeks and 3 months...... in proinflammatory cytokine production after stimulation with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. The heterologous production of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17 and IL-22) immune responses to nonmycobacterial stimulation remained strongly elevated even 1 year after BCG vaccination. In conclusion, BCG induces sustained...... changes in the immune system associated with a nonspecific response to infections both at the level of innate trained immunity and at the level of heterologous Th1/Th17 responses. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel....

  10. Long-lasting pathological consequences of overexpression-induced α-synuclein spreading in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Raffaella; Ulusoy, Ayse; Aboutalebi, Helia; Di Monte, Donato A

    2018-04-01

    Increased expression of α-synuclein can initiate its long-distance brain transfer, representing a potential mechanism for pathology spreading in age-related synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson's disease. In this study, the effects of overexpression-induced α-synuclein transfer were assessed over a 1-year period after injection of viral vectors carrying human α-synuclein DNA into the rat vagus nerve. This treatment causes targeted overexpression within neurons in the dorsal medulla oblongata and subsequent diffusion of the exogenous protein toward more rostral brain regions. Protein advancement and accumulation in pontine, midbrain, and forebrain areas were contingent upon continuous overexpression, because death of transduced medullary neurons resulted in cessation of spreading. Lack of sustained spreading did not prevent the development of long-lasting pathological changes. Particularly remarkable were findings in the locus coeruleus, a pontine nucleus with direct connections to the dorsal medulla oblongata and greatly affected by overexpression-induced transfer in this model. Data revealed progressive degeneration of catecholaminergic neurons that proceeded long beyond the time of spreading cessation. Neuronal pathology in the locus coeruleus was accompanied by pronounced microglial activation and, at later times, astrocytosis. Interestingly, microglial activation was also featured in another region reached by α-synuclein transfer, the central amygdala, even in the absence of frank neurodegeneration. Thus, overexpression-induced spreading, even if temporary, causes long-lasting pathological consequences in brain regions distant from the site of overexpression but anatomically connected to it. Neurodegeneration may be a consequence of severe protein burden, whereas even a milder α-synuclein accumulation in tissues affected by protein transfer could induce sustained microglial activation. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and

  11. Do expectancies of return to work and Job satisfaction predict actual return to work in workers with long lasting LBP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsahl, Jon; Eriksen, Hege R; Tveito, Torill H

    2016-11-17

    Musculoskeletal disorders including low back pain have major individual and socioeconomic consequences as it often leads to disability and long-term sick leave and exclusion from working life. Predictors of disability and return to work often differ, and the dominant knowledge is on predictors for prolonged sick leave and disability. Therefore it is also important to identify key predictors for return to work. The aim of the study was to assess if overall job satisfaction and expectancies of return to work predicts actual return to work after 12 months, among employees with long lasting low back pain, and to assess if there were gender differences in the predictors. Data from the Cognitive interventions and nutritional supplements trial (CINS Trial) was used. Predictors for return to work were examined in 574 employees that had been on sick leave 2-10 months for low back pain, before entering the trial. Data were analysed with multiple logistic regression models stratified by gender, and adjusted for potential confounders. Regardless of gender high expectancies were a strong and significant predictor of return to work at 12 months, while high levels of job satisfaction were not a significant predictor. There were no differences in the levels of expectancies or overall job satisfaction between men and women. However, men had in general higher odds of returning to work compared with women. Among individuals with long lasting low back pain high expectancies of returning to work were strongly associated with successful return to work. We do not know what factors influence individual expectancies of return to work. Screening expectancies and giving individuals with low expectancies interventions with a goal to change expectancies of return to work, such as CBT or self-management interventions, may contribute to increase actual return to work. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ , with registration number NCT00463970 . The trial was registered at the 18th of April 2007.

  12. The novelty-seeking phenotype modulates the long-lasting effects of intermittent ethanol administration during adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Montagud-Romero

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate if a novelty-seeking phenotype mediates the long-lasting consequences of intermittent EtOH intoxication during adolescence. The hole board test was employed to classify adolescent mice as High- or Low-Novelty Seekers. Subsequently, animals were administered ethanol (1.25 or 2.5 g/kg on two consecutive days at 48-h intervals over a 14-day period. Anxiety levels--measured using the elevated plus maze- spontaneous motor activity and social interaction test were studied 3 weeks later. A different set of mice underwent the same procedure, but received only the 2.5 g/kg dose of ethanol. Three weeks later, in order to induce CPP, the same animals were administered 1 or 6 mg/kg of cocaine or 1 or 2.5 mg/kg MDMA. The results revealed a decrease in aggressive behaviors and an anxiolytic profile in HNS mice and longer latency to explore the novel object by LNS mice. Ethanol exposure enhanced the reinforcing effects of cocaine and MDMA in both groups when CPP was induced with a sub-threshold dose of the drugs. The extinguished cocaine-induced CPP (1 and 6 mg/kg was reinstated after a priming dose in HNS animals only. Our results confirm that intermittent EtOH administration during adolescence induces long-lasting effects that are manifested in adult life, and that there is an association between these effects and the novelty-seeking phenotype.

  13. Long-lasting effects of performance-contingent unconscious and conscious reward incentives during cued task-switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, Rémi L; Bouquet, Cédric A; Dreher, Jean-Claude; Dufour, André

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is often thought to interact consciously with executive control, although recent studies have indicated that motivation can also be unconscious. To date, however, the effects of unconscious motivation on high-order executive control functions have not been explored. Only a few studies using subliminal stimuli (i.e., those not related to motivation, such as an arrow to prime a response) have reported short-lived effects on high-order executive control functions. Here, building on research on unconscious motivation, in which a behavior of perseverance is induced to attain a goal, we hypothesized that subliminal motivation can have long-lasting effects on executive control processes. We investigated the impact of unconscious/conscious monetary reward incentives on evoked potentials and neural activity dynamics during cued task-switching performance. Participants performed long runs of task-switching. At the beginning of each run, a reward (50 cents or 1 cent) was displayed, either subliminally or supraliminally. Participants earned the reward contingent upon their correct responses to each trial of the run. A higher percentage of runs was achieved with higher (conscious and unconscious) than lower rewards, indicating that unconscious high rewards have long-lasting behavioral effects. Event-related potential (ERP) results indicated that unconscious and conscious rewards influenced preparatory effort in task preparation, as suggested by a greater fronto-central contingent negative variation (CNV) starting at cue-onset. However, a greater parietal P3 associated with better reaction times (RTs) was observed only under conditions of conscious high reward, suggesting a larger amount of working memory invested during task performance. Together, these results indicate that unconscious and conscious motivations are similar at early stages of task-switching preparation but differ during task performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The optimal timing of stimulation to induce long-lasting positive effects on episodic memory in physiological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenti, Rosa; Sandrini, Marco; Brambilla, Michela; Cotelli, Maria

    2016-09-15

    Episodic memory displays the largest degree of age-related decline. A noninvasive brain stimulation technique that can be used to modulate memory in physiological aging is transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). However, an aspect that has not been adequately investigated in previous studies is the optimal timing of stimulation to induce long-lasting positive effects on episodic memory function. Our previous studies showed episodic memory enhancement in older adults when anodal tDCS was applied over the left lateral prefrontal cortex during encoding or after memory consolidation with or without a contextual reminder. Here we directly compared the two studies to explore which of the tDCS protocols would induce longer-lasting positive effects on episodic memory function in older adults. In addition, we aimed to determine whether subjective memory complaints would be related to the changes in memory performance (forgetting) induced by tDCS, a relevant issue in aging research since individuals with subjective memory complaints seem to be at higher risk of later memory decline. The results showed that anodal tDCS applied after consolidation with a contextual reminder induced longer-lasting positive effects on episodic memory, conceivably through reconsolidation, than anodal tDCS during encoding. Furthermore, we reported, providing new data, a moderate negative correlation between subjective memory complaints and forgetting when anodal tDCS was applied after consolidation with a contextual reminder. This study sheds light on the best-suited timing of stimulation to induce long-lasting positive effects on memory function and might help the clinicians to select the most effective tDCS protocol to prevent memory decline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bimodal Long-lasting Components in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts: Promising Electromagnetic Counterparts to Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisaka, Shota; Sakamoto, Takanori [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5258 (Japan); Ioka, Kunihito, E-mail: kisaka@phys.aoyama.ac.jp, E-mail: tsakamoto@phys.aoyama.ac.jp, E-mail: kunihito.ioka@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-09-10

    Long-lasting emission of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is crucial to reveal the physical origin of the central engine as well as to detect electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to gravitational waves (GWs) from neutron star binary mergers. We investigate 65 X-ray light curves of short GRBs, which is six times more than previous studies, by combining both Swift /BAT and XRT data. The light curves are found to consist of two distinct components at >5 σ with bimodal distributions of luminosity and duration, i.e., extended (with a timescale of ≲10{sup 3} s) and plateau emission (with a timescale of ≳10{sup 3} s), which are likely the central engine activities, but not afterglows. The extended emission has an isotropic energy comparable to the prompt emission, while the plateau emission has ∼0.01–1 times this energy. Half (50%) of our sample has both components, while the other half is consistent with having both components. This leads us to conjecture that almost all short GRBs have both the extended and plateau emission. The long-lasting emission can be explained by the jets from black holes with fallback ejecta, and could power macronovae (or kilonovae) like GRB 130603B and GRB 160821B. Based on the observed properties, we quantify the detectability of EM counterparts to GWs, including the plateau emission scattered to the off-axis angle, with CALET /HXM, INTEGRAL /SPI-ACS, Fermi /GBM, MAXI /GSC, Swift /BAT, XRT, the future ISS-Lobster /WFI, Einstein Probe /WXT, and eROSITA .

  16. Cat odor causes long-lasting contextual fear conditioning and increased pituitary-adrenal activation, without modifying anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Abellán, Cristina; Daviu, Nuria; Rabasa, Cristina; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    A single exposure to a cat or cat odors has been reported by some groups to induce contextual and auditory fear conditioning and long-lasting changes in anxiety-like behaviour, but there is no evidence for parallel changes in biological stress markers. In the present study we demonstrated in male rats that exposure to a novel environment containing a cloth impregnated with cat fur odor resulted in avoidance of the odor, lower levels of activity and higher pituitary-adrenal (PA) response as compared to those exposed to the novel environment containing a clean cloth, suggesting increased levels of stress in the former animals. When re-exposed 9 days later to the same environment with a clean cloth, previously cat fur exposed rats again showed avoidance of the cloth area and lower levels of activity, suggesting development of contextual fear conditioning, which again was associated with a higher PA activation. In contrast, unaltered both anxiety-like behaviour and PA responsiveness to an elevated plus-maze were found 7 days after cat odor exposure. It is concluded that: (i) PA activation is able to reflect both the stressful properties of cat fur odor and odor-induced contextual fear conditioning; (ii) development of cat odor-induced contextual fear conditioning is independent of the induction of long-lasting changes in anxiety-like behaviour; and (iii) greater PA activation during exposure to the odor context is not explained by non-specific sensitization of the PA axis caused by previous exposure to cat fur odor.

  17. Developmental exposure to the SSRI citalopram causes long-lasting behavioural effects in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, M; Porseryd, T; Porsch-Hällström, I; Borg, B; Roufidou, C; Olsén, K H

    2018-01-01

    Selective Serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat depression in both adolescents and pregnant or breast-feeding mothers as well as in the general population. Recent research on rodents points to long-lasting behavioural effects of pre- and perinatal exposure to SSRIs which last into adulthood. In fish however, studies on effects of developmental exposure to SSRIs appears to be non-existent. In order to study effects of developmental SSRI exposure in fish, three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 1.5 µg/l of the SSRI citalopram in the ambient water for 30 days, starting two days post-fertilisation. After approximately 100 days of remediation in clean water the fish were put through an extensive battery of behavioural tests. Feeding behaviour was tested as the number of bites against a piece of food and found to be increased in the exposed fish. Aggression levels were measured as the number of bites against a mirror image during 10 min and was also found to be significantly increased in the exposed fish. Novel tank behaviour and locomotor activity was tested in an aquarium that had a horizontal line drawn half-way between the bottom and the surface. Neither the latency to the first transition to the upper half, nor the number of transitions or the total time spent in the upper half was affected by treatment. Locomotor activity was significantly reduced in the exposed fish. The light/dark preference was tested in an aquarium where the bottom and walls were black on one side and white on the other. The number of transitions to the white side was significantly reduced in the exposed fish but there was no effect on the latency to the first transition or the total time spent in the white half. The results in the current study indicate that developmental SSRI exposure causes long-lasting behavioural effects in fish and contribute to the existing knowledge about SSRIs as environmental pollutants.

  18. Cost and cost effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets - a model-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkki-Brännström Anni-Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends that national malaria programmes universally distribute long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs. LLINs provide effective insecticide protection for at least three years while conventional nets must be retreated every 6-12 months. LLINs may also promise longer physical durability (lifespan, but at a higher unit price. No prospective data currently available is sufficient to calculate the comparative cost effectiveness of different net types. We thus constructed a model to explore the cost effectiveness of LLINs, asking how a longer lifespan affects the relative cost effectiveness of nets, and if, when and why LLINs might be preferred to conventional insecticide-treated nets. An innovation of our model is that we also considered the replenishment need i.e. loss of nets over time. Methods We modelled the choice of net over a 10-year period to facilitate the comparison of nets with different lifespan (and/or price and replenishment need over time. Our base case represents a large-scale programme which achieves high coverage and usage throughout the population by distributing either LLINs or conventional nets through existing health services, and retreats a large proportion of conventional nets regularly at low cost. We identified the determinants of bed net programme cost effectiveness and parameter values for usage rate, delivery and retreatment cost from the literature. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted to explicitly compare the differential effect of changing parameters such as price, lifespan, usage and replenishment need. Results If conventional and long-lasting bed nets have the same physical lifespan (3 years, LLINs are more cost effective unless they are priced at more than USD 1.5 above the price of conventional nets. Because a longer lifespan brings delivery cost savings, each one year increase in lifespan can be accompanied by a USD 1 or more increase in price

  19. Long-Lasting Cortical Reorganization as the Result of Motor Imagery of Throwing a Ball in a Virtual Tennis Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebolla, Ana M.; Petieau, Mathieu; Cevallos, Carlos; Leroy, Axelle; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize the neural signature of a motor imagery (MI) task, the present study investigates for the first time the oscillation characteristics including both of the time-frequency measurements, event related spectral perturbation and intertrial coherence (ITC) underlying the variations in the temporal measurements (event related potentials, ERP) directly related to a MI task. We hypothesize that significant variations in both of the time-frequency measurements underlie the specific changes in the ERP directly related to MI. For the MI task, we chose a simple everyday task (throwing a tennis ball), that does not require any particular motor expertise, set within the controlled virtual reality scenario of a tennis court. When compared to the rest condition a consistent, long-lasting negative fronto-central ERP wave was accompanied by significant changes in both time frequency measurements suggesting long-lasting cortical activity reorganization. The ERP wave was characterized by two peaks at about 300 ms (N300) and 1000 ms (N1000). The N300 component was centrally localized on the scalp and was accompanied by significant phase consistency in the delta brain rhythms in the contralateral central scalp areas. The N1000 component spread wider centrally and was accompanied by a significant power decrease (or event related desynchronization) in low beta brain rhythms localized in fronto-precentral and parieto-occipital scalp areas and also by a significant power increase (or event related synchronization) in theta brain rhythms spreading fronto-centrally. During the transition from N300 to N1000, a contralateral alpha (mu) as well as post-central and parieto-theta rhythms occurred. The visual representation of movement formed in the minds of participants might underlie a top-down process from the fronto-central areas which is reflected by the amplitude changes observed in the fronto-central ERPs and by the significant phase synchrony in contralateral fronto

  20. Effects of Educational Intervention on Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Use in a Malarious Area, Southeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Hossein Madani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs have been advocated as an effective tool against malaria transmission. However, success of this community based intervention largely depends on the knowledge and practice regarding malaria and its prevention. According to the national strategy plan on evaluation of LLINs (Olyset nets, this study was conducted to determine the perceptions and practices about malaria and to improve use of LLINs in Bashagard district, one of the important foci of malaria in southeast Iran. The study area comprised 14 villages that were randomized in two clusters and designated as LLINs and untreated nets. Each of households in both clusters received two bed nets by the free distribution and delivery. After one month quantitative data collection method was used to collect information regarding the objectives of the study. On the basis of this information, an educational program was carried out in both areas to increase motivation for use of bed nets. Community knowledge and practice regarding malaria and LLIN use assessed pre- and post-educational program. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver.16 software. At baseline, 77.5% of respondents in intervention and 69.4 % in control area mentioned mosquito bite as the cause of malaria, this awareness increased significantly in intervention (90.3% and control areas (87.9%, following the educational program. A significant increase also was seen in the proportion of households who used LLINs the previous night (92.5% compared with untreated nets (87.1%. Educational status was an important predictor of LLINs use. Regular use of LLIN was considerably higher than the targeted coverage (80% which recommended by World Heaths Organization. About 81.1% and 85.3% of respondents from LLIN and control areas reported that mosquito nuisance and subsequent malaria transmission were the main determinants of bed net use. These findings highlight a need for educational intervention in implementation of

  1. On the long-lasting sequences of coral reef terraces from SE Sulawesi (Indonesia): Distribution, formation, and global significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoja, Kevin; Husson, Laurent; Bezos, Antoine; Pastier, Anne-Morwenn; Imran, Andy Muhammad; Arias-Ruiz, Camilo; Sarr, Anta-Clarisse; Elliot, Mary; Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Nexer, Maëlle; Regard, Vincent; Hafidz, Abdul; Robert, Xavier; Benoit, Laurent; Delcaillau, Bernard; Authemayou, Christine; Dumoulin, Caroline; Choblet, Gaël

    2018-05-01

    Many islands of the eastern Indonesian Archipelago exhibit Late Cenozoic sequences of coral reef terraces. In SE Sulawesi, on the Tukang Besi and Buton archipelagos, we identified 23 islands bearing such sequences. Remote sensing imagery and field mapping combined to U/Th and 14C dating enable to establish a chronologic framework of the reef terrace sequences from Wangi-Wangi, Buton as well as on the neighbouring, smaller islands of Ular, Siumpu and Kadatua. We identified the terraces from the last interglacial maximum (MIS 5e) at elevations lower than 20 m except on W Kadatua where it is raised at 34 ± 5 m. Such elevations yield low to moderate Upper Pleistocene uplift rates (<0.3 mm yr-1). On SE Buton Island, a sequence culminates at 650 m and includes at least 40 undated strandlines. Next to this exceptional sequence, on the Sampolawa Peninsula, 18 strandlines culminate at 430 m. Dated samples at the base of this sequence (<40 m) yield mean Middle Pleistocene uplift rates of 0.14 ± 0.09 mm yr-1. Extrapolation of these uplift rates compared to the geological setting suggests that the sequences of the Sampolawa Peninsula provide a record of sea-level high-stands for the last 3.8 ± 0.6 Ma. The sequences on SE Buton Island therefore constitute the best preserved long-lasting geomorphic record of Plio-Quaternary sea-level stands worldwide.

  2. Performance of honey bee colonies under a long-lasting dietary exposure to sublethal concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siede, Reinhold; Faust, Lena; Meixner, Marina D; Maus, Christian; Grünewald, Bernd; Büchler, Ralph

    2017-07-01

    Substantial honey bee colony losses have occurred periodically in the last decades. The drivers for these losses are not fully understood. The influence of pests and pathogens are beyond dispute, but in addition, chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of pesticides has been suggested to affect the performance of honey bee colonies. This study aims to elucidate the potential effects of a chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations (one realistic worst-case concentration) of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid to honey bee colonies in a three year replicated colony feeding study. Thiacloprid did not significantly affect the colony strength. No differences between treatment and control were observed for the mortality of bees, the infestation with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the infection levels of viruses. No colony losses occurred during the overwintering seasons. Furthermore, thiacloprid did not influence the constitutive expression of the immunity-related hymenoptaecin gene. However, upregulation of hymenoptaecin expression as a response to bacterial challenge was less pronounced in exposed bees than in control bees. Under field conditions, bee colonies are not adversely affected by a long-lasting exposure to sublethal concentrations of thiacloprid. No indications were found that field-realistic and higher doses exerted a biologically significant effect on colony performance. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effective insect repellent formulation in both surfactantless and classical microemulsions with a long-lasting protection for human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Jeremy; Verdier, Marie; Touraud, Didier; Kröckel, Ulla; Geier, Martin; Rose, Andreas; Kunz, Werner

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a new generation of repellent products with a long-lasting protection based on a natural component, para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD). The active is first rendered soluble in a surfactantless microemulsion (H(2)O/(i)PrOH/PMD) and then in classical microemulsions. The presence of self-associated nanostructures is detected by dynamic light scattering (DLS). A synergetic system of surfactants (Cremophor) RH40 and Texapon N70) is used. Additionally, 2-ethylhexane-1,3-diol and ethyl (-)-(S)-lactate are incorporated. The final product contains, as main components, 46% of H(2)O, 25% of (i)PrOH, 20% of non-H(2)O-soluble PMD, and only 4% of surfactants. Investigations of lasting protection on human volunteers are carried out using a cage test bioassay protocol and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. A complete protection of 315 min is found on the test persons using the surfactantless microemulsion. An extension is observed with the final formulation to reach a mean of complete protection of 385 min. This study demonstrates that alternative formulations using a natural active instead of synthetic chemicals like N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide (DEET) can be efficient for human protection against mosquitoes.

  4. Vascular impairment as a pathological mechanism underlying long-lasting cognitive dysfunction after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichkova, Aleksandra; Rodriguez-Grande, Beatriz; Bar, Claire; Villega, Frederic; Konsman, Jan Pieter; Badaut, Jerome

    2017-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Indeed, the acute mechanical injury often evolves to a chronic brain disorder with long-term cognitive, emotional and social dysfunction even in the case of mild TBI. Contrary to the commonly held idea that children show better recovery from injuries than adults, pediatric TBI patients actually have worse outcome than adults for the same injury severity. Acute trauma to the young brain likely interferes with the fine-tuned developmental processes and may give rise to long-lasting consequences on brain's function. This review will focus on cerebrovascular dysfunction as an important early event that may lead to long-term phenotypic changes in the brain after pediatric TBI. These, in turn may be associated with accelerated brain aging and cognitive dysfunction. Finally, since no effective treatments are currently available, understanding the unique pathophysiological mechanisms of pediatric TBI is crucial for the development of new therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA Superresolution Structure of Reed-Sternberg Cells Differs Between Long-Lasting Remission Versus Relapsing Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righolt, Christiaan H; Knecht, Hans; Mai, Sabine

    2016-07-01

    Recent developments in microscopy have led to superresolution microscopy images of cells. Structured illumination microscopy was used before to reveal new details in the DNA structure and the structure of the DNA-free space in the DAPI-stained cell nuclei of the Hodgkin's lymphoma HDLM-2 cell line. This study extends this technology to primary pre-treatment classical Hodgkin's lymphoma samples of ten patients. Significant differences in both the DNA structure and the structure of the DNA-free space were detected between lymphocytes and malignant cells. Both types of structures were similar for lymphocytes of different patients. When the patients were un-blinded and grouped based on their clinical outcome, either non-relapsed or relapsed, a significant difference in the DNA structure of their Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells was found. Since, RS cells develop from mono-nucleated Hodgkin (H) cells, these data suggest distinct architectural restructuring of nuclei during RS cell formation in patients going to long-lasting remission versus relapse. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1633-1637, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Long-Lasting WNT-TCF Response Blocking and Epigenetic Modifying Activities of Withanolide F in Human Cancer Cells.

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    Chandan Seth

    Full Text Available The WNT-TCF signaling pathway participates in adult tissue homeostasis and repair, and is hyperactive in a number of human diseases including cancers of the colon. Whereas to date there are no antagonists approved for patient use, a potential problem for their sustained use is the blockade of WNT signaling in healthy tissues, thus provoking potentially serious co-lateral damage. Here we have screened a library of plant and microorganism small molecules for novel WNT signaling antagonists and describe withanolide F as a potent WNT-TCF response blocker. This steroidal lactone inhibits TCF-dependent colon cancer xenograft growth and mimics the effects of genetic blockade of TCF and of ivermectin, a previously reported WNT-TCF blocker. However, withanolide F is unique in that it imposes a long-lasting repression of tumor growth, WNT-TCF targets and cancer stem cell clonogenicity after drug treatment. These findings are paralleled by its modulation of chromatin regulators and its alteration of overall H3K4me1 levels. Our results open up the possibility to permanently repress essential signaling responses in cancer cells through limited treatments with small molecules.

  7. Effect of intermittent glutamine supplementation on skeletal muscle is not long-lasting in very old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynial-Denis, D; Beaufrère, A-M; Mignon, M; Patureau Mirand, P

    2013-01-01

    Muscle is the major site for glutamine synthesis via glutamine synthetase (GS). This enzyme is increased 1.5-2 fold in 25-27-mo rats and may be a consequence of aging-induced stress. This stimulation is similar to the induction observed following a catabolic state such as glucocorticoid treatment (6 to 24 months). Although oral glutamine supply regulates the plasma glutamine level, nothing is known if this supplementation is interrupted before the experiment. Adult (8-mo) and very old (27-mo) female rats were exposed to intermittent glutamine supplementation for 50 % of their age lifetime. Treated rats received glutamine added to their drinking water and control rats water alone but the effect of glutamine supplementation was only studied 15 days after the last supplementation. Glutamine pretreatment discontinued 15 days before the experiment increased plasma glutamine to ~ 0.6 mM, a normal value in very old rats. However, it failed to decrease the up-regulated GS activity in skeletal muscle from very old rats. Our results suggest that long-term treatment with glutamine started before advanced age but discontinued 15 days before rat sacrifice is effective in increasing plasma glutamine to recover basal adult value and in maintaining plasma glutamine in very old rats, but has no long-lasting effect on the GS activity of skeletal muscle with advanced age.

  8. Restraint training for awake functional brain scanning of rodents can cause long-lasting changes in pain and stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lucie A; Bauer, Lucy C; Pitcher, Mark H; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2016-08-01

    With the increased interest in longitudinal brain imaging of awake rodents, it is important to understand both the short-term and long-term effects of restraint on sensory and emotional processing in the brain. To understand the effects of repeated restraint on pain behaviors and stress responses, we modeled a restraint protocol similar to those used to habituate rodents for magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and studied sensory sensitivity and stress hormone responses over 5 days. To uncover lasting effects of training, we also looked at responses to the formalin pain test 2 weeks later. We found that while restraint causes acute increases in the stress hormone corticosterone, it can also cause lasting reductions in nociceptive behavior in the formalin test, coupled with heightened corticosterone levels and increased activation of the "nociceptive" central nucleus of the amygdala, as seen by Fos protein expression. These results suggest that short-term repeated restraint, similar to that used to habituate rats for awake functional brain scanning, could potentially cause long-lasting changes in physiological and brain responses to pain stimuli that are stress-related, and therefore could potentially confound the functional activation patterns seen in awake rodents in response to pain stimuli.

  9. Optimized Model of Cerebral Ischemia In situ for the Long-Lasting Assessment of Hippocampal Cell Death

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    Oksana Rybachuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Among all the brain, the hippocampus is the most susceptible region to ischemic lesion, with the highest vulnerability of CA1 pyramidal neurons to ischemic damage. This damage may cause either prompt neuronal death (within hours or with a delayed appearance (over days, providing a window for applying potential therapies to reduce or prevent ischemic impairments. However, the time course when ischemic damage turns to neuronal death strictly depends on experimental modeling of cerebral ischemia and, up to now, studies were predominantly focused on a short time-window—from hours to up to a few days post-lesion. Using different schemes of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, the conditions taking place upon cerebral ischemia, we optimized a model of mimicking ischemic conditions in organotypical hippocampal slices for the long-lasting assessment of CA1 neuronal death (at least 3 weeks. By combining morphology and electrophysiology, we show that prolonged (30-min duration OGD results in a massive neuronal death and overwhelmed astrogliosis within a week post-OGD whereas OGD of a shorter duration (10-min triggered programmed CA1 neuronal death with a significant delay—within 2 weeks—accompanied with drastically impaired CA1 neuron functions. Our results provide a rationale toward optimized modeling of cerebral ischemia for reliable examination of potential treatments for brain neuroprotection, neuro-regeneration, or testing neuroprotective compounds in situ.

  10. Olfactory dysfunction in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.J.; Zhao, N.; Fu, Y.; Zhang, D.Q.; Wang, J.; Qin, W.; Zhang, N.N.N.; Wood, K.; Liu, Y.; Yu, C.S.; Shi, F.D.; Yang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Few data were available for the understanding of olfactory function in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). The aims of our study were to investigate the incidence of olfactory dysfunction and characterize olfactory structures, using MRI, in patients with NMOSDs. Olfactory function was

  11. Immunocytochemistry of the olfactory marker protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti-Graziadei, G A; Margolis, F L; Harding, J W; Graziadei, P P

    1977-12-01

    The olfactory marker protein has been localized, by means of immunohistochemical techniques in the primary olfactory neurons of mice. The olfactory marker protein is not present in the staminal cells of the olfactory neuroepithelium, and the protein may be regarded as indicative of the functional stage of the neurons. Our data indicate that the olfactory marker protein is present in the synaptic terminals of the olfactory neurons at the level of the olfactory bulb glomeruli. The postsynaptic profiles of both mitral and periglomerular cells are negative.

  12. Implementation strategies to increase access and demand of long-lasting insecticidal nets: a before-and-after study and scale-up process in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroz, Jorge A H; Mendis, Chandana; Pinto, Liliana; Candrinho, Baltazar; Pinto, João; Martins, Maria do Rosário O

    2017-10-25

    The universal coverage bed nets campaign is a proven health intervention promoting increased access, ownership, and use of bed nets to reduce malaria burden. This article describes the intervention and implementation strategies that Mozambique carried out recently in order to improve access and increase demand for long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). A before-and-after study with a control group was used during Stage I of the implementation process. The following strategies were tested in Stage I: (1) use of coupons during household registration; (2) use of stickers to identify the registered households; (3) new LLIN ascription formula (one LLIN for every two people). In Stage II, the following additional strategies were implemented: (4) mapping and micro-planning; (5) training; and (6) supervision. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to compare and establish differences between intervened and control districts in Stage I. Main outcomes were: percentage of LLINs distributed, percentage of target households benefited. In Stage I, 87.8% (302,648) of planned LLINs were distributed in the intervention districts compared to 77.1% (219,613) in the control districts [OR: 2.14 (95% CI 2.11-2.16)]. Stage I results also showed that 80.6% (110,453) of households received at least one LLIN in the intervention districts compared to 72.8% (87,636) in the control districts [OR: 1.56 (95% CI 1.53-1.59)]. In Stage II, 98.4% (3,536,839) of the allocated LLINs were delivered, covering 98.6% (1,353,827) of the registered households. Stage I results achieved better LLINs and household coverage in districts with the newly implemented strategies. The results of stage II were also encouraging. Additional strategies adaptation is required for a wide-country LLIN campaign.

  13. Environmental enrichment protects spatial learning and hippocampal neurons from the long-lasting effects of protein malnutrition early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Roberto O; Horiquini-Barbosa, Everton; Almeida, Sebastião S; Lachat, João-José

    2017-09-29

    As early protein malnutrition has a critically long-lasting impact on the hippocampal formation and its role in learning and memory, and environmental enrichment has demonstrated great success in ameliorating functional deficits, here we ask whether exposure to an enriched environment could be employed to prevent spatial memory impairment and neuroanatomical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats maintained on a protein deficient diet during brain development (P0-P35). To elucidate the protective effects of environmental enrichment, we used the Morris water task and neuroanatomical analysis to determine whether changes in spatial memory and number and size of CA1 neurons differed significantly among groups. Protein malnutrition and environmental enrichment during brain development had significant effects on the spatial memory and hippocampal anatomy of adult rats. Malnourished but non-enriched rats (MN) required more time to find the hidden platform than well-nourished but non-enriched rats (WN). Malnourished but enriched rats (ME) performed better than the MN and similarly to the WN rats. There was no difference between well-nourished but non-enriched and enriched rats (WE). Anatomically, fewer CA1 neurons were found in the hippocampus of MN rats than in those of WN rats. However, it was also observed that ME and WN rats retained a similar number of neurons. These results suggest that environmental enrichment during brain development alters cognitive task performance and hippocampal neuroanatomy in a manner that is neuroprotective against malnutrition-induced brain injury. These results could have significant implications for malnourished infants expected to be at risk of disturbed brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determining and addressing obstacles to the effective use of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets in rural Tanzania

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    Benziger Peter W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this project was to achieve high, sustainable levels of net coverage in a village in rural Tanzania by combining free distribution of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets (LLINs with community-tailored education. In Tanzania, malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Although malaria bed nets have a well-established role in reducing disease burden, few rural households have access to nets, and effective use depends on personal practices and attitudes. Methods Five practices and attitudes inconsistent with effective LLIN use were identified from household interviews (n = 10. A randomized survey of villagers (n = 132 verified local prevalence of these practices and attitudes. Community leaders held an educational session for two members of every household addressing these practice and attitudes, demonstrating proper LLIN use, and emphasizing behaviour modification. Attendees received one or two LLINs per household. Surveys distributed three weeks (n = 104 and 15 months (n = 104 post-intervention assessed corrected practices and attitudes. Project efficacy was defined by correction of baseline practices and attitudes as well as high rates of reported daily net use, with statistical significance determined by chi-square test. Results Baseline interviews and surveys revealed incorrect practices and attitudes regarding 1 use of nets in dry season, 2 need to retreat LLINs, 3 children napping under nets, 4 need to repair nets, and 5 net procurement as a priority, with 53- 88.6% incorrect responses (11.4-47% correct responses. A three-week follow-up demonstrated 83-95% correct responses. Fifteen-month follow-up showed statistically significant (p Conclusions Results suggest that addressing community-specific practices and attitudes prior to LLIN distribution promotes consistent and correct use, and helps change attitudes towards bed nets as a preventative health measure. Future LLIN distributions

  15. Primary attributions in women suffering fibromyalgia emphasize the perception of a disruptive onset for a long-lasting pain problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedraschi, Christine; Girard, Elodie; Luthy, Christophe; Kossovsky, Michel; Desmeules, Jules; Allaz, Anne-Françoise

    2013-03-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder characterized by widespread pain. This study focuses on patients' attributions of illness and of symptom onset. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 56 women to elicit patients' views on what triggered their FM. The transcripts of the interviews were analyzed using a classical indexing technique to identify key themes. Content analysis was performed by two independent coders. Primary causal attributions fell into five categories: psychological problems (28 respondents); somatic concerns (N=12); violence/abuse during childhood (N=7), gynaecological/obstetrical problems (N=6), and fatigue (N=3). Patients' attributions were internal and external in the same proportions, more frequently unstable than stable, and more often described uncontrollable than controllable. Participants expressed decrements in self-esteem and feelings such as self-blame or despair; global perceptions of persistent pain and long-lasting problems, evoking chronicity and hopelessness; and low perceived control over their lives as well as beliefs that nothing can be done, thus increasing a feeling of guilt and vulnerability. Patients' narratives emphasized disruptive circumstances surrounding symptom onset. Attributions often referred to the psychological dimension of the events surrounding FM onset, even though some of them also had a clear somatic dimension. Many narratives mentioned successive disruptive events and suggested an increasing loss of control. Addressing these illness representations may contribute to tailor the treatment and to help patients gain self-coherency by providing means to understand pain onset but also to guide future behaviours, particularly in terms of adjustment and help-seeking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex differences in the long-lasting effects of a single exposure to immobilization stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Humberto; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    In male rats, a single exposure to a severe stressor such as immobilization (IMO) results in marked activation of the HPA axis and reduction of body weight gain. In addition, the HPA response to the same (homotypic) stressor is reduced, whereas the response to a different (heterotypic) stressor is enhanced for days. Although sex differences in the responsiveness of the HPA axis have been described, there are few studies about the influence of sex on long-lasting effects of stress. Thus, we have compared the consequences of a single exposure to IMO in male and female rats. Females showed a similar ACTH response to the first IMO associated with higher corticosterone, but they were more resistant than males to stress-induced loss of body weight. Unstressed females showed higher resting levels of ACTH and corticosterone, but they did not show the increase in the resting levels of HPA hormones observed in males on the day after IMO. During exposure to a different stressor (open-field) two days after IMO, enhanced corticosterone response and hypoactivity was observed in males, but not in females. Finally, a second exposure to IMO 8 days after the first one resulted in a reduction of the HPA response and of the negative impact on body weight as compared to the first exposure, and this protective effect was greater in females. In sum, IMO-exposed females showed a greater reduction of the response to a second IMO and appear to be more resistant than males to some of the negative impacts of IMO. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. A single exposure to immobilization causes long-lasting pituitary-adrenal and behavioral sensitization to mild stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Fuentes, Silvia; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2008-11-01

    We have previously reported that a single exposure to immobilization (IMO) in rats causes a long-term desensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to the same (homotypic) stressor. Since there are reports showing that a single exposure to other stressors causes sensitization of the HPA response to heterotypic stressors and increases anxiety-like behavior, we studied in the present work the long-term effects of IMO on behavioral and HPA response to mild superimposed stressors. In Experiments 1 and 2, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 2 h of IMO and then exposed for 5 min to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) at 1, 3 or 7 days after IMO. Blood samples were taken at 15 min after initial exposure to the EPM. Increases in anxiety-like behavior and HPA responsiveness to the EPM were found at all times post-IMO. Changes in the resting levels of HPA hormones did not explain the enhanced HPA responsiveness to the EPM (Experiment 3). In Experiments 4 and 5, we studied the effects of a single exposure to a shorter session of IMO (1 h) on behavioral and HPA responses to a brief and mild session of foot-shocks done 10 days after IMO. Neither previous IMO nor exposure to shocks in control rats modified behavior in the EPM. However, a brief session of shocks in previously IMO-exposed rats dramatically increased anxiety in the EPM. HPA and freezing responses to shocks were similar in control and previous IMO groups. Therefore, a single exposure to IMO appears to induce long-lasting HPA and behavioral sensitization to mild superimposed stressors, although the two responses are likely to be at least partially independent. Long-term effects of IMO on the susceptibility to stress-induced endocrine and emotional disturbances may be relevant to the characterization of animal models of post-traumatic stress.

  18. Combined laryngeal inflammation and trauma mediate long-lasting immunoreactivity response in the brainstem sensory nuclei in the rat

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    Kristina eSimonyan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatosensory feedback from the larynx plays a critical role in regulation of normal upper airway functions, such as breathing, deglutition and voice production, while altered laryngeal sensory feedback is known to elicit a variety of pathological reflex responses, including persistent coughing, dysphonia and laryngospasm. Despite its clinical impact, the central mechanisms underlying the development of pathological laryngeal responses remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of persistent vocal fold (VF inflammation and trauma, as frequent causes of long-lasting modulation of laryngeal sensory feedback, on brainstem immunoreactivity in the rat. Combined VF inflammation and trauma were induced by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS solution and compared to VF trauma alone from injection of vehicle solution and to controls without any VF manipulations. Using a c-fos marker, we found significantly increased Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI in the bilateral intermediate/parvicellular reticular formation (IRF/PCRF with a trend in the left solitary tract nucleus (NTS only in animals with LPS-induced VF inflammation and trauma. Further, FLI in the right NTS was significantly correlated with the severity of LPS-induced VF changes. However, increased brainstem FLI response was not associated with FLI changes in the first-order neurons of the laryngeal afferents located in the nodose and jugular ganglia in either group. Our data indicate that complex VF alterations (i.e., inflammation/trauma vs. trauma alone may cause prolonged excitability of the brainstem nuclei receiving a direct sensory input from the larynx, which, in turn, may lead to (malplastic changes within the laryngeal central sensory control.

  19. Examining equity in access to long-lasting insecticide nets and artemisinin-based combination therapy in Anambra state, Nigeria

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    Mbachu Chinyere O

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to achieve universal health coverage, the government of Anambra State, southeast Nigeria has distributed free Long-lasting Insecticide treated Nets (LLINs to the general population and delivered free Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT to pregnant women and children less than 5 years. However, the levels of coverage with LLINS and ACTs is not clear, especially coverage of different socio-economic status (SES population groups. This study was carried out to determine the level of coverage and access to LLINs and ACTs amongst different SES groups. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected households in 19 local government areas of the State. Selected households had a pregnant woman and/or a child less than 5 years. The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS methodology was used in sampling. The questionnaire explored the availability and utilization of LLINs and ACTs from 2394 households. An asset-based SES index was used to examine the level of access of LLINS and ACTs to different SES quintiles. Results It was found that 80.5 % of the households had an LLIN and 64.4 % of the households stated that they actually used the nets the previous night. The findings showed that 42.3 % of pregnant women who had fever within the past month received ACTs, while 37.5 % of children ≪5 years old who had malaria in the past month had received ACTs. There was equity in ownership of nets for the range 1–5 nets per household. No significant SES difference was found in use of ACTs for treatment of malaria in children under five years old and in pregnant women. Conclusions The free distribution of LLINs and ACTs increased household coverage of both malaria control interventions and bridged the equity gap in access to them among the most vulnerable groups.

  20. Examining equity in access to long-lasting insecticide nets and artemisinin-based combination therapy in Anambra State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbachu, Chinyere O; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S C; Uchegbu, Eloka; Oranuba, Joseph; Ilika, Amobi L

    2012-05-22

    In order to achieve universal health coverage, the government of Anambra State, southeast Nigeria has distributed free Long-lasting Insecticide treated Nets (LLINs) to the general population and delivered free Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) to pregnant women and children less than 5 years. However, the levels of coverage with LLINS and ACTs is not clear, especially coverage of different socio-economic status (SES) population groups. This study was carried out to determine the level of coverage and access to LLINs and ACTs amongst different SES groups. A questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected households in 19 local government areas of the State. Selected households had a pregnant woman and/or a child less than 5 years. The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology was used in sampling. The questionnaire explored the availability and utilization of LLINs and ACTs from 2394 households. An asset-based SES index was used to examine the level of access of LLINS and ACTs to different SES quintiles. It was found that 80.5% of the households had an LLIN and 64.4% of the households stated that they actually used the nets the previous night. The findings showed that 42.3% of pregnant women who had fever within the past month received ACTs, while 37.5% of children<5 years old who had malaria in the past month had received ACTs. There was equity in ownership of nets for the range 1-5 nets per household. No significant SES difference was found in use of ACTs for treatment of malaria in children under five years old and in pregnant women. The free distribution of LLINs and ACTs increased household coverage of both malaria control interventions and bridged the equity gap in access to them among the most vulnerable groups.

  1. Low long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs use among household members for protection against mosquito bite in kersa, Eastern Ethiopia

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    Gobena Tesfaye

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, despite the increasing availability of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs, the LLINs use among LLINs owning households has not been satisfactory. Identifying the circumstances and the associated factors is necessary to achieve the Millennium Development Goal targets. We aimed to assess barriers related with LLIN use at the household level. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center (KDS-HRC from October to November 2010. A total of 2867 households were selected from a surveillance database using a simple random sampling technique. The data were collected by interviewing women, direct observation of LLINs conditions and use, and in-depth interviewing of key informants. Multivariate analysis was used to determine independent predictors of LLIN non-use. Results Of the total surveyed households, 65.5% (1879 had at least one LLIN, but 33.5% (630 LLINs owned households had used at least one LLIN the night before the survey. Low educational level of women, low awareness on malaria prevention, unavailability of separate sleeping room, LLIN colour preference, and unavailability of enough LLINs to the household members were the main barriers to LLIN use. A supplementary qualitative interview with key informants also identified that poor condition of LLINs; undermining the extent of malaria; and using the LLIN for other purposes as the main reasons for non-use. Conclusions This study indicates that only about one third of LLIN owned households are actually using at least one LLIN for protection against mosquito bite. Thus, majority of the residents are at higher risk of mosquito bite and acquiring of malaria infection. Households living in fringe zone are not benefiting from the LLIN protection. Further progress in malaria prevention can be achieved by specifically targeting populations in fringe zones and conducting focused public education to

  2. The olfactory tubercle encodes odor valence in behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A; Tylicki, Kate A; Christian, Diana L; Wesson, Daniel W

    2015-03-18

    Sensory information acquires meaning to adaptively guide behaviors. Despite odors mediating a number of vital behaviors, the components of the olfactory system responsible for assigning meaning to odors remain unclear. The olfactory tubercle (OT), a ventral striatum structure that receives monosynaptic input from the olfactory bulb, is uniquely positioned to transform odor information into behaviorally relevant neural codes. No information is available, however, on the coding of odors among OT neurons in behaving animals. In recordings from mice engaged in an odor discrimination task, we report that the firing rate of OT neurons robustly and flexibly encodes the valence of conditioned odors over identity, with rewarded odors evoking greater firing rates. This coding of rewarded odors occurs before behavioral decisions and represents subsequent behavioral responses. We predict that the OT is an essential region whereby odor valence is encoded in the mammalian brain to guide goal-directed behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354515-13$15.00/0.

  3. Long-Lasting Insecticide Net Ownership, Access and Use in Southwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Dinberu; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Brandt, Patrick; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel

    2017-10-27

    Introduction : A large proportion of the Ethiopian population (approximately 68%) lives in malaria risk areas. Millions of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) have been distributed as part of the malaria prevention and control strategy in the country. This study assessed the ownership, access and use of LLNs in the malaria endemic southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in southwest Ethiopia during October-November 2015, including 836 households from sixteen villages around Gilgel-Gibe dam area. Indicators of ownership, access and use of LLINs were derived following the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) guidelines. Factors associated with failure for both LLIN access and use were analysed at household level using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results: The proportion of households with at least one LLIN was 82.7% (95% CI: 80.0, 85.1). However, only 68.9% (95% CI: 65.6, 71.9) had enough LLINs to cover all family members (with ≥one LLIN for every two persons). While 75.3% (95% CI: 68.4, 83.0) of the population was estimated to have accessed to LLINs, only 63.8% (95% CI: 62.3, 65.2) reported to have used a LLIN the previous night. The intra-household gap (i.e., households owning at least one LLIN, but unable to cover all family members) and the behavioral gap (i.e., household members who did not sleep under a LLIN despite having access to one) were 16.8% and 10.5%, respectively. Age, marital status and education of household heads, as well as household size and cooking using firewood were associated with the access to enough LLINs within households. Decreased access to LLINs at households was the main determinant for not achieving ≥80% household members sleeping under a LLIN the previous night. Other associated factors were household size and education level of household head. Conclusions: LLIN coverage levels in study villages remain below national targets of 100% for ownership and 80% for use. The access to

  4. IGF-II promotes neuroprotection and neuroplasticity recovery in a long-lasting model of oxidative damage induced by glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Montañez, E; Millon, C; Boraldi, F; Garcia-Guirado, F; Pedraza, C; Lara, E; Santin, L J; Pavia, J; Garcia-Fernandez, M

    2017-10-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is a naturally occurring hormone that exerts neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases and ageing. Accumulating evidence suggests that the effects of IGF-II in the brain may be explained by its binding to the specific transmembrane receptor, IGFII/M6P receptor (IGF-IIR). However, relatively little is known regarding the role of IGF-II through IGF-IIR in neuroprotection. Here, using adult cortical neuronal cultures, we investigated whether IGF-II exhibits long-term antioxidant effects and neuroprotection at the synaptic level after oxidative damage induced by high and transient levels of corticosterone (CORT). Furthermore, the involvement of the IGF-IIR was also studied to elucidate its role in the neuroprotective actions of IGF-II. We found that neurons treated with IGF-II after CORT incubation showed reduced oxidative stress damage and recovered antioxidant status (normalized total antioxidant status, lipid hydroperoxides and NAD(P) H:quinone oxidoreductase activity). Similar results were obtained when mitochondria function was analysed (cytochrome c oxidase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and subcellular mitochondrial distribution). Furthermore, neuronal impairment and degeneration were also assessed (synaptophysin and PSD-95 expression, presynaptic function and FluoroJade B® stain). IGF-II was also able to recover the long-lasting neuronal cell damage. Finally, the effects of IGF-II were not blocked by an IGF-IR antagonist, suggesting the involvement of IGF-IIR. Altogether these results suggest that, in or model, IGF-II through IGF-IIR is able to revert the oxidative damage induced by CORT. In accordance with the neuroprotective role of the IGF-II/IGF-IIR reported in our study, pharmacotherapy approaches targeting this pathway may be useful for the treatment of diseases associated with cognitive deficits (i.e., neurodegenerative disorders, depression, etc

  5. Costs and effects of two public sector delivery channels for long-lasting insecticidal nets in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strachan Daniel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Uganda, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN have been predominantly delivered through two public sector channels: targeted campaigns or routine antenatal care (ANC services. Their combination in a mixed-model strategy is being advocated to quickly increase LLIN coverage and maintain it over time, but there is little evidence on the efficiency of each system. This study evaluated the two delivery channels regarding LLIN retention and use, and estimated the associated costs, to contribute towards the evidence-base on LLIN delivery channels in Uganda. Methods Household surveys were conducted 5-7 months after LLIN distribution, combining questionnaires with visual verification of LLIN presence. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to further investigate determinants of LLIN retention and use. Campaign distribution was evaluated in Jinja and Adjumani while ANC distribution was evaluated only in the latter district. Costs were calculated from the provider perspective through retrospective analysis of expenditure data, and effects were estimated as cost per LLIN delivered and cost per treated-net-year (TNY. These effects were calculated for the total number of LLINs delivered and for those retained and used. Results After 5-7 months, over 90% of LLINs were still owned by recipients, and between 74% (Jinja and 99% (ANC Adjumani were being used. Costing results showed that delivery was cheapest for the campaign in Jinja and highest for the ANC channel, with economic delivery cost per net retained and used of USD 1.10 and USD 2.31, respectively. Financial delivery costs for the two channels were similar in the same location, USD 1.04 for campaign or USD 1.07 for ANC delivery in Adjumani, but differed between locations (USD 0.67 for campaign delivery in Jinja. Economic cost for ANC distribution were considerably higher (USD 2.27 compared to campaign costs (USD 1.23 in Adjumani. Conclusions Targeted campaigns and routine ANC

  6. Costs and effects of two public sector delivery channels for long-lasting insecticidal nets in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaczinski, Jan H; Kolaczinski, Kate; Kyabayinze, Daniel; Strachan, Daniel; Temperley, Matilda; Wijayanandana, Nayantara; Kilian, Albert

    2010-04-20

    In Uganda, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) have been predominantly delivered through two public sector channels: targeted campaigns or routine antenatal care (ANC) services. Their combination in a mixed-model strategy is being advocated to quickly increase LLIN coverage and maintain it over time, but there is little evidence on the efficiency of each system. This study evaluated the two delivery channels regarding LLIN retention and use, and estimated the associated costs, to contribute towards the evidence-base on LLIN delivery channels in Uganda. Household surveys were conducted 5-7 months after LLIN distribution, combining questionnaires with visual verification of LLIN presence. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to further investigate determinants of LLIN retention and use. Campaign distribution was evaluated in Jinja and Adjumani while ANC distribution was evaluated only in the latter district. Costs were calculated from the provider perspective through retrospective analysis of expenditure data, and effects were estimated as cost per LLIN delivered and cost per treated-net-year (TNY). These effects were calculated for the total number of LLINs delivered and for those retained and used. After 5-7 months, over 90% of LLINs were still owned by recipients, and between 74% (Jinja) and 99% (ANC Adjumani) were being used. Costing results showed that delivery was cheapest for the campaign in Jinja and highest for the ANC channel, with economic delivery cost per net retained and used of USD 1.10 and USD 2.31, respectively. Financial delivery costs for the two channels were similar in the same location, USD 1.04 for campaign or USD 1.07 for ANC delivery in Adjumani, but differed between locations (USD 0.67 for campaign delivery in Jinja). Economic cost for ANC distribution were considerably higher (USD 2.27) compared to campaign costs (USD 1.23) in Adjumani. Targeted campaigns and routine ANC services can both achieve high LLIN retention and use among

  7. Are olfactory receptors really olfactive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Maggio, Roberto; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2011-01-01

    environmental conditions. By adopting this standpoint, the functional attribution as olfactory or chemotactic sensors to these receptors should not be seen neither as a cause conditioning receptor gene expression, nor as a final effect resulting from genetically predetermined programs, but as a direct...... and odor-decoding processes. However, this type of explanation does not entirely justify the role olfactory receptors have played during evolution, since they are also expressed ectopically in different organs and/or tissues. Homologous olfactory genes have in fact been found in such diverse cells and....../or organs as spermatozoa, testis and kidney where they are assumed to act as chemotactic sensors or renin modulators. To justify their functional diversity, homologous olfactory receptors are assumed to share the same basic role: that of conferring a self-identity to cells or tissues under varying...

  8. Discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and olfactory event related potentials in five patients with olfactory dysfunction following upper respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jing; Ni, Dao-feng; Wang, Jian; Gao, Zhi-qiang

    2009-07-05

    Subjective olfactory tests are easy to perform and popularly applied in the clinic, but using only these, it is difficult to diagnose all disorders of the olfactory system. The olfactory event related potentials technique offers further insight into the olfactory system and is an ideal objective test. This analysis was of subjective and objective data on the olfactory function of twelve patients with loss of smell associated with an upper respiratory infection (URI). We tested the twelve patients with URI induced olfactory loss by medical history, physical examination of the head and neck, olfactory tests and medical imaging. Olfactory function was assessed by Toyota and Takagi olfactometry including olfactory detection and recognition thresholds and olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) recorded with OEP-98C Olfactometer. An unusual phenomenon was observed in five patients in whom the subjective detection and recognition thresholds were normal, while the expected OERPs were not detectable. We suggest that the discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and OERPs might be the results of abnormal electrophysiology related with olfactory neuropathy caused by viral URI. In addition, the measurement of OERPs might play a significant role in evaluating olfactory dysfunction.

  9. Discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and olfactory event related potentials in five patients with olfactory dysfunction following upper respiratory infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jing; NI Dao-feng; WANG Jian; GAO Zhi-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Background Subjective olfactory tests are easy to perform and popularly applied in the clinic, but using only these, it is difficult to diagnose all disorders of the olfactory system. The olfactory event related potentials technique offers further insight into the olfactory system and is an ideal objective test. This analysis was of subjective and objective data on the olfactory function of twelve patients with loss of smell associated with an upper respiratory infection (URI). Methods We tested the twelve patients with URI induced olfactory loss by medical history, physical examination of the head and neck, olfactory tests and medical imaging. Olfactory function was assessed by Toyota and Takagi olfactometry including olfactory detection and recognition thresholds and olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) recorded with OEP-98C Olfactometer. Results An unusual phenomenon was observed in five patients in whom the subjective detection and recognition thresholds were normal, while the expected OERPs were not detectable. Conclusions We suggest that the discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and OERPs might be the results of abnormal electrephysiology related with olfactory neuropathy caused by viral URI. In addition, the measurement of OERPs might play a significant role in evaluating olfactory dysfunction.

  10. Blue photoluminescence and long lasting phosphorescence properties of a novel chloride phosphate phosphor: Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chuanqiang; Zhang, Jiachi; Feng, Pengfei; Duan, Yiming; Zhang, Zhiya; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    A novel blue emitting long lasting phosphorescence phosphor Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl:Eu 2+ is synthesized by solid state method at 1223 K in reducing atmosphere. The afterglow emission spectrum shows one broad band centered at 441 nm due to the 5d–4f transition of Eu 2+ at six coordinated Sr(II) sites and the color coordinates are calculated to be (0.149, 0.095) which is close to the light blue region. The excitation band is in 240–430 nm and partly overlaps the solar irradiation on Earth's surface. The long lasting phosphorescence of the optimal sample doping by 0.1 mol%Eu 2+ can be recorded for about 1040 s (0.32 mcd/m 2 ). Thermoluminescence shows that there are at least three types of traps corresponding to peaks at 340 K, 382 K, 500 K, respectively. The filling and fading experiments reveal that the traps in Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl:Eu 2+ are independent. The shallow traps (340 K) essentially contribute to the visible long lasting phosphorescence, while the deep traps (382 K and 500 K) are proved to be very stable. Thus, the Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl:Eu 2+ material shows potential applications as not only a long lasting phosphorescence phosphor, but also an optical storage material. -- Highlights: • The blue long lasting phosphorescence of Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl:Eu 2+ is first reported. • Filling and fading experiments are carried out for revealing natures of traps. • The afterglow mechanism for independent traps of Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl:Eu 2+ is proposed

  11. Long-term Potentiation Decay and Poor Long-lasting Memory Process in the Wild Rodents Proechimys from Brazil's Amazon Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Marques, Marcia J; Reyes-Garcia, Selvin Z; Marques-Carneiro, José E; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo B; Andersen, Monica L; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Scorza, Fulvio A; Scorza, Carla A

    2018-01-01

    that LTP decays rapidly over time reaching basal levels at 90 min after theta-burst stimulation in Proechimys , contrasting to the stable LTP found in the Wistar rats which was observed throughout 3-h recording period. These findings suggest a link between the LTP decay and the lack of 24-h long-lasting memory process in Proechimys . Nevertheless, why early-phase LTP in Proechimys decays very rapidly remains to be elucidated.

  12. Long-term Potentiation Decay and Poor Long-lasting Memory Process in the Wild Rodents Proechimys from Brazil’s Amazon Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia J. Guimarães Marques

    2018-01-01

    recordings revealed that LTP decays rapidly over time reaching basal levels at 90 min after theta-burst stimulation in Proechimys, contrasting to the stable LTP found in the Wistar rats which was observed throughout 3-h recording period. These findings suggest a link between the LTP decay and the lack of 24-h long-lasting memory process in Proechimys. Nevertheless, why early-phase LTP in Proechimys decays very rapidly remains to be elucidated.

  13. Long-term Potentiation Decay and Poor Long-lasting Memory Process in the Wild Rodents Proechimys from Brazil’s Amazon Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Marques, Marcia J.; Reyes-Garcia, Selvin Z.; Marques-Carneiro, José E.; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo B.; Andersen, Monica L.; Cavalheiro, Esper A.; Scorza, Fulvio A.; Scorza, Carla A.

    2018-01-01

    that LTP decays rapidly over time reaching basal levels at 90 min after theta-burst stimulation in Proechimys, contrasting to the stable LTP found in the Wistar rats which was observed throughout 3-h recording period. These findings suggest a link between the LTP decay and the lack of 24-h long-lasting memory process in Proechimys. Nevertheless, why early-phase LTP in Proechimys decays very rapidly remains to be elucidated. PMID:29410617

  14. Olfactory groove meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Stephen J; DeMonte, Franco

    2003-06-15

    Olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs) arise over the cribriform plate and may reach very large sizes prior to presentation. They can be differentiated from tuberculum sellae meningiomas because OGMs arise more anterior in the skull base and displace the optic nerve and chiasm inferiorly rather than superiorly. The authors searched the neurosurgery database at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center for cases of OGM treated between 1993 and 2003. The records of these patients were then reviewed retrospectively for details regarding clinical presentation, imaging findings, surgical results and complications, and follow-up status. Thirteen patients, (12 women and one man, mean age 56 years) harbored OGMs (mean size 5.7 cm). All patients underwent bifrontal craniotomies and biorbital osteotomies. There were 11 complete resections (including the hyperostotic bone and dura of the cribriform plate and any extension into the ethmoid sinuses) and two subtotal resections with minimal residual tumor left in patients with recurrent lesions. No complication directly due to the surgery occurred in any patient. There were no recurrences in a mean follow-up period of 2 years (range 0-5 years). With current microsurgical techniques, the results of OGM resection are excellent, with a high rate of total resection and a low incidence of complications. All hyperostotic bone should be removed with the dura of the anterior skull base to minimize the risk of recurrence.

  15. Olfactory Receptor Database: a sensory chemoreceptor resource

    OpenAIRE

    Skoufos, Emmanouil; Marenco, Luis; Nadkarni, Prakash M.; Miller, Perry L.; Shepherd, Gordon M.

    2000-01-01

    The Olfactory Receptor Database (ORDB) is a WWW-accessible database that has been expanded from an olfactory receptor resource to a chemoreceptor resource. It stores data on six classes of G-protein-coupled sensory chemoreceptors: (i) olfactory receptor-like proteins, (ii) vomeronasal receptors, (iii) insect olfactory receptors, (iv) worm chemoreceptors, (v) taste papilla receptors and (vi) fungal pheromone receptors. A complementary database of the ligands of these receptors (OdorDB) has bee...

  16. Olfactory Memory Impairment in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bahuleyan, Biju; Singh, Satendra

    2012-01-01

    Olfactory disorders are noted in a majority of neurodegenerative diseases, but they are often misjudged and are rarely rated in the clinical setting. Severe changes in the olfactory tests are observed in Parkinson's disease. Olfactory deficits are an early feature in Alzheimer's disease and they worsen with the disease progression. Alterations in the olfactory function are also noted after severe head injuries, temporal lobe epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and migraine. The purpose of the prese...

  17. Cytological organization of the alpha component of the anterior olfactory nucleus and olfactory limbus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Larriva-Sahd

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the microscopic organization of a wedge-shaped area at the intersection of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, or olfactory limbus , and an additional component of the anterior olfactory nucleus or alpha accessory olfactory bulb that lies underneath of the accessory olfactory bulb. The olfactory limbus consists of a modified bulbar cortex bounded anteriorly by the main olfactory bulb and posteriorly by the accessory olfactory bulb. In Nissl-stained specimens the olfactory limbus differs from the main olfactory bulb by a progressive, antero-posterior decrease in thickness or absence of the external plexiform, mitral/tufted cell, and granule cell layers. On cytoarchitectual grounds the olfactory limbus is divided from rostral to caudal into three distinct components: a stripe of glomerular-free cortex or preolfactory area, a second or necklace glomerular area, and a wedge-shaped or interstitial area crowned by the so-called modified glomeruli that appear to belong to the anterior accessory olfactory bulb. The strategic location and interactions with the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, together with the previously noted functional and connectional evidence, suggest that the olfactory limbus may be related to both sensory modalities. The alpha component of the anterior olfactory nucleus, a slender cellular cluster (i.e., 650 x 150 µm paralleling the base of the accessory olfactory bulb, contains two neuron types: a pyramidal-like neuron and an interneuron. Dendrites of pyramidal-like cells organize into a single bundle that ascends avoiding the accessory olfactory bulb to resolve in a trigone bounded by the edge of the olfactory limbus, the accessory olfactory bulb and the dorsal part of the anterior olfactory nucleus. Utrastructurally, the neuropil of the alpha component contains three types of synaptic terminals; one of them immunoreactive to the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase, isoform 67.

  18. Sniffing and Oxytocin: Effects on Olfactory Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Ron

    2016-05-04

    In this issue of Neuron, Oettl et al. (2016) show how oxytocin can boost processing of olfactory information in female rats by a top-downregulation from the anterior olfactory nucleus onto the main olfactory bulb. As a result, interactions with juvenile conspecifics receive more attention and are longer memorized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of irradiation on olfactory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiba, Tsunemasa; Sugimoto, Midori; Matsuda, Yasuaki; Sugiura, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Toshifumi

    1990-01-01

    The effects of therapeutic irradiation on olfactory function were investigated in 20 patients who received radiation therapy because of a malignant tumor of the nose or paranasal sinuses. The standard olfaction test with a T and T olfactometer and an intravenous olfaction test were given before the radiation therapy, during the period of radiation therapy and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months or more later. Five patients whose olfactory epithelium was outside the radiation field showed no damage to olfactory function. The olfactory function of the other 15 patients whose olfactory epithelium had been exposed to radiation was not obviously changed or damaged at the time of radiation therapy. However, 6 months after irradiation, some patients showed a decline in olfactory function, and after 12 months, 4 of 7 patients showed severe damage to olfactory function. These results suggest that a therapeutic dose of irradiation will not cause severe damage to the olfactory function during the period of radiation therapy, but could cause delayed olfactory disorders in some patients after a few years. These olfactory disorders might be caused by damage to or degeneration of the olfactory epithelium or olfactory nerve. (author)

  20. Traumatic brain injury and olfactory deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortin, Audrey; Lefebvre, Mathilde Beaulieu; Ptito, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    . Between 40-44% of the patients showing olfactory impairments were not aware of their deficit. CONCLUSIONS: Since a significant proportion of the patients showing olfactory impairments were not aware of their deficit, it is recommended than clinicians systematically evaluate olfactory functions using...

  1. Neonatal citalopram exposure decreases serotonergic fiber density in the olfactory bulb of male but not female adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlin eZhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of serotonin (5HT during early development has been shown to induce long-lasting morphological changes within the raphe nuclear complex and serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated altered raphe-derived 5HT transporter (SERT immunoreactive axonal expression in several cortical target sites after brief perinatal exposure to selective 5HT reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (CTM. Since the serotonergic raphe nuclear complex projects to the olfactory bulb (OB and perinatal 5HT disruption has been shown to disrupt olfactory behaviors, the goal of this study was to further investigate such developmental effects in the OB of CTM exposed animals. Male and female rat pups were exposed to CTM from postnatal day 8-21. After animals reach adulthood (>90 days, OB tissue sections were processed immunohistochemically for SERT antiserum. Our data revealed that the density of the SERT immunoreactive fibers decreased ~40% in the OB of CTM exposed male rats, but not female rats. Our findings support a broad and long-lasting change throughout most of the 5HT system, including the OB, after early manipulation of 5HT. Because dysfunction of the early 5HT system has been implicated in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, these new findings may offer insight into the abnormal olfactory perception often noted in patients with ASD.

  2. Netting the malaria menace: Distribution and utilization of long-lasting insecticidal net in a malaria endemic area in Bankura, West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    D K Mukhopadhyay; S S Basu; D Roy; N Das; F Akbar; GN Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) is considered to be a highly effective intervention against malaria under National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme in India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the coverage and utilization of LLIN and the factors related thereto. Methods: A survey of 1300 households was carried out in Ranibandh block of Bankura district in West Bengal, India, using lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method. Coverage/util...

  3. Olfactory memory impairment in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuleyan, Biju; Singh, Satendra

    2012-10-01

    Olfactory disorders are noted in a majority of neurodegenerative diseases, but they are often misjudged and are rarely rated in the clinical setting. Severe changes in the olfactory tests are observed in Parkinson's disease. Olfactory deficits are an early feature in Alzheimer's disease and they worsen with the disease progression. Alterations in the olfactory function are also noted after severe head injuries, temporal lobe epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and migraine. The purpose of the present review was to discuss the available scientific knowledge on the olfactory memory and to relate its impairment with neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. miR-191 and miR-135 are required for long-lasting spine remodelling associated with synaptic long-term depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhonghua; Yu, Danni; Gu, Qin-Hua; Yang, Yanqin; Tu, Kang; Zhu, Jun; Li, Zheng

    2014-02-01

    Activity-dependent modification of dendritic spines, subcellular compartments accommodating postsynaptic specializations in the brain, is an important cellular mechanism for brain development, cognition and synaptic pathology of brain disorders. NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression (NMDAR-LTD), a prototypic form of synaptic plasticity, is accompanied by prolonged remodelling of spines. The mechanisms underlying long-lasting spine remodelling in NMDAR-LTD, however, are largely unclear. Here we show that LTD induction causes global changes in miRNA transcriptomes affecting many cellular activities. Specifically, we show that expression changes of miR-191 and miR-135 are required for maintenance but not induction of spine restructuring. Moreover, we find that actin depolymerization and AMPA receptor exocytosis are regulated for extended periods of time by miRNAs to support long-lasting spine plasticity. These findings reveal a miRNA-mediated mechanism and a role for AMPA receptor exocytosis in long-lasting spine plasticity, and identify a number of candidate miRNAs involved in LTD.

  5. Involvement of TrkB- and p75NTR-signaling pathways in two contrasting forms of long-lasting synaptic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, Shigeo; Tominaga-Yoshino, Keiko; Ogura, Akihiko

    2013-11-01

    The repetition of experience is often necessary to establish long-lasting memory. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying this repetition-dependent consolidation of memory remain unclear. We previously observed in organotypic slice cultures of the rodent hippocampus that repeated inductions of long-term potentiation (LTP) led to a slowly developing long-lasting synaptic enhancement coupled with synaptogenesis. We also reported that repeated inductions of long-term depression (LTD) produced a long-lasting synaptic suppression coupled with synapse elimination. We proposed these phenomena as useful in vitro models for analyzing repetition-dependent consolidation. Here, we hypothesized that the enhancement and suppression are mediated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB signaling pathway and the proBDNF-p75NTR pathway, respectively. When we masked the respective pathways, reversals of the enhancement and suppression resulted. These results suggest the alternative activation of the p75NTR pathway by BDNF under TrkB-masking conditions and of the TrkB pathway by proBDNF under p75NTR-masking conditions, thus supporting the aforementioned hypothesis.

  6. An Olfactory Cinema: Smelling Perfume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Sim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While technological improvements from the era of silent movies to that of sound cinema have altered and continued to affect audience’s cinematic experiences, the question is not so much how technology has increased possibility of a sensory response to cinema, rather, it is one that exposes how such technological changes only underscore the participation of our senses and the body in one’s experience of watching film, highlighting the inherently sensorial nature of the cinematic experience. This paper aims to address the above question through an olfactory cinema, by close analysis of Perfume: The Story of a Murderer (2006 by Tom Tykwer. What is an olfactory cinema, and how can such an approach better our understanding of sensorial aspects found within a cinema that ostensibly favours audio-visual senses? What can we benefit from an olfactory cinema? Perhaps, it is through an olfactory cinema that one may begin to embrace the sensual quality of cinema that has been overshadowed by the naturalized ways of experiencing films solely with our eyes and ears, so much so that we desensitize ourselves to the role our senses play in cinematic experiences altogether

  7. Olfactory memory traces in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jacob; Krause, William C; Davis, Ronald L

    2008-01-01

    In Drosophila, the fruit fly, coincident exposure to an odor and an aversive electric shock can produce robust behavioral memory. This behavioral memory is thought to be regulated by cellular memory traces within the central nervous system of the fly. These molecular, physiological, or structural changes in neurons, induced by pairing odor and shock, regulate behavior by altering the neurons' response to the learned environment. Recently, novel in vivo functional imaging techniques have allowed researchers to observe cellular memory traces in intact animals. These investigations have revealed interesting temporal and spatial dynamics of cellular memory traces. First, a short-term cellular memory trace was discovered that exists in the antennal lobe, an early site of olfactory processing. This trace represents the recruitment of new synaptic activity into the odor representation and forms for only a short period of time just after training. Second, an intermediate-term cellular memory trace was found in the dorsal paired medial neuron, a neuron thought to play a role in stabilizing olfactory memories. Finally, a long-term protein synthesis-dependent cellular memory trace was discovered in the mushroom bodies, a structure long implicated in olfactory learning and memory. Therefore, it appears that aversive olfactory associations are encoded by multiple cellular memory traces that occur in different regions of the brain with different temporal domains.

  8. Olfactory training in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Haehner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Decrease of olfactory function in Parkinson's disease (PD is a well-investigated fact. Studies indicate that pharmacological treatment of PD fails to restore olfactory function in PD patients. The aim of this investigation was whether patients with PD would benefit from "training" with odors in terms of an improvement of their general olfactory function. It has been hypothesized that olfactory training should produce both an improved sensitivity towards the odors used in the training process and an overall increase of olfactory function. METHODS: We recruited 70 subjects with PD and olfactory loss into this single-center, prospective, controlled non-blinded study. Thirty-five patients were assigned to the olfactory training group and 35 subjects to the control group (no training. Olfactory training was performed over a period of 12 weeks while patients exposed themselves twice daily to four odors (phenyl ethyl alcohol: rose, eucalyptol: eucalyptus, citronellal: lemon, and eugenol: cloves. Olfactory testing was performed before and after training using the "Sniffin' Sticks" (thresholds for phenyl ethyl alcohol, tests for odor discrimination, and odor identification in addition to threshold tests for the odors used in the training process. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, trained PD patients experienced a significant increase in their olfactory function, which was observed for the Sniffin' Sticks test score and for thresholds for the odors used in the training process. Olfactory function was unchanged in PD patients who did not perform olfactory training. CONCLUSION: The present results indicate that olfactory training may increase olfactory sensitivity in PD patients.

  9. Long-lasting effects of neck muscle vibration and contraction on self-motion perception of vestibular origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, Vito Enrico; Panichi, Roberto; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Biscarini, Andrea; Filippi, Guido Maria; Schieppati, Marco

    2015-10-01

    previously experienced position of head with respect to trunk. Tonic proprioceptive inflow, as might occur as a consequence of enduring or permanent head postures, can induce adaptive plastic changes in vestibular-dependent motion sensitiveness. These changes might be counteracted by vibration of selected neck muscles. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of the Human Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammalli, Manjunath; Dey, Gourav; Madugundu, Anil K; Kumar, Manish; Rodrigues, Benvil; Gowda, Harsha; Siddaiah, Bychapur Gowrishankar; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susarla Krishna; Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava

    2017-08-01

    The importance of olfaction to human health and disease is often underappreciated. Olfactory dysfunction has been reported in association with a host of common complex diseases, including neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. For health, olfaction or the sense of smell is also important for most mammals, for optimal engagement with their environment. Indeed, animals have developed sophisticated olfactory systems to detect and interpret the rich information presented to them to assist in day-to-day activities such as locating food sources, differentiating food from poisons, identifying mates, promoting reproduction, avoiding predators, and averting death. In this context, the olfactory bulb is a vital component of the olfactory system receiving sensory information from the axons of the olfactory receptor neurons located in the nasal cavity and the first place that processes the olfactory information. We report in this study original observations on the human olfactory bulb proteome in healthy subjects, using a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach. We identified 7750 nonredundant proteins from human olfactory bulbs. Bioinformatics analysis of these proteins showed their involvement in biological processes associated with signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and olfaction. These new observations provide a crucial baseline molecular profile of the human olfactory bulb proteome, and should assist the future discovery of biomarker proteins and novel diagnostics associated with diseases characterized by olfactory dysfunction.

  11. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Aiello-Mora, Mario; Maronpot, Robert R.; Doty, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered to 62 MC / 25 controls 21.2 ±2.7 y. MC subjects had significantly lower UPSIT scores: 34.24 ± 0.42 versus controls 35.76 ± 0.40, p=0.03. Olfaction deficits were present in 35.5% MC and 12% of controls. MC APOE ε 4 carriers failed 2.4 ± 0.54 items in the 10-item smell identification scale from the UPSIT related to Alzheimer's disease, while APOE 2/3 and 3/3 subjects failed 1.36 ± 0.16 items, p = 0.01. MC residents exhibited OB endothelial hyperplasia, neuronal accumulation of particles (2/35), and immunoreactivity to beta amyloid βA42 (29/35) and/or α-synuclein (4/35) in neurons, glial cells and/or blood vessels. Ultrafine particles were present in OBs endothelial cytoplasm and basement membranes. Control OBs were unremarkable. Air pollution exposure is associated with olfactory dysfunction and OB pathology, APOE 4 may confer greater susceptibility to such abnormalities, and ultrafine particles could play a key role in the OB pathology. This study contributes to our understanding of the influences of air pollution on olfaction and its potential contribution to neurodegeneration. PMID:19297138

  12. Sol–gel synthesis of long-lasting phosphors CdSiO3: Mn2+, RE3+ (RE = Tb, Eu, Nd) and luminescence mechanism research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Xiaofei; Cao, Lixin; Liu, Wei; Su, Ge; Wang, Pingping; Schultz, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New long-lasting CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ , RE 3+ (RE = Tb, Eu, Nd) phosphors were synthesized by a sol–gel method. ► The afterglow performance of the CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ , Eu 3+ phosphor was the best. ► The role of RE 3+ co-doped into the CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ matrix was discussed in this paper. -- Abstract: Mn 2+ and RE 3+ (RE = Tb, Eu, Nd) co-doped CdSiO 3 orange phosphors were prepared at 1050 °C by a sol–gel method. The phase and crystallinity of the synthesized materials were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The luminescence characteristics were analyzed using photoluminescence (PL) spectra, afterglow decay curves, long-lasting phosphorescence spectra, and thermoluminescence (TL) spectra. Due to the difference in co-doped rare earth ionic radii, it varied greatly in trap density and trap depth caused by the different defects deriving from RE 3+ ions co-doping into the CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ host. The afterglow intensity and time for these samples increased as follows: CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ 0.2%, Nd 3+ 0.8% 3 : Mn 2+ 0.4%, Tb 3+ 0.8% 3 : Mn 2+ 0.4%, Eu 3+ 0.3%. CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ 0.4%, Eu 3+ 0.3% had the best afterglow properties, which could be due to the proper traps formed by Eu 3+ ions co-doping into the host. The role of RE 3+ co-doped into the CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ matrix and the possible long-lasting phosphorescence process was also discussed in this paper.

  13. A single footshock causes long-lasting hypoactivity in unknown environments that is dependent on the development of contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviu, Núria; Fuentes, Silvia; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Exposure to a single session of footshocks induces long-lasting inhibition of activity in unknown environments that markedly differ from the shock context. Interestingly, these effects are not necessarily associated to an enhanced anxiety and interpretation of this hypoactivity remains unclear. In the present experiment we further studied this phenomenon in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In a first experiment, a session of three shocks resulted in hypoactivity during exposure, 6-12days later, to three different unknown environments. This altered behaviour was not accompanied by a greater hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation, although greater HPA activation paralleling higher levels of freezing was observed in the shock context. In a second experiment we used a single shock and two procedures, one with pre-exposure to the context before the shock and another with immediate shock that did not induce contextual fear conditioning. Hypoactivity and a certain level of generalization of fear (freezing) to the unknown environments only appeared in the group that developed fear conditioning, but no evidence for enhanced anxiety in the elevated plus-maze was found in any group. The results suggest that if animals are able to associate an aversive experience with a distinct unknown environment, they would display more cautious behaviour in any unknown environment and such strategy persists despite repeated experience with different environments. This long-lasting cautious behaviour was not associated to greater HPA response to the unknown environment that was however observed in the shock context. The present findings raised some concerns about interpretation of long-lasting behavioural changes caused by brief stressors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exposure to severe stressors causes long-lasting dysregulation of resting and stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Rotllant, David; Fuentes, Silvia; Delgado, Raúl; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    Exposure to some predominantly emotional (electric shock) and systemic (interleukin-1beta) stressors has been found to induce long-term sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responsiveness to further superimposed stressors. Since exposure to immobilization on wooden boards (IMO) is a severe stressor and may have interest regarding putative animal models of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), we have characterized long-lasting effects of a single exposure to IMO and other stressors on the HPA response to the same (homotypic) and to novel (heterotypic) stressors and the putative mechanisms involved. A single exposure to IMO caused a long-lasting reduction of peripheral and central responses of the HPA axis, likely to be mediated by some brain areas, such as the lateral septum and the medial amygdala. This desensitization is not explained by changes in negative glucocorticoid feedback, and, surprisingly, it is positively related to the intensity of the stressors. In contrast, the HPA response to heterotypic stressors (novel environments) was enhanced, with maximal sensitization on the day after IMO. Sensitization progressively vanished over the course of 1-2 weeks and was not modulated by IMO-induced corticosterone release. Moreover, it could not be explained by changes in the sensitivity of the HPA axis to fast or intermediate/delayed negative feedback, as evaluated 1 week after exposure to IMO, using shock as the heterotypic stressor. Long-lasting stress-induced behavioral changes reminiscent of enhanced anxiety and HPA sensitization are likely to be parallel but partially independent phenomena, the former being apparently not related to the intensity of stressors.

  15. Repeated Transient Jets from a Warped Disk in the Symbiotic Prototype Z And: A Link to the Long-lasting Active Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopal, Augustin; Tarasova, Taya. N.; Wolf, Marek; Dubovský, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor

    2018-05-01

    Active phases of some symbiotic binaries survive for a long time, from years to decades. The accretion process onto a white dwarf (WD) sustaining long-lasting activity, and sometimes leading to collimated ejection, is not well understood. We present the repeated emergence of highly collimated outflows (jets) from the symbiotic prototype Z And during its 2008 and 2009–10 outbursts and suggest their link to the current long-lasting (from 2000) active phase. We monitored Z And with high-resolution spectroscopy, multicolor UBVR C—and high time resolution—photometry. The well-pronounced bipolar jets were ejected again during the 2009–10 outburst together with the simultaneous emergence of the rapid photometric variability (Δm ≈ 0.06 mag) on the timescale of hours, showing similar properties as those during the 2006 outburst. These phenomena and the measured disk–jets connection could be caused by the radiation-induced warping of the inner disk due to a significant increase of the burning WD luminosity. Ejection of transient jets by Z And around outburst maxima signals a transient accretion at rates above the upper limit of the stable hydrogen burning on the WD surface, and thus proves the nature of Z And-type outbursts. The enhanced accretion through the disk warping, supplemented by the accretion from the giant’s wind, can keep a high luminosity of the WD for a long time, until depletion of the disk. In this way, the jets provide a link to long-lasting active phases of Z And.

  16. Mushroom body efferent neurons responsible for aversive olfactory memory retrieval in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séjourné, Julien; Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Aso, Yoshinori; Siwanowicz, Igor; Trannoy, Séverine; Thoma, Vladimiros; Tedjakumala, Stevanus R; Rubin, Gerald M; Tchénio, Paul; Ito, Kei; Isabel, Guillaume; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Preat, Thomas

    2011-06-19

    Aversive olfactory memory is formed in the mushroom bodies in Drosophila melanogaster. Memory retrieval requires mushroom body output, but the manner in which a memory trace in the mushroom body drives conditioned avoidance of a learned odor remains unknown. To identify neurons that are involved in olfactory memory retrieval, we performed an anatomical and functional screen of defined sets of mushroom body output neurons. We found that MB-V2 neurons were essential for retrieval of both short- and long-lasting memory, but not for memory formation or memory consolidation. MB-V2 neurons are cholinergic efferent neurons that project from the mushroom body vertical lobes to the middle superiormedial protocerebrum and the lateral horn. Notably, the odor response of MB-V2 neurons was modified after conditioning. As the lateral horn has been implicated in innate responses to repellent odorants, we propose that MB-V2 neurons recruit the olfactory pathway involved in innate odor avoidance during memory retrieval.

  17. Odor-evoked inhibition of olfactory sensory neurons drives olfactory perception in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li-Hui; Yang, Dong; Wu, Wei; Zeng, Xiankun; Jing, Bi-Yang; Li, Meng-Tong; Qin, Shanshan; Tang, Chao; Tu, Yuhai; Luo, Dong-Gen

    2017-11-07

    Inhibitory response occurs throughout the nervous system, including the peripheral olfactory system. While odor-evoked excitation in peripheral olfactory cells is known to encode odor information, the molecular mechanism and functional roles of odor-evoked inhibition remain largely unknown. Here, we examined Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons and found that inhibitory odors triggered outward receptor currents by reducing the constitutive activities of odorant receptors, inhibiting the basal spike firing in olfactory sensory neurons. Remarkably, this odor-evoked inhibition of olfactory sensory neurons elicited by itself a full range of olfactory behaviors from attraction to avoidance, as did odor-evoked olfactory sensory neuron excitation. These results indicated that peripheral inhibition is comparable to excitation in encoding sensory signals rather than merely regulating excitation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a bidirectional code with both odor-evoked inhibition and excitation in single olfactory sensory neurons increases the odor-coding capacity, providing a means of efficient sensory encoding.

  18. Long-lasting cerebral functional changes following moderate dose x-radiation treatment to the scalp in childhood: an electroencephalographic power spectral study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaar, I.; Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Rinott, Y.; Yaar, M.; Modan, M.

    1982-01-01

    EEG tracings were compared in 44 young adults who received scalp x-radiation treatment for tinea capitis during childhood and 59 non-irradiated control subjects. The irradiated subjects were exposed, over 20 years previously, to a mean dose of 130 rads to the brain. Visual analysis of the EEG revealed an insignificant excess of abnormalities among the irradiated subjects compared to the controls. Power spectral density function analysis showed increased power values among the irradiated subjects, particularly in the beta wave frequencies. This finding provides further evidence for suspecting that x-irradiation during brain maturation may cause long-lasting damage to the brain tissue. (author)

  19. Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  20. Effects of radiotherapy on olfactory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelscher, Tobias; Seibt, Annedore; Appold, Steffen; Doerr, Wolfgang; Herrmann, Thomas; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Hummel, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Changes in olfactory function have been reported in patients receiving significant doses of radiation to the olfactory epithelium. Aim of this study was to investigate severity and time course of changes in olfactory function in patients irradiated for tumours of the head and neck region. Material and Methods: Forty-four patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) for tumours in the area of the head and neck participated (16 women, 28 men; age 11-81 y; mean 55 y). Olfactory function was measured before and bi-weekly during RT for 6 weeks. A subgroup (25 patients) was followed for 12 months. Patients were divided into two groups according to the dose to the olfactory epithelium. Twenty-two patients ('OLF group') had radiation doses to the olfactory epithelium between 23.7 and 79.5 Gy (median 62.2 Gy). In the 22 patients of the 'non-OLF group' the dose applied to the olfactory epithelium was significantly lower (2.9-11.1 Gy, median 5.9 Gy). Total tumour dose (30-76.8 Gy), age, sex distribution, and baseline chemosensory function were not significantly different between groups. Testing was performed for odour identification, odour discrimination, and olfactory thresholds. Results: Odour discrimination, but not odour identification or odour threshold, was significantly decreased 2-6 weeks after begin of therapy in the OLF group. In addition, a significant effect of the radiation dose was observed for odour discrimination. More than 6 months after therapy, OLF group patients had significantly lower odour identification scores compared to the non-OLF group. Conclusion: As indicated through the non-significant change of olfactory thresholds, the olfactory epithelium is relatively resistant against effects of radiation. It is hypothesized that RT has additional effects on the olfactory bulb/orbitofrontal cortex responsible for the observed changes of suprathreshold olfactory function

  1. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    building skills, knowledge or networks on adaptation, ... the African partners leading the AfricaAdapt network, together with the UK-based Institute of Development Studies; and ... UNCCD Secretariat, Regional Coordination Unit for Africa, Tunis, Tunisia .... 26 Rural–urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of.

  2. Role of Centrifugal Projections to the Olfactory Bulb in Olfactory Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselycznyk, Carly L.; Zhang, Steven; Linster, Christine

    2006-01-01

    While there is evidence that feedback projections from cortical and neuromodulatory structures to the olfactory bulb are crucial for maintaining the oscillatory dynamics of olfactory bulb processing, it is not clear how changes in dynamics are related to odor perception. Using electrical lesions of the olfactory peduncle, sparing output from the…

  3. SLEEP AND OLFACTORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan eBarnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many systems, sleep plays a vital role in memory consolidation and synaptic homeostasis. These processes together help store information of biological significance and reset synaptic circuits to facilitate acquisition of information in the future. In this review, we describe recent evidence of sleep-dependent changes in olfactory system structure and function which contribute to odor memory and perception. During slow-wave sleep, the piriform cortex becomes hypo-responsive to odor stimulation and instead displays sharp-wave activity similar to that observed within the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, the functional connectivity between the piriform cortex and other cortical and limbic regions is enhanced during slow-wave sleep compared to waking. This combination of conditions may allow odor memory consolidation to occur during a state of reduced external interference and facilitate association of odor memories with stored hedonic and contextual cues. Evidence consistent with sleep-dependent odor replay within olfactory cortical circuits is presented. These data suggest that both the strength and precision of odor memories is sleep-dependent. The work further emphasizes the critical role of synaptic plasticity and memory in not only odor memory but also basic odor perception. The work also suggests a possible link between sleep disturbances that are frequently co-morbid with a wide range of pathologies including Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia and depression and the known olfactory impairments associated with those disorders.

  4. Genome-wide RNA profiling of long-lasting stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells induced by Yellow Fever vaccination in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia A. Fuertes Marraco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The live-attenuated Yellow Fever (YF vaccine YF-17D induces a broad and polyfunctional CD8 T cell response in humans. Recently, we identified a population of stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells induced by YF-17D that persists at stable frequency for at least 25 years after vaccination. The YF-17D is thus a model system of human CD8 T cell biology that furthermore allows to track and study long-lasting and antigen-specific human memory CD8 T cells. Here, we describe in detail the sample characteristics and preparation of a microarray dataset acquired for genome-wide gene expression profiling of long-lasting YF-specific stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells, compared to the reference CD8 T cell differentiation subsets from total CD8 T cells. We also describe the quality controls, annotations and exploratory analyses of the dataset. The microarray data is available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO public repository with accession number GSE65804.

  5. Insecticidal, acaricidal and repellent effects of DEET- and IR3535-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Albiez, Gunther; Nehring, Oliver

    2010-03-01

    A novel long-lasting repellent-treated net (LLRTN) has been designed by binding the skin repellents N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or IR3535, onto the fibres of bed net fabric using a new polymer-coating technique. The repellent toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of a factory-based repellent-impregnated fabric has been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks. By using this repellent-embedding impregnation technique, concentrations exceeding 10 g/m(2) could be achieved with one single polymer layer. Both DEET- and IR3535-impregnated fabrics revealed a dose-dependent insecticidal as well as acaricidal activity. One hundred percent knockdown times of DEET-treated bed nets ranged from 187.5 +/- 31.8 to 27.5 +/- 3.5 min against A. aegypti, and between 214 +/- 47 and 22.6 +/- 5 min against nymphal I. ricinus, linked to a DEET concentration of 1.08 and 10.58 g/m(2), respectively. With IR3535, A. aegypti produced dose-dependent 100% knockdown times varying from 87.5 +/- 10.6 to 57.5 +/- 3.5 min and between 131.4 +/- 6.5 and 33.8 +/- 5 min against nymphal I. ricinus, respectively, linked to concentrations between 1.59 and 10.02 g/m(2). One hundred percent repellency measured by complete landing and biting protection of impregnated fabric by using the arm-in-cage test could be achieved at DEET concentrations exceeding 3.7 to 3.9 g/m(2), and for IR3535 concentrations over 10 g/m(2). One hundred percent landing and biting protection could be preserved with DEET-treated fabrics for 29 weeks at an initial concentration of 4.66 g/m(2), 54 weeks at 8.8 g/m(2), 58 weeks at 9.96 g/m(2) and 61 weeks at 10.48 g/m(2) for DEET, and 23 weeks for IR3535-treated fabric at a concentration of 10.02 g/m(2). Unlike repellent-treated fabric, a brand of a commercially available long-lasting insecticide-treated net tested containing 500 mg permethrin/m(2) did not protect from mosquito bites. First results on

  6. Pathophysiological Role of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 in a Mouse Long-Lasting Cystitis Model Induced by an Intravesical Injection of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Oyama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory bladder disorders, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, are associated with poor quality of life. The exact pathological processes remain unclear, but accumulating evidence suggests that reactive oxidative species (ROS are involved in urinary bladder disorders. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1, the most sensitive TRP channel to ROS, was shown to be responsible for urinary bladder abnormalities and hyperalgesia in an acute cystitis model. However, the roles of TRPA1 in chronic inflammatory bladder are not fully understood. We previously established a novel mouse cystitis model induced by intravesical injection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, resulting in long-lasting frequent urination, bladder inflammation, pain-related behavior, and histopathological changes. In the present study, we investigated the pathophysiological role of TRPA1 in the H2O2-induced long-lasting cystitis mouse model. Under anesthesia, 1.5% H2O2 solution was introduced transurethrally into the bladder of female wild-type (WT and TRPA1-knockout mice and maintained for 30 min. This increased the number of voids in WT mice at 1 and 7 days after injection, but reduced the number in TRPA1-knockout mice at 1 day but not 7 days after injection. Spontaneous locomotor activities (increase in freezing time and decrease in distance moved were reduced at 3 h after injection in WT mice, whereas the spontaneous visceral pain-related behaviors were attenuated in TRPA1-knockout mice. Furthermore, upregulation of c-fos mRNA in the spinal cord at 1 day after injection was observed in WT but not TRPA1-knockout mice. However, there was no difference in histopathological changes in the urinary bladder, such as edematous thickening in the submucosa, between WT and TRPA1-knockout mice at 1 or 7 days after injection. Finally, Trpa1 mRNA levels in the L5-S1 dorsal root ganglion were not altered, but levels in the urinary bladder were drastically increased

  7. Conductive Hearing Loss Has Long-Lasting Structural and Molecular Effects on Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Structures of Auditory Nerve Synapses in the Cochlear Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Cheryl; Antunes, Flora M; Rubio, Maria E

    2016-09-28

    Sound deprivation by conductive hearing loss increases hearing thresholds, but little is known about the response of the auditory brainstem during and after conductive hearing loss. Here, we show in young adult rats that 10 d of monaural conductive hearing loss (i.e., earplugging) leads to hearing deficits that persist after sound levels are restored. Hearing thresholds in response to clicks and frequencies higher than 8 kHz remain increased after a 10 d recovery period. Neural output from the cochlear nucleus measured at 10 dB above threshold is reduced and followed by an overcompensation at the level of the lateral lemniscus. We assessed whether structural and molecular substrates at auditory nerve (endbulb of Held) synapses in the cochlear nucleus could explain these long-lasting changes in hearing processing. During earplugging, vGluT1 expression in the presynaptic terminal decreased and synaptic vesicles were smaller. Together, there was an increase in postsynaptic density (PSD) thickness and an upregulation of GluA3 AMPA receptor subunits on bushy cells. After earplug removal and a 10 d recovery period, the density of synaptic vesicles increased, vesicles were also larger, and the PSD of endbulb synapses was larger and thicker. The upregulation of the GluA3 AMPAR subunit observed during earplugging was maintained after the recovery period. This suggests that GluA3 plays a role in plasticity in the cochlear nucleus. Our study demonstrates that sound deprivation has long-lasting alterations on structural and molecular presynaptic and postsynaptic components at the level of the first auditory nerve synapse in the auditory brainstem. Despite being the second most prevalent form of hearing loss, conductive hearing loss and its effects on central synapses have received relatively little attention. Here, we show that 10 d of monaural conductive hearing loss leads to an increase in hearing thresholds, to an increased central gain upstream of the cochlear nucleus at

  8. Induction of associative olfactory memory by targeted activation of single olfactory neurons in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takato; Lee, Chi-Yu; Yoshida-Kasikawa, Maki; Honjo, Ken; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo

    2014-04-25

    It has been postulated that associative memory is formed by at least two sets of external stimuli, CS and US, that are transmitted to the memory centers by distinctive conversing pathways. However, whether associative memory can be induced by the activation of only the olfactory CS and a biogenic amine-mediated US pathways remains to be elucidated. In this study, we substituted the reward signals with dTrpA1-mediated thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons and the odor signals by ChR2-mediated optical activation of a specific class of olfactory neurons. We show that targeted activation of the olfactory receptor and the octopaminergic neurons is indeed sufficient for the formation of associative olfactory memory in the larval brain. We also show that targeted stimulation of only a single type of olfactory receptor neurons is sufficient to induce olfactory memory that is indistinguishable from natural memory induced by the activation of multiple olfactory receptor neurons.

  9. Short-term memory in olfactory network dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopfer, Mark; Laurent, Gilles

    1999-12-01

    Neural assemblies in a number of animal species display self-organized, synchronized oscillations in response to sensory stimuli in a variety of brain areas.. In the olfactory system of insects, odour-evoked oscillatory synchronization of antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs) is superimposed on slower and stimulus-specific temporal activity patterns. Hence, each odour activates a specific and dynamic projection neuron assembly whose evolution during a stimulus is locked to the oscillation clock. Here we examine, using locusts, the changes in population dynamics of projection-neuron assemblies over repeated odour stimulations, as would occur when an animal first encounters and then repeatedly samples an odour for identification or localization. We find that the responses of these assemblies rapidly decrease in intensity, while they show a marked increase in spike time precision and inter-neuronal oscillatory coherence. Once established, this enhanced precision in the representation endures for several minutes. This change is stimulus-specific, and depends on events within the antennal lobe circuits, independent of olfactory receptor adaptation: it may thus constitute a form of sensory memory. Our results suggest that this progressive change in olfactory network dynamics serves to converge, over repeated odour samplings, on a more precise and readily classifiable odour representation, using relational information contained across neural assemblies.

  10. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  11. Developmental neurotoxicity of Propylthiouracil (PTU) in rats: Relationship between transient hypothyroxinemia during development and long-lasting behavioural and functional changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Boberg, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Tac:WH) were dosed with PTU (0, 0.8.1.6 or 2.4 mg/kg/day) from gestation day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 17, and the physiological and behavioural development of rat offspring was assessed. Both dams and Pups in the higher close groups had markedly decreased thyroxine (T-4) levels during the closing period......Markedly lowered thyroid hormone levels during development may influence a child's behaviour, intellect, and auditory function. Recent Studies, indicating that even small changes in the mother's thyroid hormone Status early in pregnancy may Cause adverse effects on her child, have lead to increased...... concern for thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals in the environment. The overall aim of the Study was therefore to provide a detailed knowledge or) the relationship between thyroid hormone levels during development and long-lasting effects on behaviour and hearing. Groups of 16-17 pregnant rats (Han...

  12. Implications of insecticide resistance for malaria vector control with long-lasting insecticidal nets: a WHO-coordinated, prospective, international, observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Immo; Bradley, John; Knox, Tessa Bellamy; Mnzava, Abraham Peter; Kafy, Hmooda Toto; Mbogo, Charles; Ismail, Bashir Adam; Bigoga, Jude D; Adechoubou, Alioun; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Cook, Jackie; Malik, Elfatih M; Nkuni, Zinga José; Macdonald, Michael; Bayoh, Nabie; Ochomo, Eric; Fondjo, Etienne; Awono-Ambene, Herman Parfait; Etang, Josiane; Akogbeto, Martin; Bhatt, Rajendra M; Chourasia, Mehul Kumar; Swain, Dipak K; Kinyari, Teresa; Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Massougbodji, Achille; Okê-Sopoh, Mariam; Ogouyemi-Hounto, Aurore; Kouambeng, Celestin; Abdin, Mujahid Sheikhedin; West, Philippa; Elmardi, Khalid; Cornelie, Sylvie; Corbel, Vincent; Valecha, Neena; Mathenge, Evan; Kamau, Luna; Lines, Jonathan; Donnelly, Martin James

    2018-04-09

    Scale-up of insecticide-based interventions has averted more than 500 million malaria cases since 2000. Increasing insecticide resistance could herald a rebound in disease and mortality. We aimed to investigate whether insecticide resistance was associated with loss of effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets and increased malaria disease burden. This WHO-coordinated, prospective, observational cohort study was done at 279 clusters (villages or groups of villages in which phenotypic resistance was measurable) in Benin, Cameroon, India, Kenya, and Sudan. Pyrethroid long-lasting insecticidal nets were the principal form of malaria vector control in all study areas; in Sudan this approach was supplemented by indoor residual spraying. Cohorts of children from randomly selected households in each cluster were recruited and followed up by community health workers to measure incidence of clinical malaria and prevalence of infection. Mosquitoes were assessed for susceptibility to pyrethroids using the standard WHO bioassay test. Country-specific results were combined using meta-analysis. Between June 2, 2012, and Nov 4, 2016, 40 000 children were enrolled and assessed for clinical incidence during 1·4 million follow-up visits. 80 000 mosquitoes were assessed for insecticide resistance. Long-lasting insecticidal net users had lower infection prevalence (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·63, 95% CI 0·51-0·78) and disease incidence (adjusted rate ratio [RR] 0·62, 0·41-0·94) than did non-users across a range of resistance levels. We found no evidence of an association between insecticide resistance and infection prevalence (adjusted OR 0·86, 0·70-1·06) or incidence (adjusted RR 0·89, 0·72-1·10). Users of nets, although significantly better protected than non-users, were nevertheless subject to high malaria infection risk (ranging from an average incidence in net users of 0·023, [95% CI 0·016-0·033] per person-year in India, to 0·80 [0·65-0·97] per person

  13. Quantifying the relationship between PM2.5 concentration, visibility and planetary boundary layer height for long-lasting haze and fog-haze mixed events in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Tian; Guo, Xueliang; Guo, Lijun; Zhang, Tianhang

    2018-01-01

    Air quality and visibility are strongly influenced by aerosol loading, which is driven by meteorological conditions. The quantification of their relationships is critical to understanding the physical and chemical processes and forecasting of the polluted events. We investigated and quantified the relationship between PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter is 2.5 µm and less) mass concentration, visibility and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height in this study based on the data obtained from four long-lasting haze events and seven fog-haze mixed events from January 2014 to March 2015 in Beijing. The statistical results show that there was a negative exponential function between the visibility and the PM2.5 mass concentration for both haze and fog-haze mixed events (with the same R2 of 0.80). However, the fog-haze events caused a more obvious decrease of visibility than that for haze events due to the formation of fog droplets that could induce higher light extinction. The PM2.5 concentration had an inversely linear correlation with PBL height for haze events and a negative exponential correlation for fog-haze mixed events, indicating that the PM2.5 concentration is more sensitive to PBL height in fog-haze mixed events. The visibility had positively linear correlation with the PBL height with an R2 of 0.35 in haze events and positive exponential correlation with an R2 of 0.56 in fog-haze mixed events. We also investigated the physical mechanism responsible for these relationships between visibility, PM2.5 concentration and PBL height through typical haze and fog-haze mixed event and found that a double inversion layer formed in both typical events and played critical roles in maintaining and enhancing the long-lasting polluted events. The variations of the double inversion layers were closely associated with the processes of long-wave radiation cooling in the nighttime and short-wave solar radiation reduction in the daytime. The upper-level stable

  14. Long lasting yellow phosphorescence and photostimulated luminescence in Sr3SiO5 : Eu2+ and Sr3SiO5 : Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaoyuan; Zhang Jiahua; Zhang Xia; Luo Yongshi; Wang Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    We report the observation of long lasting yellow phosphorescence and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) in Sr 3 SiO 5 : Eu 2+ and Sr 3 SiO 5 : Eu 2+ , Dy 3+ phosphors. The decay patterns of phosphorescence and thermoluminescence curves demonstrate that introduction of Dy 3+ into Sr 3 SiO 5 : Eu 2+ can generate a large number of shallow traps and deep traps. The generated deep traps prolong the phosphorescence up to 6 h after UV irradiation. The PSL is studied under 808 nm excitation. Slow rising and falling edges of the emission in Sr 3 SiO 5 : Eu 2+ , Dy 3+ are observed, showing a retrapping process by the generated shallow traps due to co-doping Dy 3+ .

  15. Ionic composition of submicron particles (PM1.0) during the long-lasting haze period in January 2013 in Wuhan, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hairong; Gong, Wei; Wang, Zuwu; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Xinming; Lv, Xiaopu; Liu, Jia; Fu, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Gan

    2014-04-01

    In January 2013, a long-lasting severe haze episode occurred in Northern and Central China; at its maximum, it covered a land area of approximately 1.4 million km(2). In Wuhan, the largest city in Central China, this event was the most severe haze episode in the 21st century. Aerosol samples of submicron particles (PM1.0) were collected during the long-lasting haze episode at an urban site and a suburban site in Wuhan to investigate the ion characteristics of PM1.0 in this area. The mass concentrations of PM1.0 and its water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were almost at the same levels at two sites, which indicates that PM1.0 pollution occurs on a regional scale in Wuhan. WSIIs (Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO3(-) and SO4(2-)) were the dominant chemical species and constituted up to 48.4% and 47.4% of PM1.0 at WD and TH, respectively. The concentrations of PM1.0 and WSIIs on haze days were approximately two times higher than on normal days. The ion balance calculations indicate that the particles were more acidic on haze days than on normal days. The results of the back trajectory analysis imply that the high concentrations of PM1.0 and its water-soluble inorganic ions may be caused by stagnant weather conditions in Wuhan. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Method development for the determination of arsenic by sequential injection/anodic stripping voltammetry using long-lasting gold-modified screen-printed carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punrat, Eakkasit; Chuanuwatanakul, Suchada; Kaneta, Takashi; Motomizu, Shoji; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-11-15

    An automated method has been developed for determining the concentration of inorganic arsenic. The technique uses sequential injection/anodic stripping voltammetry with a long-lasting gold-modified screen-printed carbon electrode. The long-lasting gold electrode was electrochemically deposited onto a screen-printed carbon electrode at a potential of -0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl in a supporting electrolyte solution of 1M hydrochloric acid. Under optimal conditions and the applied potentials, the electrode demonstrated that it can be used for a long time without a renewal process. The linear range for the determination of arsenic(III) was 1-100 μg L(-1), and the limit of detection (LOD) in standard solutions was as low as 0.03 μg L(-1) for a deposition time of 120 s and sample volume of 1 mL. This method was used to determine the concentration of arsenic(III) in water samples with satisfactory results. The LOD in real samples was found to be 0.5 μg L(-1). In addition, speciation between arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) has been achieved with the proposed method using deposition potentials of -0.5 V and -1.5 V for the determination of the arsenic(III) concentration and the total arsenic concentration, respectively; the results were acceptable. The proposed method is an automated system that offers a less expensive alternative for determining trace amounts of inorganic arsenic. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Repeated in vivo exposure of cocaine induces long-lasting synaptic plasticity in hypocretin/orexin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yan; Mineur, Yann S; Gan, Geliang; Wang, Alex Hanxiang; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Wu, Xinyuan; Suyama, Shigetomo; de Lecea, Luis; Horvath, Tamas L; Picciotto, Marina R; Gao, Xiao-Bing

    2013-04-01

    Hypocretin (orexin), a neuropeptide synthesized exclusively in the perifornical/lateral hypothalamus, is critical for drug seeking and relapse, but it is not clear how the circuitry centred on hypocretin-producing neurons (hypocretin neurons) is modified by drugs of abuse and how changes in this circuit might alter behaviours related to drug addiction. In this study, we show that repeated, but not single, in vivo cocaine administration leads to a long-lasting, experience-dependent potentiation of glutamatergic synapses on hypocretin neurons in mice following a cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) protocol. The synaptic potentiation occurs postsynaptically and probably involves up-regulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors on hypocretin neurons. Phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is also significantly increased in hypocretin neurons in cocaine-treated animals, suggesting that CREB-mediated pathways may contribute to synaptic potentiation in these cells. Furthermore, the potentiation of synaptic efficacy in hypocretin neurons persists during cocaine withdrawal, but reverses to baseline levels after prolonged abstinence. Finally, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) triggered by a high-frequency stimulation is facilitated in hypocretin neurons in cocaine-treated mice, suggesting that long-lasting changes in synapses onto hypocretin neurons would probably be further potentiated by other stimuli (such as concurrent environmental cues) paired with the drug. In summary, we show here that hypocretin neurons undergo experience-dependent synaptic potentiation that is distinct from that reported in other reward systems, such as the ventral tegmental area, following exposure to cocaine. These findings support the idea that the hypocretin system is important for behavioural changes associated with cocaine administration in animals and humans.

  18. Developmental neurotoxicity of Propylthiouracil (PTU) in rats: Relationship between transient hypothyroxinemia during development and long-lasting behavioural and functional changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelstad, Marta; Hansen, Pernille Reimar; Boberg, Julie; Bonnichsen, Mia; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Soren Peter; Hougaard, Karin Sorig; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Markedly lowered thyroid hormone levels during development may influence a child's behaviour, intellect, and auditory function. Recent studies, indicating that even small changes in the mother's thyroid hormone status early in pregnancy may cause adverse effects on her child, have lead to increased concern for thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals in the environment. The overall aim of the study was therefore to provide a detailed knowledge on the relationship between thyroid hormone levels during development and long-lasting effects on behaviour and hearing. Groups of 16-17 pregnant rats (HanTac:WH) were dosed with PTU (0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 mg/kg/day) from gestation day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 17, and the physiological and behavioural development of rat offspring was assessed. Both dams and pups in the higher dose groups had markedly decreased thyroxine (T 4 ) levels during the dosing period, and the weight and histology of the thyroid glands were severely affected. PTU exposure caused motor activity levels to decrease on PND 14, and to increase on PND 23 and in adulthood. In the adult offspring, learning and memory was impaired in the two highest dose groups when tested in the radial arm maze, and auditory function was impaired in the highest dose group. Generally, the results showed that PTU-induced hypothyroxinemia influenced the developing rat brain, and that all effects on behaviour and loss of hearing in the adult offspring were significantly correlated to reductions in T 4 during development. This supports the hypothesis that decreased T 4 may be a relevant predictor for long-lasting developmental neurotoxicity

  19. Duration and specificity of olfactory nonassociative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Kaitlin G; Radhakrishna, Sreya; Escanilla, Olga; Linster, Christiane

    2013-05-01

    Olfactory habituation is a simple form of nonassociative memory in which responsiveness to stable but behaviorally nonsignificant stimuli is decreased. Olfactory habituation has recently become a paradigm widely used to probe the neural substrate underlying olfactory perception and memory. This simple behavioral paradigm has been used successfully used to probe many aspects of olfactory processing, and it has recently become clear that the neural processes underlying olfactory habituation can depend on the task parameters used. We here further investigate memory specificity and duration using 2 variations in task parameters: the number of habituation trials and the time delay between habituation and cross-habituation testing. We find that memory specificity increases with the number of habituation trials but decreases with time after the last habituation trial.

  20. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-09

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  1. A Closer Look at Acid-Base Olfactory Titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppel, Kerry; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Queen, Connie; Reed, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory titrations using raw onions and eugenol as acid-base indicators are reported. An in-depth investigation on olfactory titrations is presented to include requirements for potential olfactory indicators and protocols for using garlic, onions, and vanillin as acid-base olfactory indicators are tested.

  2. The role of main olfactory and vomeronasal systems in animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many terrestrial tetrapod, olfactory sensory communication is mediated by two anatomically and functionally distinct sensory systems; the main olfactory system and vomeronasal system (accessory olfactory system). Recent anatomical studies of the central pathways of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems showed that ...

  3. Caffeine and the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, M G

    1997-08-01

    Caffeine, a popular CNS stimulant, is the most widely used neuroactive drug. Present in coffee, tea, chocolate, and soft drinks as well as over-the-counter and prescription medications, it influences millions of users. This agent has achieved recent notoriety because its dependency consequences and addictive potential have been re-examined and emphasized. Caffeine's central actions are thought to be mediated through adenosine (A) receptors and monoamine neurotransmitters. The present article suggests that the olfactory bulb (OB) may be an important site in the brain that is responsible for caffeine's central actions in several species. This conclusion is based on the extraordinarily robust and selective effects of caffeine on norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and particularly serotonin (5HT) utilization in the OB of mice. We believe that these phenomena should be given appropriate consideration as a basis for caffeine's central actions, even in primates. Concurrently, we review a rich rodent literature concerned with A, 5HT, NE, and DA receptors in the OB and related structures along with other monoamine parameters. We also review a more limited literature concerned with the primate OB. Finally, we cite the literature that treats the dependency and addictive effects of caffeine in humans, and relate the findings to possible olfactory mechanisms.

  4. Pattern separation: a common function for new neurons in hippocampus and olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Amar; Wilson, Donald A; Hen, René

    2011-05-26

    While adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) and the dentate gyrus (DG) subregion of the hippocampus have fundamentally different properties, they may have more in common than meets the eye. Here, we propose that new granule cells in the OB and DG may function as modulators of principal neurons to influence pattern separation and that adult neurogenesis constitutes an adaptive mechanism to optimally encode contextual or olfactory information. See the related Perspective from Aimone, Deng, and Gage, "Resolving New Memories: A Critical Look at the Dentate Gyrus, Adult Neurogenesis, and Pattern Separation," in this issue of Neuron. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Postnatal odorant exposure induces peripheral olfactory plasticity at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadiou, Hervé; Aoudé, Imad; Tazir, Bassim; Molinas, Adrien; Fenech, Claire; Meunier, Nicolas; Grosmaitre, Xavier

    2014-04-02

    Mammalian olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) form the primary elements of the olfactory system. Inserted in the olfactory mucosa lining of the nasal cavity, they are exposed to the environment and their lifespan is brief. Several reports say that OSNs are regularly regenerated during the entire life and that odorant environment affects the olfactory epithelium. However, little is known about the impact of the odorant environment on OSNs at the cellular level and more precisely in the context of early postnatal olfactory exposure. Here we exposed MOR23-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and M71-GFP mice to lyral or acetophenone, ligands for MOR23 or M71, respectively. Daily postnatal exposure to lyral induces plasticity in the population of OSNs expressing MOR23. Their density decreases after odorant exposure, whereas the amount of MOR23 mRNA and protein remain stable in the whole epithelium. Meanwhile, quantitative PCR indicates that each MOR23 neuron has higher levels of olfactory receptor transcripts and also expresses more CNGA2 and phosphodiesterase 1C, fundamental olfactory transduction pathway proteins. Transcript levels return to baseline after 4 weeks recovery. Patch-clamp recordings reveal that exposed MOR23 neurons respond to lyral with higher sensitivity and broader dynamic range while the responses' kinetics were faster. These effects are specific to the odorant-receptor pair lyral-MOR23: there was no effect of acetophenone on MOR23 neurons and no effect of acetophenone and lyral on the M71 population. Together, our results clearly demonstrate that OSNs undergo specific anatomical, molecular, and functional adaptation when chronically exposed to odorants in the early stage of life.

  6. Olfactory bulb as an alternative in neurotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Руслан Романович Новиков

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the ethical and legal aspects of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue, structure of the rat olfactory bulb. It is given substantiation for its use as a possible alternative version of the embryonic neural tissue at damage in the cerebral hemispheres in the experiment.Materials and methods. Detailed description of the fault model of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain of rats, olfactory bulb biopsy procedure, cultivation of olfactory bulb suspension and fetal neural tissue, comparison of the functional aspects of transplantation of the olfactory bulb and the embryonic neural tissue.Results. The obtained data are similar to structure of olfactory bulb and fetal tissues during culturing. Recovery in the motor areas varies by the time factor and less intense in the group of the olfactory bulb and the group without tissue transplantation.Conclusions. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue and olfactory bulb in the injured brain allows us to speak about the positive results of these groups to the difference in the duration of the recovery process

  7. Imaging the olfactory tract (Cranial Nerve no.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprez, Thierry P.; Rombaux, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This review paper browses pros and cons of the different radiological modalities for imaging the olfactory tract and highlights the potential benefits and limitation of more recent advances in MR and CT technology. A systematic pictorial overview of pathological conditions affecting olfactory sense is given. Techniques for collecting quantitative data on olfactory bulb volume and on olfactory sulcus depth are described. At last, insights into functional imaging of olfactory sense are shown.

  8. Olfactory Functioning in First-Episode Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Vidyulata; Lasutschinkow, Patricia; Ishizuka, Koko; Sawa, Akira

    2018-04-06

    Though olfactory deficits are well-documented in schizophrenia, fewer studies have examined olfactory performance profiles across the psychosis spectrum. The current study examined odor identification, discrimination, and detection threshold performance in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder with psychotic features, major depression with psychotic features, and other psychotic conditions. FEP patients (n = 97) and healthy adults (n = 98) completed birhinal assessments of odor identification, discrimination, and detection threshold sensitivity for lyral and citralva. Participants also completed measures of anticipatory pleasure, anhedonia, and empathy. Differences in olfactory performances were assessed between FEP patients and controls and within FEP subgroups. Sex-stratified post hoc analyses were employed for a complete analysis of sex differences. Relationships between self-report measures and olfactory scores were also examined. Individuals with psychosis had poorer scores across all olfactory measures when compared to the control group. Within the psychosis cohort, patients with schizophrenia-associated psychosis had poorer odor identification, discrimination, and citralva detection threshold scores relative to controls. In schizophrenia patients, greater olfactory disturbance was associated with increased negative symptomatology, greater self-reported anhedonia, and lower self-reported anticipatory pleasure. Patients with mood-associated psychosis performed comparable to controls though men and women in this cohort showed differential olfactory profiles. These findings indicate that olfactory deficits extend beyond measures of odor identification in FEP with greater deficits observed in schizophrenia-related subgroups of psychosis. Studies examining whether greater olfactory dysfunction confers greater risk for developing schizophrenia relative to other forms of psychosis are

  9. The effect of short-term treatment with lithium carbonate on the outcome of radioiodine therapy in patients with long-lasting Graves' hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulić, Vladan; Rajić, Milena; Vlajković, Marina; Ilić, Slobodan; Stević, Miloš; Kojić, Marko

    2017-12-01

    The outcome of radioiodine therapy (RIT) in Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH) mainly depends on radioiodine ( 131 I) uptake and the effective half-life of 131 I in the gland. Studies have shown that lithium carbonate (LiCO 3 ) enhances the 131 I half-life and increases the applied thyroid radiation dose without affecting the thyroid 131 I uptake. We investigated the effect of short-term treatment with LiCO 3 on the outcome of RIT in patients with long-lasting GH, its influence on the thyroid hormones levels 7 days after RIT, and possible side effects. Study prospectively included 30 patients treated with LiCO 3 and 131 I (RI-Li group) and 30 patients only with 131 I (RI group). Treatment with LiCO 3 (900 mg/day) started 1 day before RIT and continued 6 days after. Anti-thyroid drugs withdrawal was 7 days before RIT. Patients were followed up for 12 months. We defined a success of RIT as euthyroidism or hypothyroidism, and a failure as persistent hyperthyroidism. In RI-Li group, a serum level of Li was 0.571 ± 0.156 mmol/l before RIT. Serum levels of TT 4 and FT 4 increased while TSH decreased only in RI group 7 days after RIT. No toxic effects were noticed during LiCO 3 treatment. After 12 months, a success of RIT was 73.3% in RI and 90.0% in RI-Li group (P treatment with LiCO 3 as an adjunct to 131 I improves efficacy of RIT in patients with long-lasting GH. A success of RIT achieves faster in lithium-treated than in RI group. Treatment with LiCO 3 for 7 days prevents transient worsening of hyperthyroidism after RIT. Short-term use of LiCO 3 shows no toxic side effects.

  10. Synthetic sex pheromone in a long-lasting lure attracts the visceral leishmaniasis vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, for up to 12 weeks in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Bray

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Current control methodologies have not prevented the spread of visceral leishmaniasis (VL across Brazil. Here, we describe the development of a new tool for controlling the sand fly vector of the disease: a long-lasting lure, which releases a synthetic male sex pheromone, attractive to both sexes of Lutzomyia longipalpis. This device could be used to improve the effectiveness of residual insecticide spraying as a means of sand fly control, attracting L. longipalpis to insecticide-treated animal houses, where they could be killed in potentially large numbers over a number of weeks. Different lure designs releasing the synthetic pheromone (±-9-methylgermacrene-B (CAS 183158-38-5 were field-tested in Araçatuba, São Paulo (SP. Experiments compared numbers of sand flies caught overnight in experimental chicken sheds with pheromone lures, to numbers caught in control sheds without pheromone. Prototype lures, designed to last one night, were first used to confirm the attractiveness of the pheromone in SP, and shown to attract significantly more flies to test sheds than controls. Longer-lasting lures were tested when new, and at fortnightly intervals. Lures loaded with 1 mg of pheromone did not attract sand flies for more than two weeks. However, lures loaded with 10 mg of pheromone, with a releasing surface of 15 cm2 or 7.5 cm2, attracted female L. longipalpis for up to ten weeks, and males for up to twelve weeks. Approximately five times more sand flies were caught with 7.5 cm2 10 mg lures when first used than occurred naturally in non-experimental chicken resting sites. These results demonstrate that these lures are suitably long-lasting and attractive for use in sand fly control programmes in SP. To our knowledge, this is the first sex pheromone-based technology targeting an insect vector of a neglected human disease. Further studies should explore the general applicability of this approach for combating other insect-borne diseases.

  11. Malaria in Dielmo, a Senegal village: Is its elimination possible after seven years of implementation of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélé Nyedzie Wotodjo

    Full Text Available The malaria burden has decreased significantly in recent years in Africa through the widespread use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs. However, the occurrence of malaria resurgences, the loss of immunity of exposed populations constitute among other factors, serious concerns about the future of malaria elimination efforts. This study investigated the evolution of malaria morbidity in Dielmo (Senegal before and after the implementation of LLINs.A longitudinal study was carried out in Dielmo over eight years, from July 2007 to July 2015. In July 2008, LLINs were offered to all villagers, and in July 2011 and August 2014 the LLINs were renewed. A survey on LLINs use was done each quarter of the year. Thick smears stained with Giemsa, a rapid diagnostic test (RDT and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods were performed for all cases of fever to assess malaria clinical attacks. Malaria cases were treated with ACT since June 2006.Malaria morbidity has decreased significantly since the implementation of LLINs in Dielmo, together with ACT. However, malaria resurgences have occurred twice during the seven years of LLINs use. These resurgences occurred the first time during the third year after the introduction of LLINs (aIRR (adjusted incidence-rate ratio [95%CI] = 5.90 [3.53; 9.88] p< 0.001 and a second time during the third year after the renewal of LLINs (aIRR [95%CI] = 5.60 [3.34; 9.39] p< 0.001. Sixty-nine percent (69% of the nets tested for their long-lasting insecticidal activity remained effective after 3 years of use.Good management of malaria cases by the use of ACT as first-line treatment against malaria in addition to the use of LLINs has significantly reduced malaria in Dielmo and allowed to reach the phase of pre-elimination of the disease. However, the occurrence of malaria resurgences raised serious concerns about malaria elimination, which would require additional

  12. Clinical diagnosis and treatment of olfactory meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiangdong; Wang Zhong; Zhang Shiming; Zhu Fengqing; Zhou Dai; Hui Guozhen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical diagnosis and treatment of olfactory meningioma. Methods: In this group 17 olfactory meningiomas were operated, and the clinical presentations and the surgery results were obtained. Results: The symptoms of psychiatrical disorder, visual disturbances and eclipse at presentation was higher. In 16 cases the grade of resection was Simpson II, 1 case Simpson III, most of the cases had a good recovery. Conclusion: Attention should be paid to the early symptom at presentation such as psychiatrical disorder to obtain an early diagnosis. Microsurgery is useful in the treatment of olfactory meningioma. (authors)

  13. Discrimination of bile acids by the rainbow trout olfactory system: Evidence as potential pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PERCILIA C GIAQUINTO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Electro-olfactogram recording was used to determine whether the olfactory epithelium of adult rainbow trout is specifically sensitive to bile acids, some of which have been hypothesized to function as pheromones. Of 38 bile acids that had been pre-screened for olfactory activity, 6 were selected. The rainbow trout-specific bile acids, taurocholic acid (TCA, and taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLS were the most potent compounds tested. TLS had a distinctive dose-response curve. Cross-adaptation experiments demonstrated that sensitivity to bile acids is attributable to at least 3 independent classes of olfactory receptor sites. Our data suggest that bile acids are discriminated by olfaction in rainbow trout, supporting the possibility that these compounds function as pheromones

  14. Olfactory Performance Can Be Influenced by the Presentation Order, Background Noise, and Positive Concurrent Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliczek-Dworschak, Ute; Pellegrino, Robert; Lee, Shangwa; Hummel, Cornelia; Hähner, Antje; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Sniffin' Sticks have become a popular procedure to measure overall olfactory functionality with 3 subtest: phenyl ethyl alcohol threshold test (T), discrimination (D), and identification (I). However, several procedural components specified by the original paper have not been tested nor has the impact of deviations been measured. The aim of the present work was to measure olfactory performance under modified testing procedures. First, the reverse order of subtests (IDT) was compared with more standard practices (TDI). Next, the possible impact of background noise and positive concurrent feedback were assessed. A total of 120 individuals participated in the study where the 3 conditional experiments, each involving 40 participants, were completed. Testing procedures that reversed the presentation order of subtests (I->D->T) scored a significantly lower overall TDI score than standard testing order with the threshold subtest being the most influenced. Additionally, nonverbal background noise lowered overall olfactory performance while concurrent feedback modulated threshold performance. These results emphasize the importance of testing parameters where olfactory perception and tasks may be modulated by adaptation and attentional distraction, respectively. This study helped furthermore to demonstrate that the investigated 3 deviations from the standard procedure revealed a significant impact on the performance outcome in olfactory assessment using the Sniffin' Sticks. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Ontogenetic development of the nervus terminalis in toothed whales. Evidence for its non-olfactory nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, E H; Oelschläger, H A

    1986-01-01

    For the first time in cetaceans, the development of the terminalis system and its continuity between the olfactory placode and the telencephalon has been demonstrated by light microscopy. In the early development of toothed whales (Odontoceti) this system is partially incorporated within the fila olfactoria which grow out from the olfactory placode. As the peripheral olfactory system is reduced in later stages, a strongly developed ganglionlike structure (terminalis ganglion) remains within the primitive meninx. Peripherally it is connected via the cribriform plate with ganglionic cell clusters near the septal mucosa. Centrally it is attached to the telencephalon (olfactory tubercle, septal region) by several nerve fibre bundles. In contrast to all other mammalian groups, toothed whales and dolphins are anosmatic while being totally adapted to aquatic life. Therefore the remaining ganglion and plexus must have non-olfactory properties. They may be responsible for the autonomic innervation of intracranial arteries and of the large mucous epithelia in the accessory nasal air sacs. The morphology, evolution and functional implications of the terminalis system in odontocetes and other mammals are discussed.

  16. Olfactory nerve transport of macromolecular drugs to the brain. A problem in olfactory impaired patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiga, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Junpei; Miwa, Takaki

    2012-01-01

    Nasal administration of macromolecular drugs (including peptides and nanoparticles) has the potential to enable drug delivery system beyond the blood brain barrier (BBB) via olfactory nerve transport. Basic research on drug deliver systems to the brain via nasal administration has been well reported. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is associated with the development and growth of the central nervous system. Clinical application of IGF-I with nasal administration is intended to enable drug delivery to brain through the BBB. Uptake of IGF-I in the olfactory bulb and central nervous system increased according to the dosage of nasally administered IGF-I in normal ICR mice, however IGF-I uptake in the trigeminal nerve remained unchanged. Olfactory nerve transport is important for the delivery of nasally administered IGF-I to the brain in vivo. Because a safe olfactory nerve tracer has not been clinically available, olfactory nerve transport has not been well studied in humans. Nasal thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) administration has been safely used to assess the direct pathway to the brain via the nose in healthy volunteers with a normal olfactory threshold. 201 Tl olfactory nerve transport has recently been shown to decrease in patients with hyposmia. The olfactory nerve transport function in patients with olfactory disorders will be determined using 201 Tl olfacto-scintigraphy for the exclusion of candidates in a clinical trial to assess the usefulness of nasal administration of IGF-I. (author)

  17. Rapid Increase in Ownership and Use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets and Decrease in Prevalence of Malaria in Three Regional States of Ethiopia (2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estifanos Biru Shargie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Following recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia, this study aimed to compare ownership and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN, and the change in malaria prevalence using two population-based household surveys in three regions of the country. Each survey used multistage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster. Household net ownership tripled from 19.6% in 2006 to 68.4% in 2007, with mean LLIN per household increasing from 0.3 to 1.2. Net use overall more than doubled from 15.3% to 34.5%, but in households owning LLIN, use declined from 71.7% to 48.3%. Parasitemia declined from 4.1% to 0.4%. Large scale-up of net ownership over a short period of time was possible. However, a large increase in net ownership was not necessarily mirrored directly by increased net use. Better targeting of nets to malaria-risk areas and sustained behavioural change communication are needed to increase and maintain net use.

  18. Movement of the sacroiliac joint during the Active Straight Leg Raise test in patients with long-lasting severe sacroiliac joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibsgård, Thomas J; Röhrl, Stephan M; Røise, Olav; Sturesson, Bengt; Stuge, Britt

    2017-08-01

    The Active Straight Leg Raise is a functional test used in the assessment of pelvic girdle pain, and has shown to have good validity, reliability and responsiveness. The Active Straight Leg Raise is considered to examine the patients' ability to transfer load through the pelvis. It has been hypothesized that patients with pelvic girdle pain lack the ability to stabilize the pelvic girdle, probably due to instability or increased movement of the sacroiliac joint. This study examines the movement of the sacroiliac joints during the Active Straight Leg Raise in patients with pelvic girdle pain. Tantalum markers were inserted in the dorsal sacrum and ilium of 12 patients with long-lasting pelvic girdle pain scheduled for sacroiliac joint fusion surgery. Two to three weeks later movement of the sacroiliac joints during the Active Straight Leg Raise was measured with radiostereometric analysis. Small movements were detected. There was larger movement of the sacroiliac joint of the rested leg's sacroiliac joint compared to the lifted leg's side. A mean backward rotation of 0.8° and inward tilt of 0.3° were seen in the rested leg's sacroiliac joint. The movements of the sacroiliac joints during the Active Straight Leg Raise are small. There was a small backward rotation of the innominate bone relative to sacrum on the rested leg's side. Our findings contradict an earlier understanding that a forward rotation of the lifted leg's innominate occur while performing the Active Straight Leg Raise. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Radiosteriometric analysis of movement in the sacroiliac joint during a single-leg stance in patients with long-lasting pelvic girdle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibsgård, Thomas J; Røise, Olav; Sturesson, Bengt; Röhrl, Stephan M; Stuge, Britt

    2014-04-01

    Chamberlain's projections (anterior-posterior X-ray of the pubic symphysis) have been used to diagnose sacroiliac joint mobility during the single-leg stance test. This study examined the movement in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance test with precise radiostereometric analysis. Under general anesthesia, tantalum markers were inserted into the dorsal sacrum and the ilium of 11 patients with long-lasting and severe pelvic girdle pain. After two to three weeks, a radiostereometric analysis was conducted while the subjects performed a single-leg stance. Small movements were detected in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance. In both the standing- and hanging-leg sacroiliac join, a total of 0.5 degree rotation was observed; however, no translations were detected. There were no differences in total movement between the standing- and hanging-leg sacroiliac joint. The movement in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance is small and almost undetectable by the precise radiostereometric analysis. A complex movement pattern was seen during the test, with a combination of movements in the two joints. The interpretation of the results of this study is that, the Chamberlain examination likely is inadequate in the examination of sacroiliac joint movement in patients with pelvic girdle pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of a long-lasting colloidal substrate with pH and hydrogen sulfide control capabilities to remediate TCE-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Y T; Chen, S C; Chien, C C; Chen, C C; Kao, C M

    2015-03-02

    A long-lasting emulsified colloidal substrate (LECS) was developed for continuous carbon and nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) release to remediate trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater under reductive dechlorinating conditions. The developed LECS contained nZVI, vegetable oil, surfactants (Simple Green™ and lecithin), molasses, lactate, and minerals. An emulsification study was performed to evaluate the globule droplet size and stability of LECS. The results show that a stable oil-in-water emulsion with uniformly small droplets (0.7 μm) was produced, which could continuously release the primary substrates. The emulsified solution could serve as the dispensing agent, and nZVI particles (with diameter 100-200 nm) were distributed in the emulsion evenly without aggregation. Microcosm results showed that the LECS caused a rapid increase in the total organic carbon concentration (up to 488 mg/L), and reductive dechlorination of TCE was significantly enhanced. Up to 99% of TCE (with initial concentration of 7.4 mg/L) was removed after 130 days of operation. Acidification was prevented by the production of hydroxide ion by the oxidation of nZVI. The formation of iron sulfide reduced the odor from produced hydrogen sulfide. Microbial analyses reveal that dechlorinating bacteria existed in soils, which might contribute to TCE dechlorination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Neonatal Stress Has a Long-Lasting Sex-Dependent Effect on Anxiety-Like Behavior and Neuronal Morphology in the Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Silvana Regina; de David Antoniazzi, Caren Tatiane; Hossain, Shakhawat; Kolb, Bryan

    2018-01-01

    The long-lasting effects of early stress on brain development have been well studied. Recent evidence indicates that males and females respond differently to the same stressor. We examined the chronic effects of daily maternal separation (MS) on behavior and cerebral morphology in both male and female rats. Cognitive and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated, and neuroplastic changes in 2 subregions of the prefrontal cortex (dorsal agranular insular cortex [AID] and cingulate cortex [Cg3]) and hippocampus (CA1 and dentate gyrus) were measured in adult male and female rats. The animals were subjected to MS on postnatal day (P) 3-14 for 3 h per day. Cognitive and emotional behaviors were assessed in the object/context mismatch task, elevated plus maze, and locomotor activity test in early adulthood (P87-P95). Anatomical assessments were performed in the prefrontal cortex (i.e., cortical thickness and spine density) and hippocampus (i.e., spine density). Sex-dependent effects were observed. MS increased anxiety-related behavior only in males, whereas locomotor activity was higher in females, with no effects on cognition. MS decreased spine density in the AID and increased spine density in the CA1 area in males. Females exhibited an increase in spine density in the Cg3. Our findings confirm previous work that found that MS causes long-term behavioral and anatomical effects, and these effects were dependent on sex and the duration of MS stress. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. How long-lasting is the post-conflict slowing after incongruent trials? Evidence from the Stroop, Simon, and flanker tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine how long-lasting the post-conflict slowing following incongruent stimuli is. In previous research, incongruent stimuli have been used to induce a conflict because they have relevant features for two different response alternatives. So far, the post-conflict slowing following incongruent stimuli has mainly been assessed up to one trial. In the first two experiments, we assessed the persistence of the post-conflict slowing across several trials. To this end, we presented a few incongruent stimuli among non-conflict stimuli. The results showed a consistent slowing for the first few trials immediately following the incongruent trials. In addition, a sporadic slowing was still found on later trials. In two subsequent experiments, we investigated to what extent the infrequency of incongruent trials - rather than their conflict - induced this slowing. To determine this, we used the same design as in the first two experiments, but we presented non-conflict stimuli as infrequent stimuli. The results showed a slowing on one subsequent trial, ruling out the possibility that the post-conflict slowing following incongruent trials was only caused by infrequency. Together, the findings of the present study indicate that the conflict induced by incongruent trials can have a longer lasting impact on subsequent trials than previously thought.

  3. Efficacy of a long-lasting bifenthrin-treated net against horticultural pests and its compatibility with the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii and the parasitic wasp Eretmocerus mundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Maria Del Mar; Colomer, Ignacio; Medina, Pilar; Fereres, Alberto; Del Estal, Pedro; Viñuela, Elisa

    2017-08-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have been investigated recently for their use in agriculture. Depending on the insecticide, the hole size and the way they are produced, these nets can target different pests and therefore they could be interesting options for use in integrated pest management (IPM). As the information on their compatibility with beneficial fauna is practically negligible, in this work we have tested the compatibility of an experimental bifenthrin long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLITN) with Amblyseius swirskii and Eretmocerus mundus, important natural enemies of whiteflies and thrips, under laboratory, semi-field and commercial greenhouse conditions. In the laboratory, the treated net was very deleterious to adults of both natural enemies, after 72 h exposure. However, in choice tests with Y-tubes, both natural enemies were neither attracted nor repelled by the treated net and no short-term mortality was detected in individuals that had crossed it. No deleterious effects on the E. mundus beneficial capacity were detected in semi-field trials. In field trials, the LLITN proved to be compatible with A. swirskii while decreasing pest densities. Bifenthrin LLITN studied could be a valuable method for reducing pest population infestations in IPM programmes while being compatible with biocontrol agents. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Training Lymnaea in the presence of a predator scent results in a long-lasting ability to form enhanced long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Jeremy; Sunada, Hiroshi; Dodd, Shawn; Lukowiak, Ken

    2016-06-01

    Lymnaea exposed to crayfish effluent (CE) gain an enhanced ability to form long-term memory (LTM). We test the hypothesis that a single CE exposure and operant conditioning training leads to long lasting changes in the capability of snails to form LTM when tested in pond water four weeks later. We trained both juvenile and adult snails with a single 0.5 h training session in CE and show that LTM was present 24 h later. Snails trained in a similar manner in just pond water show no LTM. We then asked if such training in CE conferred enhanced memory forming capabilities on these snails four weeks later. That is, would LTM be formed in these snails four weeks later following a single 0.5 h training session in pond water? We found that both adult and juvenile snails previously trained in CE one month previously had enhanced LTM formation abilities. The injection of a DNA methylation blocker, 5-AZA, prior to training in adult snails blocked enhanced LTM formation four weeks later. Finally, this enhanced LTM forming ability was not passed on to the next generation of snails.

  5. Long-lasting insecticide-treated house screens and targeted treatment of productive breeding-sites for dengue vector control in Acapulco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Mendoza, Azael; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Herrera-Bojórquez, Josué; Barrera-Pérez, Mario; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I; Sánchez-Tejeda, Gustavo; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Ranson, Hilary; Lenhart, Audrey; Sommerfeld, Johannes; McCall, Philip J; Kroeger, Axel; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2015-02-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal net screens (LLIS) fitted to domestic windows and doors in combination with targeted treatment (TT) of the most productive Aedes aegypti breeding sites were evaluated for their impact on dengue vector indices in a cluster-randomised trial in Mexico between 2011 and 2013. Sequentially over 2 years, LLIS and TT were deployed in 10 treatment clusters (100 houses/cluster) and followed up over 24 months. Cross-sectional surveys quantified infestations of adult mosquitoes, immature stages at baseline (pre-intervention) and in four post-intervention samples at 6-monthly intervals. Identical surveys were carried out in 10 control clusters that received no treatment. LLIS clusters had significantly lower infestations compared to control clusters at 5 and 12 months after installation, as measured by adult (male and female) and pupal-based vector indices. After addition of TT to the intervention houses in intervention clusters, indices remained significantly lower in the treated clusters until 18 (immature and adult stage indices) and 24 months (adult indices only) post-intervention. These safe, simple affordable vector control tools were well-accepted by study participants and are potentially suitable in many regions at risk from dengue worldwide. © The author 2015. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  6. Effectiveness and feasibility of long-lasting insecticide-treated curtains and water container covers for dengue vector control in Colombia: a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Juliana; García-Betancourt, Tatiana; Cortés, Sebastian; García, Diana; Alcalá, Lucas; González-Uribe, Catalina; Brochero, Helena; Carrasquilla, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    Long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) window and door curtains alone or in combination with LLIN water container covers were analysed regarding effectiveness in reducing dengue vector density, and feasibility of the intervention. A cluster randomised trial was conducted in an urban area of Colombia comparing 10 randomly selected control and 10 intervention clusters. In control clusters, routine vector control activities were performed. The intervention delivered first, LLIN curtains (from July to August 2013) and secondly, water container covers (from October to March 2014). Cross-sectional entomological surveys were carried out at baseline (February 2013 to June 2013), 9 weeks after the first intervention (August to October 2013), and 4-6 weeks after the second intervention (March to April 2014). Curtains were installed in 922 households and water container covers in 303 households. The Breteau index (BI) fell from 14 to 6 in the intervention group and from 8 to 5 in the control group. The additional intervention with LLIN covers for water containers showed a significant reduction in pupae per person index (PPI) (p=0.01). In the intervention group, the PPI index showed a clear decline of 71% compared with 25% in the control group. Costs were high but options for cost savings were identified. Short term impact evaluation indicates that the intervention package can reduce dengue vector density but sustained effect will depend on multiple factors. © The author 2015. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  7. Effect of village-wide use of long-lasting insecticidal nets on visceral Leishmaniasis vectors in India and Nepal: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picado, Albert; Das, Murari L; Kumar, Vijay; Kesari, Shreekant; Dinesh, Diwakar S; Roy, Lalita; Rijal, Suman; Das, Pradeep; Rowland, Mark; Sundar, Shyam; Coosemans, Marc; Boelaert, Marleen; Davies, Clive R

    2010-01-26

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) control in the Indian subcontinent is currently based on case detection and treatment, and on vector control using indoor residual spraying (IRS). The use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN) has been postulated as an alternative or complement to IRS. Here we tested the impact of comprehensive distribution of LN on the density of Phlebotomus argentipes in VL-endemic villages. A cluster-randomized controlled trial with household P. argentipes density as outcome was designed. Twelve clusters from an ongoing LN clinical trial--three intervention and three control clusters in both India and Nepal--were selected on the basis of accessibility and VL incidence. Ten houses per cluster selected on the basis of high pre-intervention P. argentipes density were monitored monthly for 12 months after distribution of LN using CDC light traps (LT) and mouth aspiration methods. Ten cattle sheds per cluster were also monitored by aspiration. A random effect linear regression model showed that the cluster-wide distribution of LNs significantly reduced the P. argentipes density/house by 24.9% (95% CI 1.80%-42.5%) as measured by means of LTs. The ongoing clinical trial, designed to measure the impact of LNs on VL incidence, will confirm whether LNs should be adopted as a control strategy in the regional VL elimination programs. The entomological evidence described here provides some evidence that LNs could be usefully deployed as part of the VL control program. ClinicalTrials.gov CT-2005-015374.

  8. Early malnutrition results in long-lasting impairments in pattern-separation for overlapping novel object and novel location memories and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Georgina; Guzmán-Quevedo, Omar; Da Silva Aragão, Raquel; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco

    2016-02-17

    Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that malnutrition during in utero development and/or childhood induces long-lasting learning disabilities and enhanced susceptibility to develop psychiatric disorders. However, animal studies aimed to address this question have yielded inconsistent results due to the use of learning tasks involving negative or positive reinforces that interfere with the enduring changes in emotional reactivity and motivation produced by in utero and neonatal malnutrition. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying the learning deficits associated with malnutrition in early life remain unknown. Here we implemented a behavioural paradigm based on the combination of the novel object recognition and the novel object location tasks to define the impact of early protein-restriction on the behavioural, cellular and molecular basis of memory processing. Adult rats born to dams fed a low-protein diet during pregnancy and lactation, exhibited impaired encoding and consolidation of memory resulting from impaired pattern separation. This learning deficit was associated with reduced production of newly born hippocampal neurons and down regulation of BDNF gene expression. These data sustain the existence of a causal relationship between early malnutrition and impaired learning in adulthood and show that decreased adult neurogenesis is associated to the cognitive deficits induced by childhood exposure to poor nutrition.

  9. Binge-pattern cocaine administration causes long-lasting behavioral hyperarousal but does not enhance vulnerability to single prolonged stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisieski, Michael J; Perrine, Shane A

    2017-11-01

    Cocaine use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occur. This could be due to vulnerability to post-traumatic symptoms conferred by previous exposure to cocaine. Therefore, we combined chronic binge-pattern cocaine with a model of psychological trauma (single prolonged stress) to determine whether the behavioral effects of psychological trauma are enhanced in cocaine-sensitized individuals. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats received 14 days of cocaine (15mg/kg/injection) or saline in a binge pattern (3 injections per day, 1h apart). Seven days after the last injection animals were exposed to traumatic stress or a control procedure. Seven days after stress, activity and anxiety-like behaviors were measured. Binge-pattern cocaine increased locomotor activity in the open field and elevated plus maze, and both cocaine and SPS exposure increased the rapidity with which rats moved through grooming sequences. Neither binge-pattern cocaine nor SPS increased anxiety-like behaviors, and no interactions were found between binge-pattern cocaine exposure and SPS exposure. A behavioral phenotype categorization approach demonstrated that cocaine-exposed groups expressed a high incidence of hyperactivity-like symptoms. These results suggest that binge-pattern cocaine exposure causes a long-lasting hyper-exploratory phenotype but does not make individuals more vulnerable to a later traumatic stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B. Fokam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4% patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%. The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season. Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3% than in females (23.2%. Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p<0.001 and Nyasoso (p<0.015 health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  11. Gestational Exposure to a Viral Mimetic Poly(I:C Results in Long-Lasting Changes in Mitochondrial Function by Leucocytes in the Adult Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Giulivi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal immune activation (MIA is a potential risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD and schizophrenia (SZ. In rodents, MIA results in changes in cytokine profiles and abnormal behaviors in the offspring that model these neuropsychiatric conditions. Given the central role that mitochondria have in immunity and other metabolic pathways, we hypothesized that MIA will result in a fetal imprinting that leads to postnatal deficits in the bioenergetics of immune cells. To this end, splenocytes from adult offspring exposed gestationally to the viral mimic poly(I:C were evaluated for mitochondrial outcomes. A significant decrease in mitochondrial ATP production was observed in poly(I:C-treated mice (45% of controls mainly attributed to a lower complex I activity. No differences were observed between the two groups in the coupling of electron transport to ATP synthesis, or the oxygen uptake under uncoupling conditions. Concanavalin A- (ConA- stimulated splenocytes from poly(I:C animals showed no statistically significant changes in cytokine levels compared to controls. The present study reports for the first time that MIA activation by poly(I:C at early gestation, which can lead to behavioral impairments in the offspring similar to SZ and ASD, leads to long-lasting effects in the bioenergetics of splenocytes of adult offspring.

  12. Cdk7 Is Required for Activity-Dependent Neuronal Gene Expression, Long-Lasting Synaptic Plasticity and Long-Term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqin He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, de novo gene expression driven by learning-associated neuronal activities is critical for the formation of long-term memories. However, the signaling machinery mediating neuronal activity-induced gene expression, especially the rapid transcription of immediate-early genes (IEGs remains unclear. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks are a family of serine/threonine kinases that have been firmly established as key regulators of transcription processes underling coordinated cell cycle entry and sequential progression in nearly all types of proliferative cells. Cdk7 is a subunit of transcriptional initiation factor II-H (TFIIH and the only known Cdk-activating kinase (CAK in metazoans. Recent studies using a novel Cdk7 specific covalent inhibitor, THZ1, revealed important roles of Cdk7 in transcription regulation in cancer cells. However, whether Cdk7 plays a role in the regulation of transcription in neurons remains unknown. In this study, we present evidence demonstrating that, in post-mitotic neurons, Cdk7 activity is positively correlated with neuronal activities in cultured primary neurons, acute hippocampal slices and in the brain. Cdk7 inhibition by THZ1 significantly suppressed mRNA levels of IEGs, selectively impaired long-lasting synaptic plasticity induced by 4 trains of high frequency stimulation (HFS and prevented the formation of long-term memories.

  13. Efficacy of Olyset® Plus, a new long-lasting insecticidal net incorporating permethrin and piperonyl-butoxide against multi-resistant malaria vectors [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Pennetier

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid extension of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors worldwide, manufacturers are developing new vector control tools including insecticide mixtures containing at least two active ingredients with different mode of action as part of insecticide resistance management. Olyset® Plus is a new long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN incorporating permethrin and a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO, into its fibres in order to counteract metabolic-based pyrethroid resistance of mosquitoes. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Olyset® Plus both in laboratory and field against susceptible and multi-resistant malaria vectors and compared with Olyset Net, which is a permethrin incorporated into polyethylene net. In laboratory, Olyset® Plus performed better than Olyset® Net against susceptible Anopheles gambiae strain with a 2-day regeneration time owing to an improved permethrin bleeding rate with the new incorporation technology. It also performed better than Olyset® Net against multiple resistant populations of An. gambiae in experimental hut trials in West Africa. Moreover, the present study showed evidence for a benefit of incorporating a synergist, PBO, with a pyrethroid insecticide into mosquito netting. These results need to be further validated in a large-scale field trial to assess the durability and acceptability of this new tool for malaria vector control.

  14. Double negative (CD3+ 4- 8- TCR alphabeta splenic cells from young NOD mice provide long-lasting protection against type 1 diabetes.

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    Beverly Duncan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Double negative CD3(+4(-8(- TCR alphabeta splenic cells (DNCD3 can suppress the immune responses to allo and xenografts, infectious agents, tumors, and some autoimmune disorders. However, little is known about their role in autoimmune diabetes, a disease characterized by the reduction of insulin production subsequent to destruction of pancreatic beta-cells by a polyclonal population of self-reactive T-cells. Herein, we analyzed the function and phenotype of DNCD3 splenic cells in young NOD mice predisposed to several autoimmune disorders among which, the human-like autoimmune diabetes.DNCD3 splenic cells from young NOD mice (1 provided long-lasting protection against diabetes transfer in NOD/Scid immunodeficient mice, (2 proliferated and differentiated in the spleen and pancreas of NOD/Scid mice and pre-diabetic NOD mice into IL-10-secreting T(R-1 like cells in a Th2-like environment, and (3 their anti-diabetogenic phenotype is CD3(+(CD4(-CD8(-CD28(+CD69(+CD25(low Foxp3(- iCTLA-4(-TCR alphabeta(+ with a predominant Vbeta13 gene usage.These findings delineate a new T regulatory component in autoimmune diabetes apart from that of NKT and CD4(+CD25(high Foxp3(+T-regulatory cells. DNCD3 splenic cells could be potentially manipulated towards the development of autologous cell therapies in autoimmune diabetes.

  15. Poly-functional and long-lasting anticancer immune response elicited by a safe attenuated Pseudomonas aeruginosa vector for antigens delivery

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    Xavier Chauchet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Live-attenuated bacterial vectors for antigens delivery have aroused growing interest in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Their potency to stimulate innate immunity and to promote intracellular antigen delivery into antigen-presenting cells could be exploited to elicit a strong and specific cellular immune response against tumor cells. We previously described genetically-modified and attenuated Pseudomonas aeruginosa vectors able to deliver in vivo protein antigens into antigen-presenting cells, through Type 3 secretion system of the bacteria. Using this approach, we managed to protect immunized mice against aggressive B16 melanoma development in both a prophylactic and therapeutic setting. In this study, we further investigated the antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response, in terms of phenotypic and functional aspects, obtained after immunizations with a killed but metabolically active P. aeruginosa attenuated vector. We demonstrated that P. aeruginosa vaccine induces a highly functional pool of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell able to infiltrate the tumor. Furthermore, multiple immunizations allowed the development of a long-lasting immune response, represented by a pool of predominantly effector memory cells which protected mice against late tumor challenge. Overall, killed but metabolically active P. aeruginosa vector is a safe and promising approach for active and specific antitumor immunotherapy.

  16. Long-lasting changes in brain activation induced by a single REAC technology pulse in Wi-Fi bands. Randomized double-blind fMRI qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Salvatore; Mura, Marco; Castagna, Alessandro; Fontani, Vania

    2014-07-11

    The aim of this randomized double-blind study was to evaluate in healthy adult subjects, with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), long lasting changes in brain activation patterns following administration of a single, 250 milliseconds pulse emitted with radio-electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) technology in the Wi-Fi bands. The REAC impulse was not administered during the scan, but after this, according to a protocol that has previously been demonstrated to be effective in improving motor control and postural balance, in healthy subjects and patients. The study was conducted on 33 healthy volunteers, performed with a 1.5 T unit while operating a motor block task involving cyclical and alternating flexion and extension of one leg. Subsequently subjects were randomly divided into a treatment and a sham treatment control group. Repeated fMRI examinations were performed following the administration of the REAC pulse or sham treatment. The Treated group showed cerebellar and ponto-mesencephalic activation components that disappeared in the second scan, while these activation components persisted in the Sham group. This study shows that a very weak signal, such as 250 milliseconds Wi-Fi pulse, administered with REAC technology, could lead to lasting effects on brain activity modification.

  17. Olfactory cuing of autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D C; Groth, E; Goldsmith, D J

    1984-01-01

    In Experiment 1, subjects were presented with either the odors or the names of 15 common objects. In Experiment 2, subjects were presented with either the odors, photographs, or names of 16 common objects. All subjects were asked to describe an autobiographical memory evoked by each cue, to date each memory, and to rate each memory on vividness, pleasantness, and the number of times that the memory had been thought of and talked about prior to the experiment. Compared with memories evoked by photographs or names, memories evoked by odors were reported to be thought of and talked about less often prior to the experiment and were more likely to be reported as never having been thought of or talked about prior to the experiment. No other effects were consistently found, though there was a suggestion that odors might evoke more pleasant and emotional memories than other types of cues. The relation of these results to the folklore concerning olfactory cuing is discussed.

  18. Methods to measure olfactory behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Junhui; Wang, Wenbin; Pan, Yung-Wei; Lu, Song; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-02-02

    Mice rely on the sense of olfaction to detect food sources, recognize social and mating partners, and avoid predators. Many behaviors of mice, including learning and memory, social interaction, fear, and anxiety are closely associated with their function of olfaction, and behavior tasks designed to evaluate those brain functions may use odors as cues. Accurate assessment of olfaction is not only essential for the study of olfactory system but also critical for proper interpretation of various mouse behaviors, especially learning and memory, emotionality and affect, and sociality. Here we describe a series of behavior experiments that offer multidimensional and quantitative assessments for mouse olfactory function, including olfactory habituation, discrimination, odor preference, odor detection sensitivity, and olfactory memory, with respect to both social and nonsocial odors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anaesthesia

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    Alister U Nicol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odours and whether they can be investigated under anaesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odour smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anaesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odour under anaesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and GABA in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anaesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odour was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odour during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odour. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50% of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odours prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odour many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anaesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odours as well as in evoked glutamate and

  20. Functional neuroanatomy of Drosophila olfactory memory formation

    OpenAIRE

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Davis, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying Drosophila learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive and aversive reinforcers: (1) Which neurons within the olfactory nervous system mediate the acquisition of memory? (2) What is the complete neural circuitry exten...

  1. Cortical feedback control of olfactory bulb circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alison M; Sturgill, James F; Poo, Cindy; Isaacson, Jeffry S

    2012-12-20

    Olfactory cortex pyramidal cells integrate sensory input from olfactory bulb mitral and tufted (M/T) cells and project axons back to the bulb. However, the impact of cortical feedback projections on olfactory bulb circuits is unclear. Here, we selectively express channelrhodopsin-2 in olfactory cortex pyramidal cells and show that cortical feedback projections excite diverse populations of bulb interneurons. Activation of cortical fibers directly excites GABAergic granule cells, which in turn inhibit M/T cells. However, we show that cortical inputs preferentially target short axon cells that drive feedforward inhibition of granule cells. In vivo, activation of olfactory cortex that only weakly affects spontaneous M/T cell firing strongly gates odor-evoked M/T cell responses: cortical activity suppresses odor-evoked excitation and enhances odor-evoked inhibition. Together, these results indicate that although cortical projections have diverse actions on olfactory bulb microcircuits, the net effect of cortical feedback on M/T cells is an amplification of odor-evoked inhibition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Deficits in medical counseling in olfactory dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxel, B R; Nisius, A; Fruth, K; Mann, W J; Muttray, A

    2012-05-01

    Olfactory dysfunctions are common with a prevalence of up to 20% in the population. An impaired sense of smell can lead to specific dangers, therefore, counseling and warning of hazardous situations to raise patient awareness is an important medical function. In this study 105 patients presenting to the University of Mainz Medical Centre with dysosmia were evaluated using a questionnaire. For quantification of the olfactory dysfunction a standardized olfactory test (Sniffin' Sticks) was used. Of the patients 46% were hyposmic and 40% were functionally anosmic. The median duration of the olfactory impairment was 10 months and the main causes of dysosmia were upper respiratory tract infections and idiopathic disorders. More than 90% of the patients consulted an otorhinolaryngologist and 60% a general practitioner before presenting to the University of Mainz Medical Center. More than two thirds of the patients conducted a professional activity, 95% of patients reported that they had not received any medical counseling and 6% of the subjects were forced to discontinue their profession because of olfactory dysfunction. In patients with olfactory dysfunctions appropriate diagnostics, including olfactometry should be performed. Furthermore, correct medical counseling concerning necessary additional arrangements (e.g. installation of smoke or gas detectors, precautions while cooking or for hygiene) has to be performed. For patients in a profession an analysis of the hazards at work is crucial.

  3. CNPase Expression in Olfactory Ensheathing Cells

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    Christine Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of work supports the proposal that transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs into nerve or spinal cord injuries can promote axonal regeneration and remyelination. Yet, some investigators have questioned whether the transplanted OECs associate with axons and form peripheral myelin, or if they recruit endogenous Schwann cells that form myelin. Olfactory bulbs from transgenic mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP under the control of the 2-3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase promoter were studied. CNPase is expressed in myelin-forming cells throughout their lineage. We examined CNPase expression in both in situ in the olfactory bulb and in vitro to determine if OECs express CNPase commensurate with their myelination potential. eGFP was observed in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb. Dissociated OECs maintained in culture had both intense eGFP expression and CNPase immunostaining. Transplantation of OECs into transected peripheral nerve longitudinally associated with the regenerated axons. These data indicate that OECs in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb of CNPase transgenic mice express CNPase. Thus, while OECs do not normally form myelin on olfactory nerve axons, their expression of CNPase is commensurate with their potential to form myelin when transplanted into injured peripheral nerve.

  4. Insect olfactory memory in time and space.

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    Liu, Xu; Davis, Ronald L

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies using functional optical imaging have revealed that cellular memory traces form in different areas of the insect brain after olfactory classical conditioning. These traces are revealed as increased calcium signals or synaptic release from defined neurons, and include a short-lived trace that forms immediately after conditioning in antennal lobe projection neurons, an early trace in dopaminergic neurons, and a medium-term trace in dorsal paired medial neurons. New molecular genetic tools have revealed that for normal behavioral memory performance, synaptic transmission from the mushroom body neurons is required only during retrieval, whereas synaptic transmission from dopaminergic neurons is required at the time of acquisition and synaptic transmission from dorsal paired medial neurons is required during the consolidation period. Such experimental results are helping to identify the types of neurons that participate in olfactory learning and when their participation is required. Olfactory learning often occurs alongside crossmodal interactions of sensory information from other modalities. Recent studies have revealed complex interactions between the olfactory and the visual senses that can occur during olfactory learning, including the facilitation of learning about subthreshold olfactory stimuli due to training with concurrent visual stimuli.

  5. Galantamine Prevents Long-Lasting Suppression of Excitatory Synaptic Transmission in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons of Soman-Challenged Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, E. A.; Alkondon, M.; Aracava, Y.; Pereira, E. F. R.; Albuquerque, E. X.

    2014-01-01

    Galantamine, a drug currently approved for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, has recently emerged as an effective pretreatment against the acute toxicity and delayed cognitive deficits induced by organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents, including soman. Since cognitive deficits can result from impaired glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that hippocampal glutamatergic transmission declines following an acute exposure to soman and that this effect can be prevented by galantamine. To test this hypothesis, spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices obtained at 1 h, 24 h, or 6-9 days after guinea pigs were injected with: (i) 1xLD50 soman (26.3 μg/kg, s.c.); (ii) galantamine (8 mg/kg, i.m.) followed 30 min later by 1xLD50 soman, (iii) galantamine (8 mg/kg, i.m.), or (iv) saline (0.5 ml/kg, i.m.). In soman-injected guinea pigs that were not pretreated with galantamine, the frequency of EPSCs was significantly lower than that recorded from saline-injected animals. There was no correlation between the severity of soman-induced acute toxicity and the magnitude of soman-induced reduction of EPSC frequency. Pretreatment with galantamine prevented the reduction of EPSC frequency observed at 6-9 days after the soman challenge. Prevention of soman-induced long-lasting reduction of hippocampal glutamatergic synaptic transmission may be an important determinant of the ability of galantamine to counter cognitive deficits that develop long after an acute exposure to the nerve agent. PMID:25064080

  6. Synergistic Effects of Psychosocial Stress and Mild Peripheral Infection on Inducing Microglial Activation in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus and Long-Lasting Deficits in Hippocampus-Related Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Su, Chien-Chou; Sun, Li-Han; Cherng, Chianfang G.; Yu, Lung

    2018-04-30

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment and stress may cause immune activation in the brain, an event which has been thought to play a role in mediating stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. However, the enduring impact of psychosocial stress on brain immune activation or cognitive deficits has not been well investigated. Likewise, it remains unexplored whether there exist synergistic effects of psychosocial stress and a weak systemic LPS treatment on brain immune activation and/or cognitive function. In this work, a 10-day social defeat regimen was used to model psychosocial stress and the number and density of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)-stained microglia was used to reveal brain immune activation in male Balb/C mice. The social defeat regimen did not cause observable microglial activation in dentate gyrus (DG) 24 h after the conclusion of the regimen. Microglial activation peaked in DG 24 h following a single 1 mg/kg intra-peritoneal LPS injection. At this time point, DG microglial activation was not evident providing 0.125 mg/kg or lower of LPS was used, this dose of LPS was, thus, regarded as the “sub-threshold” in this study. Twenty-four h after the conclusion of the defeat regimen, mice received a social interaction test to determine their defeat stress susceptibility and a “sub-threshold” LPS injection. DG microglial activation was observed in the defeat-stress susceptible, but not in the resilient, mice. Furthermore, the stress-susceptible mice showed impairment in object location and Y maze tasks 24 and 72 h after the “sub-threshold” LPS injection. These results suggest that psychosocial stress, when combined with a negligible peripheral infection, may induce long-lasting hippocampus-related memory deficits exclusively in subjects susceptible to psychosocial stresses.

  7. Multipoint spacecraft observations of long-lasting poloidal Pc4 pulsations in the dayside magnetosphere on 1–2 May 2014

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    G. Korotova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We use magnetic field and plasma observations from the Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES spacecraft to study the spatial and temporal characteristics of long-lasting poloidal Pc4 pulsations in the dayside magnetosphere. The pulsations were observed after the main phase of a moderate storm during low geomagnetic activity. The pulsations occurred during various interplanetary conditions and the solar wind parameters do not seem to control the occurrence of the pulsations. The most striking feature of the Pc4 magnetic field pulsations was their occurrence at similar locations during three of four successive orbits. We used this information to study the latitudinal nodal structure of the pulsations and demonstrated that the latitudinal extent of the magnetic field pulsations did not exceed 2 Earth radii (RE. A phase shift between the azimuthal and radial components of the electric and magnetic fields was observed from ZSM  =  0.30 RE to ZSM  =  −0.16 RE. We used magnetic and electric field data from Van Allen Probes to determine the structure of ULF waves. We showed that the Pc4 magnetic field pulsations were radially polarized and are the second-mode harmonic waves. We suggest that the spacecraft were near a magnetic field null during the second orbit when they failed to observe the magnetic field pulsations at the local times where pulsations were observed on previous and successive orbits. We investigated the spectral structure of the Pc4 pulsations. Each spacecraft observed a decrease of the dominant period as it moved to a smaller L shell (stronger magnetic field strength. We demonstrated that higher frequencies occurred at times and locations where Alfvén velocities were greater, i.e., on Orbit 1. There is some evidence that the periods of the pulsations increased during the plasmasphere refilling

  8. Long-lasting insecticidal net source, ownership and use in the context of universal coverage: a household survey in eastern Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateera, Fredrick; Ingabire, Chantal M; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Rulisa, Alexis; Karinda, Parfait; Grobusch, Martin P; Mutesa, Leon; van Vugt, Michèle; Mens, Petra F

    2015-10-06

    Universal long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) coverage (ULC) has reduced malaria morbidity and mortality across Africa. Although information is available on bed net use in specific groups, such as pregnant women and children under 5 years, there is paucity of data on their use among the general population. Bed net source, ownership and determinants of use among individuals from households in an eastern Rwanda community 8 months after a ULC were characterized. Using household-based, interviewer-administered questionnaires and interviewer-direct observations, data on bed net source, ownership and key determinants of net use, including demographics, socio-economic status indicators, house structure characteristics, as well as of bed net quantity, type and integrity, were collected from 1400 randomly selected households. Univariate and mixed effects logistic regression modelling was done to assess for determinants of bed net use. A total of 1410 households and 6598 individuals were included in the study. Overall, the proportion of households with at least one net was 92 % while bed net usage was reported among 72 % of household members. Of the households surveyed, a total ownership of 2768 nets was reported, of which about 96 % were reportedly LLINs received from the ULC. By interviewer-physical observation, 88 % of the nets owned were of the LLIN type with the remaining 12 % did not carry any mark to enable type recognition. The odds of bed net use were significantly lower among males and individuals: from households of low socio-economic status, from households with economic status, number of bed nets and type and number of sleeping spaces were key determinants of bed net use. To maximize impact of ULC, strategies that target males as well as those that ensure ITN coverage for all, address barriers to feasible and convenient bed net use including covering over all sleeping space types, and provide net hanging supports, are needed.

  9. Impact of mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets on childhood malaria morbidity: The Togo National Integrated Child Health Campaign

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    Sodahlon Yao K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An evaluation of the short-term impact on childhood malaria morbidity of mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs to households with children aged 9-59 months as part of the Togo National Integrated Child Health Campaign. Methods The prevalence of anaemia and malaria in children aged zero to 59 months was measured during two cross-sectional household cluster-sample surveys conducted during the peak malaria transmission, three months before (Sept 2004, n = 2521 and nine months after the campaign (Sept 2005, n = 2813 in three districts representative of Togo's three epidemiological malaria transmission regions: southern tropical coastal plains (Yoto, central fertile highlands (Ogou and northern semi-arid savannah (Tone. Results In households with children 65% in all 3 districts. Reported ITN use by children during the previous night was 35.9%, 43.8% and 80.6% in Yoto, Ogou and Tone, respectively. Rainfall patterns were comparable in both years. The overall prevalence of moderate to severe anaemia (Hb The effect was predominantly seen in children aged 18-59 months and in the two southern districts: PR (95% CI for moderate to severe anaemia and clinical malaria: Yoto 0.62 (0.44-0.88 and 0.49 (0.35-0.75; Ogou 0.54 (0.37-0.79 and 0.85 (0.57-1.27, respectively. Similar reductions occurred in children Conclusions A marked reduction in childhood malaria associated morbidity was observed in the year following mass distribution of free LLINs in two of the three districts in Togo. Sub-national level impact evaluations will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of expanding national malaria control efforts.

  10. A single intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin in rats induces long-lasting modifications in behavior and brain protein levels of TNF-α and IL-18

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    Bossù Paola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic inflammation might cause neuronal damage and sustain neurodegenerative diseases and behavior impairment, with the participation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-18. However, the potential contribution of these cytokines to behavioral impairment in the long-term period has not been fully investigated. Methods Wistar rats were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg or vehicle. After 7 days and 10 months, the animal behavior was evaluated by testing specific cognitive functions, as mnesic, discriminative, and attentional functions, as well as anxiety levels. Contextually, TNF-α and IL-18 protein levels were measured by ELISA in defined brain regions (that is, frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and hypothalamus. Results Behavioral testing demonstrated a specific and persistent cognitive impairment characterized by marked deficits in reacting to environment modifications, possibly linked to reduced motivational or attentional deficits. Concomitantly, LPS induced a TNF-α increase in the hippocampus and frontal cortex (from 7 days onward and cerebellum (only at 10 months. Interestingly, LPS treatment enhanced IL-18 expression in these same areas only at 10 months after injection. Conclusions Overall, these results indicate that the chronic neuroinflammatory network elicited by systemic inflammation involves a persistent participation of TNF-α accompanied by a differently regulated contribution of IL-18. This leads to speculation that, though with still unclear mechanisms, both cytokines might take part in long-lasting modifications of brain functions, including behavioral alteration.

  11. Long-lasting effects of maternal separation on an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder: effects on memory and hippocampal oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Luisa A; Alvares, Lucas O; Noschang, Cristie; Engelke, Douglas; Andreazza, Ana C; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto S; Quillfeldt, Jorge A; Dalmaz, Carla

    2012-04-01

    Adverse early life events, such as periodic maternal separation, may alter the normal pattern of brain development and subsequently the vulnerability to a variety of mental disorders in adulthood. Patients with a history of early adversities show higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study was undertaken to verify if repeated long-term separation of pups from dams would affect memory and oxidative stress parameters after exposure to an animal model of PTSD. Nests of Wistar rats were divided into intact and subjected to maternal separation (incubator at 32°C, 3 h/day) during post-natal days 1-10. When adults, the animals were subdivided into exposed or not to a PTSD model consisting of exposure to inescapable footshock, followed by situational reminders. One month after exposure to the shock, the animals were exposed to a memory task (Morris water maze) and another month later animals were sacrificed and DNA breaks and antioxidant enzymes activities were measured in the hippocampus. Rats exposed to shock or maternal separation plus shock showed long-lasting effects on spatial memory, spending more time in the opposite quadrant of the water maze. This effect was higher in animals subjected to both maternal separation and shock. Both shock and maternal separation induced a higher score of DNA breaks in the hippocampus. No differences were observed on antioxidant enzymes activities. In conclusion, periodic maternal separation may increase the susceptibility to the effects of a stressor applied in adulthood on performance in the water maze. Increased DNA breaks in hippocampus was induced by both, maternal separation and exposure to shock.

  12. [A Case of Dengue Fever and Subsequent Long-lasting Depression Accompanied by Alopecia in a Japanese Traveler Returning from Bali, Indonesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitani, Akihiro; Yamaya, Waka; To, Masako; Kano, Ichino; Honda-Hosono, Natsue; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Haruki, Kosuke

    2015-03-01

    Recovery from dengue fever is generally rapid and uneventful. However, recuperation is often prolonged and may be accompanied by noticeable depression. We present herein on a traveler to Indonesia who developed long-lasting depression after the classic symptoms of dengue fever such as fever, arthralgia, and macropapular rash had resolved. A previously healthy 42-year old japanese woman presented to the Travel Clinic of Seirei Yokohama Hospital with complaints of 4 days of fever, joint aches, bone pain, and a macropapular rash on her torso. She had returned from Bali 5 days previously. During her 1-week stay, one day was spent in rural, mountainous areas where she was exposed to several mosquito bites. The 1st serum sample collected 4 days after the disease onset gave positive result in the rapid dengue IgM antibody test and the rapid dengue NS1 antigen immunechromatographic test. The DENV-1 genome was detected with RT-PCR. Her 13-year old son, who had accompanied her, was also diagnosed as having dengue fever and he recovered without event. The Above-mentioned symptoms resolved within one week. However, the patient suffered from prolonged depression. She also noticed loss of hair 3 months after the disease onset Administration of a Serotonin-Noradrenalin Reuptake Inhibitor and a minor tranquillizer required to allow her requied to lead a normal life. Although she gradually felt better, it took approximately 2 years until she had recovered completely without taking any antidepressant and minor tranquillizer. It is a well-known fact in endemic countries that dengue fever could have an significant impact on the patients' mental well-being. However, it appears that physicians in non-endemic countries are not fully aware of the prolonged depression, which can occur subsequent to the acute illness. Follow-up consultations of returing travelers who have recoverd from dengu fever should be arranged to monitor their mental and emotional states closely.

  13. Social determinants of long lasting insecticidal hammock use among the Ra-glai ethnic minority in Vietnam: implications for forest malaria control.

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    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal hammocks (LLIHs are being evaluated as an additional malaria prevention tool in settings where standard control strategies have a limited impact. This is the case among the Ra-glai ethnic minority communities of Ninh Thuan, one of the forested and mountainous provinces of Central Vietnam where malaria morbidity persist due to the sylvatic nature of the main malaria vector An. dirus and the dependence of the population on the forest for subsistence--as is the case for many impoverished ethnic minorities in Southeast Asia. METHODS: A social science study was carried out ancillary to a community-based cluster randomized trial on the effectiveness of LLIHs to control forest malaria. The social science research strategy consisted of a mixed methods study triangulating qualitative data from focused ethnography and quantitative data collected during a malariometric cross-sectional survey on a random sample of 2,045 study participants. RESULTS: To meet work requirements during the labor intensive malaria transmission and rainy season, Ra-glai slash and burn farmers combine living in government supported villages along the road with a second home at their fields located in the forest. LLIH use was evaluated in both locations. During daytime, LLIH use at village level was reported by 69.3% of all respondents, and in forest fields this was 73.2%. In the evening, 54.1% used the LLIHs in the villages, while at the fields this was 20.7%. At night, LLIH use was minimal, regardless of the location (village 4.4%; forest 6.4%. DISCUSSION: Despite the free distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and LLIHs, around half the local population remains largely unprotected when sleeping in their forest plot huts. In order to tackle forest malaria more effectively, control policies should explicitly target forest fields where ethnic minority farmers are more vulnerable to malaria.

  14. Dendritic cells pulsed with a tumor-specific peptide induce long-lasting immunity and are effective against murine intracerebral melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimberger, Amy B; Archer, Gary E; Crotty, Laura E; McLendon, Roger E; Friedman, Allan H; Friedman, Henry S; Bigner, Darell D; Sampson, John H

    2002-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized cells of the immune system that are capable of generating potent immune responses that are active even within the "immunologically privileged" central nervous system. However, immune responses generated by DCs have also been demonstrated to produce clinically significant autoimmunity. Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII), which is a mutation specific to tumor tissue, could eliminate this risk. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that DC-based immunizations directed solely against this tumor-specific antigen, which is commonly found on tumors that originate within or metastasize to the brain, could be efficacious. C3H mice were vaccinated with DCs mixed with a keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate of the tumor-specific peptide, PEP-3, which spans the EGFRvIII mutation, or the random-sequence peptide, PEP-1, and were intracerebrally challenged with a syngeneic melanoma expressing a murine homologue of EGFRvIII. Systemic immunization with DCs mixed with PEP-3-keyhole limpet hemocyanin generated antigen-specific immunity. Among mice challenged with intracerebral tumors, this resulted in an approximately 600% increase in the median survival time (>300 d, P < 0.0016), relative to control values. Sixty-three percent of mice treated with DCs mixed with the tumor-specific peptide survived in the long term and 100% survived rechallenge with tumor, indicating that antitumor immunological memory was also induced. In a murine melanoma model, immunization with DCs mixed with tumor-specific peptide results in an antigen-specific immunological response that recognizes the EGFRvIII mutation, has potent antitumor efficacy against intracerebral tumors that express EGFRvIII, and results in long-lasting antitumor immunity.

  15. From intervention to impact: modelling the potential mortality impact achievable by different long-lasting, insecticide-treated net delivery strategies

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    Okell Lucy C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current target of universal access to long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets (LLIN is 80% coverage to reduce malaria deaths by 75% by 2015. So far, campaigns have been the main channel for large-scale delivery of LLINs, however the World Health Organization has recommended that equal priority should be given to delivery via routine antenatal care (ANC and immunization systems (EPI to target pregnant women and children from birth. These various channels of LLIN delivery are targeted to children of different ages. Since risk of mortality varies with child age and LLIN effectiveness declines with net age, it was hypothesized that the age at which a child receives a new LLIN, and therefore the delivery channel, is important in optimizing the health impact of a net. Methods A simple dynamic mathematical model was developed of delivery and impact of LLINs among children under five years of age and their household members, incorporating data on age-specific malaria death rates, net use by household structure, and net efficacy over time. Results The presented analysis finds that supplementing a universal mass campaign with extra ANC delivery would achieve a 1.4 times higher mortality reduction than campaign delivery alone, reflecting that children born in the years between campaigns would otherwise have access to old nets or no nets at an age of high risk. The relative advantage of supplementary ANC delivery is still present though smaller if malaria transmission levels are lower or if there is a strong mass effect achieved by mass campaigns. Conclusion These results indicate that LLIN delivery policies must take into account the age of greatest malaria risk. Emphasis should be placed on supporting routine delivery of LLINs to young children as well as campaigns.

  16. Effectiveness of a new long-lasting insecticidal nets delivery model in two rural districts of Mozambique: a before-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroz, Jorge A H; Candrinho, Baltazar; Mendis, Chandana; Varela, Pablo; Pinto, João; Martins, Maria do Rosário O

    2018-02-05

    In 2015, Mozambique piloted a new model of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) delivery in a campaign. The new delivery model was used in two rural districts were, and two others were considered as control, maintaining the old delivery model. The aim of this study is to compare the coverage of ownership and use of LLINs in intervention and control districts in Mozambique. A before-after design with control group was carried out 6 months after LLINs distribution. Using systematic probabilistic sampling, 1547 households were surveyed by means of a questionnaire. To find associations between the district categories (intervention and control) and the main outcomes of the study (LLIN ownership, use, and universal coverage achievement), odds ratio (OR) and respective confidence intervals were calculated. Of the 760 households surveyed in the intervention districts, 98.8% had at least one LLIN; of the 787 households surveyed in the control districts, 89.6% had at least one LLIN [OR: 9.7, 95% (CI 4.84-19.46)]. Around 95 and 87% of households owning at least one LLIN reported having slept under the LLIN the previous night in the intervention and control districts, respectively [OR: 3.2; 95% (CI 2.12-4.69)]. Seventy-one percent of the households surveyed achieved universal coverage in the intervention districts against 59.6% in the control districts [OR: 1.6; 95% (CI 1.33-2.03)]. The universal coverage campaign piloted with the new delivery model has increased LLINs ownership, use, and progression for reaching universal coverage targets in the community.

  17. Long-lasting alterations in membrane properties, K+ currents and glutamatergic synaptic currents of nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons in a rat model of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor eSpigelman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol exposure causes marked changes in reinforcement mechanisms and motivational state that are thought to contribute to the development of cravings and relapse during protracted withdrawal. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc is a key structure of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. Although the NAcc plays an important role in mediating alcohol-seeking behaviors, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced neuroadaptive changes in NAcc function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE treatment, a rat model of alcohol withdrawal and dependence, on intrinsic electrical membrane properties and glutamatergic synaptic transmission of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the NAcc core during protracted withdrawal. We show that CIE treatment followed by prolonged withdrawal increased the inward rectification of MSNs observed at hyperpolarized potentials. In addition, MSNs from CIE-treated animals displayed a lower input resistance, faster action potentials (APs and larger fast afterhyperpolarizations (fAHPs than MSNs from vehicle-treated animals, all suggestive of increases in K+-channel conductances. Significant increases in the Cs+-sensitive inwardly-rectifying K+-current accounted for the increased input resistance, while increases in the A-type K+-current accounted for the faster APs and increased fAHPs in MSNs from CIE rats. We also show that the amplitude and the conductance of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR-mediated mEPSCs were enhanced in CIE-treated animals due to an increase in a small fraction of functional postsynaptic GluA2-lacking AMPARs. These long-lasting modifications of excitability and excitatory synaptic receptor function of MSNs in the NAcc core could play a critical role in the neuroadaptive changes underlying alcohol withdrawal and dependence.

  18. Olfactory Fear Conditioning Induces Field Potential Potentiation in Rat Olfactory Cortex and Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoudi, Belkacem; Granjon, Lionel; Mouly, Anne-Marie; Sevelinges, Yannick; Gervais, Remi

    2004-01-01

    The widely used Pavlovian fear-conditioning paradigms used for studying the neurobiology of learning and memory have mainly used auditory cues as conditioned stimuli (CS). The present work assessed the neural network involved in olfactory fear conditioning, using olfactory bulb stimulation-induced field potential signal (EFP) as a marker of…

  19. Olfactory processing and odor specificity: a meta-analysis of menstrual cycle variation in olfactory sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinec Nováková Lenka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cycle-correlated variation in olfactory threshold, with women becoming more sensitive to odors mid-cycle, is somewhat supported by the literature but the evidence is not entirely consistent, with several studies finding no, or mixed, effects. It has been argued that cyclic shifts in olfactory threshold might be limited to odors relevant to the mating context.

  20. Olfactory specialization for perfume collection in male orchid bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitko, Lukasz; Weber, Marjorie G; Ramirez, Santiago R; Hedenström, Erik; Wcislo, William T; Eltz, Thomas

    2016-05-15

    Insects rely on the olfactory system to detect a vast diversity of airborne molecules in their environment. Highly sensitive olfactory tuning is expected to evolve when detection of a particular chemical with great precision is required in the context of foraging and/or finding mates. Male neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) collect odoriferous substances from multiple sources, store them in specialized tibial pouches and later expose them at display sites, presumably as mating signals to females. Previous analysis of tibial compounds among sympatric species revealed substantial chemical disparity in chemical composition among lineages with outstanding divergence between closely related species. Here, we tested whether specific perfume phenotypes coevolve with matching olfactory adaptations in male orchid bees to facilitate the location and harvest of species-specific perfume compounds. We conducted electroantennographic (EAG) measurements on males of 15 sympatric species in the genus Euglossa that were stimulated with 18 compounds present in variable proportions in male hind tibiae. Antennal response profiles were species-specific across all 15 species, but there was no conspicuous differentiation between closely related species. Instead, we found that the observed variation in EAG activity follows a Brownian motion model of trait evolution, where the probability of differentiation increases proportionally with lineage divergence time. However, we identified strong antennal responses for some chemicals that are present as major compounds in the perfume of the same species, thus suggesting that sensory specialization has occurred within multiple lineages. This sensory specialization was particularly apparent for semi-volatile molecules ('base note' compounds), thus supporting the idea that such compounds play an important role in chemical signaling of euglossine bees. Overall, our study found no close correspondence between antennal responses and behavioral

  1. Inhibition of Inflammation-Associated Olfactory Loss by Etanercept in an Inducible Olfactory Inflammation Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Gi; Lane, Andrew P

    2016-06-01

    To determine the effect of a soluble human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) receptor blocker (etanercept) on an inducible olfactory inflammation (IOI) mouse model. An in vivo study using a transgenic mouse model. Research laboratory. To study the impact of chronic inflammation on the olfactory system, a transgenic mouse model of chronic rhinosinusitis-associated olfactory loss was utilized (IOI mouse), expressing TNF-α in a temporally controlled fashion within the olfactory epithelium. In one group of mice (n = 4), etanercept was injected intraperitoneally (100 μg/dose, 3 times/week) concurrent with a 2-week period of TNF-α expression. A second group of mice (n = 2) underwent induction of TNF-α expression for 8 weeks, with etanercept treatment administered during the final 2 weeks of inflammation. Olfactory function was assayed by elecro-olfactogram (EOG), and olfactory tissue was processed for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Each group was compared with an equal-number control group. Compared with nontreated IOI mice, etanercept-treated IOI mice showed significantly improved EOG responses after 2 weeks (P loss of olfactory epithelium and no EOG response in nontreated IOI mice. However, in etanercept-treated mice, regeneration of olfactory epithelium was observed. Concomitant administration of etanercept in IOI mice results in interruption of TNF-α-induced olfactory loss and induction of neuroepithelial regeneration. This demonstrates that etanercept has potential utility as a tool for elucidating the role of TNF-α in other olfactory inflammation models. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  2. Not all sharks are "swimming noses": variation in olfactory bulb size in cartilaginous fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopak, Kara E; Lisney, Thomas J; Collin, Shaun P

    2015-03-01

    Olfaction is a universal modality by which all animals sample chemical stimuli from their environment. In cartilaginous fishes, olfaction is critical for various survival tasks including localizing prey, avoiding predators, and chemosensory communication with conspecifics. Little is known, however, about interspecific variation in olfactory capability in these fishes, or whether the relative importance of olfaction in relation to other sensory systems varies with regard to ecological factors, such as habitat and lifestyle. In this study, we have addressed these questions by directly examining interspecific variation in the size of the olfactory bulbs (OB), the region of the brain that receives the primary sensory projections from the olfactory nerve, in 58 species of cartilaginous fishes. Relative OB size was compared among species occupying different ecological niches. Our results show that the OBs maintain a substantial level of allometric independence from the rest of the brain across cartilaginous fishes and that OB size is highly variable among species. These findings are supported by phylogenetic generalized least-squares models, which show that this variability is correlated with ecological niche, particularly habitat. The relatively largest OBs were found in pelagic-coastal/oceanic sharks, especially migratory species such as Carcharodon carcharias and Galeocerdo cuvier. Deep-sea species also possess large OBs, suggesting a greater reliance on olfaction in habitats where vision may be compromised. In contrast, the smallest OBs were found in the majority of reef-associated species, including sharks from the families Carcharhinidae and Hemiscyllidae and dasyatid batoids. These results suggest that there is great variability in the degree to which these fishes rely on olfactory cues. The OBs have been widely used as a neuroanatomical proxy for olfactory capability in vertebrates, and we speculate that differences in olfactory capabilities may be the result of

  3. Intermittent morphine treatment induces a long-lasting increase in cholinergic modulation of GABAergic synapses in nucleus accumbens of adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rover, M.; Lodder, J.C.; Schoffelmeer, A.N.M.; Brussaard, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse causes persistent behavioral sensitization and associated adaptations of striatal neurotransmission, which is thought to play an important role in certain aspects of drug addiction. Microdialysis and neurochemical studies suggest that intermittent morphine

  4. SMELL-S and SMELL-R: Olfactory tests not influenced by odor-specific insensitivity or prior olfactory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Julien W; Keller, Andreas; Wong, Michele; Jiang, Rong-San; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2017-10-24

    Smell dysfunction is a common and underdiagnosed medical condition that can have serious consequences. It is also an early biomarker of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, where olfactory deficits precede detectable memory loss. Clinical tests that evaluate the sense of smell face two major challenges. First, human sensitivity to individual odorants varies significantly, so test results may be unreliable in people with low sensitivity to a test odorant but an otherwise normal sense of smell. Second, prior familiarity with odor stimuli can bias smell test performance. We have developed nonsemantic tests for olfactory sensitivity (SMELL-S) and olfactory resolution (SMELL-R) that use mixtures of odorants that have unfamiliar smells. The tests can be self-administered by healthy individuals with minimal training and show high test-retest reliability. Because SMELL-S uses odor mixtures rather than a single molecule, odor-specific insensitivity is averaged out, and the test accurately distinguished people with normal and dysfunctional smell. SMELL-R is a discrimination test in which the difference between two stimulus mixtures can be altered stepwise. This is an advance over current discrimination tests, which ask subjects to discriminate monomolecular odorants whose difference in odor cannot be quantified. SMELL-R showed significantly less bias in scores between North American and Taiwanese subjects than conventional semantically based smell tests that need to be adapted to different languages and cultures. Based on these proof-of-principle results in healthy individuals, we predict that SMELL-S and SMELL-R will be broadly effective in diagnosing smell dysfunction. Published under the PNAS license.

  5. SMELL-S and SMELL-R: Olfactory tests not influenced by odor-specific insensitivity or prior olfactory experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rong-San

    2017-01-01

    Smell dysfunction is a common and underdiagnosed medical condition that can have serious consequences. It is also an early biomarker of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, where olfactory deficits precede detectable memory loss. Clinical tests that evaluate the sense of smell face two major challenges. First, human sensitivity to individual odorants varies significantly, so test results may be unreliable in people with low sensitivity to a test odorant but an otherwise normal sense of smell. Second, prior familiarity with odor stimuli can bias smell test performance. We have developed nonsemantic tests for olfactory sensitivity (SMELL-S) and olfactory resolution (SMELL-R) that use mixtures of odorants that have unfamiliar smells. The tests can be self-administered by healthy individuals with minimal training and show high test–retest reliability. Because SMELL-S uses odor mixtures rather than a single molecule, odor-specific insensitivity is averaged out, and the test accurately distinguished people with normal and dysfunctional smell. SMELL-R is a discrimination test in which the difference between two stimulus mixtures can be altered stepwise. This is an advance over current discrimination tests, which ask subjects to discriminate monomolecular odorants whose difference in odor cannot be quantified. SMELL-R showed significantly less bias in scores between North American and Taiwanese subjects than conventional semantically based smell tests that need to be adapted to different languages and cultures. Based on these proof-of-principle results in healthy individuals, we predict that SMELL-S and SMELL-R will be broadly effective in diagnosing smell dysfunction. PMID:29073044

  6. The effect of holes in long-lasting insecticidal nets on malaria in Malawi: results from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minta, Anna A; Landman, Keren Z; Mwandama, Dyson A; Shah, Monica P; Eng, Jodi L Vanden; Sutcliffe, James F; Chisaka, Joseph; Lindblade, Kim A; Mathanga, Don P; Steinhardt, Laura C

    2017-10-02

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are a cornerstone of malaria prevention. Holes develop in LLINs over time and compromise their physical integrity, but how holes affect malaria transmission risk is not well known. After a nationwide mass LLIN distribution in July 2012, a study was conducted to assess the relationship between LLIN damage and malaria. From March to September 2013, febrile children ages 6-59 months who consistently slept under LLINs (every night for 2 weeks before illness onset) were enrolled in a case-control study at Machinga District Hospital outpatient department. Cases were positive for Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasites by microscopy while controls were negative. Digital photographs of participants' LLINs were analysed using an image-processing programme to measure holes. Total hole area was classified by quartiles and according to the World Health Organization's proportionate hole index (pHI) cut-offs [ 790 cm 2 (too torn)]. Number of holes by location and size, and total hole area, were compared between case and control LLINs using non-parametric analyses and logistic regression. Of 248 LLINs analysed, 97 (39%) were from cases. Overall, 86% of LLINs had at least one hole. The median number of holes of any size was 9 [interquartile range (IQR) 3, 22], and most holes were located in the lower halves of the nets [median 7 (IQR 2, 16)]. There were no differences in number or location of holes between LLINs used by cases and controls. The median total hole area was 10 cm 2 (IQR 2, 125) for control LLINs and 8 cm 2 (IQR 2, 47) for case LLINs (p = 0.10). Based on pHI, 109 (72%) control LLINs and 83 (86%) case LLINs were in "good" condition. Multivariable modeling showed no association between total hole area and malaria, controlling for child age, caregiver education, and iron versus thatched roof houses. LLIN holes were not associated with increased odds of malaria in this study. However, most of the LLINs were in relatively good

  7. Individual and household factors associated with ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets and malaria infection in south-central Ethiopia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deressa, Wakgari

    2017-10-06

    A recent considerable decline in malaria morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is likely to be followed by changes in the practice of effective preventive measures and malaria risk factors. This study aimed to identify determinants of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) ownership and risk of malaria infection. A matched case-control study of 191 case and 377 control households was conducted between October 2014 and November 2015 in Adami Tullu district in south-central Ethiopia. Cases were microscopy or rapid diagnostic test confirmed malaria patients identified at three health centers and nine health posts, and matched on age with two neighbourhood controls. Information was collected on socio-demographic factors, house structure, knowledge on malaria and ownership of LLINs. The logistic regression model was used to determine predictors of LLINs ownership and malaria infection. All cases were infections due to either Plasmodium falciparum (71.2%) or Plasmodium vivax (28.8%). About 31% of the study households had at least one LLINs. Significant determinants of LLINs ownership were household's head malaria knowledge [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-4.22], educational status [read and write (AOR = 6.88, 95% CI 2.30-20.55), primary education or higher (AOR = 5.40, 95% CI 1.57-18.55)], farmer respondent (AOR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.17-0.76), having ≥ 3 sleeping areas (AOR = 6.71, 95% CI 2.40-18.77) and corrugated roof type (AOR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.36-4.58). This study was unable to identify important risk factors of malaria infection with regard to sex, household wealth index, house structure, ownership of LLINs, keeping livestock inside house, staying overnight outdoor or having malaria during the last 6 months. Household socio-economic status, educational status and knowledge on malaria were important predictors of LLINs ownership. Households with farmer respondents were less likely to own LLINs. Addressing these factors

  8. Long-Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks for controlling forest malaria: a community-based trial in a rural area of central Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Duc Thang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In Vietnam, malaria remains a problem in some remote areas located along its international borders and in the central highlands, partly due to the bionomics of the local vector, mainly found in forested areas and less vulnerable to standard control measures. Long Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks (LLIH, a tailored and user-friendly tool for forest workers, may further contribute in reducing the malaria burden. Their effectiveness was tested in a large community-based intervention trial carried out in Ninh Thuan province in Central Vietnam.Thirty villages (population 18,646 were assembled in 20 clusters (1,000 individuals per cluster that were randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group (no LLIH after stratification according to the pre-intervention P. falciparum antibody prevalence ( or =30%. LLIH were distributed to the intervention group in December 2004. For the following 2 years, the incidence of clinical malaria and the prevalence of infection were determined by passive case detection at community level and by bi-annual malariometric surveys. A 2-fold larger effect on malaria incidence in the intervention as compared to the control group was observed. Similarly, malaria prevalence decreased more substantially in the intervention (1.6-fold greater reduction than in the control group. Both for incidence and prevalence, a stronger and earlier effect of the intervention was observed in the high endemicity stratum. The number of malaria cases and infections averted by the intervention overall was estimated at 10.5 per 1,000 persons and 5.6/100 individuals, respectively, for the last half of 2006. In the high endemicity stratum, the impact was much higher, i.e. 29/1000 malaria cases and 15.7 infections/100 individuals averted.LLIH reduced malaria incidence and prevalence in this remote and forested area of Central Vietnam. As the targets of the newly-launched Global Malaria Action Plan include the 75% reduction of the global

  9. Changes in malaria burden and transmission in sentinel sites after the roll-out of long-lasting insecticidal nets in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Manuel W; Reimer, Lisa J; Gideon, Gibson; Koimbu, Gussy; Barnadas, Céline; Makita, Leo; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo

    2016-06-14

    Papua New Guinea exhibits a complex malaria epidemiology due to diversity in malaria parasites, mosquito vectors, human hosts, and their natural environment. Heterogeneities in transmission and burden of malaria at various scales are likely to affect the success of malaria control interventions, and vice-versa. This manuscript assesses changes in malaria prevalence, incidence and transmission in sentinel sites following the first national distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Before and after the distribution of LLINs, data collection in six purposively selected sentinel sites included clinical surveillance in the local health facility, household surveys and entomological surveys. Not all activities were carried out in all sites. Mosquitoes were collected by human landing catches. Diagnosis of malaria infection in humans was done by rapid diagnostic test, light microscopy and PCR for species confirmation. Following the roll-out of LLINs, the average monthly malaria incidence rate dropped from 13/1,000 population to 2/1,000 (incidence rate ratio = 0.12; 95 % CI: 0.09-0.17; P < 0.001). The average population prevalence of malaria decreased from 15.7 % pre-LLIN to 4.8 % post-LLIN (adjusted odds ratio = 0.26; 95 % CI: 0.20-0.33; P < 0.001). In general, reductions in incidence and prevalence were more pronounced in infections with P. falciparum than with P. vivax. Additional morbidity indicators (anaemia, splenomegaly, self-reported fever) showed a decreasing trend in most sites. Mean Anopheles man biting rates decreased from 83 bites/person/night pre-LLIN to 31 post-LLIN (P = 0.008). Anopheles species composition differed between sites but everywhere diversity was lower post-LLIN. In two sites, post-LLIN P. vivax infections in anophelines had decreased but P. falciparum infections had increased despite the opposite observation in humans. LLIN distribution had distinct effects on P. falciparum and P. vivax. Higher resilience of

  10. Gz mediates the long-lasting desensitization of brain CB1 receptors and is essential for cross-tolerance with morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Muñoz María

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the systemic administration of cannabinoids produces antinociception, their chronic use leads to analgesic tolerance as well as cross-tolerance to morphine. These effects are mediated by cannabinoids binding to peripheral, spinal and supraspinal CB1 and CB2 receptors, making it difficult to determine the relevance of each receptor type to these phenomena. However, in the brain, the CB1 receptors (CB1Rs are expressed at high levels in neurons, whereas the expression of CB2Rs is marginal. Thus, CB1Rs mediate the effects of smoked cannabis and are also implicated in emotional behaviors. We have analyzed the production of supraspinal analgesia and the development of tolerance at CB1Rs by the direct injection of a series of cannabinoids into the brain. The influence of the activation of CB1Rs on supraspinal analgesia evoked by morphine was also evaluated. Results Intracerebroventricular (icv administration of cannabinoid receptor agonists, WIN55,212-2, ACEA or methanandamide, generated a dose-dependent analgesia. Notably, a single administration of these compounds brought about profound analgesic tolerance that lasted for more than 14 days. This decrease in the effect of cannabinoid receptor agonists was not mediated by depletion of CB1Rs or the loss of regulated G proteins, but, nevertheless, it was accompanied by reduced morphine analgesia. On the other hand, acute morphine administration produced tolerance that lasted only 3 days and did not affect the CB1R. We found that both neural mu-opioid receptors (MORs and CB1Rs interact with the HINT1-RGSZ module, thereby regulating pertussis toxin-insensitive Gz proteins. In mice with reduced levels of these Gz proteins, the CB1R agonists produced no such desensitization or morphine cross-tolerance. On the other hand, experimental enhancement of Gz signaling enabled an acute icv administration of morphine to produce a long-lasting tolerance at MORs that persisted for more than

  11. Synergistic insecticidal and repellent effects of combined pyrethroid and repellent-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating multi-layer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Nehring, Oliver

    2012-08-01

    New and improved strategies for malaria control and prevention are urgently needed. As a contribution to an optimized personal protection strategy, a novel long-lasting insecticide and repellent-treated net (LLIRN) has been designed by binding combinations of permethrin plus N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or insect repellent 3535 (IR3535), and etofenprox plus DEET, onto fibres of bed net fabric employing a new multi-layer polymer-coating technique. Protective repellent efficacy, toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of 12 LLIRN types have been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti. The novel multi-layer LLIRN design allowed simultaneous embedding at concentrations up to 5,930 mg/m(2) for DEET, 3,408 mg/m(2) for IR3535, 2,296 mg/m(2) for permethrin and 2,349 mg/m(2) for etofenprox, respectively. IR3535 layers prevented co-binding of additional pyrethroid-containing polymer layers, thus making pyrethroids plus DEET LLIRNs an ideal combination. All LLIRNs revealed synergistic insecticidal effects which, when measured against concentration controls of the isolated compounds, were significant in all LLIRN types designed. DEET in DEET plus permethrin LLIRNs significantly (p time from 55 to 75 %, the corresponding 100 % kill time (p time of etofenprox from 42 to 50 % (p = 0.004), the 100 % kill time from 25 to 38 % (p biting protection, even at low concentrations. One hundred percent biting and probing protection of stored LLIRNs was preserved for 83 weeks with the 5,930 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,139 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 72 weeks with the 5,002 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,349 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 63 weeks with the 3,590 mg/m(2) DEET and 1,208 mg/m(2) permethrin LLRN, and for 61 weeks with the 4,711 mg/m(2) DEET and 702 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN. Because 100 % bite protection with up to 75 % quicker contact toxicity of pyrethroids were documented, synergistic toxicological and repellent effects of multi-layer polymer

  12. Traditional nets interfere with the uptake of long-lasting insecticidal nets in the Peruvian Amazon: the relevance of net preference for achieving high coverage and use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru.The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil and Cahuide Health Centres (San Juan district between July 2007 and November 2008. During a first qualitative phase, participant observation and in-depth interviews collected information on key determinants for net preference and use. In a second quantitative phase, a survey among recently confirmed malaria patients evaluated the acceptability and use of both LLINs and traditional nets, and a case control study assessed the association between net preference/use and housing structure (open vs. closed houses.A total of 10 communities were selected for the anthropological fieldwork and 228 households participated in the quantitative studies. In the study area, bed nets are considered part of the housing structure and are therefore required to fulfil specific architectural and social functions, such as providing privacy and shelter, which the newly distributed Olyset® LLINs ultimately did not. The LLINs' failure to meet these criteria could mainly be attributed to their large mesh size, transparency and perceived ineffectiveness to protect against mosquitoes and other insects, resulting in 63.3% of households not using any of the distributed LLINs. Notably, LLIN usage was significantly lower in houses with no interior or exterior walls (35.2% than in those with walls (73.8% (OR = 5.2, 95CI [2.2; 12.3], p<0.001.Net preference can interfere with optimal LLIN use. In order to improve the number of effective days of LLIN protection per dollar spent, appropriate quantitative and qualitative

  13. Netting the malaria menace: Distribution and utilization of long-lasting insecticidal net in a malaria endemic area in Bankura, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, D K; Basu, S S; Roy, D; Das, N; Akbar, F; Sarkar, G N

    2016-03-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) is considered to be a highly effective intervention against malaria under National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme in India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the coverage and utilization of LLIN and the factors related thereto. A survey of 1300 households was carried out in Ranibandh block of Bankura district in West Bengal, India, using lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method. Coverage/utilization of 80% was considered as minimum acceptable norm. The weighted sample size was calculated from each village of the block. The sociodemographic, economic information of the household along with the availability and use of LLIN was collected through interview and observation. In total, 7320 individuals including 840 children ≤ 5 yr were visited. Overall coverage of adequate LLIN was 65.4% (± 1.5%) and for children ≤ 5 yr, it was 60.5% (± 1.3%). Overall, 66.1% (± 1.4%) people of all ages and 63.7% (± 1.4%) children ≤ 5 yr slept under LLINs in the night before the survey. Out of 26 sub-centres, distribution of LLINs in 10 sub-centres was below the accepted norm, whereas utilization was sub-optimal in 19 sub-centres. In only 18.2% (± 0.5%) households, LLINs remained hanging during daytime. Poverty, caste, education, perception regarding malarial morbidity and preventive action of LLIN were associated significantly with the distribution of LLIN. Similarly, poverty (AOR = 2.14), threat perception regarding malarial morbidity (AOR = 1.51) and mortality (AOR = 2.52) were positively associated with the use of LLIN. Full utilization of bednets by under-fives of the households was higher in villages with sub-centres. Around two-third population of the study area was effectively covered with LLIN. Higher proportion of socially marginalized people received LLIN. Threat perception regarding malaria was directly associated with both receipt and use of LLIN. Behaviour change communication on utilization along

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccinating children in Malawi with RTS,S vaccines in comparison with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mikyung Kelly; Baker, Peter; Ngo, Karen Ngoc-Lan

    2014-02-24

    New RTS,S malaria vaccines may soon be licensed, yet its cost-effectiveness is unknown. Before the widespread introduction of RTS,S vaccines, cost-effectiveness studies are needed to help inform governments in resource-poor settings about how best to prioritize between the new vaccine and existing malaria interventions. A Markov model simulated malaria progression in a hypothetical Malawian birth cohort. Parameters were based on published data. Three strategies were compared: no intervention, vaccination at one year, and long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) at birth. Both health service and societal perspectives were explored. Health outcomes were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted and costed in 2012 US$. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated and extensive sensitivity analyses were conducted. Three times GDP per capita ($1,095) per DALY averted was used for a cost-effectiveness threshold, whilst one times GDP ($365) was considered 'very cost-effective'. From a societal perspective the vaccine strategy was dominant. It averted 0.11 more DALYs than LLINs and 0.372 more DALYs than the no intervention strategy per person, while costing $10.04 less than LLINs and $59.74 less than no intervention. From a health service perspective the vaccine's ICER was $145.03 per DALY averted, and thus can be considered very cost-effective. The results were robust to changes in all variables except the vaccine and LLINs' duration of efficacy. Vaccines remained cost-effective even at the lowest assumed efficacy levels of 49.6% (mild malaria) and 14.2% (severe malaria), and the highest price of $15. However, from a societal perspective, if the vaccine duration efficacy was set below 2.69 years or the LLIN duration of efficacy was greater than 4.24 years then LLINs became the more cost-effective strategy. The results showed that vaccinating Malawian children with RTS,S vaccines was very cost-effective from both a societal and a

  15. "We are supposed to take care of it": a qualitative examination of care and repair behaviour of long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gabrielle C; Scandurra, Leah; Acosta, Angela; Koenker, Hannah; Obi, Emmanuel; Weber, Rachel

    2014-08-14

    The longevity of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) under field conditions has important implications for malaria vector control. The behaviour of bed net users, including net care and repair, may protect or damage bed nets and impact the physical integrity of nets. However, this behaviour, and the motivating and inhibiting factors, is not well understood. Qualitative research methods were used to examine behaviour, attitudes and norms around damage, care and repair of LLINs. Eighteen in-depth interviews (IDI) and six focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with LLIN users in two local government areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. A brief background questionnaire with the 73 participants prior to IDIs or FGDs collected additional data on demographics, net use, and care and repair behaviour. Respondents cited that the major causes of damage to bed nets are primarily children, followed by rodents, everyday handling that is not gentle, and characteristics of sleeping spaces. Caring for nets was perceived as both preventing damage by careful handling and keeping the net clean, which may lead to over-washing of LLINs. Repairing a damaged net was considered something that net users should do and the responsibility of adults in the household. Despite this, reported frequency of net repair was low (18%). Motivations for taking care of and repairing nets centred around caring for one's family, avoiding mosquito bites, saving money, and maintaining the positive opinion of others by keeping a clean and intact net. Barriers to net care and repair related to time availability and low perceived value of bed nets or of one's health. This study provides novel and valuable insights on the perceptions and attitudes of LLIN users in Nasarawa, Nigeria on the durability of bed nets, how to care for and repair nets, and for what reasons. Communication around net care should stress proper daily storage of nets, regular net inspections, prompt repairs, and clarify misconceptions

  16. An Olfactory Indicator for Acid-Base Titrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N.

    1990-01-01

    The use of an olfactory acid-base indicator in titrations for visually impaired students is discussed. Potential olfactory indicators include eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and thiophenol. Titrations performed with each indicator with eugenol proved to be successful. (KR)

  17. Olfactory transduction pathways in the Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Z; Hubbard, P C; Barata, E N; Canário, A V M

    2013-09-01

    This study tested whether differences in sensitivity between the upper and lower olfactory epithelia of Solea senegalensis are associated with different odorant receptors and transduction pathways, using the electro-olfactogram. Receptor mechanisms were assessed by cross-adaptation with amino acids (L-cysteine, L-phenylalanine and 1-methyl-L-tryptophan) and bile acids (taurocholic acid and cholic acid). This suggested that relatively specific receptors exist for 1-methyl-L-tryptophan and L-phenylalanine (food-related odorants) in the lower epithelium, and for taurocholic acid (conspecific-derived odorant) in the upper. Inhibition by U73122 [a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor] suggested that olfactory responses to amino acids were mediated mostly, but not entirely, by PLC-mediated transduction (IC50 ; 15-55 nM), whereas bile acid responses were mediated by both PLC and adenylate cyclase-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AC-cAMP) (using SQ-22536; an AC inhibitor). Simultaneous application of both drugs rarely inhibited responses completely, suggesting possible involvement of non-PLC and non-AC mediated mechanisms. For aromatic amino acids and bile acids, there were differences in the contribution of each transduction pathway (PLC, AC and non-PLC and non-AC) between the two epithelia. These results suggest that differences in sensitivity of the two epithelia are associated with differences in odorant receptors and transduction mechanisms. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Neural Correlates of Olfactory Learning: Critical Role of Centrifugal Neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Max L.; Chen, Wei R.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory system is well established for its remarkable capability of undergoing experience-dependent plasticity. Although this process involves changes at multiple stages throughout the central olfactory pathway, even the early stages of processing, such as the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex, can display a high degree of…

  19. Development of the ETOC: a European test of olfactory capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas-Danguin, T.; Rouby, C.; Sicard, G.; Vigouroux, M.; Farget, V.; Johanson, A.; Bengtzon, A.; Hall, G.; Ormel, W.; Graaf, de C.; Rousseau, F.; Dumont, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    A number of smell tests designed to evaluate human olfactory capabilities have been published, but none have been validated cross-culturally. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a reliable and quick olfactory test that could be used to evaluate efficiently the olfactory abilities of a

  20. Olfactory circuits and behaviors of nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sophie; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-12-01

    Over one billion people worldwide are infected with parasitic nematodes. Many parasitic nematodes actively search for hosts to infect using volatile chemical cues, so understanding the olfactory signals that drive host seeking may elucidate new pathways for preventing infections. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model for parasitic nematodes: because sensory neuroanatomy is conserved across nematode species, an understanding of the microcircuits that mediate olfaction in C. elegans may inform studies of olfaction in parasitic nematodes. Here we review circuit mechanisms that allow C. elegans to respond to odorants, gases, and pheromones. We also highlight work on the olfactory behaviors of parasitic nematodes that lays the groundwork for future studies of their olfactory microcircuits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibitory neurotransmission and olfactory memory in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hassani, Abdessalam Kacimi; Giurfa, Martin; Gauthier, Monique; Armengaud, Catherine

    2008-11-01

    In insects, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission through ligand-gated chloride channel receptors. Both GABA and glutamate have been identified in the olfactory circuit of the honeybee. Here we investigated the role of inhibitory transmission mediated by GABA and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in olfactory learning and memory in honeybees. We combined olfactory conditioning with injection of ivermectin, an agonist of GluCl receptors. We also injected a blocker of glutamate transporters (L-trans-PDC) or a GABA analog (TACA). We measured acquisition and retention 1, 24 and 48 h after the last acquisition trial. A low dose of ivermectin (0.01 ng/bee) impaired long-term olfactory memory (48 h) while a higher dose (0.05 ng/bee) had no effect. Double injections of ivermectin and L-trans-PDC or TACA had different effects on memory retention, depending on the doses and agents combined. When the low dose of ivermectin was injected after Ringer, long-term memory was again impaired (48 h). Such an effect was rescued by injection of both TACA and L-trans-PDC. A combination of the higher dose of ivermectin and TACA decreased retention at 48 h. We interpret these results as reflecting the involvement of both GluCl and GABA receptors in the impairment of olfactory long-term memory induced by ivermectin. These results illustrate the diversity of inhibitory transmission and its implication in long-term olfactory memory in honeybees.

  2. Linking adult olfactory neurogenesis to social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E Feierstein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the adult brain, new neurons are added to two brain areas: the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. Newly-generated neurons integrate into the preexisting circuits, bringing a set of unique properties, such as increased plasticity and responsiveness to stimuli. However, the functional implications of the constant addition of these neurons remain unclear, although they are believed to be important for learning and memory. The levels of neurogenesis are regulated by a variety of environmental factors, as well as during learning, suggesting that new neurons could be important for coping with changing environmental demands. Notably, neurogenesis has been shown to be physiologically regulated in relation to reproductive behavior: neurogenesis increases in female mice upon exposure to cues of the mating partners, during pregnancy and lactation, and in male mice upon exposure to their offspring. In this scenario, and because of the key contribution of olfaction to maternal behavior, we sought to investigate the contribution of adult-generated neurons in the olfactory system to maternal behavior and offspring recognition. To do so, we selectively disrupted neurogenesis in the olfactory pathway of female mice using focal irradiation. Disruption of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb did not affect maternal behavior, or the ability of female mice to discriminate familiar from unfamiliar pups. However, reduction of olfactory neurogenesis resulted in abnormal social interaction of female mice, specifically with male conspecifics. Because the olfactory system is crucial for sex recognition, we suggest that the abnormal interaction with males could result from the inability to detect or discriminate male-specific odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Here, I review the results of this and other studies, and discuss their implications for our understanding of the function of adult neurogenesis.

  3. Enhanced olfactory sensitivity in autism spectrum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Chris; Chapman, Emma; Howells, Jessica; Rhydderch, Danielle; Walker, Ian; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    People with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) report heightened olfaction. Previous sensory experiments in people with ASC have reported hypersensitivity across visual, tactile, and auditory domains, but not olfaction. The aims of the present study were to investigate olfactory sensitivity in ASC, and to test the association of sensitivity to autistic traits. We recruited 17 adult males diagnosed with ASC and 17 typical adult male controls and tested their olfactory sensitivity using the Alcohol Sniff Test (AST), a standardised clinical evaluation of olfactory detection. The AST involves varying the distance between subject and stimulus until an odour is barely detected. Participants with ASC also completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) as a measure of autism traits. The ASC group detected the odour at a mean distance of 24.1 cm (SD =11.5) from the nose, compared to the control group, who detected it at a significantly shorter mean distance of 14.4 cm (SD =5.9). Detection distance was independent of age and IQ for both groups, but showed a significant positive correlation with autistic traits in the ASC group (r =0.522). This is the first experimental demonstration, as far as the authors are aware, of superior olfactory perception in ASC and showing that greater olfactory sensitivity is correlated with a higher number of autistic traits. This is consistent with results from previous findings showing hypersensitivity in other sensory domains and may help explain anecdotal and questionnaire accounts of heightened olfactory sensitivity in ASC. Results are discussed in terms of possible underlying neurophysiology.

  4. Implications of bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides when indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide nets are combined for malaria prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumu Fredros O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bio-efficacy and residual activity of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs were assessed against laboratory-reared and wild populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis in south eastern Tanzania. Implications of the findings are examined in the context of potential synergies and redundancies where IRS and LLINs are combined. Methods Bioassays were conducted monthly for six months on three LLIN types (Olyset® PermaNet 2.0®,and Icon Life® and three IRS treatments (2 g/m2 pirimiphos-methyl, 2 g/m2 DDT and 0.03 g/m2 lambda-cyhalothrin, sprayed on mud walls and palm ceilings of experimental huts. Tests used susceptible laboratory-reared An. arabiensis exposed in cones (nets and IRS or wire balls (nets only. Susceptibility of wild populations was assessed using WHO diagnostic concentrations and PCR for knock-down resistance (kdr genes. Results IRS treatments killed ≥ 85% of mosquitoes exposed on palm ceilings and ≥ 90% of those exposed on mud walls, but up to 50% of this toxicity decayed within 1–3 months, except for DDT. By 6th month, only 7.5%, 42.5% and 30.0% of mosquitoes died when exposed to ceilings sprayed with pirimiphos-methyl, DDT or lambda-cyhalothrin respectively, while 12.5%, 36.0% and 27.5% died after exposure to mud walls sprayed with the same insecticides. In wire-ball assays, mortality decreased from 98.1% in 1st month to 92.6% in 6th month in tests on PermaNet 2.0®, from 100% to 61.1% on Icon Life® and from 93.2% to 33.3% on Olyset® nets. In cone bioassays, mortality reduced from 92.8% in 1st month to 83.3% in 6th month on PermaNet 2.0®, from 96.9% to 43.80% on Icon Life® and from 85.6% to 14.6% on Olyset®. Wild An. arabiensis were 100% susceptible to DDT, 95.8% to deltamethrin, 90.2% to lambda cyhalothrin and 95.2% susceptible to permethrin. No kdr gene mutations were detected. Conclusions In bioassays where sufficient contact with

  5. Implications of bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides when indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide nets are combined for malaria prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Fredros O; Chipwaza, Beatrice; Madumla, Edith P; Mbeyela, Edgar; Lingamba, Geoffrey; Moore, Jason; Ntamatungro, Alex J; Kavishe, Deo R; Moore, Sarah J

    2012-11-19

    Bio-efficacy and residual activity of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) were assessed against laboratory-reared and wild populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis in south eastern Tanzania. Implications of the findings are examined in the context of potential synergies and redundancies where IRS and LLINs are combined. Bioassays were conducted monthly for six months on three LLIN types (Olyset® PermaNet 2.0®,and Icon Life®) and three IRS treatments (2 g/m2 pirimiphos-methyl, 2 g/m2 DDT and 0.03 g/m2 lambda-cyhalothrin, sprayed on mud walls and palm ceilings of experimental huts). Tests used susceptible laboratory-reared An. arabiensis exposed in cones (nets and IRS) or wire balls (nets only). Susceptibility of wild populations was assessed using WHO diagnostic concentrations and PCR for knock-down resistance (kdr) genes. IRS treatments killed ≥ 85% of mosquitoes exposed on palm ceilings and ≥ 90% of those exposed on mud walls, but up to 50% of this toxicity decayed within 1-3 months, except for DDT. By 6th month, only 7.5%, 42.5% and 30.0% of mosquitoes died when exposed to ceilings sprayed with pirimiphos-methyl, DDT or lambda-cyhalothrin respectively, while 12.5%, 36.0% and 27.5% died after exposure to mud walls sprayed with the same insecticides. In wire-ball assays, mortality decreased from 98.1% in 1st month to 92.6% in 6th month in tests on PermaNet 2.0®, from 100% to 61.1% on Icon Life® and from 93.2% to 33.3% on Olyset® nets. In cone bioassays, mortality reduced from 92.8% in 1st month to 83.3% in 6th month on PermaNet 2.0®, from 96.9% to 43.80% on Icon Life® and from 85.6% to 14.6% on Olyset®. Wild An. arabiensis were 100% susceptible to DDT, 95.8% to deltamethrin, 90.2% to lambda cyhalothrin and 95.2% susceptible to permethrin. No kdr gene mutations were detected. In bioassays where sufficient contact with treated surfaces is assured, LLINs and IRS kill high

  6. Olfactory sensations produced by high-energy photon irradiation of the olfactory receptor mucosa in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, S.M.; Thomas, R.J.; Loverock, L.T.; Spittle, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    During irradiation of volumes that incorporate the olfactory system, a proportion of patients have complained of a pungent smell. A retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of this side-effect. A questionnaire was sent to 40 patients whose treatment volumes included the olfactory region and also to a control group treated away from this region. The irradiated tumor volumes included the frontal lobe, whole brain, nasopharynx, pituitary fossa, and maxillary antrum. Of the 25 patients who replied, 60% experienced odorous symptoms during irradiation. They described the odor as unpleasant and consistent with ozone. Stimulation of olfactory receptors is considered to be caused by the radiochemical formation of ozone and free radicals in the mucus overlying the olfactory mucosa

  7. Specific olfactory receptor populations projecting to identified glomeruli in the rat olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Pedersen, P E; Greer, C A; Stewart, W B; Kauer, J S; Benson, T E; Shepherd, G M

    1984-08-01

    A critical gap exists in our knowledge of the topographical relationship between the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb. The present report describes the application to this problem of a method involving horseradish peroxidase conjugated to wheat germ agglutinin. This material was iontophoretically delivered to circumscribed glomeruli in the olfactory bulb and the characteristics and distribution of retrogradely labeled receptor cells were assessed. After discrete injections into small glomerular groups in the caudomedial bulb, topographically defined populations of receptor cells were labeled. Labeled receptor cell somata appeared at several levels within the epithelium. The receptor cell apical dendrites followed a tight helical course towards the surface of the epithelium. The data thus far demonstrate that functional units within the olfactory system may include not only glomeruli as previously suggested but, in addition, a corresponding matrix of receptor cells possessing functional and topographical specificity.

  8. Differential odor processing in two olfactory pathways in the honeybee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Yamagata

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An important component in understanding central olfactory processing and coding in the insect brain relates to the characterization of the functional divisions between morphologically distinct types of projection neurons (PN. Using calcium imaging, we investigated how the identity, concentration and mixtures of odors are represented in axon terminals (boutons of two types of PNs - lPN and mPN. In lPN boutons we found less concentration dependence, narrow tuning profiles at a high concentration, which may be optimized for fine, concentration-invariant odor discrimination. In mPN boutons, however, we found clear rising concentration dependence, broader tuning profiles at a high concentration, which may be optimized for concentration coding. In addition, we found more mixture suppression in lPNs than in mPNs, indicating lPNs better adaptation for synthetic mixture processing. These results suggest a functional division of odor processing in both PN types.

  9. Olfactory disfunction and its relation olfactory bulb volume in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinayar, S; Oner, S; Can, S; Kizilay, A; Kamisli, S; Sarac, K

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is the most frequently seen non-motor symptom of Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). The aim of this study is to analyze selective olfactory dysfunction, and olfactory bulb volume (OBV) in subtypes of IPD, and compare them with those of the healthy controls. Our study included 41 patients with IPD and age and gender matched 19 healthy controls. IPD patients were either tremor dominant (65.9%; TDPD) or non-tremor dominant (34.1%; NTDPD) type. All patients underwent neurological, ear, nose, and throat examinations, and orthonasal olfaction testing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique was used to measure the volume of the olfactory bulb. A significant decrease in olfactory identification scores was found in the patient group. The patients had difficulty in discriminating between odors of mothballs, chocolate, Turkish coffee and soap. OBV did not differ between the patient, and the control groups. In the TDPD group, odor identification ability was decreased when compared to the control group. However, odor test results of NTDPD, control and TDPD groups were similar. OBV estimates of the TDPD group were not different from those of the control group, while in the NTDPD group OBVs were found to be decreased. In all patients with Parkinson's disease OBV values did not vary with age of the patients, duration of the disease, age at onset of the disease, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores (UPDRS-m). Olfactory function is a complex process involving olfactory, and cortical structures as well. In Idiopathic Parkinson's disease, changes in OBV do not seem to be directly related to olfactory dysfunction.

  10. Learning-dependent neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb determines long-term olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, S; Mandairon, N; Kermen, F; Garcia, S; Sacquet, J; Didier, A

    2010-07-01

    Inhibitory interneurons of the olfactory bulb are subjected to permanent adult neurogenesis. Their number is modulated by learning, suggesting that they could play a role in plastic changes of the bulbar network associated with olfactory memory. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were trained in an associative olfactory task, and we analyzed long-term retention of the task 5, 30, and 90 d post-training. In parallel, we assessed the fate of these newborn cells, mapped their distribution in the olfactory bulb and measured their functional implication using the immediate early gene Zif268. In a second set of experiments, we pharmacologically modulated glutamatergic transmission and using the same behavioral task assessed the consequences on memory retention and neurogenesis. Finally, by local infusion of an antimitotic drug, we selectively blocked neurogenesis during acquisition of the task and looked at the effects on memory retention. First we demonstrated that retrieval of an associative olfactory task recruits the newborn neurons in odor-specific areas of the olfactory bulb selected to survive during acquisition of the task and that it does this in a manner that depends on the strength of learning. We then demonstrated that acquisition is not dependent on neurogenesis if long-term retention of the task is abolished by blocking neurogenesis. Adult-born neurons are thus involved in changes in the neural representation of an odor; this underlies long-term olfactory memory as the strength of learning is linked to the duration of this memory. Neurogenesis thus plays a crucial role in long-term olfactory memory.

  11. Functional Neuroanatomy of "Drosophila" Olfactory Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Davis, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying "Drosophila" learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive…

  12. Resistance to Interference of Olfactory Perceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.; Tomiczek, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Olfactory memory is especially persistent. The current study explored whether this applies to a form of perceptual learning, in which experience of an odor mixture results in greater judged similarity between its elements. Experiment 1A contrasted 2 forms of interference procedure, "compound" (mixture AW, followed by presentation of new mixtures…

  13. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Neuromodulation of Olfactory Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizbinski, Kristyn M; Dacks, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    Neuromodulation is a ubiquitous feature of neural systems, allowing flexible, context specific control over network dynamics. Neuromodulation was first described in invertebrate motor systems and early work established a basic dichotomy for neuromodulation as having either an intrinsic origin (i.e., neurons that participate in network coding) or an extrinsic origin (i.e., neurons from independent networks). In this conceptual dichotomy, intrinsic sources of neuromodulation provide a "memory" by adjusting network dynamics based upon previous and ongoing activation of the network itself, while extrinsic neuromodulators provide the context of ongoing activity of other neural networks. Although this dichotomy has been thoroughly considered in motor systems, it has received far less attention in sensory systems. In this review, we discuss intrinsic and extrinsic modulation in the context of olfactory processing in invertebrate and vertebrate model systems. We begin by discussing presynaptic modulation of olfactory sensory neurons by local interneurons (LNs) as a mechanism for gain control based on ongoing network activation. We then discuss the cell-class specific effects of serotonergic centrifugal neurons on olfactory processing. Finally, we briefly discuss the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic neuromodulation (metamodulation) as an effective mechanism for exerting global control over olfactory network dynamics. The heterogeneous nature of neuromodulation is a recurring theme throughout this review as the effects of both intrinsic and extrinsic modulation are generally non-uniform.

  14. Olfactory receptors in non-chemosensory tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaNa Kang & JaeHyung Koo*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptors (ORs detect volatile chemicals that lead tothe initial perception of smell in the brain. The olfactory receptor(OR is the first protein that recognizes odorants in theolfactory signal pathway and it is present in over 1,000 genesin mice. It is also the largest member of the G protein-coupledreceptors (GPCRs. Most ORs are extensively expressed in thenasal olfactory epithelium where they perform the appropriatephysiological functions that fit their location. However, recentwhole-genome sequencing shows that ORs have been foundoutside of the olfactory system, suggesting that ORs may playan important role in the ectopic expression of non-chemosensorytissues. The ectopic expressions of ORs and their physiologicalfunctions have attracted more attention recently sinceMOR23 and testicular hOR17-4 have been found to be involvedin skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and humansperm chemotaxis, respectively. When identifying additionalexpression profiles and functions of ORs in non-olfactorytissues, there are limitations posed by the small number ofantibodies available for similar OR genes. This review presentsthe results of a research series that identifies ectopic expressionsand functions of ORs in non-chemosensory tissues toprovide insight into future research directions.

  15. Measures of Malaria Burden after Long-Lasting Insecticidal Net Distribution and Indoor Residual Spraying at Three Sites in Uganda: A Prospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katureebe, Agaba; Zinszer, Kate; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Charland, Katia; Kigozi, Ruth; Kilama, Maxwell; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Yeka, Adoke; Mawejje, Henry; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Donnelly, Martin J.; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Lindsay, Steve W.; Staedke, Sarah G.; Smith, David L.; Kamya, Moses R.; Dorsey, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) are the primary vector control interventions used to prevent malaria in Africa. Although both interventions are effective in some settings, high-quality evidence is rarely available to evaluate their effectiveness following deployment by a national malaria control program. In Uganda, we measured changes in key malaria indicators following universal LLIN distribution in three sites, with the addition of IRS at one of these sites. Methods and Findings Comprehensive malaria surveillance was conducted from October 1, 2011, to March 31, 2016, in three sub-counties with relatively low (Walukuba), moderate (Kihihi), and high transmission (Nagongera). Between 2013 and 2014, universal LLIN distribution campaigns were conducted in all sites, and in December 2014, IRS with the carbamate bendiocarb was initiated in Nagongera. High-quality surveillance evaluated malaria metrics and mosquito exposure before and after interventions through (a) enhanced health-facility-based surveillance to estimate malaria test positivity rate (TPR), expressed as the number testing positive for malaria/number tested for malaria (number of children tested for malaria: Walukuba = 42,833, Kihihi = 28,790, and Nagongera = 38,690); (b) cohort studies to estimate the incidence of malaria, expressed as the number of episodes per person-year [PPY] at risk (number of children observed: Walukuba = 340, Kihihi = 380, and Nagongera = 361); and (c) entomology surveys to estimate household-level human biting rate (HBR), expressed as the number of female Anopheles mosquitoes collected per house-night of collection (number of households observed: Walukuba = 117, Kihihi = 107, and Nagongera = 107). The LLIN distribution campaign substantially increased LLIN coverage levels at the three sites to between 65.0% and 95.5% of households with at least one LLIN. In Walukuba, over the 28-mo post-intervention period

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of olfactory neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iio, Mitsuhiro; Homma, Akihiro; Furuta, Yasushi; Fukuda, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma is an uncommon intranasal tumor originating from olfactory neuroepithelium. Despite the development of electron microscopy and immunohistochemical testing, the pathological diagnosis of this tumor is still difficult because of the wide range of histological features. Magnetic resonance imaging (MR) of this tumor and the pattern of contrast enhancement have not been well described. The purpose of this report was to analyze the MR characteristics of olfactory neuroblastomas. The MR signal, pattern of contrast enhancement, and correlation with high-resolution computed tomography (CT) imaging were examined. Seventeen patients with olfactory neuroblastoma were treated at Hokkaido University Hospital and a related hospital during the past 25 years. MR images taken in 12 patients and CT images taken in 9 patients with histologically confirmed olfactory neuroblastoma were retrospectively reviewed. Compared with brain gray matter, 11 tumors were hypointense on T1-weighted images, 9 homogeneously and 2 heterogeneously. Eight tumors were hyperintense on T2-weighted images, 3 homogeneously and 5 heterogeneously, although their appearance was less intense than that of sinusitis. Gadolinium enhancement was moderate in one case and marked in 10 of the 11 cases, 9 homogeneously and 2 heterogeneously. Nine of the 11 tumors showed smooth regular shaped margins; 2 of these tumors exhibited irregular infiltrating margins on gadolinium-enhanced images, compared to the pre-contrast T1-weighted images. Eight of the 11 tumors had clearly demarcated margins, while 3 of the 11 tumors did not exhibit gadolinium enhancement. Six of the 12 cases (50%) exhibited intracranial cysts on the gadolinium-enhanced images. T2-weighted or gadolinium-enhanced images successfully distinguished sinusitis from tumors in 4 cases whereas the CT images failed. Gadolinium enhancement, particularly in the tangential plane, demonstrated intracranial extension not apparent on the CT images

  17. Phylogenic aspects of the amphibian dual olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kazumi; Saito, Shouichiro; Oikawa, Toshihiro; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenic significance of the subdivision of dual olfactory system is reviewed mainly on the basis of our findings by electron microscopy and lectin histochemistry in the three amphibian species. The dual olfactory system is present in common in these species and consists of the projection from the olfactory epithelium (OE) to the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and that from the vomeronasal epithelium (VNE) to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The phylogenic significance of subdivisions in the dual olfactory system in the amphibian must differently be interpreted. The subdivision of the MOB into its dorsal region (D-MOB) and ventral region (V-MOB) in Xenopus laevis must be attributed to the primitive features in their olfactory receptors. The middle cavity epithelium lining the middle cavity of this frog possesses both ciliated sensory cells and microvillous sensory cells, reminding the OE in fish. The subdivision of the AOB into the rostral (R-AOB) and caudal part (C-AOB) in Bufo japonicus formosus must be regarded as an advanced characteristic. The lack of subdivisions in both MOB and AOB in Cynops pyrrhogaster may reflect their phylogenic primitiveness. Since our lectin histochemistry to detect glycoconjugates expressed in the olfactory pathway reveals the subdivisions in the dual olfactory system in the amphibian, the glycoconjugates may deeply participate in the organization and function of olfactory pathways in phylogeny.

  18. Sevoflurane impairs post-operative olfactory memory but preserves olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Kesidis, Kyriakos; Matsota, Paraskevi; Dima, Cleanthi; Economou, Maria; Papageorgiou, Charalambos

    2011-01-01

    The effect of anaesthesia on olfaction has not been systematically studied. Our aim is to compare the effects of general and regional anaesthesia on olfactory acuity and memory in the immediate post-operative period. Sixty adult patients with the American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II status scheduled for elective minor surgery were included. Exclusion criteria were smoking, alcoholism, psychiatric disease and recent or past airway infection with resulting hyposmia. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups (in the analysis, n = 16 in each group): epidural anaesthesia (group E), general anaesthesia with propofol (group P) and general anaesthesia with sevoflurane (group S) of 40-120 min duration. The evening before surgery, at 0.5 and at 3 h post-operatively olfactory acuity and memory were tested, along with blood sampling to measure plasma melatonin and oxytocin levels. Olfactory acuity was tested with successive dilutions of n-butyl-alcohol, and olfactory memory (interpretation of odours) with the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Patient characteristics did not differ between groups. Olfactory acuity was intact in all patients, before and after anaesthesia. Olfactory memory deteriorated in group S compared to groups P and E at both post-operative time-points. This was accompanied by a significant post-operative reduction of plasma melatonin levels in group S. Oxytocin levels remained constant in all groups. Our results manifest a specific effect of sevoflurane on olfactory memory, not observed with neuraxial or total intravenous anaesthesia. The misinterpretation of odours in the immediate post-operative period by sevoflurane could be mediated by the decreased levels of melatonin.

  19. The Strengthening Exercises in Shoulder Impingement trial (The SExSI-trial) investigating the effectiveness of a simple add-on shoulder strengthening exercise programme in patients with long-lasting subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Bandholm, Thomas; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal

    2018-01-01

    with pronounced and long-lasting SIS. However, the current rehabilitation of such strength impairments may be inadequate, with novel rehabilitation programmes including exercise therapy only improving external rotation strength by 4-13%. As these previous studies are the basis of current practice, this suggests...... that the strengthening component could be inadequate in the rehabilitation of these patients, and it seems likely that more emphasis should be placed on intensifying this part of the rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a programme consisting of progressive home...... with pronounced and long-lasting SIS, diagnosed using predefined criteria. Participants will be randomised to receive either an add-on intervention of progressive home-based resistance training using an elastic band in addition to usual care or usual care alone in a 1:1 allocation ratio. The randomisation...

  20. The effect of massage therapy and/or exercise therapy on subacute or long-lasting neck pain--the Stockholm neck trial (STONE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillgate, Eva; Bill, Anne-Sylvie; Côté, Pierre; Viklund, Peter; Peterson, Anna; Holm, Lena W

    2015-09-16

    Neck pain is a major health problem in populations worldwide and an economic burden in modern societies due to its high prevalence and costs in terms of health care expenditures and lost productivity. Massage and exercise therapy are widely used management options for neck pain. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding their effectiveness for subacute and long-lasting neck pain. This study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial aiming to determine the effect of massage and/or exercise therapy on subacute and long-lasting neck pain over the course of 1 year. A randomized controlled trial in which at least 600 study participants with subacute or long-lasting nonspecific neck pain will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of four treatment arms: massage therapy (A), exercise therapy (B), exercise therapy plus massage therapy (C) and advice to stay active (D). The study has an E-health approach, and study participants are being recruited through advertising with a mix of traditional and online marketing channels. Web-based self-report questionnaires measure the main outcomes at 7, 12, 26 and 52 weeks after inclusion. The primary outcomes are a clinically important improvement in pain intensity and pain-related disability at follow-up, measured with a modified version of the Chronic Pain Questionnaire (CPQ). The secondary outcomes are global improvement, health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), sick leave, drug consumption and healthcare utilization. Adverse events are measured by questionnaires at return visits to the clinic, and automated text messages (SMSes) survey neck pain intensity and pain-related disability every week over one year. The results of this study will provide clinicians and stakeholders much needed knowledge to plan medical care for subacute and long-lasting neck pain disorders. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN01453590. Date of registration: 3 July 2014.

  1. Post-eclosion odor experience modifies olfactory receptor neuron coding in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Atulya; Chakraborty, Tuhin Subhra; Goswami, Sarit Pati; Wu, Chun-Fang; Siddiqi, Obaid

    2010-05-25

    Olfactory responses of Drosophila undergo pronounced changes after eclosion. The flies develop attraction to odors to which they are exposed and aversion to other odors. Behavioral adaptation is correlated with changes in the firing pattern of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). In this article, we present an information-theoretic analysis of the firing pattern of ORNs. Flies reared in a synthetic odorless medium were transferred after eclosion to three different media: (i) a synthetic medium relatively devoid of odor cues, (ii) synthetic medium infused with a single odorant, and (iii) complex cornmeal medium rich in odors. Recordings were made from an identified sensillum (type II), and the Jensen-Shannon divergence (D(JS)) was used to assess quantitatively the differences between ensemble spike responses to different odors. Analysis shows that prolonged exposure to ethyl acetate and several related esters increases sensitivity to these esters but does not improve the ability of the fly to distinguish between them. Flies exposed to cornmeal display varied sensitivity to these odorants and at the same time develop greater capacity to distinguish between odors. Deprivation of odor experience on an odorless synthetic medium leads to a loss of both sensitivity and acuity. Rich olfactory experience thus helps to shape the ORNs response and enhances its discriminative power. The experiments presented here demonstrate an experience-dependent adaptation at the level of the receptor neuron.

  2. Efficient olfactory coding in the pheromone receptor neuron of a moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomir Kostal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of coding efficiency holds that sensory neurons are adapted, through both evolutionary and developmental processes, to the statistical characteristics of their natural stimulus. Encouraged by the successful invocation of this principle to predict how neurons encode natural auditory and visual stimuli, we attempted its application to olfactory neurons. The pheromone receptor neuron of the male moth Antheraea polyphemus, for which quantitative properties of both the natural stimulus and the reception processes are available, was selected. We predicted several characteristics that the pheromone plume should possess under the hypothesis that the receptors perform optimally, i.e., transfer as much information on the stimulus per unit time as possible. Our results demonstrate that the statistical characteristics of the predicted stimulus, e.g., the probability distribution function of the stimulus concentration, the spectral density function of the stimulation course, and the intermittency, are in good agreement with those measured experimentally in the field. These results should stimulate further quantitative studies on the evolutionary adaptation of olfactory nervous systems to odorant plumes and on the plume characteristics that are most informative for the 'sniffer'. Both aspects are relevant to the design of olfactory sensors for odour-tracking robots.

  3. Olfactory bulb proteins linked to olfactory memory in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Mauric, Veronika; Zheng, Jun-Fang; Kang, Sung Ung; Patil, Sudarshan; Höger, Harald; Lubec, Gert

    2010-08-01

    Information on systematic analysis of olfactory memory-related proteins is poor. In this study, the odor discrimination task to investigate olfactory recognition memory of adult male C57BL/6J mice was used. Subsequently, olfactory bulbs (OBs) were taken, proteins extracted, and run on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with in-gel-protein digestion, followed by mass spectrometry and quantification of differentially expressed proteins. Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1), dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 1 (DRP1), and fascin are related with Lemon odor memory. Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 3 is related to Rose odor memory. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase is related with both Lemon and Rose odors memory. MEK1 and DRP1 levels were increased, while microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 3, fascin and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase levels were decreased during olfactory memory. In summary, neurogenesis, signal transduction, cytoskeleton, and nucleotide metabolism are involved in olfactory memory formation and storage of C57BL/6J mice.

  4. Nested Expression Domains for Odorant Receptors in Zebrafish Olfactory Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weth, Franco; Nadler, Walter; Korsching, Sigrun

    1996-11-01

    The mapping of high-dimensional olfactory stimuli onto the two-dimensional surface of the nasal sensory epithelium constitutes the first step in the neuronal encoding of olfactory input. We have used zebrafish as a model system to analyze the spatial distribution of odorant receptor molecules in the olfactory epithelium by quantitative in situ hybridization. To this end, we have cloned 10 very divergent zebrafish odorant receptor molecules by PCR. Individual genes are expressed in sparse olfactory receptor neurons. Analysis of the position of labeled cells in a simplified coordinate system revealed three concentric, albeit overlapping, expression domains for the four odorant receptors analyzed in detail. Such regionalized expression should result in a corresponding segregation of functional response properties. This might represent the first step of spatial encoding of olfactory input or be essential for the development of the olfactory system.

  5. File list: Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  8. Olfactory neuroblastoma complicated by postirradiation pneumocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusejima, Toru; Matsumura, Kenichirou; Hayano, Makoto [Mito Saiseikai Hospital (Japan)

    1990-11-01

    A 56-year-old male was admitted with the complaints of nasal bleeding, gait disturbance, and disturbance of consciousness. Neurological examination revealed drowsiness, right hemiparesis, and choked discs. Computed tomography scan showed an enhanced mass at the frontal base, which extended to the left nasal and paranasal cavities. Angiography showed a tumor stain with a mass sign. The intracranial part of the tumor was removed completely and he was discharged ambulatorily. Two months after surgery, however, he was admitted again for the regrowth of the tumor. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting was emplaced and radiation therapy was given to the brain and nasal cavity. After 3000 rad irradiation the clinical condition suddenly became worse because of pneumocephalus. The cranial tumor disappeared after irradiation but he died of metastases and general prostration. Clinically this case was diagnosed as an olfactory groove meningioma at first, but immunohistochemical diagnosis was olfactory neuroblastoma. (author).

  9. MRI of the olfactory bulbs and sulci in human fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoulay, Robin; Grabar, Sophie; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine; Fallet-Bianco, Catherine; Garel, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    There is limited knowledge of the MRI pattern of the development of fetal olfactory bulbs and sulci. To describe the MRI appearance of olfactory bulbs and sulci in normal in vivo fetuses according to gestational age. Olfactory bulbs and sulci were retrospectively assessed on brain MRI examinations of 88 normal fetuses between 24 and 39 weeks gestational age. Two reference centres were involved in the study and both used routine protocols that included axial and coronal T2- and T1-weighted sequences at 1.5 T. The results were compared both with the commonly used neuropathological data in the literature and with personal neuropathological data. Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were performed. One case of olfactory agenesis associated with CHARGE syndrome was identified. T2-weighted coronal sequences were the most sensitive for detecting olfactory bulbs and sulci. Olfactory sulci were significantly better detected from 30 weeks onwards (90.9-100%; P<0.001). MRI showed a posteroanterior development of these sulci. Olfactory bulbs were better detected from 30 to 34 weeks (80-90.9%; P<0.002). Comparison with neuropathological data confirmed the posteroanterior development of the sulci and showed an important delay in detection of the olfactory structures (bulbs and sulci). No difference was observed between the two centres involved. To date, fetal MRI can depict olfactory sulci from 30 weeks gestational age onwards and olfactory bulbs from 30 to 34 weeks gestational age. This preliminary reference standard is useful to assess the normality of the olfactory system and to diagnose olfactory agenesis. (orig.)

  10. Olfactory Information Processing in the Drosophila Antennal Lobe : Anything Goes?

    OpenAIRE

    Silbering, Ana F.; Okada, Ryuichi; Ito, Kei; Galizia, Cosmas Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    When an animal smells an odor, olfactory sensory neurons generate an activity pattern across olfactory glomeruli of the first sensory neuropil, the insect antennal lobe or the vertebrate olfactory bulb. Here, several networks of local neurons interact with sensory neurons and with output neurons-insect projection neurons, or vertebrate mitral/tufted cells. The extent and form of information processing taking place in these local networks has been subject of controversy. To investigate the ro...

  11. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-01-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons ar...

  12. Early Olfactory Processing in Drosophila: Mechanisms and Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Rachel I.

    2013-01-01

    In the olfactory system of Drosophila melanogaster, it is relatively straightforward to make in vivo measurements of activity in neurons corresponding to targeted processing. This, together with the numerical simplicity of the Drosophila olfactory system, has produced rapid gains in our understanding of Drosophila olfaction. This review summarizes the neurophysiology of the first two layers of this system: the peripheral olfactory receptor neurons and their postsynaptic targets in the antenna...

  13. Modeling peripheral olfactory coding in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Hoare

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva possesses just 21 unique and identifiable pairs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, enabling investigation of the contribution of individual OSN classes to the peripheral olfactory code. We combined electrophysiological and computational modeling to explore the nature of the peripheral olfactory code in situ. We recorded firing responses of 19/21 OSNs to a panel of 19 odors. This was achieved by creating larvae expressing just one functioning class of odorant receptor, and hence OSN. Odor response profiles of each OSN class were highly specific and unique. However many OSN-odor pairs yielded variable responses, some of which were statistically indistinguishable from background activity. We used these electrophysiological data, incorporating both responses and spontaneous firing activity, to develop a bayesian decoding model of olfactory processing. The model was able to accurately predict odor identity from raw OSN responses; prediction accuracy ranged from 12%-77% (mean for all odors 45.2% but was always significantly above chance (5.6%. However, there was no correlation between prediction accuracy for a given odor and the strength of responses of wild-type larvae to the same odor in a behavioral assay. We also used the model to predict the ability of the code to discriminate between pairs of odors. Some of these predictions were supported in a behavioral discrimination (masking assay but others were not. We conclude that our model of the peripheral code represents basic features of odor detection and discrimination, yielding insights into the information available to higher processing structures in the brain.

  14. Genetic diversity of canine olfactory receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitte Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution has resulted in large repertoires of olfactory receptor (OR genes, forming the largest gene families in mammalian genomes. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of olfactory receptors is essential if we are to understand the differences in olfactory sensory capability between individuals. Canine breeds constitute an attractive model system for such investigations. Results We sequenced 109 OR genes considered representative of the whole OR canine repertoire, which consists of more than 800 genes, in a cohort of 48 dogs of six different breeds. SNP frequency showed the overall level of polymorphism to be high. However, the distribution of SNP was highly heterogeneous among OR genes. More than 50% of OR genes were found to harbour a large number of SNP, whereas the rest were devoid of SNP or only slightly polymorphic. Heterogeneity was also observed across breeds, with 25% of the SNP breed-specific. Linkage disequilibrium within OR genes and OR clusters suggested a gene conversion process, consistent with a mean level of polymorphism higher than that observed for introns and intergenic sequences. A large proportion (47% of SNP induced amino-acid changes and the Ka/Ks ratio calculated for all alleles with a complete ORF indicated a low selective constraint with respect to the high level of redundancy of the olfactory combinatory code and an ongoing pseudogenisation process, which affects dog breeds differently. Conclusion Our demonstration of a high overall level of polymorphism, likely to modify the ligand-binding capacity of receptors distributed differently within the six breeds tested, is the first step towards understanding why Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherd Dogs have a much greater potential for use as sniffer dogs than Pekingese dogs or Greyhounds. Furthermore, the heterogeneity in OR polymorphism observed raises questions as to why, in a context in which most OR genes are highly polymorphic, a subset of

  15. Functional neuroanatomy of Drosophila olfactory memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Davis, Ronald L

    2014-10-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying Drosophila learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive and aversive reinforcers: (1) Which neurons within the olfactory nervous system mediate the acquisition of memory? (2) What is the complete neural circuitry extending from the site(s) of acquisition to the site(s) controlling memory expression? (3) How is information processed across this circuit to consolidate early-forming, disruptable memories to stable, late memories? Much progress has been made and a few strong conclusions have emerged: (1) Acquisition occurs at multiple sites within the olfactory nervous system but is mediated predominantly by the γ mushroom body neurons. (2) The expression of long-term memory is completely dependent on the synaptic output of α/β mushroom body neurons. (3) Consolidation occurs, in part, through circuit interactions between mushroom body and dorsal paired medial neurons. Despite this progress, a complete and unified model that details the pathway from acquisition to memory expression remains elusive. © 2014 Guven-Ozkan and Davis; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. Humans and mice express similar olfactory preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Mandairon

    Full Text Available In humans, the pleasantness of odors is a major contributor to social relationships and food intake. Smells evoke attraction and repulsion responses, reflecting the hedonic value of the odorant. While olfactory preferences are known to be strongly modulated by experience and learning, it has been recently suggested that, in humans, the pleasantness of odors may be partly explained by the physicochemical properties of the odorant molecules themselves. If odor hedonic value is indeed predetermined by odorant structure, then it could be hypothesized that other species will show similar odor preferences to humans. Combining behavioral and psychophysical approaches, we here show that odorants rated as pleasant by humans were also those which, behaviorally, mice investigated longer and human subjects sniffed longer, thereby revealing for the first time a component of olfactory hedonic perception conserved across species. Consistent with this, we further show that odor pleasantness rating in humans and investigation time in mice were both correlated with the physicochemical properties of the molecules, suggesting that olfactory preferences are indeed partly engraved in the physicochemical structure of the odorant. That odor preferences are shared between mammal species and are guided by physicochemical features of odorant stimuli strengthens the view that odor preference is partially predetermined. These findings open up new perspectives for the study of the neural mechanisms of hedonic perception.

  17. Disrupted Olfactory Integration in Schizophrenia: Functional Connectivity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiparizoska, Sara; Ikuta, Toshikazu

    2017-09-01

    Evidence for olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia has been firmly established. However, in the typical understanding of schizophrenia, olfaction is not recognized to contribute to or interact with the illness. Despite the solid presence of olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia, its relation to the rest of the illness remains largely unclear. Here, we aimed to examine functional connectivity of the olfactory bulb, olfactory tract, and piriform cortices and isolate the network that would account for the altered olfaction in schizophrenia. We examined the functional connectivity of these specific olfactory regions in order to isolate other brain regions associated with olfactory processing in schizophrenia. Using the resting state functional MRI data from the Center for Biomedical Research Excellence in Brain Function and Mental Illness, we compared 84 patients of schizophrenia and 90 individuals without schizophrenia. The schizophrenia group showed disconnectivity between the anterior piriform cortex and the nucleus accumbens, between the posterior piriform cortex and the middle frontal gyrus, and between the olfactory tract and the visual cortices. The current results suggest functional disconnectivity of olfactory regions in schizophrenia, which may account for olfactory dysfunction and disrupted integration with other sensory modalities in schizophrenia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  18. Anatomy, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry of the olfactory subsystems in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur William Barrios

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The four regions of the murine nasal cavity featuring olfactory neurons were studied anatomically and by labelling with lectins and relevant antibodies with a view to establishing criteria for the identification of olfactory subsystems that are readily applicable to other mammals. In the main olfactory epithelium and the septal organ the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs are embedded in quasi-stratified columnar epithelium; vomeronasal OSNs are embedded in epithelium lining the medial interior wall of the vomeronasal duct and do not make contact with the mucosa of the main nasal cavity; and in Grüneberg’s ganglion a small isolated population of OSNs lies adjacent to, but not within, the epithelium. With the exception of Grüneberg’s ganglion, all the tissues expressing olfactory marker protein (OMP (the above four nasal territories, the vomeronasal and main olfactory nerves, and the main and accessory olfactory bulbs are also labelled by Lycopersicum esculentum agglutinin, while Ulex europaeus agglutinin I labels all and only tissues expressing Gi2 (the apical sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ, their axons, and their glomerular destinations in the anterior accessory olfactory bulb. These staining patterns of UEA-I and LEA may facilitate the characterization of olfactory anatomy in other species. A 710-section atlas of the anatomy of the murine nasal cavity has been made available on line.

  19. Models of behavioral change and adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Zhang, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explains and summarizes models of behavioral change and adaptation, which have received less application in the life choice analysis associated with urban policy. Related to various life choices, life trajectory events are major decisions with a relatively long-lasting impact, such as

  20. [Adaptation strategies faced with chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioy, Antoine

    2017-05-01

    Chronic pain constitutes a challenge for patients. It makes them uneasy with regard to their personality, their corporality and their life balance, and leaves long-lasting effects on their experience as a patient. The development of adaptation strategies and resources to deal with chronic pain is therefore essential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Apolipoprotein E4 causes early olfactory network abnormalities and short-term olfactory memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Katherine Y; Mathews, Paul M; Levy, Efrat; Wilson, Donald A

    2017-02-20

    While apolipoprotein (Apo) E4 is linked to increased incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is growing evidence that it plays a role in functional brain irregularities that are independent of AD pathology. However, ApoE4-driven functional differences within olfactory processing regions have yet to be examined. Utilizing knock-in mice humanized to ApoE4 versus the more common ApoE3, we examined a simple olfactory perceptual memory that relies on the transfer of information from the olfactory bulb (OB) to the piriform cortex (PCX), the primary cortical region involved in higher order olfaction. In addition, we have recorded in vivo resting and odor-evoked local field potentials (LPF) from both brain regions and measured corresponding odor response magnitudes in anesthetized young (6-month-old) and middle-aged (12-month-old) ApoE mice. Young ApoE4 compared to ApoE3 mice exhibited a behavioral olfactory deficit coinciding with hyperactive odor-evoked response magnitudes within the OB that were not observed in older ApoE4 mice. Meanwhile, middle-aged ApoE4 compared to ApoE3 mice exhibited heightened response magnitudes in the PCX without a corresponding olfactory deficit, suggesting a shift with aging in ApoE4-driven effects from OB to PCX. Interestingly, the increased ApoE4-specific response in the PCX at middle-age was primarily due to a dampening of baseline spontaneous activity rather than an increase in evoked response power. Our findings indicate that early ApoE4-driven olfactory memory impairments and OB network abnormalities may be a precursor to later network dysfunction in the PCX, a region that not only is targeted early in AD, but may be selectively vulnerable to ApoE4 genotype. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Retro- and orthonasal olfactory function in relation to olfactory bulb volume in patients with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Murat; Kurt, Onuralp; Ay, Seyid Ahmet; Baskoy, Kamil; Altundag, Aytug; Saglam, Muzaffer; Deniz, Ferhat; Tekeli, Hakan; Yonem, Arif; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-08-24

    Idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (IHH) with an olfactory deficit is defined as Kallmann syndrome (KS) and is distinct from normosmic IHH. Because olfactory perception not only consists of orthonasally gained impressions but also involves retronasal olfactory function, in this study we decided to comprehensively evaluate both retronasal and orthonasal olfaction in patients with IHH. This case-control study included 31 controls and 45 IHH patients. All participants whose olfactory and taste functions were evaluated with orthonasal olfaction (discrimination, identification and threshold), retronasal olfaction, taste function and olfactory bulb volume (OBV) measurement. The patients were separated into three groups according to orthonasal olfaction: anosmic IHH (aIHH), hyposmic IHH (hIHH) and normosmic IHH (nIHH). Discrimination, identification and threshold scores of patients with KS were significantly lower than controls. Threshold scores of patients with nIHH were significantly lower than those of controls, but discrimination and identification scores were not significantly different. Retronasal olfaction was reduced only in the aIHH group compared to controls. Identification of bitter, sweet, sour, and salty tastes was not significantly different when compared between the anosmic, hyposmic, and normosmic IHH groups and controls. OBV was lower bilaterally in all patient groups when compared with controls. The OBV of both sides was found to be significantly correlated with TDI scores in IHH patients. 1) There were no significant differences in gustatory function between controls and IHH patients; 2) retronasal olfaction was reduced only in anosmic patients but not in orthonasally hyposmic participants, possibly indicating presence of effective compensatory mechanisms; 3) olfactory bulb volumes were highly correlated with olfaction scores in the HH group. The current results indicate a continuum from anosmia to normosmia in IHH patients. Copyright © 2017

  3. Photoperiod mediated changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Walton

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity, in relation to new adult mammalian neurons generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, has been well described. However, the functional outcome of new adult olfactory neurons born in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles is not clearly defined, as manipulating neurogenesis through various methods has given inconsistent and conflicting results in lab mice. Several small rodent species, including Peromyscus leucopus, display seasonal (photoperiodic brain plasticity in brain volume, hippocampal function, and hippocampus-dependent behaviors; plasticity in the olfactory system of photoperiodic rodents remains largely uninvestigated. We exposed adult male P. leucopus to long day lengths (LD and short day lengths (SD for 10 to 15 weeks and then examined olfactory bulb cell proliferation and survival using the thymidine analog BrdU, olfactory bulb granule cell morphology using Golgi-Cox staining, and behavioral investigation of same-sex conspecific urine. SD mice did not differ from LD counterparts in granular cell morphology of the dendrites or in dendritic spine density. Although there were no differences due to photoperiod in habituation to water odor, SD mice rapidly habituated to male urine, whereas LD mice did not. In addition, short day induced changes in olfactory behavior were associated with increased neurogenesis in the caudal plexiform and granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, an area known to preferentially respond to water-soluble odorants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that photoperiod, without altering olfactory bulb neuronal morphology, alters olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in Peromyscus leucopus.

  4. Temporal determinants of long-term retention of olfactory memory in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto

    2002-05-01

    Temporal determinants of olfactory long-term memory retention in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus were studied. Elementary appetitive and aversive conditioning procedures, as well as a differential conditioning procedure, were applied. In appetitive conditioning, peppermint odour was paired with a water reward. In aversive conditioning, vanilla odour was paired with saline solution. In differential conditioning, an appetitive conditioning trial was followed by an aversive conditioning trial. The odour preference of crickets was tested before and 2 h, 1 day and 4 days after training by allowing the crickets to choose between peppermint or vanilla sources. Differential conditioning or appetitive conditioning alone led to long-lasting memory retention with no significant decay from 2 h to 4 days after training, but retention after aversive conditioning was absent 1 day after training. Studies using differential conditioning have shown (i) that four trials are sufficient to cause a saturated level of acquisition, (ii) that conditioning is successful when the conditioned stimulus is presented immediately or 5 s before the onset of presentation of the unconditioned stimulus, (iii) that the optimal interval between trials is 2-5 min, and (iv) that anaesthetic treatment with CO2 given immediately after training results in memory disruption but that anaesthetic-resistant memory develops fully 20 min after training. This study demonstrates that a differential conditioning procedure is particularly effective for the formation of long-term memory.

  5. Blocking muscarinic receptors in the olfactory bulb impairs performance on an olfactory short term memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha eDevore

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic inputs to cortical processing networks have long been associated with attentional and top-down processing. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that cholinergic inputs to the main olfactory bulb (OB can modulate both neural and behavioral odor discrimination. Previous experiments from our laboratory and others demonstrate that blockade of nicotinic receptors directly impairs olfactory discrimination, whereas blockade of muscarinic receptors only measurably impairs olfactory perception when task demands are made more challenging, such as when very low-concentration odors are used or rats are required to maintain sensory memory over long durations. To further investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in the OB, we developed an olfactory delayed match-to-sample task using a digging-based behavioral paradigm. We find that rats are able to maintain robust short-term odor memory for tens to hundreds of seconds. To investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in task performance, we bilaterally infused scopolamine into the OB. We find that high dosages of scopolamine (38 mM impair performance on the task across all delays tested, including the baseline condition with no delay, whereas lower dosages (7.6 mM and 22.8 mM had no measureable effects. These results indicate that general execution of the match-to-sample task, even with no delay, is at least partially dependent on muscarinic signaling in the OB.

  6. Olfactory lateralization in homing pigeons: a GPS study on birds released with unilateral olfactory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardo, Anna; Filannino, Caterina; Ioalè, Paolo; Pecchia, Tommaso; Wikelski, Martin; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-02-15

    A large body of evidence has shown that pigeons rely on an olfactory-based navigational map when homing from unfamiliar locations. Previous studies on pigeons released with one nostril occluded highlighted an asymmetry in favour of the right nostril, particularly concerning the initial orientation performance of naïve birds. Nevertheless, all pigeons experiencing only unilateral olfactory input showed impaired homing, regardless of the side of the occluded nostril. So far this phenomenon has been documented only by observing the birds' vanishing bearings. In the present work we recorded the flight tracks of pigeons with previous homing experience equipped with a GPS data logger and released from an unfamiliar location with the right or the left nostril occluded. The analysis of the tracks revealed that the flight path of the birds with the right nostril occluded was more tortuous than that of unmanipulated controls. Moreover, the pigeons smelling with the left nostril interrupted their journey significantly more frequently and displayed more exploratory activity than the control birds, e.g. during flights around a stopover site. These data suggest a more important involvement of the right olfactory system in processing the olfactory information needed for the operation of the navigational map.

  7. Olfactory aversive conditioning alters olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L Fletcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical organization of receptor neuron input into the olfactory bulb (OB allows odor information to be transformed into an odorant-specific spatial map of mitral/tufted cell glomerular activity at the upper level of the olfactory bulb. In other sensory systems, neuronal representations of stimuli can be reorganized or enhanced following learning. While the mammalian OB has been shown to undergo experience-dependent plasticity at the glomerular level, it is still unclear if similar representational change occurs within mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor representations following learning. To address this, odorant-evoked glomerular activity patterns were imaged in mice expressing a GFP-based calcium indicator (GCaMP2 in OB mitral/tufted cells. Glomerular odor responses were imaged before and after olfactory associative conditioning to aversive foot shock. Following conditioning, we found no overall reorganization of the glomerular representation. Training, however, did significantly alter the amplitudes of individual glomeruli within the representation in mice in which the odor was presented together with foot shock. Further, the specific pairing of foot shock with odor presentations lead to increased responses primarily in initially weakly activated glomeruli. Overall, these results suggest that associative conditioning can enhance the initial representation of odors within the olfactory bulb by enhancing responses to the learned odor in some glomeruli.

  8. A second look at the structure of human olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Theresa L

    2009-07-01

    How do we remember olfactory information? Is the architecture of human olfactory memory unique compared with that of memory for other types of stimuli? Ten years ago, a review article evaluated these questions, as well as the distinction between long- and short-term olfactory memory, with three lines of evidence: capacity differences, coding differences, and neuropsychological evidence, though serial position effects were also considered. From the data available at the time, the article preliminarily suggested that olfactory memory was a two-component system that was not qualitatively different from memory systems for other types of stimuli. The decade that has elapsed since then has ushered in considerable changes in theories of memory structure and provided huge advances in neuroscience capabilities. Not only have many studies exploring various aspects of olfactory memory been published, but a model of olfactory perception that includes an integral unitary memory system also has been presented. Consequently, the structure of olfactory memory is reevaluated in the light of further information currently available with the same theoretical lines of evidence previously considered. This evaluation finds that the preponderance of evidence suggests that, as in memory for other types of sensory stimuli, the short-term-long-term distinction remains a valuable dissociation for conceptualizing olfactory memory, though perhaps not as architecturally separate systems.

  9. Comparison between olfactory function of pregnant women and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain participants' information on socio-demographics, pregnancy history, and ability to perceive smell. They subjectively rated their olfactory function on a visual analogue scale of 0 – 100. Olfactory threshold (OT), discrimination (OD), identification (OI) scores and TDI of both ...

  10. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  11. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Bozorg Nia, Shahrzad; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I

    2014-02-10

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

  12. Odor memories regulate olfactory receptor expression in the sensory periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudianos, Charles; Lim, Julianne; Young, Melanie; Yan, Shanzhi; Cristino, Alexandre S; Newcomb, Richard D; Gunasekaran, Nivetha; Reinhard, Judith

    2014-05-01

    Odor learning induces structural and functional modifications throughout the olfactory system, but it is currently unknown whether this plasticity extends to the olfactory receptors (Or) in the sensory periphery. Here, we demonstrate that odor learning induces plasticity in olfactory receptor expression in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Using quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we show that six putative floral scent receptors were differentially expressed in the bee antennae depending on the scent environment that the bees experienced. Or151, which we characterized using an in vitro cell expression system as a broadly tuned receptor binding floral odorants such as linalool, and Or11, the specific receptor for the queen pheromone 9-oxo-decenoic acid, were significantly down-regulated after honeybees were conditioned with the respective odorants in an olfactory learning paradigm. Electroantennogram recordings showed that the neural response of the antenna was similarly reduced after odor learning. Long-term odor memory was essential for inducing these changes, suggesting that the molecular mechanisms involved in olfactory memory also regulate olfactory receptor expression. Our study demonstrates for the first time that olfactory receptor expression is experience-dependent and modulated by scent conditioning, providing novel insight into how molecular regulation at the periphery contributes to plasticity in the olfactory system. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Neural correlates of taste perception in congenital olfactory impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    taste identification accuracy and its neural correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 12 congenitally olfactory impaired individuals and 8 normosmic controls. Results showed that taste identification was worse in congenitally olfactory impaired compared to control subjects. The fMRI...

  14. Expression of ionotropic receptors in terrestrial hermit crab’s olfactory sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Christine Groh-Lunow

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Coenobitidae are one out of at least five crustacean lineages which independently succeeded in the transition from water to land. This change in lifestyle required adaptation of the peripheral olfactory organs, the antennules, in order to sense chemical cues in the new terrestrial habitat. Hermit crab olfactory aesthetascs are arranged in a field on the distal segment of the antennular flagellum. Aesthetascs house approximately 300 dendrites with their cell bodies arranged in spindle-like complexes of ca. 150 cell bodies each. While the aesthetascs of aquatic crustaceans have been shown to be the place of odor uptake and previous studies identified ionotropic receptors (IRs as the putative chemosensory receptors expressed in decapod antennules, the expression of IRs besides the IR co-receptors IR25a and IR93a in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs has not been documented yet. Our goal was to reveal the expression and distribution pattern of non-co-receptor IRs in OSNs of Coenobita clypeatus, a terrestrial hermit crab, with RNA in situ hybridization. We expanded our previously published RNAseq dataset, and revealed 22 novel IR candidates in the Coenobita antennules. We then used RNA probes directed against three different IRs to visualize their expression within the OSN cell body complexes. Furthermore we aimed to characterize ligand spectra of single aesthetascs by recording local field potentials and responses from individual dendrites. This also allowed comparison to functional data from insect OSNs expressing antennal IRs. We show that this orphan receptor subgroup with presumably non-olfactory function in insects is likely the basis of olfaction in terrestrial hermit crabs.

  15. Amyloid beta inhibits olfactory bulb activity and the ability to smell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Alvarado-Martínez

    Full Text Available Early olfactory dysfunction has been consistently reported in both Alzheimer's disease (AD and in transgenic mice that reproduce some features of this disease. In AD transgenic mice, alteration in olfaction has been associated with increased levels of soluble amyloid beta protein (Aβ as well as with alterations in the oscillatory network activity recorded in the olfactory bulb (OB and in the piriform cortex. However, since AD is a multifactorial disease and transgenic mice suffer a variety of adaptive changes, it is still unknown if soluble Aβ, by itself, is responsible for OB dysfunction both at electrophysiological and behavioral levels. Thus, here we tested whether or not Aβ directly affects OB network activity in vitro in slices obtained from mice and rats and if it affects olfactory ability in these rodents. Our results show that Aβ decreases, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, the network activity of OB slices at clinically relevant concentrations (low nM and in a reversible manner. Moreover, we found that intrabulbar injection of Aβ decreases the olfactory ability of rodents two weeks after application, an effect that is not related to alterations in motor performance or motivation to seek food and that correlates with the presence of Aβ deposits. Our results indicate that Aβ disrupts, at clinically relevant concentrations, the network activity of the OB in vitro and can trigger a disruption in olfaction. These findings open the possibility of exploring the cellular mechanisms involved in early pathological AD as an approach to reduce or halt its progress.

  16. [Microsurgical removal of olfactory groove meningiomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ri-Sheng; Zhou, Liang-Fu; Mao, Ying; Zhang, Rong; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    To explore an effective method for further improving the surgical results of treatment of olfactory groove meningiomas. Sixty seven cases of olfactory groove meningiomas were treated by microneurosurgery, among which fifty seven were de novo cases, eight were recurrent tumors and the other two re-recurrent cases. Modified Derome approach was used in 12 cases, bilateral subfrontal approach in 28 cases, modified pterional approach in 21 cases and unilateral subfrontal approach in six cases. Tumors were resected microsurgically with radical removal of invaded dura, bone, and paranasal sinus mucosa. Reconstruction was performed in patients with skull base defect. Simpson grade I removal was accomplished in 59 cases, grade II in seven cases and grade IV in one case. Among 57 patients with de novo tumor, Simpson I resection was accomplished in 54 cases. Postoperative rhinorrhea and intracranial infection occurred in one case and was cured after temporal lumbar CSF drainage and antibiotic therapy. Two patients (2.9%) died within one month after operation, i.e.one aged patient of heart failure and the other of severe hypothalamus complication. Forty seven patients (72.3%) were followed up from one to ten years with an average of five years and four months. With the exception of two cases died, among the alive 45 patients, there were only three patients with tumor recurrence, which had undergone Simpson II or IV tumor resection. No recurrence was found in cases with Simpson I tumor removal. Previous blurred vision was not improved in three patients, hemiparalysis in two patients, and the other patients recovered well, resuming previous jobs or being able to take care themselves. Total tumor removal (Simpson I) should be the surgical goal for treatment of olfactory groove meningiomas, especially for de novo cases. An appropriate approach is fundamental in the effort to remove an OGM totally. Appropriate anterior skull base reconstruction with vascularized material is

  17. Lateral presynaptic inhibition mediates gain control in an olfactory circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Shawn R; Wilson, Rachel I

    2008-04-24

    Olfactory signals are transduced by a large family of odorant receptor proteins, each of which corresponds to a unique glomerulus in the first olfactory relay of the brain. Crosstalk between glomeruli has been proposed to be important in olfactory processing, but it is not clear how these interactions shape the odour responses of second-order neurons. In the Drosophila antennal lobe (a region analogous to the vertebrate olfactory bulb), we selectively removed most interglomerular input to genetically identified second-order olfactory neurons. Here we show that this broadens the odour tuning of these neurons, implying that interglomerular inhibition dominates over interglomerular excitation. The strength of this inhibitory signal scales with total feedforward input to the entire antennal lobe, and has similar tuning in different glomeruli. A substantial portion of this interglomerular inhibition acts at a presynaptic locus, and our results imply that this is mediated by both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors on the same nerve terminal.

  18. Olfactory stimulation modulates the blood glucose level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tadataka; Tanaka, Susumu; Bakhshishayan, Sanam; Kogo, Mikihiko; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    In both humans and animals, chemosensory stimuli, including odors and tastes, induce a variety of physiologic and mental responses related to energy homeostasis, such as glucose kinetics. The present study examined the importance of olfactory function in glucose kinetics following ingestion behavior in a simplified experimental scenario. We applied a conventional glucose tolerance test to rats with and without olfactory function and analyzed subsequent blood glucose (BG) curves in detail. The loss of olfactory input due to experimental damage to the olfactory mucosa induced a marked decrease in the area under the BG curve. Exposure to grapefruit odor and its main component, limonene, both of which activate the sympathetic nerves, before glucose loading also greatly depressed the BG curve. Pre-loading exposure to lavender odor, a parasympathetic activator, stabilized the BG level. These results suggest that olfactory function is important for proper glucose kinetics after glucose intake and that certain fragrances could be utilized as tools for controlling BG levels.

  19. Evaluation of olfactory function in adults with primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günbey, Emre; Karlı, Rıfat; Gökosmanoğlu, Feyzi; Düzgün, Berkan; Ayhan, Emre; Atmaca, Hulusi; Ünal, Recep

    2015-10-01

    Sufficient clinical data are not available on the effect of hypothyroidism on olfactory function in adults. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the olfactory function of adult patients diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism. Forty-five patients aged between 18 and 60 years who were diagnosed with clinical primary hypothyroidism and 45 healthy controls who had normal thyroid function tests were included in the study. Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test results of the 2 groups were compared. The relationships between thyroid function tests and olfactory parameters were evaluated. Odor threshold, identification, and discrimination scores of the hypothyroid group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p adults with hypothyroidism. FT3 levels were found to have a more significant relationship with olfactory parameters than TSH or FT4 levels. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  20. Olfactory memory formation in Drosophila: from molecular to systems neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald L

    2005-01-01

    The olfactory nervous system of insects and mammals exhibits many similarities, which suggests that the mechanisms for olfactory learning may be shared. Molecular genetic investigations of Drosophila learning have uncovered numerous genes whose gene products are essential for olfactory memory formation. Recent studies of the products of these genes have continued to expand the range of molecular processes known to underlie memory formation. Recent research has also broadened the neuroanatomical areas thought to mediate olfactory learning to include the antennal lobes in addition to a previously accepted and central role for the mushroom bodies. The roles for neurons extrinsic to the mushroom body neurons are becoming better defined. Finally, the genes identified to participate in Drosophila olfactory learning have conserved roles in mammalian organisms, highlighting the value of Drosophila for gene discovery.

  1. Preservation of olfaction in surgery of olfactory groove meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Woo-Youl; Jung, Shin; Jung, Tae-Young; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Kim, In-Young

    2013-08-01

    Olfaction is commonly considered as secondary among the sensory functions, perhaps reflecting a lack of interest in sparing olfaction after surgery for the olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM). However, considering the repercussions of olfaction for the quality of life, the assessment of post-operative olfaction should be necessary. We retrospectively reviewed the olfactory outcome in patients with OGM and investigated the factors associated with sparing the post-operative olfaction. Between 1993 and 2012, 40 patients with OGM underwent surgical resection and estimated the olfactory function using the Korean version of "Sniffin'Sticks" test (KVSS). Variable factors, such as tumor size, degree of preoperative edema, tumor consistency, preoperative olfactory function, surgical approaches, patient's age, and gender were analyzed with attention to the post-operative olfactory function. Anatomical and functional preservation of olfactory structures were achieved in 26 patients (65%) and 22 patients (55%), respectively. Among the variable factors, size of tumor was significant related to the preservation of post-operative olfaction. (78.6% in size4 cm, p=0.035). Sparing the olfaction was significantly better in patients without preoperative olfactory dysfunction (84.6%) compared with ones with preoperative olfactory dysfunction (40.7%, p=0.016). The frontolateral approach achieved much more excellent post-operative olfactory function (71.4%) than the bifrontal approach (36.8%, p=0.032). If the tumor was smaller than 4 cm and the patients did not present olfactory dysfunction preoperatively, the possibility of sparing the post-operative olfaction was high. Among the variable surgical approaches, frontolateral route may be preferable sparing the post-operative olfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inducible Activation of ERK5 MAP Kinase Enhances Adult Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Bulb and Improves Olfactory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M.; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury. PMID:25995470

  3. Measurement and Analysis of Olfactory Responses with the Aim of Establishing an Objective Diagnostic Method for Central Olfactory Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Tominori; Wang, Li-Qun; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Tonoike, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Teruo

    In order to establish a new diagnostic method for central olfactory disorders and to identify objective indicators, we measured and analyzed brain activities in the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus, region of responsibility for central olfactory disorders. The relationship between olfactory stimulation and brain response at region of responsibility can be examined in terms of fitted responses (FR). FR in these regions may be individual indicators of changes in brain olfactory responses. In the present study, in order to non-invasively and objectively measure olfactory responses, an odor oddball task was conducted on four healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a odorant stimulator with blast-method. The results showed favorable FR and activation in the parahippocampal gyrus or uncus in all subjects. In some subjects, both the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus were activated. Furthermore, activation was also confirmed in the cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and insula. The hippocampus and uncus are known to be involved in the olfactory disorders associated with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and other olfactory disorders. In the future, it will be necessary to further develop the present measurement and analysis method to clarify the relationship between central olfactory disorders and brain activities and establish objective indicators that are useful for diagnosis.

  4. Enhancement of CdSiO3: Tb3+ green long-lasting phosphors by co-doping with Re3+ (Re3+=Gd3+, Y3+, La3+) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Wei; Wang, Yuhua; Han, Shaochun; Chen, Wenbo; Li, Gen

    2014-01-01

    CdSiO 3 : Tb 3+ , Re 3+ long-lasting phosphors were synthesized by the conventional high temperature solid-state method. A green-light phosphorescence phenomenon, which was associated with the 5 D 4 → 7 F J (J=6, 5, 4, 3) transitions of the Tb 3+ ion, was observed. Introduction of Re 3+ (Re 3+ =Gd 3+ , Y 3+ , La 3+ ) ions, which deepens the depth (E t ) or/and increases the density (n 0 ) of traps, greatly improved the afterglow properties of CdSiO 3 : Tb 3+ . Possible mechanism of CdSiO 3 : Tb 3+ , Re 3+ was discussed in this work. - Highlights: • CdSiO 3 : Tb 3+ , Re 3+ samples enrich the color of long-lasting afterglow phosphors in CdSiO 3 host. • Both the afterglow intensity and the lasting time are greatly enhanced for the co-doped samples, especially for Cd 0.96 SiO 3 : Tb 0.03 3+ , La 0.01 3+ . • Introduction of Re 3+ (Re 3+ =Gd 3+ , Y 3+ , La 3+ ) ions, which deepens the depth (E t ) or increase density(n 0 ) of traps, greatly improved the afterglow properties of CdSiO 3 : Tb 3+

  5. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura: evidence for aerial olfaction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Krieger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the “true crabs” (Brachyura, a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal’s life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task.

  6. Multiple reversal olfactory learning in honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Mota

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In multiple reversal learning, animals trained to discriminate a reinforced from a non-reinforced stimulus are subjected to various, successive reversals of stimulus contingencies (e.g. A+ vs. B-, A- vs. B+, A+ vs. B-. This protocol is useful to determine whether or not animals learn to learn and solve successive discriminations faster (or with fewer errors with increasing reversal experience. Here we used the olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension reflex to study how honeybees Apis mellifera perform in a multiple reversal task. Our experiment contemplated four consecutive differential conditioning phases involving the same odors (A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+ to A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+. We show that bees in which the weight of reinforced or non-reinforced stimuli was similar mastered the multiple olfactory reversals. Bees which failed the task exhibited asymmetric responses to reinforced and non-reinforced stimuli, thus being unable to rapidly reverse stimulus contingencies. Efficient reversers did not improve their successive discriminations but rather tended to generalize their choice to both odors at the end of conditioning. As a consequence, both discrimination and reversal efficiency decreasedalong experimental phases. This result invalidates a learning-to-learn effect and indicates that bees do not only respond to the actual stimulus contingencies but rather combine these with an average of past experiences with the same stimuli.  

  7. [Is olfactory function impaired in moderate height?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, M; Welsch, H; Zahnert, T; Hummel, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The human sense of smell seems to be influenced by the surrounding barometric pressure. These factors appear to be especially important during flights, for example, in order to recognize the smell of fire etc. Thus, questions are whether pilots or passengers exhibit an impaired smell sensitivity when tested at moderate heights, or, whether changes in humidity would affect the sense of smell. Using climate chambers, odor discrimination and butanol odor thresholds were tested in 77 healthy normosmic volunteers (5 female, 72 male; aged 25+/-8 years from 18 up to 53 years) under hypobaric (2 700+/-20 m, 20 degrees C+/-1 K, rh=50+/-5%) and hyperbaric, (10+/-0.5 m (2 bar)) and different humidity conditions (30 vs. 80%, 20 degrees C+/-1 K, normobaric). During all conditions cognitive performance was tested. Among other effects, olfactory sensitivity was impaired at threshold, but not suprathreshold level, in a hypobaric compared to a hyperbaric milieu, and thresholds were lower in humid, compared to relatively dry conditions. In conclusion, environmental conditions modulate the sense of smell, and may, consecutively, influence results from olfactory tests. During flight hypobaric conditions, mild hypoxia and dry air may cause impaired sensitivity of smell. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  8. A model of olfactory associative learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoni, Gaia; Balasubramanian, Vijay

    We propose a mechanism, rooted in the known anatomy and physiology of the vertebrate olfactory system, by which presentations of rewarded and unrewarded odors lead to formation of odor-valence associations between piriform cortex (PC) and anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) which, in concert with neuromodulators release in the bulb, entrains a direct feedback from the AON representation of valence to a group of mitral cells (MCs). The model makes several predictions concerning MC activity during and after associative learning: (a) AON feedback produces synchronous divergent responses in a localized subset of MCs; (b) such divergence propagates to other MCs by lateral inhibition; (c) after learning, MC responses reconverge; (d) recall of the newly formed associations in the PC increases feedback inhibition in the MCs. These predictions have been confirmed in disparate experiments which we now explain in a unified framework. For cortex, our model further predicts that the response divergence developed during learning reshapes odor representations in the PC, with the effects of (a) decorrelating PC representations of odors with different valences, (b) increasing the size and reliability of those representations, and enabling recall correction and redundancy reduction after learning. Simons Foundation for Mathematical Modeling of Living Systems.

  9. Expressing exogenous functional odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomina Alla F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory discrimination depends on the large numbers of odorant receptor genes and differential ligand-receptor signaling among neurons expressing different receptors. In this study, we describe an in vitro system that enables the expression of exogenous odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons. Olfactory sensory neurons in the culture express characteristic signaling molecules and, therefore, provide a system to study receptor function within its intrinsic cellular environment. Results We demonstrate that cultured olfactory sensory neurons express endogenous odorant receptors. Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer enables successful ectopic expression of odorant receptors. We show that the ectopically expressed mouse I7 is functional in the cultured olfactory sensory neurons. When two different odorant receptors are ectopically expressed simultaneously, both receptor proteins co-localized in the same olfactory sensory neurons up to 10 days in vitro. Conclusion This culture technique provided an efficient method to culture olfactory sensory neurons whose morphology, molecular characteristics and maturation progression resembled those observed in vivo. Using this system, regulation of odorant receptor expression and its ligand specificity can be studied in its intrinsic cellular environment.

  10. Genetic basis of olfactory cognition: extremely high level of DNA sequence polymorphism in promoter regions of the human olfactory receptor genes revealed using the 1000 Genomes Project dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatieva, Elena V; Levitsky, Victor G; Yudin, Nikolay S; Moshkin, Mikhail P; Kolchanov, Nikolay A

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of olfactory cognition is very complicated. Olfactory cognition is initiated by olfactory receptor proteins (odorant receptors), which are activated by olfactory stimuli (ligands). Olfactory receptors are the initial player in the signal transduction cascade producing a nerve impulse, which is transmitted to the brain. The sensitivity to a particular ligand depends on the expression level of multiple proteins involved in the process of olfactory cognition: olfactory receptor proteins, proteins that participate in signal transduction cascade, etc. The expression level of each gene is controlled by its regulatory regions, and especially, by the promoter [a region of DNA about 100-1000 base pairs long located upstream of the transcription start site (TSS)]. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms using human whole-genome data from the 1000 Genomes Project and revealed an extremely high level of single nucleotide polymorphisms in promoter regions of olfactory receptor genes and HLA genes. We hypothesized that the high level of polymorphisms in olfactory receptor promoters was responsible for the diversity in regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression levels of olfactory receptor proteins. Such diversity of regulatory mechanisms may cause the great variability of olfactory cognition of numerous environmental olfactory stimuli perceived by human beings (air pollutants, human body odors, odors in culinary etc.). In turn, this variability may provide a wide range of emotional and behavioral reactions related to the vast variety of olfactory stimuli.

  11. Genetic basis of olfactory cognition: extremely high level of DNA sequence polymorphism in promoter regions of the human olfactory receptor genes revealed using the 1000 Genomes Project dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Ignatieva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism of olfactory cognition is very complicated. Olfactory cognition is initiated by olfactory receptor proteins (odorant receptors, which are activated by olfactory stimuli (ligands. Olfactory receptors are the initial player in the signal transduction cascade producing a nerve impulse, which is transmitted to the brain. The sensitivity to a particular ligand depends on the expression level of multiple proteins involved in the process of olfactory cognition: olfactory receptor proteins, proteins that participate in signal transduction cascade, etc. The expression level of each gene is controlled by its regulatory regions, and especially, by the promoter (a region of DNA about 100–1000 base pairs long located upstream of the transcription start site. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms using human whole-genome data from the 1000 Genomes Project and revealed an extremely high level of single nucleotide polymorphisms in promoter regions of olfactory receptor genes and HLA genes. We hypothesized that the high level of polymorphisms in olfactory receptor promoters was responsible for the diversity in regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression levels of olfactory receptor proteins. Such diversity of regulatory mechanisms may cause the great variability of olfactory cognition of numerous environmental olfactory stimuli perceived by human beings (air pollutants, human body odors, odors in culinary etc.. In turn, this variability may provide a wide range of emotional and behavioral reactions related to the vast variety of olfactory stimuli.

  12. Neurobiology of mammalian olfactory learning that occurs during sensitive periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideto KABA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the organizational principles underlying olfactory learning in three specialized contexts that occur during sensitive periods of enhanced neural plasticity and emphasizes some of their common features. All three forms of olfactory learning are associated with neural changes in the olfactory bulb (OB at the first stage of sensory processing. These changes require the association of the olfactory and somatosensory signals in the OB. They all depend on somatosensory stimulation-induced release of noradrenaline that induces structural and functional changes at mitral-granule cell reciprocal synapses in the OB, resulting in increases in inhibitory transmission. In the accessory olfactory bulb, this represents the enhanced self-inhibition of mitral cells, which selectively disrupts the transmission of the mating male’s pregnancy-blocking signal at this level. In contrast, an extensive network of secondary dendrites of mitral cells in the main olfactory bulb probably results in a sharpening of the odor-induced pattern of activity, due to increases in lateral inhibition, leading to offspring recognition in sheep and neonatal learning in rats and rabbits. These findings show that inhibitory interneurons play a critical role in olfactory learning. Further work on how these neurons shape olfactory circuit function could provide important clues to understand memory functions of interneurons in other systems. Moreover, recent research has suggested that three forms of olfactory learning are controlled by synergistic, redundant, and distributed neural mechanisms. This has general implications regarding the mechanisms that may contribute to the robustness of memories [Current Zoology 56 (6: 819–833, 2010].

  13. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makito eKobayashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we reexamined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual

  14. Face detection for interactive tabletop viewscreen system using olfactory display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Kanazawa, Fumihiro

    2009-10-01

    An olfactory display is a device that delivers smells to the nose. It provides us with special effects, for example to emit smell as if you were there or to give a trigger for reminding us of memories. The authors have developed a tabletop display system connected with the olfactory display. For delivering a flavor to user's nose, the system needs to recognition and measure positions of user's face and nose. In this paper, the authors describe an olfactory display which enables to detect the nose position for an effective delivery.

  15. Changes of pressure and humidity affect olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Michael; Welsch, Heiko; Zahnert, Thomas; Hummel, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the question whether olfactory function changes in relation to barometric pressure and humidity. Using climate chambers, odor threshold and discrimination for butanol were tested in 75 healthy volunteers under hypobaric and hyperbaric, and different humidity conditions. Among other effects, olfactory sensitivity at threshold level, but not suprathreshold odor discrimination, was impaired in a hypobaric compared to a hyperbaric milieu, and thresholds were lower in humid, compared to relatively dry conditions. In conclusion, environmental conditions modulate the sense of smell, and may, consecutively, influence results from olfactory tests.

  16. The olfactory gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactive system in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennes, L

    1986-10-29

    The olfactory gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system in mice was studied with immunofluorescence in combination with lesions of the olfactory bulb and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) which was administered intravascularly, intranasally or into the subarachnoid space. GnRH-positive neurons were located in the two major branches forming the septal roots of the nervus terminalis, in the ganglion terminale, within the fascicles of the nervus terminalis throughout its extent, in a conspicuous band which connects the ventral neck of the caudal olfactory bulb with the accessory olfactory bulb and in the nasal mucosa. GnRH-positive fibers were seen in all areas in which neurons were found, i.e. in the rostral septum, the ganglion and nervus terminalis and in the nasal subepithelium. In addition, a broad bundle of fibers was observed to surround the entire caudal olfactory bulb, connecting the rostral sulcus rhinalis with the ventrocaudal olfactory bulb. Fibers were seen in close association with the main and accessory olfactory bulb, with the fila olfactoria and with the nasal mucosa. Throughout the olfactory bulb and the nasal epithelium, an association of GnRH fibers with blood vessels was apparent. Intravascular and intranasal injection of HRP resulted in labeling of certain GnRH neurons in the septal roots of the nervus terminalis, the ganglion terminale, the nervus terminalis, the caudal ventrodorsal connection and in the accessory olfactory bulb. After placement of HRP into the subarachnoid space dorsal to the accessory olfactory bulb, about 50% of the GnRH neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb and in the ventrodorsal connection were labeled with HRP. Also, a few GnRH neurons in the rostral septum, the ganglion terminale and in the fascicles of the nervus terminalis had taken up the enzyme. Lesions of the nervus terminalis caudal to the ganglion terminale resulted in sprouting of GnRH fibers at both sites of the knife cut. Lesions rostral

  17. Habitat-dependent olfactory discrimination in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiermes, Meike; Mehlis, Marion; Rick, Ingolf P; Bakker, Theo C M

    2015-07-01

    The ability to recognize conspecifics is indispensible for differential treatment of particular individuals in social contexts like grouping behavior. The advantages of grouping are multifarious, and there exist numerous additional benefits of joining aggregations of conspecifics. Recognition is based on different signals and transmitted via multiple channels, among others the olfactory channel. The sensory system or the combination of sensory modalities used in recognition processes is highly dependent on the availability and effectiveness of modalities, which are a function of the environmental conditions. Using F1-generations of six three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations from two habitat types (tea-stained and clear-water lakes) from the Outer Hebrides, Scotland, we investigated whether individuals are able to recognize members of their own population solely based on olfactory cues and whether the habitat type an individual originated from had an influence on its recognition abilities. When given the choice (own vs. foreign population) sticklebacks from tea-stained lakes significantly preferred the odor of their own population, whereas fish from clear-water habitats did not show any preference. Moreover, fish from the two habitat types differed significantly in their recognition abilities, indicating that olfactory communication is better developed when visual signaling is disturbed. Thus, the observed odor preferences appear to be the consequence of different selective constraints and adaptations as a result of the differences in environmental conditions that have acted on the parental generations. These adaptations are likely genetically based as the differences are present in the F1-generation that had been reared under identical laboratory conditions.

  18. Olfactory groove meningiomas: approaches and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Pires de; Tahara, Adriana; Almeida, Antonio Nogueira; Simm, Renata; Silva, Arnaldo Neves da; Maldaun, Marcos Vinicius Calfatt; Panagopoulos, Alexandros Theodoros; Zicarelli, Carlos Alexandre; Silva, Pedro Gabriel

    2009-09-01

    Olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM) account for 4.5% of all intracranial meningiomas. We report 21 patients with OGMs. Tumors were operated on using three surgical approaches: bifrontal (7 patients), fronto-pterional (11 patients) and fronto-orbital (3 patients). Total tumor removal (Simpson Grade 1) was achieved in 13 patients and Simpson II in 8 patients. Perioperative mortality was 4.76%. The average size of the OGM was 4.3+/-1.1cm. The overall recurrence rate was 19%. We preferred to use the pterional approach, which provides quick access to the tumor with less brain exposure. It also allows complete drainage of cisternal cerebrospinal fluid, providing a good level of brain relaxation during surgery. However, for long, thin tumors, hemostasis can be difficult using this approach.

  19. Fault tolerant architecture for artificial olfactory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfivand, Nasser; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Abdolzadeh, Vida

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, to cover and mask the faults that occur in the sensing unit of an artificial olfactory system, a novel architecture is offered. The proposed architecture is able to tolerate failures in the sensors of the array and the faults that occur are masked. The proposed architecture for extracting the correct results from the output of the sensors can provide the quality of service for generated data from the sensor array. The results of various evaluations and analysis proved that the proposed architecture has acceptable performance in comparison with the classic form of the sensor array in gas identification. According to the results, achieving a high odor discrimination based on the suggested architecture is possible. (paper)

  20. Widespread ectopic expression of olfactory receptor genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanai Itai

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory receptors (ORs are the largest gene family in the human genome. Although they are expected to be expressed specifically in olfactory tissues, some ectopic expression has been reported, with special emphasis on sperm and testis. The present study systematically explores the expression patterns of OR genes in a large number of tissues and assesses the potential functional implication of such ectopic expression. Results We analyzed the expression of hundreds of human and mouse OR transcripts, via EST and microarray data, in several dozens of human and mouse tissues. Different tissues had specific, relatively small OR gene subsets which had particularly high expression levels. In testis, average expression was not particularly high, and very few highly expressed genes were found, none corresponding to ORs previously implicated in sperm chemotaxis. Higher expression levels were more common for genes with a non-OR genomic neighbor. Importantly, no correlation in expression levels was detected for human-mouse orthologous pairs. Also, no significant difference in expression levels was seen between intact and pseudogenized ORs, except for the pseudogenes of subfamily 7E which has undergone a human-specific expansion. Conclusion The OR superfamily as a whole, show widespread, locus-dependent and heterogeneous expression, in agreement with a neutral or near neutral evolutionary model for transcription control. These results cannot reject the possibility that small OR subsets might play functional roles in different tissues, however considerable care should be exerted when offering a functional interpretation for ectopic OR expression based only on transcription information.

  1. Proton-Beam Therapy for Olfactory Neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Hideki; Ogino, Takashi; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Nihei, Keiji; Arahira, Satoko; Onozawa, Masakatsu; Katsuta, Shoichi; Nishio, Teiji

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the feasibility and efficacy of proton-beam therapy (PBT) for olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) as a definitive treatment, by reviewing our preliminary experience. Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare disease, and a standard treatment strategy has not been established. Radiation therapy for ONB is challenging because of the proximity of ONBs to critical organs. Proton-beam therapy can provide better dose distribution compared with X-ray irradiation because of its physical characteristics, and is deemed to be a feasible treatment modality. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed on 14 patients who underwent PBT for ONB as definitive treatment at the National Cancer Center Hospital East (Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan) from November 1999 to February 2005. A total dose of PBT was 65 cobalt Gray equivalents (Gy E ), with 2.5-Gy E once-daily fractionations. Results: The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 40 months. One patient died from disseminated disease. There were two persistent diseases, one of which was successfully salvaged with surgery. The 5-year overall survival rate was 93%, the 5-year local progression-free survival rate was 84%, and the 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 71%. Liquorrhea was observed in one patient with Kadish's stage C disease (widely destroying the skull base). Most patients experienced Grade 1 to 2 dermatitis in the acute phase. No other adverse events of Grade 3 or greater were observed according to the RTOG/EORTC acute and late morbidity scoring system. Conclusions: Our preliminary results of PBT for ONB achieved excellent local control and survival outcomes without serious adverse effects. Proton-beam therapy is considered a safe and effective modality that warrants further study

  2. A specialized odor memory buffer in primary olfactory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelano, Christina; Montag, Jessica; Khan, Rehan; Sobel, Noam

    2009-01-01

    The neural substrates of olfactory working memory are unknown. We addressed the questions of whether olfactory working memory involves a verbal representation of the odor, or a sensory image of the odor, or both, and the location of the neural substrates of these processes. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure activity in the brains of subjects who were remembering either nameable or unnameable odorants. We found a double dissociation whereby remembering nameable odorants was reflected in sustained activity in prefrontal language areas, and remembering unnameable odorants was reflected in sustained activity in primary olfactory cortex. These findings suggest a novel dedicated mechanism in primary olfactory cortex, where odor information is maintained in temporary storage to subserve ongoing tasks.

  3. Surgical Management of Olfactory Groove Meningiomas | El-Naggar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the bifrontal approach to olfactory groove meningiomas ... in all patients was Grade I meningiomas (World Health Organization grading). ... Bifrontal approach offers excellent exposure, and when combined with modern ...

  4. Hydrodynamic Interactions Between Olfactory Appendages and Odor Plumes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koseff, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    .... A model lobster was then placed in the laboratory flume and we measured the odor concentration distribution around the olfactory appendage using high-speed video and laser-induced fluorescence techniques...

  5. Calcium Signaling in Mitral Cell Dendrites of Olfactory Bulbs of Neonatal Rats and Mice during Olfactory Nerve Stimulation and Beta-Adrenoceptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Mutoh, Hiroki; Debarbieux, Franck; Knopfel, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Synapses formed by the olfactory nerve (ON) provide the source of excitatory synaptic input onto mitral cells (MC) in the olfactory bulb. These synapses, which relay odor-specific inputs, are confined to the distally tufted single primary dendrites of MCs, the first stage of central olfactory processing. Beta-adrenergic modulation of electrical…

  6. Olfactory ensheathing glia : their contribution to primary olfactory nervous system regeneration and their regenerative potential following transplantation into the injured spinal cord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Elske H P; de Bree, Freddy M; Verhaagen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) are a specialized type of glia that guide primary olfactory axons from the neuroepithelium in the nasal cavity to the brain. The primary olfactory system is able to regenerate after a lesion and OEG contribute to this process by providing a growth-supportive

  7. Assessment of olfactory nerve by SPECT-MRI image with nasal thallium-201 administration in patients with olfactory impairments in comparison to healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Shiga

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess whether migration of thallium-201 ((201Tl to the olfactory bulb were reduced in patients with olfactory impairments in comparison to healthy volunteers after nasal administration of (201Tl. PROCEDURES: 10 healthy volunteers and 21 patients enrolled in the study (19 males and 12 females; 26-71 years old. The causes of olfactory dysfunction in the patients were head trauma (n = 7, upper respiratory tract infection (n = 7, and chronic rhinosinusitis (n = 7. (201TlCl was administered unilaterally to the olfactory cleft, and SPECT-CT was conducted 24 h later. Separate MRI images were merged with the SPECT images. (201Tl olfactory migration was also correlated with the volume of the olfactory bulb determined from MRI images, as well as with odor recognition thresholds measured by using T&T olfactometry. RESULTS: Nasal (201Tl migration to the olfactory bulb was significantly lower in the olfactory-impaired patients than in healthy volunteers. The migration of (201Tl to the olfactory bulb was significantly correlated with odor recognition thresholds obtained with T&T olfactometry and correlated with the volume of the olfactory bulb determined from MRI images when all subjects were included. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of the (201Tl migration to the olfactory bulb was the new method for the evaluation of the olfactory nerve connectivity in patients with impaired olfaction.

  8. Time frequency analysis of olfactory induced EEG-power change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Alexander Schriever

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of time-frequency analysis (TFA of olfactory-induced EEG change with a low-cost, portable olfactometer in the clinical investigation of smell function.A total of 78 volunteers participated. The study was composed of three parts where olfactory stimuli were presented using a custom-built olfactometer. Part I was designed to optimize the stimulus as well as the recording conditions. In part II EEG-power changes after olfactory/trigeminal stimulation were compared between healthy participants and patients with olfactory impairment. In Part III the test-retest reliability of the method was evaluated in healthy subjects.Part I indicated that the most effective paradigm for stimulus presentation was cued stimulus, with an interstimulus interval of 18-20s at a stimulus duration of 1000ms with each stimulus quality presented 60 times in blocks of 20 stimuli each. In Part II we found that central processing of olfactory stimuli analyzed by TFA differed significantly between healthy controls and patients even when controlling for age. It was possible to reliably distinguish patients with olfactory impairment from healthy individuals at a high degree of accuracy (healthy controls vs anosmic patients: sensitivity 75%; specificity 89%. In addition we could show a good test-retest reliability of TFA of chemosensory induced EEG-power changes in Part III.Central processing of olfactory stimuli analyzed by TFA reliably distinguishes patients with olfactory impairment from healthy individuals at a high degree of accuracy. Importantly this can be achieved with a simple olfactometer.

  9. State and trait olfactory markers of major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Naudin

    Full Text Available Nowadays, depression is a major issue in public health. Because of the partial overlap between the brain structures involved in depression, olfaction and emotion, the study of olfactory function could be a relevant way to find specific cognitive markers of depression. This study aims at determining whether the olfactory impairments are state or trait markers of major depressive episode (MDE through the study of the olfactory parameters involving the central olfactory pathway. In a pilot study, we evaluated prospectively 18 depressed patients during acute episodes of depression and 6 weeks after antidepressant treatment (escitalopram against 54 healthy volunteers, matched by age, gender and smoking status. We investigated the participants' abilities to identify odors (single odors and in binary mixture, to evaluate and discriminate the odors' intensity, and determine the hedonic valence of odors. The results revealed an "olfactory anhedonia" expressed by decrease of hedonic score for high emotional odorant as potential state marker of MDE. Moreover, these patients experienced an "olfactory negative alliesthesia", during the odor intensity evaluation, and failed to identify correctly two odorants with opposite valences in a binary iso-mixture, which constitute potential trait markers of the disease. This study provides preliminary evidence for olfactory impairments associated with MDE (state marker that are persistent after the clinical improvement of depressive symptoms (trait marker. These results could be explained by the chronicity of depression and/or by the impact of therapeutic means used (antidepressant treatment. They need to be confirmed particularly the ones obtained in complex olfactory environment which corresponds a more objective daily life situation.

  10. Effect of strong fragrance on olfactory detection threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasunla, Ayotunde James; Douglas, David Dayo; Adeosun, Aderemi Adeleke; Steinbach, Silke; Nwaorgu, Onyekwere George Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    To assess the olfactory threshold of healthy volunteers at the University College Hospital, Ibadan and to investigate the effect of perfume on their olfactory detection thresholds. A quasi-experimental study on olfactory detection thresholds of healthy volunteers from September 2013 to November 2013. Tertiary health institution. A structured questionniare was administered to the participants in order to obtain information on sociodemographics, occupation, ability to perceive smell, use of perfume, effects of perfume on appetite and self-confidence, history of allergy, and previous nasal surgery. Participants subjectively rated their olfactory performance. Subsequently, they had olfactory detection threshold testing done at baseline and after exposure to perfume with varied concentrations of n-butanol in a forced triple response and staircase fashion. Healthy volunteers, 37 males and 63 females, were evaluated. Their ages ranged from 19 to 59 years with a mean of 31 years ± 8. Subjectively, 94% of the participants had excellent olfactory function. In the pre-exposure forced triple response, 88% were able to detect the odor at ≤.25 mmol/l concentration while in the post-exposure forced triple response, only 66% were able to detect the odor at ≤.25 mmol/l concentration. There is also a statistical significant difference in the olfactory detection threshold score between the pre-exposure and post-exposure period in the participants (P fragrances affects the olfactory detection threshold. Therefore patients and clinicians should be aware of this and its effects on the outcome of test of olfaction. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  11. Expression of calmodulin mRNA in rat olfactory neuroepithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffo, S; Goren, T; Khew-Goodall, Y S; Miara, J; Margolis, F L

    1991-04-01

    A calmodulin (CaM) cDNA was isolated by differential hybridization screening of a lambda gt10 library prepared from rat olfactory mucosa. This cDNA fragment, containing most of the open reading frame of the rat CaMI gene, was subcloned and used to characterize steady-state expression of CaM mRNA in rat olfactory neuroepithelium and bulb. Within the bulb mitral cells are the primary neuronal population expressing CaM mRNA. The major CaM mRNA expressed in the olfactory mucosa is 1.7 kb with smaller contributions from mRNAs of 4.0 and 1.4 kb. CaM mRNA was primarily associated with the olfactory neurons and, despite the cellular complexity of the tissue and the known involvement of CaM in diverse cellular processes, was only minimally evident in sustentacular cells, gland cells or respiratory epithelium. Following bulbectomy CaM mRNA declines in the olfactory neuroepithelium as does olfactory marker protein (OMP) mRNA. In contrast to the latter, CaM mRNA makes a partial recovery by one month after surgery. These results, coupled with those from in situ hybridization, indicate that CaM mRNA is expressed in both mature and immature olfactory neurons. The program regulating CaM gene expression in olfactory neurons is distinct from those controlling expression of B50/GAP43 in immature, or OMP in mature, neurons respectively.

  12. A Specialized Odor Memory Buffer in Primary Olfactory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Zelano, Christina; Montag, Jessica; Khan, Rehan; Sobel, Noam

    2009-01-01

    Background The neural substrates of olfactory working memory are unknown. We addressed the questions of whether olfactory working memory involves a verbal representation of the odor, or a sensory image of the odor, or both, and the location of the neural substrates of these processes. Methodology/Principal Findings We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure activity in the brains of subjects who were remembering either nameable or unnameable odorants. We found a double dissociat...

  13. Illuminating odors: when optogenetics brings to light unexpected olfactory abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Julien; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2016-06-01

    For hundreds of years, the sense of smell has generated great interest in the world literature, oenologists, and perfume makers but less of scientists. Only recently this sensory modality has gained new attraction in neuroscience when original tools issued from physiology, anatomy, or molecular biology were available to decipher how the brain makes sense of olfactory cues. However, this move was promptly dampened by the difficulties of developing quantitative approaches to study the relationship between the physical characteristics of stimuli and the sensations they create. An upswing of olfactory investigations occurred when genetic tools could be used in combination with devices borrowed from the physics of light (a hybrid technique called optogenetics) to scrutinize the olfactory system and to provide greater physiological precision for studying olfactory-driven behaviors. This review aims to present the most recent studies that have used light to activate components of the olfactory pathway, such as olfactory receptor neurons, or neurons located further downstream, while leaving intact others brain circuits. With the use of optogenetics to unravel the mystery of olfaction, scientists have begun to disentangle how the brain makes sense of smells. In this review, we shall discuss how the brain recognizes odors, how it memorizes them, and how animals make decisions based on odorants they are capable of sensing. Although this review deals with olfaction, the role of light will be central throughout. © 2016 Grimaud and Lledo; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Olfactory Dysfunction as an Early Biomarker in Parkinson's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michelle E.Fullard; James F.Morley; John E.Duda

    2017-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and often predates the diagnosis by years,reflecting early deposition of Lewy pathology,the histologic hallmark of PD,in the olfactory bulb.Clinical tests are available that allow for the rapid characterization of olfactory dysfunction,including tests of odor identification,discrimination,detection,and recognition thresholds,memory,and tests assessing the build-up of odor intensity across increasing suprathreshold stimulus concentrations.The high prevalence of olfactory impairment,along with the ease and low cost of assessment,has fostered great interest in olfaction as a potential biomarker for PD.Hyposmia may help differentiate PD from other causes of parkinsonism,and may also aid in the identification of "pre-motor" PD due to the early pathologic involvement of olfactory pathways.Olfactory function is also correlated with other non-motor features of PD and may serve as a predictor of cognitive decline.In this article,we summarize the existing literature on olfaction in PD,focusing on the potential for olfaction as a biomarker for early or differential diagnosis and prognosis.

  15. Illuminating odors: when optogenetics brings to light unexpected olfactory abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Julien

    2016-01-01

    For hundreds of years, the sense of smell has generated great interest in the world literature, oenologists, and perfume makers but less of scientists. Only recently this sensory modality has gained new attraction in neuroscience when original tools issued from physiology, anatomy, or molecular biology were available to decipher how the brain makes sense of olfactory cues. However, this move was promptly dampened by the difficulties of developing quantitative approaches to study the relationship between the physical characteristics of stimuli and the sensations they create. An upswing of olfactory investigations occurred when genetic tools could be used in combination with devices borrowed from the physics of light (a hybrid technique called optogenetics) to scrutinize the olfactory system and to provide greater physiological precision for studying olfactory-driven behaviors. This review aims to present the most recent studies that have used light to activate components of the olfactory pathway, such as olfactory receptor neurons, or neurons located further downstream, while leaving intact others brain circuits. With the use of optogenetics to unravel the mystery of olfaction, scientists have begun to disentangle how the brain makes sense of smells. In this review, we shall discuss how the brain recognizes odors, how it memorizes them, and how animals make decisions based on odorants they are capable of sensing. Although this review deals with olfaction, the role of light will be central throughout. PMID:27194792

  16. Direct transport of inhaled xylene and its metabolites from the olfactory mucosa to the glomeruli of the olfactory bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.L.; Dahl, A.R.; Kracko, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium is a unique tissue in that single receptor neurons have dendrites in contact with the external environment at the nasal airway, and axon terminals that penetrate the cribriform plate and synapse in the olfactory bulb. The Central Nervous System (CNS) is protected from systematically circulating toxicants by a blood-brain barrier primarily composed of tight junctions between endothelial cells in cerebral vessels and a high metabolic capacity within these cells. No such barrier has yet been defined to protect the CNS from inhaled toxicants. Because all inhalants do not seem to access the CNS directly, a nose-brain barrier seems plausible. The purpose of the work described here is to determine whether or not a nose-brain barrier exists and to define its components. Although such a barrier is likely to be multi-faceted, the present work focuses only on the importance of gross histologic and metabolic characteristics of the olfactory epithelium in olfactory transport

  17. Type 2 diabetes impairs odour detection, olfactory memory and olfactory neuroplasticity; effects partly reversed by the DPP-4 inhibitor Linagliptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzau, Grazyna; Davidsson, William; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Chiazza, Fausto; Nathanson, David; Pintana, Hiranya; Skogsberg, Josefin; Klein, Thomas; Nyström, Thomas; Darsalia, Vladimer; Patrone, Cesare

    2018-02-23

    Recent data suggest that olfactory deficits could represent an early marker and a pathogenic mechanism at the basis of cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, research is needed to further characterize olfactory deficits in diabetes, their relation to cognitive decline and underlying mechanisms.The aim of this study was to determine whether T2D impairs odour detection, olfactory memory as well as neuroplasticity in two major brain areas responsible for olfaction and odour coding: the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and the piriform cortex (PC), respectively. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) are clinically used T2D drugs exerting also beneficial effects in the brain. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether DPP-4i could reverse the potentially detrimental effects of T2D on the olfactory system.Non-diabetic Wistar and T2D Goto-Kakizaki rats, untreated or treated for 16 weeks with the DPP-4i linagliptin, were employed. Odour detection and olfactory memory were assessed by using the block, the habituation-dishabituation and the buried pellet tests. We assessed neuroplasticity in the MOB by quantifying adult neurogenesis and GABAergic inhibitory interneurons positive for calbindin, parvalbumin and carletinin. In the PC, neuroplasticity was assessed by quantifying the same populations of interneurons and a newly identified form of olfactory neuroplasticity mediated by post-mitotic doublecortin (DCX) + immature neurons.We show that T2D dramatically reduced odour detection and olfactory memory. Moreover, T2D decreased neurogenesis in the MOB, impaired the differentiation of DCX+ immature neurons in the PC and altered GABAergic interneurons protein expression in both olfactory areas. DPP-4i did not improve odour detection and olfactory memory. However, it normalized T2D-induced effects on neuroplasticity.The results provide new knowledge on the detrimental effects of T2D on the olfactory system. This knowledge could constitute essentials for

  18. Inducible activation of ERK5 MAP kinase enhances adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and improves olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-05-20

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357833-17$15.00/0.

  19. Accumulation of [35S]taurine in peripheral layers of the olfactory bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, M.R.; Wysocki, C.J.; Sturman, J.A.; Wen, G.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of [ 35 S]taurine in the laminae of the olfactory bulb of the adult cat, rat, mouse and rabbit was examined autoradiographically. [ 35 S]Taurine was administered either i.p. or i.v. and olfactory bulbs were excised 24 h post-injection. High concentrations of [ 35 S]taurine were restricted to the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb in all species examined. Olfactory neurons are continuously renewed and the results obtained suggest that taurine may have an important role in olfactory receptor axons. (Auth.)

  20. Identification and Comparison of Candidate Olfactory Genes in the Olfactory and Non-Olfactory Organs of Elm Pest Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Based on Transcriptome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinliang; Chen, Qi; Zhao, Hanbo; Ren, Bingzhong

    2016-01-01

    The leaf beetle Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a predominant forest pest that causes substantial damage to the lumber industry and city management. However, no effective and environmentally friendly chemical method has been discovered to control this pest. Until recently, the molecular basis of the olfactory system in A. quadriimpressum was completely unknown. In this study, antennae and leg transcriptomes were analyzed and compared using deep sequencing data to identify the olfactory genes in A. quadriimpressum. Moreover, the expression profiles of both male and female candidate olfactory genes were analyzed and validated by bioinformatics, motif analysis, homology analysis, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and RT-qPCR experiments in antennal and non-olfactory organs to explore the candidate olfactory genes that might play key roles in the life cycle of A. quadriimpressum. As a result, approximately 102.9 million and 97.3 million clean reads were obtained from the libraries created from the antennas and legs, respectively. Annotation led to 34344 Unigenes, which were matched to known proteins. Annotation data revealed that the number of genes in antenna with binding functions and receptor activity was greater than that of legs. Furthermore, many pathway genes were differentially expressed in the two organs. Sixteen candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 10 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 34 odorant receptors (ORs), 20 inotropic receptors [1] and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and their isoforms were identified. Additionally, 15 OBPs, 9 CSPs, 18 ORs, 6 IRs and 2 SNMPs were predicted to be complete ORFs. Using RT-PCR, RT-qPCR and homology analysis, AquaOBP1/2/4/7/C1/C6, AquaCSP3/9, AquaOR8/9/10/14/15/18/20/26/29/33, AquaIR8a/13/25a showed olfactory-specific expression, indicating that these genes might play a key role in olfaction-related behaviors in A. quadriimpressum such as foraging and seeking. AquaOBP4/C5, AquaOBP4/C5, AquaCSP7

  1. Identification and Comparison of Candidate Olfactory Genes in the Olfactory and Non-Olfactory Organs of Elm Pest Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae Based on Transcriptome Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinliang Wang

    Full Text Available The leaf beetle Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae is a predominant forest pest that causes substantial damage to the lumber industry and city management. However, no effective and environmentally friendly chemical method has been discovered to control this pest. Until recently, the molecular basis of the olfactory system in A. quadriimpressum was completely unknown. In this study, antennae and leg transcriptomes were analyzed and compared using deep sequencing data to identify the olfactory genes in A. quadriimpressum. Moreover, the expression profiles of both male and female candidate olfactory genes were analyzed and validated by bioinformatics, motif analysis, homology analysis, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and RT-qPCR experiments in antennal and non-olfactory organs to explore the candidate olfactory genes that might play key roles in the life cycle of A. quadriimpressum. As a result, approximately 102.9 million and 97.3 million clean reads were obtained from the libraries created from the antennas and legs, respectively. Annotation led to 34344 Unigenes, which were matched to known proteins. Annotation data revealed that the number of genes in antenna with binding functions and receptor activity was greater than that of legs. Furthermore, many pathway genes were differentially expressed in the two organs. Sixteen candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 10 chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 34 odorant receptors (ORs, 20 inotropic receptors [1] and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs and their isoforms were identified. Additionally, 15 OBPs, 9 CSPs, 18 ORs, 6 IRs and 2 SNMPs were predicted to be complete ORFs. Using RT-PCR, RT-qPCR and homology analysis, AquaOBP1/2/4/7/C1/C6, AquaCSP3/9, AquaOR8/9/10/14/15/18/20/26/29/33, AquaIR8a/13/25a showed olfactory-specific expression, indicating that these genes might play a key role in olfaction-related behaviors in A. quadriimpressum such as foraging and seeking. AquaOBP4/C5, Aqua

  2. Satisfação conjugal em casamentos de longa duração: uma construção possível Marital satisfaction in long lasting marriages: a feasible construction

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    Maria de Betânia Paes Norgren

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O relacionamento conjugal está associado à saúde e qualidade de vida, principalmente nos anos de maturidade e velhice, embora o fato de um casamento durar não necessariamente signifique que o mesmo é satisfatório para os cônjuges. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar os processos e variáveis associadas à satisfação conjugal em casamentos de longa duração, ou seja, mais de 20 anos. Trinta e oito casais paulistas responderam a um conjunto de questionários já utilizados em estudo multicultural prévio (Estados Unidos, Suécia, Alemanha, Holanda, Canadá, África do Sul, Israel e Chile. Em cerca de metade dos casais estudados, ao menos um dos cônjuges estava satisfeito. Comparando-se casais satisfeitos e insatisfeitos foi possível identificar que a satisfação aumenta quando há proximidade, estratégias adequadas de resolução de problemas, coesão, boa habilidade de comunicação, se os cônjuges estiverem satisfeitos com seu status econômico e forem praticantes de sua crença religiosa.Marital relationship is related with couple's health and quality of life, especially during the adulthood and the aging years. However, the fact that a marriage is long lasting, does not mean it is necessarily satisfactory to the partners. This paper aims to identify the processes and variables associated to satisfaction in long lasting marriages (those longer than 20 years. Thirty eight couples from São Paulo, Brazil, answered a set of questionnaires used previously in multicultural studies carried out in Sweden, USA, Germany, Canada, Netherlands, South Africa, Israel and Chile. In about half of these couples, at least one consort was found satisfied. Comparing satisfied and unsatisfied couples, it became clear that higher levels of satisfaction are found among couples who have adequate strategies for problem solving, proximity, cohesion, good communication skills; who are religiously active and satisfied with their economical status.

  3. Control of pyrethroid and DDT-resistant Anopheles gambiae by application of indoor residual spraying or mosquito nets treated with a long-lasting organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos-methyl

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    Chabi Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS with support from the Global Fund and President's Malaria Initiative is providing increased opportunities for malaria control in Africa. The most cost-effective and longest-lasting residual insecticide DDT is also the most environmentally persistent. Alternative residual insecticides exist, but are too short-lived or too expensive to sustain. Dow Agrosciences have developed a microencapsulated formulation (CS of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos methyl as a cost-effective, long-lasting alternative to DDT. Methods Chlorpyrifos methyl CS was tested as an IRS or ITN treatment in experimental huts in an area of Benin where Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasiactus are resistant to pyrethroids, but susceptible to organophosphates. Efficacy and residual activity was compared to that of DDT and the pyrethroid lambdacyalothrin. Results IRS with chlorpyrifos methyl killed 95% of An. gambiae that entered the hut as compared to 31% with lambdacyhalothrin and 50% with DDT. Control of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed a similar trend; although the level of mortality with chlorpyrifos methyl was lower (66% it was still much higher than for DDT (14% or pyrethroid (15% treatments. Nets impregnated with lambdacyhalothrin were compromized by resistance, killing only 30% of An. gambiae and 8% of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Nets impregnated with chlorpyrifos methyl killed more (45% of An gambiae and 15% of Cx. quinquefasciatus, but its activity on netting was of short duration. Contact bioassays on the sprayed cement-sand walls over the nine months of monitoring showed no loss of activity of chlorpyrifos methyl, whereas lambdacyhalothrin and DDT lost activity within a few months of spraying. Conclusion As an IRS treatment against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes chlorpyrifos methyl CS outperformed DDT and lambdacyhalothrin. In IRS campaigns, chlorpyrifos methyl CS should

  4. Induction of Associative Olfactory Memory by Targeted Activation of Single Olfactory Neurons in Drosophila Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Takato; Lee, Chi-Yu; Yoshida-Kasikawa, Maki; Honjo, Ken; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that associative memory is formed by at least two sets of external stimuli, CS and US, that are transmitted to the memory centers by distinctive conversing pathways. However, whether associative memory can be induced by the activation of only the olfactory CS and a biogenic amine-mediated US pathways remains to be elucidated. In this study, we substituted the reward signals with dTrpA1-mediated thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons and the odor signals by C...

  5. Organization and distribution of glomeruli in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb

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    Takushi Kishida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although modern baleen whales (Mysticeti retain a functional olfactory system that includes olfactory bulbs, cranial nerve I and olfactory receptor genes, their olfactory capabilities have been reduced to a great degree. This reduction likely occurred as a selective response to their fully aquatic lifestyle. The glomeruli that occur in the olfactory bulb can be divided into two non-overlapping domains, a dorsal domain and a ventral domain. Recent molecular studies revealed that all modern whales have lost olfactory receptor genes and marker genes that are specific to the dorsal domain. Here we show that olfactory bulbs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus lack glomeruli on the dorsal side, consistent with the molecular data. In addition, we estimate that there are more than 4,000 glomeruli elsewhere in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb, which is surprising given that bowhead whales possess only 80 intact olfactory receptor genes. Olfactory sensory neurons that express the same olfactory receptors in rodents generally project to two specific glomeruli in an olfactory bulb, implying an approximate 1:2 ratio of the number of olfactory receptors to the number of glomeruli. Here we show that this ratio does not apply to bowhead whales, reiterating the conceptual limits of using rodents as model organisms for understanding the initial coding of odor information among mammals.

  6. Neural representations of novel objects associated with olfactory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghio, Marta; Schulze, Patrick; Suchan, Boris; Bellebaum, Christian

    2016-07-15

    Object conceptual knowledge comprises information related to several motor and sensory modalities (e.g. for tools, how they look like, how to manipulate them). Whether and to which extent conceptual object knowledge is represented in the same sensory and motor systems recruited during object-specific learning experience is still a controversial question. A direct approach to assess the experience-dependence of conceptual object representations is based on training with novel objects. The present study extended previous research, which focused mainly on the role of manipulation experience for tool-like stimuli, by considering sensory experience only. Specifically, we examined the impact of experience in the non-dominant olfactory modality on the neural representation of novel objects. Sixteen healthy participants visually explored a set of novel objects during the training phase while for each object an odor (e.g., peppermint) was presented (olfactory-visual training). As control conditions, a second set of objects was only visually explored (visual-only training), and a third set was not part of the training. In a post-training fMRI session, participants performed an old/new task with pictures of objects associated with olfactory-visual and visual-only training (old) and no training objects (new). Although we did not find any evidence of activations in primary olfactory areas, the processing of olfactory-visual versus visual-only training objects elicited greater activation in the right anterior hippocampus, a region included in the extended olfactory network. This finding is discussed in terms of different functional roles of the hippocampus in olfactory processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression of olfactory signaling genes in the eye.

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    Alexey Pronin

    Full Text Available To advance our understanding how the outer eye interacts with its environment, we asked which cellular receptors are expressed in the cornea, focusing on G protein-coupled receptors.Total RNA from the mouse cornea was subjected to next-generation sequencing using the Illumina platform. The data was analyzed with TopHat and CuffLinks software packages. Expression of a representative group of genes detected by RNA-seq was further analyzed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization using RNAscope technology and fluorescent microscopy.We generated more than 46 million pair-end reads from mouse corneal RNA. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the mouse corneal transcriptome reconstructed from these reads represents over 10,000 gene transcripts. We identified 194 GPCR transcripts, of which 96 were putative olfactory receptors. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the presence of several olfactory receptors and related genes, including olfactory marker protein and the G protein associated with olfaction, Gαolf. In situ hybridization showed that mRNA for olfactory marker protein, Gαolf and possibly some olfactory receptors were found in the corneal epithelial cells. In addition to the corneal epithelium, Gαolf was present in the ganglionic and inner nuclear layers of the retina. One of the olfactory receptors, Olfr558, was present primarily in vessels of the eye co-stained with antibodies against alpha-smooth muscle actin, indicating expression in arterioles.Several species of mRNA encoding putative olfactory receptors and related genes are expressed in the mouse cornea and other parts of the eye indicating they may play a role in sensing chemicals in the ocular environment.

  8. Early olfactory environment influences social behaviour in adult Octodon degus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Natalia; Martínez-Harms, Jaime; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which manipulation of early olfactory environment can influence social behaviours in the South American Hystricognath rodent Octodon degus. The early olfactory environment of newborn degus was manipulated by scenting all litter members with eucalyptol during the first month of life. The social behaviour of sexually mature animals (5-7 months old) towards conspecifics was then assessed using a y-maze to compare the response of control (naïve) and treated animals to two different olfactory configurations (experiment 1): (i) a non-familiarized conspecific impregnated with eucalyptol (eucalyptol arm) presented against (ii) a non-familiarized unscented conspecific (control arm). In addition, in dyadic encounters, we assessed the behaviour of control and eucalyptol treated animals towards a non-familiarized conspecific scented with eucalyptol (experiment 2). We found that control subjects explored and spent significantly less time in the eucalyptol arm, indicating neophobic behaviours towards the artificially scented conspecific. Treated subjects explored and spent similar time in both arms of the maze, showing the same interest for both olfactory stimuli presented. During dyadic encounters in experiment 2, an interaction effect between early experience and sex was observed. Control males escaped and avoided their scented partner more frequently than eucalyptol treated male subjects and than females. Both groups did not differ in the exploration of their scented partners, suggesting that avoidance within agonistic context does not relate to neophobic behaviours. Our results suggest that the exposure to eucalyptol during early ontogeny decreases evasive behaviours within an agonistic context as a result of olfactory learning. Altogether, these results indicate that olfactory cues learned in early ontogeny can influence olfactory-guided behaviours in adult degus.

  9. Integrated olfactory receptor and microarray gene expression databases

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    Crasto Chiquito J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression patterns of olfactory receptors (ORs are an important component of the signal encoding mechanism in the olfactory system since they determine the interactions between odorant ligands and sensory neurons. We have developed the Olfactory Receptor Microarray Database (ORMD to house OR gene expression data. ORMD is integrated with the Olfactory Receptor Database (ORDB, which is a key repository of OR gene information. Both databases aim to aid experimental research related to olfaction. Description ORMD is a Web-accessible database that provides a secure data repository for OR microarray experiments. It contains both publicly available and private data; accessing the latter requires authenticated login. The ORMD is designed to allow users to not only deposit gene expression data but also manage their projects/experiments. For example, contributors can choose whether to make their datasets public. For each experiment, users can download the raw data files and view and export the gene expression data. For each OR gene being probed in a microarray experiment, a hyperlink to that gene in ORDB provides access to genomic and proteomic information related to the corresponding olfactory receptor. Individual ORs archived in ORDB are also linked to ORMD, allowing users access to the related microarray gene expression data. Conclusion ORMD serves as a data repository and project management system. It facilitates the study of microarray experiments of gene expression in the olfactory system. In conjunction with ORDB, ORMD integrates gene expression data with the genomic and functional data of ORs, and is thus a useful resource for both olfactory researchers and the public.

  10. Optical study of SrAl1.7B0.3O4:Eu, R (R=Nd, Dy) pigments with long-lasting phosphorescence for industrial uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Benitez, J.; Andres, A. de; Marchal, M.; Cordoncillo, E.; Regi, M.V.; Escribano, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied and compared the optical properties of SrAl 1.7 B 0.3 O 4 :Eu, R (R=Nd, Dy) pigments that present long-lasting phosphorescence obtained by different synthesis techniques. Samples obtained by ceramic methods, in our laboratories and by an industrial process, present better phosphorescent properties than those obtained by sol-gel technique. Raman spectra show that grinding produces severe damage of the lattice. We have obtained and analyzed the Eu 3+ crystal field luminescence indicating that Eu 3+ is found in quite different sites comparing ceramic and sol-gel samples. Codoping, with Nd or Dy is necessary in order to reduce the Eu 3+ content, in all cases. The green luminescence band, obtained under UV illumination, can be fitted to two and three components in ceramic and sol-gel samples, respectively, due to different Eu 2+ sites. Eu-Dy samples present the longest and the most efficient phosphorescence. The time evolution of the afterglow is well described by a t -1 law, up to about 2 h, indicating that the recombination process is achieved by electron-hole tunneling

  11. Long-Lasting Production of New T and B Cells and T-Cell Repertoire Diversity in Patients with Primary Immunodeficiency Who Had Undergone Stem Cell Transplantation: A Single-Centre Experience

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    Monica Valotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs, T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs, and T-cell repertoire diversity were evaluated in 1038 samples of 124 children with primary immunodeficiency, of whom 102 (54 with severe combined immunodeficiency and 48 with other types of immunodeficiency underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Twenty-two not transplanted patients with primary immunodeficiency were used as controls. Only data of patients from whom at least five samples were sent to the clinical laboratory for routine monitoring of lymphocyte reconstitutions were included in the analysis. The mean time of the follow-up was 8 years. The long-lasting posttransplantation kinetics of KREC and TREC production occurred similarly in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency and with other types of immunodeficiency and, in both groups, the T-cell reconstitution was more efficient than in nontransplanted children. Although thymic output decreased in older transplanted patients, the degree of T-cell repertoire diversity, after an initial increase, remained stable during the observation period. However, the presence of graft-versus-host disease and ablative conditioning seemed to play a role in the time-related shaping of T-cell repertoire. Overall, our data suggest that long-term B- and T-cell reconstitution was equally achieved in children with severe combined immunodeficiency and with other types of primary immunodeficiency.

  12. To assess whether indoor residual spraying can provide additional protection against clinical malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets in The Gambia: study protocol for a two-armed cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, there has been mounting interest in scaling-up vector control against malaria in Africa. It needs to be determined if indoor residual spraying (IRS with DDT will provide significant marginal protection against malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and prompt treatment in a controlled trial, given that DDT is currently the most persistent insecticide for IRS. Methods A 2 armed cluster-randomised controlled trial will be conducted to assess whether DDT IRS and LLINs combined provide better protection against clinical malaria in children than LLINs alone in rural Gambia. Each cluster will be a village, or a group of small adjacent villages; all clusters will receive LLINs and half will receive IRS in addition. Study children, aged 6 months to 13 years, will be enrolled from all clusters and followed for clinical malaria using passive case detection to estimate malaria incidence for 2 malaria transmission seasons in 2010 and 2011. This will be the primary endpoint. Exposure to malaria parasites will be assessed using light and exit traps followed by detection of Anopheles gambiae species and sporozoite infection. Study children will be surveyed at the end of each transmission season to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection and the prevalence of anaemia. Discussion Practical issues concerning intervention implementation, as well as the potential benefits and risks of the study, are discussed. Trial Registration ISRCTN01738840 - Spraying And Nets Towards malaria Elimination (SANTE

  13. Long-lasting complete response status of advanced stage IV gall bladder cancer and colon cancer after combined treatment including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Yuki; Kuranishi, Fumito; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Yasuda, Hiroko; Ohno, Tadao

    2017-09-11

    The prognosis of advanced (stage IV) cancer of the digestive organs is very poor. We have previously reported a case of advanced breast cancer with bone metastasis that was successfully treated with combined treatments including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV). Herein, we report the success of this approach in advanced stage IV (heavily metastasized) cases of gall bladder cancer and colon cancer. Case 1: A 61-year-old woman with stage IV gall bladder cancer (liver metastasis and lymph node metastasis) underwent surgery in May 2011, including partial resection of the liver. She was treated with AFTV as the first-line adjuvant therapy, followed by conventional chemotherapy. This patient is still alive without any recurrence, as confirmed with computed tomography, for more than 5 years. Case 2: A 64-year-old man with stage IV colon cancer (multiple para-aortic lymph node metastases and direct abdominal wall invasion) underwent non-curative surgery in May 2006. Following conventional chemotherapy, two courses of AFTV and radiation therapy were administered sequentially. This patient has had no recurrence for more than 5 years. We report the success of combination therapy including AFTV in cases of liver-metastasized gall bladder cancer and abdominal wall-metastasized colon cancer. Both patients experienced long-lasting, complete remission. Therefore, combination therapies including AFTV should be considered in patients with advanced cancer of the digestive organs.

  14. Active forgetting of olfactory memories in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jacob A; Davis, Ronald L

    2014-01-01

    Failure to remember, or forgetting, is a phenomenon familiar to everyone and despite more than a century of scientific inquiry, why we forget what we once knew remains unclear. If the brain marshals significant resources to form and store memories, why is it that these memories become lost? In the last century, psychological studies have divided forgetting into decay theory, in which memory simply dissipates with time, and interference theory, in which additional learning or mental activity hinders memory by reducing its stability or retrieval (for review, Dewar et al., 2007; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, these psychological models of forgetting posit that forgetting is a passive property of the brain and thus a failure of the brain to retain memories. However, recent neuroscience research on olfactory memory in Drosophila has offered evidence for an alternative conclusion that forgetting is an "active" process, with specific, biologically regulated mechanisms that remove existing memories (Berry et al., 2012; Shuai et al., 2010). Similar to the bidirectional regulation of cell number by mitosis and apoptosis, protein concentration by translation and lysosomal or proteomal degradation, and protein phosphate modification by kinases and phosphatases, biologically regulated memory formation and removal would be yet another example in biological systems where distinct and separate pathways regulate the creation and destruction of biological substrates. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of olfactory sense on chocolate craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W; Gillette, Aubrey L; Hobbs, Taylor E; Wu, Di

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effect of the olfactory sense on chocolate craving in college females. Building on previous research by Kemps and Tiggemann (2013), we hypothesized that a fresh scent would decrease one's craving level for chocolate food. While the precursor study only addressed the decrease of chocolate craving, we also hypothesized that a sweet scent would increase one's craving level for chocolate foods. In the present experiment, participants rated their craving levels after viewing images of chocolate foods and inhaling essential oils: one fresh (Slique™ essence), and one sweet (vanilla). Results supported both of the hypotheses: inhaling a fresh scent reduced females' craving levels; similarly, when a sweet scent was inhaled, the participants' craving levels for chocolate food increased. These findings are particularly beneficial for women seeking weight loss and the findings can be applied in contexts such as weight loss programs, therapy, and maintenance programs, even beyond college settings. The results are particularly useful for helping women regarding stimuli that might serve as triggers for chocolate cravings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heightened Olfactory Sensitivity in Young Females with Recent-Onset Anorexia Nervosa and Recovered Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Mette; Guldberg, Johanne; Vangkilde, Signe

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Olfaction may be related to food restriction and weight loss. However, reports regarding olfactory function in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: Characterize olfactory sensitivity and identification in female adolescents and young adults...

  17. No evidence for visual context-dependency of olfactory learning in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarali, Ayse; Mayerle, Moritz; Nawroth, Christian; Gerber, Bertram

    2008-08-01

    How is behaviour organised across sensory modalities? Specifically, we ask concerning the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster how visual context affects olfactory learning and recall and whether information about visual context is getting integrated into olfactory memory. We find that changing visual context between training and test does not deteriorate olfactory memory scores, suggesting that these olfactory memories can drive behaviour despite a mismatch of visual context between training and test. Rather, both the establishment and the recall of olfactory memory are generally facilitated by light. In a follow-up experiment, we find no evidence for learning about combinations of odours and visual context as predictors for reinforcement even after explicit training in a so-called biconditional discrimination task. Thus, a ‘true’ interaction between visual and olfactory modalities is not evident; instead, light seems to influence olfactory learning and recall unspecifically, for example by altering motor activity, alertness or olfactory acuity.

  18. Neuronal basis of innate olfactory attraction to ethanol in Drosophila.

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    Andrea Schneider

    Full Text Available The decision to move towards a mating partner or a food source is essential for life. The mechanisms underlying these behaviors are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of octopamine - the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline - in innate olfactory attraction to ethanol. We confirmed that preference is caused via an olfactory stimulus by dissecting the function of the olfactory co-receptor Orco (formally known as OR83b. Orco function is not required for ethanol recognition per se, however it plays a role in context dependent recognition of ethanol. Odor-evoked ethanol preference requires the function of Tbh (Tyramine β hydroxalyse, the rate-limiting enzyme of octopamine synthesis. In addition, neuronal activity in a subset of octopaminergic neurons is necessary for olfactory ethanol preference. Notably, a specific neuronal activation pattern of tyraminergic/octopaminergic neurons elicit preference and is therefore sufficient to induce preference. In contrast, dopamine dependent increase in locomotor activity is not sufficient for olfactory ethanol preference. Consistent with the role of noradrenaline in mammalian drug induced rewards, we provide evidence that in adult Drosophila the octopaminergic neurotransmitter functions as a reinforcer and that the molecular dissection of the innate attraction to ethanol uncovers the basic properties of a response selection system.

  19. Olfactory insights into sleep-dependent learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Laura K; Gottfried, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is pervasive throughout most of the animal kingdom-even jellyfish and honeybees do it. Although the precise function of sleep remains elusive, research increasingly suggests that sleep plays a key role in memory consolidation. Newly formed memories are highly labile and susceptible to interference, and the sleep period offers an optimal window in which memories can be strengthened or modified. Interestingly, a small but growing research area has begun to explore the ability of odors to modulate memories during sleep. The unique anatomical organization of the olfactory system, including its intimate overlap with limbic systems mediating emotion and memory, and the lack of a requisite thalamic intermediary between the nasal periphery and olfactory cortex, suggests that odors may have privileged access to the brain during sleep. Indeed, it has become clear that the long-held assumption that odors have no impact on the sleeping brain is no longer tenable. Here, we summarize recent studies in both animal and human models showing that odor stimuli experienced in the waking state modulate olfactory cortical responses in sleep-like states, that delivery of odor contextual cues during sleep can enhance declarative memory and extinguish fear memory, and that olfactory associative learning can even be achieved entirely within sleep. Data reviewed here spotlight the emergence of a new research area that should hold far-reaching implications for future neuroscientific investigations of sleep, learning and memory, and olfactory system function. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liping; Zou, Ling; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping; Wu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Biological olfactory and taste systems are natural chemical sensing systems with unique performances for the detection of environmental chemical signals. With the advances in olfactory and taste transduction mechanisms, biomimetic chemical sensors have achieved significant progress due to their promising prospects and potential applications. Biomimetic chemical sensors exploit the unique capability of biological functional components for chemical sensing, which are often sourced from sensing units of biological olfactory or taste systems at the tissue level, cellular level, or molecular level. Specifically, at the cellular level, there are mainly two categories of cells have been employed for the development of biomimetic chemical sensors, which are natural cells and bioengineered cells, respectively. Natural cells are directly isolated from biological olfactory and taste systems, which are convenient to achieve. However, natural cells often suffer from the undefined sensing properties and limited amount of identical cells. On the other hand, bioengineered cells have shown decisive advantages to be applied in the development of biomimetic chemical sensors due to the powerful biotechnology for the reconstruction of the cell sensing properties. Here, we briefly summarized the most recent advances of biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells. The development challenges and future trends are discussed as well.

  1. Sad man's nose: Emotion induction and olfactory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, Elena L R; Erwin, Elena; Croy, Ilona; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Emotional and olfactory processing is frequently shown to be closely linked both anatomically and functionally. Depression, a disease closely related to the emotional state of sadness, has been shown to be associated with a decrease in olfactory sensitivity. The present study focuses on the state of sadness in n = 31 healthy subjects in order to investigate the specific contribution of this affective state in the modulation of olfactory processing. A sad or indifferent affective state was induced using 2 movies that were presented on 2 separate days. Afterward, chemosensory-evoked potentials were recorded after stimulation with an unpleasant (hydrogen sulfide: "rotten eggs") or a pleasant (phenyl ethyl alcohol: "rose") odorant. Latencies of N1 and P2 peaks were longer after induction of the sad affective state. Additionally, amplitudes were lower in a sad affective state when being stimulated with the unpleasant odorant. Processing of olfactory input has thus been reduced under conditions of the sad affective state. We argue that the affective state per se could at least partially account for the reduced olfactory sensitivity in depressed patients. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show influence of affective state on chemosensory event-related potentials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Autistic traits associated with food neophobia but not olfactory sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Tsang, Irene; López, Beatriz; Severini, Martina; Iacomini, Silvia

    2017-09-01

    Food neophobia has been shown to be associated with a range of personality traits (including anxiety, lower sensation seeking) and additionally sensory aspects of food such as taste and texture. Running parallel to that work, research has demonstrated higher incidences of food neophobia in autistic populations and separately evidence of hypersensitivity in some sensory domains. The aim of the current study was to extend our understanding by exploring whether the broader aspects of autistic traits can predict food neophobia in a non-autistic population and whether this is mediated by differences in olfactory sensitivity. In the present study, student participants (N = 50) completed questionnaires measuring their food neophobia (FNS) and preferences for foreign cuisine, autistic traits (Autistic Quotient, AQ), and then completed an olfactory threshold test for a food related odour. The findings demonstrated a positive association between food neophobia and the magnitude of autistic traits and interestingly, an inverse relation between preference for foreign cuisine and olfactory sensitivity; those individuals less inclined toward foreign cuisine had poorer sensitivity to a food related odour. Since AQ was not related to olfactory sensitivity, these findings suggest the relation between autistic traits and food neophobia is unlikely to be mediated by olfactory sensitivity. More broadly however, our sense of smell is associated with experiencing a wider diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Olfactory dysfunction affects thresholds to trigeminal chemosensory sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, J; Schuster, B; Hummel, T

    2010-01-14

    Next to olfaction and gustation, the trigeminal system represents a third chemosensory system. These senses are interconnected; a loss of olfactory function also leads to a reduced sensitivity in the trigeminal chemosensory system. However, most studies so far focused on comparing trigeminal sensitivity to suprathreshold stimuli; much less data is available with regard to trigeminal sensitivity in the perithreshold range. Therefore we assessed detection thresholds for CO(2), a relatively pure trigeminal stimulus in controls and in patients with olfactory dysfunction (OD). We could show that OD patients exhibit higher detection thresholds than controls. In addition, we were able to explore the effects of different etiologies of smell loss on trigeminal detection thresholds. We could show that in younger subjects, patients suffering from olfactory loss due to head trauma are more severely impaired with regard to their trigeminal sensitivity than patients with isolated congenital anosmia. In older patients, we could not observe any differences between different etiologies, probably due to the well known age-related decrease of trigeminal sensitivity. Furthermore we could show that a betterment of the OD was accompanied by decreased thresholds. This was most evident in patients with postviral OD. In conclusion, factors such as age, olfactory status and etiology of olfactory disorder can affect responsiveness to perithreshold trigeminal chemosensory stimuli. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. From chemical neuroanatomy to an understanding of the olfactory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Oboti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory system is the appropriate model for studying several aspects of neuronal physiology spanning from the developmental stage to neural network remodelling in the adult brain. Both the morphological and physiological understanding of this system were strongly supported by classical histochemistry. It is emblematic the case of the Olfactory Marker Protein (OMP staining, the first, powerful marker for fully differentiated olfactory receptor neurons and a key tool to investigate the dynamic relations between peripheral sensory epithelia and central relay regions given its presence within olfactory fibers reaching the olfactory bulb (OB. Similarly, the use of thymidine analogues was able to show neurogenesis in an adult mammalian brain far before modern virus labelling and lipophilic tracers based methods. Nowadays, a wealth of new histochemical techniques combining cell and molecular biology approaches is available, giving stance to move from the analysis of the chemically identified circuitries to functional research. The study of adult neurogenesis is indeed one of the best explanatory examples of this statement. After defining the cell types involved and the basic physiology of this phenomenon in the OB plasticity, we can now analyze the role of neurogenesis in well testable behaviours related to socio-chemical communication in rodents.

  5. Quantum Dot Distribution in the Olfactory Epithelium After Nasal Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzotto, D.; De Marchis, S.

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are used in a wide range of human applications from industrial to bio-medical fields. However, the unique characteristics of nanoparticles, such as the small size, large surface area per mass and high reactivity raises great concern on the adverse effects of these particles on ecological systems and human health. There are several pioneer studies reporting translocation of inhaled particulates to the brain through a potential neuronal uptake mediated by the olfactory nerve (1, 2, 3). However, no direct evidences have been presented up to now on the pathway followed by the nanoparticles from the nose to the brain. In addition to a neuronal pathway, nanoparticles could gain access to the central nervous system through extracellular pathways (perineuronal, perivascular and cerebrospinal fluid paths). In the present study we investigate the localization of intranasally delivered fluorescent nanoparticles in the olfactory epithelium. To this purpose we used quantum dots (QDs), a model of innovative fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals commonly used in cell and animal biology (4). Intranasal treatments with QDs were performed acutely on adult CD1 mice. The olfactory epithelium was collected and analysed by confocal microscopy at different survival time after treatment. Data obtained indicate that the neuronal components of the olfactory epithelium are not preferentially involved in QDs uptake, thus suggesting nanoparticles can cross the olfactory epithelium through extracellular pathways.

  6. Evaluation of Olfactory and Gustatory Function of HIV Infected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayotunde James Fasunla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Compliance with medication requires good sense of smell and taste. Objective. To evaluate the olfactory and gustatory function of HIV infected women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods. A case control study of women comprising 83 HIV infected women and 79 HIV uninfected women. Subjective self-rating of taste and smell function was by visual analogue scale. Olfactory function was measured via olfactory threshold (OT, olfactory discrimination (OD, olfactory identification (OI, and TDI using “Sniffin’ sticks” kits and taste function (Total Taste Strips (TTS score measurement was by taste strips. Results. The mean age of the HIV infected women was 43.67 years ± 10.72 and control was 41.48 years ± 10.99. There was no significant difference in the self-reported assessment of smell (p=0.67 and taste (p=0.84 of HIV infected and uninfected women. Although the mean OT, OD, OI, TDI, and TTS scores of HIV infected and uninfected women were within the normosmic and normogeusic values, the values were significantly higher in the controls (p<0.05. Hyposmia was in 39.7% of subjects and 12.6% of controls while hypogeusia was in 15.7% of subjects and 1.3% of controls. Conclusions. Hyposmia and hypogeusia are commoner among the HIV infected women than the HIV uninfected women and the risk increases with an increased duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

  7. From chemical neuroanatomy to an understanding of the olfactory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboti, L.; Peretto, P.; De Marchis, S.; Fasolo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The olfactory system of mammals is the appropriate model for studying several aspects of neuronal physiology spanning from the developmental stage to neural network remodelling in the adult brain. Both the morphological and physiological understanding of this system were strongly supported by classical histochemistry. It is emblematic the case of the Olfactory Marker Protein (OMP) staining, the first, powerful marker for fully differentiated olfactory receptor neurons and a key tool to investigate the dynamic relations between peripheral sensory epithelia and central relay regions given its presence within olfactory fibers reaching the olfactory bulb (OB). Similarly, the use of thymidine analogues was able to show neurogenesis in an adult mammalian brain far before modern virus labelling and lipophilic tracers based methods. Nowadays, a wealth of new histochemical techniques combining cell and molecular biology approaches is available, giving stance to move from the analysis of the chemically identified circuitries to functional research. The study of adult neurogenesis is indeed one of the best explanatory examples of this statement. After defining the cell types involved and the basic physiology of this phenomenon in the OB plasticity, we can now analyze the role of neurogenesis in well testable behaviours related to socio-chemical communication in rodents. PMID:22297441

  8. Properties and mechanisms of olfactory learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T Tong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Memories are dynamic physical phenomena with psychometric forms as well as characteristic timescales. Most of our understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying the neurophysiology of memory, however, derives from one-trial learning paradigms that, while powerful, do not fully embody the gradual, representational, and statistical aspects of cumulative learning. The early olfactory system -- particularly olfactory bulb -- comprises a reasonably well-understood and experimentally accessible neuronal network with intrinsic plasticity that underlies both one-trial (adult aversive, neonatal and cumulative (adult appetitive odor learning. These olfactory circuits employ many of the same molecular and structural mechanisms of memory as, for example, hippocampal circuits following inhibitory avoidance conditioning, but the temporal sequences of post-conditioning molecular events are likely to differ owing to the need to incorporate new information from ongoing learning events into the evolving memory trace. Moreover, the shapes of acquired odor representations, and their gradual transformation over the course of cumulative learning, also can be directly measured, adding an additional representational dimension to the traditional metrics of memory strength and persistence. In this review, we describe some established molecular and structural mechanisms of memory with a focus on the timecourses of post-conditioning molecular processes. We describe the properties of odor learning intrinsic to the olfactory bulb and review the utility of the olfactory system of adult rodents as a memory system in which to study the cellular mechanisms of cumulative learning.

  9. Postnatal odorant exposure induces peripheral olfactory plasticity at the cellular level

    OpenAIRE

    CADIOU , Hervé; AOUDE , Imad; Tazir , Bassim; Molinas , Adrien; Forbes Fenech , Claire; Meunier , Nicolas; Grosmaitre , Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) form the primary elements of the olfactory system. Inserted in the olfactory mucosa lining of the nasal cavity, they are exposed to the environment and their lifespan is brief. Several reports say that OSNs are regularly regenerated during the entire life and that odorant environment affects the olfactory epithelium. However, little is known about the impact of the odorant environment on OSNs at the cellular level and more precisely in the context of...

  10. Role of a Ubiquitously Expressed Receptor in the Vertebrate Olfactory System

    OpenAIRE

    DeMaria, Shannon; Berke, Allison P.; Van Name, Eric; Heravian, Anisa; Ferreira, Todd; Ngai, John

    2013-01-01

    Odorant cues are recognized by receptors expressed on olfactory sensory neurons, the primary sensory neurons of the olfactory epithelium. Odorant receptors typically obey the “one receptor, one neuron” rule, in which the receptive field of the olfactory neuron is determined by the singular odorant receptor that it expresses. Odor-evoked receptor activity across the population of olfactory neurons is then interpreted by the brain to identify the molecular nature of the odorant stimulus. In the...

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of pattern formation and pattern recognition in the rabbit olfactory bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Bill

    1986-10-01

    A mathematical model of the process of pattern recognition in the first olfactory sensory cortex of the rabbit is presented. It explains the formation and alteration of spatial patterns in neural activity observed experimentally during classical Pavlovian conditioning. On each inspiration of the animal, a surge of receptor input enters the olfactory bulb. EEG activity recorded at the surface of the bulb undergoes a transition from a low amplitude background state of temporal disorder to coherent oscillation. There is a distinctive spatial pattern of rms amplitude in this oscillation which changes reliably to a second pattern during each successful recognition by the animal of a conditioned stimulus odor. When a new odor is paired as conditioned stimulus, these patterns are replaced by new patterns that stabilize as the animal adapts to the new environment. I will argue that a unification of the theories of pattern formation and associative memory is required to account for these observations. This is achieved in a model of the bulb as a discrete excitable medium with spatially inhomogeneous coupling expressed by a connection matrix. The theory of multiple Hopf bifurcations is employed to find coupled equations for the amplitudes of competing unstable oscillatory modes. These may be created in the system by proper coupling and selectively evoked by specific classes of inputs. This allows a view of limit cycle attractors as “stored” fixed points of a gradient vector field and thereby recovers the more familiar dynamical systems picture of associative memory.

  12. File list: InP.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. Increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shixing; Yin, Yan; Lu, Huimin; Guo, Aike

    2008-05-23

    Dopamine is necessary for the aversive olfactory associative memory formation in Drosophila, but its effect on other stages of memory is not known. Herein, we studied the effect of enhanced dopaminergic signaling on aversive olfactory memory retention in flies. We used l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) to elevate dopamine levels: l-DOPA-treated flies exhibited a normal learning performance, but a decrease in 1-h memory. Dopamine transporter (DAT) mutant flies or flies treated with the DAT inhibitor desipramine exhibited poor memory retention. Flies subjected to heat stress after training exhibited a decrease in memory. Memory was restored by blocking dopaminergic neuronal output during heat stress, suggesting that dopamine is involved in heat stress-induced memory impairment in flies. Taken together, our findings suggest that increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in flies.

  19. Evidence for a Peripheral Olfactory Memory in Imprinted Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevitt, Gabrielle A.; Dittman, Andrew H.; Quinn, Thomas P.; Moody, William J., Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The remarkable homing ability of salmon relies on olfactory cues, but its cellular basis is unknown. To test the role of peripheral olfactory receptors in odorant memory retention, we imprinted coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to micromolar concentrations of phenyl ethyl alcohol during parr-smolt transformation. The following year, we measured phenyl ethyl alcohol responses in the peripheral receptor cells using patch clamp. Cells from imprinted fish showed increased sensitivity to phenyl ethyl alcohol compared either to cells from naive fish or to sensitivity to another behaviorally important odorant (L-serine). Field experiments verified an increased behavioral preference for phenyl ethyl alcohol by imprinted salmon as adults. Thus, some component of the imprinted olfactory homestream memory appears to be retained peripherally.

  20. Functional Neuro-Imaging and Post-Traumatic Olfactory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richard J.; Sheehan, William; Thurber, Steven; Roberts, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate via a research literature survey the anterior neurological significance of decreased olfactory functioning following traumatic brain injuries. Materials and Methods: A computer literature review was performed to locate all functional neuro-imaging studies on patients with post-traumatic anosmia and other olfactory deficits. Results: A convergence of findings from nine functional neuro-imaging studies indicating evidence for reduced metabolic activity at rest or relative hypo-perfusion during olfactory activations. Hypo-activation of the prefrontal regions was apparent in all nine post-traumatic samples, with three samples yielding evidence of reduced activity in the temporal regions as well. Conclusions: The practical ramifications include the reasonable hypothesis that a total anosmic head trauma patient likely has frontal lobe involvement. PMID:21716782

  1. Self-grounding visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Igor; Ljunglöf, Louise; Arshamian, Artin; Willander, Johan

    2017-07-01

    Given that autobiographical memory provides a cognitive foundation for the self, we investigated the relative importance of visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories for the self. Thirty subjects, with a mean age of 35.4years, participated in a study involving a three×three within-subject design containing nine different types of autobiographical memory cues: pictures, sounds and odors presented with neutral, positive and negative valences. It was shown that visual compared to auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories involved higher cognitive and emotional constituents for the self. Furthermore, there was a trend showing positive autobiographical memories to increase their proportion to both cognitive and emotional components of the self, from olfactory to auditory to visually cued autobiographical memories; but, yielding a reverse trend for negative autobiographical memories. Finally, and independently of modality, positive affective states were shown to be more involved in autobiographical memory than negative ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Atypical olfactory groove meningioma associated with uterine fibromatosis; case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma I. Papacocea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The concomitant presence of the olfactory groove meningioma with uterine fibrosis is very rare. Our report presents the case of a giant olfactory groove meningioma revealed after a uterine fibroma resection in a 44 years-old female, due to a generalized seizure 10 days after operation. Cranial CT-scan identified the tumor as an olfactory groove meningioma. The tumor was operated with a macroscopically complete resection; the endothermal coagulation of the dura attachment was performed (Simpson II with a good postoperative evolution. Laboratory results showed the presence of receptors for steroid hormones both in meningioma and uterine tumor, and the histopathological examination revealed an atypical meningioma with 17% proliferation markers. Our findings suggest that even though meningiomas are benign tumors and a complete resection usually indicates a good prognosis, the association with uterine fibromatosis and the presence of high percentage of steroid receptors creates a higher risk to relapse, imposing therefore a good monitoring.

  3. Impaired olfactory function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Bozkurt Koseoglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is an endocrine disorder which affects 6.6% of women of child-bearing age. Although olfactory dysfunction is frequent in the population and it negatively affects quality of life, neither physicians or patients consider this important. This case-control study included 30 patients diagnosed with PCOS, and 25 healthy age-matched controls. Sniffin' sticks tests (BurghartGmbH, Wedel, Germany were used to analyze olfactory functions, and the Beck Depression Inventory was used to evaluate depressive symptoms. The total odor score was significantly lower in the PCOS group compared to the control group (p<0.005. The Beck depression score was higher in the PCOS group (p<0.005. There was a negative correlation between the total odor score and the Beck Depression Score. Patients with PCOS have impaired olfactory function. This might be related to depressive disorders that are also observed in those patients.

  4. Olfactory memory: a case study in cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, J M

    1996-05-01

    Over the last decade, interest in the general applicability of psychological research has increased significantly, leading to doubts among some critics of cognitive psychology regarding the usefulness of the modern information-processing approach. In particular, current cognitive models of memory address mainly visual and verbal information processing, with little acknowledgement of the existence of other sensory modalities. However, since the mid-1970's, the literature on olfactory memory has expanded rapidly, and it has remained relatively independent of mainstream memory research. This article outlines the olfactory literature, which has focused principally on examination of the Proustian characteristics of smell. The relationship between olfactory and other types of memory is also examined. The author notes that there is evidence that models of memory intended to be general have taken insufficient account of findings from olfaction and other sensory modalities, an approach that could be considered symptomatic of dangerous tendency to base purportedly general theories on databases that are too narrow.

  5. Associative cortex features in the first olfactory brain relay station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Wilder; Gire, David H; Whitesell, Jennifer; Carmean, Vanessa; Lucero, Mary T; Restrepo, Diego

    2011-03-24

    Synchronized firing of mitral cells (MCs) in the olfactory bulb (OB) has been hypothesized to help bind information together in olfactory cortex (OC). In this survey of synchronized firing by suspected MCs in awake, behaving vertebrates, we find the surprising result that synchronized firing conveys information on odor value ("Is it rewarded?") rather than odor identity ("What is the odor?"). We observed that as mice learned to discriminate between odors, synchronous firing responses to the rewarded and unrewarded odors became divergent. Furthermore, adrenergic blockage decreases the magnitude of odor divergence of synchronous trains, suggesting that MCs contribute to decision-making through adrenergic-modulated synchronized firing. Thus, in the olfactory system information on stimulus reward is found in MCs one synapse away from the sensory neuron. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Large-scale implementation of disease control programmes: a cost-effectiveness analysis of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net distribution channels in a malaria-endemic area of western Kenya-a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Elvis; Were, Vincent; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Niessen, Louis; Buff, Ann M; Kariuki, Simon

    2016-11-21

    Historically, Kenya has used various distribution models for long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) with variable results in population coverage. The models presently vary widely in scale, target population and strategy. There is limited information to determine the best combination of distribution models, which will lead to sustained high coverage and are operationally efficient and cost-effective. Standardised cost information is needed in combination with programme effectiveness estimates to judge the efficiency of LLIN distribution models and options for improvement in implementing malaria control programmes. The study aims to address the information gap, estimating distribution cost and the effectiveness of different LLIN distribution models, and comparing them in an economic evaluation. Evaluation of cost and coverage will be determined for 5 different distribution models in Busia County, an area of perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya. Cost data will be collected retrospectively from health facilities, the Ministry of Health, donors and distributors. Programme-effectiveness data, defined as the number of people with access to an LLIN per 1000 population, will be collected through triangulation of data from a nationally representative, cross-sectional malaria survey, a cross-sectional survey administered to a subsample of beneficiaries in Busia County and LLIN distributors' records. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis will be used for the evaluation. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a health-systems perspective, and cost-effectiveness ratios will be calculated using bootstrapping techniques. The study has been evaluated and approved by Kenya Medical Research Institute, Scientific and Ethical Review Unit (SERU number 2997). All participants will provide written informed consent. The findings of this economic evaluation will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  7. A single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin that produces reduced food and water intake induces long-lasting expression of corticotropin-releasing factor, arginine vasopressin, and proopiomelanocortin in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Bo-Hyun; Hong, Chang Gwun; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Seung Keon; Kang, Seungwoo; Lee, Kuem-Ju; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Min-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism by which a single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces food and water intake is unclear. We examined whether such a food and water intake-reducing single administration of TCDD induced changes in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression in rat brain. To observe time-dependent changes in these neuropeptides, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given TCDD (50 μg/kg) and terminated 1, 2, 4, or 7 days later. In addition, to observe dose-dependent changes in feeding and neuropeptides, rats were also given a range of TCDD doses (12.5, 25, or 50 μg/kg) and terminated 14 days later. TCDD suppressed food and water intake over 14 days in a dose-dependent manner. TCDD treatment also increased CRF and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and arcuate nucleus, respectively, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These increases were related to decreased food intake following TCDD administration. TCDD treatment increased AVP and CRF mRNA levels in the PVN, and these increases were related to decreased water intake. Interestingly, the increases in CRF, AVP and POMC expression were observed 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration. These results suggest that a single administration of TCDD induced long-lasting increases in CRF, AVP, and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and that these changes are related to reduced food and water intake 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration

  8. Vaccination of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein adjuvanted with poly I:C, a host defense peptide and polyphosphazine, elicits strong and long lasting cellular and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Waugh, Courtney; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2014-10-07

    Chlamydial infections are wide spread in koalas across their range and a solution to this debilitating disease has been sought for over a decade. Antibiotics are the currently accepted therapeutic measure, but are not an effective treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of some infections and a low efficacy rate. Thus, a vaccine would be an ideal way to address this infectious disease threat in the wild. Previous vaccine trials have used a three-dose regimen; however this is very difficult to apply in the field as it would require multiple capture events, which are stressful and invasive processes for the koala. In addition, it requires skilled koala handlers and a significant monetary investment. To overcome these challenges, in this study we utilized a polyphosphazine based poly I:C and a host defense peptide adjuvant combined with recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) antigen to induce long lasting (54 weeks) cellular and humoral immunity in female koalas with a novel single immunizing dose. Immunized koalas produced a strong IgG response in plasma, as well as at mucosal sites. Moreover, they showed high levels of C. pecorum specific neutralizing antibodies in the plasma as well as vaginal and conjunctival secretions. Lastly, Chlamydia-specific lymphocyte proliferation responses were produced against both whole chlamydial elementary bodies and rMOMP protein, over the 12-month period. The results of this study suggest that a single dose rMOMP vaccine incorporating a poly I:C, host defense peptide and polyphosphazine adjuvant is able to stimulate both arms of the immune system in koalas, thereby providing an alternative to antibiotic treatment and/or a three-dose vaccine regime. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-lasting spatial learning and memory impairments caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion associate with a dynamic change of HCN1/HCN2 expression in hippocampal CA1 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pan; Lu, Yun; Li, Changjun; Zhou, Mei; Chen, Cheng; Lu, Qing; Xu, Xulin; He, Zhi; Guo, Lianjun

    2015-09-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes learning and memory impairments and increases the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) through several biologically plausible pathways, yet the mechanisms underlying the disease process remained unclear particularly in a temporal manner. We performed permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion, 2VO) to induce CCH. To determine whether hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are altered at different stages of cognitive impairment caused by CCH, adult male SD rats were randomly distributed into sham-operated 4, 8 and 12weeks group, 2VO 4, 8 and 12weeks group. Learning and memory performance were evaluated with Morris water maze (MWM) and long-term potentiation (LTP) was used to address the underlying synaptic mechanisms. Expression of NeuN, HCN1 and HCN2 in hippocampal CA1, DG and CA3 areas was quantified by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Our data showed that CCH induced a remarkable spatial learning and memory deficits in rats of 2VO 4, 8, and 12weeks group although neuronal loss only occurred after 4weeks of 2VO surgery in CA1. In addition, a significant reduction of HCN1 surface expression in CA1 was observed in the group that suffered 4weeks ischemia but neither 8 nor 12weeks. However, HCN2 surface expression in CA1 increased throughout the ischemia time-scales (4, 8 and 12w). Our findings indicate spatial learning and memory deficits in the CCH model are associated with disturbed HCN1 and HCN2 surface expression in hippocampal CA1. The altered patterns of both HCN1 and HCN2 surface expression may be implicated in the early stage (4w) of spatial learning and memory impairments; and the stable and long-lasting impairments of spatial learning and memory may partially attribute to the up-regulated HCN2 surface expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cholinergic innervation of the zebrafish olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey G; Greig, Ann; Sakata, Yoko; Elkin, Dimitry; Michel, William C

    2007-10-20

    A number of fish species receive forebrain cholinergic input but two recent reports failed to find evidence of cholinergic cell bodies or fibers in the olfactory bulbs (OBs) of zebrafish. In the current study we sought to confirm these findings by examining the OBs of adult zebrafish for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity. We observed a diffuse network of varicose ChAT-positive fibers associated with the nervus terminalis ganglion innervating the mitral cell/glomerular layer (MC/GL). The highest density of these fibers occurred in the anterior region of the bulb. The cellular targets of this cholinergic input were identified by exposing isolated OBs to acetylcholine receptor (AChR) agonists in the presence of agmatine (AGB), a cationic probe that permeates some active ion channels. Nicotine (50 microM) significantly increased the activity-dependent labeling of mitral cells and juxtaglomerular cells but not of tyrosine hydroxlase-positive dopaminergic neurons (TH(+) cells) compared to control preparations. The nAChR antagonist mecamylamine, an alpha7-nAChR subunit-specific antagonist, calcium-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid, or a cocktail of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists each blocked nicotine-stimulated labeling, suggesting that AGB does not enter the labeled neurons through activated nAChRs but rather through activated iGluRs following ACh-stimulated glutamate release. Deafferentation of OBs did not eliminate nicotine-stimulated labeling, suggesting that cholinergic input is primarily acting on bulbar neurons. These findings confirm the presence of a functioning cholinergic system in the zebrafish OB.

  11. The role of dopamine in Drosophila larval classical olfactory conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Selcho

    Full Text Available Learning and memory is not an attribute of higher animals. Even Drosophila larvae are able to form and recall an association of a given odor with an aversive or appetitive gustatory reinforcer. As the Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model for studying odor processing, a detailed neuronal and functional map of the olfactory pathway is available up to the third order neurons in the mushroom bodies. At this point, a convergence of olfactory processing and gustatory reinforcement is suggested to underlie associative memory formation. The dopaminergic system was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect olfactory conditioning. To analyze the anatomy and function of the larval dopaminergic system, we first characterize dopaminergic neurons immunohistochemically up to the single cell level and subsequent test for the effects of distortions in the dopamine system upon aversive (odor-salt as well as appetitive (odor-sugar associative learning. Single cell analysis suggests that dopaminergic neurons do not directly connect gustatory input in the larval suboesophageal ganglion to olfactory information in the mushroom bodies. However, a number of dopaminergic neurons innervate different regions of the brain, including protocerebra, mushroom bodies and suboesophageal ganglion. We found that dopamine receptors are highly enriched in the mushroom bodies and that aversive and appetitive olfactory learning is strongly impaired in dopamine receptor mutants. Genetically interfering with dopaminergic signaling supports this finding, although our data do not exclude on naïve odor and sugar preferences of the larvae. Our data suggest that dopaminergic neurons provide input to different brain regions including protocerebra, suboesophageal ganglion and mushroom bodies by more than one route. We therefore propose that different types of dopaminergic neurons might be involved in different types of signaling necessary for aversive and appetitive

  12. Functional MRI of the olfactory system in conscious dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jia

    Full Text Available We depend upon the olfactory abilities of dogs for critical tasks such as detecting bombs, landmines, other hazardous chemicals and illicit substances. Hence, a mechanistic understanding of the olfactory system in dogs is of great scientific interest. Previous studies explored this aspect at the cellular and behavior levels; however, the cognitive-level neural substrates linking them have never been explored. This is critical given the fact that behavior is driven by filtered sensory representations in higher order cognitive areas rather than the raw odor maps of the olfactory bulb. Since sedated dogs cannot sniff, we investigated this using functional magnetic resonance imaging of conscious dogs. We addressed the technical challenges of head motion using a two pronged strategy of behavioral training to keep dogs' head as still as possible and a single camera optical head motion tracking system to account for residual jerky movements. We built a custom computer-controlled odorant delivery system which was synchronized with image acquisition, allowing the investigation of brain regions activated by odors. The olfactory bulb and piriform lobes were commonly activated in both awake and anesthetized dogs, while the frontal cortex was activated mainly in conscious dogs. Comparison of responses to low and high odor intensity showed differences in either the strength or spatial extent of activation in the olfactory bulb, piriform lobes, cerebellum, and frontal cortex. Our results demonstrate the viability of the proposed method for functional imaging of the olfactory system in conscious dogs. This could potentially open up a new field of research in detector dog technology.

  13. Stimulus-response functions of single avian olfactory bulb neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, Dorothy E F; Demmers, Theodorus G M; Wathes, Christopher M; Jones, R Bryan; Gentle, Michael J

    2002-10-25

    This study investigated olfactory processing in a functional context by examining the responses of single avian olfactory bulb neurones to two biologically important gases over relevant concentration ranges. Recordings of extracellular spike activity were made from 80 single units in the left olfactory bulb of 11 anaesthetised, freely breathing adult hens (Gallus domesticus). The units were spontaneously active, exhibiting widely variable firing rates (0.07-47.28 spikes/s) and variable temporal firing patterns. Single units were tested for their response to an ascending concentration series of either ammonia (2.5-100 ppm) or hydrogen sulphide (1-50 ppm), delivered directly to the olfactory epithelium. Stimulation with a calibrated gas delivery system resulted in modification of spontaneous activity causing either inhibition (47% of units) or excitation (53%) of firing. For ammonia, 20 of the 35 units tested exhibited a response, while for hydrogen sulphide, 25 of the 45 units tested were responsive. Approximate response thresholds for ammonia (median threshold 3.75 ppm (range 2.5-60 ppm, n=20)) and hydrogen sulphide (median threshold 1 ppm (range 1-10 ppm, n=25)) were determined with most units exhibiting thresholds near the lower end of these ranges. Stimulus response curves were constructed for 23 units; 16 (the most complete) were subjected to a linear regression analysis to determine whether they were best fitted by a linear, log or power function. No single function provided the best fit for all the curves (seven were linear, eight were log, one was power). These findings show that avian units respond to changes in stimulus concentration in a manner generally consistent with reported responses in mammalian olfactory bulb neurones. However, this study illustrates a level of fine-tuning to small step changes in concentration (<5 ppm) not previously demonstrated in vertebrate single olfactory bulb neurones.

  14. Preserved olfactory cuing of autobiographical memories in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylor, Elizabeth A; Carter, Sarah M; Hallett, Emma L

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated whether olfactory cues can facilitate memory retrieval and whether they retain their effectiveness in old age. In Phase 1, 57 young and 57 old adults (mean ages of 21 and 84 years, respectively) were asked to recall autobiographical memories associated with each of six cue words. In Phase 2, the same words were presented again with instructions to recall new memories; on this second occasion, half of the words were accompanied by their appropriate odors. Both age groups recalled more than twice as many memories in Phase 2 with the odor than without the odor, providing evidence for substantial olfactory cuing that is remarkably intact in old age.

  15. Processing of Sensory Information in the Olfactory System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The olfactory system is an attractive model system due to the easy control of sensory input and the experimental accessibility in animal studies. The odorant signals are processed from receptor neurons to a neural network of mitral and granular cells while various types of nonlinear behaviour can...... and equation-free techniques allow for a better reproduction and understanding of recent experimental findings. Talks: Olfaction as a Model System for Sensory-Processing Neural Networks (Jens Midtgaard, University of Copenhagen, Denmark) Nonlinear Effects of Signal Transduction in Olfactory Sensory Neurons...

  16. Risk factors for hazardous events in olfactory-impaired patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Taylor S; Reiter, Evan R; DiNardo, Laurence J; Costanzo, Richard M

    2014-10-01

    Normal olfaction provides essential cues to allow early detection and avoidance of potentially hazardous situations. Thus, patients with impaired olfaction may be at increased risk of experiencing certain hazardous events such as cooking or house fires, delayed detection of gas leaks, and exposure to or ingestion of toxic substances. To identify risk factors and potential trends over time in olfactory-related hazardous events in patients with impaired olfactory function. Retrospective cohort study of 1047 patients presenting to a university smell and taste clinic between 1983 and 2013. A total of 704 patients had both clinical olfactory testing and a hazard interview and were studied. On the basis of olfactory function testing results, patients were categorized as normosmic (n = 161), mildly hyposmic (n = 99), moderately hyposmic (n = 93), severely hyposmic (n = 142), and anosmic (n = 209). Patient evaluation including interview, examination, and olfactory testing. Incidence of specific olfaction-related hazardous events (ie, burning pots and/or pans, starting a fire while cooking, inability to detect gas leaks, inability to detect smoke, and ingestion of toxic substances or spoiled foods) by degree of olfactory impairment. The incidence of having experienced any hazardous event progressively increased with degree of impairment: normosmic (18.0%), mildly hyposmic (22.2%), moderately hyposmic (31.2%), severely hyposmic (32.4%), and anosmic (39.2%). Over 3 decades there was no significant change in the overall incidence of hazardous events. Analysis of demographic data (age, sex, race, smoking status, and etiology) revealed significant differences in the incidence of hazardous events based on age (among 397 patients hazardous event, vs 31 of 146 patients ≥65 years [21.3%]; P hazardous event, vs 73 of 265 men [27.6%]; P = .009), and race (among 98 African Americans, 41 [41.8%] with hazardous event, vs 134 of 434 whites [30.9%]; P = .04

  17. Lifetime olfactory memory in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Y; Mizunami, M

    2002-05-01

    The time span of olfactory memory retention in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus was studied. Third- or fourth-instar nymph crickets were trained to associate one odor with water and another odor with saline solution. At 6 weeks and 10 weeks after training, adult crickets exhibited significantly greater preferences for the odor associated with water over that associated with saline solution. The learned preference was altered when they were given reversal training at 6 weeks after training. We conclude that crickets are capable of retaining olfactory memory practically for their lifetime and of easily rewriting it in accordance with experience.

  18. Gamma Knife radiosurgery of olfactory groove meningiomas provides a method to preserve subjective olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gande, Abhiram; Kano, Hideyuki; Bowden, Gregory; Mousavi, Seyed H; Niranjan, Ajay; Flickinger, John C; Lunsford, L Dade

    2014-02-01

    Anosmia is a common outcome after resection of olfactory groove meningioma(s) (OGM) and for some patients represents a significant disability. To evaluate long term tumor control rates and preservation of subjective olfaction after Gamma Knife (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of OGM. We performed a retrospective chart review and telephone assessments of 41 patients who underwent GK SRS between 1987 and 2008. Clinical outcomes were stratified by full, partial or no subjective olfaction, whereas tumor control was assessed by changes in volume greater or lesser than 25%. The median clinical and imaging follow-up were 76 and 65 months, respectively. Prior to SRS, 19 (46%) patients had surgical resections and two (5%) had received fractionated radiation therapy. Twenty four patients (59%) reported a normal sense of smell, 12 (29%) reported a reduced sense of smell and five (12%) had complete anosmia. The median tumor volume was 8.5 cm(3) (range 0.6-56.1), the mean radiation dose at the tumor margin was 13 Gy (range 10-20) and the median estimated dose to the olfactory nerve was 5.1 Gy (range 1.1-18.1). At follow-up, 27 patients (66%) reported intact olfaction (three (7%) described return to a normal sense of smell), nine (22%) described partial anosmia, and five (12%) had complete anosmia. No patient reported deterioration in olfaction after SRS. Thirteen patients (32%) showed significant tumor regression, 26 (63%) had no further growth and two (5%) had progressed. The progression free tumor control rates were 97% at 1 year and 95% at 2, 10 and 20 years. Symptomatic adverse radiation effects occurred in three (7%) patients. Stereotactic radiosurgery provided both long term tumor control and preservation of olfaction.

  19. Ulex europaeus I and glycine max bind to the human olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, M; Oka, N; Kamo, H; Akiguchi, I; Kimura, J

    1993-12-24

    The distribution of binding sites for the fucose-selective lectin Ulex europaeus I and the terminal N-acetylgalactosamine-selective lectin glycine max in the human olfactory bulb were studied. These lectins bound to primary olfactory axons in the olfactory nerve layer and the glomerular layer. They also bound to fibers located in the deeper layers such as the external plexiform layer and the granular layer. Furthermore they projected to the olfactory stalk but not in the cerebrum. The deeper projections of the lectin binding fibers may affect the function of the olfactory bulb in humans.

  20. Consolidation of an olfactory memory trace in the olfactory bulb is required for learning-induced survival of adult-born neurons and long-term memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Kermen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has recently been proposed that adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb, whose survival is modulated by learning, support long-term olfactory memory. However, the mechanism used to select which adult-born neurons following learning will participate in the long-term retention of olfactory information is unknown. We addressed this question by investigating the effect of bulbar consolidation of olfactory learning on memory and neurogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Initially, we used a behavioral ecological approach using adult mice to assess the impact of consolidation on neurogenesis. Using learning paradigms in which consolidation time was varied, we showed that a spaced (across days, but not a massed (within day, learning paradigm increased survival of adult-born neurons and allowed long-term retention of the task. Subsequently, we used a pharmacological approach to block consolidation in the olfactory bulb, consisting in intrabulbar infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, and found impaired learning and no increase in neurogenesis, while basic olfactory processing and the basal rate of adult-born neuron survival remained unaffected. Taken together these data indicate that survival of adult-born neurons during learning depends on consolidation processes taking place in the olfactory bulb. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We can thus propose a model in which consolidation processes in the olfactory bulb determine both survival of adult-born neurons and long-term olfactory memory. The finding that adult-born neuron survival during olfactory learning is governed by consolidation in the olfactory bulb strongly argues in favor of a role for bulbar adult-born neurons in supporting olfactory memory.

  1. Consolidation of an olfactory memory trace in the olfactory bulb is required for learning-induced survival of adult-born neurons and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermen, Florence; Sultan, Sébastien; Sacquet, Joëlle; Mandairon, Nathalie; Didier, Anne

    2010-08-13

    It has recently been proposed that adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb, whose survival is modulated by learning, support long-term olfactory memory. However, the mechanism used to select which adult-born neurons following learning will participate in the long-term retention of olfactory information is unknown. We addressed this question by investigating the effect of bulbar consolidation of olfactory learning on memory and neurogenesis. Initially, we used a behavioral ecological approach using adult mice to assess the impact of consolidation on neurogenesis. Using learning paradigms in which consolidation time was varied, we showed that a spaced (across days), but not a massed (within day), learning paradigm increased survival of adult-born neurons and allowed long-term retention of the task. Subsequently, we used a pharmacological approach to block consolidation in the olfactory bulb, consisting in intrabulbar infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, and found impaired learning and no increase in neurogenesis, while basic olfactory processing and the basal rate of adult-born neuron survival remained unaffected. Taken together these data indicate that survival of adult-born neurons during learning depends on consolidation processes taking place in the olfactory bulb. We can thus propose a model in which consolidation processes in the olfactory bulb determine both survival of adult-born neurons and long-term olfactory memory. The finding that adult-born neuron survival during olfactory learning is governed by consolidation in the olfactory bulb strongly argues in favor of a role for bulbar adult-born neurons in supporting olfactory memory.

  2. Extrabulbar olfactory system and nervus terminalis FMRFamide immunoreactive components in Xenopus laevis ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Claudia; D'Aniello, Biagio; Polese, Gianluca; Rastogi, Rakesh K

    2004-09-01

    The extrabulbar olfactory system (EBOS) is a collection of nerve fibers which originate from primary olfactory receptor-like neurons and penetrate into the brain bypassing the olfactory bulbs. Our description is based upon the application of two neuronal tracers (biocytin, carbocyanine DiI) in the olfactory sac, at the cut end of the olfactory nerve and in the telencephalon of the developing clawed frog. The extrabulbar olfactory system was observed already at stage 45, which is the first developmental stage compatible with our techniques; at this stage, the extrabulbar olfactory system fibers terminated diffusely in the preoptic area. A little later in development, i.e. at stage 50, the extrabulbar olfactory system was maximally developed, extending as far caudally as the rhombencephalon. In the metamorphosing specimens, the extrabulbar olfactory system appeared reduced in extension; caudally, the fiber terminals did not extend beyond the diencephalon. While a substantial overlapping of biocytin/FMRFamide immunoreactivity was observed along the olfactory pathways as well as in the telencephalon, FMRFamide immunoreactivity was never observed to be colocalized in the same cellular or fiber components visualized by tracer molecules. The question whether the extrabulbar olfactory system and the nervus terminalis (NT) are separate anatomical entities or represent an integrated system is discussed.

  3. Olfactory neuroblastoma: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Marton; Osnes, Terje; Jebsen, Peter; Evensen, Jan Folkvard; Meling, Torstein R

    2018-01-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a potentially curable disease, despite being an aggressive malignancy with a poor natural history. Our goal was to evaluate management outcomes for patients with ONB treated at our institution. Our prospective database for brain tumors and the pathology registry of head and neck cancers at Oslo University Hospital were searched to identify all patients treated for ONB between 1998 and 2016. Variables extracted from these databases, supplemented by retrospective chart reviews, underwent thorough analysis. All cases were formally re-examined by a dedicated head and neck pathologist. Twenty patients were identified. Follow-up was 100%. Mean follow-up was 81.5 months for the entire cohort and 120.3 months for patients with no evidence of disease. Fourteen patients underwent treatment of choice including craniofacial resection (CFR) with or without radiotherapy (XRT). Six patients could only receive less extensive treatment; three patients underwent lateral rhinotomy (LR) with or without XRT after being deemed medically unsuitable for CFR, while another three patients received only supportive, non-surgical treatment (due to positive lymph node status in two and to extensive tumor size in one case). Overall and disease-specific survival rates were 100% after 10 years of follow-up when negative surgical margins were achieved by CFR. Positive margins were associated with poorer outcome with no patients surviving longer than 44 months. Long-term survival was also achieved in two cases among patients not eligible for CFR: one case after radical LR and one case after radio-chemotherapy. Advanced disease at presentation (tumor size ≥40 mm, Kadish grades C and D, or TNM IVa and IVb) and positive surgical margins were correlated to significantly dismal survival. Our study suggests that CFR with or without adjuvant XRT is safe and leads to excellent long-time overall and disease-specific survival. Negative surgical margins, tumor size <40

  4. Morphology of the olfactory system in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Michiel; Wadman, Wytse J; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2006-01-01

    The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis locates its prey, the two-spotted spider mite, by means of herbivore-induced plant volatiles. The olfactory response to this quantitatively and qualitatively variable source of information is particularly well documented. The mites perform this task with a peripheral olfactory system that consists of just five putative olfactory sensilla that reside in a dorsal field at the tip of their first pair of legs. The receptor cells innervate a glomerular olfactory lobe just ventral of the first pedal ganglion. We have made a 3D reconstruction of the caudal half of the olfactory lobe in adult females. The glomerular organization as well as the glomerular innervation appears conserved across different individuals. The adult females have, by approximation, a 1:1 ratio of olfactory receptor cells to olfactory glomeruli.

  5. Congenital olfactory impairment is linked to cortical changes in prefrontal and limbic brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, Helena Gásdal; Vestergaard, Martin; Baaré, William F C

    2018-01-01

    differently in individuals who suffer from lifelong olfactory deprivation relative to healthy normosmic individuals. To address this question, we examined if regional variations in gray matter volume were associated with smell ability in seventeen individuals with isolated congenital olfactory impairment (COI...... in left middle frontal gyrus and right superior frontal sulcus (SFS). COI subjects with severe olfactory impairment (anosmia) had reduced grey matter volume in the left mOFC and increased volume in right piriform cortex and SFS. Within the COI group olfactory ability, measured with the "Sniffin' Sticks...... piriform cortex, while olfactory identification was negatively associated with right SFS volume. Our findings suggest that lifelong olfactory deprivation trigger changes in the cortical volume of prefrontal and limbic brain regions previously linked to olfactory memory....

  6. A novel H6N1 virus-like particle vaccine induces long-lasting cross-clade antibody immunity against human and avian H6N1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Rong; Chen, Chih-Yuan; Kuo, Chuan-Yi; Cheng, Chieh-Yu; Lee, Min-Shiuh; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Yang, Yu-Chih; Wu, Chia-Ying; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Liu, Ming-Tsan; Hsiao, Pei-Wen

    2016-02-01

    Avian influenza A(H6N1) virus is one of the most common viruses isolated from migrating birds and domestic poultry in many countries. The first and only known case of human infection by H6N1 virus in the world was reported in Taiwan in 2013. This led to concern that H6N1 virus may cause a threat to public health. In this study, we engineered a recombinant H6N1 virus-like particle (VLP) and investigated its vaccine effectiveness compared to the traditional egg-based whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine. The H6N1-VLPs exhibited similar morphology and functional characteristics to influenza viruses. Prime-boost intramuscular immunization in mice with unadjuvanted H6N1-VLPs were highly immunogenic and induced long-lasting antibody immunity. The functional activity of the VLP-elicited IgG antibodies was proved by in vitro seroprotective hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization titers against the homologous human H6N1 virus, as well as in vivo viral challenge analyses which showed H6N1-VLP immunization significantly reduced viral load in the lung, and protected against human H6N1 virus infection. Of particular note, the H6N1-VLPs but not the H6N1-WIVs were able to confer cross-reactive humoral immunity; antibodies induced by H6N1-VLP vaccine robustly inhibited the hemagglutination activities and in vitro replication of distantly-related heterologous avian H6N1 viruses. Furthermore, the H6N1-VLPs were found to elicit significantly greater anti-HA2 antibody responses in immunized mice than H6N1-WIVs. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time a novel H6N1-VLP vaccine that effectively provides broadly protective immunity against both human and avian H6N1 viruses. These results, which uncover the underlying mechanisms for induction of wide-range immunity against influenza viruses, may be useful for future influenza vaccine development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of insecticide persistence, biological activity and mosquito resistance to PermaNet® 2 long-lasting insecticidal nets over three to 32 months of use in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshebo, Gedeon Yohannes; Graves, Patricia M; Smith, Stephen C; Wills, Aprielle B; Damte, Mesele; Endeshaw, Tekola; Shargie, Estifanos Biru; Gebre, Teshome; Mosher, Aryc W; Patterson, Amy E; Emerson, Paul M

    2014-03-06

    Information is needed on the expected durability of insecticidal nets under operational conditions. The persistence of insecticidal efficacy is important to estimate the median serviceable life of nets under field conditions and to plan for net replacement. Deltamethrin residue levels were evaluated by the proxy method of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry on 189 nets used for three to six months from nine sites, 220 nets used for 14-20 months from 11 sites, and 200 nets used for 26-32 months from ten sites in Ethiopia. A random sample of 16.5-20% of nets from each time period (total 112 of 609 nets) were tested by bioassay with susceptible mosquitoes, and nets used for 14-20 months and 26-32 months were also tested with wild caught mosquitoes. Mean insecticide levels estimated by X-ray fluorescence declined by 25.9% from baseline of 66.2 (SD 14.6) mg/m2 at three to six months to 44.1 (SD 21.2) mg/m2 at 14-20 months and by 30.8% to 41.1 (SD 18.9) mg/m2 at 26-32 months. More than 95% of nets retained greater than 10 mg/m2 of deltamethrin and over 79% had at least 25 mg/m2 at all time periods. By bioassay with susceptible Anopheles, mortality averaged 89.0% on 28 nets tested at three to six months, 93.3% on 44 nets at 14-20 months and 94.1% on 40 nets at 26-32 months. With wild caught mosquitoes, mortality averaged 85.4% (range 79.1 to 91.7%) at 14-20 months but had dropped significantly to 47.2% (39.8 to 54.7%) at 26-32 months. Insecticide residue level, as estimated by X-ray fluorescence, declined by about one third between three and six months and 14-20 months, but remained relatively stable and above minimum requirements thereafter up to 26-32 months. The insecticidal activity of PermaNet® 2.0 long-lasting insecticidal nets in the specified study area may be considered effective to susceptible mosquitoes at least for the duration indicated in this study (32 months). However, results indicated that resistance in the wild population is already rendering nets with

  8. Newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb selected for long-term survival through olfactory learning are prematurely suppressed when the olfactory memory is erased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sébastien; Rey, Nolwen; Sacquet, Joelle; Mandairon, Nathalie; Didier, Anne

    2011-10-19

    A role for newborn neurons in olfactory memory has been proposed based on learning-dependent modulation of olfactory bulb neurogenesis in adults. We hypothesized that if newborn neurons support memory, then they should be suppressed by memory erasure. Using an ecological approach in mice, we showed that behaviorally breaking a previously learned odor-reward association prematurely suppressed newborn neurons selected to survive during initial learning. Furthermore, intrabulbar infusions of the caspase pan-inhibitor ZVAD (benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp) during the behavioral odor-reward extinction prevented newborn neurons death and erasure of the odor-reward association. Newborn neurons thus contribute to the bulbar network plasticity underlying long-term memory.

  9. Selective olfactory attention of a specialised predator to intraspecific chemical signals of its prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Manuel; Jiroš, Pavel; Pekár, Stano

    2012-08-01

    Prey-specialised predators have evolved specific cognitive adaptations that increase their prey searching efficiency. In particular, when the prey is social, selection probably favours the use of prey intraspecific chemical signals by predatory arthropods. Using a specialised ant-eating zodariid spider, Zodarion rubidum, which is known to prey on several ant species and possesses capture and venom adaptations more effective on Formicinae ants, we tested its ability to recognise chemical cues produced by several ant species. Using an olfactometer, we tested the response of Z. rubidum towards air with chemical cues from six different ant species: Camponotus ligniperda, Lasius platythorax and Formica rufibarbis (all Formicinae); and Messor structor, Myrmica scabrinodis and Tetramorium caespitum (all Myrmicinae). Z. rubidum was attracted to air carrying chemical cues only from F. rufibarbis and L. platythorax. Then, we identified that the spiders were attracted to airborne cues coming from the F. rufibarbis gaster and Dufour's gland, in particular. Finally, we found that among several synthetic blends, the decyl acetate and undecane mixture produced significant attraction of spiders. These chemicals are produced only by three Formicine genera. Furthermore, we investigated the role of these chemical cues in the communication of F. rufibarbis and found that this blend reduces their movement. This study demonstrates the chemical cognitive capacity of Z. rubidum to locate its ant prey using chemical signals produced by the ants. The innate capacity of Z. rubidum to olfactory detect different ant species is narrow, as it includes only two ant genera, confirming trophic specialisation at lower than subfamily level. The olfactory cue detected by Zodarion spiders is probably a component of the recruitment or trail pheromone.

  10. Distinct Neural Mechanisms Mediate Olfactory Memory Formation at Different Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Ann Marie; Magidson, Phillip D.; Linster, Christiane; Wilson, Donald A.; Cleland, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Habituation is one of the oldest forms of learning, broadly expressed across sensory systems and taxa. Here, we demonstrate that olfactory habituation induced at different timescales (comprising different odor exposure and intertrial interval durations) is mediated by different neural mechanisms. First, the persistence of habituation memory is…

  11. Virtual vision system with actual flavor by olfactory display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Kanazawa, Fumihiro

    2010-11-01

    The authors have researched multimedia system and support system for nursing studies on and practices of reminiscence therapy and life review therapy. The concept of the life review is presented by Butler in 1963. The process of thinking back on one's life and communicating about one's life to another person is called life review. There is a famous episode concerning the memory. It is called as Proustian effects. This effect is mentioned on the Proust's novel as an episode that a story teller reminds his old memory when he dipped a madeleine in tea. So many scientists research why smells trigger the memory. The authors pay attention to the relation between smells and memory although the reason is not evident yet. Then we have tried to add an olfactory display to the multimedia system so that the smells become a trigger of reminding buried memories. An olfactory display is a device that delivers smells to the nose. It provides us with special effects, for example to emit smell as if you were there or to give a trigger for reminding us of memories. The authors have developed a tabletop display system connected with the olfactory display. For delivering a flavor to user's nose, the system needs to recognition and measure positions of user's face and nose. In this paper, the authors describe an olfactory display which enables to detect the nose position for an effective delivery.

  12. Olfactory-Induced Synesthesias: A Review and Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Tomiczek, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Recent reviews of synesthesia concentrate upon rare neurodevelopmental examples and exclude common olfactory-induced experiences with which they may profitably be compared. Like the neurodevelopmental synesthesias, odor-induced experiences involve different sensory modalities; are reliable, asymmetric (concurrents cannot induce), and automatic;…

  13. Rapidly acquired multisensory association in the olfactory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayaka, Prasanna R; Wilson, Donald A; Vasavada, Megha; Wang, Jianli; Martinez, Brittany; Tobia, Michael J; Kong, Lan; Eslinger, Paul; Yang, Qing X

    2015-11-01

    The formation of an odor percept in humans is strongly associated with visual information. However, much less is known about the roles of learning and memory in shaping the multisensory nature of odor representations in the brain. The dynamics of odor and visual association in olfaction was investigated using three functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigms. In two paradigms, a visual cue was paired with an odor. In the third, the same visual cue was never paired with an odor. In this experimental design, if the visual cue was not influenced by odor-visual pairing, then the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal elicited by subsequent visual cues should be similar across all three paradigms. Additionally, intensity, a major dimension of odor perception, was used as a modulator of associative learning which was characterized in terms of the spatiotemporal behavior of the BOLD signal in olfactory structures. A single odor-visual pairing cue could subsequently induce primary olfactory cortex activity when only the visual cue was presented. This activity was intensity dependent and was also detected in secondary olfactory structures and hippocampus. This study provides evidence for a rapid learning response in the olfactory system by a visual cue following odor and visual cue pairing. The novel data and paradigms suggest new avenues to explore the dynamics of odor learning and multisensory representations that contribute to the construction of a unified odor percept in the human brain.

  14. Olfactory memories are intensity specific in larval Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dushyant; Chen, Yi-Chun; Yarali, Ayse; Oguz, Tuba; Gerber, Bertram

    2013-05-01

    Learning can rely on stimulus quality, stimulus intensity, or a combination of these. Regarding olfaction, the coding of odour quality is often proposed to be combinatorial along the olfactory pathway, and working hypotheses are available concerning short-term associative memory trace formation of odour quality. However, it is less clear how odour intensity is coded, and whether olfactory memory traces include information about the intensity of the learnt odour. Using odour-sugar associative conditioning in larval Drosophila, we first describe the dose-effect curves of learnability across odour intensities for four different odours (n-amyl acetate, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol and benzaldehyde). We then chose odour intensities such that larvae were trained at an intermediate odour intensity, but were tested for retention with either that trained intermediate odour intensity, or with respectively higher or lower intensities. We observed a specificity of retention for the trained intensity for all four odours used. This adds to the appreciation of the richness in 'content' of olfactory short-term memory traces, even in a system as simple as larval Drosophila, and to define the demands on computational models of associative olfactory memory trace formation. We suggest two kinds of circuit architecture that have the potential to accommodate intensity learning, and discuss how they may be implemented in the insect brain.

  15. Apathy and Olfactory Dysfunction in Early Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yong Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Olfactory and emotional dysfunctions are very common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Olfaction and emotions share common neuroanatomical substrates. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the association between olfactory and emotional dysfunctions in patients with PD. Methods Parkinson’s disease patients who had been assessed for their olfactory function and neuropsychiatric symptoms including emotional dysfunction were included. A logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between low olfaction and different neuropsychiatric symptoms. Results The patients with low olfaction (cross cultural smell identification test score ≤ 6 showed a higher prevalence of apathy when compared with those with high olfaction, whereas the frequencies of other neuropsychiatric symptoms were comparable between the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of apathy/indifference [odds ratio (OR = 2.859, p = 0.007], age 70 years or more (OR = 2.281, p = 0.009, and the male gender (OR = 1.916, p = 0.030 were significantly associated with low olfaction. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that apathy/indifference is a unique emotional dysfunction associated with olfactory dysfunction in PD. The findings also suggest that PD patients with low olfaction have a high prevalence of apathy.

  16. A Robust Feedforward Model of the Olfactory System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilun Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Most natural odors have sparse molecular composition. This makes the principles of compressed sensing potentially relevant to the structure of the olfactory code. Yet, the largely feedforward organization of the olfactory system precludes reconstruction using standard compressed sensing algorithms. To resolve this problem, recent theoretical work has shown that signal reconstruction could take place as a result of a low dimensional dynamical system converging to one of its attractor states. However, the dynamical aspects of optimization slowed down odor recognition and were also found to be susceptible to noise. Here we describe a feedforward model of the olfactory system that achieves both strong compression and fast reconstruction that is also robust to noise. A key feature of the proposed model is a specific relationship between how odors are represented at the glomeruli stage, which corresponds to a compression, and the connections from glomeruli to third-order neurons (neurons in the olfactory cortex of vertebrates or Kenyon cells in the mushroom body of insects, which in the model corresponds to reconstruction. We show that should this specific relationship hold true, the reconstruction will be both fast and robust to noise, and in particular to the false activation of glomeruli. The predicted connectivity rate from glomeruli to third-order neurons can be tested experimentally.

  17. Peripheral and Central Olfactory Tuning in a Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Rose C.

    2012-01-01

    Animals can be innately attracted to certain odorants. Because these attractants are particularly salient, they might be expected to induce relatively strong responses throughout the olfactory pathway, helping animals detect the most relevant odors but limiting flexibility to respond to other odors. Alternatively, specific neural wiring might link innately preferred odors to appropriate behaviors without a need for intensity biases. How nonpheromonal attractants are processed by the general olfactory system remains largely unknown. In the moth Manduca sexta, we studied this with a set of innately preferred host plant odors and other, neutral odors. Electroantennogram recordings showed that, as a population, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) did not respond with greater intensity to host plant odors, and further local field potential recordings showed that no specific amplification of signals induced by host plant odors occurred between the first olfactory center and the second. Moreover, when odorants were mutually diluted to elicit equally intense output from the ORNs, moths were able to learn to associate all tested odorants equally well with food reward. Together, these results suggest that, although nonpheromonal host plant odors activate broadly distributed responses, they may be linked to attractive behaviors mainly through specific wiring in the brain. PMID:22362866

  18. True navigation in migrating gulls requires intact olfactory nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikelski, Martin; Arriero, Elena; Gagliardo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    debated. In this experiment we subjected adult lesser black-backed gulls migrating from their Finnish/Russian breeding grounds (from >60°N) to Africa (to ... of the trigeminal nerve sectioned oriented towards their population-specific migratory corridor. Thus, air-borne olfactory information seems to be important for migrating gulls to navigate successfully in some circumstances....

  19. Brain correlates of progressive olfactory loss in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campabadal, Anna; Uribe, Carme; Segura, Barbara; Baggio, Hugo C; Abos, Alexandra; Garcia-Diaz, Anna Isabel; Marti, Maria Jose; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Bargallo, Nuria; Junque, Carme

    2017-08-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is present in a large proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) upon diagnosis. However, its progression over time has been poorly investigated. The few available longitudinal studies lack control groups or MRI data. To investigate the olfactory changes and their structural correlates in non-demented PD over a four-year follow-up. We assessed olfactory function in a sample of 25 PD patients and 24 normal controls of similar age using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification test (UPSIT). Structural magnetic resonance imaging data, obtained with a 3-T Siemens Trio scanner, were analyzed using FreeSurfer software. Analysis of variance showed significant group (F = 53.882; P effects, but the group-by-time interaction was not statistically significant. UPSIT performance declined ≥1.5 standard deviations in 5 controls and 7 patients. Change in UPSIT scores of patients correlated positively with volume change in the left putamen, right thalamus, and right caudate nucleus. Olfactory loss over time in PD and controls is similar, but we have observed significant correlation between this loss and basal ganglia volumes only in patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Odor memory stability after reinnervation of the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Blanco-Hernández

    Full Text Available The olfactory system, particularly the olfactory epithelium, presents a unique opportunity to study the regenerative capabilities of the brain, because of its ability to recover after damage. In this study, we ablated olfactory sensory neurons with methimazole and followed the anatomical and functional recovery of circuits expressing genetic markers for I7 and M72 receptors (M72-IRES-tau-LacZ and I7-IRES-tau-GFP. Our results show that 45 days after methimazole-induced lesion, axonal projections to the bulb of M72 and I7 populations are largely reestablished. Furthermore, regenerated glomeruli are re-formed within the same areas as those of control, unexposed mice. This anatomical regeneration correlates with functional recovery of a previously learned odorant-discrimination task, dependent on the cognate ligands for M72 and I7. Following regeneration, mice also recover innate responsiveness to TMT and urine. Our findings show that regeneration of neuronal circuits in the olfactory system can be achieved with remarkable precision and underscore the importance of glomerular organization to evoke memory traces stored in the brain.

  1. Olfactory Dysfunction in Narcolepsy with and without Cataplexy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bušková, J.; Klaschka, Jan; Šonka, K.; Nevšímalová, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2010), s. 558-561 ISSN 1389-9457 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : narcolepsy * cataplexy * narcolepsy without cataplexy * RBD * olfactory dysfunction Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2010

  2. Olfactory Imagination and Odor Processing: Three Same-Different Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, E.P.; Stelt, van der O.; Nixdorf, R.R.; Linschoten, M.R.I.; Mojet, J.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Do people who claim to have olfactory imagination process odors more efficiently? In three same–different experiments, using all possible combinations of odors and odor names as primes and targets, selected high imagers (n¿=¿12) were faster (±230 ms; P¿

  3. Refining the dual olfactory hypothesis: pheromone reward and odour experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Fernando; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-Hernández, Jose; Novejarque, Amparo; Lanuza, Enrique

    2009-06-25

    In rodents, sexual advertisement and gender recognition are mostly (if not exclusively) mediated by chemosignals. Specifically, there is ample evidence indicating that female mice are 'innately' attracted by male sexual pheromones that have critical non-volatile components and are detected by the vomeronasal organ. These pheromones can only get access to the vomeronasal organ by active pumping mechanisms that require close contact with the source of the stimulus (e.g. urine marks) during chemoinvestigation. We have hypothesised that male sexual pheromones are rewarding to female mice. Indeed, male-soiled bedding can be used as a reinforcer to induce conditioned place preference, provided contact with the bedding is allowed. The neural mechanisms of pheromone reward seem, however, different from those employed by other natural reinforcers, such as the sweetness or postingestive effects of sucrose. In contrast to vomeronasal-detected male sexual pheromones, male-derived olfactory stimuli (volatiles) are not intrinsically attractive to female mice. However, after repeated exposure to male-soiled bedding, intact female mice develop an acquired preference for male odours. On the contrary, in females whose accessory olfactory bulbs have been lesioned, exposure to male-soiled bedding induces aversion to male odorants. These considerations, together with data on the different properties of olfactory and vomeronasal receptors, lead us to make a proposal for the complementary roles that the olfactory and vomeronasal systems play in intersexual attraction and in other forms of intra- or inter-species communication.

  4. Mushroom body glycolysis is required for olfactory memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Chang, Ching-Ching; Wu, Jie-Kai; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Yang, Chu-Huai; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Glucose catabolism, also known as glycolysis, is important for energy generation and involves a sequence of enzymatic reactions that convert a glucose molecule into two pyruvate molecules. The glycolysis process generates adenosine triphosphate as a byproduct. In this study, we investigated whether glycolysis plays a role in maintaining neuronal functions in the Drosophila mushroom bodies (MBs), which are generally accepted to be an olfactory learning and memory center. Our data showed that individual knockdown of glycolytic enzymes in the MBs, including hexokinase (HexA), phosphofructokinase (Pfk), or pyruvate kinase (PyK), disrupts olfactory memory. Whole-mount brain immunostaining indicated that pyruvate kinase is strongly expressed in the MB αβ, α'β', and γ neuron subsets. We conclude that HexA, Pfk, and PyK are required in each MB neuron subset for olfactory memory formation. Our data therefore indicates that glucose catabolism in the MBs is important for olfactory memory formation in Drosophila. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Olfactory and imaging features in atypical Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihong Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognition and speech disorders are the most common symptoms of dementia in neurodegenerative disease. Here, we present a detailed clinical evaluation of a case of logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lv-PPA, an atypical form of Alzheimer disease (AD, including cognitive testing over time, brain imaging, electrophysiology, and tests of olfactory function.

  6. Brain architecture of the largest living land arthropod, the Giant Robber Crab Birgus latro (Crustacea, Anomura, Coenobitidae: evidence for a prominent central olfactory pathway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krieger Jakob

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several lineages within the Crustacea conquered land independently during evolution, thereby requiring physiological adaptations for a semi-terrestrial or even a fully terrestrial lifestyle. Birgus latro Linnaeus, 1767, the giant robber crab or coconut crab (Anomura, Coenobitidae, is the largest land-living arthropod and inhabits Indo-Pacific islands such as Christmas Island. B. latro has served as a model in numerous studies of physiological aspects related to the conquest of land by crustaceans. From an olfactory point of view, a transition from sea to land means that molecules need to be detected in gas phase instead of in water solution. Previous studies have provided physiological evidence that terrestrial hermit crabs (Coenobitidae such as B. latro have a sensitive and well differentiated sense of smell. Here we analyze the brain, in particular the olfactory processing areas of B. latro, by morphological analysis followed by 3 D reconstruction and immunocytochemical studies of synaptic proteins and a neuropeptide. Results The primary and secondary olfactory centers dominate the brain of B. latro and together account for ca. 40% of the neuropil volume in its brain. The paired olfactory neuropils are tripartite and composed of more than 1,000 columnar olfactory glomeruli, which are radially arranged around the periphery of the olfactory neuropils. The glomeruli are innervated ca. 90,000 local interneurons and ca. 160,000 projection neurons per side. The secondary olfactory centers, the paired hemiellipsoid neuropils, are targeted by the axons of these olfactory projection neurons. The projection neuron axonal branches make contact to ca. 250.000 interneurons (per side associated with the hemiellipsoid neuropils. The hemiellipsoid body neuropil is organized into parallel neuropil lamellae, a design that is quite unusual for decapod crustaceans. The architecture of the optic neuropils and areas associated with antenna two

  7. Effects of cadmium on olfactory mediated behaviors and molecular biomarkers in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Chase R.; Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@u.washington.edu

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Low Cd exposures elicited significant olfactory mediated behavioral changes independent of histological injury. •The olfactory behavioral deficits persisted following a 16-day depuration. •Olfactory molecular biomarkers expression was strongly linked to injury to the olfactory epithelium. •Cd induced a strong antioxidant response in the coho salmon olfactory system. •Results suggest a sensitivity of salmonids to waterborne Cd. -- Abstract: The olfactory system of salmonids is sensitive to the adverse effects of metals such as copper and cadmium. In the current study, we analyzed olfactory-mediated alarm responses, epithelial injury and recovery, and a suite of olfactory molecular biomarkers encoding genes critical in maintaining olfactory function in juvenile coho salmon receiving acute exposures to cadmium (Cd). The molecular biomarkers analyzed included four G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) representing the two major classes of odorant receptors (salmon olfactory receptor sorb and vomeronasal receptors svra, svrb, and gpr27), as well as markers of neurite outgrowth (nrn1) and antioxidant responses to metals, including heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1), and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1). Coho received acute (8–168 h) exposures to 3.7 ppb and 347 ppb Cd, and a subset of fish was analyzed following a 16-day depuration. Coho exposed to 347 ppb Cd over 48 h exhibited a reduction in freeze responses, and an extensive loss of olfaction accompanied by histological injury to the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory injury in coho exposed to 347 ppb Cd was accompanied at the gene level by significant decreases in expression of the olfactory GPCRs and increased expression of hmox1. Persistent behavioral deficits, histological injury and altered expression of a subset of olfactory biomarkers were still evident in Cd-exposed coho following a 16-day depuration in clean water. Exposure to 3.7 ppb Cd also resulted in reduced freeze responses and histological changes

  8. Effects of Subthalamic Stimulation on Olfactory Function in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Carvalho, Margarete de Jesus; Lasteros, Fernando Jeyson Lopez; Dias, Alice Estevo; Dos Santos Ghilardi, Maria Gabriela; Paiva, Anderson Rodrigues Brandão; Coutinho, Artur Martins; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Teixeira, Manoel J; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni

    2018-06-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is a nonmotor symptom of Parkinson disease (PD) associated with reduction in quality of life. There is no evidence on whether improvements in olfaction after subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) may be directly attributable to motor improvement or whether this reflects a direct effect of DBS on olfactory brain areas. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of DBS on olfactory function in PD, as well as to explore the correlation between these changes and changes in motor symptoms and brain metabolism. Thirty-two patients with PD were screened for STN-DBS. Patients were evaluated before and 1 year after surgery. Primary outcome was the change in olfactory function (Sniffin' Sticks odor-identification test [SST]) after surgery among the patients with hyposmia at baseline. Secondary outcomes included the relationship between motor outcomes and olfactory changes and [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography analysis between subgroups with improvement versus no improvement of smell. STN-DBS improved SST after surgery (preoperative SST, median 7.3 ± 2.4 vs. postoperative SST, median 8.2 ± 2.1; P = 0.045) in a subset of patients among 29 of 32 patients who presented with hyposmia at baseline. The improvement in SST was correlated with DBS response (r = 0.424; P = 0.035). There was also an increase in glucose metabolism in the midbrain, cerebellum, and right frontal lobe in patients with SST improvement (P < 0.001). STN-DBS improves odor identification in a subset of patients with PD. Motor improvement together with changes in the brain metabolism may be linked to this improvement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Olfactory bulb glomerular NMDA receptors mediate olfactory nerve potentiation and odor preference learning in the neonate rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lethbridge

    Full Text Available Rat pup odor preference learning follows pairing of bulbar beta-adrenoceptor activation with olfactory input. We hypothesize that NMDA receptor (NMDAR-mediated olfactory input to mitral cells is enhanced during training, such that incre