WorldWideScience

Sample records for london borough case

  1. Down the local: A qualitative case study of daytime drinking spaces in the London Borough of Islington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claire; Milton, Sarah; Egan, Matt; Lock, Karen

    2018-02-01

    Recognising the lack of research on daytime drinking practices in areas with managed night-time economies (NTEs), this qualitative study explores the phenomena in the London Borough of Islington; a rapidly gentrifying area with a highly regulated night-time economy (NTE). The objectives were to (i) Characterise the daytime drinking spaces of the local alcohol environment and (ii) Theorise the ways in which these spaces, and the practices and performativities within them, are situated within broader social and economic trends. Adopting a legitimate peripheral participation approach to data collection, 39 licensed premises were visited in Islington and on-site observations carried out between the hours of 12 pm and 6 pm using a semi-structured observation guide. Observations were written-up into detailed fieldnotes, uploaded to NVivo and subject to a thematic analysis. The daytime on-premises alcohol environment was characterised by two main trends: the decline of traditional pubs and a proliferation of hybrid establishments in which alcohol was framed as part of a suite of attractions. The consumption trends that the latter exemplify are implicated in processes of micro-cultural production and 'hipster capitalism'; and it is via this framing that we explore the way the diverse local drinking spaces were gendered and classed. Hybrid establishments have been regarded as positive in terms of public health, crime and safety. However, they could also help introduce drinking within times and contexts where it was not previously present. The intersection of an expanding hipster habitus with Local Authority efforts to tackle 'determined drunkenness' create very particular challenges. The operating practices of hybrid venues may feed into current alcohol industry strategies of promoting 'new moments' in which consumers can drink. They blur the divisions between work and play and produce temporal and classed divisions of drinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Inequalities in the Provision of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapy Services across London Boroughs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pring, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The inverse-care law suggests that fewer healthcare resources are available in deprived areas where health needs are greatest. Aims: To examine the provision of paediatric speech and language services across London boroughs and to relate provision to the level of deprivation of the boroughs. Methods & Procedures: Information on the…

  3. The “School Foodshed”: schools and fast-food outlets in a London borough

    OpenAIRE

    Caraher, M.; Lloyd, S.; Madelin, T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the location of fast-food outlets around secondary schools and the influence of fast-food availability on the food choices of school children in an inner-London borough. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A number of methods including: mapping of outlets relative to schools; sampling food; gathering data on secondary school food policies; observing food behaviour in fast food outlets and focus groups with young people. Findings were fed bac...

  4. Voting suffrage and the political budget cycle: Evidence from the London Metropolitan Boroughs 1902-1937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidt, Toke S; Mooney, Graham

    2014-04-01

    We study the opportunistic political budget cycle in the London Metropolitan Boroughs between 1902 and 1937 under two different suffrage regimes: taxpayer suffrage (1902-1914) and universal suffrage (1921-1937). We argue and find supporting evidence that the political budget cycle operates differently under the two types of suffrage. Taxpayer suffrage, where the right to vote and the obligation to pay local taxes are linked, encourages demands for retrenchment and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year tax cuts and savings on administration costs. Universal suffrage, where all adult residents can vote irrespective of their taxpayer status, creates demands for productive public services and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year hikes in capital spending and a reduction in current spending.

  5. Voting suffrage and the political budget cycle: Evidence from the London Metropolitan Boroughs 1902–1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidt, Toke S.; Mooney, Graham

    2014-01-01

    We study the opportunistic political budget cycle in the London Metropolitan Boroughs between 1902 and 1937 under two different suffrage regimes: taxpayer suffrage (1902–1914) and universal suffrage (1921–1937). We argue and find supporting evidence that the political budget cycle operates differently under the two types of suffrage. Taxpayer suffrage, where the right to vote and the obligation to pay local taxes are linked, encourages demands for retrenchment and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year tax cuts and savings on administration costs. Universal suffrage, where all adult residents can vote irrespective of their taxpayer status, creates demands for productive public services and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year hikes in capital spending and a reduction in current spending. PMID:25843984

  6. Secondary school pupils' food choices around schools in a London borough: Fast food and walls of crisps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraher, M; Lloyd, S; Mansfield, M; Alp, C; Brewster, Z; Gresham, J

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to observe and document food behaviours of secondary school pupils from schools in a London borough. The research design combined a number of methods which included geographic information system (GIS) mapping of food outlets around three schools, systemised observations of food purchasing in those outlets before, during and after school, and focus groups conducted with pupils of those schools to gather their views in respect to those food choices. Results are summarised under the five 'A's of Access, Availability, Affordability and Acceptability & Attitudes: Access in that there were concentrations of food outlets around the schools. The majority of pupil food purchases were from newsagents, small local shops and supermarkets of chocolate, crisps (potato chips), fizzy drinks and energy drinks. Availability of fast food and unhealthy options were a feature of the streets surrounding the schools, with 200 m the optimal distance pupils were prepared to walk from and back to school at lunchtime. Affordability was ensured by the use of a consumer mentality and pupils sought out value for money offers; group purchasing of 'two for one' type offers encouraged this trend. Pupils reported healthy items on sale in school as expensive, and also that food was often sold in smaller portion sizes than that available from external food outlets. Acceptability and Attitudes, in that school food was not seen as 'cool', queuing for school food was not acceptable but queuing for food from takeaways was not viewed negatively; for younger pupils energy drinks were 'cool'. In conclusion, pupils recognised that school food was healthier but provided several reasons for not eating in school related to the five 'A's above. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumption of takeaway and fast food in a deprived inner London Borough: are they associated with childhood obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Rachel; Risby, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Objective A major concern is the ubiquitous presence of fast food and takeaway outlets within easy walking distance of schools, particularly in the light of the increasing burden of childhood obesity. Here, the associations between the schoolchildren's weights, their consumption of fast food and takeaway outlets were examined in a deprived inner London Borough. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Participants 193 schoolchildren (aged between 11 and 14 years old) participated in this study. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI) percentiles specific for age and gender were obtained. Frequency of food and drinks purchased from fast food outlets and takeaway outlets over a weekly period and preferred types of drinks and food products usually consumed were measured. Results More than 50% of the children in our survey purchased food or drinks from fast food or takeaway outlets twice or more a week, with about 10% consuming fast food or drinks from these outlets daily. About 70% of these children from Black ethnic groups and 54% of Asians purchased fast food more than twice a week. BMI has a significantly inverse relationship to fast food consumption. However, when age and gender are accounted, the BMI age–gender percentile is no longer significantly related to fast food consumption. Conclusions This study revealed a very high frequency of fast food consumption among the schoolchildren. Taste, quick access and peer influence were major contributing factors. These schoolchildren are exposed to an obesogenic environment, and it is not surprising that in this situation, many of these children are already overweight and will likely become obese as adults. PMID:22721691

  8. Cross-National Policy Borrowing and Educational Innovation: Improving Achievement in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of the London Education Authority of Barking and Dagenham's borrowing of Swiss educational practices, and the implementation and internalisation of those foreign practices in the teaching of mathematics in primary schools. The study employs analytical frameworks that might be used by policy makers or researchers…

  9. Life in the shadow of the 2012 olympics: an ethnography of the host borough of the London games

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, Iain

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. On 6th July 2005 the London Olympic bidding committee won the right to host the 2012 Olympic Games. Some seven years later London’s Olympic venues were built on time, Team GB accumulated an unprecedented medal haul and no significant security incidents occurred. These outcomes facilitated an understandable positive evaluation of the 2012 Games. It would be churlish not to be positive; Olympic...

  10. Case studies of transport for London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This project was motivated by the election of Ken Livingston as Mayor of London in : 2000. Mayor Livingston campaigned on a platform of improving transportation service through : such innovative means as congestion pricing. Mayor Livingston relied on...

  11. Autistic Disorder in Nineteenth-Century London. Three Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, Mitzi; Shattock, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the existence, description, perception, treatment, and outcome of symptoms consistent with autistic disorder in nineteenth-century London, England, based on case histories from the notes of Dr William Howship Dickinson at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. Three cases meeting the DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder…

  12. Case Study: North Laurel High School, London, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    When North Laurel High School, London, Kentucky, opened in Fall 1992, students and teachers entered a new facility and a new era of commitment to excellence for all students. In Spring 1993, North Laurel joined the Southern Regional Education Board's High Schools That Work initiative. The new school replaced the general track and raised graduation…

  13. Modern Special Collections Cataloguing: A University of London Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Attar, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing emphasis on modern special collections (in themselves no new phenomenon), with a dichotomy between guidance for detailed cataloguing in Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Books) (DCRM(B), 2007) and the value of clearing cataloguing backlogs expeditiously. This article describes the De la Mare Family Archive of Walter de la Mare's Printed Oeuvre at Senate House Library, University of London, as an example of a modern author collections in an institutiona...

  14. Police service in Victorian and Edwardian London: a somwhat atypical case of a hazardous occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpayer-Makov, H

    1995-01-01

    British society in the nineteenth century showed a growing concern with public-health issues and with occupational hazards. Police service, which is at the centre of this paper, was not viewed by many as a hazardous occupation. Using the London Metropolitan Police as a case study, the paper suggests that working conditions in the Victorian and Edwardian police had detrimental effects on the health of officers. It is true that medical statistics of the time showed that police officers in London had a lower death rate than the average working man, but this comparison should not obscure the fact that policemen entered the force much healthier than when they retired and that this gap was not merely age-related. The paper sets out to answer the following questions: What were the prevalent injuries and illnesses in the Metropolitan Police? What was the work experience of the police officer and what impact did it have on his state of health? In addition to accounting for the deteriorating health of police officers, the paper provides the views of contemporary observers on the subject.

  15. Pan-London tuberculosis services: a service evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belling Ruth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background London has the largest proportion of tuberculosis (TB cases of any western European capital, with almost half of new cases drug-resistant. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs with research suggesting inadequate control of TB transmission in London. Economic pressures may exacerbate the already considerable challenges for service organisation and delivery within this context. This paper presents selected findings from an evaluation of London’s TB services’ organisation, delivery, professional workforce and skill mix, intended to support development of a strategic framework for a pan-London TB service. These may also interest health service professionals and managers in TB services in the UK, other European cities and countries and in services currently delivered by multiple providers operating independently. Methods Objectives were: 1 To establish how London’s TB services are structured and delivered in relation to leadership, management, organisation and delivery, coordination, staffing and support; 2 To identify tools/models for calculating skill mix as a basis for identifying skill mix requirements in delivering TB services across London; 3 To inform a strategic framework for the delivery of a pan-London TB service, which may be applicable to other European cities. The multi-method service audit evaluation comprised documentary analysis, semi-structured interviews with TB service users (n = 10, lead TB health professionals and managers (n = 13 representing London’s five sectors and focus groups with TB nurses (n = 8 and non-London network professionals (n = 2. Results Findings showed TB services to be mainly hospital-based, with fewer community-based services. Documentary analysis and professionals’ interviews suggested difficulties with early access to services, low suspicion index amongst some GPs and restricted referral routes. Interviews indicated lack of managed

  16. Enforcing planning regulations in areas of high immigration: a case study of London

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Neil

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between immigration and compliance with planning regulations using data from interviews and a focus group with senior planning enforcement officers in London. The data reveal distinctive issues that arise for immigrants’ compliance with planning regulations; specific types of residential, commercial and cultural breach that occur with immigration; and operational issues that arise when investigating and resolving planning breaches involving immigrant communit...

  17. Turner's prize[London transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrington, M.

    2000-10-26

    The article describes Ken Livingstone's plans for solving London's traffic problems: Derek Turner will be 'in charge of the capital's streets' but Livingstone will chair the board meetings. The radical new scheme will apply to both the Greater London Authority, its transport branch Transport for London (TfL) and 33 London Boroughs. Within TfL there is a core division called 'street management services' which has five area teams for day-to-day street management including road maintenance and street lighting. Other departments are communications, support services, traffic technology services, service development and performance, a London bus department and a department concentrating on congestion charging. There are plans to support pedestrians and cyclists but 'bus travel is really what it is all about'.

  18. Fritz London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavroglu, Kostas

    2005-11-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. From Philosophy to Physics: The years that left nothing unaffected; 1. The appeal of ideas; 2. Goëthe as a scientist; 3. How absolute is our knowledge?; 4. How do we come to know things?; 5. London's teachers in philosophy; 6. Husserl's teachings; 7. Expectations of things to come; 8. The thesis in philosophy; 9. Tolman's principle of similitude; 10. The necessary clarifications; 11. Work on quantum theory; 12. Transformation theory; 13. Unsuccessful attempts at unification; Part II. The Years in Berlin and the Beginnings of Quantum Chemistry: The mysterious bond; 14. London in Zürich; 15. Binding forces; 16. The Pauli principle; 17. Reactions to the Heitler-London paper; 18. Polyelectronic molecules and the application of group theory to problems of chemical valence; 19. Chemists as physicists?; 20. London's first contacts in Berlin; 21. Marriage; 22. Job offers; 23. Intermolecular forces; 24. The book which could not be written; 25. Leningrad and Rome; 26. Difficulties with group theory; 27. Linus Pauling's resonance structures; 28. Robert Mulliken's molecular orbitals; Part III. Oxford and Superconductivity: The rise of the Nazis; 29. Going to Oxford; 30. Lindemann, Simon and Heinz London; 31. Electricity in the very cold; 32. The end of old certainties; 33. The thermodynamic treatment; 34. The theory of Fritz and Heinz London; 35. Initial reactions by von Laue; 36. The discussion at the Royal Society; 37. Termination of the ICI fellowship; Part IV. Paris and Superfluidity: The Front Populaire; 38. The article in Nature 1937 and 'Nouvelle Conception'; 39. Laue again; 40. The structure of solid helium; 41. The peculiar properties of helium; 42. Bose-Einstein condensation; 43. The note in Nature; 44. The two-fluid model; 45. The trip to Jerusalem; 46. Leaving again; 47. The observer in quantum mechanics; Part V. United States and the Typing up of Loose Ends: Duke University, North Carolina; 48. The Soviet Union, Kapitza and

  19. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform.

  20. Monitoring of integrated photovoltaic facade for Sandwell Metropolitan Borough Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, B. [Energy Equipment Testing Service Limited (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project monitoring the output of a photovoltaic system installed in a residential tower block which was undergoing refurbishment using best practice energy efficiency methods. The incorporation of the information obtained in the borough's schools programme is discussed. Details are given of the technical problems experienced in relation to the string cables and the inverters, and also contractual issues. The direct and indirect benefits of the photovoltaic system are highlighted.

  1. 19th century London dust-yards: A case study in closed-loop resource efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velis, Costas A.; Wilson, David C.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries

  2. The London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study: comparing the demographic and clinical characteristics in 100 random community cases of fibromyalgia versus controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K P; Speechley, M; Harth, M; Ostbye, T

    1999-07-01

    To identify demographic and clinical features that distinguish fibromyalgia (FM) from other chronic widespread pain. We identified 100 confirmed FM cases, 76 widespread pain controls, and 135 general controls in a random community survey of 3395 noninstitutionalized adults living in London, Ontario. FM cases were distinguished from pain controls using the 1990 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria for FM. The mean age of FM cases was 47.8 years (range 19 to 86), the same as for pain controls; 86% of FM cases were female versus 67.1% of pain controls (p < 0.01). FM cases were less educated than general controls (p = 0.03). Male and female FM cases were similar, except females were older and reported more major symptoms (both p = 0.02). FM cases reported more severe pain and fatigue, more symptoms, more major symptoms, and worse overall health than pain controls or general controls. The most commonly reported major symptoms among FM cases were musculoskeletal pain (77.3%), fatigue (77.3%), severe fatigue lasting 24 h after minimal activity (77.0%), nonrestorative sleep (65.7%), and insomnia (56.0%). Subjects with 11-14 tender points were more similar to those with 15-18 tender points than to those with 7-10 points in 11 of 14 clinical variables. On multivariate analysis, 4 symptoms distinguished FM cases from pain controls: pain severity (p = 0.004), severe fatigue lasting 24 h after minimal activity (p = 0.006), weakness (p = 0.008), and self-reported swelling of neck glands (p = 0.01). In the general population, adults who meet the ACR definition of FM appear to have distinct features compared to those with chronic widespread pain who do not meet criteria.

  3. Higher Education Governance as Language Games: A Wittgensteinian Case Study of the Breakdown of Governance at the London School of Economics 2004-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2015-01-01

    This paper calls for a more detailed study of social practices in the analysis of governance failures. Using the Woolf report on the breakdown of governance at the London School of Economics as a case study and Wittgenstein's notion of language games as an analytic lens, the author argues that widely used institutional and structural theories of…

  4. Listening to those on the frontline: service users' experiences of London tuberculosis services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudioni M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Markella Boudioni, Susan McLaren, Ruth Belling, Leslie WoodsInstitute for Leadership and Service Improvement, Faculty of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University, London, UKAim: To explore tuberculosis (TB service users' experiences and satisfaction with care provision.Background: Thirty-nine percent of all new UK TB cases occur in London. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs. Overall, research suggests inadequate control of London's TB transmission; TB has become a health care priority for all London Primary Care Trusts. Service users' experiences and satisfaction with care provision have not been explored adequately previously.Methods: A qualitative research design, using semi-structured face-to-face interviews was used. Ten service users, purposively selected in key risk groups across London, were interviewed. All interviews were digitally recorded with users' permission, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically.Results: Participants were treated in local hospitals for 6–12 months. Treatment was administered by TB nurses to inpatients and outpatients receiving directly observed therapy in consultation with medical staff and home visits for complex cases. Two participants did not realize the importance of compliance. Overall, they were satisfied with many TB services' aspects, communication, and service organization. Early access, low suspicion index amongst some GPs, and restricted referral routes were identified as service barriers. Other improvement areas were information provision on drug side effects, diet, nutritional status, and a few health professionals' attitudes. The effects on people varied enormously from minimal impact to psychological shock; TB also affected social and personal aspects of their life. With regard to further support facilities, some positive views on managed accommodation by TB-aware professionals for those with accommodation problems were identified.Conclusion: This

  5. The South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLAM BRC case register: development and descriptive data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Mike

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case registers have been used extensively in mental health research. Recent developments in electronic medical records, and in computer software to search and analyse these in anonymised format, have the potential to revolutionise this research tool. Methods We describe the development of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLAM Biomedical Research Centre (BRC Case Register Interactive Search tool (CRIS which allows research-accessible datasets to be derived from SLAM, the largest provider of secondary mental healthcare in Europe. All clinical data, including free text, are available for analysis in the form of anonymised datasets. Development involved both the building of the system and setting in place the necessary security (with both functional and procedural elements. Results Descriptive data are presented for the Register database as of October 2008. The database at that point included 122,440 cases, 35,396 of whom were receiving active case management under the Care Programme Approach. In terms of gender and ethnicity, the database was reasonably representative of the source population. The most common assigned primary diagnoses were within the ICD mood disorders (n = 12,756 category followed by schizophrenia and related disorders (8158, substance misuse (7749, neuroses (7105 and organic disorders (6414. Conclusion The SLAM BRC Case Register represents a 'new generation' of this research design, built on a long-running system of fully electronic clinical records and allowing in-depth secondary analysis of both numerical, string and free text data, whilst preserving anonymity through technical and procedural safeguards.

  6. The Influence of Green Infrastructure on Urban Resilience in Greater London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yukyung

    2017-04-01

    High population densities and diverse economic activities in urban areas create social issues as well as a range of environmental impacts including air pollution, soil contamination, loss of biodiversity and health problems (Alberti et al., 2003; Dobbs, Escobedo, & Zipperer, 2011; Grimm et al., 2008). The concept of urban resilience has been used for increasing the capacity of the entities and players to adapt to rapid changes, and urban green spaces play a crucial role in increasing urban resilience. Greater London has a good case for increasing urban green spaces and resilience under the London Plan. The relevance of urban open spaces and several socioeconomic indicators would provide researchers and policy makers with the information for managing green coverage. The correlation analysis of two quantitative data such as open space and socioeconomic data of Greater London was conducted with SPSS. The data for open spaces in Greater London was gained through Greenspace Information for Greater London. The data was converted from vector to raster in Geographic Information System (GIS), so as to calculate landscape metrics for open spaces in Greater London through a spatial pattern analysis program, FRAGSTATS 4.2. The socioeconomic data was obtained from "London Borough Profile", London Datastore. In addition, data on total carbon emissions from Industry and Commercial, Domestic, Transport, LULUCF Net Emissions, and per capita emissions were gained from UK local authority and regional carbon dioxide emissions national statistics: 2005-2014 released from Department of Energy and Climate Change. The indicators from open spaces are total area of open space and patch density or contagion of open spaces. The latter indicator allows to figure out the level of fragmentation of open spaces. The socioeconomic indicators cover number of jobs by workplace, jobs density, crime rates per thousand population, and several wellbeing indicators such as life satisfaction

  7. London, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth.This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring

  8. Obstetric performance of ethnic Kosovo Albanian asylum seekers in London: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, W; Wagley, A; Fong, C; Chukwuma, C; Nauta, M

    2004-08-01

    The most recent Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths expressed concern that mortality in women from non-English-speaking ethnic groups was twice that of native-born women. There are very few published data on the obstetric performance of Kosovo Albanian refugees who have relocated to the United Kingdom and the aim of this study was to compare the obstetric performances of Kosovo Albanian women currently residing in the United Kingdom with their British-born Caucasian counterparts. Sixty-one index and 61 control cases were analysed; 63% of the Kosovo Albanian women spoke little or no English and 50% were on income support. Of the study group, 9.8% had caesarean sections, 8.2% had instrumental vaginal deliveries and 82% achieved normal deliveries. The Kosovo Albanian women were statistically younger and had shorter duration of labour compared to controls (P labour (IOL), caesarean section, instrumental deliveries, premature delivery and low birth weight 0.05 in all cases, chi2 test) between the two groups. This is the first study to examine the obstetric outcomes of Kosovo Albanian women who have resettled in a western European country. Most Kosovo Albanian refugees living in the United Kingdom are not socio-economic migrants but displaced due to civil unrest and many had reasonable socio-economic status prior to resettlement. The similarity in obstetric and fetal outcomes between the study and control groups could be attributed to the 'healthy immigrant effect', where immigrant groups appear to have better outcomes due to family support and relatively lower intake of alcohol and nicotine. It also suggests that obstetricians may be heeding the recommendations from recent Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths, which highlight the need for increased vigilance in women from ethnic minorities.

  9. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 outbreak associated with eggs in a large prison, London 2009: an investigation using cohort and case/non-case study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A R; Ruggles, R; Young, Y; Clark, H; Reddell, P; Verlander, N Q; Arnold, A; Maguire, H

    2013-05-01

    In September 2009, an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis affected 327 of 1419 inmates at a London prison. We applied a cohort design using aggregated data from the kitchen about portions of food distributed, aligned this with individual food histories from 124 cases (18 confirmed, 106 probable) and deduced the exposures of those remaining well. Results showed that prisoners eating egg cress rolls were 26 times more likely to be ill [risk ratio 25.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 15.5-42.8, Pinvestigation was strengthened by environmental and microbiological investigations. This paper outlines an approach to investigations in large complex settings where aggregate data for exposures may be available, and led to the development of guidelines for the management of future gastrointestinal outbreaks in prison settings.

  10. Community Engagement using World Café: The Well London Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Kevin; Adams-Eaton, Faye; Trimble, Allison; Renton, Adrian; Bertotti, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    The Well London programme was launched across twenty boroughs in London during late 2007 to improve the health and well-being of residents living in some of the most deprived communities in London. Well London employed a multi-stage community engagement process which informed the overall project strategy for each intervention area. In this article we establish and describe the key principles that guided the design of this innovative community engagement process. Principles included building collaborative partnerships, working with whole-systems, privileging community knowledge and working with the deficit of experience in each area. The article then describes in detail how these principles were operationalised throughout the preparation and delivery of forty World Cafes, which were the first open community activities of the Well London community engagement process. Finally, this article reflects on and summarises the lessons learned when employing innovative, inclusive and transparent community engagement for health promotion.

  11. Stakeholder Positioning and Cultural Diversity in the Creative Sector: A Case Study of the London Modern Architecture Scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, H.L.; Kamp, A.; Erbe, N.; Normore, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the antecedents of stakeholder positioning in the creative sector, a sector well known for its diversity in organizational cultures. Drawing from empirical data collected at the heart of London's modern architecture scene we analyze the interactive process of commissioned

  12. Global sport mega-events and the politics of mobility: the case of the London 2012 Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianotti, Richard; Armstrong, Gary; Hales, Gavin; Hobbs, Dick

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the politics of mobility which surrounded the London 2012 Olympics. We provide a critical discussion of the mobility conflicts, problems and criticisms which emerged from our research with local people in the Stratford and wider Newham areas of London, where most Olympic events were located. The paper is divided into four broad parts. First, we identify and discuss the relevant components of the 'mobilities paradigm' in social science which underpin our analysis. Second, we briefly outline our research methods, centring particularly on fieldwork and interviews with different social groups. Third, we examine in detail the six main themes of mobility politics which were evident at London 2012, relating to social context, event construction, event mobility systems, commercial mobilities, the mobile politics of exclusion, and contested modes of mobility. In doing so, we seek to extend the mobilities paradigm by introducing various concepts and keywords - notably on the three-speed city, entryability, mobility panics, instrumental mobility, and corporate kettling - which may be utilized by social scientists to examine mobility systems in other social contexts. We conclude by reaffirming the significance of mobility-focused research at sport and other mega-events, and by indicating future lines of inquiry for social scientists. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  13. Knowledge Creation as an Approach to Facilitating Evidence Informed Practice: Examining Ways to Measure the Success of Using This Method with Early Years Practitioners in Camden (London)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chris; Rogers, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This paper has three key aims. First it examines the authors' attempts to use knowledge creation activity as a way of developing evidence informed practice amongst a learning community of 36 early years practitioners in the London Borough of Camden. Second, it seeks to illustrate how the authors approached the idea of measuring evidence use and…

  14. Life expectancy at birth for people with serious mental illness and other major disorders from a secondary mental health care case register in London.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Kuo Chang

    Full Text Available Despite improving healthcare, the gap in mortality between people with serious mental illness (SMI and general population persists, especially for younger age groups. The electronic database from a large and comprehensive secondary mental healthcare provider in London was utilized to assess the impact of SMI diagnoses on life expectancy at birth.People who were diagnosed with SMI (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, substance use disorder, and depressive episode/disorder before the end of 2009 and under active review by the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLAM in southeast London during 2007-09 comprised the sample, retrieved by the SLAM Case Register Interactive Search (CRIS system. We estimated life expectancy at birth for people with SMI and each diagnosis, from national mortality returns between 2007-09, using a life table method.A total of 31,719 eligible people, aged 15 years or older, with SMI were analyzed. Among them, 1,370 died during 2007-09. Compared to national figures, all disorders were associated with substantially lower life expectancy: 8.0 to 14.6 life years lost for men and 9.8 to 17.5 life years lost for women. Highest reductions were found for men with schizophrenia (14.6 years lost and women with schizoaffective disorders (17.5 years lost.The impact of serious mental illness on life expectancy is marked and generally higher than similarly calculated impacts of well-recognised adverse exposures such as smoking, diabetes and obesity. Strategies to identify and prevent causes of premature death are urgently required.

  15. Quality of Life and Unmet Need in People with Psychosis in the London Borough of Haringey, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Lambri, Maria; Chakraborty, Apu; Leavey, Gerard; King, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Deinstitutionalization of long-term psychiatric patients produced various community-based residential care facilities. However, inner-city areas have many patients with severe mental illness (SMI) as well as deprivation, unemployment, and crime. This makes meeting their community needs complex. We undertook a needs assessment of service provision and consonance between service users’ evaluation of need and by care workers. Design. Cross-sectional study with random sample of SMI s...

  16. Can risk assessment predict suicide in secondary mental healthcare? Findings from the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Morinigo, Javier-David; Fernandes, Andrea C; Shetty, Hitesh; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Bari, Ashraful; Stewart, Robert; Dutta, Rina

    2018-06-02

    The predictive value of suicide risk assessment in secondary mental healthcare remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the extent to which clinical risk assessment ratings can predict suicide among people receiving secondary mental healthcare. Retrospective inception cohort study (n = 13,758) from the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) (London, UK) linked with national mortality data (n = 81 suicides). Cox regression models assessed survival from the last suicide risk assessment and ROC curves evaluated the performance of risk assessment total scores. Hopelessness (RR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.05-4.80, p = 0.037) and having a significant loss (RR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.03-3.55, p = 0.041) were significantly associated with suicide in the multivariable Cox regression models. However, screening statistics for the best cut-off point (4-5) of the risk assessment total score were: sensitivity 0.65 (95% CI 0.54-0.76), specificity 0.62 (95% CI 0.62-0.63), positive predictive value 0.01 (95% CI 0.01-0.01) and negative predictive value 0.99 (95% CI 0.99-1.00). Although suicide was linked with hopelessness and having a significant loss, risk assessment performed poorly to predict such an uncommon outcome in a large case register of patients receiving secondary mental healthcare.

  17. Shifting boundaries of racial space in post-apartheid South Africa: The case of Afrikaner youth in East London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luvuyo Ntombana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available South African democracy has brought about changes like freedom of associations, as opposed to apartheid which emphasised separateness of races and cultures. This social change warrants new ways of living among South Africans, especially among young people. Using a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews, this study examined how white Afrikaans-speaking university students carve out their identities, given the reality that political, social and cultural circumstances have changed in the last two decades. Participants consisted of Afrikaner university students, based in East London. This study attempts to understand difficulties and privileges associated with being a young white South African 20 years after the fall of the apartheid regime. Seeing that the participants were not born during apartheid, we wanted to understand the extent to which their parents’ perception, influence and stories affected the way participants identify themselves, their place and their roles in the democratic South Africa. The study found that Afrikaner youth are caught between two worlds: the democratic and contemporary social context, and their parents’ traditional or orthodox way of seeing things. This study also found out that, in spite of some of their parents’ influence on racism and the perception of the South African community about white people, these young people are able to carve out their own identity in which they are able to shift racial space boundaries.

  18. Can Social Support Protect Bullied Adolescents from Adverse Outcomes? A Prospective Study on the Effects of Bullying on the Educational Achievement and Mental Health of Adolescents at Secondary Schools in East London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothon, Catherine; Head, Jenny; Klineberg, Emily; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which social support can have a buffering effect against the potentially adverse consequences of bullying on school achievement and mental health. It uses a representative multiethnic sample of adolescents attending East London secondary schools in three boroughs. Bullied adolescents were less likely to…

  19. Using GIS to Understand and Prioritise Worker Movements during the 2012 London Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, I. M.

    2013-05-01

    The performance of the transport network and the associated movement of people was one of the most critical elements to London's successful delivery of the 2012 Olympic Games. During the planning stages Transport for London asked the London Borough of Newham to mitigate the impact of the authority's 13 500 employees on transport infrastructure close to the Olympic Park. To achieve this, the authority needed to understand the geographic distribution of its workforce and the demand it placed on roads and local transport hubs. The authority's Geospatial Team led the research based on four cross-referenced data sources, and spatial analysis was used to determine priorities for special absence arrangements and a commissioned coach service. The research was used to support a targeted information campaign but also presented considerations on large-scale data collection, the use of Human Resources data, and the degree to which the movement of people can be measured and managed.

  20. 78 FR 64935 - Borough of Ellwood City, Pennsylvania; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CD14-3-000] Borough of..., P.E., Hill Engineering, 8 Gibson Street, North East, PA 16428, Phone No. (814) 725-8659. FERC... agricultural, municipal, or industrial consumption and not primarily for the generation of electricity. [[Page...

  1. Taaskasutuses London / Marlen Promann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Promann, Marlen

    2007-01-01

    "100% Disain London" messist, kus peateemaks oli säästlikkus disainis, materjalides, tehnoloogias ja tootmises. Markko Karu jõudis sellel noore disainiettevõtja auhinna finaali (International Young Design Entrepreneur of the Year)

  2. Flood-Inundation maps for the Hohokus Brook in Waldwick Borough, Ho-Ho-Kus Borough, and the Village of Ridgewood, New Jersey, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kara M.; Niemoczynski, Michal J.

    2015-07-20

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6-mile reach of the Hohokus Brook in New Jersey from White's Lake Dam in Waldwick Borough, through Ho-Ho-Kus Borough to Grove Street in the Village of Ridgewood were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. The flood inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Hohokus Brook at Ho-Ho-Kus, New Jersey (station number 01391000). Stage data at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/uv?site_no=01391000 or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps2/hydrograph.php?gage=hohn4&wfo=okx.

  3. An integrated tool to assess the role of new planting in PM10 capture and the human health benefits: A case study in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Sinnett, Danielle; Peachey, Christopher; Chalabi, Zaid; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Fletcher, Tony; Leonardi, Giovanni; Grundy, Chris; Azapagic, Adisa; Hutchings, Tony R.

    2009-01-01

    The role of vegetation in mitigating the effects of PM 10 pollution has been highlighted as one potential benefit of urban greenspace. An integrated modelling approach is presented which utilises air dispersion (ADMS-Urban) and particulate interception (UFORE) to predict the PM 10 concentrations both before and after greenspace establishment, using a 10 x 10 km area of East London Green Grid (ELGG) as a case study. The corresponding health benefits, in terms of premature mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, as a result of the reduced exposure of the local population are also modelled. PM 10 capture from the scenario comprising 75% grassland, 20% sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and 5% Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) was estimated to be 90.41 t yr -1 , equating to 0.009 t ha -1 yr -1 over the whole study area. The human health modelling estimated that 2 deaths and 2 hospital admissions would be averted per year. - A combination of models can be used to estimate particulate matter concentrations before and after greenspace establishment and the resulting benefits to human health.

  4. An Olympic Legacy? Did the Urban Regeneration Associated With the London 2012 Olympic Games Influence Adolescent Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte; Smuk, Melanie; Cummins, Steven; Eldridge, Sandra; Fahy, Amanda; Lewis, Daniel; Moore, Derek G; Smith, Neil; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2018-03-01

    Public expenditure on large events such as the London 2012 Olympic Games is often justified by the potential legacy of urban regeneration and its associated health and well-being benefits for local communities. In the Olympic Regeneration in East London Study, we examined whether there was an association between urban regeneration related to the 2012 Games and improved mental health in young people. Adolescents aged 11-12 years attending schools in the Olympic host borough of Newham in London or in 3 adjacent comparison London boroughs completed a survey before the 2012 Games and 6 and 18 months after the Games (in 2013 and 2014, respectively). Changes in depressive symptoms and well-being between baseline and each follow-up were examined. A total of 2,254 adolescents from 25 randomly selected schools participated. Adolescents from Newham were more likely to have remained depressed between baseline and the 6- and 18-month follow-up surveys (for 6-month follow-up, relative risk = 1.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 2.83; for 18-month follow-up, relative risk = 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 3.70) than adolescents from the comparison boroughs. No differences in well-being were observed. There was little evidence that urban regeneration had any positive influence on adolescent mental health and some suggestion that regeneration may have been associated with maintenance of depressive symptoms. Such programs may have limited short-term impact on the mental health of adolescents.

  5. Betel nut use among first and second generation Bangladeshi women in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-de la Mora, Alejandra; Jesmin, Fahmida; Bentley, Gillian R

    2007-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of socio-economic variables and migration history on the prevalence of betel nut and smokeless tobacco use in both UK- and Bangladeshi born migrant women resident in London. No significant difference in betel nut use prevalence was found among women of different generations. However, in all groups betel nut users were significantly older and less educated than non-users. Among first generation women there was no effect of either length of time living in the UK or age at migration on use of betel nut, even after controlling for current age. No significant differences in prevalence use due to language spoken, occupation, marital status or borough of residence in London were found. We conclude that, although there are some indications of a change in behavior among younger individuals, betel nut chewing is a practice very much present among Bangladeshi women born and brought up in a bicultural context.

  6. Kommunisme i London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin; Nielsen, Kasper Porsgaard

    2010-01-01

    Begrebet ”kommunisme” var på dagsordenen, da over 800 mennesker mødtes i Birkbeck University College i London, den 13.-15. marts, 2009. En perlerække af talere var inviteret: Alain Badiou, Michael Hardt, Bruno Bosteels, Peter Hallward, Allesandro Russo, Alberto Toscano, Toni Negri, Terry Eagleton......, Jacques Rancière, Slavoj Žižek, Gianni Vattimo og Judith Balso. Her følger en rapport fra begivenheden....

  7. University-Industry Teaching Collaborations: A Case Study of the MSc in Structural Integrity Co-Produced by Brunel University London and The Welding Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Gabrielle; Donovan, Claire; Lee, Jeung

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an evaluation of an MSc in Structural Integrity co-produced by Brunel University London and industry partner The Welding Institute (TWI), designed to supply 'work-ready' graduates. Pre-, mid- and post-course quantitative surveys were administered to students, and two mid-term focus groups were conducted. Pre- and post-course…

  8. Resilience of Self-Organised and Top-Down Planned Cities--A Case Study on London and Beijing Street Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqiu Wang

    Full Text Available The success or failure of the street network depends on its reliability. In this article, using resilience analysis, the author studies how the shape and appearance of street networks in self-organised and top-down planned cities influences urban transport. Considering London and Beijing as proxies for self-organised and top-down planned cities, the structural properties of London and Beijing networks first are investigated based on their primal and dual representations of planar graphs. The robustness of street networks then is evaluated in primal space and dual space by deactivating road links under random and intentional attack scenarios. The results show that the reliability of London street network differs from that of Beijing, which seems to rely more on its architecture and connectivity. It is found that top-down planned Beijing with its higher average degree in the dual space and assortativity in the primal space is more robust than self-organised London using the measures of maximum and second largest cluster size and network efficiency. The article offers an insight, from a network perspective, into the reliability of street patterns in self-organised and top-down planned city systems.

  9. The London low emission zone baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-11-01

    -care records to evaluate the effects of the LEZ on human health outcomes. Data on consultations and prescriptions were compiled from a pilot group of general practices (13 distributed across London, with 100,000 patients; 29 situated in the inner London Borough of Lambeth, with 200,000 patients). Ethics approvals were obtained to link individual primary-care records to modeled NOx concentrations by means of post-codes. (To preserve anonymity, the postcodes were removed before delivery to the research team.) A wide range of NOx exposures was found across London as well as within and between the practices examined. Although we observed little association between NOx exposure and smoking status, a positive relationship was found between exposure and increased socioeconomic deprivation. The health outcomes we chose to study were asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, wheeze, hay fever, upper and lower respiratory tract infections, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. These outcomes were measured as prevalence or incidence. Their distributions by age, sex, socioeconomic deprivation, ethnicity, and smoking were found to accord with those reported in the epidemiology literature. No cross-sectional positive associations were found between exposure to NOx and any of the studied health outcomes; some associations were significantly negative. After the pilot study, a suitable primary-care database of London patients was identified, the General Practice Research Database responsible for giving us access to these data agreed to collaborate in the evaluation of the LEZ, and an acceptable method of ensuring privacy of the records was agreed upon. The database included about 350,000 patients who had remained at the same address over the four-year period of the study. Power calculations for a controlled longitudinal analysis were then performed, indicating that for outcomes such as consultations for respiratory illnesses or prescriptions for asthma there was

  10. Flood-inundation maps for the Saddle River in Ho-Ho-Kus Borough, the Village of Ridgewood, and Paramus Borough, New Jersey, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kara M.; Niemoczynski, Michal J.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.4-mile reach of the Saddle River in New Jersey from Hollywood Avenue in Ho-Ho-Kus Borough downstream through the Village of Ridgewood and Paramus Borough to the confluence with Hohokus Brook in the Village of Ridgewood were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Saddle River at Ridgewood, New Jersey (station 01390500). Current conditions for estimating near real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/uv?site_no=01390500 or at the National Weather Services (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) at http://water.weather.gov/ahps2/hydrograph.php?wfo=okx&gage=rwdn4. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation (March 11, 2011) at the USGS streamgage 01390500, Saddle River at Ridgewood, New Jersey. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 10 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum, North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), and ranging from 5 ft, the NWS “action and minor flood stage”, to 14 ft, which is the maximum extent of the stage-discharge rating and 0.6 ft higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system 3-meter (9.84-ft) digital elevation model derived from Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) data in order to delineate the area flooded

  11. Emergency procedures in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cree, D.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following: emergency services (fire brigade, ambulance and police) that would be involved in dealing with an accident to a nuclear fuel flask in transport through London, with special reference to procedures used by the Metropolitan Police; geographical area covered by Metropolitan Police; initiation of action; decision whether to evacuate the area of the accident; examples of action taken to deal with non-radiation accidents (in absence of any example of relevant radiation accident); specific instructions, or advice, to police relating to the movement of irradiated fuel; training exercises. (U.K.)

  12. Sustainability Assessment of the Residential Land Use in Seven Boroughs of the Island of Montreal, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Enrique Vega-Azamar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High resource utilization in the residential sector, and the associated environmental impacts, are central issues in the growth of urban regions. Land-use urban planning is a primary instrument for the proper development of cities; an important point is the consideration of the urban form’s influence on resource utilization intensity. Emergy synthesis, an energy-based methodological approach that allows the quantification and integration of both natural and human-generated flows interacting in urban environments, was used to assess sustainability of the residential land use of seven boroughs on the Island of Montreal. Natural resources, food, water, acquired goods and services, electricity and fuels were the main flows considered in the analysis. Results suggest that income, household size and distance to downtown are the variables affecting resource utilization intensity more noticeably and that allocation of green area coverage is an important parameter for controlling land use intensity. With the procedure used for calculating resource use intensity in the seven boroughs, it is possible to generate a tool to support urban planning decision-making for assessing sustainable development scenarios. Future research should consider urban green space potential for accommodating local waste treatment systems, acting as a greenhouse gas emissions sink and promoting human health.

  13. Olympic emblem guidelines: London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”) by LOCOG and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) creative, marketing and communications personnel, agencies and consultants only who are authorised to use the London 2012 marks. The purpose of these guidelines is to preserve and enhance the value of the Emblem for t...

  14. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: A case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asase, Mizpah; Yanful, Ernest K.; Mensah, Moses; Stanford, Jay; Amponsah, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

  15. The Olympic legacy: feeding London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, the Olympic Games have increasingly claimed to deliver a social and economic ‘legacy’ to the host city. The 2012 Olympic Games in London have set out to deliver a legacy of better food for east London, an area perceived as ‘deprived’, with higher than average rates of obesity

  16. The Making of London Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia; Toft, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Den følgende tekst består af to dele. Begge dele omhandler workshoppen The Making of London Narratives, der var et undervisningsforløb for 52 studerende fra Arkitektskolen Aarhus og School of Architecture and the Visual Arts University of East London. I den første del perspektiveres workshoppens...

  17. London International Youth Science Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the 2010 London International Youth Science Forum (LIYSF) and shares his experience in attending the forum. Unlike the Harry Messel event in Sydney, which takes place every two years, LIYSF is an annual event. Before moving to Imperial College London, LIYSF was held at the Institute of Electrical Engineers and…

  18. Radiological assessment of private water supplies in the Borough of Beverley, East Yorkshire, England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Water samples from 100 private water supplies in the Borough of Beverley have been analysed for natural and artificial radionuclides and the elements Calcium and Strontium. In addition, 20 of the 100 supplies were specifically sampled for the measurement of Radon-222. Of the 100 supplies tested, all total alpha and beta analyses were within the WHO guideline values. An assessment of the radiological significance of the analytical data has been carried out by calculating the committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical ''critical'' group, which would arise from the consumption of water during a single year. The maximum adult annual committed effective dose equivalent for artificial and total radionuclides measured during this programme of monitoring was found to be 1.50 and 20.9 μSv, respectively. (author)

  19. Seasonal influenza vaccination delivery through community pharmacists in England: evaluation of the London pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Katherine; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Watson, Conall; Baguelin, Marc; Choga, Lethiwe; Patel, Anika; Raj, Thara; Jit, Mark; Griffiths, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost of the pan-London pharmacy initiative, a programme that allows administration of seasonal influenza vaccination to eligible patients at pharmacies. Design We analysed 2013–2015 data on vaccination uptake in pharmacies via the Sonar reporting system, and the total vaccination uptake via 2011–2015 ImmForm general practitioner (GP) reporting system data. We conducted an online survey of London pharmacists who participate in the programme to assess time use data, vaccine choice, investment costs and opinions about the programme. We conducted an online survey of London GPs to assess vaccine choice of vaccine and opinions about the pharmacy vaccine delivery programme. Setting All London boroughs. Participants London-based GPs, and pharmacies that currently offer seasonal flu vaccination. Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measures Comparison of annual vaccine uptake in London across risk groups from years before pharmacy vaccination introduction to after pharmacy vaccination introduction. Completeness of vaccine uptake reporting data. Cost to the National Health Service (NHS) of flu vaccine delivery at pharmacies with that at GPs. Cost to pharmacists of flu delivery. Opinions of pharmacists and GPs regarding the flu vaccine pharmacy initiative. Results No significant change in the uptake of seasonal vaccination in any of the risk groups as a result of the pharmacy initiative. While on average a pharmacy-administered flu vaccine dose costs the NHS up to £2.35 less than a dose administered at a GP, a comparison of the 2 recording systems suggests there is substantial loss of data. Conclusions Flu vaccine delivery through pharmacies shows potential for improving convenience for vaccine recipients. However, there is no evidence that vaccination uptake increases and the use of 2 separate recording systems leads to time-consuming data entry and missing vaccine record data. PMID:26883237

  20. 77 FR 1973 - Environmental Impact Statement: In the Vicinity of the City and Borough of Juneau, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... Vicinity of the City and Borough of Juneau, AK AGENCY: Alaska Department of Transportation and Public..., in cooperation with DOT&PF, will prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement (SEIS) for... from Juneau within the Lynn Canal corridor to provide travel flexibility, capacity to meet demand, and...

  1. Tuberculosis in inner London: evidence for an increase in young adults and immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkham, T. M.; Drury, A.; Pearson, A. D.; Dybowski, R.; Atkinson, H.

    1995-01-01

    We report a marked increase in the rate of notifications of tuberculosis in young adults in the London Borough of Lambeth. Analysis of notifications made to the Proper Officer over a 10-year period showed that the age specific notification rate in the cohort aged 20-44 years increased from 30/100,000 in 1983 to 51/100,000 in 1992. Analysis of St. Thomas' Hospital laboratory records of patients seen between 1984 and 1991 from whom Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated showed an increase in the number of patients of African origin from five in the first half of the study period (1984-7) to 25 in the second half (1988-91): 21 of these 25 had immigrated into England within 4 years of their illness. This finding is being further investigated in a prospective study of ethnicity, travel history and date of immigration of Lambeth residents notified with tuberculosis. PMID:7641826

  2. Pedestrian Zones As Important Urban Strategies in Redeveloping the Community - Case Study: Alba Iulia Borough Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Elena BLAGA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The pedestrian zone issue is by far an important matter in the context of urban regeneration. Cities which adopted this strategy – the pedestrian zones – have recorded better urban attitudes regarding the urban environment, a continuous growth of the urban quality, an improved urban ecosystem  and continuous attractiveness for investment and  tourism. This article explores the evolution of the pedestrian zones as ideas in utopian urban models in the early 1900 and later as efficient environmental friendly strategies adopted by cities. After identifying the path this concept followed, from a simple idea to an important strategy of urban development, the paper focuses on the major characteristics and benefits of the pedestrian precincts. Next, the article focuses on the newest pedestrian zone in one of the Romanian cities, Alba Iulia and it tries to identify the types of impact this area has so far on the community and entire city.

  3. Confusion and Chaos at the Top: The Impact of Shirley Porter and the Transgression of the Political and Managerial Boundaries within the London Borough of Westminster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy ASQUITH

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available During the 1980s Westminster City Council and its then Leader, Shirley Porter were hailed as being model examples of local government in action. The picture portrayed in this article is one of chaos and confusion within the strategic leadership of the authority as the managerial/ political interface was constantly ignored by Porter as she sought to implement her own agenda.

  4. London's historic ''pea-soupers''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbinato, D.

    1994-01-01

    Americans may think smog was invented in Los Angeles. Not so. In fact, a Londoner coined the term ''smog'' in 1905 to describe the city's insidious combination of natural fog and coal smoke. By then, the phenomenon was part of London history, and dirty, acrid smoke-filled ''pea-soupers'' were as familiar to Londoners as Big Ben and Westminster Abby. Smog in London predates Shakespeare by four centuries. Until the 12th century, most Londoners burned wood for fuel. But as the city grew and the forests shrank, wood became scarce and increasingly expensive. Large deposits of ''sea-coal'' off the northeast coast provided a cheap alternative. Soon, Londoners were burning the soft, bituminous coal to heat their homes and fuel their factories. Sea-coal was plentiful, but it didn't burn efficiently. A lot of its energy was spent making smoke, not heat. Coal smoke drifting through thousands of London chimneys combined with clean natural fog to make smog. If the weather conditions were right, it would last for days. Early on, no one had the scientific tools to correlate smog with adverse health effects, but complaints about the smoky air as an annoyance date back to at least 1272, when King Edward I, on the urging of important noblemen and clerics, banned the burning of sea-coal. Anyone caught burning or selling the stuff was to be tortured or executed. The first offender caught was summarily put to death. This deterred nobody. Of necessity, citizens continued to burn sea-coal in violation of the law, which required the burning of wood few could afford

  5. Results of radiological surveys of 20 borough-owned properties, Maywood, New Jersey (MJ050)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Carrier, R.F.

    1990-08-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of these 20 borough-owned properties Maywood, New Jersey, was conducted during 1987. Survey measurements indicate that none of the properties contained radioactive contamination. Slightly elevated gamma exposure rates in several areas were related to the presence of ashes or to natural materials used in the construction of buildings and asphalt surfaces. 4 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab

  6. Simulations of flow and prediction of sediment movement in Wymans Run, Cochranton Borough, Crawford County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittle, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In small watersheds, runoff entering local waterways from large storms can cause rapid and profound changes in the streambed that can contribute to flooding. Wymans Run, a small stream in Cochranton Borough, Crawford County, experienced a large rain event in June 2008 that caused sediment to be deposited at a bridge. A hydrodynamic model, Flow and Sediment Transport and Morphological Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH), which is incorporated into the U.S. Geological Survey Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System (MD_SWMS) was constructed to predict boundary shear stress and velocity in Wymans Run using data from the June 2008 event. Shear stress and velocity values can be used to indicate areas of a stream where sediment, transported downstream, can be deposited on the streambed. Because of the short duration of the June 2008 rain event, streamflow was not directly measured but was estimated using U.S. Army Corps of Engineers one-dimensional Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). Scenarios to examine possible engineering solutions to decrease the amount of sediment at the bridge, including bridge expansion, channel expansion, and dredging upstream from the bridge, were simulated using the FaSTMECH model. Each scenario was evaluated for potential effects on water-surface elevation, boundary shear stress, and velocity.

  7. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  8. Confronting a Divided Past for a Shared Future: The Lieux de Mémoire of the Altab Ali Park in London

    OpenAIRE

    Vékony, Dániel

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the Altab Ali Park and its significance in regards to the Muslim community in the London borough of Tower Hamlets. Using Pierre Nora’s concept of lieux de Mémoire, I would like to demonstrate how the Bangladeshi Muslim minority and the rest of the community of Tower Hamlets construct their collective memory through the transformation of the park. The article argues that the Altab Ali Park is in Pierre Nora's term a lieu de Mémoire with a multiple layers, which has been d...

  9. Further observations on London fog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, R E; Lawther, P J

    1957-01-01

    The degree of illness in a group of people with bonchitis or emphysema residing in London during the winter of 1955--56 was monitored by personal diary methods. Concentration of smoke was related to degree of illness, with rapid response at onset and slow recovery. Wet fogs were no worse than dry ones.

  10. London´s erotic masterpiece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerchlango, Jørg

    2004-01-01

    Londoners call it the erotic ghurkin. Architects proclaim Norman Foster´s new building a revolutionary masterwork......Londoners call it the erotic ghurkin. Architects proclaim Norman Foster´s new building a revolutionary masterwork...

  11. Classification guide: Paralympic Games London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The London 2012 Paralympic Games Classification Guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Paralympic Sport Federations (IPSFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

  12. Olympics Legacy: the London Olympics 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gulsen, Guler; Holden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental\\ud and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics developmen...

  13. Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecht, Daniela; Hansell, Anna L; Morley, David; Dajnak, David; Vienneau, Danielle; Beevers, Sean; Toledano, Mireille B; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Gulliver, John

    2016-03-01

    Road traffic gives rise to noise and air pollution exposures, both of which are associated with adverse health effects especially for cardiovascular disease, but mechanisms may differ. Understanding the variability in correlations between these pollutants is essential to understand better their separate and joint effects on human health. We explored associations between modelled noise and air pollutants using different spatial units and area characteristics in London in 2003-2010. We modelled annual average exposures to road traffic noise (LAeq,24h, Lden, LAeq,16h, Lnight) for ~190,000 postcode centroids in London using the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) method. We used a dispersion model (KCLurban) to model nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, total and the traffic-only component of particulate matter ≤2.5μm and ≤10μm. We analysed noise and air pollution correlations at the postcode level (~50 people), postcodes stratified by London Boroughs (~240,000 people), neighbourhoods (Lower layer Super Output Areas) (~1600 people), 1km grid squares, air pollution tertiles, 50m, 100m and 200m in distance from major roads and by deprivation tertiles. Across all London postcodes, we observed overall moderate correlations between modelled noise and air pollution that were stable over time (Spearman's rho range: |0.34-0.55|). Correlations, however, varied considerably depending on the spatial unit: largest ranges were seen in neighbourhoods and 1km grid squares (both Spearman's rho range: |0.01-0.87|) and was less for Boroughs (Spearman's rho range: |0.21-0.78|). There was little difference in correlations between exposure tertiles, distance from road or deprivation tertiles. Associations between noise and air pollution at the relevant geographical unit of analysis need to be carefully considered in any epidemiological analysis, in particular in complex urban areas. Low correlations near roads, however, suggest that independent effects of road noise and

  14. "I don't know how I'm still standing" a Bakhtinian analysis of social housing and health narratives in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C; Lewis, D J; Greenhalgh, T; Smith, N R; Fahy, A E; Cummins, S

    2017-03-01

    Housing is a significant determinant of health and substandard housing is a public health issue. East London has long had a shortage of social and affordable housing, worsened in recent years by a combination of stressors. In one of East London's most deprived boroughs, Newham, changes brought about by the 2011 Localism Act and the unique demands of being the host Olympic borough in 2012 have brought considerable pressures to bear on social infrastructure. This paper examines how these pressures were experienced by local residents via their narratives of social housing and health. The data reported here are from a qualitative study comprising two waves of data collection. Narrative family interviews and go-along interviews were conducted with 40 Newham residents at wave one and 28 at wave two. A narrative analysis with a Bakhtinian interpretation was undertaken. This revealed that residents framed experiences of social housing in terms of an inherent system-level ideology based on notions of need and waiting. A particularly striking feature of this ideology was the extent to which descriptions of ill health and impairment were implicated in constructions of housing need; participants directly attributed a range of health complaints to their housing predicaments, including stress, depression, cancer scares, panic attacks and loss of sleep. Understanding the contested ideology of social housing can illuminate both the dynamic processes of social exclusion and the ways in which its subjects seek to resist it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon dioxide and methane emission dynamics in central London (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Barlow, Janet F.; Wood, Curtis R.

    2013-04-01

    London, with a population of 8.2 million, is the largest city in Europe. It is heavily built-up (typically 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs) and boasts some of the busiest arteries in Europe despite efforts to reduce traffic in the city centre with the introduction of a congestion charging scheme in 2007. We report on two substantial pollution monitoring efforts in the heart of London between October 2006 and present. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) were measured continuously by eddy-covariance in central London from October 2006 until May 2008 from a 190 m telecommunication tower (BT tower; 51° 31' 17.4'' N 0° 8' 20.04'' W). The eddy-covariance system consisted of a Gill R3-50 ultrasonic anemometer operated at 20 Hz and a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyser. Air was sampled 0.3 m below the sensor head of the ultrasonic anemometer - which was itself mounted on a 3 m mast to the top of a 15 m lattice tower situated on the roof of the tower (instrument head at 190 m above street level) - and pulled down 45 m of 12.7 mm OD Teflon tubing. In addition, meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction) were also measured with a multi-sensor (Weather Transmitter WXT510, Vaisala). Eddy-covariance measurements at the BT tower location were reinstated in July 2011 and include methane (CH4), CO2 and H2O concentrations measured by a Picarro fast methane analyser (G2301-f). CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity in two large city centre green spaces (Hyde Park and Regent's Park) explained the seasonal variability. Annual estimates of net exchange of CO2 obtained by eddy-covariance agreed well with up-scaled data from the UK

  16. Models and impact of patient and public involvement in studies carried out by the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit at University College London: findings from ten case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Annabelle; Hanley, Bec; Gafos, Mitzy; Cromarty, Ben; Stephens, Richard; Sturgeon, Kate; Scott, Karen; Cragg, William J; Tweed, Conor D; Teera, Jacqueline; Vale, Claire L

    2016-07-29

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) in studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit (MRC CTU) at University College London varies by research type and setting. We developed a series of case studies of PPI to document and share good practice. We used purposive sampling to identify studies representing the scope of research at the MRC CTU and different approaches to PPI. We carried out semi-structured interviews with staff and patient representatives. Interview notes were analysed descriptively to categorise the main aims and motivations for involvement; activities undertaken; their impact on the studies and lessons learned. We conducted 19 interviews about ten case studies, comprising one systematic review, one observational study and 8 randomised controlled trials in HIV and cancer. Studies were either open or completed, with start dates between 2003 and 2011. Interviews took place between March and November 2014 and were updated in summer 2015 where there had been significant developments in the study (i.e. if the study had presented results subsequent to the interview taking place). A wide range of PPI models, including representation on trial committees or management groups, community engagement, one-off task-focused activities, patient research partners and participant involvement had been used. Overall, interviewees felt that PPI had a positive impact, leading to improvements, for example in the research question; study design; communication with potential participants; study recruitment; confidence to carry out or complete a study; interpretation and communication of results; and influence on future research. A range of models of PPI can benefit clinical studies. Researchers should consider different approaches to PPI, based on the desired impact and the people they want to involve. Use of multiple models may increase the potential impacts of PPI in clinical research.

  17. Hazard Analysis and Disaster Preparedness in the Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska using Hazard Simulations, GIS, and Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, K.; Prakash, A.; Witte, W.

    2011-12-01

    The Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB) lies in interior Alaska, an area that is dominated by semiarid, boreal forest climate. FNSB frequently witnesses flooding events, wild land fires, earthquakes, extreme winter storms and other natural and man-made hazards. Being a large 19,065 km2 area, with a population of approximately 97,000 residents, providing emergency services to residents in a timely manner is a challenge. With only four highways going in and out of the borough, and only two of those leading to another city, most residents do not have quick access to a main road. Should a major disaster occur and block one of the two highways, options for evacuating or getting supplies to the area quickly dwindle. We present the design of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and network analysis based decision support tool that we have created for planning and emergency response. This tool will be used by Emergency Service (Fire/EMS), Emergency Management, Hazardous Materials Team, and Law Enforcement Agencies within FNSB to prepare and respond to a variety of potential disasters. The GIS combines available road and address networks from different FNSB agencies with the 2010 census data. We used ESRI's ArcGIS and FEMA's HAZUS-MH software to run multiple disaster scenarios and create several evacuation and response plans. Network analysis resulted in determining response time and classifying the borough by response times to facilitate allocation of emergency resources. The resulting GIS database can be used by any responding agency in FNSB to determine possible evacuation routes, where to open evacuation centers, placement of resources, and emergency response times. We developed a specific emergency response plan for three common scenarios: (i) major wildfire threatening Fairbanks, (ii) a major earthquake, (iii) loss of power during flooding in a flood-prone area. We also combined the network analysis results with high resolution imagery and elevation data to determine

  18. Embodied Protest in Occupy London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Reinecke, Juliane

    In this paper we discuss the relation of embodied protest and public space in Occupy London. We draw on Agamben’s notion of the homo sacer – the excluded included life embodied by the figure of the homeless, refugee and so forth – to analyze how in protest camps embodied protest relates...... with the general public and media. Particularly, tensions became manifest as the homines sacri of the homeless people joined the camp. We discuss the implications of Agamben’s biopolitical insights for the relation of resistance, public space and community building in protest movements....... sacri – “bare life” challenging sovereign power. Yet, we also show how protesters struggled to navigate tensions between representing such “bare life” of the homo sacer and the biopolitical body. This lead not only to various difficulties in building protest community but also in the interactions...

  19. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Susquehanna River near the Boroughs of Lewisburg and Milton, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Mark A.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an approximate 8-mile reach of the West Branch Susquehanna River from approximately 2 miles downstream from the Borough of Lewisburg, extending upstream to approximately 1 mile upstream from the Borough of Milton, Pennsylvania, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict the estimated areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa. In addition, the information has been provided to the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) for incorporation into their Susquehanna Inundation Map Viewer (SIMV) flood warning system (http://maps.srbc.net/simv/). The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasted peak-stage information (http://water.weather.gov/ahps) for USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa., may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. Calibration of the model was achieved using the most current stage-discharge relations (rating number 11.1) at USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa., a documented water-surface profile from the December 2, 2010, flood, and recorded peak stage data. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 26 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 14 feet (ft) to 39 ft. Modeled flood stages, as defined by NWS, include Action Stage, 14 ft; Flood Stage, 18 ft; Moderate Flood Stage, 23 ft; and Major Flood Stage, 28 ft. Geographic information system (GIS) technology

  20. Asthma Length of Stay in Hospitals in London 2001?2006: Demographic, Diagnostic and Temporal Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.; Sarran, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a condition of significant public health concern associated with morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. This study identifies key determinants of length of stay (LOS) associated with asthma-related hospital admissions in London, and further explores their effects on individuals. Subjects were primarily diagnosed and admitted for asthma in London between 1(st) January 2001 and 31(st) December 2006. All repeated admissions were treated uniquely as independent cases. Negative...

  1. Studying policy implementation using a macro, meso and micro frame analysis: the case of the Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research & Care (CLAHRC) programme nationally and in North West London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Sarah E M; Mays, Nicholas

    2012-10-15

    The publication of Best research for best health in 2006 and the "ring-fencing" of health research funding in England marked the start of a period of change for health research governance and the structure of research funding in England. One response to bridging the 'second translational gap' between research knowledge and clinical practice was the establishment of nine Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs). The goal of this paper is to assess how national-level understanding of the aims and objectives of the CLAHRCs translated into local implementation and practice in North West London. This study uses a variation of Goffman's frame analysis to trace the development of the initial national CLAHRC policy to its implementation at three levels. Data collection and analysis were qualitative through interviews, document analysis and embedded research. Analysis at the macro (national policy), meso (national programme) and micro (North West London) levels shows a significant common understanding of the aims and objectives of the policy and programme. Local level implementation in North West London was also consistent with these. The macro-meso-micro frame analysis is a useful way of studying the transition of a policy from high-level idea to programme in action. It could be used to identify differences at a local (micro) level in the implementation of multi-site programmes that would help understand differences in programme effectiveness.

  2. Institutional profile: the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David; Bontoux, Thierry

    2009-12-01

    Located in the London neighborhoods of Bloomsbury and South Kensington, the London Centre for Nanotechnology is a UK-based multidisciplinary research center that operates at the forefront of science and technology. It is a joint venture between two of the world's leading institutions, UCL and Imperial College London, uniting their strong capabilities in the disciplines that underpin nanotechnology: engineering, the physical sciences and biomedicine. The London Centre for Nanotechnology has a unique operating model that accesses and focuses the combined skills of the Departments of Chemistry, Physics, Materials, Medicine, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering and Earth Sciences across the two universities. It aims to provide the nanoscience and nanotechnology required to solve major problems in healthcare, information processing, energy and the environment.

  3. CITY OF LONDON: THE SECRETS OF STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    M. K. Belyaev

    2010-01-01

    Reasons why the City, oldest London global financial centre, keeps to hold up leading positions in the financial world, are thoroughly discussed. Initially, this phenomenon was explained by dominating position England held as world industrial power. However, the City has not lost its leadership over last decades when England economics suffered bad times. This is explained by traditions, by the history as well as by specific position London holds as place where «business is made» as well as by...

  4. The theatrical portrait in eighteenth century London

    OpenAIRE

    West, Shearer

    1986-01-01

    A theatrical portrait is an image of an actor or actors in character. This genre was widespread in eighteenth century London and was practised by a large number of painters and engravers of all levels of ability. The sources of the genre lay in a number of diverse styles of art, including the court portraits of Lely and Kneller and the fetes galantes of Watteau and Mercier. Three types of media for theatrical portraits were particularly prevalent in London, between c.1745...

  5. Towards a sociological analysis of London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, I focus on a number of productive scholarly avenues to which sociological analysis of London 2012 might want to attend. Understanding major sporting events - and thus the Olympic Games - as inextricably entangled with the media-industrial complex, I suggest London 2012 as a commodity spectacle that will emphasize gleaming aesthetics, a (sporting) city and nation collapsed into (simple) tourist images, and the presentation of a particular expression of self within the logi...

  6. Chelsea, Pimlico and Belgravia District Nursing Association 1930-1939::A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Bliss, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The case study explores how the expansion of the health services during the interwar period impacted upon the status of district nursing and examines how being a voluntary service shaped district nursing associations. A range of primary sources were used; the Association Annual Reports, the Medical Officer for Health Annual Reports for the Borough of Chelsea, the Ministry of Health records, the archives of the Queen's Nursing Institute (QNI) and the Borough of Chelsea Council Minutes.The Medi...

  7. The 'other' London effect: the diversification of London's suburban grammar schools and the rise of hyper-selective elite state schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamsu, Sol

    2018-03-30

    This paper examines the rise of a new elite of 'super-state' schools in London, revealing a growing divide within the state sector which problematizes claims that the capital is a 'hotspot' for social mobility (Social Mobility Commission ). Although recent research has revealed a 'London effect' in which students in the capital on Free School Meals outperform their peers in other regions (Greaves, Macmillan and Sibieta ), inequalities between London's schools in access to elite universities have been overlooked. Drawing on a case study of a suburban London grammar school, 'King Henry's School', I show how ethnic-minority suburbanization has combined with an institutional strategy to compete with elite private schools. Strategies of selection have been mobilized alongside elements of elite 'gentlemanly' educational culture in order to reposition the school within the hierarchy of London's schools. The result is a hyper-selective school which provides a conduit to elite universities for upwardly mobile British-Asian students. I show that this strategy has strong parallels with the school's attempts in the early twentieth century to compete with London's fee-paying 'public' schools. The continuing symbolic value of 'traditional' forms of elite educational culture to a school seeking to reposition itself within the field reflects deep structural patterns of inequality in English education. To understand how apparent improvements in social mobility can sit alongside deepening inequalities between state schools, there is a need for a historical sociological approach that takes account of long-term processes of institutional change (Savage ; Inglis ). © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  8. London forum targets Africa's cancer crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Africa stands on the brink of a cancer epidemic, with more than a million new cases a year by 2020. Raising awareness of the threat is one of the biggest challenges facing the global health community today. Finding solutions is an even greater one. The University of Oxford's Africa-Oxford Cancer Consortium (AfrOx), together with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is assembling some of the world's most prominent cancer experts and policymakers in London, UK, on 10-11 May, 2007, to take up the challenge. Cancer care services in Africa are desperately limited. Life-saving radiotherapy, which is used effectively on more than 50% of cancer patients in the developed world, is available in only 21 of Africa's 53 countries, or to less than 20% of the total population. Lack of resources and basic infrastructure mean that millions of people have no access to cancer screening, early diagnosis, treatment or palliative care. Moreover, nearly 45% of cancer deaths in Africa are due to rampant viral infection, poor nutrition and widespread tobacco use. 'Many lives in Africa could be saved through prevention strategies and investments in comprehensive cancer control,' says Massoud Samiei, Head of the IAEA's Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT). 'PACT seeks to mobilize new resources and enable African countries to expand radiotherapy and cancer care in a sustainable manner.' The Cancer Control in Africa meeting will focus on Africa's deepening cancer crisis and develop strategies for much-needed national cancer control programmes. It will also act as a forum for cancer experts and health policymakers to evaluate priorities, guided by needs and available resources. By holding the meeting in London, the organizers hope to place the African problem at the forefront of the global health agenda and to enlist support and new funding from European governments to fight cancer in Africa through joint international programmes. 'We have a timely opportunity to

  9. London forum targets Africa's cancer crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Africa stands on the brink of a cancer epidemic, with more than a million new cases a year by 2020. Raising awareness of the threat is one of the biggest challenges facing the global health community today. Finding solutions is an even greater one. The University of Oxford's Africa-Oxford Cancer Consortium (AfrOx), together with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is assembling some of the world's most prominent cancer experts and policymakers in London, UK, on 10-11 May, 2007, to take up the challenge. Cancer care services in Africa are desperately limited. Life-saving radiotherapy, which is used effectively on more than 50% of cancer patients in the developed world, is available in only 21 of Africa's 53 countries, or to less than 20% of the total population. Lack of resources and basic infrastructure mean that millions of people have no access to cancer screening, early diagnosis, treatment or palliative care. Moreover, nearly 45% of cancer deaths in Africa are due to rampant viral infection, poor nutrition and widespread tobacco use. 'Many lives in Africa could be saved through prevention strategies and investments in comprehensive cancer control,' says Massoud Samiei, Head of the IAEA's Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT). 'PACT seeks to mobilize new resources and enable African countries to expand radiotherapy and cancer care in a sustainable manner.' The Cancer Control in Africa meeting will focus on Africa's deepening cancer crisis and develop strategies for much-needed national cancer control programmes. It will also act as a forum for cancer experts and health policymakers to evaluate priorities, guided by needs and available resources. By holding the meeting in London, the organizers hope to place the African problem at the forefront of the global health agenda and to enlist support and new funding from European governments to fight cancer in Africa through joint international programmes. 'We have a timely opportunity to

  10. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  11. Analysis of the London dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauke, M.K.

    1983-05-01

    This report gives an in-depth review of the provisions of the London Dumping Convention and of its origins in the context of the international legal framework for controlling all aspects of marine pollution. Particular attention is paid to the provisions concerning radioactive waste. (NEA) [fr

  12. Staging the orient in Aladdin: London - Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Marie-Louise

    2018-01-01

    En sammenligning af John O'Keefes / Charles Farleys sceniske opsætning af Aladdin-eventyret fra Tusind og én nats eventyr i London (1813) med Adam Oehlenschlägers Aladdin-lystspil i København (1805). Artiklen diskuterer de to versioner af eventyrstykket som fortolkning og respons på to forskellige...

  13. Reading Samuel Selvon's The Lonely Londoners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    is represented when he says to Moses in confidence: 'Don't worry, I will get fix up as .... of the immigrants in London, these are the things they strive .... cultures could be done, a task one can argue he sets out to do and reconcile in his novel.

  14. Accounting for Impact at Imperial College London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkmann, Markus; Fini, Riccardo; Ross, Jan-Michael

    We report findings of a study of academic engagement and commercialisation at Imperial College London. We detail the extent of collaboration with industry, consulting, patenting and entrepreneurship by Imperial academics, as well as individuals’ motivations and perceived barriers to engagement. T...

  15. Stage Voice Training in the London Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lucille S.

    This report is the result of a six-week study in which the voice training offerings at four schools of drama in London were examined using interviews of teachers and directors, observation of voice classes, and attendance at studio presentations and public performances. The report covers such topics as: textbooks and references being used; courses…

  16. Host government directorate: London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic emblem guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”), the London 2012 Paralympic Games Emblem (the “Paralympic Emblem”) and the Dual London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Emblems (“Dual Emblems”) by authorised Host Government Directorate only.

  17. From vision to reality--managing change in the provision of library and information services to nurses, midwives, health visitors and PAMs: (professions allied to medicine) a case study of the North Thames experience with the Inner London Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbolt, S; Williamson, J; Wilson, A

    1997-06-01

    One of the North Thames' pioneering consortia, the Inner London Consortium (ILC) is a complex body which includes NHS Trusts with teaching hospital university connections, community-based Trusts and general hospital acute Trusts. Within the consortium there are 12,000 trained nurses, midwives, health visitors and other professional staff working in the professions allied to medicine (PAMs), all of whom require access to and provision of appropriate library information services. In 1994, taking into account experiences elsewhere in the Region and nationally, it became clear that library issues were complex and would become acute with the move of nursing libraries from ILC Trust sites over a very short timescale. A report on the issues commissioned by the Consortium recommended that a library project, which built on existing NHS Trust PGMDE funded library resources and moved these to a multidisciplinary base to serve the consortium membership, be implemented. The objective of providing access to library information services for nurses and PAMs was achieved. Successes that emerged from the implementation included: The registration in Trust libraries of almost 12 000 new members within the initial 6-month monitoring period. The development of service level agreements and standards for the delivery of services to these new user groups. This paper describes the processes behind these significant and complex changes.

  18. Launch of the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeppli, Gabriel; Pankhurst, Quentin

    2006-12-01

    Is nanomedicine an area with the promise that its proponents claim? Professors Gabriel Aeppli and Quentin Pankhurst explore the issues in light of the new London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN)--a joint enterprise between Imperial College and University College London--opened on November 7, 2006. The center is a multidisciplinary research initiative that aims to bridge the physical, engineering and biomedical sciences. In this interview, Professor Gabriel Aeppli, LCN co-Director, and Deputy Director Professor Quentin Pankhurst discuss the advent and future role of the LCN with Nanomedicine's Morag Robertson. Professor Aeppli was formerly with NEC, Bell Laboratories and MIT and has more than 15 years' experience in the computer and telecommunications industry. Professor Pankhurst is a physicist with more than 20 years' experience of working with magnetic materials and nanoparticles, who now works closely with clinicians and medics on innovative healthcare applications. He also recently formed the new start-up company Endomagnetics Inc.

  19. Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Dianna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? Methods The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS. Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001–2005 n=757 approaches. Results Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p Conclusions The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools may influence adolescent diet, though effects were small. Further research on adolescents’ food purchasing habits with larger samples in varied geographic regions is required to identify robust relationships between proximity and diet, as small numbers, because of confounding, may dilute effect food environment effects. Data on individual foods purchased in all shop formats may clarify the frequent, overly simple

  20. Kingsnorth-London dc transmission link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-03-11

    The hvdc transmission link between one of the 500 MW generators at Kingsnorth Power Station and two receiving stations in London will use a three-wire dc cable system rated to carry 1200 A at +- 266 kV. This 51-mile system will be the first dc link in the world to be used as an integral part of a complex interconnected ac network.

  1. Political opposition in patriarchal East London

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, D

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the growing level of politicization in East London in the 1950s, and the way this affected the patriarchal normative system, which prevailed in urban administration. Patriarchalism, as a system, was susceptible of different interpretations by white municipal officials, and their response to black political opposition ranged from liberal forbearance to rigid and uncompromising intolerance. Black leaders’ attitudes to the patriarchal order were similarly nuan...

  2. Death, memory and collecting: creating the conditions for ancestralisation in South London households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parrott, F.; Byrne, S.; Clarke, A.; Harrison, R.; Torrence, R.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents case studies of the collections that played a part in peoples’ understanding and experience of death and bereavement, from an ethnographic study of households, loss and material culture in South London. The focus on death, memory and collecting serves to highlight the way

  3. Investing in Diversity in London Schools: Leadership Preparation for Black and Global Majority Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauri; Campbell-Stephens, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the historical roots, describes the philosophy and curriculum, and analyzes the approach to leadership in Investing in Diversity, a 1-year Black-led leadership development course in the London schools. An exploratory qualitative case study approach was used to collect historical and empirical data about the program over a…

  4. The Design of a Renewable Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure for London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parissis, O.; Bauen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The development of a least cost hydrogen infrastructure is key to the introduction of hydrogen fuel in road transport. This paper presents a generic framework for modelling the development of a renewable hydrogen infrastructure that can be applied to different cases and geographical regions. The model was designed by means of mixed integer linear programming and developed in MATLAB. It was applied to the case of London aiming to examine the possibilities of developing a renewable hydrogen infrastructure within a 50 years time horizon. The results presented here are preliminary results from a study looking at the least cost solutions to supplying hydrogen produced exclusively from renewable energy resources to large urban centres. (authors)

  5. London forces in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Poperenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite with terrace steps was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy with high spatial resolution. Spots with positive and negative charges were found in the vicinity of the steps. Values of the charges depended both on the microscope needle scan velocity and on its motion direction. The observed effect was theoretically explained with account of London forces that arise between the needle tip and the graphite surface. In this scheme, a terrace step works as a nanoscale diode for surface electric currents.

  6. London limit for lattice model of superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ktitorov, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenological approach to the strong-bond superconductor, which is based on the Ginzburg-Landau equation in the London limit, is considered. The effect of the crystalline lattice discreteness on the superconductors electromagnetic properties is studied. The classic problems on the critical current and magnetic field penetration are studied within the frames of the lattice model for thin superconducting films. The dependence of the superconducting current on the thin film order parameter is obtained. The critical current dependence on the degree of deviation from the continual approximation is calculated [ru

  7. London-type congestion tax with revenue-recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Yukihiro Kidokoro

    2005-01-01

    Road pricing in London attracts a great deal of interest. A challenging aspect of the London scheme is that congestion tax revenue is used to upgrade public transit networks. Although Parry and Bento (2001) show that the total social surplus would increase if congestion tax revenues are used to cut labor taxes, political difficulties exist in implementing revenue-recycling between congestion taxes and labor taxes. Given such political difficulties, the London scheme seems to be very attractiv...

  8. London SPAN version 4 parameter file format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    Powernext SA is a Multilateral Trading Facility in charge of managing the French power exchange through an optional and anonymous organised trading system. Powernext SA collaborates with the clearing organization LCH.Clearnet SA to secure and facilitate the transactions. The French Standard Portfolio Analysis of Risk (SPAN) is a system used by LCH.Clearnet to calculate the initial margins from and for its clearing members. SPAN is a computerized system which calculates the impact of several possible variations of rates and volatility on by-product portfolios. The initial margin call is equal to the maximum probable loss calculated by the system. This document contains details of the format of the London SPAN version 4 parameter file. This file contains all the parameters and risk arrays required to calculate SPAN margins. London SPAN Version 4 is an upgrade from Version 3, which is also known as LME SPAN. This document contains the full revised file specification, highlighting the changes from Version 3 to Version 4

  9. The Great London Smog of 1952.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Barbara J

    2018-04-01

    : The Great London Smog of December 1952 lasted five days and killed up to 12,000 people. The smog developed primarily because of extensive burning of high-sulfur coal. The health effects were both immediate and long lasting, with a recent study revealing an increased likelihood of childhood asthma development in those exposed to the Great Smog while in utero or during their first year of life. Subsequent pollution legislation-including the U.S. Clean Air Act and its amendments-have demonstrably reduced air pollution and positively impacted health outcomes. With poor air quality events like the Great Smog continuing to occur today, nurses need to be aware of the impact such environmental disasters can have on human health.

  10. Bronchitis: sickness absence in London Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwall, C J; Raffle, P A.B.

    1961-01-01

    Analysis of records of bronchitis morbidity of 4 days or more among 60,000 male London Transport employees for the years 1952 to 1956 is discussed. Bronchitis morbidity accounted for about 10% of the absences, similar to that for the country as a whole. Annual inception rate increased with age after age 45; average length of spell increased with age over the whole age range. Absence from bronchitis broadly correlated with foggy periods (Dec, 52; Jan, 56), more so with city workers. Higher rates exist in north sectors where pollution is higher (south wind), and there is more industry and a higher population density. Lower rates exist among country workers. 20 to 25% of bronchitis morbidity can be ascribed to air pollution when country and city workers are compared.

  11. Leading increasingly linguistically diverse London schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Mehmedbegović

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Engaging with bilingual parents, students and teachers with little awareness of the benefits of bilingualism has initiated a search for factors resulting in the low value attached to certain types of bilingualism. Working on the hypothesis that prevalent practice is influenced more by attitudes to bilingualism rather than relevant research and pedagogical theory, this research focuses on attitudes. This small-scale qualitative study conducted with a group of London headteachers provides an insight into the attitudes to bilingualism and how they impact on policy and practice in schools with significant proportions of multilingual learners. It also raises the question if schools which claim to support multilingual students in realising their full potential can achieve that without including home languages as an integral part of learning.

  12. Constructing and Contesting City of London Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Andrew; Wigan, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    Existing literature on the City of London has tended to focus on its ‘structural power’, while neglecting political and narrative agency. This paper acts as a corrective by presenting evidence to show that since the financial crash of 2008 the political terrain the City operates on has become more...... contested, crowded and noisier. The contribution develops a middle course between a positive assessment of the role of civil society in relation to global finance, and a more pessimistic reading. We demonstrate how macro-narratives and public story-telling both construct and contest City and financial...... sector power. In a new pattern since the financial crash, NGOs have moved from campaigns of limited duration and narrow focus, to a more sustained presence on macro-structural issues. Adopting a supply–demand framework for assessing governance and regulatory change, we look at the emergence of TheCity...

  13. Sorption of radionuclides on London clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bourke, P.J.; Green, A.; Littleboy, A.K.

    1989-02-01

    Techniques for studying the sorption of radionuclides on London clay have been investigated. This work involved the use of through-diffusion, in-diffusion, high-pressure convection and batch methods to study the sorption of iodide, strontium, caesium and americium. Through-diffusion and high-pressure convection methods were found to be most useful for investigating weakly and moderately sorbing nuclides and give realistic values for sorptivity. The batch technique remains the most practical method of obtaining large quantities of data within a relatively short timescale but gives very high sorptivity values. It is however very useful for intercomparisons of nuclides or geological media. The in-diffusion method requires further refinement for use with strongly sorbing nuclides. Good agreement between through-diffusion and high-pressure convection methods was obtained for the sorptivity of strontium, whilst trends observed for caesium by through-diffusion were confirmed by batch measurements. (author)

  14. Practicing Reflexivity in the Study of Italian Migrants in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seganti, Francesca Romana

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the centrality of reflexivity in qualitative research through examples from my study on the role new media play in the lives of Italians in London. My hypothesis was that Italians were "in transit" in London and they were using new media to build "temporary" communities. I conducted in-depth interviews…

  15. Art in wartime: The First Wounded, London Hospital, August 1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M P; Park, R H R

    2011-06-01

    John Lavery's The First Wounded, London Hospital, August 1914 records a memorable event in the First World War. This painting and the archives of the Royal London Hospital provide a fascinating insight into the nursing and medical care of these early war casualties.

  16. Changing the Subject: English in London, 1945-1967

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandell, John

    2014-01-01

    Two recent books, "English Teachers in a Postwar Democracy: Emerging Choice in London Schools, 1945-1965" and "The London Association for the Teaching of English, 1947-67: A History," explore an important period in the development of English as a school subject and in the remaking of the professional identity of English…

  17. Clostridium perfringens in London, July 2009: two weddings and an outbreak.

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, J.; Zenner, D.; Anderson, S. R.; Grant, K.; Kumar, D.

    2010-01-01

    : Food poisoning outbreaks caused by Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin occur occasionally in Europe but have become less common in recent years. This paper presents the microbiological and epidemiological results of a large C. perfringens outbreak occurring simultaneously at two weddings that used the same caterer. The outbreak involved several London locations and required coordination across multiple agencies. A case-control study (n=134) was carried out to analyse possible associations b...

  18. Teaching the History of Astronomy On Site in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    In the autumn of 2014, the author had the opportunity to teach a class on the history of astronomy in England as part of a study abroad experience for students at Illinois Wesleyan University. The philosophy of the program is to use the rich cultural environment of London as a setting for active learning. In the classroom, students read and discussed selected works by Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Herschel. We visited Stonehenge, the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the London Science Museum, the London Monument, and the library of the Royal Astronomical Society. Lessons learned from the experience will be shared.

  19. Comparison of safety equipment between London underground and Beijing subway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Zhang, S. Y.; Zhao, L. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Fu, X. C.; Bao, Z. M.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, R. J.; Hu, C.; Jing, L. S.; Wang, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to improve the safety equipment’s effectiveness through the comparison. Firstly, the history and safety accident of London Underground and Beijing Subway were shown. Secondly, fire equipment between these two cities was compared including station’s hardware installations and carriage’s hardware installations. Thirdly, the relative software installations were also compared such as emergency drills. The results showed that Beijing Subway’s hardware installations were better than London. However, London Underground’s some installations were more effective than Beijing. Both cities would pay more attention on anti-terrorist in tunnel.

  20. Collider – the LHC in London

    CERN Multimedia

    Emma Sanders

    2013-01-01

    In November the London Science Museum will open a major new exhibition about the LHC. The project marks an ambitious new approach for the museum who will work with an eclectic design team that includes a video artist and a playwright. Both Olivier Award winners, they are more renowned for their work on stage and screen than inside museums.   Image courtesy of Science Museum / Nissen Richards Studio. The Science Museum team came to Geneva expecting to be blown away by the extraordinary physics and engineering at CERN and they weren’t disappointed. But what impressed them most was the people who made it all happen. Physicists of all kinds, restaurant staff, engineers, administrators, those working in transport and logistics, all had in common a passion for CERN and an enthusiasm for communicating their work. “What really struck us was how every single person mentioned the spirit of international collaboration and the importance of curiosity,” Alison Boyle told the ...

  1. Tracker electronics testing at Imperial College London

    CERN Multimedia

    PPARC, UK

    2006-01-01

    Jonathon Fulcher and Rob Bainbridge testing a rack of CMS Tracker readout electronics at Imperial College London. The signals from the front end APV chips will be transmitted optically to racks of electronics ~100m away in an adjacent underground cavern where they are fed into ~20 crates where 500 CMS Front End Driver boards (FEDs) are located. The FED inputs are 8 fibre ribbons, each ribbon consisting of 12 fibres, each fibre carrying the serially multiplexed data originating from 2 APVs. To test the FEDs special tester boards have been designed to produce simulated APV data in optical form. In the picture the yellow cables are the fibres, which originate from the FED tester boards on the left hand side of the crate as 96 individual fibres, which are then combined into the 8 fibre ribbons feeding the FED board on the right hand side of the crate. Fig. 2 shows an APV25 test board mounted in the X-ray irradiation setup, Fig. 3 the X-ray machine where the chips are irradiated and Fig. 4 the MGPA (Multi-Gain Pre...

  2. Idealism to Realism- Representing London in Black British Writing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... self denigration, exploitation and discrimination meted on them by the British as well as their feeling of alienation, cultural dislocation and their struggle for self ... adaptation through which these immigrants will make the best out of London ...

  3. A Little Known Utraquist Gradual in the British Library London

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šárovcová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, Suppl. 1 (2014), s. 250-278 ISSN 0015-1831 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : illuminated manuscripts * British library * London Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  4. Price, exclusivity and luxury: Exploring London's luxury hotels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-11

    Jul 11, 2016 ... Price, exclusivity and luxury: Exploring London's luxury hotels. Andy Heyes ... strategy now looks to target middle-market consumers with reasonable ...... celebrities and high profiles from politics to corporate…whom are well ...

  5. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GLA Building/City Hall) ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2007) > ... The Greater London Authority building was acclaimed as being energy efficient, with claims of 75 % reduction in its annual energy consumption compared to a high specification ...

  6. How Do Visitors Relate to Biodiversity Conservation? An Analysis of London Zoo's "BUGS" Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmin-Pui, Lauriane Suyin; Perkins, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Using a case study of London Zoo's BUGS (Biodiversity Underpinning Global Survival) exhibit, this article assesses the role of experiential learning in raising biodiversity knowledge, concern and potential pro-conservation actions. Using Personal Meaning Mindmapping, a novel method in visitor research, the study examines how adult visitors relate…

  7. Outsourcing the State's Responsibilities? Third Sector Organizations Supporting Migrant Families' Participation in Schools in Catalonia and London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Alejandro; D'Angelo, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    Based on two case studies of Third Sector Organizations (TSOs) working with schools and parents in Catalonia and London, this paper aims to discuss some of the implications of "participative" programmes aimed at involving those migrant families seen by schools as "hard to reach". First, we describe how an ambiguous notion of…

  8. Amsterdam and London as financial centers in the eighteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Ann M. Carlos; Larry Neal

    2011-01-01

    In the seventeenth century, Amsterdam and London developed distinctive innovations in finance through both banks and markets that facilitated the growth of trade in each city. In the eighteenth century, a symbiotic relation developed that led to bank-oriented finance in Amsterdam cooperating with market-oriented finance in London. The relationship that emerged allowed each to rise to unprecedented dominance in Europe, while the respective financial innovations in each city provided the means ...

  9. Eating fuet in London: From Autoethnography to Transnational Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rubio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available My own experience as a young Spanish migrant in London drove me to consider the importance that Spanish food has for emigrants and to consider its role within the community. This article presents food as a metaphor of the youth migration process to London during the economic crisis, and is based on three elements: how they construct their identity, their transition to adulthood and their condition as transmigrants.

  10. Spectator Consumer Behaviors at the 2012 London Paralympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridvan Ekmekci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the Paralympics are the world’s second largest sporting event after the Olympics and continue to grow in popularity, there is little available research regarding spectators of sport competitions for disabled athletes. The purpose of this study was to profile spectators’ consumer behaviors in order to understand what factors explain spectators’ spending, length of stay, and attendance at the London Paralympic Games. Data was collected in a six-day period from a sample of 504 people present in London at three Paralympic sport facilities during the 2012 Paralympic Games. The results of the regression analyses revealed that nationality, attended contests, group size, having a connection with a Paralympic athlete, length of stay, gender and London Olympics’ spectators were significant determinants of Paralympics spectators’ spending in London. The data also indicated that spending, being from England (or not, gender, and being a friend/relative of a Paralympic athlete significantly affected spectators’ length of stay in London. Additionally, spectators’ attendance at the London Paralympic contests was predicted by spending, the size of the travel group, Beijing Paralympics’ spectators and age.

  11. A Probabilistic Analysis of Surface Water Flood Risk in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Katie; Hall, Jim; Glenis, Vassilis; Kilsby, Chris

    2017-10-30

    Flooding in urban areas during heavy rainfall, often characterized by short duration and high-intensity events, is known as "surface water flooding." Analyzing surface water flood risk is complex as it requires understanding of biophysical and human factors, such as the localized scale and nature of heavy precipitation events, characteristics of the urban area affected (including detailed topography and drainage networks), and the spatial distribution of economic and social vulnerability. Climate change is recognized as having the potential to enhance the intensity and frequency of heavy rainfall events. This study develops a methodology to link high spatial resolution probabilistic projections of hourly precipitation with detailed surface water flood depth maps and characterization of urban vulnerability to estimate surface water flood risk. It incorporates probabilistic information on the range of uncertainties in future precipitation in a changing climate. The method is applied to a case study of Greater London and highlights that both the frequency and spatial extent of surface water flood events are set to increase under future climate change. The expected annual damage from surface water flooding is estimated to be to be £171 million, £343 million, and £390 million/year under the baseline, 2030 high, and 2050 high climate change scenarios, respectively. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Greeks, British Greek Cypriots and Londoners: a comparison of morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavreas, V G; Bebbington, P E

    1988-05-01

    This paper reports the results of a comparison of the rates of psychiatric disorder from three general population surveys in which the PSE-ID-CATEGO system was used for case-definition. These surveys were of an English sample in Camberwell, London, and of two Greek samples, the first in Athens, the second of Greek Cypriot immigrants living in Camberwell. The results show that the rates of psychiatric disorders in both Greek samples were somewhat higher than those of the Camberwell population, the differences being accounted for by higher rates of anxiety disorders, especially in women. Comparisons in terms of syndrome profiles showed that Greeks reported more symptoms of generalized anxiety than their English counterparts who, in their turn, reported higher rates of obsessive symptoms, and symptoms of social anxiety. The higher rates in the Greek samples were possibly due to an increased frequency of non-specific neurotic symptoms like worrying and tension. The results of other European community surveys with the PSE suggest that there might be a genuine and general North-South difference in the expression of psychological distress. Cultural differences in terms of personality traits and culturally sanctioned child rearing practices might account for the findings.

  13. Dentists with enhanced skills (Special Interest) in Endodontics: gatekeepers views in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotane, Swapnil G; Al-Haboubi, Mustafa; Kendall, Nick; Robertson, Claire; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2015-09-21

    Dentists with a special interest hold enhanced skills enabling them to treat cases of intermediate complexity. The aim of this study was to explore primary dental care practitioners' views of dentists with a special interest (DwSIs) in Endodontics in London, with reference to an educational and service initiative established by (the former) London Deanery in conjunction with the NHS. A cross-sectional postal survey of primary care dentists working across different models of care within London was conducted, with a target to achieve views of at least 5 % of London's dentists. The questionnaire instrument was informed by qualitative research and the dental literature and piloted prior to distribution; data were analysed using SPSS v19 and STATA v12.0. Six per cent of London's primary care dentists (n = 243) responded to the survey; 53 % were male. Just over one third (37 %; n = 90) were aware of the DwSI service being provided. Most practitioners reported that having access to a DwSI in Endodontics would support the care of their patients (89 %; n = 215), would carry out more endodontic treatment in the NHS primary dental care if adequately reimbursed (93 %; n = 220), and had more time (76 %; n = 180). Female respondents appeared to be less confident in doing endodontic treatment (p = 0.001). More recently qualified respondents reported greater need for training/support for performing more endodontic treatment in the NHS primary dental care (p = 0.001), were more dissatisfied with access to endodontic service in the NHS primary dental care (p = 0.007) and more interested to train as a DwSI in endodontics (p = 0.001) compared with respondents having a greater number of years of clinical experience since qualification. The findings lend support to the concept of developing dentists with enhanced skills as well as ensuring additional funding, time and support to facilitate more routine endodontics through the NHS primary care to meet

  14. Life satisfaction and air quality in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, George; Mourato, Susana

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of research in economics concerns self-reported happiness, or life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to a wide range of other variables. The findings of this research tend to highlight the importance of non-income aspects of individuals' life conditions. These findings are strongly complementary to themes within the sustainable development discourse. Firstly, they suggest ways in which we might consume less without compromising on our current levels of LS. And secondly, they help demonstrate the immediate LS benefits that could be gained from higher levels of environmental quality (EQ). However, the empirical evidence for the link between EQ and LS is, to date, somewhat weak, due in part to a lack of EQ data at a level of detail to match the individual-by-individual resolution of LS measures. This small, exploratory study therefore seeks to assess how the use of EQ data at very high spatial resolution could advance the empirical literature examining connections between LS and EQ levels, focusing on air quality in particular. It collects original survey data for approximately 400 Londoners, and uses geographical information system (GIS) software to calculate pollutant concentrations in the immediate vicinity of their homes. It uses this data to estimate maximum likelihood regression models explaining LS ratings in terms of a range of individual, household and local variables. Both perceived and measured air pollution levels are significantly negatively associated with the LS of the survey respondents, even when controlling for a wide range of other effects. An increase of 10 μg/m 3 in annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration appears to correspond on average to a drop of nearly half a point of LS on an 11-point rating scale. These findings cannot yet be generalised with confidence. However, if they were confirmed by larger future studies, they would appear to strengthen and extend existing arguments in favour of policies to reduce urban air

  15. Life satisfaction and air quality in London

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKerron, George; Mourato, Susana [Department of Geography and Environment, and Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    A growing body of research in economics concerns self-reported happiness, or life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to a wide range of other variables. The findings of this research tend to highlight the importance of non-income aspects of individuals' life conditions. These findings are strongly complementary to themes within the sustainable development discourse. Firstly, they suggest ways in which we might consume less without compromising on our current levels of LS. And secondly, they help demonstrate the immediate LS benefits that could be gained from higher levels of environmental quality (EQ). However, the empirical evidence for the link between EQ and LS is, to date, somewhat weak, due in part to a lack of EQ data at a level of detail to match the individual-by-individual resolution of LS measures. This small, exploratory study therefore seeks to assess how the use of EQ data at very high spatial resolution could advance the empirical literature examining connections between LS and EQ levels, focusing on air quality in particular. It collects original survey data for approximately 400 Londoners, and uses geographical information system (GIS) software to calculate pollutant concentrations in the immediate vicinity of their homes. It uses this data to estimate maximum likelihood regression models explaining LS ratings in terms of a range of individual, household and local variables. Both perceived and measured air pollution levels are significantly negatively associated with the LS of the survey respondents, even when controlling for a wide range of other effects. An increase of 10 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration appears to correspond on average to a drop of nearly half a point of LS on an 11-point rating scale. These findings cannot yet be generalised with confidence. However, if they were confirmed by larger future studies, they would appear to strengthen and extend existing arguments in favour of policies to reduce

  16. Asthma length of stay in hospitals in London 2001-2006: demographic, diagnostic and temporal factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneous N Soyiri

    Full Text Available Asthma is a condition of significant public health concern associated with morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. This study identifies key determinants of length of stay (LOS associated with asthma-related hospital admissions in London, and further explores their effects on individuals. Subjects were primarily diagnosed and admitted for asthma in London between 1(st January 2001 and 31(st December 2006. All repeated admissions were treated uniquely as independent cases. Negative binomial regression was used to model the effect(s of demographic, temporal and diagnostic factors on the LOS, taking into account the cluster effect of each patient's hospital attendance in London. The median and mean asthma LOS over the period of study were 2 and 3 days respectively. Admissions increased over the years from 8,308 (2001 to 10,554 (2006, but LOS consistently declined within the same period. Younger individuals were more likely to be admitted than the elderly, but the latter significantly had higher LOS (p<0.001. Respiratory related secondary diagnoses, age, and gender of the patient as well as day of the week and year of admission were important predictors of LOS. Asthma LOS can be predicted by socio-demographic factors, temporal and clinical factors using count models on hospital admission data. The procedure can be a useful tool for planning and resource allocation in health service provision.

  17. Asthma length of stay in hospitals in London 2001-2006: demographic, diagnostic and temporal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D; Sarran, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a condition of significant public health concern associated with morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. This study identifies key determinants of length of stay (LOS) associated with asthma-related hospital admissions in London, and further explores their effects on individuals. Subjects were primarily diagnosed and admitted for asthma in London between 1(st) January 2001 and 31(st) December 2006. All repeated admissions were treated uniquely as independent cases. Negative binomial regression was used to model the effect(s) of demographic, temporal and diagnostic factors on the LOS, taking into account the cluster effect of each patient's hospital attendance in London. The median and mean asthma LOS over the period of study were 2 and 3 days respectively. Admissions increased over the years from 8,308 (2001) to 10,554 (2006), but LOS consistently declined within the same period. Younger individuals were more likely to be admitted than the elderly, but the latter significantly had higher LOS (p<0.001). Respiratory related secondary diagnoses, age, and gender of the patient as well as day of the week and year of admission were important predictors of LOS. Asthma LOS can be predicted by socio-demographic factors, temporal and clinical factors using count models on hospital admission data. The procedure can be a useful tool for planning and resource allocation in health service provision.

  18. Dedicated outreach service for hard to reach patients with tuberculosis in London: observational study and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Stagg, Helen R; Aldridge, Robert W; White, Peter J; Abubakar, Ibrahim

    2011-09-14

    To assess the cost effectiveness of the Find and Treat service for diagnosing and managing hard to reach individuals with active tuberculosis. Economic evaluation using a discrete, multiple age cohort, compartmental model of treated and untreated cases of active tuberculosis. London, United Kingdom. Population Hard to reach individuals with active pulmonary tuberculosis screened or managed by the Find and Treat service (48 mobile screening unit cases, 188 cases referred for case management support, and 180 cases referred for loss to follow-up), and 252 passively presenting controls from London's enhanced tuberculosis surveillance system. Incremental costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and cost effectiveness ratios for the Find and Treat service. The model estimated that, on average, the Find and Treat service identifies 16 and manages 123 active cases of tuberculosis each year in hard to reach groups in London. The service has a net cost of £1.4 million/year and, under conservative assumptions, gains 220 QALYs. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio was £6400-£10,000/QALY gained (about €7300-€11,000 or $10,000-$16 000 in September 2011). The two Find and Treat components were also cost effective, even in unfavourable scenarios (mobile screening unit (for undiagnosed cases), £18,000-£26,000/QALY gained; case management support team, £4100-£6800/QALY gained). Both the screening and case management components of the Find and Treat service are likely to be cost effective in London. The cost effectiveness of the mobile screening unit in particular could be even greater than estimated, in view of the secondary effects of infection transmission and development of antibiotic resistance.

  19. Non-London electrodynamics in a multiband London model: Anisotropy-induced nonlocalities and multiple magnetic field penetration lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaev, Mihail; Winyard, Thomas; Babaev, Egor

    2018-05-01

    The London model describes strongly type-2 superconductors as massive vector field theories, where the magnetic field decays exponentially at the length scale of the London penetration length. This also holds for isotropic multiband extensions, where the presence of multiple bands merely renormalizes the London penetration length. We show that, by contrast, the magnetic properties of anisotropic multiband London models are not this simple, and the anisotropy leads to the interband phase differences becoming coupled to the magnetic field. This results in the magnetic field in such systems having N +1 penetration lengths, where N is the number of field components or bands. That is, in a given direction, the magnetic field decay is described by N +1 modes with different amplitudes and different decay length scales. For certain anisotropies we obtain magnetic modes with complex masses. That means that magnetic field decay is not described by a monotonic exponential increment set by a real penetration length but instead is oscillating. Some of the penetration lengths are shown to diverge away from the superconducting phase transition when the mass of the phase-difference mode vanishes. Finally the anisotropy-driven hybridization of the London mode with the Leggett modes can provide an effectively nonlocal magnetic response in the nominally local London model. Focusing on the two-component model, we discuss the magnetic field inversion that results from the effective nonlocality, both near the surface of the superconductor and around vortices. In the regime where the magnetic field decay becomes nonmonotonic, the multiband London superconductor is shown to form weakly-bound states of vortices.

  20. Lichen flora of London: effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laundon, J R

    1967-01-01

    There is good, but not conclusive, evidence that sulfur dioxide is the pollutant which deleteriously affects lichens. The distribution of many lichens in London corresponds closely with the concentrations of sulfur dioxide. Low humidity is also a factor. Apart from actually killing lichens, increasing air pollution can render certain species incapable of colonizing new surfaces, although the old thalli themselves are able to survive as relicts. Until the early nineteenth century air pollution affected the lichen flora only in the small built-up area of London. The halting of building around London since 1938 has brought stability to the lichen vegetation of the area, and since then changes have been minor ones. Recent changes in pollution emissions have had little effect on the lichen flora between 1950 and 1967. This is to be expected as sulfur dioxide concentrations have remained fairly constant at ground level.

  1. Cosmopolitanism, geographical imaginaries and belonging in North London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadason, Ranji

    2010-01-01

    Cosmopolitanism has been described as the cultural habitus of globalisation. It is therefore, albeit defined somewhat loosely, often associated with ethnically diverse, global cities. This paper considers the extent to which London engenders cosmopolitan values amongst its residents. It draws on survey data from the LOCAL MULTIDEM study of minorities' political participation to address these themes. The analysis examines perceptions of respect, belonging and geographical imaginaries - amongst established minorities and the ethnic majority - in north London. It is argued that cosmopolitan ethics are transformative and dialectical and, critically, cannot remain the preserve of the privileged in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods. The analysis presented demonstrates that a sense of belonging and cosmopolitan imaginaries are not evenly accessed by different ethnic groups; notably, that Bangladeshi Londoners who are born and bred in the city are less likely to appropriate these discourses than Caribbean, Indian or White residents.

  2. Clean Air for London (CLEARFLO) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsnop, D. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Williams, L. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Herndon, S. C. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dubey, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ng, N. L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Thornton, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Knighton, B. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Coulter, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Prévôt, Ash [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-03-01

    This field campaign funded the participation of scientists from seven different research groups and operated over thirty instruments during the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. The campaign took place at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 kilometers southeast of central London. The primary science questions for the ClearfLo winter IOP (intensive operational periods) were: 1) “what is the urban increment of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants in the greater London area?” and 2) “what is the contribution of solid fuel use for home heating to wintertime PM?” An additional motivation for the Detling measurements was the question of whether coatings on black carbon particles enhance absorption.

  3. Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Christine

    Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London: Action towards an image of greatness contributes to the growing field of research on social entrepreneurship. The thesis is the result of an interesting, anthropological study of a social voluntary organisation, City Year London, a British affiliate...... of an American charity. Young volunteers were followed in their daily activities working as mentors for public primary school children, and the interaction between staff and volunteers in City Year London were observed. Also, interviews with both volunteers and staff were carried out. The thesis explores...... the empirical findings applying an understanding of learning as social exchange of value. The rich empirical data has led to analyses that draw on and contribute to economic anthropology, learning theories and social entrepreneurship....

  4. Connected or informed?: Local Twitter networking in a London neighbourhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bingham-Hall

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper asks whether geographically localised, or ‘hyperlocal’, uses of Twitter succeed in creating peer-to-peer neighbourhood networks or simply act as broadcast media at a reduced scale. Literature drawn from the smart cities discourse and from a UK research project into hyperlocal media, respectively, take on these two opposing interpretations. Evidence gathered in the case study presented here is consistent with the latter, and on this basis we criticise the notion that hyperlocal social media can be seen as a community in itself. We demonstrate this by creating a network map of Twitter followers of a popular hyperlocal blog in Brockley, southeast London. We describe various attributes of this network including its average degree and clustering coefficient to suggest that a small and highly connected cluster of visible local entities such as businesses form a clique at the centre of this network, with individual residents following these but not one another. We then plot the locations of these entities and demonstrate that sub-communities in the network are formed due to close geographical proximity between smaller sets of businesses. These observations are illustrated with qualitative evidence from interviews with users who suggest instead that rather than being connected to one another they benefit from what has been described as ‘neighbourhood storytelling’. Despite the limitations of working with Twitter data, we propose that this multi-modal approach offers a valuable way to investigate the experience of using social media as a communication tool in urban neighbourhoods.

  5. On the dynamic London-van der Waals interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, A.

    2003-08-01

    We present a theory of atomic reflection by evanescent waves in the quantized electromagnetic field vacuum that yields an analytical expression for the radiation pressure resulting from the combined effect of the evanescent field and spontaneous emission. The dynamic London-van der Waals potential between atoms and a dielectric wall is introduced as the effective interaction between the induced oscillating atomic dipole and its dipole image. Dissipative effects due to the imaginary part of the London-van der Waals potential are predicted. (author)

  6. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  7. Length of migration and eating habits of Portuguese university students living in London, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Sofia; Santos, Susana; Padrão, Patrícia; Caraher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have pointed adverse effects of long term migration on eating habits. Research is needed to understand if this effect occurs also with a short length of migration, as is the case of international students. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of short and long term migration on eating habits of Portuguese university students. Participants were 46 English and 55 Portuguese students from universities in London, United Kingdom. The findings from this study highlight the difficulties that Portuguese students faced in maintaining a traditional Mediterranean diet after moving to a Northern European environment.

  8. Martha Whiteley of Imperial College, London: A Pioneering Woman Chemist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Rafaelle M.; Nicholson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Martha Whiteley (1866-1956) was one of the most important women chemists in the United Kingdom in the first half of the 20th century. In a male-dominated field, she was an academic on the staff of a co-educational university, Imperial College, London, where she carried out research of her own choosing, rather than assisting a male professor. She…

  9. The social impact of dizziness in London and Siena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Adolfo M; Golding, John F; Gresty, Michael A; Mandalà, Marco; Nuti, Daniele; Shetye, Anu; Silove, Yvonne

    2010-02-01

    Although dizziness is a common presenting symptom in general and hospital practice, its social cost is not known. We assessed the social and work life impact of dizziness on patients in two contrasting European cities, Siena and London. First, we developed the 'Social life & Work Impact of Dizziness questionnaire' (SWID), which was validated by administering it to 43 patients with dizziness and 45 normal controls and by correlating the results with the EQ-5D (Europe quality of life) questionnaire. The SWID and EQ-5D scores were worse in patients than controls (p work as a result of the dizziness. Over 50% of patients felt that their efficiency at work had dropped considerably. The mean number of days off work attributed to the dizziness in the previous 6 months was 7.15 days. Social life was disrupted in 57% of all 400 patients. Factor analysis identified that detrimental effects on work, travel, social and family life combine to create a single factor accounting for much of the overall impact of their dizziness. Significant differences in some measures of handicap between London and Siena emerged, with London patients often faring worse. Reasons for these location differences include, as expected, a higher proportion of neurological patients in London than in Siena. However, factors related to city demographics and social cohesion may also modulate the impact on quality of life and working practice. Regardless of inter-city differences, these findings highlight the high social and economic impact of dizziness.

  10. A Community Approach to Youth Work in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Derek M.

    Instituted as part of "Avenues Unlimited" (The Tower Hamlets Youth Project), a community development approach to youth services was attempted in the cosmopolitan inner city slum district of Spitalfields, East London. Efforts began in 1966 with a clean up campaign, a neighborhood club for parents and youth, and other activities by the…

  11. Connecting Londoners with Their City through Digital Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Frazer

    2013-01-01

    London is one of the most complex, dynamic and diverse cities in the world, with 8 million residents, over 300 languages spoken in its schools, and some 30 million overseas visitors every year. Reaching out to and connecting all these people with the city's heritage while catering to their many interests, motivations and learning needs is a huge…

  12. Wealth, health and frailty in industrial-era London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N; Hughes-Morey, Gail; Bekvalac, Jelena; Karsten, Jordan

    2016-05-01

    Socioeconomic status is a powerful predictor of mortality in living populations, as status affects exposure or access to a variety of factors that impact health and survival, such as diet, healthcare, infectious disease and pollution. This study examines the effect of socioeconomic status on mortality and survival in London during a period spanning the early 18th through mid-19th centuries. During this period, London experienced rapid industrialization and heightened class distinctions. This study examines whether low-socioeconomic status was associated with reduced survival at a time when the distinctions between social strata were peaking. The samples for this study are drawn from three skeletal assemblages in London that represent lower and higher social strata. The upper socioeconomic status sample (n = 394) is from Chelsea Old Church and St Bride's Fleet Street (crypt assemblage). The low socioeconomic status sample (n = 474) is from St. Bride's Lower Churchyard (also known as St Bride's Farringdon Street). The effect of status on mortality and survival is assessed using hazard analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis. The results reveal elevated mortality and reduced survival for lower socioeconomic status children, but no strong effect of status on adult mortality or survival. These results might indicate strong selective mortality operating during childhood or the effects of migration in the industrial-era population of London.

  13. Iain Sinclair: Noise, Neoliberalism and the Matter of London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, N.

    2015-01-01

    For much of the 20th century the modernist city was articulated in terms of narratives of progress and development. Today the neoliberal city confronts us with all the cultural 'noise' of disorder and excess meaning. As this book demonstrates, for more than 40 years London-based writer, film-maker

  14. JACK LONDON ETNÓLOGO AMATEUR DEL PUGILISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Wacquant

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available De los relatos que Jack London ha consagrado al boxeo, A Piece of Steak es sin dudas aquel que merece hoy nuestra mayor atención, e incluso un lugar en el panteón de los textos literarios sobre el Noble Arte, y junto a él otros tres títulos...

  15. London tõukas New Yorgi troonilt / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Maailma finantskeskuste indeksi järgi on London tõuganud New Yorgi teisele kohale, neile järgnevad Hongkong, Singapur ja Zürich. Vt. samas: IPOd on USAs kokku kuivanud. Tabel: Londoni börsile tuli mullu rohkem firmasid

  16. 'ah famous citie' : women, writing, and early modern London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilcox - Boulton, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This article explores aspects of the textual relationship between women and early modern London by examining three verbal 'snapshots' of the city in works either written by women or focusing on women in their urban environment. The first text, Isabella Whitney's 'Wyll and Testament' (1573),

  17. Skin Colour Awareness and Preference in London Nursery School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laishley, Jenny

    1971-01-01

    Study focuses on children aged 3 to 5 years from 3 London areas. Contrary to expectation, awareness of differences in skin color was not a simple function of age and contact with colored children and adults; no clear evidence of prejudiced thinking was found in the subjects studied. (RJ)

  18. Accelerated Innovation Deployment (AID) Demonstration : KYTC—Roundabout Installation Project in London, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    This document serves as the final report on the construction and opening of the Roundabout Project in London, Kentucky (Kentucky Item Number 11904.1). This project (hereafter referred to as the London Roundabout) was constructed on the authority o...

  19. Royal london hospital set P28 plans 30th anniversary reunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, Fran

    2013-04-03

    Members of Set P28 at the Royal London Hospital who began their training in February 1980 are planning a reunion on July 27 in London. The venue will be announced later. Email fran-joy@hotmail.com for details.

  20. The district nursing and community matron services workforce: A scoping review in South London for the South London Nursing Network

    OpenAIRE

    Drennan, Vari

    2014-01-01

    This report presents both an overview of the issues influencing district nursing and community matron \\ud workforces and also a scoping of key issues in respect of workforce development in district nursing and\\ud community matron services in South London

  1. Dark London: Dimensions and characteristics of dark tourism supply in the UK capital

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Raymond; Iankova, Katia

    2016-01-01

    This paper will investigate the characteristics of the supply of dark tourism in London, UK through an examination of the identified main dark sites in London, UK. Our methodology is based on web analysis of the presence of marketed and non-marketed dark tourist sites in London, their web visitation, the level of their commercialisation and the characteristics which place them in the various scales as categorised in current literature, notably Stone (2006). We identified that London offers a ...

  2. The Royal Entries of Henry VI in a London Civic Manuscript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourassa, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    London Metropolitan Archives, MS Letter Book K, contains descriptions of Henry VI’s royal entries into both Paris (1431) and London (1432). Their placement one after the other in a London Letter Book was likely the work of the city’s common clerk, John Carpenter, who was the author of the descrip...

  3. A new surveillance system for undiagnosed serious infectious illness for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsbroek, E; Said, B; Kirkbride, H

    2012-08-02

    A new surveillance system was developed to detect possible new or emerging infections presenting as undiagnosed serious infectious illness (USII) for use during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Designated clinicians in sentinel adult and paediatric intensive care units (ICU/ PICUs) reported USII using an online reporting tool or provided a weekly nil notification. Reported cases were investigated for epidemiological links. A pilot study was undertaken for six months between January and July 2011 to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the system. In this six-month period, 5 adults and 13 children were reported by six participating units (3 ICUs, 3 PICUs). Of these 18 patients, 12 were reported within four days after admission to an ICU/PICU. Nine patients were subsequently diagnosed and were thus excluded from the surveillance. Therefore, only nine cases of USII were reported. No clustering was identified.On the basis of the pilot study, we conclude that the system is able to detect cases of USII and is feasible and acceptable to users. USII surveillance has been extended to a total of 19 sentinel units in London and the south-east of England during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  4. "Mothering through Islam": Narratives of Religious Identity in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ryan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws upon research with mothers of diverse Muslim backgroundsin London to explore how these women use ‘conservative’ interpretations ofIslamic beliefs and practices to underpin their parenting strategies. In particularthe paper looks at how mothers use religion as a frame to make sense of andgive meaning to their experiences and encounters in Britain. We suggest thatthe women use Islam in four key ways: (i as a framework for teaching theirchildren right and wrong, (ii as a means of protecting children from the ‘moral’dangers of British society, (iii as an authoritative voice that reinforces parentingand (iv as a means of critiquing specific aspects of both the traditional andBritish culture in which they live and daily negotiate their different cultural andreligious belonging. In attempting to instil religious values in their London-basedchildren, these mothers have to negotiate the hostility that Islam increasinglyprovokes in British society’s public arenas.

  5. Origins and properties of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jeremy W; Bothamley, Graham H; Drobniewski, Francis; Gillespie, Stephen H; McHugh, Timothy D; Pitman, Richard

    2005-06-01

    Using similarities of IS6110 banding patterns, isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a population-based study in London were assigned to 12 large groups termed 'superfamilies' (sfams). Analysis of patient data showed a marked geographical association in the distribution of these sfams. In particular, isolates from patients born in Europe were from different sfams than those born elsewhere, indicating that there had been relatively little transmission of tuberculosis in London from immigrant communities into the endogenous population. Multivariate analysis showed that certain sfams were significantly associated with pulmonary rather than extrapulmonary disease, or with sputum smear negativity, independently of country of birth or ethnicity, suggesting that the properties of the infecting organism play a role in the nature of the disease process.

  6. Can social support protect bullied adolescents from adverse outcomes? A prospective study on the effects of bullying on the educational achievement and mental health of adolescents at secondary schools in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothon, Catherine; Head, Jenny; Klineberg, Emily; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which social support can have a buffering effect against the potentially adverse consequences of bullying on school achievement and mental health. It uses a representative multiethnic sample of adolescents attending East London secondary schools in three boroughs. Bullied adolescents were less likely to achieve the appropriate academic achievement benchmark for their age group and bullied boys (but not girls) were more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms compared to those not bullied. High levels of social support from family were important in promoting good mental health. There was evidence that high levels of support from friends and moderate (but not high) family support was able to protect bullied adolescents from poor academic achievement. Support from friends and family was not sufficient to protect adolescents against mental health difficulties that they might face as a result of being bullied. More active intervention from schools is recommended. Copyright © 2010 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A London shop window for PPARC industry partnership successes

    CERN Multimedia

    Neale, R

    2002-01-01

    The UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council recently held a seminar in London to reveal the results of the impressive work they are doing in fostering partnerships between science and industry. They have many different types of funded programmes, the purpose of all of them is to encourage industry and entrepreneurs to both benefit from and service the requirements of particle physics science and technology (1 page).

  8. The Institute of Epileptology of King's College, University of London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, E H

    1995-01-01

    The Institute of Epileptology of King's College, London has arisen from need and from opportunity. The need is due to the relative neglect nationally and internationally of the most common serious brain disorder with important physical, psychological, and social complications. The relative neglect is reflected in services, research, charitable donations, public profile, and stigma and in a serious lack of professional education. The opportunity arose because of the existence in several medical institutions at Denmark Hill, London, of a group of medical and related colleagues with a special interest covering almost every aspect of this multidisciplinary disorder who agreed to combine their expertise in this initiative. The idea was born and developed in 1991-1992 and was supported by all the parent institutions: The Maudsley and King's College Hospitals, St. Piers Lingfield, The Institute of Psychiatry, King's College School of Medicine and Dentistry, and the School of Life, Basic Medical and Health Sciences, all under the umbrella of King's College, University of London. Further stimulus and help came from a group of dedicated supporters in private and public life. There are three strands to this initiative: (a) a charity, The Fund for Epilepsy; (b) the clinical Centre for Epilepsy, which was formally opened at the Maudsley Hospital in July 1994; and (c) the academic Institute of Epileptology for research and teaching, which was launched on November 15, 1994.

  9. Enhancing Resilience of London by Learning from Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Atun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience was introduced at the beginning of the 70s to indicate the capability of natural systems to absorb perturbations, preserving their structure and keeping the system functioning. The paper considers London as an example to a resilient city by focusing on some remarkable disasters in the history of London, such as the Great Fire of 1666, the air raids during the World War 2, 18 December 1987 Kings Cross Fire, terrorist attack to tube network on the 7th of July 2005, 1928 flooding and 1953 storm surge. The paper starts by giving short descriptions of these disasters and continues by discussing the lessons learned. In this paper, the concept of resilience has been studied in three phases: prepare for, respond to and recover from a disaster. Besides, actions that have to be taken according to these three phases are going to be explored in detail. In conclusion, the notable effects of the mentioned disasters on the structural and non-structural tools for disaster prevention have been revealed by considering resilience of London.

  10. Cohort profile: Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London: the ENABLE London-Olympic Park cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Bina; Nightingale, Claire M; Hudda, Mohammed T; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Ellaway, Anne; Cooper, Ashley R; Page, Angie; Lewis, Daniel; Cummins, Steven; Giles-Corti, Billie; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G

    2016-10-28

    The Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London (ENABLE London) project is a natural experiment which aims to establish whether physical activity and other health behaviours show sustained changes among individuals and families relocating to East Village (formerly the London 2012 Olympics Athletes' Village), when compared with a control population living outside East Village throughout. Between January 2013 and December 2015, 1497 individuals from 1006 households were recruited and assessed (at baseline) (including 392 households seeking social housing, 421 seeking intermediate and 193 seeking market rent homes). The 2-year follow-up rate is 62% of households to date, of which 57% have moved to East Village. Assessments of physical activity (measured objectively using accelerometers) combined with Global Positioning System technology and Geographic Information System mapping of the local area are being used to characterise physical activity patterns and location among study participants and assess the attributes of the environments to which they are exposed. Assessments of body composition, based on weight, height and bioelectrical impedance, have been made and detailed participant questionnaires provide information on socioeconomic position, general health/health status, well-being, anxiety, depression, attitudes to leisure time activities and other personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity, including the use of recreational space and facilities in their residential neighbourhood. The main analyses will examine the changes in physical activity, health and well-being observed in the East Village group compared with controls and the influence of specific elements of the built environment on observed changes. The ENABLE London project exploits a unique opportunity to evaluate a 'natural experiment', provided by the building and rapid occupation of East Village. Findings from the study will be generalisable to

  11. Using educational outreach and a financial incentive to increase general practices’ contribution to chlamydia screening in South-East London 2003–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalwij Sebastian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The London Boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark have high levels of sexually transmitted infections including Chlamydia trachomatis. Modelling studies suggest that reductions in the prevalence of chlamydia infection will require a high level of population screening coverage and positivity among those screened. General practice has a potentially important role to play in delivering these levels of coverage since large numbers (up to 60% of young people visit their general practice every year but previous work suggests that there are barriers to delivering screening in this setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate an intervention to increase chlamydia screening in general practice within Primary Care Trusts (PCTs of Lambeth and Southwark, a strategy combining financial incentives and supportive practice visits to raise awareness and solve problems. Methods Data on age, gender, venue and chlamydia result for tests on under 25 s in Lambeth from 2003–11 was obtained from the National Chlamydia Screening Programme. We analysed the number and percentage of tests generated in general practice, and looked at the number of practices screening more than 10% of their practice cohort of 15–24 year olds, male/female ratio and positivity rates across other screening venues. We also looked at practices screening less than 10% and studied change over time. We compared data from Lambeth and Southwark with London and England. We also studied features of the level and type of educational and financial incentive interventions employed. Results Chlamydia tests performed in general practice increased from 23 tests in 2003–4 to 4813 tests in 2010–11 in Lambeth. In Southwark they increased from 5 tests in 2003/04 to 4321 in 2010/11. In 2011, 44.6% of tests came from GPs in Lambeth and 46% from GP’s in Southwark. In Lambeth 62.7% of practices tested more than 10% of their cohort and in Southwark this was 55.8%. In Lambeth, postivity

  12. Some Remarks on the Decline of Rylands v Fletcher and the Disparity of European Strict Liability Regimes (House of Lords 19 November 2003, [2004] 1 All ER 589 [Transco plc (formerly BG plc and BG Transco plc) v Stockport Metropolitan Borough Council])

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn the summer of 1992, a leak developed in an underground water pipe belonging to the Stockport Borough Council. As a result, a considerable part of the embankment suddenly gave way and slid downwards, leaving a 27 meter long section of a gas main exposed and unsupported. Gas company

  13. Radiation poisoning with Po-210 in London: The medical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The death of Alexander Litvinenko on 23 November 2006 has elevated the prospect of a deliberate radiation poisoning from a theoretical possibility to a reality. This was an unprecedented event in the UK. Poison that was certainly not the work of an amateur assassin was found, and it is possible that there have been previous killings of this nature outside the UK. Po-210 is a highly toxic radioactive heavy metal with a half-life of 138 days that decays, giving off 5.3MeV alpha particles having a range of 40-50mm in tissue. The poison was probably administered in a small volume of liquid or as a solid powder added to food or drink. Dispersal of the material resulted in widespread contamination that was detected across London and on British Airways' flights to the east. Following the event, the main task of the UK Health Protection Agency was of contamination monitoring and reassurance of the general public. With many researchers now investigating the use of targeted alpha therapy, this incident has highlighted the possible effects from the uptake of alpha emitters into the sensitive normal tissues. On reaching the bloodstream, Po- 210 is rapidly deposited in major organs and tissues including the liver, kidneys and bone marrow. The intense alpha radiation within these tissues would result in massive destruction of cells, leading to a rapid decline in health. It has been concluded that ingestion of 1-3 GBq or greater of Po-210 is likely to result in death within a few weeks, assuming there is 10% absorption to blood. Anyone receiving such doses would show symptoms of acute radiation sickness syndrome, with death resulting from multiple organ failure. Remedial medical treatment strategies would be unsuccessful within a few hours of ingestion, once significant amounts of Po-210 had entered the blood stream and deposited in tissues. The surreptitious nature of this act almost escaped detection. The fact that the nature of the poison was not known until the

  14. Management of response to the polonium-210 incident in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, John; Bailey, Michael; Tattersall, Phil; Morrey, Mary; McColl, Neil; Prosser, Lesley; Maguire, Helen; Fraser, Graham; Gross, Roger

    2008-01-01

    On the 23 November 2006, Alexander Litvinenko died in London allegedly from poisoning by 210 Po, an alpha particle emitter. The spread of radioactive contamination, arising from the poisoning and the events leading up to it, involved many locations in London. The potential for intakes of 210 Po arising from the contamination posed a public health risk and generated significant public concern. The scale of the event required a multi-agency response, including top level UK Government emergency response management arrangements. The Health Protection Agency (HPA) had a leading role in co-ordinating and managing the public health response. This paper reviews the management of the incident response and the issues involved. The fatal poisoning of Mr Litvinenko with 210 Po, and the associated public health hazard from the spread of contamination to many locations across London, was an unprecedented event. Fortunately, no one else is known to have suffered any acute effects. Results from the programme of individual monitoring showed that whilst more than 100 people had measurable intakes of 210 Po, only 17 had assessed doses in excess of 6 mSv. The highest dose of about 100 mSv gives rise to an increased risk of fatal cancer of about 0.5%, compared with the natural incidence of about 25%. The incident required a co-ordinated and sustained multi-agency emergency response. The Health Protection Agency, as the lead on public health matters played a significant role in this. Whilst inevitably some lessons have been identified, the response is considered to have been very effective and to have benefited from the wide spectrum of experience and expertise developed through normal work, together with the effort put into emergency preparedness and the various emergency response. (author)

  15. Lessons for climate policy from The Great Stink of London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuce, A.

    2012-12-01

    A rapidly growing population and the introduction of the flush toilet in nineteenth-century London caused a crisis with sewage pollution in the River Thames (Halliday, 1999). There were decades of delays in implementing solutions owing to: inadequate governance institutions; political inertia; difficulties with financing; opposition from vested interests; scientific uncertainties; and technological challenges. Effective counter-measures were started only once the problem arose, quite literally, under the noses of parliamentarians. There are parallels, some of them pointed out earlier by Alley et al (2010), between the sewage crisis in Victorian London and the current problem with climate change. Both involve the unsustainable use of a common resource (a river, the atmosphere) for the unconstrained disposal of human waste products. Alley (2011) estimated that the costs of providing clean water and sanitation are comparable to the expected costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the similarities, the climate change issue is actually much more difficult because of: a) the unequal and uncertain global distribution of cause and effect; b) its long, intergenerational time lines; c) the insufficiency of adequate institutions, conventions or the tools— political, moral or economic—for tackling the climate crisis. This analysis is consistent with the model proposed by Gardiner (2011) in his book A Perfect Moral Storm. The three "storms" he identifies, the global, intergenerational and theoretical storms, combine in a powerful synergy to create a challenge of unprecedented intractability, providing opportunities for what Gardiner calls moral corruption: the obscuring of the buck-passing and procrastination that characterizes climate policy today. In Victorian London, the crucial steps to solve the sewage crises were not taken until the stench from the River Thames during the hot summer of 1858 rendered the House of Commons uninhabitable. A greater stink of a

  16. Conference Scene: Summary report from EAACI: London 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiehm, Matthias; Bufe, Albrecht

    2010-09-01

    Immunotherapy is, to date, the only effective curative method for the treatment of allergic disorders. Great efforts have been made to improve the efficacy, safety and patient compliance with this method. The growing understanding of the immunological mechanisms underlying immunotherapy has led to new approaches for immunotherapy involving the routes of administration and the kinds of molecules used. In addition, new vaccines are being created that combine the advantageous immunological charasteristics of different substances, such as virus-like particles linked to allergens. Many new results from ongoing research into these topics were presented at the 29th congress of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in London.

  17. Mothering through Islam: narratives of religious identity in London

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Louise; Vacchelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws upon research with mothers of diverse Muslim backgrounds in London to explore how these women use ‘conservative’ interpretations of Islamic beliefs and practices to underpin their parenting strategies. In particular the paper looks at how mothers use religion as a frame to make sense of and give meaning to their experiences and encounters in Britain. We suggest that the women use Islam in four key ways: (i) as a framework for teaching their children right and wrong, (ii) as a...

  18. Testing Efficiency of the London Metal Exchange: New Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehwan Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the market efficiency of the six base metals traded on the LME (London Metal Exchange using daily data from January 2000 to June 2016. The hypothesis that futures prices 3M (3-month are unbiased predictors of spot prices (cash in the LME is rejected based on the false premise that the financialization of commodities has been growing. For the robustness check, monthly data is analyzed using ordinary least squares (OLS and GARCH (1,1 models. We reject the null hypothesis for all metals except for zinc.

  19. Regeneralized London free energy for high-Tc vortex lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shahzamanian

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   The London free-energy is regeneralized by the Ginsburg-Landau free-energy density in the presence of both d and s order parameters. We have shown that the strength of the s-d coupling, makes an important rule to determine the form of the lattice vortex. Appearance of the ratios of the coherence length to penetration depth in the higher order corrections of the free-energy density will truncate these corrections for even large values of .

  20. Contrasting VOC Composition in London, UK and Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmore, R.; Hopkins, J. R.; Shaw, M.; Squires, F. A.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Hamilton, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    With an increasing fraction of the world's population now living in megacities, urban air quality in those locations has the potential to be one of the largest controllable factors for public health. Both London and Beijing are classified as megacities, with the latter almost twice as densely populated. The key drivers and trajectory of air pollution are unique to each location; London has substantially reduced PM10 concentrations over the past two decades but continues to have high urban NO2. Beijing has had well-reported high levels of PM, is now in a phase of gradual decline, and has proportionately low NO2. Both locations however, continue to emit a mix of gas phase pollutants with the potential to form photochemical ozone. Whilst the abundance of NOx in each city is relatively straightforward to quantify, the VOC mixtures that are present differ between these two cities and this has consequential impacts on the downwind ozone formation potential. This work reports a comprehensive assessment of VOC speciation, reactivity and abundance in the two cities using a common set of inter-comparable measurement approaches. Hourly observations of VOCs over the range C2 - C13+ were made using two gas chromatography (GC) instruments; a PLOT column based GC for the most volatile fraction (C2-C7) and a comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GCxGC) for VOCs with more than 7 carbons. London has atmospheric VOC concentrations that in mass and reactivity terms are dominated by longer chain VOCs from diesel fuel. The VOC mixture in ambient Beijing air is dominated by short chain VOCs, a mix of both alkenes from incomplete combustion sources and alkanes and aromatics from petrochemical sources. The substantial difference in the fleet proportions of gasoline and diesel powered vehicles between the two cities is clearly reflected in ambient VOCs. In summertime, isoprene was a notable contributor to VOC reactivity in both cities despite both being highly urbanised locations. The absolute

  1. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in London and Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hader, W J; Elliot, M; Ebers, G C

    1988-04-01

    A case-controlled epidemiologic study of multiple sclerosis (MS) was carried out in London, Ontario, and its surrounding Middlesex County for the period 1974-1983. The prevalence rates for clinically definite/probable MS on January 1, 1984 were 94/100,000 for the city and 91/100,000 for the county. The estimated annual incidence rate for the decade 1974-83 was 3.4/100,000. The female-to-male sex ratio was 2.5:1. A familial history of MS was recorded in 14.4% of close relatives and a total of 17% when distant relatives are included. The MS group is predominantly of British (70%) and European (23%) origin. The urban-rural residence pattern analysis indicates no significant regional influence on the risk of developing MS.

  2. Hydrogen for buses in London: A scenario analysis of changes over time in refuelling infrastructure costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayegan, S.; Pearson, P.J.G.; Hart, D.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of a hydrogen refuelling infrastructure is one of the major obstacles to the introduction of the hydrogen vehicles to the road transport market. To help overcome this hurdle a likely transitional solution is to introduce hydrogen for niche applications such as buses or other types of fleet vehicles for which fuel demand is predictable and localised. This paper analyses the costs of different hydrogen production-delivery pathways, via a case study of buses in London. Scenario analysis over time (2007-2025) is used to investigate potential changes to the cost of hydrogen as a result of technology development, growing demand for hydrogen and changes in energy prices (gas and electricity). It is found that factors related to hydrogen demand have the greatest effect on the unit cost of hydrogen, while for the whole of the analysis period, on-site SMR (steam methane reforming) remains the least-cost production-delivery pathway. (author)

  3. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Waruguru Mburu

    Full Text Available Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use.

  4. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Lucy Waruguru; Helbich, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops) was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use.

  5. Sex Trafficking and State Intervention: Conflicts and Contradictions during the 2012 London Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Jelbert, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the British human trafficking prevention policies adopted for the 2012 London Olympics using mixed methods including participation-observation, qualitative interviews, theoretical analysis and policy evaluation. I was invited to observe the Human Trafficking Network and London 2012, the Mayor of London’s official response to the claim that human trafficking would increase at the London Olympics. My presence enabled me to witness first-hand the key policy debates su...

  6. Carbon Capture and Storage and the London Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that 100 Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects will be required by 2020 and over 3000 by 2050 if CCS is to contribute fully to the least-cost technology portfolio for CO2 mitigation. For CCS to reach its emissions reduction potential, the 2009 IEA publication Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage recommends that international legal obstacles associated with global CCS deployment be removed by 2012 -- including the prohibition on transboundary CO2 transfer under the London Protocol. The London Protocol was amended by contracting parties in 2009 to allow for cross-border transportation of CO2 for sub-seabed storage, but the amendment must be ratified by two-thirds of contracting parties to enter into force. It is unlikely that this will occur in the near term; this working paper therefore outlines options that may be available to contracting parties under international law to address the barrier to deployment presented by Article 6, pending formal entry into force of the 2009 amendment.

  7. The Competition between London Companies Regarding Their Financial Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a high level of competition between companies and the final result is often measured by their financial performance. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the financial performance of a sample of companies from London. Statistical analysis is performed of 293 companies randomly selected from the population of firms resident in London, the economic indicators being registered for 2014. The main results indicated that most of the variation in financial performance is explained by the book-to-market ratio and cash-to-assets ratio. On the other hand, financial performance is also explained by cash flow and leverage. Most of the firms that were placed in the same group had a successful financial performance in 2014. Few companies located in the other cluster encountered some difficulties regarding cash flow and sales. This situation could be explained by the difficulties of facing the economic crisis. Thus the financial performance evaluation is useful in improving a firm’s financial indicators in order to achieve a higher profit. The diagnosis will help managers in taking the most suitable decisions to solve the financial problems by selecting the best strategies.

  8. Public health assessment for US Naval Submarine Base, New London, Groton, New London County, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD980906515. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The New London Submarine Base was divided by the town boundaries of Groton to the south and Ledyard to the north in New London County, Connecticut. In 1983, the Navy identified 16 potential source areas of environmental contamination during their investigations. The submarine base was listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List in August 1990 because of the potential for on-base groundwater contamination to migrate to off-base residential wells that are close to the New London Submarine Base

  9. Offshore wind power fundaments. Practical experience from the projects London Array and Dan Tysk; Offshore Windkraft Fundamente. Praxiserfahrung aus den Projekten London Array und DanTysk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Moritz [Bilfinger Berger Ingenieurbau GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). Ingenieurwasserbau

    2012-11-01

    Based on a collection of diagrams and images the authors of the contribution under consideration report on practical experiences resulting from the project London Array and Dan Tysk with respect to the foundations of offshore wind turbines.

  10. Strategy to reduce E. coli bacteraemia based on cohort data from a London teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Desmond; Melzer, Mark

    2018-04-01

    In 2017, National Health Service Improvement set a 10% reduction target for Escherichia coli bacteraemia by 2018, followed by a 50% reduction in healthcare-associated Gram-negative bacteraemias by 2022. We analysed consecutive cases of E. coli bacteraemia and devised a strategy to achieve these targets. From December 2012 to November 2013, demographic, clinical and microbiological data were prospectively collected on all patients with bacteraemia at the Royal London Hospital in East London, UK. There were 594 significant bacteraemic episodes and 207 (34.8%) were E. coli . Twenty-four (11.6%) of the E. coli isolates were extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers, 22 (10.6%) gentamicin resistant and 2 (1.0%) amikacin resistant. The three most common sites of infection were pyelonephritis 105 (56.7%), catheter-associated urinary tract infection 22 (10.6%), and other medical devices and procedures that cause bacteraemia 32 (15.5%). In the pyelonephritis group, trimethoprim resistance in urinary isolates was 16/47 (34.0%) compared with 3/47 (6.4%) for nitrofurantoin. Twelve months postbacteraemia, recurrent bacteraemia rates were 10/105 (9.5%). There were 44 medical device-associated E. coli bacteraemias, and 22 (50%) were urinary catheter associated. There were 10 patients with E. coli bacteraemia caused by procedures, seven genitourinary or biliary tract instrumentation and three postgastrointestinal surgery. E. coli bacteraemias related to urosepsis could have been prevented by better empirical treatment and targeted prophylaxis. Urinary catheter quality improvement programmes should contribute to a further reduction. For patients undergoing high-risk urinary or biliary tract procedures or device manipulation, we advocate single-dose amikacin prophylaxis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. The future of the London Buy-To-Let property market: Simulation with temporal Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Anthony C; Fenton, Norman

    2017-01-01

    In 2015 the British government announced a number of major tax reforms for individual landlords. To give landlords time to adjust, some of these tax measures are being introduced gradually from April 2017, with full effect in tax year 2020/21. The changes in taxation have received much media attention since there has been widespread belief that the new measures were sufficiently skewed against landlords that they could signal the end of the Buy-To-Let (BTL) investment era in the UK. This paper assesses the prospective performance of BTL investments in London from the investor's perspective, and examines the impact of incoming tax reforms using a novel Temporal Bayesian Network model. The model captures uncertainties of interest by simulating the impact of changing circumstances and the interventions available to an investor at various time-steps of a BTL investment portfolio. The simulation results suggest that the new tax reforms are likely to have a detrimental effect on net profits from rental income, and this hits risk-seeking investors who favour leverage much harder than risk-averse investors who do not seek to expand their property portfolio. The impact on net profits also poses substantial risks for lossmaking returns excluding capital gains, especially in the case of rising interest rates. While this makes it less desirable or even non-viable for some to continue being a landlord, based on the current status of all factors taken into consideration for simulation, investment prospects are still likely to remain good within a reasonable range of interest rate and capital growth rate variations. The results also suggest that the recent trend of property prices in London increasing faster than rents will not continue for much longer; either capital growth rates will have to decrease, rental growth rates will have to increase, or we shall observe a combination of the two events.

  12. The future of the London Buy-To-Let property market: Simulation with temporal Bayesian Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C Constantinou

    Full Text Available In 2015 the British government announced a number of major tax reforms for individual landlords. To give landlords time to adjust, some of these tax measures are being introduced gradually from April 2017, with full effect in tax year 2020/21. The changes in taxation have received much media attention since there has been widespread belief that the new measures were sufficiently skewed against landlords that they could signal the end of the Buy-To-Let (BTL investment era in the UK. This paper assesses the prospective performance of BTL investments in London from the investor's perspective, and examines the impact of incoming tax reforms using a novel Temporal Bayesian Network model. The model captures uncertainties of interest by simulating the impact of changing circumstances and the interventions available to an investor at various time-steps of a BTL investment portfolio. The simulation results suggest that the new tax reforms are likely to have a detrimental effect on net profits from rental income, and this hits risk-seeking investors who favour leverage much harder than risk-averse investors who do not seek to expand their property portfolio. The impact on net profits also poses substantial risks for lossmaking returns excluding capital gains, especially in the case of rising interest rates. While this makes it less desirable or even non-viable for some to continue being a landlord, based on the current status of all factors taken into consideration for simulation, investment prospects are still likely to remain good within a reasonable range of interest rate and capital growth rate variations. The results also suggest that the recent trend of property prices in London increasing faster than rents will not continue for much longer; either capital growth rates will have to decrease, rental growth rates will have to increase, or we shall observe a combination of the two events.

  13. The future of the London Buy-To-Let property market: Simulation with temporal Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Norman

    2017-01-01

    In 2015 the British government announced a number of major tax reforms for individual landlords. To give landlords time to adjust, some of these tax measures are being introduced gradually from April 2017, with full effect in tax year 2020/21. The changes in taxation have received much media attention since there has been widespread belief that the new measures were sufficiently skewed against landlords that they could signal the end of the Buy-To-Let (BTL) investment era in the UK. This paper assesses the prospective performance of BTL investments in London from the investor’s perspective, and examines the impact of incoming tax reforms using a novel Temporal Bayesian Network model. The model captures uncertainties of interest by simulating the impact of changing circumstances and the interventions available to an investor at various time-steps of a BTL investment portfolio. The simulation results suggest that the new tax reforms are likely to have a detrimental effect on net profits from rental income, and this hits risk-seeking investors who favour leverage much harder than risk-averse investors who do not seek to expand their property portfolio. The impact on net profits also poses substantial risks for lossmaking returns excluding capital gains, especially in the case of rising interest rates. While this makes it less desirable or even non-viable for some to continue being a landlord, based on the current status of all factors taken into consideration for simulation, investment prospects are still likely to remain good within a reasonable range of interest rate and capital growth rate variations. The results also suggest that the recent trend of property prices in London increasing faster than rents will not continue for much longer; either capital growth rates will have to decrease, rental growth rates will have to increase, or we shall observe a combination of the two events. PMID:28654698

  14. Habitual micronutrient intake during and after pregnancy in Caucasian Londoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, E; Davies, G J; Costarelli, V; Dettmar, P W

    2009-01-01

    Micronutrient status is of fundamental importance both upon conception and throughout pregnancy. There is an abundance of literature investigating nutrient intakes during individual trimesters of pregnancy but few studies have investigated baseline intakes of nutrients throughout gestation as a continuum. The current investigation set out to measure habitual micronutrient intakes at weeks 13, 25, 35 of pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum using a prospective background information questionnaire, 4-7-day weighed food diary and postnatal questionnaire. Seventy-two primiparous, Caucasian Londoners were recruited at the study start with 42 completing the first, second, third trimester and postpartum study stages respectively. Study findings indicated that sodium intakes were significantly higher than UK guidelines throughout and after pregnancy (P pregnancy, but to varying levels of statistical significance (P health interventions may be required to help expectant mothers achieve an optimal diet, particularly after birth when dietary recommendations increase for some micronutrients.

  15. The London polonium poisoning: Events and medical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko on 23 November 2006 was an unprecedented event. Po-210 is a highly toxic radioactive heavy metal with a physical half-life of 138 days. Dispersal of the material by the perpetrators and the victim resulted in widespread contamination that led to a trail across London and abroad. This resulted in a massive operation for health protection staff and the police service. The surreptitious nature of this act almost escaped detection. The fact that the nature of the poison was not known for a number of weeks after admission to hospital indicates the difficulty in detecting alpha radiation. In this article, the sequence of events, the nature and uses of this radioactive element and the medical consequences of ingestion are outlined. The illicit use of radioactive materials raises important health and security issues. Medical and scientific staff in nuclear medicine and hospital emergency departments should be aware of these issues. (author)

  16. International Symposium for Thyroid Eye Disease (June 2016, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Y. Sviridenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In June 2016, an International Symposium dedicated to the cutting edge research and achievements in Thyroid Eye Disease (TED diagnosis and treatment was held in London. The symposium was organized by the International Thyroid Eye Disease (ITEDs. It was attended EUGOGO, North American Neuro-Ophthalmological Society (NANOS and Orbit Society members. The symposium was attended by leading experts in the field of ophthalmology, orbital surgery and endocrinology: Rebecca S. Bahn, Maarten Mourits, Claudio Marcocci, George Kahaly, Mario Salvi, Antony Weetman, Anja Eckstein, Daniel Rootman, Geoffrey Rose, Robert Goldberg and Susanne Pitz, as well as doctors, specializing in the field of endocrinology, ophthalmology, radiology and other specialties. The symposium program was focused on the discussion of TED pathogenesis, classification and new therapeutic and surgical approaches. TED problems discussed by more than 300 professionals (65% ophthalmologists, 18% ophthalmic surgeons and 17% endocrinologists. North America was represented by 50 delegates. Representation of other continents was not less impressive.

  17. Ethnopharmacy of Turkish-speaking Cypriots in Greater London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yöney, Ahmet; Prieto, José M; Lardos, Andreas; Heinrich, Michael

    2010-05-01

    For centuries, in the Eastern Mediterranean region, medicinal plant use has been widely accepted as a treatment method for both minor and major diseases. Although some knowledge exists on the use of such medicinal plants within the Greek Cypriot culture and considerable information is available on various regions in Turkey, no detailed ethnopharmaceutical or ethnobotanical studies exist on Turkish-speaking Cypriots (TSC) both in Cyprus and within one of the largest TSC migrant communities in London, UK. Semi-structured interviews with members of the TSC community in London were conducted by using a questionnaire consisting both of open and closed questions. Open questions were aimed at identifying herbs, spices, medicinal plants and their uses. Also, graded questions were used to define informants' opinions as a quantitative parameter, constructing a statistical basis. A wide range of therapeutic claims were recorded, including 13 chronic illnesses within 85 different plant species, of which 18 were cited more than 10 times. The most frequently mentioned species were Mentha spicata, Salvia fruticosa and Pimpinella anisum. The plants recorded are frequently based on knowledge derived from Turkish-Cypriot traditions, but many examples of medicinal plants with a use based on UK or general western herbal medical traditions were also recorded. Informants highlighted the risk of knowledge loss in younger generations and thus this study serves as a repository of knowledge for use in the future. Due to a lack of knowledge about such usages in the healthcare professions, our study also highlights the need to develop information sources for use by healthcare practitioners in order to raise awareness about benefits and risks of such medical and health food products. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The epidemiology of injuries at the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Webborn, Nick; Emery, Carolyn; Blauwet, Cheri A; Pit-Grosheide, Pia; Stomphorst, Jaap; Van de Vliet, Peter; Patino Marques, Norma Angelica; Martinez-Ferrer, J Oriol; Jordaan, Esmè; Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin

    2013-05-01

    The characteristics and incidence of injuries at the Summer Paralympic Games have not previously been reported. A better understanding of injuries improves the medical care of athletes and informs future injury prevention strategies. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to characterise the incidence and nature of injuries during the London 2012 Summer Paralympic Games. Injury information was obtained from two databases. One database was populated from medical encounter forms completed by providers at the time of assessment in one of the medical stations operated by the Organising Committee. The second database was populated daily with information provided by team medical personnel who completed a comprehensive, web-based injury survey. The overall injury incidence rate was 12.7 injuries/1000 athlete-days. Injury rates were similar in male and female athletes. The precompetition injury rates in women were higher than those in the competition period. Higher injury rates were found in older athletes and certain sports such as football 5-a-side (22.4 injuries/1000 athlete-days). Overall, 51.5% of injuries were new onset acute traumatic injuries. The most commonly injured region (percentage of all injuries) was the shoulder (17.7%), followed by the wrist/hand (11.4%), elbow (8.8%) and knee (7.9%). This is the largest and most comprehensive epidemiological report examining injuries in Paralympic athletes. Injury rates differ according to age and sport. Upper limb injuries are common. The knowledge gained from this study will inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies in Paralympic sport. The Epidemiology of Injuries at the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

  19. Engendering City Politics and Educational Thought: Elite Women and the London Labour Party, 1914-1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article uses biographical approaches to recover the contribution of hitherto neglected figures in the history of education and the political history of the Left in London. Place and location are important since it is important to grasp the uniqueness of the London County Council within the framework of English local government and of the…

  20. 77 FR 54495 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thames River Degaussing Range Replacement Operations; New London, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... London Harbor, New London, CT. The proposed RNA would establish speed and wake restrictions as well as... comments by mail and would like to know that they reached the Facility, please enclose a stamped, self.... 0170.1. This proposal would establish speed and wake restrictions as well as allow the Coast Guard to...

  1. Psychoanalysis of Jack London's "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang" both are masterpieces of Jack London. The protagonists Buck and White Fang are the incarnation of Jack himself to some extent for the two novels reveal a great deal of the writer. This essay aims at psychoanalyzing Jack London's creative process, the Oedipus complex and the confliction…

  2. Clostridium perfringens in London, July 2009: two weddings and an outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, J; Zenner, D; Anderson, S R; Grant, K; Kumar, D

    2010-06-24

    Food poisoning outbreaks caused by Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin occur occasionally in Europe but have become less common in recent years. This paper presents the microbiological and epidemiological results of a large C. perfringens outbreak occurring simultaneously at two weddings that used the same caterer. The outbreak involved several London locations and required coordination across multiple agencies. A case-control study (n=134) was carried out to analyse possible associations between the food consumed and becoming ill. Food, environmental and stool samples were tested for common causative agents, including enterotoxigenic C. perfringens. The clinical presentation and the epidemiological findings were compatible with C. perfringens food poisoning and C. perfringens enterotoxin was detected in stool samples from two cases. The case-control study found statistically significant associations between becoming ill and eating either a specific chicken or lamb dish prepared by the same food handler of the implicated catering company. A rapid outbreak investigation with preliminary real-time results and the successful collaboration between the agencies and the caterer led to timely identification and rectification of the failures in the food handling practices.

  3. Pseudoislets as primary islet replacements for research: report on a symposium at King's College London, London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Shanta J; Arden, Catherine; Bergsten, Peter; Bone, Adrian J; Brown, James; Dunmore, Simon; Harrison, Moira; Hauge-Evans, Astrid; Kelly, Catriona; King, Aileen; Maffucci, Tania; Marriott, Claire E; McClenaghan, Neville; Morgan, Noel G; Reers, Christina; Russell, Mark A; Turner, Mark D; Willoughby, Emma; Younis, Mustafa Y G; Zhi, Z L; Jones, Peter M

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory-based research aimed at understanding processes regulating insulin secretion and mechanisms underlying β-cell dysfunction and loss in diabetes often makes use of rodents, as these processes are in many respects similar between rats/mice and humans. Indeed, a rough calculation suggests that islets have been isolated from as many as 150,000 rodents to generate the data contained within papers published in 2009 and the first four months of 2010. Rodent use for islet isolation has been mitigated, to a certain extent, by the availability of a variety of insulin-secreting cell lines that are used by researchers world-wide. However, when maintained as monolayers the cell lines do not replicate the robust, sustained secretory responses of primary islets which limits their usefulness as islet surrogates. On the other hand, there have been several reports that configuration of MIN6 β-cells, derived from a mouse insulinoma, as three-dimensional cell clusters termed ‘pseudoislets’ largely recapitulates the function of primary islet β-cells. The Diabetes Research Group at King’s College London has been using the MIN6 pseudoislet model for over a decade and they hosted a symposium on “Pseudoislets as primary islet replacements for research”, which was funded by the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), in London on 15th and 16th April 2010. This small, focused meeting was conceived as an opportunity to consolidate information on experiences of working with pseudoislets between different UK labs, and to introduce the theory and practice of pseudoislet culture to laboratories working with islets and/or β-cell lines but who do not currently use pseudoislets. This short review summarizes the background to the development of the cell line-derived pseudoislet model, the key messages arising from the symposium and emerging themes for future pseudoislet research.

  4. Chinese Identity in London-An Analysis from the Aspects of Cultural Heritage and Cultural Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ning

    2014-01-01

    available else-where, or meet friends there .For the elders espe-cially, Chinatown is a very important “must go to”place.It is a place upon which their daily lives re-ly.Therefore, Chinatown is supposed to be an es-sential extension in London of Chinese relationship transcended over China ’ s boundary ( Bouchier &Hui, 2007:2). Meanwhile , I found that although life to some extent is an individual thing , all the interviewees lead corresponding lives .Each individual can de-cide what to do in a given moment , but there are always some things that the whole group does in the same way.The explanation for this is that they hold the same cultural heritage .Under this dis-placed condition , they rely on their own heritage much more than others to feel better , more rooted and more secure ( Howard 2003, 147 ) .At this time, cultural heritage gains strength and is more powerful than usual .Depending on the Chinese culture and traditions inherited from their ances-tors, they successfully preserve their self -identi-ty, which is refurbished according to the present and passed onto future generations .As a result , cultural heritage forms their own identities during this discourse ( Tunbridge & Ashworth 1996 , 1 ) .“Through its cultural heritage a society becomes visible to itself and to others” ( Assmann & Cza-plicka 1995 , 133 ) .It holds people together , and becomes the real power behind cultural identity to distinguish self and others .At the same time , to the Chinese community in London , preserving cul-tural heritage is a very dynamic process and in-volves a continuous reshaping and fine tuning to make it perfect for the future . Moreover , when digging into people ’ s daily lives, in certain cases, each and every Chinese in-dividual has grown up with a determined back-ground.His or her memory is always limited and bound by Chinese culture and traditions . Their cultural memory has been found to be the main un-dergoing strength enabling them to maintain and

  5. Determining counselling communication strategies associated with successful quits in the National Health Service community pharmacy Stop Smoking programme in East London: a focused ethnography using recorded consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Carol; Sohanpal, Ratna; MacNeill, Virginia; Steed, Liz; Edwards, Elizabeth; Antao, Laurence; Griffiths, Chris; Eldridge, Sandra; Taylor, Stephanie; Walton, Robert

    2017-10-27

    To determine communication strategies associated with smoking cessation in the National Health Service community pharmacy Stop Smoking programme. 11 community pharmacies in three inner east London boroughs. 9 stop smoking advisers and 16 pairs of smokers who either quit or did not quit at 4 weeks, matched on gender, ethnicity, age and smoking intensity. 1-3 audio-recorded consultations between an adviser and each pair member over 5-6 weeks were analysed using a mixed-method approach. First a content analysis was based on deductive coding drawn from a theme-oriented discourse analysis approach and the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Core themes were identified through this quantification to explore in detail the qualitative differences and similarities between quitters and non-quitters. Quantitative analysis revealed advisers used a core set of counselling strategies that privileged the 'voice of medicine' and often omitted explicit motivational interviewing. Smokers tended to quit when these core strategies were augmented by supportive talk, clear permission for smokers to seek additional support from the adviser between consultations, encouragement for smokers to use willpower. The thematic analysis highlighted the choices made by advisers as to which strategies to adopt and the impacts on smokers. The first theme 'Negotiating the smoker-adviser relationship' referred to adviser judgements about the likelihood the smoker would quit. The second theme, 'Roles of the adviser and smoker in the quit attempt', focused on advisers' counselling strategies, while the third theme, 'Smoker and adviser misalignment on reasons for smoking, relapsing and quitting', concerned inconsistencies in the implementation of National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training recommendations. Advisers in community pharmacies should use the advantages of their familiarity with smokers to ensure appropriate delivery of patient-centred counselling strategies and reflect on the impact on

  6. The Home-based Advantages and a Hierarchy of Location Advantages: Foreign and British-owned Firms in the London Wholesale Insurance Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lilach Nachum

    2003-01-01

    This study seeks to explain why, in some cases, locationally advantageous countries attract foreign firms, who develop dominant competitive positions in the market, rather than facilitate the development of internationally competitive national firms, as theory suggests. Comparative analyses of samples of foreign and British-owned insurance firms in the London wholesale insurance market are used to establish a hierarchy of location advantages in terms of their competitive importance. It is sho...

  7. Social Media in Gay London: Tinder as an Alternative to Hook-Up Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy MacKee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article explores how the mobile app Tinder complements dating practices and the wider app ecosystem gay men use in London. Within the local gay community discourse, Tinder is said to be a site where the gay “nice guys” go, rendering the platform as a socially constructed environment where gay men behave in a diametrically opposed way to the normative hyper-sexualized behavior of widespread gay hook-up apps. The research question, therefore, is whether Tinder is in fact a place where these “nice guys” go and where one would find them. Through an ethnographic methodology conducted both online and offline, a case is built on how initial conceptions about the app cannot be fully studied or interpreted without understanding the place it holds among other social networks. Evidence is presented to support the case that gay users of Tinder do, in fact, curate the portrayal of their digital identity to present a considerably less sexualized persona with the hopes of finding dates or a relationship. This, however, does not mean that users refrain from using other platforms in parallel as a way of exploring different subject positions and motivations. Behavior and normativity on Tinder are largely explained both by context and also by the design of the platform, which imports and displays personal data from other social networks. Findings should be limited to the population and location proposed as the fieldsite.

  8. Dynamics of the Urban Water-Energy Nexuses of Mumbai and London

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stercke, S.; Mijic, A.; Buytaert, W.; Chaturvedi, V.

    2016-12-01

    Both in developing as well as industrialized countries, cities are seeing their populations increase as more people concentrate in urban settlements. This burdens existing water and energy systems, which are also increasingly stressed on the supply side due to availability, and policy goals. In addition to the water and energy embedded in the electricity, fuels and water delivered to the city, the linkages in the urban environment itself are important and in magnitude they significantly exceed those upstream in the case of industrialized countries. However, little research has been published on urban water-energy linkages in developing countries. For cities in general, there is also a dearth of studies on the dynamics of these linkages with urban growth and socioeconomic development, and hence of the mutual influence of the urban water and energy systems. System dynamics modeling was used to understand and simulate these dynamics, building on modeling techniques from the water, energy, and urban systems literature. For each of the two characteristically different cities of Mumbai and London a model was constructed and calibrated with data from various public sources and personal interviews. The differences between the two cases are discussed by means of the models. Transition pathways to sustainable cities with respect to water use, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are illustrated for each city. Furthermore, uncertainties and model sensitivity, and their implications, are presented. Finally, applicability of either or a hybrid of these models to other cities is investigated.

  9. Rates of undiagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in London drug and alcohol detoxification units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huntley Zoe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ADHD is a common childhood onset mental health disorder that persists into adulthood in two-thirds of cases. One of the most prevalent and impairing comorbidities of ADHD in adults are substance use disorders. We estimate rates of ADHD in patients with substance abuse disorders and delineate impairment in the co-morbid group. Method Screening for ADHD followed by a research diagnostic interview in people attending in-patient drug and alcohol detoxification units. Results We estimated prevalence of undiagnosed ADHD within substance use disorder in-patients in South London around 12%. Those individuals with substance use disorders and ADHD had significantly higher self-rated impairments across several domains of daily life; and higher rates of substance abuse and alcohol consumption, suicide attempts, and depression recorded in their case records. Conclusions This study demonstrates the high rates of untreated ADHD within substance use disorder populations and the association of ADHD in such patients with greater levels of impairment. These are likely to be a source of additional impairment to patients and represent an increased burden on clinical services.

  10. Scaling and allometry in the building geometries of Greater London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Carvalho, R.; Hudson-Smith, A.; Milton, R.; Smith, D.; Steadman, P.

    2008-06-01

    Many aggregate distributions of urban activities such as city sizes reveal scaling but hardly any work exists on the properties of spatial distributions within individual cities, notwithstanding considerable knowledge about their fractal structure. We redress this here by examining scaling relationships in a world city using data on the geometric properties of individual buildings. We first summarise how power laws can be used to approximate the size distributions of buildings, in analogy to city-size distributions which have been widely studied as rank-size and lognormal distributions following Zipf [ Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort (Addison-Wesley, Cambridge, 1949)] and Gibrat [ Les Inégalités Économiques (Librarie du Recueil Sirey, Paris, 1931)]. We then extend this analysis to allometric relationships between buildings in terms of their different geometric size properties. We present some preliminary analysis of building heights from the Emporis database which suggests very strong scaling in world cities. The data base for Greater London is then introduced from which we extract 3.6 million buildings whose scaling properties we explore. We examine key allometric relationships between these different properties illustrating how building shape changes according to size, and we extend this analysis to the classification of buildings according to land use types. We conclude with an analysis of two-point correlation functions of building geometries which supports our non-spatial analysis of scaling.

  11. Healthcare planning for the Olympics in London: a qualitative evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Black

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. METHODS: We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. FINDINGS: We identified five key themes: (1 Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2 Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3 Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4 Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5 Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. INTERPRETATION: Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential.

  12. Healthcare planning for the Olympics in London: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia; Kononovas, Kostas; Taylor, Jayne; Raine, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. We identified five key themes: (1) Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2) Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3) Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4) Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5) Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential.

  13. Healthcare Planning for the Olympics in London: A Qualitative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia; Kononovas, Kostas; Taylor, Jayne; Raine, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. Methods We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. Findings We identified five key themes: (1) Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2) Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3) Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4) Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5) Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. Interpretation Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential. PMID:24647613

  14. Occupy London und die besetzte Friern Barnet Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Diesing

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Gegenstand des Beitrages ist die besetzte Friern Barnet Library in Nord-London. Dieser steht für eine ‚Politik des Politischen‘, die sich gegen die Privatisierungsmaßnahmen der regierenden liberal-konservativen Koalition richtet. In diesem Kampf um die Bibliothek wurden Aussagen der programmatischen Vision der Regierung von einer Allianz aus Aktivist_innen und Bürger_innen polemisch gegen die Politik gewendet, deren Umsetzung diese Vision ideologisch legitimieren sollte. Es werden zunächst die Rahmenbedingungen der Besetzung beschrieben, danach wird detailliert auf das Geschehen im Herbst 2012 und Winter 2012/13 eingegangen. Es wird erklärt, warum die Auseinandersetzung um die Bibliothek für das Verständnis gegenwärtiger sozialer Kämpfe in der ‚postpolitischen Stadt‘ hilfreich ist. Zum Begriff der Postpolitik bzw. der Postdemokratie haben sowohl Colin Crouch als auch Jacques Rancière Theorien vorgelegt. Der Aufsatz wird den theoretischen Schwerpunkt auf Rancière legen, Crouchs Überlegungen jedoch ebenfalls mit einbeziehen.

  15. Familism and Social Inclusion: Hispanics in New London, Connecticut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amparo Cruz-Saco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the financial support and inclusiveness within Hispanic families in New London, Connecticut, and the causes of their social exclusion in the larger society. We designed and administered a survey of 114 items that was answered by 148 participants representing 1.3% of the non-Puerto Rican Hispanic population. Using factor analysis, we reduced a large number of items in two familism scores to four latent factors: "Financial Support for Family", "Obligation to Family", "Plan to Return", and "Filial Responsibility". We found that financial support for family and obligation to family are strongly endorsed by participants. Approximately one-half would return back to their home countries where they believe to be happier. One-fifth rejects this option. Three-quarters of participants remit money to family, parents in particular, who reside in countries of origin. In contrast to other studies, remitting money is not affected by any given personal characteristic such as gender, income or level of education. Similarly, participants remit irrespective of their degree of self-reported familism measured by scores on the latent factors. A large incidence of poverty among this population, lack of English proficiency, low skills, immigration status, and a lack of voice and political representation inhibit their social inclusion.

  16. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    The combined use of case study and systems theory is rarely discussed in the ... Scott, 2002), the main benefit of doing qualitative research is the patience ..... Teaching ICT to teacher candidates ... English Language Teachers. London: Arnold.

  17. Acercamiento a las estrategias de apropiación de Medellín Digital en cuatro comunas de la ciudad. Approaching “Medellín Digital” appropriation strategies on four city boroughs. Conceptual outlook and empiric evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Ramirez Maria Elena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es el resultado de un proyecto de investigación que pretende realizar un primer acercamiento a la relación que tienen con las tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC los habitantes de cuatro comunas de la ciudad de Medellín, en términos de: conectividad, de uso (tiempo, frecuencia y modos de uso, transformación de prácticas cotidianas e incidencia de los programas de formación del Programa Medellín Digital. Lo que constituye un primer indicativo de apropiación tecnológica. Analizar, por ejemplo, de qué manera los usuarios finales en las comunidades se han apropiado de las estrategias de formación planteadas por Medellín Digital y cómo se traduce esto en un verdadero ejercicio de la ciudadanía. Por tanto, se hace necesario avanzar en estudios que permitan verificar el impacto real de los programas de formación en capacidades que se ofrecen a través de programas como Medellín Digital y de otras estrategias de uso y apropiación de TIC como los telecentros. Esta necesidad ha sido planteada, de hecho, en las políticas nacionales de la región en Latinoamérica y en Europa, pero aún no se encuentran materializadas en estudios e investigaciones que permitan evidenciar el impacto de estos programas y la calidad de sus procesos de construcción de capacidades en TIC. This article is the result of a research project that aims to make an initial approach to the relationship established between inhabitants from four Medellin’s boroughs and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, regarding connectivity, use (time, frequency, and use types, daily practices and Medellin Digital’s education curriculums incidence, which constitutes the first indicative of technologic appropriation. For example, analyzing how final users from different boroughs have appropriated training strategies set out by Medellin Digital and how this translates on a real citizenship exercise. Then, it becomes necessary to go further

  18. Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Jonathan Swain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swain, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos MC ABTD 1496; CD CHAN 8885 (57 minutes). Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. Staatskapelle Berlin. Otmar Suitner." Denon CD CO- 74597 (53 minutes)

  19. Marketing modest fashion or fashioning modesty? HijUp Unveiled at London Fashion Week

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The Indonesians came, they saw and we learned more about their spicy blend of fashion and fun, in the streets of London. Here’s a slice of what’s going on in the emerging global Modest Fashion scene.

  20. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  1. Sex-related dietary changes of Portuguese university students after migration to London, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, S.; Vilela, S.; Padrão, P.; Caraher, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the changes in eating habits and food choice motives of Portuguese university students after migration to London, according to sex.\\ud \\ud Methods: Fifty-five Portuguese university students (52.7% female) from 12 randomly selected London universities underwent a face-to-face interview. Trained interviewers administered a structured questionnaire comprising questions on socio-demographic characteristics, the frequency of consumption of selected food and beverage items, and the m...

  2. Looking for ‘Home’? New Zealand Soldiers Visiting London during the First World War

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, Anna

    2016-01-01

    For colonial troops from the British Empire, the military mobilizations of the First World War created the opportunity to visit the imperial metropolis – London – leaving the war behind. This article explores the experience and encounters of New Zealand's soldiers in London during the First World War and the ambiguity of their identity and belonging in a city that could be positioned as ‘home’. Using diaries, letters, newspapers and oral testimonies, the article builds on the work of Felicity...

  3. Joseph Clover and the cobra: a tale of snake envenomation and attempted resuscitation with bellows in London, 1852.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, C

    2010-07-01

    The Industrial Revolution saw the creation of many new jobs, but probably none more curious than that of zookeeper. The London Zoological Gardens, established for members in 1828, was opened to the general public in 1847. In 1852 the "Head Keeper in the Serpent Room", Edward Horatio Girling, spent a night farewelling a friend departing for Australia. He arrived at work in an inebriated state and was bitten on the face by a cobra that he was handling in a less than sensible manner. He was taken by cab to University College Hospital where he was resuscitated by a number of doctors, including Joseph Clover then the resident medical officer to the hospital and later to become the leading anaesthetist in London. Clover recorded this event in his diary along with the resuscitation method used. The patient eventually died but his treatment created a flurry of correspondence in the medical and lay press. Interestingly, the attempted resuscitation was with bellows, which had been abandoned by the Royal Humane Society twenty years earlier Clover records other cases of resuscitation with bellows at University College Hospital during his time as a resident medical officer there (1848 to 1853). There is a casebook belonging to Joseph Clover in the Geoffrey Kaye Museum, in Melbourne. This story is one of the many interesting stories uncovered during a study of this book and Clover's other personal papers.

  4. Business operations and decommissioning strategy for imperial college London research reactor 'Consort' - A financial risk management approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, S.J.; Gardner, D.; Mumford, J.; Lea, R.; Knight, J.

    2005-01-01

    Imperial College London (IC) operates commercially a 100 kW research reactor, and as site licensee is responsible for funding both operations and eventual decommissioning. With long lead times ahead urgent decisions on the future business options have had to be made in 2004/5 including choices on whether to move to early decommissioning, recognising the high costs entailed, or to pursue continuing operations involving life extension measures such as refuelling. To develop a coherent overall approach strategy a financial risk driven programme was initiated to help define a robust transparent business and termination case for the reactor. This study was carried out in collaboration with a UK firm of financial risk experts, PURE Risk Management Ltd (PURE), working within a dedicated IC London reactor project team. This work evaluated immediate closure options due to financial constraints or life limiting failures, and options for continuing operation extending to 2028. Decommissioning and clean up were reviewed. Bespoke financial models created single value cost outputs and ranges of probabilistic net present values (NPV) for decommissioning costs and financial provisions to meet those costs at various levels of risk acceptance and regulatory compliance. (author)

  5. London 2012 Paralympic swimming: passive drag and the classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yim-Taek; Burkett, Brendan; Osborough, Conor; Formosa, Danielle; Payton, Carl

    2013-09-01

    The key difference between the Olympic and Paralympic Games is the use of classification systems within Paralympic sports to provide a fair competition for athletes with a range of physical disabilities. In 2009, the International Paralympic Committee mandated the development of new, evidence-based classification systems. This study aims to assess objectively the swimming classification system by determining the relationship between passive drag and level of swimming-specific impairment, as defined by the current swimming class. Data were collected on participants at the London 2012 Paralympic Games. The passive drag force of 113 swimmers (classes 3-14) was measured using an electro-mechanical towing device and load cell. Swimmers were towed on the surface of a swimming pool at 1.5 m/s while holding their most streamlined position. Passive drag ranged from 24.9 to 82.8 N; the normalised drag (drag/mass) ranged from 0.45 to 1.86 N/kg. Significant negative associations were found between drag and the swimming class (τ = -0.41, p < 0.01) and normalised drag and the swimming class (τ = -0.60, p < 0.01). The mean difference in drag between adjacent classes was inconsistent, ranging from 0 N (6 vs 7) to 11.9 N (5 vs 6). Reciprocal Ponderal Index (a measure of slenderness) correlated moderately with normalised drag (r(P) = -0.40, p < 0.01). Although swimmers with the lowest swimming class experienced the highest passive drag and vice versa, the inconsistent difference in mean passive drag between adjacent classes indicates that the current classification system does not always differentiate clearly between swimming groups.

  6. Down and Out in London: Addictive Behaviors in Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-06-01

    Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders.

  7. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. Setting A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. Context E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Key findings Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked ‘aid in stop smoking’ as the most important (56%), with ‘cheaper alternative’ (43%) and ‘social/recreational use’ (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as ‘e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic’ were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Conclusions Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community

  8. Down and Out in London: Addictive Behaviors in Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders. PMID:27348556

  9. Motivation to study dental professions in one London Dental Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsi, A; Asimakopoulou, K; Donaldson, N; Gallagher, J

    2014-02-01

    While past research has explored dental students' motivation to study, there is limited understanding in the reasons behind career choice for hygienists/therapists and dental nurses. The aim of this study was to investigate simultaneously the views of students of dentistry, hygiene/therapy and dental nursing in King's College London and explore similarities or differences in career choice. All first-year students were invited to the questionnaire survey, exploring motivation to study using a 23-item instrument. Data were analysed using SPSS v18; statistical analysis included one-way analyses of variance and factor analysis. The overall response rate to the study was 75% (n = 209). Ten out of 23 factors were considered important by more than 80% of respondents, with 'job security' (93.8%), 'desire to work with people' (88%) and 'degree leading to recognised job' (87.5%) being top three. Analysis suggested that 52% of the total variation in motivating influences was explained by four factors: 'features of the job' (26%), 'education/skills' (11%), 'public service' (8%) and 'careers-advising' (7%); at group level 'features of the job' were significantly more important for the direct entrants to dentistry (P = 0.001). The findings suggest that across groups students were motivated to study by common influences reflecting altruistic, but also pragmatic and realistic motives, while 'features of the job' were more important for the direct entrants to dentistry. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Lichen and bryophyte distribution on oak in London in relation to air pollution and bark acidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.S.; Bell, J.N.B.; James, P.W.; Chimonides, P.J.; Rumsey, F.J.; Tremper, A.; Purvis, O.W.

    2007-01-01

    Epiphytic lichen and bryophyte distribution and frequency were investigated on the trunks of 145 young oak trees throughout London and surrounding counties, and compared with pollution levels and bark pH. Sixty-four lichen and four bryophyte species were recorded. Three major zones were identified: (i) two central regions with a few lichens, bryophytes absent; (ii) a surrounding region with a more diverse flora including a high cover of nitrophyte lichens; and (iii) an outer region, characterised by species absent from central London, including acidophytes. Nineteen species were correlated with nitrogen oxides and 16 with bark pH, suggesting that transport-related pollution and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution in London today. Lichens and bryophytes are responding to factors that influence human and environmental health in London. Biomonitoring therefore has a practical role to assess the effects of measures to improve London's air quality. - Transport-related pollutants and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution and abundance in London today

  11. Integrated care pilot in north west London: a mixed methods evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Curry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper provides the results of a year-long evaluation of a large-scale integrated care pilot in North West London. The pilot aimed to integrate care across primary, acute, community, mental health and social care for people with diabetes and those over 75 years through: care planning; multidisciplinary case reviews; information sharing; and project management support.   Methods: The evaluation team conducted qualitative studies of change at organisational, clinician, and patient levels (using interviews, focus groups and a survey; and quantitative analysis of change in service use and patient-level clinical outcomes (using patient-level data sets and a matched control study.  Results: The pilot had successfully engaged provider organisations, created a shared strategic vision and established governance structures. However, engagement of clinicians was variable and there was no evidence to date of significant reductions in emergency admissions. There was some evidence of changes in care processes. Conclusion: Although the pilot has demonstrated the beginnings of large-scale change, it remains in the early stages and faces significant challenges as it seeks to become sustainable for the longer term. It is critical that NHS managers and clinicians have realistic expectations of what can be achieved in a relatively short period of time.

  12. The East London glaucoma prediction score: web-based validation of glaucoma risk screening tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Cook; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza

    2013-01-01

    AIM It is difficult for Optometrists and General Practitioners to know which patients are at risk. The East London glaucoma prediction score (ELGPS) is a web based risk calculator that has been developed to determine Glaucoma risk at the time of screening. Multiple risk factors that are available in a low tech environment are assessed to provide a risk assessment. This is extremely useful in settings where access to specialist care is difficult. Use of the calculator is educational. It is a free web based service. Data capture is user specific. METHOD The scoring system is a web based questionnaire that captures and subsequently calculates the relative risk for the presence of Glaucoma at the time of screening. Three categories of patient are described: Unlikely to have Glaucoma; Glaucoma Suspect and Glaucoma. A case review methodology of patients with known diagnosis is employed to validate the calculator risk assessment. RESULTS Data from the patient records of 400 patients with an established diagnosis has been captured and used to validate the screening tool. The website reports that the calculated diagnosis correlates with the actual diagnosis 82% of the time. Biostatistics analysis showed: Sensitivity = 88%; Positive predictive value = 97%; Specificity = 75%. CONCLUSION Analysis of the first 400 patients validates the web based screening tool as being a good method of screening for the at risk population. The validation is ongoing. The web based format will allow a more widespread recruitment for different geographic, population and personnel variables. PMID:23550097

  13. Coping with a Self-Induced Shock: The Heterarchic Organization of the London Olympic Games 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Grabher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts from the assumption of a structural analogy between mega-events and large-scale disasters. Both imply forceful interruptions of everyday routines, and both involve imperatives for imminent action. Similar to the immovable deadline of an opening ceremony, a looming natural disaster triggers a complex set of precautions and preparations to cope with the inescapable forthcoming shock. In the case of mega-events, of course, this shock is self-induced. In fact, cities fiercely compete to host mega-events. In the face of the daunting challenges of hosting a mega-event—the immovable timeframe, the rigorous standards set by regulatory bodies, and the exceptional public visibility—the authorities and organizations in charge traditionally have resorted to strategies of a strict adaptation to the conditions imposed on them. Aligning all available resources and capabilities to match the foreseeable demands, however, undermines the adaptability to cope with unpredictable perturbations. This paper seeks to explore the strategies and practices to attain adaptability during the preparation, staging and implementation of legacy plans of a mega-event with an evidentially noteworthy record: the London Olympic Games 2012. The paper seeks to demonstrate that the project ecology in charge managed to enhance adaptability by implementing three key features of heterarchy: ambiguity, redundancy and loose coupling. By leveraging the principles of heterarchy, the project ecology was able to draw lessons from previous mega-events and both to anticipate and respond to unforeseen challenges.

  14. The London Spikes Controversy: Homelessness, Urban Securitisation and the Question of ‘Hostile Architecture’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Petty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an ostensibly new feature of the securitised urban landscape: ‘hostile architecture’. Following controversy in 2014 London over ‘anti-homeless spikes’– metal studs implanted at ground level designed to discourage the homeless from sleeping in otherwise unrestricted spaces – certain visible methods of environmental social control were temporarily subject to intense public scrutiny and debate. While contests over public and urban spaces are not new, the spikes controversy emerged in the context of broader socio-political and governmental shifts toward neoliberal arrangements. Using the spikes issue as a case study, I contextualise hostile architecture within these broader processes and in wider patterns of urban securitisation. The article then offers an explanatory framework for understanding the controversy itself. Ultimately the article questions whether the public backlash against the use of spikes indicates genuine resistance to patterns of urban securitisation or, counterintuitively, a broader public distaste for both the homeless and the mechanisms that regulate them. 

  15. Integrated care pilot in north west London: a mixed methods evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Curry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper provides the results of a year-long evaluation of a large-scale integrated care pilot in North West London. The pilot aimed to integrate care across primary, acute, community, mental health and social care for people with diabetes and those over 75 years through: care planning; multidisciplinary case reviews; information sharing; and project management support.    Methods: The evaluation team conducted qualitative studies of change at organisational, clinician, and patient levels (using interviews, focus groups and a survey; and quantitative analysis of change in service use and patient-level clinical outcomes (using patient-level data sets and a matched control study.   Results: The pilot had successfully engaged provider organisations, created a shared strategic vision and established governance structures. However, engagement of clinicians was variable and there was no evidence to date of significant reductions in emergency admissions. There was some evidence of changes in care processes.   Conclusion: Although the pilot has demonstrated the beginnings of large-scale change, it remains in the early stages and faces significant challenges as it seeks to become sustainable for the longer term. It is critical that NHS managers and clinicians have realistic expectations of what can be achieved in a relatively short period of time.

  16. Mass current in 3He - A: Some exact representations and their London limit near zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, C.

    1995-09-01

    New representations for normal Green's function of the superfluid A-phase of helium-3 are obtained by an exact solution of the Dyson-Gor'kov equation. These representations result in new formulae for the mass current j-vector near zero temperature. Specific limiting cases for j-vector such ast the limit of lowest order in gradients, following the limit of zero temperature, and vice versa, are investigated. It is shown that the mass current previously known as j-vector = j-vector 0 , where j-vector 0 is an expression of first order in gradients, should be treated as a ''quasiclassical'' object in view of the approximations chosen. The parameter 1/χ implying the ''quasiclassics'', is a small quantity, as the London limit condition holds. Expansion of j-vector in powers of 1/χ is considered and first corrections to j-vector 0 are obtained at zero temperature, for two gauges of the order parameter. (author). 26 refs

  17. A cross-sectional study of knife injuries at a London major trauma centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, J R; Sutherland, E; Glucksman, E; Tunnicliff, M; Keep, J W

    2014-01-01

    No national recording systems for knife injuries exist in the UK. Understanding the true size and nature of the problem of knife injuries is the first stage in reducing the burden of this injury. The aim of this study was to survey every knife injury seen in a single inner city emergency department (ED) over a one-year period. A cross-sectional observational study was performed of all patients attending with a knife injury to the ED of a London major trauma centre in 2011. Demographic characteristics, patterns of injury, morbidity and mortality data were collected. A total of 938 knife injuries were identified from 127,191 attendances (0.77% of all visits) with a case fatality rate of 0.53%. A quarter (24%) of the major trauma team's caseload was for knife injuries. Overall, 44% of injuries were selfreported as assaults, 49% as accidents and 8% as deliberate self-harm. The highest age specific incident rate occurred in the 16-24 year age category (263/100,000). Multiple injuries were seen in 19% of cases, of which only 81% were recorded as assaults. The mean length of stay for those admitted to hospital was 3.04 days. Intrathoracic injury was seen in 26% of cases of chest trauma and 24% of abdominal injuries had a second additional chest injury. Violent intentional injuries are a significant contributory factor to the workload of the major trauma team at this centre. This paper contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the nature of these injuries seen in the ED.

  18. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2016-11-10

    To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked 'aid in stop smoking' as the most important (56%), with 'cheaper alternative' (43%) and 'social/recreational use' (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as 'e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic' were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community pharmacists look forward to regulations so to conduct their duties in a

  19. Safety and security in acute admission psychiatric wards in Ireland and London: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowman, Seamus; Bowers, Len

    2009-05-01

    The comparative element of this study is to describe safety and security measures in psychiatric acute admission wards in the Republic of Ireland and London; to describe differences and similarities in terms of safety and security patterns in the Republic of Ireland and London; and to make recommendations on safety and security to mental health services management and psychiatric nurses. Violence is a serious problem in psychiatric services and staff experience significant psychological reactions to being assaulted. Health and Safety Authorities in the UK and Ireland have expressed concern about violence and assault in healthcare, however, there remains a lack of clarity on matters of procedure and policy pertaining to safety and security in psychiatric hospitals. A descriptive survey research design was employed. Questionnaires were circulated to all acute wards in London and in Ireland and the resulting data compared. A total of 124 psychiatric wards from London and 43 wards from Ireland were included in this study and response rates of 70% (London) and 86% (Ireland) were obtained. Differences and similarities in safety and security practices were identified between London and Ireland, with Irish wards having generally higher and more intensive levels of security. There is a lack of coherent policy and procedure in safety and security measures across psychiatric acute admission wards in the Republic of Ireland and London. Given the trends in European Union (EU) regulation, there is a strong argument for the publication of acceptable minimum guidelines for safety and security in mental health services across the EU. There must be a concerted effort to ensure that all policy and procedure in safety and security is founded on evidence and best practice. Mental health managers must establish a review of work safety and security procedures and practices. Risk assessment and environmental audits of all mental health clinical environments should be mandatory.

  20. Role of Food Handlers in Norovirus Outbreaks in London and South East England, 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, C; Addiman, S; Balasegaram, S; Chima, K; Ready, D; Heard, J; Alexander, E

    2017-02-01

    Outbreaks caused by norovirus infection are common and occur throughout the year. Outbreaks can be related to food outlets either through a contaminated food source or an infected food handler. Both asymptomatic and symptomatic food handlers are potentially implicated in outbreaks, but evidence of transmission is limited. To understand potential food handler transmission in outbreak scenarios, epidemiological and microbiological data on possible and confirmed norovirus outbreaks reported in London and South East England in a 2-year period were reviewed. One hundred eighty-six outbreaks were associated with a food outlet or registered caterer in this period. These occurred throughout the year with peaks in quarter 1 of study years. A case series of 17 outbreaks investigated by the local field epidemiological service were evaluated further, representing more than 606 cases. In five outbreaks, symptomatic food handlers were tested and found positive for norovirus. In four outbreaks, symptomatic food handlers were not tested. Asymptomatic food handlers were tested in three outbreaks but positive for norovirus in one only. Environmental sampling did not identify the causative agent conclusively in any of the outbreaks included in this analysis. Food sampling identified norovirus in one outbreak. Recommendations from this study include for outbreak investigations to encourage testing of symptomatic food handlers and for food and environmental samples to be taken as soon as possible. In addition, sampling of asymptomatic food handlers should be considered when possible. However, in light of the complexity in conclusively identifying a source of infection, general measures to improve hand hygiene are recommended, with specific education among food handlers about the potential for foodborne pathogen transmission during asymptomatic infection, as well as reinforcing the importance of self-exclusion from food handling activities when symptomatic.

  1. A high HIV-1 strain variability in London, UK, revealed by full-genome analysis: Results from the ICONIC project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Dan; Gallo Cassarino, Tiziano; Raffle, Jade; Hubb, Jonathan; Ferns, R. Bridget; Waters, Laura; Tong, C. Y. William; Kozlakidis, Zisis; Hayward, Andrew; Kellam, Paul; Pillay, Deenan; Clark, Duncan; Nastouli, Eleni; Leigh Brown, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    Background & methods The ICONIC project has developed an automated high-throughput pipeline to generate HIV nearly full-length genomes (NFLG, i.e. from gag to nef) from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. The pipeline was applied to 420 HIV samples collected at University College London Hospitals NHS Trust and Barts Health NHS Trust (London) and sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (Cambridge). Consensus genomes were generated and subtyped using COMET, and unique recombinants were studied with jpHMM and SimPlot. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed using RAxML to identify transmission networks using the Cluster Picker. Results The pipeline generated sequences of at least 1Kb of length (median = 7.46Kb, IQR = 4.01Kb) for 375 out of the 420 samples (89%), with 174 (46.4%) being NFLG. A total of 365 sequences (169 of them NFLG) corresponded to unique subjects and were included in the down-stream analyses. The most frequent HIV subtypes were B (n = 149, 40.8%) and C (n = 77, 21.1%) and the circulating recombinant form CRF02_AG (n = 32, 8.8%). We found 14 different CRFs (n = 66, 18.1%) and multiple URFs (n = 32, 8.8%) that involved recombination between 12 different subtypes/CRFs. The most frequent URFs were B/CRF01_AE (4 cases) and A1/D, B/C, and B/CRF02_AG (3 cases each). Most URFs (19/26, 73%) lacked breakpoints in the PR+RT pol region, rendering them undetectable if only that was sequenced. Twelve (37.5%) of the URFs could have emerged within the UK, whereas the rest were probably imported from sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia and South America. For 2 URFs we found highly similar pol sequences circulating in the UK. We detected 31 phylogenetic clusters using the full dataset: 25 pairs (mostly subtypes B and C), 4 triplets and 2 quadruplets. Some of these were not consistent across different genes due to inter- and intra-subtype recombination. Clusters involved 70 sequences, 19.2% of the dataset. Conclusions

  2. “This fabulous flotsam”: Michael Moorcock’s Urban Anthropology in “London under London”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houswitschka Christoph

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Moorcock is often described as “one of the most prolific and varied writers working in Britain” (Malcolm 146. His success as a writer and editor of science fiction and fantasy literature is well established, but he is also the author of two novels about London, Mother London (1988 and King of the City (2000. Hardly known, Mother London by Michael Moorcock, offers itself to a variety of approaches that have been widely discussed in the context of studies on English literature during the Thatcher years, post-modernism, and psycho-geography. The novel resonates with the author’s own childhood in war-time London without being autobiographical. It tells the story of three Londoners who were traumatised during the Blitz. The following article focuses on the mysteries of subterranean London that represents the hidden and unconscious identities of its inhabitants in the post-war period.

  3. Are the birch trees in Southern England a source of Betula pollen for North London?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Emberlin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Birch pollen is highly allergenic. Knowledge of daily variations, atmospheric transport and source areas of birch pollen is important for exposure studies and for warnings to the public, especially for large cities such as London. Our results show that broad-leaved forests with high birch tree densities are located to the south and west of London. Bi-hourly Betula pollen concentrations for all the days included in the study, and for all available days with high birch pollen counts (daily average birch pollen counts >80 grains/m3), show that, on average, there is a peak between 1400 hours and 1600 hours. Back-trajectory analysis showed that, on days with high birch pollen counts ( n = 60), 80% of air masses arriving at the time of peak diurnal birch pollen count approached North London from the south in a 180 degree arc from due east to due west. Detailed investigations of three Betula pollen episodes, with distinctly different diurnal patterns compared to the mean daily cycle, were used to illustrate how night-time maxima (2200-0400 hours) in Betula pollen counts could be the result of transport from distant sources or long transport times caused by slow moving air masses. We conclude that the Betula pollen recorded in North London could originate from sources found to the west and south of the city and not just trees within London itself. Possible sources outside the city include Continental Europe and the Betula trees within the broad-leaved forests of Southern England.

  4. VOC emission rates over London and South East England obtained by airborne eddy covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Shaw, Marvin D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Vieno, Massimo; Davison, Brian; Karl, Thomas G; Carpenter, Lucy J; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2017-08-24

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originate from a variety of sources, and play an intrinsic role in influencing air quality. Some VOCs, including benzene, are carcinogens and so directly affect human health, while others, such as isoprene, are very reactive in the atmosphere and play an important role in the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Here we report spatially-resolved measurements of the surface-to-atmosphere fluxes of VOCs across London and SE England made in 2013 and 2014. High-frequency 3-D wind velocities and VOC volume mixing ratios (made by proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometry) were obtained from a low-flying aircraft and used to calculate fluxes using the technique of eddy covariance. A footprint model was then used to quantify the flux contribution from the ground surface at spatial resolution of 100 m, averaged to 1 km. Measured fluxes of benzene over Greater London showed positive agreement with the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, with the highest fluxes originating from central London. Comparison of MTBE and toluene fluxes suggest that petroleum evaporation is an important emission source of toluene in central London. Outside London, increased isoprene emissions were observed over wooded areas, at rates greater than those predicted by a UK regional application of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme model (EMEP4UK). This work demonstrates the applicability of the airborne eddy covariance method to the determination of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC fluxes and the possibility of validating emission inventories through measurements.

  5. Droughts and Dragons: Geography, Rainfall, and Eighteenth-Century London's Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Carry

    By the end of the eighteenth century the majority of households in London received a piped water supply. This article examines the geographical, technological, and environmental challenges that London's private water companies faced as they created and expanded the large technological networks necessary to provide the growing city's water supply. It identifies geography and drought as the main drivers of innovation in London's water supply neworks, and argues that the main impediment to expansion for the majority of the water companies was overcoming the differences in elevation between their intake points and customer bases, with major improvements often made as a result of water shortages. The timing and the success or failure of a company's technological improvements proved pivotal in the subsequent development of the water market.

  6. To Moscow with love: partial reconstruction of Vygotsky's trip to London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, René; Zavershneva, Ekaterina

    2011-12-01

    The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) left the Soviet Union only once to attend a conference on the education of the deaf in London. So far almost nothing was known about this trip, which took place in a period when Vygotsky was still completely unknown as a psychologist, both inside his own country and abroad. Making use of a newly discovered notebook, it proved possible to partially reconstruct Vygotsky's journey and stay in London. Vygotsky's very personal remarks show him to have been a very sensitive and spirited man, who was prey to strong emotions during the conference and afterwards. Rather surprisingly, Vygotsky's own paper about the education of the deaf was never presented during the conference and the stay in London appears to have had a limited value for his own scientific development.

  7. An analysis of population and social change in London wards in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, P

    1989-01-01

    "This paper discusses the estimation and projection of small area populations in London, [England] and considers trends in intercensal social and demographic indices which can be calculated using these estimates. Information available annually on vital statistics and electorates is combined with detailed data from the Census Small Area Statistics to derive demographic component based population estimates for London's electoral wards over five year periods. The availability of age disaggregated population estimates permits derivation of small area social indicators for intercensal years, for example, of unemployment and mortality. Trends in spatial inequality of such indicators during the 1980s are analysed and point to continuing wide differentials. A typology of population and social indicators gives an indication of the small area distribution of the recent population turnaround in inner London, and of its association with other social processes such as gentrification and ethnic concentration." excerpt

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation in urban ethnobotany: the Colombian folk pharmacopoeia in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuterick, Melissa; Vandebroek, Ina; Torry, Bren; Pieroni, Andrea

    2008-12-08

    To investigate traditional health care practices and changes in medicinal plant use among the growing Colombian community in London. Ethnobotanical fieldwork consisted of qualitative, in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 23 Colombians living in London and botanical identification of 46 plant species actively used as herbal remedies. Subsequently, research data were compared with literature on ethnobotany and traditional herbal medicine in the home country, using a framework on cross-cultural adaptation, adjusted for the purpose of this study. Similarities and discrepancies between data and literature are interpreted as potential indicators of continuity and loss (or deculturation) of traditional remedies, respectively. Remedies used in London that are not corroborated by the literature suggest possible newly acquired uses. Cross-cultural adaptation related to health care practices is a multifaceted process. Persistence, loss and incorporation of remedies into the Colombian folk pharmacopoeia after migration are influenced by practical adaptation strategies as well as by symbolic-cultural motives of ethnic identity.

  9. Determining the Suitability of Materials for Disposal at Sea under the London Convention 1972 and London Protocol 1996: A Radiological Assessment Procedure. 2015 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides guidance on performing specific assessments of candidate materials for dumping at sea, to determine whether the materials are de minimis in the meaning of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972 (the London Convention 1972) and the related Protocol 1996 (the London Protocol 1996). It presents a detailed radiological procedure to assess doses to workers and members of the public and doses to marine flora and fauna related to the dumping of materials at sea. The procedures in this publication follow the requirements to protect the environment in the IAEA Safety Standards and in the recommendations by the International Commission of Radiological Protection. It is expected to be used by national regulatory authorities responsible for authorizing disposal at sea of candidate materials as well as by those companies and individuals applying to obtain permission to dispose these materials at sea

  10. HIV in East London: ethnicity, gender and risk. Design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukutu Cecilia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While men who have sex with men remain the group at greatest risk of acquiring HIV infection in the UK, the number of new diagnoses among heterosexuals has risen steadily over the last five years. In the UK, three-quarters of heterosexual men and women diagnosed with HIV in 2004 probably acquired their infection in Africa. This changing epidemiological pattern is particularly pronounced in East London because of its ethnically diverse population. Design and methods The objective of the study was to examine the social, economic and behavioural characteristics of patients with HIV infection currently receiving treatment and care in hospitals in East London. The research focused on ethnicity, gender, sexuality, education, employment, housing, HIV treatment, stigma, discrimination, religion, migration and sexual risk behaviour. People diagnosed with HIV infection attending outpatient treatment clinics at St Bartholomew's, the Royal London, Whipp's Cross, Homerton, Newham and Barking hospitals (all in East London over a 4–6 month period were invited to participate in the study in 2004–2005. Those who agreed to participate completed a confidential, self-administered pen-and-paper questionnaire. During the study period, 2680 patients with HIV attended the outpatient clinics in the six participating hospitals, of whom 2299 were eligible for the study and 1687 completed a questionnaire. The response rate was 73% of eligible patients and 63% of all patients attending the clinics during the survey period. Discussion A clinic-based study has allowed us to survey nearly 1700 patients with HIV from diverse backgrounds receiving treatment and care in East London. The data collected in this study will provide valuable information for the planning and delivery of appropriate clinical care, social support and health promotion for people living with HIV not only in East London but in other parts of the capital as well as elsewhere in the UK.

  11. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory.

  12. Evaluation of complex integrated care programmes: the approach in North West London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Felix; Pappas, Yannis; Bardsley, Martin; Harris, Matthew; Curry, Natasha; Holder, Holly; Blunt, Ian; Soljak, Michael; Gunn, Laura; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Background Several local attempts to introduce integrated care in the English National Health Service have been tried, with limited success. The Northwest London Integrated Care Pilot attempts to improve the quality of care of the elderly and people with diabetes by providing a novel integration process across primary, secondary and social care organisations. It involves predictive risk modelling, care planning, multidisciplinary management of complex cases and an information technology tool to support information sharing. This paper sets out the evaluation approach adopted to measure its effect. Study design We present a mixed methods evaluation methodology. It includes a quantitative approach measuring changes in service utilization, costs, clinical outcomes and quality of care using routine primary and secondary data sources. It also contains a qualitative component, involving observations, interviews and focus groups with patients and professionals, to understand participant experiences and to understand the pilot within the national policy context. Theory and discussion This study considers the complexity of evaluating a large, multi-organisational intervention in a changing healthcare economy. We locate the evaluation within the theory of evaluation of complex interventions. We present the specific challenges faced by evaluating an intervention of this sort, and the responses made to mitigate against them. Conclusions We hope this broad, dynamic and responsive evaluation will allow us to clarify the contribution of the pilot, and provide a potential model for evaluation of other similar interventions. Because of the priority given to the integrated agenda by governments internationally, the need to develop and improve strong evaluation methodologies remains strikingly important. PMID:23687478

  13. Evaluation of complex integrated care programmes: the approach in North West London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Greaves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several local attempts to introduce integrated care in the English National Health Service have been tried, with limited success. The Northwest London Integrated Care Pilot attempts to improve the quality of care of the elderly and people with diabetes by providing a novel integration process across primary, secondary and social care organisations. It involves predictive risk modelling, care planning, multidisciplinary management of complex cases and an information technology tool to support information sharing. This paper sets out the evaluation approach adopted to measure its effect. Study design: We present a mixed methods evaluation methodology. It includes a quantitative approach measuring changes in service utilization, costs, clinical outcomes and quality of care using routine primary and secondary data sources. It also contains a qualitative component, involving observations, interviews and focus groups with patients and professionals, to understand participant experiences and to understand the pilot within the national policy context. Theory and discussion: This study considers the complexity of evaluating a large, multi-organisational intervention in a changing healthcare economy. We locate the evaluation within the theory of evaluation of complex interventions. We present the specific challenges faced by evaluating an intervention of this sort, and the responses made to mitigate against them. Conclusions: We hope this broad, dynamic and responsive evaluation will allow us to clarify the contribution of the pilot, and provide a potential model for evaluation of other similar interventions. Because of the priority given to the integrated agenda by governments internationally, the need to develop and improve strong evaluation methodologies remains strikingly important

  14. Evaluation of complex integrated care programmes: the approach in North West London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Greaves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several local attempts to introduce integrated care in the English National Health Service have been tried, with limited success. The Northwest London Integrated Care Pilot attempts to improve the quality of care of the elderly and people with diabetes by providing a novel integration process across primary, secondary and social care organisations. It involves predictive risk modelling, care planning, multidisciplinary management of complex cases and an information technology tool to support information sharing. This paper sets out the evaluation approach adopted to measure its effect.Study design: We present a mixed methods evaluation methodology. It includes a quantitative approach measuring changes in service utilization, costs, clinical outcomes and quality of care using routine primary and secondary data sources. It also contains a qualitative component, involving observations, interviews and focus groups with patients and professionals, to understand participant experiences and to understand the pilot within the national policy context.Theory and discussion: This study considers the complexity of evaluating a large, multi-organisational intervention in a changing healthcare economy. We locate the evaluation within the theory of evaluation of complex interventions. We present the specific challenges faced by evaluating an intervention of this sort, and the responses made to mitigate against them.Conclusions: We hope this broad, dynamic and responsive evaluation will allow us to clarify the contribution of the pilot, and provide a potential model for evaluation of other similar interventions. Because of the priority given to the integrated agenda by governments internationally, the need to develop and improve strong evaluation methodologies remains strikingly important

  15. Spatial and temporal variability of urban fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide above London, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Helfter

    2016-08-01

    London. This is however not the case for CH4 emissions which are heavily underestimated by the inventory approach. Our results and others point to opportunities in the UK and abroad to identify and quantify the "missing" sources of urban methane, revise the methodologies of the emission inventories and devise emission reduction strategies for this potent greenhouse gas.

  16. Impact of London's road traffic air and noise pollution on birth weight: retrospective population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel B; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Beevers, Sean D; Dajnak, David; Blangiardo, Marta; Ghosh, Rebecca E; Hansell, Anna L; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Toledano, Mireille B

    2017-12-05

    Objective  To investigate the relation between exposure to both air and noise pollution from road traffic and birth weight outcomes. Design  Retrospective population based cohort study. Setting  Greater London and surrounding counties up to the M25 motorway (2317 km 2 ), UK, from 2006 to 2010. Participants  540 365 singleton term live births. Main outcome measures  Term low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) at term, and term birth weight. Results  Average air pollutant exposures across pregnancy were 41 μg/m 3 nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), 73 μg/m 3 nitrogen oxides (NO x ), 14 μg/m 3 particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter noise levels were 58 dB and 53 dB respectively. Interquartile range increases in NO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and source specific PM 2.5 from traffic exhaust (PM 2.5 traffic exhaust ) and traffic non-exhaust (brake or tyre wear and resuspension) (PM 2.5 traffic non-exhaust ) were associated with 2% to 6% increased odds of term LBW, and 1% to 3% increased odds of term SGA. Air pollutant associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. Trends of decreasing birth weight across increasing road traffic noise categories were observed, but were strongly attenuated when adjusted for primary traffic related air pollutants. Only PM 2.5 traffic exhaust and PM 2.5 were consistently associated with increased risk of term LBW after adjustment for each of the other air pollutants. It was estimated that 3% of term LBW cases in London are directly attributable to residential exposure to PM 2.5 >13.8 μg/m 3 during pregnancy. Conclusions  The findings suggest that air pollution from road traffic in London is adversely affecting fetal growth. The results suggest little evidence for an independent exposure-response effect of traffic related noise on birth weight outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Multiconfigurational self-consistent field calculations of nuclear shieldings using London atomic orbitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruud, Kenneth; Helgaker, Trygve; Kobayashi, Rika

    1994-01-01

    to corresponding individual gauges for localized orbitals (IGLO) results. The London results show better basis set convergence than IGLO, especially for heavier atoms. It is shown that the choice of active space is crucial for determination of accurate nuclear shielding constants.......Nuclear shielding calculations are presented for multiconfigurational self-consistent field wave functions using London atomic orbitals (gauge invariant atomic orbitals). Calculations of nuclear shieldings for eight molecules (H2O, H2S, CH4, N2, CO, HF, F2, and SO2) are presented and compared...

  18. The Sindhi Hindus of London − Language Maintenance or Language Shift?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Khemlani David

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The linguistic situation of the Sindhi language in London is examined with a view to determining whether the community is maintaining the use of its ethnic language. The Sindhi Hindus of London are a language community, which have never been researched. The language choice of the community in different domains and for a range of language functions is discussed. Both external and internal factors of language shift have weakened the linguistic and communicative competence of Sindhi speakers in the language contact situation of the United Kingdom.

  19. In vitro transfer of multiple resistance observed in vivo during a Salmonella london epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, J; Marjai, E

    1980-01-01

    Between 1976 and 1978, waves of Salmonella london infections conveyed by raw meat and meat products were observed. The strains isolated during the epidemic were first susceptible then developed multiple antibiotic resistance. The identical antibiotic resistance patterns of the strain and their more frequent occurrence in hospital environments indicated plasmid-mediated resistance. R-plasmid transfer, minimum inhibition concentration and resistance elimination were studied in representative strains. The resistant S. london strain and transconjugants of Escherichia coli rendered resistant were compared. The results proved that multiple resistance was plasmid-mediated.

  20. Space, Emotions and the Everyday: The Affective Ecology of 1980s London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    This article explores the relationship between emotions, space and politics in 1980s London, using the Greater London Council, childcare, and racial harassment as particular foci. It brings together political history, the history of emotions, and geography to offer a new way of thinking about political culture, as well as contributing to the history of the 1980s. It is based upon archival sources. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF LONDON AS THE WORLD’S FINANCIAL CENTER IN THE CONDITIONS OF BREXIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Sydorova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the role of London as the global financial center in the modern international financial system under the conditions of Britain's withdrawal from the European Union. Methodology. During the study, the comparative method, methods of statistics and economic-mathematical modeling were used. The methodological and theoretical basis of the study is the fundamental provisions of international economic relations, the study of economists in the field of international monetary and financial relations. Information basis is analytical reports of international financial centers and statistical databases of international organizations. Results. Nowadays, London has all the necessary factors for success: open economy, developed financial infrastructure, stability of taxation system, geographical location, long-term government support, transparent policy, investor diversity and multi-culture. It is revealed that a growing variety of financial instruments is a characteristic feature of London as a modern global financial center. As a result, London is gradually winning the battle for the title of the world's leading financial center. The Government of the United Kingdom constantly develops growth strategies of the City of London, creates favorable conditions for the work of international companies, and attracts highly qualified specialists from other countries in the field of finance and law. The competent policy of the state and the wide range of services provided for the successful transactions on stock exchanges and commodity markets help London to maintain undisputed leadership in the global financial market and minimize losses associated with Brexit. At the same time, the decision of the UK to withdraw from the EU had a negative impact on the stability of the country's banking system, it had provoked a decline in the country's credit ratings, a drop in the pound sterling against the dollar and the euro. Another problem

  2. Ranking current and prospective NO2 pollution mitigation strategies: An environmental and economic modelling investigation in Oxford Street, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanjean, A P R; Gallagher, J; Monks, P S; Leigh, R J

    2017-06-01

    Air pollution continues to be a problem in the urban environment. A range of different pollutant mitigation strategies that promote dispersion and deposition exist, but there is little evidence with respect to their comparative performance from both an environmental and economic perspective. This paper focuses on examining different NO 2 mitigation strategies such as trees, buildings facades coated with photocatalytic paint and solid barriers in Oxford Street in London. The case study findings will support ranking the environmental and economic impacts of these different strategies to improve personal exposure conditions on the footpath and on the road in a real urban street canyon. CFD simulations of airflow and NO 2 dispersion in Oxford Street in London were undertaken using the OpenFOAM software platform with the k-ε model, taking into account local prevailing wind conditions. Trees are shown to be the most cost-effective strategy, with a small reduction in NO 2 concentrations of up to 0.7% on the road. However, solid barriers with and without the application of photocatalytic paint and an innovative material (20 times more expensive than trees) can improve air quality on the footpaths more substantially, up to 7.4%, yet this has a significant detrimental impact on NO 2 concentrations (≤23.8%) on the road. Photocatalytic paint on building surfaces presented a minimal environmental reductions (1.2%) and economic (>100 times more expensive than trees) mitigation strategy. The findings recognised the differences between footpath and road concentrations occurred and that a focused examination of three pollution hotspots can provide more cost effective pollution mitigation. This study considers how a number of pollutant mitigation measures can be applied in a single street canyon and demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of these strategies from economic and environmental perspectives. Further research is required to extrapolate the findings presented here to

  3. The Condensate Saga: From London's proposal to a convincing experimental answer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The Condensate Sata, which began with Fritz London's intriguing proposal of 1938, is summarized with particular emphasis on the study of Sears, Svensson, Martel and Woods of 1982 which gave the first convincing experimental evidence for a macroscopic occupation of the zero-momentum state in superfluid /sup 4/He

  4. London Debates 2009. What role do museums play in the globalisation of culture ?

    OpenAIRE

    School of Advanced Study

    2010-01-01

    This report underlines the central role museums play in the globalisation of culture, and sets out action points to guide academic research, museum practice and policy-making. A report presenting the most important results of the London Debates, led at the School of Advanced Study in May 2009.

  5. "Delays and Vexation": Jack London and the Russo-Japanese War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on journalism history and censorship by discussing Jack London's efforts as a war correspondent to cover the Russo-Japanese War in Korea and Manchuria in 1904. Focuses on the difficulties he encountered as a result of systematic and highly restrictive censorship by the Japanese. (SR)

  6. An assessment of heavy metal pollution in the East London and Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of heavy metals (zinc, cadmium, copper, iron, manganese and lead) was investigated in seawater and in sediment samples from the East London and Port Elizabeth harbours. Both are ports of major importance to the area. The aim was to assess the impact of potential pollution sources, mainly from the ...

  7. Bilingual Behaviour, Attitudes, Identity and Vitality: Some Data from Japanese Speakers in London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ivan; Sachdev, Itesh

    2009-01-01

    Although the Japanese community in London is relatively small, its composition is stable and reflects several aspects of Japan's relationship with the international community. Yet there appears to have been no systematic research exploring patterns of bilingual behaviour in relation to social psychological processes amongst Japanese nationals in…

  8. A Virtual Walk through London: Culture Learning through a Cultural Immersion Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Integrating Google Street View into a three-dimensional virtual environment in which users control personal avatars provides these said users with access to an innovative, interactive, and real-world context for communication and culture learning. We have selected London, a city famous for its rich historical, architectural, and artistic heritage,…

  9. Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-16

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014.  Created: 8/16/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/16/2016.

  10. Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-18

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the essay, Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague.  Created: 11/18/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/20/2014.

  11. The Expenditure Impacts of London's Higher Education Institutions: The Role of Diverse Income Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermannsson, Kristinn; Lisenkova, Katerina; McGregor, Peter G.; Swales, J. Kim

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of London-based higher education institutions (HEIs) on the English economy. When we treat each of the HEIs as separate sectors in conventional input-output analysis, their expenditure impacts appear rather homogenous, with the apparent heterogeneity of their overall impacts being primarily driven by scale. However,…

  12. Drama to Inspire: A London Drama Guide to Excellent Practice in Drama for Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventon, John, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Drama to Inspire" is a timely selection of practice based accounts produced by fifteen workshop leaders and friends of the long established association for teachers of drama, London Drama. Many of the authors are internationally renowned for their work. Each piece affirms the immense potential for dynamic learning that is at the heart…

  13. Preliminary Bedrock Geologic Map of the Old Lyme Quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Scott, Robert B.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Armstrong, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map of the bedrock geology of the Old Lyme quadrangle, New London and Middlesex Counties, Connecticut. The map depicts contacts of bedrock geologic units, faults, outcrops, and structural geologic information. The map was published as part of a study of fractured bedrock aquifers and regional tectonics.

  14. Augener & Co., London - neznámý Dvořákův nakladatel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějčková, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2012), s. 247-266 ISSN 0018-7003 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA408/08/1020 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Dvořák * publishers * London Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  15. Teaching the Very Recent Past: "Miriam's Vision" and the London Bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Alison; Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    "Miriam's Vision" is an educational project developed by the Miriam Hyman Memorial Trust, an organisation set up in memory of Miriam Hyman, one of the 52 victims of the London bombings of 2005. The project has developed a number of subject-based modules, including history, which are provided free to schools through the website…

  16. Provision of out-of-hours interventional radiology services in the London Strategic Health Authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illing, R.O., E-mail: rowland@doctors.org.u [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Ingham Clark, C.L.; Allum, C. [Whittington Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Aim: To review the provision of out-of-hours interventional radiology (IR) services in the London Strategic Health Authority (SHA). Materials and methods: All 29 acute hospitals in the London SHA were contacted between November 2008 and January 2009. A questionnaire based on the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines assessed the provision of out-of-hours IR services. An 'ad-hoc' service was defined as on-call provision where not all the radiologists could perform intervention: If IR was required out of hours, an interventionalist came in when off-duty or the patient was transferred. Results: Seventeen out of the 29 (59%) hospitals provided ad-hoc out-of-hours services, eight (28%) provided a 24-hour rota, and four (14%) provide no out-of-hours cover. No ad-hoc service had formal transfer arrangements to a centre providing a 24 h service. Only two hospitals providing a 24 h service had six radiologists on the rota. Conclusion: Strategic planning for out-of-hours IR across London is recommended. This is likely to be welcomed by the hospitals involved, allowing informal arrangements to be formalized, and collaboration to provide comprehensive regional networks, provided appropriate funding is made available. A national audit is recommended; it is unlikely these findings are unique to London.

  17. Provision of out-of-hours interventional radiology services in the London Strategic Health Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illing, R.O.; Ingham Clark, C.L.; Allum, C.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To review the provision of out-of-hours interventional radiology (IR) services in the London Strategic Health Authority (SHA). Materials and methods: All 29 acute hospitals in the London SHA were contacted between November 2008 and January 2009. A questionnaire based on the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines assessed the provision of out-of-hours IR services. An 'ad-hoc' service was defined as on-call provision where not all the radiologists could perform intervention: If IR was required out of hours, an interventionalist came in when off-duty or the patient was transferred. Results: Seventeen out of the 29 (59%) hospitals provided ad-hoc out-of-hours services, eight (28%) provided a 24-hour rota, and four (14%) provide no out-of-hours cover. No ad-hoc service had formal transfer arrangements to a centre providing a 24 h service. Only two hospitals providing a 24 h service had six radiologists on the rota. Conclusion: Strategic planning for out-of-hours IR across London is recommended. This is likely to be welcomed by the hospitals involved, allowing informal arrangements to be formalized, and collaboration to provide comprehensive regional networks, provided appropriate funding is made available. A national audit is recommended; it is unlikely these findings are unique to London.

  18. 77 FR 32898 - Safety & Security Zones; OPSAIL 2012 Connecticut, Thames River, New London, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... 1625-AA00; AA87 Safety & Security Zones; OPSAIL 2012 Connecticut, Thames River, New London, CT AGENCY... 20, 2012 the Coast Guard published a notice of proposed rulemaking entitled Safety & Security Zones... Homeland Security Delegation No. 0170.1, which collectively authorize the Coast Guard to define safety and...

  19. Patterns of Drug Use in a Sample of 200 Young Drug Users in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Strang, John

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected during a secondary prevention intervention study was conducted to describe patterns of drug use in a non-treatment sample of young drug users recruited in ten further-education colleges across inner London. Participants were 200 young people who were either weekly cannabis users and/or who had…

  20. London 2012 and beyond: concluding reflections on peacemaking, sport and the Olympic movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Burleson, C.

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games have reinvigorated the debate on Olympic legacies for peace and development. Addressing this debate and building on the articles in this collection, this epilogue argues that the theoretical-conceptual understanding of peace and peacemaking remains poorly

  1. Post-Event Volunteering Legacy: Did the London 2012 Games Induce a Sustainable Volunteer Engagement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Koutrou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The hosting of the London 2012 Olympic Games was seen as an opportunity to harness the enthusiasm of the 70,000 volunteers involved and to provide a post-event volunteer legacy. A total of 77 individuals who had acted as volunteers in London 2012 were contacted approximately four years after the Games and agreed to complete a web-based open-ended survey. The participants were asked to indicate their level of current volunteering engagement and whether volunteering at the Games had an impact on their current volunteering levels. The study found that the London Olympics were the first volunteer experience for most of the volunteers who completed the survey, with the main motivation to volunteer being anything related to the Olympic Games. Just over half of the respondents are currently volunteering. Lack of time is shown to be the main barrier towards further volunteering commitment. Only half of respondents had been contacted by a volunteering scheme after London 2012. The implications of the findings for a potential volunteering legacy are then explored.

  2. The Aspirations and Realities of Prison Education for Under-25s in the London Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lynne; Hurry, Jane; Simonot, Margaret; Wilson, Anita

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study, undertaken in 2012, was to describe provision available for under- 25s in prisons and to gain insight into the particularities of prison education. Six custodial establishments serving the London area were visited (prisons or Young Offender Institutions) and available statistical data were collected from a larger sample.…

  3. Peer Mentoring Experiences of Psychology Students at the London Metropolitan University Writing Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Savita; Harrington, Kathy; O'Neill, Peter

    2008-01-01

    "It really helps knowing that you are going to have someone around to help you..." This short article reports on research taking place into peer writing tutorials at London Metropolitan University and examines in particular, the experiences of psychology students who have taken part in the scheme. Some of the implications of this…

  4. The London Geography Alliance: Re-Connecting the School Subject with the University Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Alex; Hawley, Duncan; Willy, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    The London Geography Alliance was established to provide a network of subject-based support to primary and secondary schools, by linking teachers and university lecturers. Workshops and fieldwork were conducted over a 17-month period to address different aspects of the geography curriculum. The effects of the project were evaluated using…

  5. Social Media as Contact Zones : Young Londoners Remapping the Metropolis through Digital Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, K.H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/343295334

    2015-01-01

    Social media use among urban, young Londoners of diverse cultural backgrounds constitutes a contemporary, postcolonial contact zone in Europe. By taking digital practices as an entry point to consider intercultural encounters in the postcolonial metropolis, I bring new media studies into a much

  6. Mind the gap: financial London and the regional class pay gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sam; Laurison, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    The hidden barriers, or 'gender pay gap', preventing women from earning equivalent incomes to men is well documented. Yet recent research has uncovered that, in Britain, there is also a comparable class-origin pay gap in higher professional and managerial occupations. So far this analysis has only been conducted at the national level and it is not known whether there are regional differences within the UK. This paper uses pooled data from the 2014 and 2015 Labour Force Survey (N = 7,534) to stage a more spatially sensitive analysis that examines regional variation in the class pay gap. We find that this 'class ceiling' is not evenly spatially distributed. Instead it is particularly marked in Central London, where those in high-status occupations who are from working-class backgrounds earn, on average, £10,660 less per year than those whose parents were in higher professional and managerial employment. Finally, we inspect the Capital further to reveal that the class pay gap is largest within Central London's banking and finance sector. Challenging policy conceptions of London as the 'engine room' of social mobility, these findings suggest that class disadvantage within high-status occupations is particularly acute in the Capital. The findings also underline the value of investigating regional differences in social mobility, and demonstrate how such analysis can unravel important and previously unrecognized spatial dimensions of class inequality. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  7. THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS OF THE MAGNETIZABILITY OF SOME SMALL FLUORINE-CONTAINING MOLECULES USING LONDON ATOMIC ORBITALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruud, K.; Helgaker, T.; Jørgensen, Poul

    1994-01-01

    We report a systematic investigation of the magnetizability of a series of small molecules. The use of London atomic orbitals ensures gauge invariance and a fast basis set convergence. Good agreement is obtained with experimental magnetizabilities, both isotropic and anisotropic. The calculations...

  8. The sins of the fathers--Africans with HIV infection in London; lessons for others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, J S

    2002-12-01

    Many European countries have taken in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. The reasons for this are discussed and the particular problems experienced by HIV-infected Africans in London, and the approach to their care at St Thomas' Hospital, is delineated.

  9. Language Shift and Vitality Perceptions amongst London's Second-Generation Bangladeshis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinger, Sebastian M.

    2013-01-01

    With more than 64,500 members, the Bangladeshi community in London is one of the largest in the UK. Originating from a wave of immigration during the 1970s, a considerable part of the community now consists of a second, UK-born generation. This explorative study seeks to address, first, the extent of the intergenerational language shift from…

  10. Geographically varying associations between personality and life satisfaction in the London metropolitan area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokela, M.; Bleidorn, W.; Lamb, M.E.; Gosling, S.D.; Rentfrow, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Residential location is thought to influence people’s well-being, but different individuals may value residential areas differently. We examined how life satisfaction and personality traits are geographically distributed within the UK London metropolitan area, and how the strength of associations

  11. Fra Bartolomeo della Porta detto Fra Bartolomeo, Adorazione del Bambino, National Gallery, London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Chris

    2014-01-01

    En artikel om et maleri af Fra Bartolomeo i National Gallery i London udlånt til en udstilling i Museo Tosio Martinengo I Brescia i forbindelse med opdagelsen af et fuldstændigt overensstemmende maleri i dette museums magasiner. Hypotesen var at Bresciabilledet var et værkstedsarbejde lavet på ba...

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of offering free leisure centre memberships to physically inactive members of the public receiving state benefits: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Trend, Verena; Kelly, Barry; Robinson, Nigel; Fox, Paul; Morris, Stephen

    2016-07-22

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the Give-it-a-Go programme, which offers free leisure centre memberships to physically inactive members of the public in a single London Borough receiving state benefits. A decision analytic Markov model was developed to analyse lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of 1025 people recruited to the intervention versus no intervention. In the intervention group, people were offered 4 months of free membership at a leisure centre. Physical activity levels were assessed at 0 and 4 months using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Higher levels of physical activity were assumed to decrease the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and diabetes mellitus type II, as well as improve mental health. Costs were assessed from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Uncertainty was assessed using one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. One-hundred fifty nine participants (15.5 %) completed the programme by attending the leisure centre for 4 months. Compared with no intervention, Give it a Go increased costs by £67.25 and QALYs by 0.0033 (equivalent to 1.21 days in full health) per recruited person. The incremental costs per QALY gained were £20,347. The results were highly sensitive to the magnitude of mental health gain due to physical activity and the duration of the effect of the programme (1 year in the base case analysis). When the mental health gain was omitted from the analysis, the incremental cost per QALY gained increased to almost £1.5 million. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the incremental costs per QALY gained were below £20,000 in 39 % of the 5000 simulations. Give it a Go did not significantly increase life-expectancy, but had a positive influence on quality of life due to the mental health gain of physical activity. If the increase in physical activity caused by Give it a Go lasts for more than 1 year, the programme would be cost-effective given a

  13. A review of specialist palliative care provision and access across London - mapping the capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah; Murtagh, Fliss E M; Tookman, Adrian; Gage, Andrew; Sykes, Nigel; McGinn, Maureen; Kathoria, Meeta; Wilderspin, Hilary; Chart, Liz

    2017-05-01

    Palliative care provision varies by diagnosis, geography, and setting. The Minimum Data-set provides high-level data on provision, but comprehensive comparative information about specialist palliative care (SPC) provision is lacking. The London Cancer Alliance - now RM Partners' Accountable Cancer Network - palliative care group (West/South London) and PallE8 (North/East London), with Marie Curie, sought to address this gap. The aim was to provide comparative data on SPC provision across London to support commissioners and providers to assess provision, identify gaps, and reduce inequity. A data-collection template was developed through expert consensus. Demographic, diagnostic, and service data was collected, plus models of care, staffing levels, and use of clinical outcome/experience measures. Results were collated by organisation and CCG. Cleaned data was provided back to each organisation for verification before final analyses. All 50 adult SPC providers in London participated, representing hospitals, hospices and community services. •Patients in all 32 CCGs have access to hospice beds, with 322 beds from 15 providers (4 NHS) for a population of 9,323,570 (with 47,583 deaths annually).•SPC in London sees more non-cancer patients than is reported nationally; 79% of hospital advisory, 74% of community, and 88% of hospice in-patient services have higher proportions of non-cancer patients.•Considerable variation in out-of-hours availability of both hospital SPC and community SPC services across London; only 9 of 30 hospital and 17 of 26 community services provide seven-day visiting.•Wide variation in the models of community-based SPC; proportions of community patients attending day services vary from 1 in 4, to 1 in 17, just 13 CCGs have H@H-type provision, with few Rapid Response or Care Coordination services. This detailed survey demonstrates important gaps in availability and provision of SPC services. Recommendations are made for commissioners and

  14. Unsuccessful immigration: the peculiarities of homeless Lithuanians’ lives in London

    OpenAIRE

    Malinauskas, Gedas; Blažytė, Vilma

    2010-01-01

    Using the data of a pilot study, this article deals with unsuccessful cases of Lithuanian immigration, i.e., lifestyle peculiarities of Lithuanians who became homeless in the capital of Great Britain. While analyzing the phenomenon in a descriptive manner, the authors sought an answer the question of why Lithuanian emigrants who had family and work in their homeland became homeless after they had come to search for a better life. The issues of homeless Lithuanians‘ daily life and life princip...

  15. The role of the IAEA in the London Convention 1972 on Dumping of Wastes at Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telleria, Diego; Berkovsky, Volodymyr; Jova Sed, Luis; Louvat, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter was adopted after an Inter-Governmental Conference, held in London in 1972, following the principles for environmental protection enunciated in the Report of the United Nations Conference on Human Environment, held the same year in Stockholm. The IAEA has been involved since the early days of the London Convention when the Contracting Parties designated the IAEA as the competent international authority in matters related to sea disposal of radioactive waste, providing technical advice and services. The IAEA developed, for the Convention, the definition of 'radioactive wastes or radioactive matters unsuitable for dumping at sea' (e.g., high level radioactive waste) and recommended the technical basis applicable by the national authorities to issue special permits for those radioactive materials which could be dumped (mainly low and intermediate level radioactive waste, properly conditioned and 'de minimis' quantities). However, in 1985, based more on political reasons than on the existing radiation protection principles and policies, the Contracting Parties to the London Convention introduced a 'voluntary moratorium' on the disposal of low level radioactive wastes at sea, and later in 1993, a total ban of radioactive waste disposal at sea. The IAEA continues to support the objectives of the London Convention by providing scientific advice. Since 1989, at the request of the Contracting Parties, the IAEA has developed and maintained global databases on radioactive waste disposed of at sea in the past and on accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material. The purpose of these databases is to serve as the basis for radiological impact assessment on the marine environment. The last revised reports on the above mentioned inventories were published in 1999 and in 2001 respectively. The databases are currently in the process of being updated. The paper presents

  16. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Paolo Masucci

    Full Text Available We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.

  17. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.

  18. Patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma in medieval London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowka, Kathryn

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to identify the patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma (including the cranium and mandible) among a large sample of skeletons from medieval London (1050-1550 AD). In total, data from 399 skulls, representing six different sites from across medieval London, were analyzed for evidence of trauma and assessed for the likelihood that it was caused by violence. The sites include the three parish cemeteries of St Nicholas Shambles (GPO75), St Lawrence Jewry (GYE92), and St Benet Sherehog (ONE94); the two monastic houses of London Blackfriars (PIC87) and St Mary Graces (MIN86); and the early inmate cemetery from the medieval hospital of St Mary Spital (NRT85). The overall findings suggest that violence affected all aspects of medieval London society, but how that violence was characterized largely depended on sex and burial location. Specifically, males from the lay cemeteries appear to have been the demographic most affected by violence-related skull injuries, particularly blunt force trauma to the cranial vault. Using both archaeological and historical evidence, the results suggest that violence in medieval London may have been more prevalent than in other parts of medieval England, particularly rural environments, but similar to other parts of medieval Europe. However, more studies focusing on medieval trauma, and violence specifically, need to be carried out to further strengthen these results. In particular, males from the lay cemeteries were disproportionately affected by violence-related trauma, especially blunt force trauma. It perhaps indicates a means of informal conflict resolution as those of lower status did not always have the newly established medieval legal system available to them. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Research reactor facilities, recent developments at Imperial College, London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, S.J.; Goddard, A.J.H.; O Connell, J.

    1998-01-01

    The 100 kW CONSORT pool-type reactor is now the only Research Reactor in the UK. Because of its strategic importance, Imperial College is continuing and accelerating a programme of refurbishment of the control system, and planning for a further fuel charge. These plans are described and the progress to date discussed. To this end, a description of the enhanced Safety Case being written is provided here and refueling plans discussed. The current range of facilities available is described, and future plans highlighted. (author)

  20. Individual socio-demographic factors and perceptions of the environment as determinants of inequalities in adolescent physical and psychological health: the Olympic Regeneration in East London (ORiEL) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neil R; Lewis, Daniel J; Fahy, Amanda; Eldridge, Sandra; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Moore, Derek G; Clark, Charlotte; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Cummins, Steven

    2015-02-15

    Populations living in urban areas experience greater health inequalities as well as higher absolute burdens of illness. It is well-established that a range of social and environmental factors determine these differences. Less is known about the relative importance of these factors in determining adolescent health within a super diverse urban context. A cross-sectional sample of 3,105 adolescent participants aged 11 to 12 were recruited from 25 schools in the London boroughs of Newham, Tower Hamlets, Hackney and Barking & Dagenham. Participants completed a pseudo-anonymised paper-based questionnaire incorporating: the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale used for assessing positive mental well-being, the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire based on the DSM III-R criteria for assessment of depressive symptoms, the Youth-Physical Activity Questionnaire and a self-assessment of general health and longstanding illness. Prevalence estimates and unadjusted linear models estimate the extent to which positive well-being scores and time spent in physical/sedentary activity vary by socio-demographic and environmental indicators. Logistic regression estimated the unadjusted odds of having fair/(very)poor general health, a long standing illness, or depressive symptoms. Fully adjusted mixed effects models accounted for clustering within schools and for all socio-demographic and environmental indicators. Compared to boys, girls had significantly lower mental well-being and higher rates of depressive symptoms, reported fewer hours physically active and more hours sedentary, and had poorer general health after full adjustment. Positive mental well-being was significantly and positively associated with family affluence but the overall relationship between mental health and socioeconomic factors was weak. Mental health advantage increased as positive perceptions of the neighbourhood safety, aesthetics, walkability and services increased. Prevalence of poor health varied by

  1. Promoting Diversity in Creative Art Education: The Case of Fine Art at Goldsmiths, University of London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayton, Annette Ruth; Haste, Polly; Jones, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Students studying art at university in the United Kingdom tend to be female, from higher social classes and from majority ethnic groups. This paper considers some of the complex and deeply-rooted social and economic factors that militate against wider participation in the arts and describes how we started to tackle under-representation at…

  2. High-Speed Rail and Local Land Development : Case Studies in London and Las Vegas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The efficacy of a high-speed rail system depends, in part, upon locating rail stations close to urban centers and integrating them into broader transportation networks and the urban realm. In addition, through economies of agglomeration, successful h...

  3. Inventory of Radioactive Material Resulting from Historical Dumping, Accidents and Losses at Sea. For the Purposes of the London Convention 1972 and London Protocol 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    The IAEA was requested by the Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention) and the 1996 Protocol (London Protocol) to develop and maintain an inventory of radioactive material entering directly into the ocean from all human made origins. The intent in producing such an inventory is to establish a record of past waste dumping and of accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material, based on official reports, for use as an information base for the assessment of the impact of radionuclide sources in the marine environment, when deemed necessary. To respond to the request of the London Convention and Protocol, the IAEA has undertaken the development of the inventory to include radioactive waste resulting from dumping at sea, and accidents and losses which occurred at sea and involved radioactive material. The first IAEA report on this subject, Inventory of Radioactive Material Entering the Marine Environment: Sea Disposal of Radioactive Waste (IAEA-TECDOC-588), was published in 1991. The report was subsequently revised to include information provided by the Russian Federation regarding waste dumping operations conducted by the former Soviet Union in the Arctic and North-west Pacific Seas and some additional information provided by Sweden and the United Kingdom. The revised report, Inventory of Radioactive Waste Disposals at Sea (IAEA-TECDOC-1105), was published in 1999. A report on the information available at the IAEA on such incidents was published in 2001 as Inventory of Accidents and Losses at Sea Involving Radioactive Material (IAEA-TECDOC-1242). The present publication updates and combines IAEA-TECDOCs 1105 and 1242. It describes the contents of the inventory on waste dumping, accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material. In order to prepare the publication, the IAEA, in cooperation with the International Maritime Organization (IMO), conducted a

  4. Transitions of Care from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services to Adult Mental Health Services (TRACK Study: A study of protocols in Greater London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Tamsin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although young people's transition from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS in England is a significant health issue for service users, commissioners and providers, there is little evidence available to guide service development. The TRACK study aims to identify factors which facilitate or impede effective transition from CAHMS to AMHS. This paper presents findings from a survey of transition protocols in Greater London. Methods A questionnaire survey (Jan-April 2005 of Greater London CAMHS to identify transition protocols and collect data on team size, structure, transition protocols, population served and referral rates to AMHS. Identified transition protocols were subjected to content analysis. Results Forty two of the 65 teams contacted (65% responded to the survey. Teams varied in type (generic/targeted/in-patient, catchment area (locality-based, wider or national and transition boundaries with AMHS. Estimated annual average number of cases considered suitable for transfer to AMHS, per CAMHS team (mean 12.3, range 0–70, SD 14.5, n = 37 was greater than the annual average number of cases actually accepted by AMHS (mean 8.3, range 0–50, SD 9.5, n = 33. In April 2005, there were 13 active and 2 draft protocols in Greater London. Protocols were largely similar in stated aims and policies, but differed in key procedural details, such as joint working between CAHMS and AMHS and whether protocols were shared at Trust or locality level. While the centrality of service users' involvement in the transition process was identified, no protocol specified how users should be prepared for transition. A major omission from protocols was procedures to ensure continuity of care for patients not accepted by AMHS. Conclusion At least 13 transition protocols were in operation in Greater London in April 2005. Not all protocols meet all requirements set by government policy. Variation in

  5. The development of non-essentialist concepts of ethnicity among children in a multicultural London community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ruth

    2017-11-01

    Ethnic constancy, the belief that a person cannot change ethnicity, is an important component of ethnic essentialism, the conviction that members of ethnic groups share an immutable underlying essence. Most children in previous research viewed ethnicity as increasingly immutable with age. However, some evidence suggests that children growing up in communities, which define ethnicity primarily in terms of changeable features (e.g., lifestyle) rather than fixed features (e.g., ancestry), may not follow this trajectory. This study examined ethnic constancy development in a community which defined ethnicity primarily in terms of changeable features. It was hypothesized that older children would view ethnicity as more changeable than younger children, but that because of personal investment which increases with age, children would view their own ethnicity as more stable than a peer's ethnicity, entailing a significant interaction between age and self-other. Ninety-two children in three age groups (mean ages 7, 9, and 11 years) from a multicultural school in London were interviewed individually. Their ethnicities were 45% Indian, 16% English, 7% Pakistani, 7% Somali, 2% unknown, and 25% other. Children's explanations were analysed thematically. All hypotheses were supported. Children's conceptions of others' ethnicity as changeable were supported by definitions focusing on religion, and by the concept of freedom of choice. This suggests that in a community in which ethnicity is primarily defined in terms of attributes which are seen as mutable (in this case, religion), children may not essentialize ethnicity. Still, ethnic change may rarely occur in practice due to an emotional commitment to one's own ethnic group. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Most research finds that children develop concept of ethnicity as fixed and essential; But limited evidence of non-essentialist developmental pathways for ethnicity For gender, children assert

  6. Outcomes of domestic violence screening at an acute London trust: are there missed opportunities for intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Bartley, Angela; Bayly, Jude; Dutey-Magni, Peter; Edwards, Sarah; Madge, Sara; Miller, Charlotte; Nicholas, Rachel; Radhakrishnan, Sheila; Sathia, Leena; Swarbrick, Helen; Blaikie, Dee; Rodger, Alison

    2016-01-04

    Domestic violence screening is advocated in some healthcare settings. Evidence that it increases referral to support agencies or improves health outcomes is limited. This study aimed to (1) investigate the proportion of hospital patients reporting domestic violence, (2) describe characteristics and previous hospital attendances of affected patients and (3) assess referrals to an in-house domestic violence advisor from Camden Safety Net. A series of observational studies. Three outpatient clinics at the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust. 10,158 patients screened for domestic violence in community gynaecology, genitourinary medicine (GUM) and HIV medicine clinics between 1 October 2013 and 30 June 2014. Also 2253 Camden Safety Net referrals over the same period. (1) Percentage reporting domestic violence by age group gender, ethnicity and clinic. (2) Rates of hospital attendances in the past 3 years for those screening positive and negative. (3) Characteristics, uptake and risk assessment results for hospital in-house domestic violence referrals compared with Camden Safety Net referrals from other sources. Of the 10,158 patients screened, 57.4% were female with a median age of 30 years. Overall, 7.1% reported ever-experiencing domestic violence, ranging from 5.7% in GUM to 29.4% in HIV services. People screening positive for domestic violence had higher rates of previous emergency department attendances (rate ratio (RR) 1.63, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.48), emergency inpatient admissions (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.37 to 3.84) and day-case admissions (RR 2.03, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.43) than those screening negative. The 77 hospital referrals to the hospital-based domestic violence advisor during the study period were more likely to be taken up and to be classified as high risk than referrals from elsewhere. Selective screening for domestic violence in high-risk hospital clinic populations has the potential to identify affected patients and promote good uptake of referrals for in

  7. Impact of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services at the Public Health Laboratory London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K; Sinclair, C; McEwan, R; Fleet, K; Balasegaram, S; Manuel, R

    2014-07-01

    Planning for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games at the Public Health Laboratory London was based on the requirement to meet potential increased demand with scalable capacity. The aim of this study was to determine the impact on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services during the Games period. Retrospective cross-sectional time-series data analysis was used to assess the number of gastrointestinal specimens received in the laboratory and the number of positive results. There was no increase in the number of gastrointestinal specimens received during the Games period, thus the Games had no impact on demand for microbiology gastrointestinal diagnostic services at the laboratory. There was a decrease in the number of public health specimens received for culture [incidence rate ratio = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.13-0.86, P = 0.02] and a decrease in the number of culture positive community specimens (odds ratio = 0.59, 95 % CI = 0.40-0.85, P = 0.005), suggesting a decrease in gastrointestinal illness during the Games period. As previous planning assumptions were not based on actual specimen activity, the results of this study may modify the extent of additional planning for microbiological services required for mass gatherings. © 2014 The Authors.

  8. The Rise of Massage and Medical Gymnastics in London and Paris before the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    Massage and medical gymnastics experienced a rapid institutionalization across Europe and North America between 1850 and 1914. This article explores how this process took place in London and Paris. Physiotherapy developed many of the hallmarks of an independent discipline during this period, including an identified corpus of manipulations and exercises, some autonomous training courses and degrees for future practitioners, and even the creation of departments within several hospitals. The article analyzes all of the processes surrounding this rise, paying special attention to the influence of the ambassadors of Swedish gymnastics (which led to the re-invention of massage across Europe), to the installation of physiotherapy in hospitals in London and in Paris, and to the practical and institutional innovations driven by nurses in England and by doctors in France.

  9. The Frontier Speaks Back: Two Australian Artists Working in Paris and London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Margaret Speck

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian artists living and working in Paris and London in the Belle Époque and modern eras had a deep engagement with cosmopolitanism in cities that were at the frontiers of international modernism. They experienced the liberation of putting aside issues of nation, and of working in large, alienating but culturally challenging multi-nation environs in the pre and post war years. This paper will explore how two women artists, Hilda Rix in Paris, a hub of internationalism; and Nora Heysen in London, a city ill-described in the Empire language of ‘home’ for Australians, connected with and articulated cosmopolitan culture. Expatriatism facilitated an offshore variant of Australian modernism.

  10. The radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N; Charles, D; Hemming, C R

    1983-01-01

    This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR. Three of the degraded core accident releases postulated by the CEGB are analysed. The consequences, conditional upon each release, are evaluated in terms of the health impact on the exposed population and the impact of countermeasures taken to limit the exposure. Consideration is given to the risk to the Greater London population as a whole and to individuals within it. The consequences are evaluated using the NRPB code MARC (Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences). The results presented in this report are all conditional upon the occurrence of each release. In assessing the significance of the results, due account must be taken of the frequency with which such releases may be predicted to occur.

  11. Relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation tensor with kinetically balanced rotational London orbitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian, E-mail: liuwjbdf@gmail.com [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, and Center for Computational Science and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-10-28

    Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same “direct relativistic mapping” between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].

  12. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Gregory; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the challenges sport psychology consultants perceived at the 2012 London Olympic Games. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 sport psychology consultants up to six weeks after the London Games. The interviews were transcribed and inductively content...... analyzed. The results show that consultants perceived a number of challenges important to being successful at the Olympic Games. These challenges were divided into two general themes: Challenges before the Olympics (e.g. negotiating your role) and Challenges during the Olympics (e.g. dealing with the media......). Furthermore, four different Sport psychology consultant roles during the Olympics could be defined. On the one hand, the reported challenges validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions in the literature. On the other hand, the data identifies individual contextual differences between the consultants...

  13. Singularity of the London penetration depth at quantum critical points in superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Debanjan; Swingle, Brian; Berg, Erez; Sachdev, Subir

    2013-10-11

    We present a general theory of the singularity in the London penetration depth at symmetry-breaking and topological quantum critical points within a superconducting phase. While the critical exponents and ratios of amplitudes on the two sides of the transition are universal, an overall sign depends upon the interplay between the critical theory and the underlying Fermi surface. We determine these features for critical points to spin density wave and nematic ordering, and for a topological transition between a superconductor with Z2 fractionalization and a conventional superconductor. We note implications for recent measurements of the London penetration depth in BaFe2(As(1-x)P(x))2 [K. Hashimoto et al., Science 336, 1554 (2012)].

  14. From Sanctuaries to Prefigurative Social Change: Creating Health-Enabling Spaces in East London Community Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine A. Guerlain

    2016-05-01

    for effective community mobilization. AIDS Care, 22(Suppl. 2, 1569-1579; and a discussion of how creating these spaces is an act of prefigurative social change. Our findings suggest that in East London, participation in community gardens is not based on a common political intention or self-conscious motive to prefigure a new society, but instead on the shared practice of gardening. This results in unintended benefits that often address participants’ personal adversities in ways that contribute to the material, relational and symbolic deprivation of their daily lives – opening up new possibilities for being, seeing and doing. In this sense, community gardens in East London offer an alternative to traditional notions of prefigurative social action that are predicated on strategic intention. We argue for an understanding of prefiguration that better accounts for what participants themselves would like to achieve in their own lives, rather than in relation to externally imposed notions of what counts as political change.

  15. Developing a new syndromic surveillance system for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, S E; Fletcher, J; Loveridge, P; Bains, A; Morbey, R; Yeates, A; McCloskey, B; Smyth, B; Ibbotson, S; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J

    2012-12-01

    Syndromic surveillance is vital for monitoring public health during mass gatherings. The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games represents a major challenge to health protection services and community surveillance. In response to this challenge the Health Protection Agency has developed a new syndromic surveillance system that monitors daily general practitioner out-of-hours and unscheduled care attendances. This new national system will fill a gap identified in the existing general practice-based syndromic surveillance systems by providing surveillance capability of general practice activity during evenings/nights, over weekends and public holidays. The system will complement and supplement the existing tele-health phone line, general practitioner and emergency department syndromic surveillance systems. This new national system will contribute to improving public health reassurance, especially to meet the challenges of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  16. Improving mental health knowledge of the Charedi Orthodox Jewish Community in North London: A partnership project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Aradhana; Gardener, Chelsea; Dove, Jonathan; Eiger, Yocheved; Loewenthal, Kate

    2018-05-01

    This article describes a successful community-based partnership project between statutory and third-sector services targeting the strictly Orthodox Jewish community (OJC). The City and Hackney Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) Access Service (East London NHS Foundation Trust (ELFT)) collaborated with Bikur Cholim, a local third-sector organisation based in the heart of a north London Charedi OJC, to develop a brief culturally tailored psychoeducational group intervention focusing on mental health promotion and prevention. In total, 34 carers in the Charedi OJC were provided with general information on mental health, the availability of support services and self-care. Overall improvements in well-being, increased intentions to access services, particularly talking therapies, and qualitative feedback indicated that the group was very well received. The project endorses the value of culturally relevant psychoeducation, enabling suggestions for culturally appropriate service development.

  17. Political opposition in patriarchal East London, 1950-1960: dilemmas of paternalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Atkinson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the growing level of politicization in East London in the 1950s, and the way this affected the patriarchal normative system, which prevailed in urban adminis tration. Patriarchal ism, as a sys tem, was susceptible of different interpretations by white municipal officials, and their response to black political opposition ranged from liberal forbearance to rigid and uncompromising intolerance. Black leaders’ attitudes to the patriarchal order were similarly nuanced. The Location Native Advisory Boards vacillated between opposition to the white patriarchal order and compliance with it. Towards the late 1950s, the political climate became ever more polarized. The paper draws on archival sources from East London to show that patriarchalism, as a moral system, was sufficiently robust to accommodate a variety of viewpoints, within the white and black communities. But as violent resistance took its toll during the 1950s, more coercive forms of paternalism came increasingly to the fore.

  18. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  19. Colour magnetic currents and the dual London equation in SU(3) lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skala, P.; Faber, M.; Zach, M.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a method for the determination of magnetic currents in non-Abelian gauge theories which does not need a projection to Abelian degrees of freedom. With this definition we are able to determine the distribution of magnetic currents and electric fields for the gluonic flux tube between a pair of static charges. Further we check the validity of the Gauss law and the dual London equation in a gauge-invariant formulation. (orig.)

  20. Magnetic Monopoles and the Dual London Equation in SU(3) Lattice Gauge Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Skala, Peter; Faber, Manfried; Zach, Martin

    1996-01-01

    We propose a method for the determination of magnetic monopole currents in non-Abelian gauge theories which does not need a projection to Abelian degrees of freedom. With this definition we are able to determine the distribution of magnetic currents and electric fields for the gluonic flux tube between a pair of static charges. Further we check the validity of the Gauss law and the dual London equation in a gauge invariant formulation.

  1. Drawing from Fancy: The Intersection of Art and Design in Mid-Eighteenth-Century London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puetz, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to bring the world of mid-eighteenth-century British design into fruitful conversation with contemporary art theory and practice. Taking the neighbourhood and milieu of the St Martin's Lane area in London as a starting point, I investigate connections between British "rococo" design and William Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty in terms of shared formal values and contemporary implications of "modernity". I argue for a mutual indebtedness rather than "art" directing "design".

  2. Eating and drinking habits of young London-based Irish men: a qualitative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Aidan; Ciclitira, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study is based on interviews with young Irish men living in London about their diets and their views on healthy eating. The data were analysed using combined thematic and discourse analysis. Interviewees gave various reasons for not adopting healthy eating habits, including the cost of healthy foods, their lack of time and ability to cook, and their prioritisation of drinking. Views about the status of different foods also affected their eating habits: they considered red mea...

  3. Dealing with risk: Underwriting sovereign bond issues in London 1870-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Anders L.

    2014-01-01

    Using the records of several leading 19th century issuing houses, this paper analyses the transformation of underwriting practices in London's primary sovereign bond market from 1870 to 1914. It shows how underwriting risk developed from being a liability, which market intermediaries sought to avoid, to becoming a valuable financial commodity. The impetus for this development was increased competition in the loan business from the 1880s onwards, which weakened the negotiating position of issu...

  4. Southbank Skateboarding, London and Urban Culture: the Undercroft, Hungerford Bridge and House of Vans

    OpenAIRE

    Borden, I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two years, skateboarding space in London has been subject to considerable controversy, debate and development. This chapter looks at 3 different spaces at or near London’s Southbank Centre to explore the connection between skateboarding and wider societal conditions in this city: the ‘Undercroft’ at the Southbank Centre itself; the proposed ‘Hungerford Bridge’ skate space; the nearby ‘House of Vans’ venue. Overall, the chapter shows how skateboarding is now becoming an ever more...

  5. An Interview with Masoud Yazdani, editor of London-based Intellect Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Scanlan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sean Scanlan conducted an email interview with Masoud Yazdani, the editor of Intellect Books, an independent academic publisher in the fields of creative practice and popular culture, whose aim is to publish scholarly books and journals that provide a vital space for widening critical debate in new and emerging subjects. An Interview with Masoud Yazdani, editor of London-based Intellect Books by Sean Scanlan.

  6. Famine, the Black Death, and health in fourteenth-century London

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine, Daniel; Hillson, Simon

    2004-01-01

    In the first half of the fourteenth century two catastrophes struck the population of Europe: the Great Famine and the Black Death. The latter has been extensively studied, but much less is known about the biological effects of the Great Famine. A large assemblage of skeletal remains from one of the Black Death burial grounds, the Royal Mint cemetery in London, provides a unique opportunity to investigate these effects by analyzing the teeth of individuals who survived the famine but died dur...

  7. A Typical Model Audit Approach: Spreadsheet Audit Methodologies in the City of London

    OpenAIRE

    Croll, Grenville J.

    2007-01-01

    Spreadsheet audit and review procedures are an essential part of almost all City of London financial transactions. Structured processes are used to discover errors in large financial spreadsheets underpinning major transactions of all types. Serious errors are routinely found and are fed back to model development teams generally under conditions of extreme time urgency. Corrected models form the essence of the completed transaction and firms undertaking model audit and review expose themselve...

  8. Transnational Migration, Integration, and Identity:\\ud A Study of Kurdish Diaspora in London

    OpenAIRE

    Ata, Ayar

    2017-01-01

    To understand the Kurdish diaspora in London requires answering two interrelated questions of Kurdish forced migration history and Kurdish cultural identity. Thus, this study firstly examines the history of Kurdish forced migration and displacement, exploring a common historical argument which positions the Kurds as powerless victims of the First World War (WW1). To this end it looks critically at the post-WW1 era and the development of the modern nation state in the Middle East, namely Turke...

  9. Political opposition in patriarchal East London, 1950-1960: dilemmas of paternalism

    OpenAIRE

    D Atkinson

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the growing level of politicization in East London in the 1950s, and the way this affected the patriarchal normative system, which prevailed in urban adminis tration. Patriarchal ism, as a sys tem, was susceptible of different interpretations by white municipal officials, and their response to black political opposition ranged from liberal forbearance to rigid and uncompromising intolerance. Black leaders’ attitudes to the patriarchal order were similarly nuanced. The Loc...

  10. The establishment of histology in the curriculum of the London medical schools:1826-1886.

    OpenAIRE

    Bracegirdle, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis sets out the way in which histology became established in the curriculum of the London medical schools between 1826 and 1886. The text provides a very large number of references to original material, some of it previously unreported. Histology had its origins in continental Europe in the early years of the nineteenth century, in the work of Bichat. The introductory chapter examines how this was translated both as to language and as to practical experience into En...

  11. Model Making and Anti-Competitive Practices in the Late Eighteenth-Century London Sculpture Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craske, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the generation of anti-competitive practices, and the associated discontents, that rose to the fore in the London sculpture trade in the late eighteenth century (1770-1799. It charts the business strategies and technical procedures of the most economically successful practitioners, whose workshops had some of the characteristics of manufactories, and whose critics accused them of conducting a "monopoly" trade. Small-scale practitioners lost out in the competition for great public contracts on account of their design processes and their inability to represent any manifestation of "establishment". A combination of three factors increased the gap between a handful of powerful "manufacturers" and the rest of the trade: the foundation of the Royal Academy, shifts in the ways designs were evaluated, and a growing number of very lucrative contracts for public sculpture. I conclude that such were the discontents within the London trade that by the 1790s, there was a marked tendency for practitioners who were not manufacturers to be attracted to democratic political movements, to the Wilkite call for liberty and the rise of civic radicalism in the merchant population of London.

  12. Prise en compte des ``courants de London'' dans la modélisation des supraconducteurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossavit, Alain

    1997-10-01

    A model is given, in variational form, in which volumic “Bean currents”, ruled by Bean's law, and surface “London currents” coexist. This macroscopic model generalizes Bean's one, by appending to the critical density j_c a second parameter, with the dimension of a length, similar to London's depth λ. The one-dimensional version of the model is investigated, in order to link this parameter with the standard observable H-M characteristics On propose un modèle, sous forme variationnelle, associant des “courants de Bean” volumiques, décrits par la loi de Bean, et des “courants de London”, surfaciques. Ce modèle macroscopique généralise celui de Bean, caractérisé par le courant critique j_c, et fait intervenir un second paramètre, homogène à une longueur, analogue au λ de London. La version unidimensionnelle du modèle est étudiée en détail de manière à relier ce paramètre à l'observation des caractéristiques H-M usuelles.

  13. Impact of Air Temperature on London Ambulance Call-Out Incidents and Response Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliyyah A. Mahmood

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambulance services are in operation around the world and yet, until recently, ambulance data has only been used for operational purposes rather than for assessing public health. Ambulance call-out data offers new and valuable (near real-time information that can be used to assess the impact of environmental conditions, such as temperature, upon human health. A detailed analysis of London ambulance data at a selection of dates between 2003 and 2015 is presented and compared to London temperature data. In London, the speed of ambulance response begins to suffer when the mean daily air temperature drops below 2 °C or rises above 20 °C. This is explained largely by the increased number of calls past these threshold temperatures. The baseline relationships established in this work will inform the prediction of likely changes in ambulance demand (and illness types that may be caused by seasonal temperature changes and the increased frequency and intensity of extreme/severe weather events, exacerbated by climate change, in the future.

  14. Evaluating the use of an urban consolidation centre and electric vehicles in central London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Browne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the role that can be played by urban consolidation centres (UCCs in reducing freight traffic and its environmental impacts in towns and cities. It is based on the before and after evaluation of a trial led by a major stationery and office supplies company in which urban freight deliveries in central London made from a depot in the suburbs using diesel vehicles were replaced with the use of an urban micro-consolidation centre located in the delivery area together with the use of electrically-assisted cargo tricycles and electric vans. The results show that the total distance travelled and the CO2eq emissions per parcel delivered fell by 20% and 54% respectively as a result of this delivery system. However, the evaluation has also indicated that the distance travelled per parcel rose substantially in the City of London delivery area as a result of the electric vehicles having far smaller load limits in both weight and volume compared with diesel vans. But, at the same time, the trial system was able to virtually eliminate CO2eq emissions per parcel delivered in the City of London. The trial proved successful from the company's perspective in transport, environmental and financial terms. The company therefore decided to continue the operation beyond the end of the trial with it being officially launched during 2010.

  15. ‘To the great public’: The Architectural Image in the Early Illustrated London News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hultzsch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The 'Illustrated London News', launched in May 1842 as the first illustrated newspaper and quickly copied across Europe, North America and beyond, was full of architectural images. New buildings, ancient ruins, construction sites, royal visits, wars, theatre performances, exotic expeditions, historical essays and innumerable other subjects gave occasion to feature the built, whether for its own sake or as background setting. Images and texts were produced and consumed with an urge and at a speed never seen before. The building, through the illustrated press, left the static confines of the book and the framed print and became peopled by the purposeful bourgeoisie. Through a close analysis of a range of articles on the new Royal Exchange, the refurbished London Colosseum as well as the Queen’s Scotland tour, this essay explores the role of the architectural image in the illustrated press by focusing on its relationship to the accompanying text. Untangling the mechanics of representation and perception, it identifies modes of intellectual, affective, and kinetic vision through which architecture was represented to the remote reading public. By externalising and stabilising vision, the 'Illustrated London News' thus created a virtual public sphere in which the dramatic technological and material changes occurring in the period could be absorbed and normalized.

  16. Time-dependent London approach: Dissipation due to out-of-core normal excitations by moving vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, V. G.

    2018-03-01

    The dissipative currents due to normal excitations are included in the London description. The resulting time-dependent London equations are solved for a moving vortex and a moving vortex lattice. It is shown that the field distribution of a moving vortex loses its cylindrical symmetry. It experiences contraction that is stronger in the direction of the motion than in the direction normal to the velocity v . The London contribution of normal currents to dissipation is small relative to the Bardeen-Stephen core dissipation at small velocities, but it approaches the latter at high velocities, where this contribution is no longer proportional to v2. To minimize the London contribution to dissipation, the vortex lattice is oriented so as to have one of the unit cell vectors along the velocity. This effect is seen in experiments and predicted within the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory.

  17. Measurements of free radicals in a megacity during the Clean Air for London Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Dwayne; Whalley, Lisa; Stone, Daniel; Clancy, Noel; Lee, James; Kleffman, Jorg; Laufs, Sebastian; Bandy, Brian

    2013-04-01

    Free radicals control the photo-oxidative chemistry of the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3, multifunctional species and particulates. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals and OH reactivity recorded at North Kensington, Central London, during two Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) of the Clear Air for London (Clearflo) project in the summer and winter of 2012. OH and HO2 were measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy at low pressure (the FAGE technique), and RO2 was measured using the recently developed ROXLIF technique, which utilises an external flow-reactor interfaced to FAGE, and which is able to discriminate between HO2 and organic peroxy radicals. Through control of reagent gases we are further able to provide a separate measurement of those RO2 species which are known to give an interference for HO2 measurements (namely alkene, aromatic and large-chain alkane derived RO2). OH reactivity was measured using laser-flash photolysis combined with FAGE. Low concentrations of radicals were observed during the winter IOP, with mixing ratios of [OH] ~ 0.04 pptv, [HO2] ~ 0.4 pptv, and [RO2] ~ 1.6 pptv at noon, all displaying a negative correlation with NO. The photolysis of O3 and subsequent reaction of O(1D) with H2O vapour was only a minor contribution to radical production in winter, with photolysis of HONO a major radical source. The summer IOP coincided with the London Olympic Games, with a number of pollution events, with ozone peaking at 100 ppbv (exceeding EU air quality directives) and elevated radical concentrations (peak [OH] ~ 0.14 pptv, [HO2] ~ 4 pptv, [RO2] ~ 6.4 pptv) being observed. The net rate of ozone production was calculated from radical observations and agreed well with measured ozone production, suggesting that advection/dilution by continental air-masses was not playing a significant role in determining ozone

  18. Performance evaluation and ranking of participation Asian countries in 2012 London Olympic Games through Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Shirouyehzad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games ranking is done through lexicographic multi criteria method in each period. According to this method, the country receiving the most gold medals will have the highest score, and in case of having equal silver medals, comparison will be done according to bronze ones. The problem of this method is to pay the most attention merely to gold medals. Using data envelopment analysis, some studies have recently suggested various ranking for the Olympic Games. The present research uses DEA to rank the participating Asian countries in London Olympic that have at least won one medal. As an output-oriented BCC model, this one considers the number of male and female athletes, received medals in two previous Olympic as well as the number of their presence in the Olympic games as the inputs. Gold, silver and bronze medals are the only output of the model. This model is solved in two forms of female and male athlete combination and their separation. Solving this model makes this opportunity to present a new rankings model for participating Asian countries in the Olympic Games that can be compared with the ranking used by Olympic committee.

  19. Planning like an Olympian. How London Ambulance Service successfully handled their 'summer of sport'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killens, Jason

    2013-03-01

    LOCOG Medical managed thousands of patient contacts across all the Games venues without our intervention. A polyclinic in the athlete's village had extensive diagnostic options, including X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging for athletes and the Olympic family. These helped limit the number of patients who needed transport to the ED. Although the delivery was seamless, there were "behind the scenes" moments in the final stages of planning that made us think. We received additional requests for ambulance cover at training venues that hadn't been planned for on short notice. In addition, the torch relay attracted bigger crowds than initially planned for. Some of the planning assumptions and agreements changed on short notice for various reasons. This meant we had to adjust our plans while also solving human resource issues that you would expect to see among a workforce of around 500 across a six-week period. As part of the National Health Service (NHS) ambulance service Games cohort, more than 500 staff were deployed across 18 venues and 30 days of sport in London. In doing so, they delivered in excess of 165,000 hours of standby and care, responded to nearly 1,500 Games-related incidents and conveyed 800 patients to emergency departments across the capital. After such an influx, it wasn't easy to return to business as usual. Officials with previous host cities had advised us that there would be a feeling of "what next" once the Games concluded. When I first heard this, I thought the opposite would be the case. I expected feeling relieved of overwhelming emotion as well as from the exhaustion of the long days. I do have to say that although this was the case, it's also true that there is a "post Games" come down. We had just been part of a fantastic summer of sport with a brilliant medal tally from Team Great Britain and Paralympics Great Britain that, of course, helped the euphoria. But we did feel real sense of uncertainty about what to do next. We had spent five

  20. Tuberculosis and pregnancy--Results of a study in a high prevalence area in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anjali; Mahadevan, Neila; Girling, Joanna

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the study was to characterise the incidence, type and presentation of tuberculosis in pregnancy over a 5-year period in women booked for antenatal care in a District General Hospital located in a high prevalence area in London. We also aimed to identify any problems and difficulties in the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis associated with pregnancy. Retrospective review of computer records and hospital notes over a period of 5 years from January 1997 to December 2001. Demographic and clinical data were collected for all the cases identified. All women with tuberculosis who conceived on antituberculous treatment, or had onset of symptoms or diagnosis made in pregnancy or the immediate postpartum period (6 weeks), and booked for antenatal care at a District General Hospital located in an area of high prevalence for tuberculosis (52.2 per 100,000 population in Ealing, Hammersmith and Hounslow Health authority according to the National Tuberculosis Survey of England and Wales in 1998). Thirty-two women were identified over the 5-year period, giving an incidence of 252/100,000 deliveries. The number of cases increased from 3 in 1997 to 10 in each of 2000 and 2001. All of these women were from ethnic minorities and 88% of them were immigrants with the median interval from arrival in UK being 2 years. Fifty-three percent were diagnosed with extrapulmonary tuberculosis, 38% with pulmonary tuberculosis and 9% had both. The median duration of symptoms prior to presentation was 31 days (being longer in women with extrapulmonary tuberculosis); the longest was 10 years. The median interval from presentation of symptoms to diagnosis was 32 days and the majority of women started treatment immediately. The commonest reason for a delay in diagnosis was late presentation (52%), followed by non-specific symptoms (in 38%). There was a trend towards late presentation among recent immigrants (odds ratio 2.14, 95% confidence interval 0.44-10.53) and those having

  1. London Calling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, Lisbeth Rieshøj

    2008-01-01

    The above contribution appears in Down The Block: An Anthology of City Life; available at http://www.lulu.com/content/4462396. In this anthology, new authors and bloggers react to life in cities throughout the world. With a foreword by Mary Beard, Cambridge University Professor and Times Literary...

  2. Central and East European migrant men who have sex with men in London: a comparison of recruitment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Christopher J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the expansion of the European Union, there has been a large influx of Central and East European (CEE migrants to the UK. CEE men who have sex with men (MSM represent a small minority within this population that are none-the-less important to capture in sexual health research among the CEE migrant community. This paper examines the feasibility of recruiting CEE MSM for a survey of sexual behaviour in London using respondent driven sampling (RDS, via gay websites and in GUM clinics. Methods We sought CEE MSM to start RDS chain referral among GUM clinic attendees, our personal contacts and at gay events and venues in central London. We recruited CEE MSM (n = 485 via two popular websites for gay men in Britain (March-May 2009 and at two central London GUM clinics (n = 51 (July 2008-March 2009. Results We found seventeen men who knew other CEE MSM in London and agreed to recruit contacts into the study. These men recruited only three men into the study, none of whom recruited any further respondents, and RDS was abandoned after 7 months (July 2008-January 2009. Half of the men that we approached to participate in RDS did not know any other CEE MSM in London. Men who agreed to recruit contacts for RDS were rather more likely to have been in the UK for more than one year (94.1% vs 70.0%, p = 0.052. Men recruited through gay websites and from GUM clinics were similar. Conclusions The Internet was the most successful method for collecting data on sexual risk behaviour among CEE MSM in London. CEE MSM in London were not well networked. RDS may also have failed because they did not fully understand the procedure and/or the financial incentive was not sufficient motivation to take part.

  3. A comparison of outcome for stroke patients in Barbados and South London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeton, Nigel C; Corbin, David O C; Hennis, Anselm J M; Hambleton, Ian R; Rose, Angela M C; Fraser, Henry S; Heuschmann, Peter U; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2011-04-01

    Little is known about the poststroke outcome in Caribbean populations. We investigated differences in the activities of daily living, level of social activities, living circumstances and survival for stroke patients in Barbados and London. Data were collected from the South London Stroke Register and the Barbados Register of Strokes for patients with a first-ever stroke registered between January 2001 and December 2004. The ability to perform activities of daily living was measured by the Barthel Index and level of social activities by the Frenchay Activities Index. Living circumstances were categorised into private household vs. institutional care. Death and dependency, activities of daily living and social activities were assessed at three-months, one- and two-years using logistic regression, adjusted for differences in demographic, socioeconomic and stroke severity characteristics. At three-months, a high level of social activities was more likely for the Barbados Register of Strokes (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.29); there were no differences in activities of daily living; and Barbados Register of Strokes patients were less likely to be in institutional care (relative risk ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.79). Following adjustment, Barbados Register of Strokes patients had a higher risk of mortality at three-months (relative risk ratio 1.85; 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.30), one-year (relative risk ratio 1.83; 95% confidence interval 1.08-3.09) and two-years (relative risk ratio 1.82; 95% confidence interval 1.08-3.07). This difference was due to early poststroke deaths; for patients alive at four-weeks poststroke, survival thereafter was similar in both settings. In Barbados, there was evidence for a healthy survivor effect, and short-term social activity was greater than that in the South London Stroke Register. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2010 World Stroke Organization.

  4. Impact of the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games on physical activity of rheumatology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müther, Michael; Williamson, Marie; Williamson, Lyn

    2014-10-01

    Lack of physical activity in the general population is one of the biggest health challenges we face. For rheumatology patients, and other patients with chronic disease, exercise is an essential part of disease management. However, very few patients exercise effectively.One of the aspirations of the London 2012 Olympic/Paralympic Games was to catalyze people into long-term physical activity. We surveyed our rheumatology patients at 3 high-profile times in the year after the Olympics. Two hundred fifty-three patients were enrolled within the study; the largest diagnosis subgroup being rheumatoid arthritis (36%). Ninety-five percent of our patients regard exercise as beneficial; 36% still think it does harm. Most common barriers to exercise were pain (53%), tiredness (44%), and lack of time (36%). Forty-five percent exercise daily, mostly just walking. Twnety-seven patients (16%) were motivated by the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games toward physical activity. They were mostly motivated by athletics' individual stories (67%), taking part in a big sports festival (11%) and demonstration of top sporting levels (4%). Eighteen patients in total (7%) increased their amount of exercise in response to the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. There was no difference between patient diagnostic groups. Only a small minority of patients increased their amount of exercise in response to the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The message about the importance of physical exercise to health needs to be clear, unambiguous, and consistent, because a significant number of patients still think that physical activity does harm. Big sporting events such as the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games can be used as an opportunity to remind patients that physical activity does good and is not harmful. Athletes' individual stories could be used in future as part of a strategy to encourage exercise for all patients.

  5. Assessing support for supervised injection services among community stakeholders in London, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardwell, Geoff; Scheim, Ayden; Mitra, Sanjana; Kerr, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Few qualitative studies have examined support for supervised injection services (SIS), and these have been restricted to large cities. This study aimed to assess support for SIS among a diverse representation of community stakeholders in London, a mid-sized city in southwestern Ontario, Canada. This qualitative study was undertaken as part of the Ontario Integrated Supervised Injection Services Feasibility Study. We used purposive sampling methods to recruit a diversity of key informants (n=20) from five sectors: healthcare; social services; government and municipal services; police and emergency services; and the business and community sector. Interview data, collected via one-to-one semi structured interviews, were coded and analyzed using thematic analyses through NVivo 10 software. Interview participants unanimously supported the implementation of SIS in London. However, participant support for SIS was met with some implementation-related preferences and/or conditions. These included centralization or decentralization of SIS; accessibility of SIS for people who inject drugs; proximity of SIS to interview participants; and other services and strategies offered alongside SIS. The results of this study challenge the assumptions that smaller cities like London may be unlikely to support SIS. Community stakeholders were supportive of the implementation of SIS with some preferences or conditions. Interview participants had differing perspectives, but ultimately supported similar end goals of accessibility and reducing community harms associated with injection drug use. Future research and SIS programming should consider these factors when determining optimal service delivery in ways that increase support from a diversity of community stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Haunting Presence of the Feminine: Virginia Woolf in the Streets of London

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Pantuchowicz

    2017-01-01

    Beginning with the theme of the location of haunting in Gothic interiors and the confusion of life and death and the “sub-central” positioning of the feminine as the hidden source of fearfulness, the paper analyzes Virginia Woolf’s “Street Haunting: A London Adventure” as an example of a narrative written from the position of the haunting in which the figure of fearful feminine is transformed into a “hauntess” participating in the public world on equal rights with others. Woolf’s text, though...

  7. An EPR methodology for measuring the London penetration depth for the ceramic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakvin, B.; Mahl, T. A.; Dalal, N. S.

    1990-01-01

    The use is discussed of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as a quick and easily accessible method for measuring the London penetration depth, lambda for the high T(sub c) superconductors. The method utilizes the broadening of the EPR signal, due to the emergence of the magnetic flux lattice, of a free radical adsorbed on the surface of the sample. The second moment, of the EPR signal below T(sub c) is fitted to the Brandt equation for a simple triangular lattice. The precision of this method compares quite favorably with those of the more standard methods such as micro sup(+)SR, Neutron scattering, and magnetic susceptibility.

  8. CHAT 2013: Experience, University College London, 8–10 November 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Philip Sterling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For ten years now CHAT (Contemporary and Historical Archaeology in Theory has set out to challenge assumptions around the archaeology of the recent past with a series of thought provoking thematic conferences. This year, the 11th  annual CHAT Conference was held at University College London and jointly organised by the Institute of Archaeology and Atkins,1  with a broad focus on the topic of ‘experience.’ Over three days, established academics, early career researchers and practicing heritage professionals from across the world offered up their take on this sometimes nebulous theme. The results were - in turn - captivating, frustrating, enlightening and provocative, but never boring.

  9. Estimation of the gender pay gap in London and the UK - an econometric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Margarethe Theseira; Leticia Veruete-McKay

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the gender pay gap in London and the UK based on Labour Force Survey data 2002/03. Our approach decomposes the mean average wages of men and women into two parts (a) Differences in individual and job characteristics between men and women (such as age, number of children, qualification, ethnicity, region of residence, working in the public or private sector, working part-time or full-time, industry, occupation and size of company) (b) Unequal treatment and/or unexplained factors. S...

  10. Your name is not good enough: introducing the ORCID researcher identifier at Imperial College London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Reimer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ORCID researcher identifier ensures that research outputs can always reliably be traced back to their authors. ORCID also makes it possible to automate the sharing of research information, thereby increasing data quality, reducing duplication of effort for academics and saving institutions money. In 2014, Imperial College London created ORCID identifiers (iDs for academic and research staff. This article discusses the implementation project in the context of the role of ORCID in the global scholarly communications system. It shows how ORCID can be used to automate reporting, help with research data publication and support open access (OA.

  11. Magnetic monopoles and the dual London equation in SU(3) lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skala, P.; Faber, M.; Zach, M.

    1996-01-01

    The dual superconductor model of confinement in non-Abelian gauge theories is studied in a gauge invariant formulation. We propose a method for the determination of magnetic monopole currents in non-Abelian gauge theories which does not need a projection to Abelian degrees of freedom. With this definition we are able to determine the distribution of magnetic currents and electric fields for the gluonic flux tube between a pair of static charges. Further we check the validity of the dual London equation in a gauge invariant formulation. (orig.)

  12. Sustainable cities: A research by McKinsey and Siemens on sustainable development in London

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denig, Stefan

    2010-09-15

    The research Sustainable Urban Infrastructure conducted by McKinsey and Company and Siemens assesses technological levers of varying effectiveness, and with different cost implications, which can all contribute to greater environmental sustainability in cities, drawing in particular on the example of London. It's the first comprehensive research focusing on technological and economic implications of a city's infrastructure management in the fields of energy, buildings and transportation. The encouraging message is that many of the levers to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions in urban agglomerations not only help protect the environment, but also pay back from an economic point of view.

  13. Diaspora and peer support working: benefits of and challenges for the Butabika–East London Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Dave; Aligawesa, Mariam; Birabwa-Oketcho, Harriet; Hall, Cerdic; Kyaligonza, David; Mpango, Richard; Mulimira, Moses; Boardman, Jed

    2015-01-01

    The International Health Partnership (‘the Link’) between the East London NHS Foundation Trust and Butabika Hospital in Uganda was set up in 2005. It has facilitated staff exchanges and set up many workstreams (e.g. in child and adolescent psychiatry, nursing and psychology) and projects (e.g. a peer support worker project and a violence reduction programme). The Link has been collaborative and mutually beneficial. The authors describe benefits and challenges at individual and organisational levels. Notably, the Link has achieved a commitment to service user involvement and an increasingly central involvement of the Ugandan diaspora working in mental health in the UK. PMID:29093835

  14. Diaspora and peer support working: benefits of and challenges for the Butabika-East London Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Dave; Aligawesa, Mariam; Birabwa-Oketcho, Harriet; Hall, Cerdic; Kyaligonza, David; Mpango, Richard; Mulimira, Moses; Boardman, Jed

    2015-02-01

    The International Health Partnership ('the Link') between the East London NHS Foundation Trust and Butabika Hospital in Uganda was set up in 2005. It has facilitated staff exchanges and set up many workstreams (e.g. in child and adolescent psychiatry, nursing and psychology) and projects (e.g. a peer support worker project and a violence reduction programme). The Link has been collaborative and mutually beneficial. The authors describe benefits and challenges at individual and organisational levels. Notably, the Link has achieved a commitment to service user involvement and an increasingly central involvement of the Ugandan diaspora working in mental health in the UK.

  15. Social and cultural impact of the London 2012 Olympic Games: a lecturers' and students' perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantaki, Maria; Faculty of Business at Akdeniz University; School of Sport, Leisure and Travel at Buckinghamshire New University

    2009-01-01

    Hosting the Olympic Games is often viewed as a means of raising a nation’s sporting profile as well as a tool for economic development, social regeneration and cultural integration. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of lecturers and students in higher education on the social and cultural impact of the London 2012 Olympic Games. A purposive sample of one hundred respondents (lecturers, n=30; students, n=70) was used. 73.5 per cent of respondents were male and 32.5 per ce...

  16. The trypanosomatid evolution workshop London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Jamie

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The trypanosome evolution workshop, a joint meeting of the University of Exeter and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, focused on topics relating to trypanosomatid and vector evolution. The meeting, sponsored by The Wellcome Trust, The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Disease of World Health Organization and the British Section of the Society of Protozoologists, brought together an international group of experts who presented papers on a wide range of topics including parasite and vector phylogenies, molecular methodology and relevant biogeographical data.

  17. Famine, the Black Death, and health in fourteenth-century London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Antoine

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the fourteenth century two catastrophes struck the population of Europe: the Great Famine and the Black Death. The latter has been extensively studied, but much less is known about the biological effects of the Great Famine. A large assemblage of skeletal remains from one of the Black Death burial grounds, the Royal Mint cemetery in London, provides a unique opportunity to investigate these effects by analyzing the teeth of individuals who survived the famine but died during the Black Death.

  18. Acheronta movebo. Resilencia y revolución en The Mexican (1911 de Jack London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González de la Fuente

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo maneja uno de los relatos pugilísticos de Jack London, The Mexican (1911, para explorar el mundo del boxeo como lugar público de conflictos sociales e ideológicos identificados y significados en la proteica figura del boxeador. Así pues, el ring es susceptible de devenir y analizarse como un espacio de práctica política, de antagonismo y debate que, en su reglada exposición de violencias carnales y simbólicas, condensa una particular síntesis efectiva de corporalidades y discursos.

  19. Delivering a Paper (and other works) at #LowTechLabLondon2016

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Micheal

    2016-01-01

    Performance 'Delivering a Paper' and screened/presented/exhibited other works such as 'How to Buy Nothing' related to author's interventionist art practice at this three-day event.\\ud \\ud #LowTechLabLondon2016 is a project developed by Raúl Marroquín and coordinated by Daniela Medina Poch for the Educational Program of the Saatchi Gallery that will take place on January 15th, 16th and 17th of 2016.\\ud \\ud “‘LowTech means technology that is cheap or free.”\\ud James Wallback, LowTech Manifest f...

  20. Parent reported sleep problems in preschool children with sickle cell anemia and controls in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Michelle; de Haan, Michelle; Kirkham, Fenella J; Telfer, Paul T

    2017-06-01

    Snoring and poor sleep may affect cognition, particularly in young children with chronic conditions. Parents of London preschoolers with sickle cell anemia (SCA; n = 22), matched controls (n = 24), and unselected typically developing (n = 142) preschoolers completed sleep questionnaires. Preschoolers with SCA had significantly more sleep problems when compared to matched controls and the larger population. Snoring occurred at least one to two nights a week for 79% of the SCA group. This is compared with 25% of matched controls and 33% of larger population. Randomized controlled trials to improve sleep in young children with SCA already at-risk for cognitive dysfunction should be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Multidisciplinary group performance – measuring integration intensity in the context of the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Harris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multidisciplinary Group meeting (MDGs are seen as key facilitators of integration, moving from individual to multi-disciplinary decision making, and from a focus on individual patients to a focus on patient groups.  We have developed a method for coding MDG transcripts to identify whether they are or are not vehicles for delivering the anticipated efficiency improvements across various providers and apply it to a test case in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot.  Methods:  We defined 'integrating' as the process within the MDG meeting that enables or promotes an improved collaboration, improved understanding, and improved awareness of self and others within the local healthcare economy such that efficiency improvements could be identified and action taken.  Utterances within the MDGs are coded according to three distinct domains grounded in concepts from communication, group decision-making, and integrated care literatures - the Valence, the Focus, and the Level.  Standardized weighted integrative intensity scores are calculated across ten time deciles in the Case Discussion providing a graphical representation of its integrative intensity. Results: Intra- and Inter-rater reliability of the coding scheme was very good as measured by the Prevalence and Bias-adjusted Kappa Score.  Standardized Weighted Integrative Intensity graph mirrored closely the verbatim transcript and is a convenient representation of complex communication dynamics. Trend in integrative intensity can be calculated and the characteristics of the MDG can be pragmatically described. Conclusion: This is a novel and potentially useful method for researchers, managers and practitioners to better understand MDG dynamics and to identify whether participants are integrating.  The degree to which participants use MDG meetings to develop an integrated way of working is likely to require management, leadership and shared values.

  2. Multidisciplinary group performance – measuring integration intensity in the context of the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Harris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multidisciplinary Group meeting (MDGs are seen as key facilitators of integration, moving from individual to multi-disciplinary decision making, and from a focus on individual patients to a focus on patient groups.  We have developed a method for coding MDG transcripts to identify whether they are or are not vehicles for delivering the anticipated efficiency improvements across various providers and apply it to a test case in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot. Methods:  We defined 'integrating' as the process within the MDG meeting that enables or promotes an improved collaboration, improved understanding, and improved awareness of self and others within the local healthcare economy such that efficiency improvements could be identified and action taken.  Utterances within the MDGs are coded according to three distinct domains grounded in concepts from communication, group decision-making, and integrated care literatures - the Valence, the Focus, and the Level.  Standardized weighted integrative intensity scores are calculated across ten time deciles in the Case Discussion providing a graphical representation of its integrative intensity.Results: Intra- and Inter-rater reliability of the coding scheme was very good as measured by the Prevalence and Bias-adjusted Kappa Score.  Standardized Weighted Integrative Intensity graph mirrored closely the verbatim transcript and is a convenient representation of complex communication dynamics. Trend in integrative intensity can be calculated and the characteristics of the MDG can be pragmatically described.Conclusion: This is a novel and potentially useful method for researchers, managers and practitioners to better understand MDG dynamics and to identify whether participants are integrating.  The degree to which participants use MDG meetings to develop an integrated way of working is likely to require management, leadership and shared values.

  3. Using public health scenarios to predict the utility of a national syndromic surveillance programme during the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbey, R A; Elliot, A J; Charlett, A; Ibbotson, S; Verlander, N Q; Leach, S; Hall, I; Barrass, I; Catchpole, M; McCloskey, B; Said, B; Walsh, A; Pebody, R; Smith, G E

    2014-05-01

    During 2012 real-time syndromic surveillance formed a key part of the daily public health surveillance for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. It was vital that these systems were evaluated prior to the Games; in particular what types and scales of incidents could and could not be detected. Different public health scenarios were created covering a range of potential incidents that the Health Protection Agency would require syndromic surveillance to rapidly detect and monitor. For the scenarios considered it is now possible to determine what is likely to be detectable and how incidents are likely to present using the different syndromic systems. Small localized incidents involving food poisoning are most likely to be detected the next day via emergency department surveillance, while a new strain of influenza is more likely to be detected via GP or telephone helpline surveillance, several weeks after the first seed case is introduced.

  4. Comparison and assessment of the participation of Polish swimmers at the Olympic and Paralympic Games in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Seidel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to assess and analyze the results of the Polish national team swimmers (Olympic and Paralympic at the XIV Summer Games 2012 in London (UK . Material : Score Polish swimmers start in London was carried out on the basis of medals won, participation in the finals. London also comparing the results with respect to the personal life record. The studies used the method of improving the outcome of the relative percentages - RPG% (relative performance gain %. It is based on the equation of RPG% = start time - end time / start time x 100. Material was to analyze and develop the results obtained by the Polish swimmers at the XIV Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2012 in London. Results : the basic criterion for evaluating the training and participation of Polish swimmers at the games in London was the number of medals won. By this criterion, the Poles showed a rather weak result. Healthy athletes do not receive medals. Thus, they confirmed their poor showing four years ago. Athletes with disabilities unable to get on the podium three times. In relation to the previous games (they won 10 medals the result was rather weak. Conclusions : in terms of participation in the Olympic finals and improve individual life records, the results were slightly better swimmers with disabilities.

  5. Chelsea, Pimlico and Belgravia District Nursing Association 1930-1939: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Julie

    2017-07-02

    The case study explores how the expansion of the health services during the interwar period impacted upon the status of district nursing and examines how being a voluntary service shaped district nursing associations. A range of primary sources were used; the Association Annual Reports, the Medical Officer for Health Annual Reports for the Borough of Chelsea, the Ministry of Health records, the archives of the Queen's Nursing Institute (QNI) and the Borough of Chelsea Council Minutes. The Medical Officer for Health Reports and the Council minutes identify efforts to improve environmental factors that impacted upon health. These primary sources briefly note the contribution of the Association suggesting that it was integral to the health care provision but considered a constant. The impact of changes to the 1932 Sunday Entertainments Act provide an interesting juxtaposition between the acknowledged value of district nursing and the constant struggle to fundraise in order to provide home nursing. Throughout the 1930s the Association experienced staff shortages and challenges regarding recruitment. The complexities of payment for municipal health services following the 1929 Local Government Act contributed to the staffing challenges. The move to a block grant in 1938 provided increased stability with regards to income. The case study identifies a contradiction regarding the esteem and value placed upon district nursing associations providing home nursing and the constant challenge of resources. District nursing services face similar challenges and this is the 130 th anniversary of the Queen's Nursing Institute.

  6. London-born black Caribbean children are at increased risk of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, H C; Pembroke, A C; Forsdyke, H; Boodoo, G; Hay, R J; Burney, P G

    1995-02-01

    Previous reports suggest that atopic dermatitis is more common in black Caribbean children born in the United Kingdom than in white children. It is unclear whether these differences are caused by selection bias or variations in the use of the word "eczema" in the groups studied. Our objective was to explore ethnic group differences in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis in London schoolchildren. A cross-sectional prevalence survey of 693 junior school children in three schools was performed. Atopic dermatitis was defined in three ways: (1) by a dermatologist, (2) by visible flexural dermatitis as recorded by an independent observer, and (3) by a history of flexural dermatitis according to the child's parents. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis according to examination by a dermatologist was 16.3% in black Caribbean children and 8.7% in white children. This increased risk was present for different methods of defining of a atopic dermatitis and persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. London-born black Caribbean children appear to be at an increased risk of having atopic dermatitis.

  7. Modelling lead bioaccessibility in urban topsoils based on data from Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, J.D.; Cave, M.R.; Wragg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Predictive linear regression (LR) modelling between bioaccessible Pb and a range of total elemental compositions and soil properties was executed for the Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea urban areas in order to assess the potential for developing a national urban bioaccessible Pb dataset for the UK. LR indicates that total Pb is the only highly significant independent variable for estimating the bioaccessibility of Pb. Bootstrap resampling shows that the relationship between total Pb and bioaccessible Pb is broadly the same in the four urban areas. The median bioaccessible fraction ranges from 38% in Northampton to 68% in London and Swansea. Results of this study can be used as part of a lines of evidence approach to localised risk assessment but should not be used to replace bioaccessibility testing at individual sites where local conditions may vary considerably from the broad overview presented in this study. - Highlights: ► Total Pb is the only significant predictor for bioaccessible Pb in UK urban topsoils. ► Bootstrap resampling confirms relationship similar in four urban areas. ► Median bioaccessible fraction ranges from 38 to 68%. ► Results can be used for initial risk assessment in UK urban areas. - Total Pb is the only significant predictor for bioaccessible Pb in topsoils from four urban areas in the UK.

  8. The Haunting Presence of the Feminine: Virginia Woolf in the Streets of London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pantuchowicz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the theme of the location of haunting in Gothic interiors and the confusion of life and death and the “sub-central” positioning of the feminine as the hidden source of fearfulness, the paper analyzes Virginia Woolf’s “Street Haunting: A London Adventure” as an example of a narrative written from the position of the haunting in which the figure of fearful feminine is transformed into a “hauntess” participating in the public world on equal rights with others. Woolf’s text, though seemingly positing the protagonist in the position of flâneuse, in fact implicitly criticizes flâneuring as a masculine kind of looking and participating in the public space. Taking place away from home, Woolf’s strolling in the streets of London carnivalizes (in the Bakhtinian sense the activity by way of a joyful blurring of the split between the home and the market. Transgressing what Kathryn Simpson calls “the male privilege of the flâneur” (2010, p. 47 and rendering the transgression as haunting, Woolf evades participation in the masculine world of traffic and exchange by way of bringing the space of the Gothic confinement, and also of entombment, to the public.

  9. Requirements of the London Convention for dumping radioactive waste at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, H.C.

    1982-10-01

    This report outlines the requirements of the London Convention for dumping radioactive waste at sea and considers their scientific basis more fully. It is intended primarily as an appraisal and aid to understanding of the two documents IAEA 210 and IAEA 211, published by the International Atomic Energy Agency, and relating to the oceanographic and radiobiological basis of their definitions of high level waste and recommendations relating to its dumping at sea, which were required for London Convention purposes. The adequacy and conservation in these recommendations are considered, and the report also compares the predictions of the model on which the recommendations are based with some limited but relevant observations on radiation doses resulting from natural causes (radium in the sea), and from fallout from nuclear bomb tests. It is concluded that if dumping is carried out within the limits and according to the recommendations required by the IAEA, then it is extremely unlikely that this could lead to significant human hazard, either now or in the future. Some of the reasons for this conclusion are summarised in the final chapter

  10. Forecasting asthma-related hospital admissions in London using negative binomial models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D; Sarran, Christophe

    2013-05-01

    Health forecasting can improve health service provision and individual patient outcomes. Environmental factors are known to impact chronic respiratory conditions such as asthma, but little is known about the extent to which these factors can be used for forecasting. Using weather, air quality and hospital asthma admissions, in London (2005-2006), two related negative binomial models were developed and compared with a naive seasonal model. In the first approach, predictive forecasting models were fitted with 7-day averages of each potential predictor, and then a subsequent multivariable model is constructed. In the second strategy, an exhaustive search of the best fitting models between possible combinations of lags (0-14 days) of all the environmental effects on asthma admission was conducted. Three models were considered: a base model (seasonal effects), contrasted with a 7-day average model and a selected lags model (weather and air quality effects). Season is the best predictor of asthma admissions. The 7-day average and seasonal models were trivial to implement. The selected lags model was computationally intensive, but of no real value over much more easily implemented models. Seasonal factors can predict daily hospital asthma admissions in London, and there is a little evidence that additional weather and air quality information would add to forecast accuracy.

  11. Martin Van Butchell (1735-1814): the eccentric, "kook" dentist of old London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, A G; Christen, J A

    1999-11-01

    This article is a thumbnail sketch of the life and times of Martin Van Butchell (1735-1814), an eccentric, "kook" advertising dentist of Old London. Van Butchell earned these descriptive labels by displaying an unorthodox lifestyle, an outrageous personal appearance and outlandish, extreme and socially unacceptable personal and professional behaviors. While the general populace seemed to be fascinated by his strange ways, dentists and physicians were generally alienated by them. Nevertheless, he was considered a good dentist for his time, and he was extremely popular with his patients. Martin practiced dentistry for 23 years, and he practiced medicine as well, specializing in the treatment of ruptures and anal fistulas. Van Butchell interacted greatly with both John and William Hunter, who became two of the most famous and talented physicians, surgeons, anatomists and biologists of all time. When his first wife, Mary died, Martin arranged for her body to be embalmed and publicly displayed in his dental office for advertising purposes. Her preserved body was shown at the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons (London), until it was destroyed by a German fire bomb in May, 1941. Mary's remains were on public display for a total of 166 years.

  12. Attitudes towards second hand smoke amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, P A; Gray, S; Gilmore, A B; Daykin, N

    2006-06-01

    To examine knowledge, attitudes and experiences of London casino workers regarding exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) in the workplace. Postal survey of 1568 London casino workers in 25 casinos who were members of the TGWU or GMB Trade Unions. Of the workers, 559 responded to the survey (36% response), 22% of whom were current smokers. Of the respondents, 71% report being nearly always exposed to heavy levels of SHS at work, and most (65%) want all working areas in their casino to be smoke-free. The majority (78%) are bothered by SHS at work, while 91% have wanted to move away from where they are working because of it. Fifty-seven per cent believe their health has suffered as a result of SHS. Of the workers who smoke at work, 59% believe that they would try to quit smoking if no one was allowed to smoke in the casino. The majority of responders are bothered by SHS, and many are concerned about the health impacts. Most want all working areas in their casino to be smoke-free. Despite difficulties in generalizing from this limited sample, these findings add weight to the argument that the legislation on smoking in public places in England should encompass all workplaces, without exemption.

  13. Boosting Belligerence: How the July 7, 2005, London Bombings Affected Liberals' Moral Foundations and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vyver, Julie; Houston, Diane M; Abrams, Dominic; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2016-02-01

    Major terrorist events, such as the recent attacks in Ankara, Sinai, and Paris, can have profound effects on a nation's values, attitudes, and prejudices. Yet psychological evidence testing the impact of such events via data collected immediately before and after an attack is understandably rare. In the present research, we tested the independent and joint effects of threat (the July 7, 2005, London bombings) and political ideology on endorsement of moral foundations and prejudices among two nationally representative samples (combined N = 2,031) about 6 weeks before and 1 month after the London bombings. After the bombings, there was greater endorsement of the in-group foundation, lower endorsement of the fairness-reciprocity foundation, and stronger prejudices toward Muslims and immigrants. The differences in both the endorsement of the foundations and the prejudices were larger among people with a liberal orientation than among those with a conservative orientation. Furthermore, the changes in endorsement of moral foundations among liberals explained their increases in prejudice. The results highlight the value of psychological theory and research for understanding societal changes in attitudes and prejudices after major terrorist events. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Imaging services at the Paralympic Games London 2012: analysis of demand and distribution of workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethapudi, Sarath; Campbell, Robert S D; Budgett, Richard; Willick, Stuart E; Van de Vliet, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Very little data have been published on medical imaging services at disability games. 7.9 million euros (£6.6 million, US$11 million) were invested in setting up radiology facilities within purpose built polyclinics at the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic games. This paper details imaging services at the 2012 Paralympic Games. Data analysis on imaging at 2012 Olympics has been published in a separate paper. To analyse the workload on the polyclinics' radiology services, provided for the Paralympic athletes during the London 2012 Paralympic Games. Data were prospectively collected during the period of the Paralympic games from the Picture Archive Communications System (PACS) and the Radiological Information System (RIS). Data were correlated with the medical encounter database (ATOS). 655 imaging episodes were recorded, which comprised 38.8% (n=254) MRI, 33% (n=216) plain radiographs, 24% (n=157) ultrasound scans and 4.2% (n=28) CT scans. Investigations on the Paralympic athletes accounted for 65.2% of workload, with the remainder divided between Paralympic family and workforce. MRI was the most used imaging resource and CT was the least used imaging modality at the Paralympic village polyclinic. Analysis of demographic data provides a useful index for planning radiology infrastructure and manpower at future international competitions for athletes with a disability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Establishing an emergency department syndromic surveillance system to support the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Alex J; Hughes, Helen E; Hughes, Thomas C; Locker, Thomas E; Shannon, Tony; Heyworth, John; Wapling, Andy; Catchpole, Mike; Ibbotson, Sue; McCloskey, Brian; Smith, Gillian E

    2012-12-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is a mass gathering event that will present a major public health challenge. The Health Protection Agency, in collaboration with the College of Emergency Medicine, has established the Emergency Department Sentinel Syndromic Surveillance System (EDSSS) to support the public health surveillance requirements of the Games. This feasibility study assesses the usefulness of EDSSS in monitoring indicators of disease in the community. Daily counts of anonymised attendance data from six emergency departments across England were analysed by patient demographics (age, gender, partial postcode), triage coding and diagnosis codes. Generic and specific syndromic indicators were developed using aggregations of diagnosis codes recorded during each attendance. Over 339,000 attendances were recorded (26 July 2010 to 25 July 2011). The highest attendances recorded on weekdays between 10:00 and 11:00 and on weekends between 12:00 and 13:00. The mean daily attendance per emergency department was 257 (range 38-435). Syndromic indicators were developed including: respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiac, acute respiratory infection, gastroenteritis and myocardial ischaemia. Respiratory and acute respiratory infection indicators peaked during December 2010, concomitant with national influenza activity, as monitored through other influenza surveillance systems. The EDSSS has been established to provide an enhanced surveillance system for the London 2012 Olympics. Further validation of the data will be required; however, the results from this initial descriptive study demonstrate the potential for identifying unusual and/or severe outbreaks of infectious disease, or other incidents with public health impact, within the community.

  16. Tales of Two Cities: Architecture, Print and Early Guidebooks to Paris and London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth McKellar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This pioneering paper is the first to consider the contribution of a new type of urban literature to perceptions and portrayals of the city in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. It focuses on London and Parisian guidebooks, a genre that has been little studied to date, particularly those of: Germaine Brice, Description nouvelle de ce qui’il ya de plus remarquable dans la Ville de Paris (1684; F. Colsoni, Le Guide de Londres (1693; and Edward Hatton, A New View of London (1708. The article is the first to establish the significance of language primers as source for tourist guidebooks and the prevalence of lexicographers among those producing them. It examines the modern type of non-antiquarian urban guidebook as part of the new urban consumer culture. It also explores the genre’s contribution to a novel form in the writing and understanding of the city in the period focussed on the contemporary and the experiential, rather than the traditional orientation towards the historical and the monumental.

  17. Fluxes and concentrations of volatile organic compounds above central London, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langford

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations and fluxes of eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured during October 2006 from a high telecom tower above central London, as part of the CityFlux contribution to the REPARTEE I campaign. A continuous flow disjunct eddy covariance technique with analysis by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry was used. Daily averaged VOC mixing ratios were within the range 1–19 ppb for the oxygenated compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde and acetone and 0.2–1.3 ppb for the aromatics (benzene, toluene and C2-benzenes. Typical VOC fluxes were in the range 0.1–1.0 mg m−2 h−1. There was a non-linear relationship between VOC fluxes and traffic density for most of the measured compounds. Traffic activity was estimated to account for approximately 70% of the aromatic compound fluxes, whereas non-traffic related sources were found to be more important for methanol and isoprene fluxes. The measured fluxes were comparable to the estimates of the UK national atmospheric emission inventory for the aromatic VOCs and CO. In contrast, fluxes of the oxygenated compounds were about three times larger than inventory estimates. For isoprene and acetonitrile this difference was many times larger. At temperatures over 25° C it is estimated that more than half the isoprene observed in central London is of biogenic origin.

  18. Authoritative Images. The Kiwi and the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadelli, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The first exemplar of a kiwi, the wingless bird of New Zealand, arrived in the form of a lifeless specimen in Europe in 1812. A debate was sparked over the appearance and nature of this strange creature and indeed whether it actually existed. In 1833 the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London entered the debate and the illustrations published in this journal contributed greatly to the acceptance and further study of the kiwi. Some of the most eminent British zoologists and anatomists of the time were involved, from William Yarrell to Richard Owen, and from John Gould to Abraham Dee Bartlett. This crucial period in the discussion, which would extend over two decades and would only be brought to a close with the arrival of the first living specimen in the London Zoological Garden in 1851, will be analyzed based on a detailed examination of the reports published in the Transactions and other journals. This essay will show how images of the bird were produced and used by zoologists during different stages in the early research on the bird and how these figures circulated inside and outside the zoologists' community.

  19. EUFEMED London Conference 2017: Exploratory Medicines Development: Innovation and Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Van Bortel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The first formal conference of the EUropean Federation for Exploratory MEdicines Development (EUFEMED held in London was the result of a collaborative effort of its founding associations: the Association for Applied Human Pharmacology (AGAH; Germany, the Association for Human Pharmacology in the Pharmaceutical Industry (AHPPI; UK, the Belgian Association of Phase-I Units (BAPU; Belgium, and Club Phase-I (France. The conference focused on innovation and risk management in early clinical drug development. Among other innovations, immunotherapy in oncology and inflammatory diseases were discussed as well as the importance of adaptive trial designs in early clinical drug development. Consideration was given to assessing and mitigating risk in early clinical drug development, and included a preconference workshop. Different measures to minimize risks in healthy volunteers and patients in first-in-human trials were discussed in addition to the importance of non-clinical data, the need for reliable biomarkers, improved communication on adverse events (AEs and well-trained study sites with ready access to intensive care units and clinical specialists. The need for a European-wide system for prevention of over-volunteering was also discussed. The conference provided opportunity to discuss these developments and concerns and the changing regulatory environment with stakeholders from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies including the European Medicines Agency (EMA. Presentations given by invited speakers are published on http://www.eufemed.eu/london-conference-2017/.

  20. EUFEMED London Conference 2017: Exploratory Medicines Development: Innovation and Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bortel, Luc; Sourgens, Hildegard; Breithaupt-Grögler, Kerstin; Caplain, Henri; Donazzolo, Yves; Klingmann, Ingrid; Hammond, Michael; Hardman, Timothy C; Stringer, Steffan; de Hoon, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The first formal conference of the EUropean Federation for Exploratory MEdicines Development (EUFEMED) held in London was the result of a collaborative effort of its founding associations: the Association for Applied Human Pharmacology (AGAH; Germany), the Association for Human Pharmacology in the Pharmaceutical Industry (AHPPI; UK), the Belgian Association of Phase-I Units (BAPU; Belgium), and Club Phase-I (France). The conference focused on innovation and risk management in early clinical drug development. Among other innovations, immunotherapy in oncology and inflammatory diseases were discussed as well as the importance of adaptive trial designs in early clinical drug development. Consideration was given to assessing and mitigating risk in early clinical drug development, and included a preconference workshop. Different measures to minimize risks in healthy volunteers and patients in first-in-human trials were discussed in addition to the importance of non-clinical data, the need for reliable biomarkers, improved communication on adverse events (AEs) and well-trained study sites with ready access to intensive care units and clinical specialists. The need for a European-wide system for prevention of over-volunteering was also discussed. The conference provided opportunity to discuss these developments and concerns and the changing regulatory environment with stakeholders from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies including the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Presentations given by invited speakers are published on http://www.eufemed.eu/london-conference-2017/.

  1. Diplomatic asylum and the Assange case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, M.

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the place and development of diplomatic asylum in international law in close connection with the more specific questions raised by the case of Julian Assange, who was granted asylum in the Ecuador embassy in London on 16 August 2012. After discussing the historical rise and

  2. Digital subtraction angiography: first 900 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, H.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnostic technique of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is briefly outlined. The operational and technical experiences with a DR-960 DSA system used in the examination of the first 900 cases at St. Thomas' Hospital, London are described. (U.K.)

  3. Maternal BMI and diabetes in pregnancy: Investigating variations between ethnic groups using routine maternity data from London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Erin; Oakley, Laura; Seed, Paul T; Doyle, Pat; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the ethnicity-specific association between body mass index (BMI) and diabetes in pregnancy, with a focus on the appropriateness of using BMI cut-offs to identify pregnant women at risk of diabetes. Analysis of routinely-collected data from a maternity unit in London, UK. Data were available on 53 264 women delivering between 2004 and 2012. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between diabetes in pregnancy and BMI among women of different ethnicities, and adjusted probability estimates were used to derive risk equivalent cut-offs. ROC curve analysis was used to assess the performance of BMI as a predictor of diabetes in pregnancy. The prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy was 2.3% overall; highest in South and East Asian women (4.6% and 3.7%). In adjusted analysis, BMI category was strongly associated with diabetes in all ethnic groups. Modelled as a continuous variable with a quadratic term, BMI was an acceptable predictor of diabetes according to ROC curve analysis. Applying a BMI cut-off of 30 kg/m2 would identify just over half of Black women with diabetes in pregnancy, a third of White (32%) and South Asian (35%) women, but only 13% of East Asian women. The 'risk equivalent' (comparable to 30 kg/m2 in White women) threshold for South Asian and East Asian women was approximately 21 kg/m2, and 27.5 kg/m2 for Black women. This study suggests that current BMI thresholds are likely to be ineffective for diabetes screening in South and East Asian women, as many cases of diabetes will occur at low BMI levels. Our results suggest that East Asian women appear to face a similarly high risk of diabetes to South Asian women. Current UK guidelines recommend diabetes screening should be offered to all pregnant South Asian women; extending this recommendation to include women of East Asian ethnicity may be appropriate.

  4. The impact of consumer involvement in research: an evaluation of consumer involvement in the London Primary Care Studies Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Katrina; Carter, Mary; Mahtani, Vinita; Barnard, Angela; Hawton, Annie; Britten, Nicky

    2008-06-01

    The value of consumer involvement in health services research is widely recognized. While there is a growing body of evidence about the principles of good consumer involvement, there is little research about the effect that involvement can have on the research. This evaluation assessed the level and impact of consumer involvement in the London Primary Care Studies Programme (LPCSP), all of whose individual projects had to demonstrate substantial involvement as a condition of funding. To evaluate consumer involvement in the LPSCP and understand what impact consumers had on the research process and outcomes. A multi-method case study approach was undertaken, using survey techniques, interviews, focus groups, observation and scrutiny of written documents. The overall data set comprised 61 questionnaires, 44 semi-structured interviews, 2 focus groups and 15 hours of observation of meetings. Eleven primary care-based research projects which together made up the LPCSP. An in-depth description of consumer involvement in the Programme was produced. Nine projects had consumers as co-applicants, four projects had been completed before the evaluation began and one was still ongoing at the time of the evaluation. Of the eight projects which have produced final reports, all met their aims and objectives. Consumers had had an additional impact in the research, in the initial design of the study, in recruitment of the research subjects, in developing data collection tools, in collecting the data, in analysis and disseminating the findings. Consumer involvement in National Health Service research is a relatively recent policy development and while there is an increasing amount of literature about how and why consumers should be involved in research, there is less evidence about the impact of such involvement. This evaluation provides evidence about the impact that consumers have not only on the research process but also on the outcomes of the research.

  5. A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of a Community-Based Glaucoma Check Service in Hackney, London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Elizabeth; Datta, Jessica; Marks, Dalya; Kuper, Hannah; Lee, Helen; Leamon, Shaun; Lindfield, Robert; Wormald, Richard; Clarke, Jonathan; Elkarmouty, Ahmed; Macdowall, Wendy

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the uptake, feasibility and acceptability of a general practice-based optometrist-led glaucoma check service. The service targeted people of black Caribbean and black African descent aged 40-65 years, resident in Hackney, London, United Kingdom. The study used a mixed-method design, including analysis of service data, prospective audit of secondary care referrals patient survey, cost-consequence analysis, and interviews with staff involved in developing and implementing the service. A total of 3040 patients were invited to undergo the free check; 595 (19.6%) booked an appointment and 461 (15.2%) attended. Overall, 31 patients (6.8%) were referred to secondary care, of whom 22 attended and were assessed for glaucoma. Four were diagnosed with glaucoma and eight with suspected glaucoma, i.e. 2.6% of patients who underwent the check. The cost per patient identified with suspected or confirmed glaucoma was £9,013. Staff who were interviewed suggested that patients who attended might be those who routinely attended optometrist appointments, however only 62.4% of survey respondents reported having had an eye examination in the previous two years, and 11.4% of women and 16.0% of men reported never having had an eye examination. This study represents one possible configuration for a glaucoma case-finding service, and it contributes to a wider debate about whether screening, targeted or otherwise, should be offered in the UK. Our findings suggest that general practice is an acceptable setting and that such a service may reach some people not previously engaged with primary eye care services.

  6. Improving outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes using general practice networks: a quality improvement project in east London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Sally; Chowdhury, Tahseen A; Mathur, Rohini; Robson, John

    2014-02-01

    Structured diabetes care can improve outcomes and reduce risk of complications, but improving care in a deprived, ethnically diverse area can prove challenging. This report evaluates a system change to enhance diabetes care delivery in a primary care setting. All 35 practices in one inner London Primary Care Trust were geographically grouped into eight networks of four to five practices, each supported by a network manager, clerical staff and an educational budget. A multidisciplinary team developed a 'care package' for type 2 diabetes management, with financial incentives based on network achievement of targets. Monthly electronic performance dashboards enabled networks to track and improve performance. Network multidisciplinary team meetings including the diabetic specialist team supported case management and education. Key measures for improvement included the number of diabetes care plans completed, proportion of patients attending for digital retinal screen and proportions of patients achieving a number of biomedical indices (blood pressure, cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin). Between 2009 and 2012, completed care plans rose from 10% to 88%. The proportion of patients attending for digital retinal screen rose from 72% to 82.8%. The proportion of patients achieving a combination of blood pressure ≤ 140/80 mm Hg and cholesterol ≤ 4 mmol/L rose from 35.3% to 46.1%. Mean glycated haemoglobin dropped from 7.80% to 7.66% (62-60 mmol/mol). Investment of financial, organisational and education resources into primary care practice networks can achieve clinically important improvements in diabetes care in deprived, ethnically diverse communities. This success is predicated on collaborative working between practices, purposively designed high-quality information on network performance and engagement between primary and secondary care clinicians.

  7. The BBC, Daily Telegraph and Wikinews timelines of the terrorist attacks of 7th July 2006 in London: a comparison with contemporary discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Thelwall

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We assess the extent to which published media timelines reflect contemporary electronic discussions of major media events, using the London Attacks of July 2005 as a case study. The main objective is to judge whether timelines could, in principle, be automatically generated from contemporary debates. A secondary objective is to analyse the reasons for differences between contemporary debates and retrospective media timelines. Method. Our method exploits the new opportunities for large-scale analysis afforded by electronic news feeds and blogs. We compared published media timelines with blog postings and news stories related to the London attacks of July, 2005. Rich Site Summary (RSS technology was used to gather data from 19,587 blog and news sites. For the period of July 7 to July 31 we identified an average of 275 sources a day that posted new information containing the word 'London'. These postings, a combination of blogging and news stories, formed the raw data for our analysis. In particular, we extracted and counted the individual words used in the postings. Analysis. We compared contemporary word usage statistics from our RSS data with the text of three published media timelines, particularly seeking words and types of words that were present in one but not the other. Results. We found that the timelines tended to ignore the role of communication during the event itself, to use less emotionally charged language, and to gloss over to some extent the wider context of the event. Hence some aspects (frames of the unfolding discussion were ignored by the timelines. Moreover, all sources included a range of relatively trivial details, the timelines apparently using them as concept markers (metonymy for broader issues. Conclusion. . It seems that it would be difficult to automatically generate media timelines from contemporary discussions because of frame changes, and because of changes in terminology and the difficulty in

  8. A Migrant Culture on Display: The French Migrant and French Gastronomy in London (19th – 21st centuries)

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, D.

    2016-01-01

    The large contemporary French migrant population – estimated by the French Consulate at around 300,000–400,000 in the UK, the majority living in London and the South-East – remains ‘absent’ from studies on migration, and, in a study of migrant food history in Britain, is considered not to have left traces as a migrant community. Over the centuries, the presence of various French communities in London has varied significantly as far as numbers are concerned, but what does not change is their s...

  9. Emissions of CO2 from road freight transport in London: Trends and policies for long run reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanni, Alberto M.; Bristow, Abigail L.

    2010-01-01

    Freight transport has been receiving increasing attention in both literature and practice following the growing recognition of its importance in urban transport planning. This paper analyses historical and projected road freight CO 2 emissions in the city of London and explores the potential mitigation effect of a set of freight transport policies and logistics solutions. Findings indicate a range of policies with potential to reduce emissions in the period up to 2050. However, this reduction would appear to only be capable of partly counterbalancing the projected increase in freight traffic. More profound behavioural measures therefore appear to be necessary for London's CO 2 emissions reduction targets to be met.

  10. Mapping the ‘End Austerity Now’ protest day in Central London using a 3D Twitter density grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mapping and spatial analysis of social media data can show the dynamics of activities in urban space, such as protest events. This work focuses on the spatial relationship between the density of geo-tagged tweets and a large anti-government protest in London on 20 June 2015. The tweets are aggregated to hexagonal grid cells to visualize activity density in different Central London areas. The results of the mapping illustrate very high densities at the beginning and endpoints of the protest (the Bank of England and Parliament Square. Additionally, there are high tweet densities in the West End and Bank than in other neighbouring areas.

  11. Socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in exposure to air and noise pollution in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonne, Cathryn; Milà, Carles; Fecht, Daniela; Alvarez, Mar; Gulliver, John; Smith, James; Beevers, Sean; Ross Anderson, H; Kelly, Frank

    2018-06-01

    Transport-related air and noise pollution, exposures linked to adverse health outcomes, varies within cities potentially resulting in exposure inequalities. Relatively little is known regarding inequalities in personal exposure to air pollution or transport-related noise. Our objectives were to quantify socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in London in 1) air pollution exposure at residence compared to personal exposure; and 2) transport-related noise at residence from different sources. We used individual-level data from the London Travel Demand Survey (n = 45,079) between 2006 and 2010. We modeled residential (CMAQ-urban) and personal (London Hybrid Exposure Model) particulate matter pollution using quantile and logistic regression. We observed inverse patterns in inequalities in air pollution when estimated at residence versus personal exposure with respect to household income (categorical, 8 groups). Compared to the lowest income group (£75,000) had lower residential NO 2 (-1.3 (95% CI -2.1, -0.6) μg/m 3 in the 95th exposure quantile) but higher personal NO 2 exposure (1.9 (95% CI 1.6, 2.3) μg/m 3 in the 95th quantile), which was driven largely by transport mode and duration. Inequalities in residential exposure to NO 2 with respect to area-level deprivation were larger at lower exposure quantiles (e.g. estimate for NO 2 5.1 (95% CI 4.6, 5.5) at quantile 0.15 versus 1.9 (95% CI 1.1, 2.6) at quantile 0.95), reflecting low-deprivation, high residential NO 2 areas in the city centre. Air pollution exposure at residence consistently overestimated personal exposure; this overestimation varied with age, household income, and area-level income deprivation. Inequalities in road traffic noise were generally small. In logistic regression models, the odds of living within a 50 dB contour of aircraft noise were highest in individuals with the highest household income, white ethnicity, and with the lowest area-level income deprivation. Odds of living within a 50

  12. Chemical composition and sources of organic aerosols over London from the ClearfLo 2012 campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finessi, Emanuela; Holmes, Rachel; Hopkins, James; Lee, James; Harrison, Roy; Hamilton, Jacqueline

    2014-05-01

    Air quality in urban areas represents a major public health issue with around one third of the European population concentrated in cities and numbers expected to increase at global scale, particularly in developing countries. Particulate matter (PM) represents a primary threat for human health as numerous studies have confirmed the association between increased levels of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases with the exposure to PM. Despite considerable efforts made in improving air quality and progressively stricter emissions regulations, the PM concentrations have not changed much over the past decades for reasons that remain unclear, and highlight that studies on PM source apportionment are required for the formulation of effective policy. We investigated the chemical composition of organic aerosol (OA) collected during two intensive field campaigns held in winter and summer 2012 in the frame of the project Clean air for London (http://www.clearflo.ac.uk/). PM samples were collected both at a city background site (North Kensington) and at a rural site 50 km southeast of London (Detling) with 8 to 24 hours sampling schedule and analysed using off-line methods. Thermal-optical analysis was used to quantify OC-EC components while a suite of soft ionization mass spectrometric techniques was deployed for detailed chemical characterization. Liquid chromatography mass Spectrometry (LC-MSn) was mostly used for the simultaneous detection and quantification of various tracers for both primary and secondary OA sources. Well-established markers for wood burning primary OA like levoglucosan and azelaic acid were quantified together with various classes of nitroaromatics including methyl-nitrocatechols that are potential tracers for wood burning secondary OA. In addition, oxidation products of biogenic VOCs such as isoprene and monoterpenes were also quantified for both seasons and sites. A non-negligible contribution from biogenic SOA to urban OA was found in summertime

  13. Report of the twenty-first session, London, 18-22 February 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP) held its twenty-first session at the Headquarters of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), London, from 18 to 22 February 1991. Marine pollution is primarily linked to coastal development. The most serious problems are those associated with inadequately controlled coastal development and intensive human settlement of the coastal zone. GESAMP emphasizes the importance of the following problems and issues: State of the marine environment; comprehensive framework for the assessment and regulation of waste disposal in the marine environment; information on preparations for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; review of potentially harmful substances: 1. Carcinogenic substances. 2. Mutagenic substances. 3. Teratogenic substances. 4. Organochlorine compounds. 5. Oil, and other hydrocarbons including used lubricating oils, oil spill dispersants and chemicals used in offshore oil exploration and exploitation; environmental impacts of coastal aquaculture; global change and the air/sea exchange of chemicals; future work programme

  14. Using complexity theory to analyse the organisational response to resurgent tuberculosis across London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholm, Susan; Ferlie, Ewan

    2013-09-01

    We employ complexity theory to analyse the English National Health Service (NHS)'s organisational response to resurgent tuberculosis across London. Tennison (2002) suggests that complexity theory could fruitfully explore a healthcare system's response to this complex and emergent phenomenon: we explore this claim here. We also bring in established New Public Management principles to enhance our empirical analysis, which is based on data collected between late 2009 and mid-2011. We find that the operation of complexity theory based features, especially self-organisation, are significantly impacted by the macro context of a New Public Management-based regime which values control, measurement and risk management more than innovation, flexibility and lateral system building. We finally explore limitations and suggest perspectives for further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Change in Urban Albedo in London: A Multi-scale Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susca, T.; Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization-induced change in land use has considerable implications for climate, air quality, resources and ecosystems. Urban-induced warming is one of the most well-known impacts. This directly and indirectly can extend beyond the city. One way to reduce the size of this is to modify the surface atmosphere exchanges through changing the urban albedo. As increased rugosity caused by the morphology of a city results in lower albedo with constant material characteristics, the impacts of changing the albedo has impacts across a range of scales. Here a multi-scale assessment of the potential effects of the increase in albedo in London is presented. This includes modeling at the global and meso-scale informed by local and micro-scale measurements. In this study the first order calculations are conducted for the impact of changing the albedo (e.g. a 0.01 increase) on the radiative exchange. For example, when incoming solar radiation and cloud cover are considered, based on data retrieved from NASA (http://power.larc.nasa.gov/) for ~1600 km2 area of London, would produce a mean decrease in the instantaneous solar radiative forcing on the same surface of 0.40 W m-2. The nature of the surface is critical in terms of considering the impact of changes in albedo. For example, in the Central Activity Zone in London pavement and building can vary from 10 to 100% of the plan area. From observations the albedo is seen to change dramatically with changes in building materials. For example, glass surfaces which are being used increasingly in the central business district results in dramatic changes in albedo. Using the documented albedo variations determined across different scales the impacts are considered. For example, the effect of the increase in urban albedo is translated into the corresponding amount of avoided emission of carbon dioxide that produces the same effect on climate. At local scale, the effect that the increase in urban albedo can potentially have on local

  16. London penetration depth and thermal fluctuations in the sulphur hydride 203 K superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talantsev, E.F.; Crump, W.P. [Robinson Research Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Storey, J.G.; Tallon, J.L. [Robinson Research Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2017-03-15

    Recently, compressed H{sub 2}S has been shown to become superconducting at 203 K under a pressure of 155 GPa. One might expect fluctuations to dominate at such temperatures. Using the magnetisation critical current, we determine the ground-state London penetration depth, λ{sub 0} = 189 nm, and the superconducting energy gap, Δ{sub 0} = 27.8 meV, and find these parameters are similar to those of cuprate superconductors. We also determine the fluctuation temperature scale, T{sub fluc} = 1470 K, which shows that, unlike the cuprates, T{sub c} of the hydride is not limited by fluctuations. This is due to its three dimensionality and suggests the search for better superconductors should refocus on three-dimensional systems where the inevitable thermal fluctuations are less likely to reduce the observed T{sub c}. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Spotlight on Athletes With a Disability: Malaysian Newspaper Coverage of the 2012 London Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jadeera Phaik Geok; Khoo, Selina; Razman, Rizal

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed newspaper coverage of the 2012 London Paralympic Games by 8 Malaysian newspapers. Articles and photographs from 4 English-language and 4 Malay-language newspapers were examined from August 28 (1 day before the Games) to September 10, 2012 (1 day after the Games closing). Tables, graphs, letters, fact boxes, and lists of events were excluded from analysis. A total of 132 articles and 131 photographs were analyzed. Content analysis of the newspaper articles revealed that most (62.8%) of the articles contained positive reference to the athletes with a disability. There were equal numbers (39.1%) of action and static shots of athletes. More articles and photographs of Malaysian (58%) than non-Malaysian (42%) athletes with a disability were identified. Only 14.9% of the articles and photographs were related to female athletes with a disability.

  18. Der Lärm des Politischen. Die Londoner riots 2011 und ihre politischen Subjekte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Dzudzek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available August 2011 − London’s burning. Vier Tage lang kommt es zunächst in verschiedenen Stadtteilen Londons und später auch in anderen britischen Städten zu den größten Aufständen und Plünderungen der Nachkriegsgeschichte. Konservative Medien und Politik sind sich schnell einig: Der Abschaum, der sich für die Verwüstungen und Plünderungen verantwortlich zeigt, gehört mit aller Härte aus den Straßen gefegt. Die Aufständischen stellen keine politischen Forderungen. Entgegen hegemonialer Deutungen, die den riots eine politische Dimension absprechen, fragt der Artikel, inwiefern sich hier eine neue Qualität des Politischen und politischer Subjektivität zeigt, die wir mit den vertrauten repräsentationspolitischen Deutungsmustern nicht verstehen können.

  19. Ali, Cunich: Halley's Churches: Halley and the London Queen Anne Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jason R.; Cunich, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Edmond Halley's enormous contribution to science has received much attention. New research adds an intriguing chapter to his story and concerns his hitherto unexplored association with the baroque architectural visionary Nicholas Hawksmoor, and some important Temple-inspired churches that were built in London in the early 1700s. We argue that Christchurch Spitalfields and St Anne's Limehouse, which were both started in the summer of 1714, were aligned exactly eastwards using ``corrected'' magnetic-compass bearings and that Halley influenced or aided Hawksmoor. By this time the men had probably known each other for 30 years and had recently worked together on the Clarendon Building in Oxford. Despite there being more than 1500 years of Chinese and about 500 years of Western compass technology at the time, these probably represent the first constructions planned using a modern-day ``scientific'' technique. The research also throws light on Halley's contended religious position.

  20. Cookery, diet and district nursing in late nineteenth-century London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yuriko

    2009-03-01

    While health education in late nineteenth-century Britain could be beneficial for every household, it was particularly so where district nurses understood family circumstances and adapted knowledge to individual needs. During this period sick room cookery training and lectures on hygiene and dietetics became standard for nurses--especially following the reforms of Matron Eva Lückes at the London Hospital. Because understanding about health was not widespread in society, due to the living conditions and poverty of so many patients, and because doctors had few opportunities to convey such knowledge, the active support of nurses in the community proved to be essential for translating professional knowledge into words commonly understood. By demonstrating cooking and other health-related skills in the homes of the poor, nurses played an important part in improving the nation's health.

  1. Austere kindness or mindless austerity: the efects of gift-giving to beggars in east London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Lenhard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current austerity policies in the United Kingdom are creating a precarious situation for many people on the margins of society. Employing micro-level ethnographic analysis, this article addresses how government decisions affect people living on the street. Observations of how local policies demonize gift-giving to street people led me to revisit arguments about the positive and negative effects of gifts. Four months of fieldwork amongst people who beg in the City of London confirmed the Maussian ambiguity of gift exchange. The material benefit of monetary gifts is often accompanied by shared time and conversation; gifts to beggars can go beyond materiality and are hence able to create bonds of sociability.

  2. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Greg; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how sport psychology consultants perceive the challenges they face at the Olympic Games. Post-Olympics semistructured interviews with 11 experienced sport psychology consultants who worked at the London Games were conducted. The interviews were transcribed...... and inductively content analyzed. Trustworthiness was reached through credibility activities (i.e., member checking and peer debriefing). The participants perceived a number of challenges important to being successful at the Olympic Games. These challenges were divided into two general themes: Challenges Before...... the Olympics (e.g., negotiating one’s role) and Challenges During the Olympics (e.g., dealing with the media). The challenges the sport psychology consultants perceived as important validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions that exist in the literature. The findings extend the knowledge on sport...

  3. The 2nd Annual Clinical Scientist Trainee Symposium, August 22, 2017, London, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Charles; Blom, Jessica N; Lewis, James F

    2018-03-27

    Clinician scientists play a critical role in bridging research and clinical practice. Unfortunately, the neglect of research training in medical schools has created clinicians who are unable to translate evidence from literature to practice. Furthermore, the erosion of research training in medical education has resulted in clinicians who lack the skills required for successful scientific investigation. To counteract this, the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry has made an effort to engage trainees, at all levels, in the research process. The 2nd Annual Clinician Scientist Trainee Symposium was held in London, Ontario, Canada on August 22, 2017. Organized each year since 2016 by the Schulich Research Office, the symposium features research being conducted by trainees in Schulich's Clinical Research Training Program. The focus this year was on the current state of clinician-scientist training in Canada and visions for the path ahead.

  4. Imaging of plantar fascia and Achilles injuries undertaken at the London 2012 Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, David A; Carne, Andrew; Bethapudi, Sarath; Engebretsen, Lars; Budgett, Richard; O'Connor, Philip

    2013-12-01

    Plantar fascia and distal Achilles injuries are common in elite athletes. Acute athletic injuries of the plantar fascia include acute plantar fasciopathy and partial or complete tears. Underlying most acute injuries is a background of underlying chronic plantar fasciopathy. Injuries may affect the central or less commonly lateral portions of the fascia and acute tears are generally proximal. Athletic Achilles injuries may occur at the mid tendon or the distal insertion, and there may be an underlying chronic tendinopathy. Acute or chronic paratendinopathy may occur as a separate entity or combined with Achilles injury. In this article, the spectrum of athletic injuries of the plantar fascia and Achilles is described, illustrated by imaging findings from the London 2012 Olympic games.

  5. Acquiring a cognitive skill with a new repeating version of the Tower of London task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, Marie-Christine; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Owen, Adrian M; Doyon, Julien

    2004-12-01

    A computerized version of the Tower of London task was used to investigate cognitive skill learning. Thirty-six healthy volunteers were assigned to either a random condition (nonrecurring problems), or to a sequence condition in which, unbeknownst to the subjects, a repeating sequence of three problems was presented. Indices of execution, planning, and total time, as well as number of moves performed, were used to measure behavioural change. Subjects' performance improved in both conditions across blocks of practice. A distinct learning effect related to the repeating sequence was also observed. This suggests that a specific skill that reflects procedural learning of the strategies, rules, and procedures pertaining to repeating problems can develop over and above a more general skill at solving cognitive planning problems with practice.

  6. MINDING THEIR OWN BUSINESS: MARRIED WOMEN AND CREDIT IN EARLY EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY LONDON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Taking a micro-historical approach, this paper explores the business activities of Elizabeth Carter and Elizabeth Hatchett, two married women who operated together as pawnbrokers in London in the early decades of the eighteenth century. Based on a protracted inheritance dispute through which their extensive dealings come to light, the discussion assesses married women's lending and investment strategies in a burgeoning metropolitan economy; the networks through which women lenders operated; and the extent to which wives could sidestep the legal conventions of 'coverture' which restricted their ownership of moveable property. It is argued that the moneylending and asset management activities of women like Carter and Hatchett were an important part of married women's work that did not simply consolidate neighbourhood ties but that placed them at the heart of the early modern economy.

  7. “Will you fuck off please”. The use of please by London teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijmer Karin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates how the politeness marker please is used by young people to distinguish themselves from adults and create an identity of their own. The analysis of please is based on the Bergen Corpus of London Teenage Language (COLT. The distribution and uses of please in COLT are compared with similar data from the British component of the International Corpus of English (ICE-GB. We can recognize several functions of the “impolite” please in the COLT Corpus. To begin with, it is used strategically to establish or confirm harmonious relationships between the speakers (rapport-strengthening impoliteness. Secondly, “mock impoliteness” may be understood in a positive way because it is amusing or entertaining. In young people’s circles entertainment skills are for example highly valued (entertainment impoliteness. Finally, impoliteness is used creatively in interaction by the participants who use repetition, reformulation and escalation to construct ritualized sequences of apparent insults (creative impoliteness.

  8. Infectious disease surveillance for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, E; Heinsbroek, E; Watson, C; Catchpole, M

    2012-08-02

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games will be one of the largest mass gathering events in British history. In order to minimise potential infectious disease threats related to the event, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) has set up a suite of robust and multisource surveillance systems. These include enhancements of already established systems (notification of infectious diseases, local and regional reporting,laboratory surveillance, mortality surveillance, international surveillance, and syndromic surveillance in primary care), as well as new systems created for the Games (syndromic surveillance in emergency departments and out-of-hours/unscheduled care,undiagnosed serious infectious illness surveillance).Enhanced existing and newly established surveillance systems will continue after the Games or will be ready for future reactivation should the need arise. In addition to the direct improvements to surveillance, the strengthening of relationships with national and international stakeholders will constitute a major post-Games legacy for the HPA.

  9. Children's cognition and aircraft noise exposure at home--the West London Schools Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, T; Stansfeld, S; Haines, M; Head, J

    2004-01-01

    The association of aircraft noise exposure with cognitive performance was examined by means of a cross-sectional field survey. Two hundred thirty six children attending 10 primary schools around Heathrow Airport in west London were tested on reading comprehension, immediate/delayed recall and sustained attention. In order to obtain the information about their background, a questionnaire was delivered to the parents and 163 answers were collected. Logistic regression models were used to assess performance on the cognitive tests in relation to aircraft noise exposure at home and possible individual and school level confounding factors. A significant dose-response relationship was found between aircraft noise exposure at home and performance on memory tests of immediate/delayed recall. However there was no strong association with the other cognitive outcomes. These results suggest that aircraft noise exposure at home may affect children's memory.

  10. Veiling the Mechanical Eye: Antoine Claudet and the Spectacle of Photography in Victorian London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Monteiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The rise of commercial portrait photography in the mid-nineteenth century placed the bourgeois body squarely within technological processes of visual representation. Photography's chemical and optical operations required the subject's physical presence before the camera's mechanical eye, reciprocally exposing the apparatus to the subject's fixed gaze and provoking an unprecedented confrontation of vision, body and technology. Setting the client within photography's technical processes, however, could endanger efforts to promote photographic portraiture as a product of artistic endeavour. In response to this in photography's first decade, London studio owner Antoine Claudet enshrouded the apparatus in a competing visual rhetoric evoking luxury and the sublime. Examining contemporary accounts of Claudet's studios and neighbouring attractions of entertainment and consumption uncovers the overlapping references to enlightenment, beauty and pleasure that surrounded photography's early machinery. While this alternative discourse may have softened the stare of the mechanical eye, it nevertheless contributed to technology's increasing hold on the body and mind.

  11. Heather Shore, Artful Dodgers : Youth and Crime in early 19th century London

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, John

    2007-01-01

    Artful Dodgers : Youth and Crime in early 19th century LondonPar Heather ShoreThe Boydell press, Woodridge, 2002, 193 p. Cet ouvrage d’une historienne universitaire, dont la première édition date de 1999, se propose d’étudier l’émergence de la catégorie des « délinquants juvéniles » au cours de la première moitié du XIXème siècle. L’auteur compare les représentations de ces mineurs véhiculées par les autorités publiques, les réformateurs et dans l’opinion publique avec les réalités de leur vi...

  12. Tower of London test performance in children with poor arithmetic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, M Darryn; Haley, Pat; Edwards, Jay; Butler, Robert W

    2002-01-01

    The Tower of London (TOL) has been used to assess executive functions in both children and adults with documented brain dysfunction. Like many other measures of executive function, it has not been widely used in the assessment of learning disabilities in children. However, if performance on the TOL discriminated among groups of children with different academic strengths and weaknesses, then it may be useful in identifying learning disability subtypes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether performance on the TOL would differ among 3 groups of children: those with arithmetic difficulties, those with reading difficulties, and those with no academic difficulties. The group with arithmetic difficulties exhibited significantly greater impairment on the TOL than either the group with reading difficulties or the group with no difficulties. The latter 2 groups performed similarly. The clinical utility of the TOL, as well as the relation between arithmetic deficits and executive functions, are discussed.

  13. How boys become dogs: stigmatization and marginalization of uninitiated xhosa males in East London, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavundla, Thandisizwe R; Netswera, Fulufhelo G; Toth, Ferenc; Bottoman, Brian; Tenge, Stembele

    2010-07-01

    Male circumcision is practiced in South Africa among the Xhosa people as a rite of passage from boyhood to manhood. The manhood status achieved after the ritual accords men power and authority in the community over women and uncircumcised men. Therefore, uninitiated men experience great pressures to get circumcised. We describe the experience of newly initiated Xhosa men in East London, South Africa. Interpretive phenomenology was used as the inquiry of choice. Data were collected through focus group discussions in which 14 men participated. The theme of marginalization of uninitiated Xhosa males emerged with two categories: (a) rejection, and (b) lack of respect. The participants revealed that uninitiated men are rejected by the community, their own families, friends, and women. We frame the discussion around the concept of stigma. Acknowledging that uninitiated males are stigmatized can help mitigate stigma, and in turn, the incidence of medical complications from botched circumcisions.

  14. London and beyond: Taking a closer look at urban energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirstead, James; Schulz, Niels B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the field of urban energy policy, a neglected yet important topic. Cities account for approximately two-thirds of global primary energy consumption creating significant benefits and costs. As a result there has been growing interest in the contribution of cities to global energy policy issues such as climate change but a number of significant questions remain: e.g. how do energy policy processes differ between national and urban scales, and how can cities contribute most effectively to global policy goals? We present the results of interviews with key stakeholders in London to illustrate some unique features of the urban energy policy cycle. We then take a wider view, proposing a research agenda with three key goals: describing the global variety of urban energy consumption and policy; understanding the resulting diversity in responsibility, vulnerability and capacity; and developing shared procedures and solutions. Tackling these questions is vital if cities are to contribute fully to current energy policy efforts.

  15. Killer smog of London, 50 years on: particle properties and oxidative capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Andy; BéruBé, Kelly; Jones, Tim; Maynard, Robert; Richards, Roy

    2004-12-01

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples collected on glass fibre filters in London before (1955) and after (1958-1974) the Clean Air Act was examined for physicochemical characteristics and oxidative capacity. High-resolution microscopy identified most of the material as soot with smelter spheres, fly ash (FA), sodium chloride and calcium sulphate particles. Image analysis (IA) was used to show that most of the soot aggregates were less than 1 microm in size and contained chains of individual particles of 10-50 nm. Speed mapping of large agglomerates of the historic particles confirmed that the samples were enriched with soot probably derived from a sulphur-rich coal called nutty slack which was used extensively at this time. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to examine elemental composition. Meaningful quantitation of certain elements (Mg, Al and Zn) proved impossible because they were in high quantities in the glass fibre filters. However, high quantities of Fe>Pb>Cu>Mn>V>As were detected which may explain in part the bioreactivity of the samples. Using a simple in vitro test of oxidative capacity (plasmid assay), one historic particulate sample (1958) showed three times the activity of a modern-day diesel exhaust particle (DEP) sample but ten times less activity than a modern-day urban ambient particle collection. Such studies are continuing to link particle physicochemical properties and bioreactivity with a wider range of the samples collected between 1955 and 74 and how such historic samples compare with present-day London ambient particles.

  16. The role of one large greenspace in mitigating London's nocturnal urban heat island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doick, Kieron J; Peace, Andrew; Hutchings, Tony R

    2014-09-15

    The term urban heat island (UHI) describes a phenomenon where cities are on average warmer than the surrounding rural area. Trees and greenspaces are recognised for their strong potential to regulate urban air temperatures and combat the UHI. Empirical data is required in the UK to inform predictions on cooling by urban greenspaces and guide planning to maximise cooling of urban populations. We describe a 5-month study to measure the temperature profile of one of central London's large greenspaces and also in an adjacent street to determine the extent to which the greenspace reduced night-time UHI intensity. Statistical modelling displayed an exponential decay in the extent of cooling with increased distance from the greenspace. The extent of cooling ranged from an estimated 20 m on some nights to 440 m on other nights. The mean temperature reduction over these distances was 1.1 °C in the summer months, with a maximum of 4 °C cooling observed on some nights. Results suggest that calculation of London's UHI using Met Stations close to urban greenspace can underestimate 'urban' heat island intensity due to the cooling effect of the greenspace and values could be in the region of 45% higher. Our results lend support to claims that urban greenspace is an important component of UHI mitigation strategies. Lack of certainty over the variables that govern the extent of the greenspace cooling influence indicates that the multifaceted roles of trees and greenspaces in the UK's urban environment merit further consideration. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethnic Disparities in Oral Health Related Quality of Life among Adults in London, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahim, R; Delgado-Angulo, E K; Gallagher, J E; Bernabé, E

    2017-06-01

    To explore ethnic disparities in oral health related quality of life (OHQoL) among adults, and the role that socioeconomic factors play in that association. Data from 705 adults from a socially deprived, ethnically diverse metropolitan area of London (England) were analysed for this study. Ethnicity was self-assigned based on the 2001 UK Census categories. OHQoL was measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), which provides information on the prevalence, extent and intensity of oral impacts on quality of life in the previous 12 months. Ethnic disparities were assessed in logistic regression models for prevalence of oral impacts and negative binomial regression models for extent and intensity of oral impacts. The prevalence of oral impacts was 12.7% (95% CI: 10.2-15.1) and the mean OHIP-14 extent and severity scores were 0.27 (95% CI: 0.20-0.34) and 4.19 (95% CI: 3.74-4.64), respectively. Black adults showed greater and Asian adults lower prevalence, extent and severity of oral impacts than White adults. However, significant differences were only found for the extent of oral impacts; Black adults reporting more and Asian adults fewer OHIP-14 items affected than their White counterparts. After adjustments for socioeconomic factors, Asian adults had significantly fewer OHIP-14 items affected than White adults (rate ratio: 0.28; 95%CI: 0.08-0.94). This study found disparities in OHQoL between the three main ethnic groups in South East London. Asian adults had better and Black adults had similar OHQoL than White adults after accounting for demographic and social factors. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  18. Rickets in lion cubs at the London Zoo in 1889: some new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, Russell W; Hedberg, Gail

    2009-05-01

    In 1889, when Dr John Bland-Sutton, a prominent surgeon in London, England, was consulted concerning fatal rickets in more than 20 successive litters of lion cubs at the London Zoo, he evaluated the role of diet relative to the development of rickets. He prescribed goat meat and bones and cod-liver oil to be added to the lean horse-meat diet of the cubs and their mothers. Rickets reversed, the cubs survived, and litters were reared successfully. In classic controlled studies conducted in puppies and young rats 3 decades later, the crucial role of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D in both prevention and therapy of rickets was elucidated. Later studies led to the identification of the structural features of vitamin D. Although the Bland-Sutton interventional diet obviously provides calcium and phosphate from bones and vitamin D from cod-liver oil, other benefits of this diet were not initially recognized. Chewing bones promotes tooth and gum health and removes bacteria-laden tartar. Cod-liver oil also contains vitamin A, which is essential for the prevention of infection and for epithelial cell health. Taurine-conjugated bile salts are also necessary for the intestinal absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, including A and D. Moreover, unlike dogs and rats, all feline species are unable to synthesize taurine yet can only conjugate bile acids with taurine. This sulfur-containing beta-amino acid must be provided in the carnivorous diet of a large cat. Taurine-conjugated bile salts were provided in the oil cold-pressed from cod liver. The now famous Bland-Sutton "experiment of nature," namely, fatal rickets in lion cubs, was cured by the addition of minerals and vitamin D. However, gum health and the presence of taurine-conjugated bile salts undoubtedly permitted absorption of vitamin A and D, the latter promoting the cure of rickets.

  19. Management of hepatitis B in pregnant women and infants: a multicentre audit from four London hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Gauri; Irish, Dianne; Basarab, Marina; Mahungu, Tabitha; Fox-Lewis, Andrew; Thorne, Claire; Jacobs, Michael; Dusheiko, Geoffrey; Rosenberg, William M C; Suri, Deepak; Millar, Andrew D; Nastouli, Eleni

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can transmit the infection to their infants, screening of patients and appropriate interventions reduce vertical transmission. This audit was conducted to assess adherence to the national guidelines for management of HBV infection in pregnancy. A retrospective audit was conducted on pregnant women diagnosed with hepatitis B on screening in antenatal clinics, across four hospitals in London over 2 years (2009-2010). Data was collected from antenatal records and discharge summaries using a standard audit form. The outcomes measured included HBV serological markers, HBV DNA, detection of other blood borne viruses and referral to hepatology services, administration of active and passive prophylaxis to infants at birth. Descriptive statistics are presented. Proportions were compared using the χ2 test and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for prevalence estimates. Analyses were conducted using STATA 12. HBsAg was detected in 1.05% (n = 401, 95% CI 0.95-1.16) of women attending an antenatal appointment, 12% (n = 48) of the women were at a high risk of vertical transmission (HBe Ag positive or antiHBe and HBeAg negative or HBV DNA >106 IU/ml). Only 62% (n = 248) women were referred to hepatology or specialist clinics and 29% (n = 13) of women of high infectivity were on antiviral agents. Testing for hepatitis C and delta virus was suboptimal. 75% (n = 36) of the infants at a high risk of acquisition of HBV received both active and passive prophylaxis. In certain sectors of London, implementation of the pathway for management of women with hepatitis B and their infants is suboptimal. National guidelines should be followed and improved intersectorial sharing of information is needed to reduce the risk of women of high infectivity being lost to follow up.

  20. Sports injuries and illnesses during the London Summer Olympic Games 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Lars; Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Budgett, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri; Jegathesan, Manikavasagam; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Mountjoy, Margo; Palmer-Green, Debbie; Vanhegan, Ivor; Renström, Per A

    2013-05-01

    The Olympic Movement Medical Code encourages all stakeholders to ensure that sport is practised without danger to the health of the athletes. Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses is the foundation for developing preventive measures in sport. To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games of the XXX Olympiad, held in London in 2012. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games' (LOCOG) medical staff. In total, 10 568 athletes (4676 women and 5892 men) from 204 NOCs participated in the study. NOC and LOCOG medical staff reported 1361 injuries and 758 illnesses, equalling incidences of 128.8 injuries and 71.7 illnesses per 1000 athletes. Altogether, 11% and 7% of the athletes incurred at least one injury or illness, respectively. The risk of an athlete being injured was the highest in taekwondo, football, BMX, handball, mountain bike, athletics, weightlifting, hockey and badminton, and the lowest in archery, canoe slalom and sprint, track cycling, rowing, shooting and equestrian. 35% of the injuries were expected to prevent the athlete from participating during competition or training. Women suffered 60% more illnesses than men (86.0 vs 53.3 illnesses per 1000 athletes). The rate of illness was the highest in athletics, beach volleyball, football, sailing, synchronised swimming and taekwondo. A total of 310 illnesses (41%) affected the respiratory system and the most common cause of illness was infection (n=347, 46%). At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games and 7% of the athletes' an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially among sports. Future initiatives should include the development of preventive measures tailored for each specific sport and the

  1. Social deprivation, inequality, and the neighborhood-level incidence of psychotic syndromes in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkbride, James B; Jones, Peter B; Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy W

    2014-01-01

    Although urban birth, upbringing, and living are associated with increased risk of nonaffective psychotic disorders, few studies have used appropriate multilevel techniques accounting for spatial dependency in risk to investigate social, economic, or physical determinants of psychosis incidence. We adopted Bayesian hierarchical modeling to investigate the sociospatial distribution of psychosis risk in East London for DSM-IV nonaffective and affective psychotic disorders, ascertained over a 2-year period in the East London first-episode psychosis study. We included individual and environmental data on 427 subjects experiencing first-episode psychosis to estimate the incidence of disorder across 56 neighborhoods, having standardized for age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. A Bayesian model that included spatially structured neighborhood-level random effects identified substantial unexplained variation in nonaffective psychosis risk after controlling for individual-level factors. This variation was independently associated with greater levels of neighborhood income inequality (SD increase in inequality: Bayesian relative risks [RR]: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04-1.49), absolute deprivation (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.08-1.51) and population density (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.00-1.41). Neighborhood ethnic composition effects were associated with incidence of nonaffective psychosis for people of black Caribbean and black African origin. No variation in the spatial distribution of the affective psychoses was identified, consistent with the possibility of differing etiological origins of affective and nonaffective psychoses. Our data suggest that both absolute and relative measures of neighborhood social composition are associated with the incidence of nonaffective psychosis. We suggest these associations are consistent with a role for social stressors in psychosis risk, particularly when people live in more unequal communities.

  2. The Epidemiology of Injuries in Football at the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webborn, Nick; Cushman, Daniel; Blauwet, Cheri A; Emery, Carolyn; Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin; Stomphorst, Jaap; Van de Vliet, Peter; Willick, Stuart E

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology of injury in Paralympic football has received little attention. A study of all sports at the London 2012 Paralympic Games identified football 5-a-side as the sport with the highest injury rate, meriting further detailed analysis, which may facilitate the development of strategies to prevent injuries. To examine the injury rates and risk factors associated with injury in Paralympic football. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of injuries to football 5-a-side and football 7-a-side athletes. London 2012 Paralympic Games. Participants included 70 football 5-a-side athletes and 96 football 7-a-side athletes. Athletes from all but one country chose to participate in this study. The Paralympic Injury and Illness Surveillance System was used to track injuries during the Games, with data entered by medical staff. Injury incidence rate (IR) and injury incidence proportion (IP). The overall IR for football 5-a-side was 22.4 injuries/1000 athlete-days (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.1-33.8) with an IP of 31.4 injuries per 100 athletes (95% CI, 20.9-43.6). In 5-a-side competition, 62.5% of injuries were associated with foul play. The overall IR for football 7-a-side was 10.4 injuries/1000 athlete-days (95% CI, 5.4-15.5), with an IP of 14.6 injuries per 100 athletes (95% CI, 7.5-21.6). The most commonly injured body region in both sports was the lower extremity. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine IR and risk factors associated with injury in Paralympic football. Future studies are needed to determine mechanisms of injury and independent risk factors for injury, thus informing prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reframing sociologies of ethnicity and migration in encounters with Chinese London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    In this paper I argue that the intersecting sociologies of ethnicity and migration work from a series of interconnected blind spots hindering effective analysis of the current UK situation. Both operate analytically within the limitations of an 'immigrant problem' framework; are overinvested in state agendas; privilege a nation state analysis; are narrowly focused on distributions of migrant bodies, and on receiving, at the expense of sending, contexts. Exploring these limitations with data derived from a modest small-scale qualitative study of young Chinese migrants in London, I argue for a reframing along four dimensions. Firstly, in an era of elite migration, sociology could reach beyond its immigrant problem framework and open up to a broader range of UK migrant ethnicities and circumstances. Secondly, a stronger focus on cities as the scale on which lives are lived, and through which diverse streams of translocal activity are routed, would open new avenues of sociological exploration. Thirdly, including translocal activities connected with distributions of ethnic migrant bodies, such as capital transfers, would broaden its focus, taking migration and ethnicity more centrally into the analysis of globalization as one of its constituting practices. Finally, paying attention to sending, as well as arrival cities, reveals migrants' thinking and shapes the ways in which they live, as my data shows. The Chinese are both one of the UK's neglected minorities, and one of its fastest growing populations. They are a good example of new UK migrants and they bring globalization's realignment with the rising significance of China to the UK. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  4. The use of AEDs by police officers in the City of London. Automated external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P; Nolan, J; Hill, E; Dawson, J; Whimster, F; Skinner, D

    2001-08-01

    The Guidelines 2000 for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend shock delivery to victims in ventricular fibrillation within 5 min of call receipt by the Emergency Medical Services. In an effort to achieve this goal, in some parts of the United States, police officers have been trained to use automated external defibrillators (AEDs). We undertook a 3-year pilot evaluation of the use of AEDs by City of London police (CPOL) officers. Over a period of 3 years, 147 CPOL officers were trained in the use of an AED. Four AEDs were placed on rapid response vehicles covering the City of London. An overall call-response interval target was set at 8 min. The CPOL attended 1103 (90%) of the total of 1232 calls to which they were summoned. The mean interval between the first call received and arrival of the CPOL on scene was 8.9+/-4.0 min. The CPOL applied AEDs to 25 victims, 13 of whom were initially in ventricular fibrillation; at least one shock was delivered to all 13. The interval between call reception and delivery of the first shock was 5.5+/-2.5 min. The mean interval between switching on the AED and delivery of the first shock was 24+/-12 s. Two (15%) of these victims survived to hospital discharge. This study has confirmed the feasibility of training police officers in the UK to use AEDs as first responders. The call received to arrival on scene interval should be reduced by improvements in communication between LAS and CPOL.

  5. Londonfahrten mit Hauptschuelern--ein Erfahrungsbericht (Trips to London with Junior High School Students--Experience Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepp, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Discusses trips to London with junior high school students: planning, choice of goals, costs, pocket money, board and lodging, language preparation, programming. Gives a detailed account of a trip which was particularly geared to the students' circumstances. The possibility of partnership with English schools is discussed. (Text is in German.)…

  6. Bullying, "Cussing" and "Mucking About": Complexities in Tackling Homophobia in Three Secondary Schools in South London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Ian; Aggleton, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In countries such as the UK, schools have a responsibility to prevent all forms of bullying, including those related to sexual orientation. However, relatively little is known about how schools go about this work successfully. This study aimed to identify how three secondary schools in south London, England, were addressing homophobia. Three…

  7. Bacterial contamination on touch surfaces in the public transport system and in public areas of a hospital in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, J A; French, G L

    2009-12-01

    To investigate bacterial contamination on hand-touch surfaces in the public transport system and in public areas of a hospital in central London. Dipslides were used to sample 118 hand-touch surfaces in buses, trains, stations, hotels and public areas of a hospital in central London. Total aerobic counts were determined, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were identified and characterized. Bacteria were cultured from 112 (95%) of sites at a median concentration of 12 CFU cm(-2). Methicillin-susceptible Staph. aureus (MSSA) was cultured from nine (8%) of sites; no sites grew methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA). Hand-touch sites in London are frequently contaminated with bacteria and can harbour MSSA, but none of the sites tested were contaminated with MRSA. Hand-touch sites can become contaminated with staphylococci and may be fomites for the transmission of bacteria between humans. Such sites could provide a reservoir for community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) in high prevalence areas but were not present in London, a geographical area with a low incidence of CA-MRSA.

  8. Gender, Education and Social Change: A Study of Feminist Politics and Practice in London, 1870-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article explores feminist interventions in urban school politics. First, it argues that the female contribution was an essential component to politics and policy making in the 120-year period that London had a single education authority. Second, it suggests that these women politicians were advocates of a cultural praxis that involved…

  9. Boundary Spanners and Advocacy Leaders: Black Educators and Race Equality Work in Toronto and London, 1968-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    This comparative study examines the historical development of race equality efforts during the 1970s and 1980s in two global cities--Toronto and London--and the role of African Canadian and Black British educators in longstanding school-community partnerships. I characterize the leadership stance of Black educators as boundary spanners and…

  10. Administering "Operation Pied Piper"--How the London County Council Prepared for the Evacuation of Its Schoolchildren 1938-1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Niko

    2010-01-01

    In September 1939, two days before declaring war on Germany, the British government evacuated over half a million children from London to supposedly safer areas in the country. Schoolchildren went there with their teachers and infants with their mothers. Immediately after the event (and ever since) the impact of the evacuation on the children--the…

  11. Share Price Reactions to Sporty Performances of Soccer Clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange and the AIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Vanbrabant, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates whether or not the share prices of soccer clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange and the Alternative Investment Market are influenced by the soccer teams' weekly sporty performances. Event studies corrected for thin trading and with Baysian updating reveal that at the

  12. Conflict in the Colonies: The London Times Coverage of Watergate from the Break-in to the Pardon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, James Glen

    1979-01-01

    From the breakin through the pardon of President Nixon, the London "Times" maintained thorough coverage of the Watergate scandal--a difficult task, considering the complexities of the American judicial and political systems. A special Watergate section was added to the other sections of the "Times," and even the British…

  13. Two Years on: Koha 3.0 in Use at the CAMLIS Library, Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissels, Gerhard; Chandler, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the further development of the Koha 3.0 library management system (LMS) and the involvement of external software consultants at the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Library and Information Service (CAMLIS), Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes the…

  14. Teaching Exchange Rate Risk Using London's Gherkin Building: How Investors Were in (and out of) a Pickle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adam T.; Sackley, William H.; Watson, Ethan D.

    2017-01-01

    In this teaching note, the authors use an iconic London building, the Gherkin, as a motivation to understand exchange rates, cross exchange rates, and unhedged exchange rate risk. The famous tower was constructed in the early 2000s by Swiss Re, an insurance company, and then sold to investors as part of a sale-leaseback deal in early 2007.…

  15. Improving feedback from outpatient medical appointments attended by escorted psychiatric patients in the North London Forensic Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Kathleen; Croxford, Anna

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that patients with mental illness are known to have a high level of morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. This is particularly prominent in long-stay psychiatric patients, such as those in secure settings. The Royal College of Psychiatrists recommends that psychiatrists should promote the physical health of their patients and liaise with other specialties. However, there is evidence that communication between psychiatry and other specialties is poor. A survey was carried out at the North London Forensic Service in June 2014. This looked at the views of clinical staff about the frequency and quality of feedback obtained when inpatients attend outpatient hospital appointments at local general hospitals. This survey highlighted the general perception among staff that feedback is poor, with 68.43% of respondents saying that they were "very unsatisfied" or "unsatisfied" with the level and quality of feedback. Clinical staff felt that many patients who attended hospital outpatient appointments, even when escorted by staff, returned with little or no feedback. This was confirmed by a baseline audit across 3 wards showing that details of the appointment (date, time, hospital, and specialty) were only documented in 54.5% of cases and the content of the appointment documented in even fewer cases. A form was designed by junior doctors that provided a simple framework of 6 questions to be answered at the outpatient clinic about the problem, diagnosis, and further actions needed. This was introduced and its impact assessed with a 3-month and 6-month audit of electronic notes, as well as a follow-up survey after 6 months. The audit showed significant improvement in the quality of feedback about the appointment at both the 3-month and 6-month point. The follow-up survey showed that 70% of respondents were aware of the form and 100% of those who were aware of the form had used it at least once and found it helpful. The general

  16. Meeting Patient and Professional Needs: Views of Stakeholders on a Training Initiative for DwSIs in Endodontics in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haboubi, Mustafa; Newton, Paul; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2016-05-01

    A pilot scheme was established across London to train NHS primary dental care practitioners to provide endodontic treatment of moderate difficulty. It was co-led by the former London Deanery (Health Education England: North West London) and local NHS commissioners. This research aimed to explore key stakeholders' perceptions about the purpose of the initiative, its advantages, disadvantages and future implications. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders (commissioners and providers of the educational initiative; commissioners and providers of care, including trainees, principal dentists and specialists) involved in establishing, running and participating in the initiative and wider endodontic service provision in London. Interviews were based on a topic guide informed by the literature, and a workshop involving the London trainees. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using framework methodology. The project was perceived as supporting four key areas: addressing services, improving quality/outcomes, delivering education and enhancing professional status. There was evidence that dentists were harnessing health policy in facilitating 'reprofessionalisation' of dentistry with the creation of dentists with enhanced skills (DwSIs). Learning outcomes from the pilot were related to the accreditation of the participants, service tariffs, reimbursement for endodontic treatment on the NHS, and the need for continuity within and between services across the dental system. Uncertainty about funding and the changes within the NHS were among the concerns expressed regarding the future of the initiative. The findings of this research suggest that extending the skills of primary care practitioners may contribute to the reprofessionalisation of dentistry, which has much to contribute to patient care and the development of an integrated and accessible dental care system of quality, with improved outcomes for patients. The implications for

  17. London atmospheric Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide: 12 year record, fluxes, and diurnal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoisellé, M.; Fisher, R. E.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Lowry, D.; Fowler, C. M. R.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) have been measured at the Royal Holloway site, 30km WSW of London, for 12 years. This site receives air that has passed over London when there are easterly winds and cleaner, background air when the wind comes from the SW. H2 and CO mixing ratios are measured continuously at 30 minute intervals on a Trace Analytical Reduction Gas Detector coupled to a HP5890 GC since September 1996, and on a Peak Performer I (or PP1) since July 2007 at 5 minute intervals. Both instruments use 2 1/8" packed columns in series: a Unibeads 1S and a Molecular Sieve 5A. The PP1 detector (Reduced Compound Photometer) is an updated version of the old RGD2, and both use zero air as the carrier gas. CO is calibrated twice a month against NOAA-CMDL standards (mixing ratios range: 186 to 300 ppb). H2 was uncalibrated until 2006, but is now calibrated monthly against internal standards (range 530 to 750 ppb) measured at MPI-Jena as part of the Eurohydros project. A linearity correction is applied to each instrument, based on the standard measurements. A secondary standard is measured before each sample on the GC-RGD and another one is measured 4 to 6 times in a row twice a day on the PP1. A target gas is measured daily on both instruments since September 2008. The secondary standards and the target gas are dry ambient air in 70L stainless steel tanks filled to a pressure of 8 bars. Comparison of results from the two instruments suggests that for the most part the data are in good agreement, but an interlaboratory round robin comparison exercise for the Eurohydros project showed that the RGD is not linear at low values of CO. This is particularly noticeable for CO levels below 150 ppb. The long-term record of CO at Royal Holloway shows a significant decline since the start of the record: the annual mean CO mixing ratio in 2008 was three times lower than in 1997. Flux calculations, by ratio against 222Rn, CH4 and CO2, suggest CO emissions

  18. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 µm in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo project in winter 2012. Two high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent and an urban site (North Kensington, London. The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the contribution from different sources is distinctly different between the two sites. The concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 °C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC; measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer only accounts for < 10 % of the total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS at 250 °C, the two measurements are well-correlated, suggesting that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have

  19. Estimating attendance for breast cancer screening in ethnic groups in London

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    Møller Henrik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast screening uptake in London is below the Government's target of 70% and we investigate whether ethnicity affects this. Information on the ethnicity for the individual women invited is unavailable, so we use an area-based method similar to that routinely used to derive a geographical measure for socioeconomic deprivation. Methods We extracted 742,786 observations on attendance for routine appointments between 2004 and 2007 collected by the London Quality Assurance Reference Centre. Each woman was assigned to a lower super output (LSOA based on her postcode of residence. The proportions of the ethnic groups within each LSOA are known, so that the likelihood of a woman belonging to White, Black and Asian groups can be assigned. We investigated screening attendance by age group, socioeconomic deprivation using the Index of Deprivation 2004 income quintile, invitation type and breast screening service. Using logistic regression analysis we calculated odds ratios for attendance based on ethnic composition of the population, adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, the invitation type and screening service. Results The unadjusted attendance odds ratios were high for the White population (OR: 3.34 95% CI [3.26-3.42] and low for the Black population (0.13 [0.12-0.13] and the Asian population (0.55 [0.53-0.56]. Multivariate adjustment reduced the differences, but the Black population remained below unity (0.47 [0.44-0.50]; while the White (1.30 [1.26-1.35] and Asian populations (1.10 [1.05-1.15] were higher. There was little difference in the attendance between age groups. Attendance was highest for the most affluent group and fell sharply with increasing deprivation. For invitation type, the routine recall was higher than the first call. There were wide variations in the attendance for different ethnic groups between the individual screening services. Conclusions Overall breast screening attendance is low in communities with

  20. Estimating attendance for breast cancer screening in ethnic groups in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Christine; Jack, Ruth H; Dixon, Steve; Møller, Henrik; Davies, Elizabeth A

    2010-03-25

    Breast screening uptake in London is below the Government's target of 70% and we investigate whether ethnicity affects this. Information on the ethnicity for the individual women invited is unavailable, so we use an area-based method similar to that routinely used to derive a geographical measure for socioeconomic deprivation. We extracted 742,786 observations on attendance for routine appointments between 2004 and 2007 collected by the London Quality Assurance Reference Centre. Each woman was assigned to a lower super output (LSOA) based on her postcode of residence. The proportions of the ethnic groups within each LSOA are known, so that the likelihood of a woman belonging to White, Black and Asian groups can be assigned. We investigated screening attendance by age group, socioeconomic deprivation using the Index of Deprivation 2004 income quintile, invitation type and breast screening service. Using logistic regression analysis we calculated odds ratios for attendance based on ethnic composition of the population, adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, the invitation type and screening service. The unadjusted attendance odds ratios were high for the White population (OR: 3.34 95% CI [3.26-3.42]) and low for the Black population (0.13 [0.12-0.13]) and the Asian population (0.55 [0.53-0.56]). Multivariate adjustment reduced the differences, but the Black population remained below unity (0.47 [0.44-0.50]); while the White (1.30 [1.26-1.35]) and Asian populations (1.10 [1.05-1.15]) were higher. There was little difference in the attendance between age groups. Attendance was highest for the most affluent group and fell sharply with increasing deprivation. For invitation type, the routine recall was higher than the first call. There were wide variations in the attendance for different ethnic groups between the individual screening services. Overall breast screening attendance is low in communities with large Black populations, suggesting the need to improve

  1. The seroprevalence of human papillomavirus by immune status and by ethnicity in London

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    Harwood Catherine

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural history of cutaneous HPV is unclear and in particular, seroprevalence among individuals with different levels of immune function and ethnicity is unknown. As part of a study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and HPV among organ transplant recipients (OTR from London, we investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors for 34 HPV types (detected using Luminex technology among 409 OTR patients without skin cancer (243 Caucasians and 166 non-Caucasians, 367 individuals with end stage renal failure on dialysis (222 Caucasians and 145 non-Caucasians and 152 immunocompetent (IC individuals without skin cancer (102 Caucasians and 50 non-Caucasians to compare the HPV seroprevalence in patients with differing immune status and ethnicity. In total, seroprevalence data from 928 individuals, all from London, was available. Results Overall, no difference between HPV seroprevalence by immune status was observed (P = 0.3 among Caucasian or among non-Caucasian individuals, with seroprevalence varying from 87% to 94% across different immune status and ethnic groups. Those individuals seropositive to multiple types of one genus were more likely to be seroreactive to multiple types of another genus, independent of immune status or ethnicity. Lower seroprevalence for gammaHPV 4, and to a lesser extent gammaHPV 48, were observed among OTR compared to IC and dialysis patients. Higher seroprevalence against antibodies to betaHPV 93 were detected more frequently in non-Caucasians than Caucasians whereas muHPV 1 and, to a lesser extent, gammaHPV 4 were found more frequently among Caucasians - these findings were independent of immune status. Within non-Caucasian subgroups, the seroprevalence of 8 HPV (alpha-mucosal HPV16 and 13, alpha-cutaneous HPV7 and 2, betaHPV8, 17, 23 and 38 was significantly (P Conclusion We did not observe major disturbance in antibody response between immunocompetent, dialysis and OTR individuals, but

  2. Determinants of black carbon, particle mass and number concentrations in London transport microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Ioar; Kumar, Prashant; Hagen-Zanker, Alex; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Slovic, Anne Dorothee; Pritchard, John P.; Geurs, Karst T.

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the determinants of personal exposure concentrations of commuters' to black carbon (BC), ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC), and particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) in different travel modes. We quantified the contribution of key factors that explain the variation of the previous pollutants in four commuting routes in London, each covered by four transport modes (car, bus, walk and underground). Models were performed for each pollutant, separately to assess the effect of meteorology (wind speed) or ambient concentrations (with either high spatial or temporal resolution). Concentration variations were mainly explained by wind speed or ambient concentrations and to a lesser extent by route and period of the day. In multivariate models with wind speed, the wind speed was the common significant predictor for all the pollutants in the above-ground modes (i.e., car, bus, walk); and the only predictor variable for the PM fractions. Wind speed had the strongest effect on PM during the bus trips, with an increase in 1 m s-1 leading to a decrease in 2.25, 2.90 and 4.98 μg m-3 of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in car trips were better explained by ambient concentrations with high temporal resolution although from a single monitoring station. On the other hand, ambient concentrations with high spatial coverage but lower temporal resolution predicted better the concentrations in bus trips, due to bus routes passing through streets with a high variability of traffic intensity. In the underground models, wind speed was not significant and line and type of windows on the train explained 42% of the variation of PNC and 90% of all PM fractions. Trains in the district line with openable windows had an increase in concentrations of 1 684 cm-3 for PNC and 40.69 μg m-3 for PM2.5 compared with trains that had non-openable windows. The results from this work can be used to target efforts to reduce personal exposures of

  3. Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni: his early education among Florence, Rome and London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Guidoboni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work – part of a phd thesis in co-supervision between the " Sapienza " University of Rome and the University of Paris 1 “Panthéon- Sorbonne” - has the objective of investigating the lesser-known aspects of the life of architect Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni, especially the period of his training in Florence and Rome, and the years when he lived in England before his arrival in Paris in 1724. At the same time he was painter, architect and decorator and his name was famous thanks to a large number of sets made for the Opéra and to the design of the façade of the church of Saint- Sulpice in Paris. During his life, Servandoni had the opportunity to travel throughout Europe, where he worked for the major courts of that time, from Paris to London, from Lisbon to Brussels, Vienna, Dresden and Stuttgart. The archival research allowed to make the major breakthroughs, such as the discovery of  the Servandoni stay in Rome between 1719 and 1720, in the Prince Vaini's palace, a man “entiérement attaché à la France” and related to the environment of the Capranica and d'Alibert theaters. This find let us to make some assumptions about his life and his contacts in the papal city. And yet, the study highlighted the strong relationship that he had with the english cultural environment during  his early stay in Rome, that convinced him to take the trip to London. Thanks to this research, Servandoni's complete work - so vaguely interpreted as an anticipation of the “goût à la grecque” and the revival of classicism of the late eighteenth century - is reinterpreted as the result of his training in Italy and England. It is indebted, in fact, that as well the classicism that characterized the Florentine architecture of that period as his close contact with the English Palladian circle and with the Wren, Vanbrugh and Hawksmoor works, exercised a great influence on him.

  4. [Epidemic outbreak of 81 cases of brucellosis following the consumption of fresh cheese without pasteurization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell Monsalve, J; Rullán, J V; Peiró Callizo, E F; Nieto-Sandoval Alcolea, A

    1996-01-01

    In spite of the great effort that has been made in recent years in Castilla-La Mancha to control brucelosis, a lack of awareness on the part of producers and consumers leads to major epidemic outbreak, such as the one described below. A description of the outbreak is described and a study is conducted of cases and controls to determine the factors which are responsible for the epidemic. Unadjusted and adjusted Odds Ratios (O.R.) are obtained together with their confidence intervals, for the main epidemiological factors studied. A total of 81 cases of brucelosis were recorded in a period of 25 weeks. All the cases occurred in the same borough or were in some way linked to it. In the case and controls study no differences were found with regard to age, sex, contact with livestock or the consumption of pasteurised milk or cheese. A strong link was established between the illness and the consumption of home-made cottage cheese prepared by a small-scale producer in the borough, (O.R. = 311.9; C.I. = 95% = 41.48-12735)., whose livestock turned out to be infected with Brucella Mellitensis. This outbreak showed that in Spain, there is a risk of contracting brucelosis by consuming non-pasteurised dairy products, particularly cheese, when these are not subjected to the normal sanitary and health controls. The benefits of epidemiological research in the search for cases and determining the factors responsible for the outbreak are also demonstrated. An intensification of controls, the cleansing of the herds and flocks and health education in general, are suitable instruments for controlling this zoonosis in Spain.

  5. Seven years of teenage pregnancy in an inner London genitourinary medicine service - a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, Aseel; Daley, Natalie; Williams, Elizabeth; McLeod, Felicity; Rafiezadeh, Saba; Prime, Katia

    2014-12-01

    Young people attending genitourinary medicine services are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy. We performed a retrospective cohort study to identify characteristics of pregnant teenagers accessing an inner London genitourinary medicine service. There were 481 pregnancies in 458 teenagers with 54 previous pregnancies and 46 previous terminations of pregnancy. The under-18 and under-16 teenage pregnancy rates were 92.1 and 85.8 per 1000 age-matched clinic attendees, respectively. Median age was 17.1 years. 'Black Other' teenagers ('Black British', 'Mixed White-Black Caribbean' and 'Mixed White-Black African') were over-represented, compared to our clinic population, while those of White ethnicity were under-represented. Few pregnancies (1.5%) were planned with the majority (64%) intending terminations of pregnancy. Most teenagers did not use consistent contraception. Two-thirds of patients had attended genitourinary medicine services in the past and sexually transmitted infection prevalence at presentation was high. Effectively targeting the sexual and reproductive health needs of teenage genitourinary medicine clinic attendees may have a significant impact on reducing sexually transmitted infections, unplanned pregnancy and terminations of pregnancy in this group. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Working in London hospitals: perceptions of place in nursing students' employment considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, David A; Andrews, Gavin J; Andrews, Justin P; Thomas, B Gail; Wong, Josephine; Rixon, Lorna

    2005-11-01

    During the past decade, a distinct body of research has started to investigate the dynamics between nursing and place. However, despite attention being paid to a wide-range of nursing subjects, few studies have engaged with the important topic of labour force recruitment. In this context, this study uses a combined questionnaire (n=650), interview (n=30) and focus group (n=7) survey of London-based students, and investigates the complex mix of experiences and perceptions that result in hospitals having varying degrees of popularity as potential workplaces. The findings suggest experiences and perceptions of institutions-often gained on clinical placements-to be important, particularly relating to feeling valued, the quality of patient care, clinical and educational opportunities and team cohesion. These are often combined with experiences and perceptions of locality, relating to factors such as cost of living, travel considerations and sense of personnel safety. The study demonstrates that place is relevant to employment decision-making on multiple scales from wards to regions. Furthermore, that perceptions of potential workplaces result from engagements with complex mixes of cultural, economic and physical features, many of which are the consequences of management. It is argued that in order to effectively unpack workplaces, geographical research of nursing labour may benefit from researching simultaneously both 'inside' institutions, focusing on their dominant cultures of production and sub-cultures, and 'outside', focusing on their local urban or rural contexts.

  7. Forecasting peak asthma admissions in London: an application of quantile regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.; Sarran, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Asthma is a chronic condition of great public health concern globally. The associated morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation place an enormous burden on healthcare infrastructure and services. This study demonstrates a multistage quantile regression approach to predicting excess demand for health care services in the form of asthma daily admissions in London, using retrospective data from the Hospital Episode Statistics, weather and air quality. Trivariate quantile regression models (QRM) of asthma daily admissions were fitted to a 14-day range of lags of environmental factors, accounting for seasonality in a hold-in sample of the data. Representative lags were pooled to form multivariate predictive models, selected through a systematic backward stepwise reduction approach. Models were cross-validated using a hold-out sample of the data, and their respective root mean square error measures, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values compared. Two of the predictive models were able to detect extreme number of daily asthma admissions at sensitivity levels of 76 % and 62 %, as well as specificities of 66 % and 76 %. Their positive predictive values were slightly higher for the hold-out sample (29 % and 28 %) than for the hold-in model development sample (16 % and 18 %). QRMs can be used in multistage to select suitable variables to forecast extreme asthma events. The associations between asthma and environmental factors, including temperature, ozone and carbon monoxide can be exploited in predicting future events using QRMs.

  8. The impact of thunderstorm asthma on emergency department attendances across London during July 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, A J; Hughes, H E; Hughes, T C; Locker, T E; Brown, R; Sarran, C; Clewlow, Y; Murray, V; Bone, A; Catchpole, M; McCloskey, B; Smith, G E

    2014-08-01

    This study illustrates the potential of using emergency department attendance data, routinely accessed as part of a national syndromic surveillance system, to monitor the impact of thunderstorm asthma. The Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance System (EDSSS) routinely monitors anonymised attendance data on a daily basis across a sentinel network of 35 emergency departments. Attendance data for asthma, wheeze and difficulty breathing are analysed on a daily basis. A statistically significant spike in asthma attendances in two EDSSS emergency departments in London was detected on 23 July 2013, coinciding with a series of large violent thunderstorms across southern England. There was also an increase in the reported severity of these attendances. This preliminary report illustrates the potential of the EDSSS to monitor the impact of thunderstorms on emergency department asthma attendances. Further work will focus on how this system can be used to quantify the impact on emergency departments, thus potentially improving resource planning and also adding to the thunderstorm asthma evidence-base. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Surface water flood risk and management strategies for London: An Agent-Based Model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Katie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is recognised as one of the most common and costliest natural disasters in England. Flooding in urban areas during heavy rainfall is known as ‘surface water flooding’, considered to be the most likely cause of flood events and one of the greatest short-term climate risks for London. In this paper we present results from a novel Agent-Based Model designed to assess the interplay between different adaptation options, different agents, and the role of flood insurance and the flood insurance pool, Flood Re, in the context of climate change. The model illustrates how investment in adaptation options could reduce London’s surface water flood risk, today and in the future. However, benefits can be outweighed by continued development in high risk areas and the effects of climate change. Flood Re is beneficial in its function to provide affordable insurance, even under climate change. However, it offers no additional benefits in terms of overall risk reduction, and will face increasing pressure due to rising surface water flood risk in the future. The modelling approach and findings are highly relevant for reviewing the proposed Flood Re scheme, as well as for wider discussions on the potential of insurance schemes, and broader multi-sectoral partnerships, to incentivise flood risk management in the UK and internationally.

  10. Going for gold: blood planning for the London 2012 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, S M; Allard, S; Rackham, R; Doughty, H

    2014-06-01

    The Olympics is one of the largest sporting events in the world. Major events may be complicated by disruption of normal activity and major incidents. Health care and transfusion planners should be prepared for both. Previously, transfusion contingency planning has focused on seasonal blood shortages and pandemic influenzas. This article is the first published account of transfusion contingency planning for a major event. We describe the issues encountered and the lessons identified during transfusion planning for the London 2012 Olympics. Planning was started 18 months in advance and was led by a project team reporting to the Executive. Planning was based on three periods of Gamestime. The requirements were planned with key stakeholders using normal processes enhanced by service developments. Demand planning was based on literature review together with computer modelling. The aim was blood-stock sufficiency complimented by a high readiness donor panel to minimise waste. Plans were widely communicated and table-top exercised. Full transfusion services were maintained during both Games with all demands met. The new service improvements and high readiness donors worked well. Emergency command and control have been upgraded. Red cell concentrate (RCC) stock aged but wastage was not significantly increased. The key to success was: early planning, stakeholder engagement, service developments, integration of transfusion service planning within the wider health care community and conduct within an assurance framework. © 2014 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2014 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  11. Sherborn's foraminiferal studies and their influence on the collections at the Natural History Museum, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C Giles

    2016-01-01

    Sherborn's work on the Foraminifera clearly provided the initial spark to compile the major indexes for which he is famous. Contact and help from famous early micropalaeontologists such as T. Rupert Jones and Fortescue William Millett led Sherborn to produce his Bibliography of Foraminifera and subsequently a two-part Index of Foraminiferal Genera and Species. Edward Heron-Allen, whose mentor was Millett, was subsequently inspired by the bibliography to attempt to acquire every publication listed. This remarkable collection of literature was donated to the British Museum (Natural History) in 1926 along with the foraminiferal collections Heron-Allen had mainly purchased from early micropalaeontologists. This donation forms the backbone of the current NHM micropalaeontological collections. The NHM collections contain a relatively small amount of foraminiferal material published by Sherborn from the London Clay, Kimmeridge Clay and Speeton Clay. Another smaller collection reflects his longer-term interest in the British Chalk following regular fieldwork with A. W. Rowe. Other collections relating to Sherborn's early published work, particularly with T. R. Jones, are not present in the collections but these collections may have been sold or deposited elsewhere by his co-workers.

  12. National and ethnic identification, intergroup attitudes, and sport participation in the context of the London Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Virginia L; Corson, Eliza-Jane

    2013-11-01

    In the run-up to the 2012 London Olympics, the sense of national identity was salient. We tested children (N = 401) aged 5-15 years living near the Olympic site on national (British) and ethnic identification, national ingroup and outgroup attitudes, and sport participation. It was found that the strength of British identification peaked at age 9 years, but the strength of ethnic identification remained stable with age. Both liking for, and stereotyping of, different national groups diverged from age 9 years, but whilst stereotyping remained diverged liking converged by 15 years. The in group was one of the most liked, but one of the least positively stereotyped groups. Sport participation declined with age and was higher among boys, whilst the lowest socio-economic group showed the greatest discrepancy between normal and recent reported participation. The strength of British identification was associated with liking for, and stereotyping of, the British as well as sport participation, but the degree of associations varied between different groups of children. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons: The road ahead. London, 15 January 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2001-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London, 15 January 2001. The Director General points out that for over five decades since the summer of 1945, strategies of national and international security have been intertwined with the concept of nuclear weapons as a strategic deterrent. In his view, the achievement of a nuclear weapon free world will crucially depend on a fundamental change in that concept of 'security'. Besides the historical perspectives the paper focuses on the non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament strategies. The Director General also states that to achieve the main goal of universal non-proliferation and disarmament it is indispensable to re-evaluate nuclear weapon states status; challenge the doctrine of nuclear deterrence; develop alternatives to nuclear deterrence; and engage in constructive dialogue. In conclusion it is re-emphasized that there remain both the difficulties and the opportunities of the road towards nuclear disarmament. It is pointed out that construction of a non-proliferation regime with near-universal participation has been successful and some progress towards nuclear disarmament has been achieved, but several goals must be pursued to maintain and build upon achievements

  14. In-Street Wind Direction Variability in the Vicinity of a Busy Intersection in Central London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Ahmed A.; Tomlin, Alison S.; Wood, Curtis R.; Barlow, Janet F.; Belcher, Stephen E.; Smalley, Robert J.; Lingard, Justin J. N.; Arnold, Sam J.; Dobre, Adrian; Robins, Alan G.; Martin, Damien; Shallcross, Dudley E.

    2010-09-01

    We present results from fast-response wind measurements within and above a busy intersection between two street canyons (Marylebone Road and Gloucester Place) in Westminster, London taken as part of the DAPPLE (Dispersion of Air Pollution and Penetration into the Local Environment; www.dapple.org.uk ) 2007 field campaign. The data reported here were collected using ultrasonic anemometers on the roof-top of a building adjacent to the intersection and at two heights on a pair of lamp-posts on opposite sides of the intersection. Site characteristics, data analysis and the variation of intersection flow with the above-roof wind direction ( θ ref ) are discussed. Evidence of both flow channelling and recirculation was identified within the canyon, only a few metres from the intersection for along-street and across-street roof-top winds respectively. Results also indicate that for oblique roof-top flows, the intersection flow is a complex combination of bifurcated channelled flows, recirculation and corner vortices. Asymmetries in local building geometry around the intersection and small changes in the background wind direction (changes in 15- min mean θ ref of 5°-10°) were also observed to have profound influences on the behaviour of intersection flow patterns. Consequently, short time-scale variability in the background flow direction can lead to highly scattered in-street mean flow angles masking the true multi-modal features of the flow and thus further complicating modelling challenges.

  15. Northwest Russia and the Dumping of Radioactive Waste: The London Convention Implemented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-12-31

    The `Polar Oceans and the Law of the Sea Project`, POLOS, is a three-year international research project in international law and international relations. This report is one of the publications under POLOS. The subject is the Soviet dumping of radioactive waste in the Barents and Kara Seas. The most intensely radioactive waste is a number of submarine reactors still containing high-level spent fuel. Some of this dumping violated Soviet commitments to the 1972 London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, and this is the starting point of the report. The discussion focuses on how international regimes may affect the domestic implementation in member states, that is, how international agreements can be converted into behavioural adaptation on the part of target groups. Soviet and later Russian management of nuclear waste in the north has been significantly influenced by regulations and programmes generated under international dumping instruments. These international programmes have been supported by the active participation of the Navy itself in the belief that they would lead to transfer of technology and financial resources to Russia from the West. Inspection of military nuclear waste management is largely left to the Northern Fleet. As for monitoring, measurements were for a long time not taken near the dumping sites. As for regulations, the Northern Fleet continued dumping long into the 1990s without permission. Regarding compliance stimulation, foreign support has helped the Northern Fleet avoid dumping. 113 refs.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in community and nosocomial Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates, London 2005 – 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareham David W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the commonest cause of community and nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI. Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical relying on susceptibility data from local surveillance studies. We therefore set out to determine levels of resistance to 8 commonly used antimicrobial agents amongst all urinary isolates obtained over a 12 month period. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim and cefpodoxime was determined for 11,865 E. coli urinary isolates obtained from community and hospitalised patients in East London. Results Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent (94% susceptible, followed by gentamicin and cefpodoxime. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (55% and trimethoprim (40%, often in combination were observed in both sets of isolates. Although isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple drug classes were rare, resistance to cefpodoxime, indicative of Extended spectrum β-lactamase production, was observed in 5.7% of community and 21.6% of nosocomial isolates. Conclusion With the exception of nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empirical oral treatments for UTI was extremely high. Levels of resistance to trimethoprim and ampicillin render them unsuitable for empirical use. Continued surveillance and investigation of other oral agents for treatment of UTI in the community is required.

  17. Neighbourhood variation and inequity of primary health service use by mothers from London-Middlesex, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Catherine; Gilliland, Jason; Thind, Amardeep; Wilk, Piotr; Campbell, M Karen

    2014-01-01

    Primary health service use (P-HSU) may be influenced by contextual characteristics and is equitable when driven by need. Contextual effects and inequity of maternal P-HSU were determined. Participant data from a London-Middlesex, Ontario, prenatal cohort were linked by residential address to contextual characteristics. Multilevel logistic regression estimated contextual effects and tested for effect measure modification of need factors. Maternal P-HSU varied between neighbourhoods. The effect of obesity was different for rural mothers living in low- (OR = 0.26) and middle-income households (OR = 0.15) and for urban mothers living in high-income households (OR = 2.82). The effect of having a health condition was greatest in mothers with three or more children (OR = 2.41). Differences in maternal P-HSU exist between neighbourhoods, and enabling factors modified need factors' effects, identifying subgroups of mothers with inequitable P-HSU. RESULTS have the potential to inform Canadian health policy with regard to contextual effects and inequity of P-HSU.

  18. Greening London's black cabs: a study of driver's preferences for fuel cell taxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourato, Susana; Saynor, Bob; Hart, David

    2004-01-01

    Road transport accounts for about a quarter of all carbon emissions in the UK, highlighting the need for low carbon alternatives to current fuels and vehicles. Running on hydrogen and virtually emissions-free, fuel cell vehicles are considered to be one of the most promising ways of reducing transport-related emissions. Understanding the user benefits of fuel cell vehicles and the determinants of demand is essential for their successful penetration. This contingent valuation study investigates the preferences of London taxi drivers for driving emissions-free hydrogen fuel cell taxis, both in the short term as part of a pilot project, and in the longer term if production line fuel cell taxis become available. The results show that willingness to pay to participate in a pilot project seems to be driven mostly by drivers' expectation of personal financial gains. In contrast, however, environmental considerations are found to affect taxi drivers' longer-term vehicle purchasing decisions. The results also reveal that driving hydrogen-fuelled vehicles does not seem to raise safety concerns amongst taxi drivers

  19. 'Gay times': identity, locality, memory, and the Brixton squats in 1970's London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Through a thick description of a gay squatting community in south London in the 1970s, this piece explores the ways in which local histories complicate broader accounts of gay life, politics, and culture. Such a focus alerts us to the impact of personal encounters, of local politics, and material circumstances, of coincident local communities, of jobs (or the lack of them), and of major local events (like the Brixton riots of 1981). The local focus and the oral history sources also illuminate the complex ways in which unspoken and often unconscious imperatives associated with ethnicity, class, and the familial, social, and cultural contexts of our upbringings are played out under new and changing circumstances. Taking this approach fractures homogenizing assumptions about gay identity and community--even of a self-identified gay community like this squatting collective. It can also decentre sexuality as a primary category of identity and analysis as other factors come into sharper focus and shed light on the ebb and flow of identification and on the ways in which broader histories are woven into everyday lives. The piece thus considers different scales of analysis, the limits of identification, the inclusions and exclusions enacted when communities come together and identities coalesce, the continuities and discontinuities between broader and counter cultures (especially in relation to ideas and lived experiences of home), and the way memories of the squats and of the 1970s are modulated by subsequent national and gay politics, by AIDS, and by a profound sense of loss.

  20. Low temperature London penetration depth and superfluid density in Fe-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunsoo [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The superconducting gap symmetry of the Fe-based superconductors was studied by measurements and analysis of London penetration depth and super uid density. Tunnel diode resonator technique for these measurements was implemented in a dilution refrigerator allowing for the temperatures down to 50 mK. For the analysis of the super uid density, we used both experimental studies of Al-coated samples and original thermodynamic approach based on Rutgers relation. In three systems studied, we found that the superconducting gap at the optimal doping is best described in multi-gap full gap scenario. By performing experiments on samples with arti cially introduced disorder with heavy ion irradiation, we show that evolution of the superconducting transition temperature and of the super uid density are consistent with full-gap sign changing s superconducting state. The superconducting gap develops strong modulation both in the under-doped and the over-doped regimes. In the terminal hole-doped KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, both temperature dependence of the super uid density and its evolution with increase of the scattering rate are consistent with symmetry imposed vertical line nodes in the superconducting gap. By comparative studies of hole-doped (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and electron-doped Ca10-3-8, we show that the superconducting gap modulation in the under-doped regime is intrinsic and is not induced by the coexisting static magnetic order.

  1. Reseña de Pinker, S. (1998. How the Mind Works, London, Penguin Books.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Eizaga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Se trata de una reseña de Pinker, S. (1998. How the Mind Works, London, Penguin Books.

  2. No evidence of XMRV or related retroviruses in a London HIV-1-positive patient cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor R Gray

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated a recently discovered gammaretrovirus, XMRV (Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus, in chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer, though whether as causative agent or opportunistic infection is unclear. It has also been suggested that the virus can be found circulating amongst the general population. The discovery has been controversial, with conflicting results from attempts to reproduce the original studies.We extracted peripheral blood DNA from a cohort of 540 HIV-1-positive patients (approximately 20% of whom have never been on anti-retroviral treatment and determined the presence of XMRV and related viruses using TaqMan PCR. While we were able to amplify as few as 5 copies of positive control DNA, we did not find any positive samples in the patient cohort.In view of these negative findings in this highly susceptible group, we conclude that it is unlikely that XMRV or related viruses are circulating at a significant level, if at all, in HIV-1-positive patients in London or in the general population.

  3. Identity management strategies among HIV-positive Colombian gay men in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi; Williamson, Iain

    2017-12-01

    This study set out to explore the social-psychological aspects of living with HIV among a group of HIV-positive Colombian gay men in London, and the strategies that they deployed to manage ensuing threats to their identities. Focus group and individual interview data were collected from 14 Colombian gay men living with HIV, and were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis and identity process theory. The following themes are discussed: (1) identity struggles and conflicts in Colombia, (2), managing multiple layers of social stigma in England, and (3) changing interpersonal and intergroup dynamics, which highlight the inter-connections between sexual prejudice, sexual risk-taking and HIV stigma. Identity may be chronically threatened due to the multiple layers of stigma, which can limit the coping strategies available to individuals. Findings strongly support the need for action and programmes to highlight and tackle both racism and HIV stigma on the gay scene and to fund more specific resources for sub-communities of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men, which employ appropriately trained and culturally competent staff.

  4. Perceptions and experiences of epilepsy among patients from black ethnic groups in South London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonecha, Shaneil; Noble, Adam J; Morgan, Myfanwy; Ridsdale, Leone

    2015-09-01

    The National Institute of Clinical Excellence suggested black ethnic minorities with epilepsy have different cultural, communicative and health-care needs. However, little is known about these despite increasing migration of black African and Caribbean people to Europe. This study aims to explore perceptions and experiences of epilepsy among black African and Caribbean people in South London. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 11 participants, to examine their beliefs and perceptions of living with epilepsy. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, codes generated and thematic analysis undertaken. African participants described supernatural causes for epilepsy and experienced considerable stigma whereas Caribbean participants described epilepsy as a 'normal illness'. However, both African and Caribbean participants experienced social restrictions arising from their epilepsy. The findings of higher levels of perceived stigma and social restriction seen in African participants may be a continuation of beliefs reported in participants' country of origin. There is also evidence that views regarding epilepsy transition through generations vary depending on place of birth. Practical Implications Health-care professionals need to be aware of and engage with the particular beliefs and concerns of black African and Caribbean people to achieve equity in health outcomes.

  5. Long-term exposure to traffic pollution and hospital admissions in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halonen, Jaana I.; Blangiardo, Marta; Toledano, Mireille B.; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Anderson, H. Ross; Beevers, Sean D.; Dajnak, David; Kelly, Frank J.; Tonne, Cathryn

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the effects of long-term exposure to traffic pollution on health is inconsistent. In Greater London we examined associations between traffic pollution and emergency hospital admissions for cardio-respiratory diseases by applying linear and piecewise linear Poisson regression models in a small-area analysis. For both models the results for children and adults were close to unity. In the elderly, linear models found negative associations whereas piecewise models found non-linear associations characterized by positive risks in the lowest and negative risks in the highest exposure category. An increased risk was observed among those living in areas with the highest socioeconomic deprivation. Estimates were not affected by adjustment for traffic noise. The lack of convincing positive linear associations between primary traffic pollution and hospital admissions agrees with a number of other reports, but may reflect residual confounding. The relatively greater vulnerability of the most deprived populations has important implications for public health. - Highlights: • Evidence concerning associations between traffic pollutants and morbidity is scarce. • We addressed this using state of the art small-area statistical methods. • There was no convincing evidence of positive linear associations with admissions. - In this study, there was no convincing evidence of positive linear associations between long-term exposure to primary traffic pollutants and cardio-respiratory hospitalizations.

  6. Reflecting on the experience of interviewing online: perspectives from the Internet and HIV study in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M; Bolding, G; Hart, G; Sherr, L; Elford, J

    2004-11-01

    This paper considers some of the strengths and weaknesses of conducting synchronous online interviews for qualitative research. It is based on a study among gay/bisexual men that used both qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the association between seeking sex through the Internet and HIV transmission risk. Between June 2002 and January 2004, 128 gay/bisexual men living in London were interviewed one-to-one by the first author (MD) about their experience of using the Internet to find sexual partners and negotiating condom use for anal sex. Thirty-five men were interviewed online, while 93 were interviewed face-to-face (i.e. offline). This paper draws on MD's experience of conducting these interviews--both online and face-to-face. Synchronous online interviews have the advantage of being cheap, convenient and attractive to people who do not like face-to-face interviews. However, some of the social conventions and technical limitations of computer-mediated-communication can introduce ambiguity into the online dialogue. To minimize this ambiguity, both interviewer and interviewee have to edit their online interaction. One of the distinctive features of the online interview is that it emerges as a form of textual performance. This raises fundamental questions about the suitability of the synchronous online interview for exploring sensitive topics such as risky sexual behaviour.

  7. London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: public health surveillance and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Brian; Endericks, Tina; Catchpole, Mike; Zambon, Maria; McLauchlin, Jim; Shetty, Nandini; Manuel, Rohini; Turbitt, Deborah; Smith, Gillian; Crook, Paul; Severi, Ettore; Jones, Jane; Ibbotson, Sue; Marshall, Roberta; Smallwood, Catherine A H; Isla, Nicolas; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Barbeschi, Maurizio; Heymann, David L; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2014-06-14

    Mass gatherings are regarded as potential risks for transmission of infectious diseases, and might compromise the health system of countries in which they are hosted. The evidence for increased transmission of infectious diseases at international sporting mass gatherings that attract many visitors from all over the world is not clear, and the evidence base for public health surveillance, epidemiology, and response at events such as the Olympics is small. However, infectious diseases are a recognised risk, and public health planning is, and should remain, a crucial part of the overall planning of sporting events. In this Series paper, we set out the planning and the surveillance systems that were used to monitor public health risks during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games in the summer of 2012, and draw attention to the public health issues-infectious diseases and chemical, radiation, and environmental hazards-that arose. Although the absolute risk of health-protection problems, including infectious diseases, at sporting mass gatherings is small, the need for reassurance of the absence of problems is higher than has previously been considered; this could challenge conventional public health surveillance systems. Recognition of the limitations of health-surveillance systems needs to be part of the planning for future sporting events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Many-objective optimization and visual analytics reveal key trade-offs for London's water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Huskova, Ivana; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Harou, Julien J.; Lambert, Chris; Reed, Patrick M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we link a water resource management simulator to multi-objective search to reveal the key trade-offs inherent in planning a real-world water resource system. We consider new supplies and demand management (conservation) options while seeking to elucidate the trade-offs between the best portfolios of schemes to satisfy projected water demands. Alternative system designs are evaluated using performance measures that minimize capital and operating costs and energy use while maximizing resilience, engineering and environmental metrics, subject to supply reliability constraints. Our analysis shows many-objective evolutionary optimization coupled with state-of-the art visual analytics can help planners discover more diverse water supply system designs and better understand their inherent trade-offs. The approach is used to explore future water supply options for the Thames water resource system (including London's water supply). New supply options include a new reservoir, water transfers, artificial recharge, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Demand management options include leakage reduction, compulsory metering and seasonal tariffs. The Thames system's Pareto approximate portfolios cluster into distinct groups of water supply options; for example implementing a pipe refurbishment program leads to higher capital costs but greater reliability. This study highlights that traditional least-cost reliability constrained design of water supply systems masks asset combinations whose benefits only become apparent when more planning objectives are considered.

  9. Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Sediment Remediation at the London Olympic Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, D.; Al-Tabbaa, A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, there is an emerging 'green and sustainable remediation' (GSR) movement. It is drawing increasing attention from both the government and the industry, because this GSR movement is promising in accelerating process in addressing the contaminated land issue, by overcoming regulatory barriers, encouraging technological innovation, and balancing life cycle environmental stewardship with economic vitality and social well-being. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used by both researchers and industrial practitioners in an initiative to make environmental remediation greener and more sustainable. Life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), aiming at expanding the traditional LCA model in both breadth and depth (e.g. to incorporate both environmental and social-economic sustainability), is an important research direction in the existing LCA research field. The present study intends to develop a LCSA method based on a hybrid LCA model and economic input-output (EIO) data. The LCSA method is applied to a contaminated sediment remediation project conducted at the London Olympic Park site.

  10. The social ecology of girls' bullying practices: exploratory research in two London schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Farah; Bonell, Chris; Harden, Angela; Lorenc, Theo

    2015-06-01

    This exploratory study adopts a socio-ecological approach to examine the context of school bullying. It asks: (1) what are students' accounts of bullying practices?; (2) how are these enabled and constrained by the school-environment?; (3) how is gender implicated? Qualitative data were collected from girls in two schools in London via focus groups (one in each school; students aged 12-15) and seven semi-structured interviews (in one school; students aged 16-18); and from school policy documents. Our interpretation of girls' accounts, informed by Giddens' structuration theory, suggests that bullying practices were spatially patterned in the schools and often characterised by the regulation of girls' sexuality and sexual-harassment. Repeated acts of aggression were fluid with regard to the bully and victim role, challenging the dominant view of bullying as characterised by consistent disparities in power between individuals. Schools structured bullying behaviour via policies and practices that ignored these forms of abuse and which focused on and may have been complicit in the making of stable 'bully' and 'victim' roles, thus indirectly contributing to the reproduction of unhealthy relationships between students. In terms of gender, traditional gendered and sexual discourses appear to structure the identities of the schools and girls in our study. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  11. Exploring Twitter to analyze the public's reaction patterns to recently reported homicides in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounadi, Ourania; Lampoltshammer, Thomas J; Groff, Elizabeth; Sitko, Izabela; Leitner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Crime is an ubiquitous part of society. The way people express their concerns about crimes has been of particular interest to the scientific community. Over time, the numbers and kinds of available communication channels have increased. Today, social media services, such Twitter, present a convenient way to express opinions and concerns about crimes. The main objective of this study is to explore people's perception of homicides, specifically, how the characteristics and proximity of the event affect the public's concern about it. The analysis explores Twitter messages that refer to homicides that occurred in London in 2012. In particular, the dependence of tweeting propensity on the proximity, in space and time, of a crime incident and of people being concerned about that particular incident are examined. Furthermore, the crime characteristics of the homicides are analysed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that the proximity of the Twitter users' estimated home locations to the homicides' locations impacts on whether the associated crime news is spread or not and how quickly. More than half of the homicide related tweets are sent within the first week and the majority of them are sent within a month of the incident's occurrence. Certain crime characteristics, including the presence of a knife, a young victim, a British victim, or a homicide committed by a gang are predictors of the crime-tweets posting frequency.

  12. Paleoactaea gen. nov. (Ranunculaceae) fruits from the Paleogene of North Dakota and the London Clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigg, Kathleen B; Devore, Melanie L

    2005-10-01

    Paleoactea nagelii Pigg & DeVore gen. et sp. nov. is described for a small, ovoid ranunculaceous fossil fruit from the Late Paleocene Almont and Beicegel Creek floras of North Dakota, USA. Fruits are 5-7 mm wide, 4.5-6 mm high, 10-13 mm long, and bilaterally symmetrical, containing 10-17 seeds attached on the upper margin in 2-3 rows. A distinctive honeycomb pattern is formed where adjacent seeds with prominent palisade outer cell layers abut. Seeds are flattened, ovoid, and triangular. To the inside of the palisade cells, the seed coat has a region of isodiametric cells that become more tangentially elongate toward the center. The embryo cavity is replaced by an opaline cast. This fruit bears a striking resemblance to extant Actaea, the baneberry (Ranunculaceae), an herbaceous spring wildflower of North Temperate regions. A second species, Paleoactaea bowerbanki (Reid & Chandler) Pigg & DeVore nov. comb., is recognized from the Early Eocene London Clay flora, based on a single fruit. This fruit shares most of the organization and structure of P. nagelii but is larger and has a thicker pericarp. This study documents a rare Paleocene occurrence of a member of the buttercup family, a family that is today primarily herbaceous, and demonstrates a North Atlantic connection for an Actaea-like genus in the Paleogene.

  13. The use of health foods, spices and other botanicals in the Sikh community in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Davinder S; Heinrich, Michael

    2005-07-01

    Attitudes and practice concerning complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are currently an area of considerable interest. However, little is known about the overall importance of such practices, for example, in immigrant communities such as the Sikh (Punjabi) British. The use of CAM in immigrants belonging to the Sikh religion in London was studied. The primary objective was to analyse the extent to which traditional medicine is used and understood by this population. Traditional Sikh medicine is important to this group of informants and a total of 42 species were recorded and identified tentatively. The most frequently mentioned species were Allium cepa (onion -- gunda), Allium sativum (garlic -- lasan, thon), Capsicum frutescens (cayenne pepper -- lalmirch), Cinnamomum verum (cinnamom--dhal chini), Citrus limon (lemon -- nimbu), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel -- saunf), Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom -- elaichi) and Zingiber officinale (ginger -- adrak). The study also highlights the rapid change this tradition is undergoing in a diaspora situation. In depth studies on the use of CAM among other immigrant communities and among ethnic groups are urgent and may help to manage better the treatment of minor ailments as well as chronic diseases. Specifically, more research on traditional and herbal remedies amongst the numerous ethnic groups in urban Britain and how this impacts on the use of biomedicine (e.g. as it is provided by the NHS) is essential.

  14. Performance of humans vs. exploration algorithms on the Tower of London Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Fimbel

    Full Text Available The Tower of London Test (TOL used to assess executive functions was inspired in Artificial Intelligence tasks used to test problem-solving algorithms. In this study, we compare the performance of humans and of exploration algorithms. Instead of absolute execution times, we focus on how the execution time varies with the tasks and/or the number of moves. This approach used in Algorithmic Complexity provides a fair comparison between humans and computers, although humans are several orders of magnitude slower. On easy tasks (1 to 5 moves, healthy elderly persons performed like exploration algorithms using bounded memory resources, i.e., the execution time grew exponentially with the number of moves. This result was replicated with a group of healthy young participants. However, for difficult tasks (5 to 8 moves the execution time of young participants did not increase significantly, whereas for exploration algorithms, the execution time keeps on increasing exponentially. A pre-and post-test control task showed a 25% improvement of visuo-motor skills but this was insufficient to explain this result. The findings suggest that naive participants used systematic exploration to solve the problem but under the effect of practice, they developed markedly more efficient strategies using the information acquired during the test.

  15. The Covent Garden Old Price Riots: Protest and Justice in Late‑Georgian London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James William Baker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores perceptions of the law and of how agents of the law responded to events at Covent Garden Theatre during the bitter months between mid-October and late-November 1809, the height of the Covent Garden Old Price riots. It does so through the lens of the periodical press, a vital and voluminous source of not only what happened during the riots but also of opinions on what happened and of perceptions of what happened, opinions and perceptions that are the primary concern of this article. The article begins with a discussion of how the magistrates, ‘police officers,’ justices, and lawyers who together were agents of the legal system were seen, where they were seen, and what they did. It moves on to examine how the actions of those agents and the legal system they represented were reported upon. And it concludes with a discussion of how theatregoers and Londoners were seen to have responded to those actions, moving a significant element of the conflict outside of Covent Garden Theatre and into the public press in a direct response to how they were policed as threats to public order and security. It argues that the Covent Garden Old Price riots was a significant urban act of multi-class protest because of the ways that it intersected with wider late-Georgian concerns, with discursive arenas where British liberty and the freedom of her subjects were contested and at stake.

  16. The introduction of hydrogen in London and Tokyo: costs and strategic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, David; Hutchinson, David

    1998-01-01

    While the proposals made in this work are no more than tentative at this stage, especially in the light of unfinished analysis of the situation in Tokyo, they represent an initial perspective on some strategies and policies affecting the potential introduction of hydrogen into the energy system of an urban area. It has been shown that given certain assumptions the introduction of hydrogen into an urban energy infrastructure could be both environmentally beneficial and economically viable. In order to achieve this introduction several possible strategies have been proposed, although none of these has been tested in detail. These strategies are highly likely to vary between different urban areas depending on the prevailing conditions. Specific analysis on the conditions in Tokyo will be carried out in the near future. This should enable the qualitative evaluation of some of the proposals already made, and suggestion of new ones. At the same time, the transferability both of the methodology used for analysing London and the strategies suggested for the early introduction of hydrogen will be examined. (author)

  17. Backyard chicken keeping in the Greater London Urban Area: welfare status, biosecurity and disease control issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabozhilova, I; Wieland, B; Alonso, S; Salonen, L; Häsler, B

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to collect baseline data on welfare, biosecurity and diseases of backyard chickens kept in the Greater London Urban Area (GLUA), United Kingdom (UK). 2. A total of 65 backyard chicken flock-keepers were recruited from May to July 2010 through adverts on websites, at City farms, veterinary practices and pet feed stores and surveyed by means of a questionnaire. A total of 30 responses were suitable for analysis. 3. Information on keepers' and flocks' characteristics, housing and husbandry practices and owners' knowledge of health problems in chickens and zoonotic diseases was collected. A welfare assessment protocol was developed and the flocks assessed accordingly. 4. Results showed that chickens were generally provided with living conditions that allowed them to perform their natural behaviours. 5. Most of the flock owners did not comply with the regulations of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) on the feeding of catering waste. 6. Disease prevention measures such as vaccination and biosecurity, including limiting the access of human visitors, wild birds and rodents to the flocks were rare. 7. A lack of avian and zoonotic disease knowledge and awareness among the owners has implications for disease control and highlights the need for improved communication between owners, authorities and veterinarians.

  18. The Sustainability of Shared Mobility in London: The Dilemma for Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihan Akyelken

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of governments in the regulation of potentially beneficial low carbon practices, such as car sharing, has proved difficult, as there are many different actors involved and as existing practices can be undermined. The mobility sector provides clear evidence of these dilemmas, as a wide range of users need to be engaged in the discourse over the innovations, and as existing governance structures may be unsuitable for addressing both the opportunities and limitations of innovation. This paper focuses on the sustainability implications of shared mobility and the need for new approaches to governance. A qualitative study of car sharing in London is used to examine the ideas, incentives, and institutions of the key actors involved in this sharing sector. The elements of change and continuity in the emerging sharing economy indicate the different possibilities for enhancing sustainable mobility. Any search for an alternative governance regime should take account of the ideational factors that would require an understanding of the different incentives needed to accommodate the full range of actors involved with the sharing economy.

  19. Sector Identification in a Set of Stock Return Time Series Traded at the London Stock Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronnello, C.; Tumminello, M.; Lillo, F.; Micciche, S.; Mantegna, R. N.

    2005-09-01

    We compare some methods recently used in the literature to detect the existence of a certain degree of common behavior of stock returns belonging to the same economic sector. Specifically, we discuss methods based on random matrix theory and hierarchical clustering techniques. We apply these methods to a portfolio of stocks traded at the London Stock Exchange. The investigated time series are recorded both at a daily time horizon and at a 5-minute time horizon. The correlation coefficient matrix is very different at different time horizons confirming that more structured correlation coefficient matrices are observed for long time horizons. All the considered methods are able to detect economic information and the presence of clusters characterized by the economic sector of stocks. However, different methods present a different degree of sensitivity with respect to different sectors. Our comparative analysis suggests that the application of just a single method could not be able to extract all the economic information present in the correlation coefficient matrix of a stock portfolio.

  20. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF SMALL-GROUP COLLABORATORS AND ADVERSARIES IN THE LONDON KLEINIAN DEVELOPMENT (1914-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Joseph; Regeczkey, Agnes

    2016-07-01

    The authors historically situate the London Kleinian development in terms of the small-group collaborations and adversaries that arose during the course of Melanie Klein's career. Some collaborations later became personally adversarial (e.g., those Klein had with Glover and Schmideberg); other adversarial relationships forever remained that way (with A. Freud); while still other long-term collaborations became theoretically contentious (such as with Winnicott and Heimann). After the Controversial Discussions in 1944, Klein marginalized one group of supporters (Heimann, Winnicott, and Riviere) in favor of another group (Rosenfeld, Segal, and Bion). After Klein's death in 1960, Bion maintained loyalty to Klein's ideas while quietly distancing his work from the London Klein group, immigrating to the United States in 1968. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  1. Determining the suitability of materials for disposal at sea under the London Convention 1972: A radiological assessment procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention 1972) prohibits the disposal at sea of radioactive wastes and other radioactive matter. However natural radionuclides are present in all materials, including natural and inert materials, which can also contain artificial radionuclides from anthropogenic sources such as fallout due to past atmospheric nuclear testing. Therefore, the Contracting Parties to the London Convention 1972 recognized the need to develop definitions and guidelines so that candidate materials (those wastes or other matter not otherwise prohibited from disposal at sea in accordance with Annex I to the Convention) containing less than de minimis levels of specific activity, can be regarded as 'non-radioactive' and may be disposed of at sea subject to the other provisions of the Convention. At the Nineteenth Consultative Meeting in 1997, Contracting Parties to the London Convention 1972 agreed to request the IAEA to develop further the concept of de minimis levels and, in particular, to 'provide guidance for making judgements on whether materials planned to be dumped could be exempted from radiological control or whether a specific assessment was needed' (LC 19/10, paragraph 6.31). This paragraph continues: 'The IAEA would then further be requested to provide guidance to national authorities responsible for conducting specific assessments.' The IAEA presented its advice on de minimis in IAEA-TECDOC-1068, entitled Application of Radiological Exclusion and Exemption Principles to Sea Disposal, to the Twenty-first Consultative Meeting of Contracting Parties to the London Convention 1972 in October 1999. The Contracting Parties accepted these principles and criteria and interpreted them further in the Guidelines for the Application of the De Minimis Concept Under the London Convention 1972 (the Guidelines). At that time, the Contracting Parties asked the IAEA to prepare additional guidance

  2. Emissions of CO{sub 2} from road freight transport in London: Trends and policies for long run reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanni, Alberto M., E-mail: a.m.zanni@lboro.ac.u [Transport Studies Group, Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU Loughborough (United Kingdom); Bristow, Abigail L., E-mail: a.l.bristow@lboro.ac.u [Transport Studies Group, Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Freight transport has been receiving increasing attention in both literature and practice following the growing recognition of its importance in urban transport planning. This paper analyses historical and projected road freight CO{sub 2} emissions in the city of London and explores the potential mitigation effect of a set of freight transport policies and logistics solutions. Findings indicate a range of policies with potential to reduce emissions in the period up to 2050. However, this reduction would appear to only be capable of partly counterbalancing the projected increase in freight traffic. More profound behavioural measures therefore appear to be necessary for London's CO{sub 2} emissions reduction targets to be met.

  3. Emissions of CO{sub 2} from road freight transport in London. Trends and policies for long run reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanni, Alberto M.; Bristow, Abigail L. [Transport Studies Group, Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Freight transport has been receiving increasing attention in both literature and practice following the growing recognition of its importance in urban transport planning. This paper analyses historical and projected road freight CO{sub 2} emissions in the city of London and explores the potential mitigation effect of a set of freight transport policies and logistics solutions. Findings indicate a range of policies with potential to reduce emissions in the period up to 2050. However, this reduction would appear to only be capable of partly counterbalancing the projected increase in freight traffic. More profound behavioural measures therefore appear to be necessary for London's CO{sub 2} emissions reduction targets to be met. (author)

  4. The Geography of Diabetes in London, Canada: The Need for Local Level Policy for Prevention and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Jordan W.; Luginaah, Isaac N.; Booth, Gillian L.; Harris, Stewart B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports aimed at improving diabetes care in socially disadvantaged populations suggest that interventions must be tailored to meet the unique needs of the local community—specifically, the community’s geography. We have examined the spatial distribution of diabetes in the context of socioeconomic determinants of health in London (Ontario, Canada) to characterize neighbourhoods in an effort to target these neighbourhoods for local level community-based program planning and intervention. Multivariate spatial-statistical techniques and geographic information systems were used to examine diabetes rates and socioeconomic variables aggregated at the census tract level. Creation of a deprivation index facilitated investigation across multiple determinants of health. Findings from our research identified ‘at risk’ neighbourhoods in London with socioeconomic disadvantage and high diabetes. Future endeavours must continue to identify local level trends in order to support policy development, resource planning and care for improved health outcomes and improved equity in access to care across geographic regions. PMID:20623032

  5. East London Modified-Broset as Decision-Making Tool to Predict Seclusion in Psychiatric Intensive Care Units

    OpenAIRE

    Loi, Felice; Marlowe, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Seclusion is a last resort intervention for management of aggressive behavior in psychiatric settings. There is no current objective and practical decision-making instrument for seclusion use on psychiatric wards. Our aim was to test the predictive and discriminatory characteristics of the East London Modified-Broset (ELMB), to delineate its decision-making profile for seclusion of adult psychiatric patients, and second to benchmark it against the psychometric properties of the Broset Violenc...

  6. Barriers to Exercise in Younger and Older Non-Exercising Adult Women: A Cross Sectional Study in London, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Walid El; Lovell, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years) and older (28-35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement). Participants’ number of children was also noted...

  7. Valstybės teatro baleto trupės gastrolės Monte Karle ir Londone 1935 metais

    OpenAIRE

    Šabasevičius, Helmutas

    2011-01-01

    The guest performance of the Ballet Company of Lithuanian State Theatre, which took place in Monte Carlo and London in 1935, is the exceptional cultural event of the history of Lithuanian theatre in the interwar period. It was organised with the help of Russian ballerina Vera Nemtchinova. The Lithuanian Ballet company performed in Monte Carlo in January 16-31, 1935, presenting three performances of "Raymonda" by Alexander Glazunov, two performances of "Coppelia" by Leo Delibes, two performanc...

  8. Victims and survivors: stable isotopes used to identify migrants from the Great Irish Famine to 19th century London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Julia; Geber, Jonny; Powers, Natasha; Wilson, Andrew; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Montgomery, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Historical evidence documents mass migration from Ireland to London during the period of the Great Irish Famine of 1845-52. The rural Irish were reliant on a restricted diet based on potatoes but maize, a C(4) plant, was imported from the United States of America in 1846-47 to mitigate against Famine. In London, Irish migrants joined a population with a more varied diet. To investigate and characterize their diet, carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were obtained from bone collagen of 119 and hair keratin of six individuals from Lukin Street cemetery, Tower Hamlets (1843-54), and bone collagen of 20 individuals from the cemetery at Kilkenny Union Workhouse in Ireland (1847-51). A comparison of the results with other contemporaneous English populations suggests that Londoners may have elevated δ(15) N compared with their contemporaries in other cities. In comparison, the Irish group have lower δ(15) N. Hair analysis combined with bone collagen allows the reconstruction of perimortem dietary changes. Three children aged 5-15 years from Kilkenny have bone collagen δ(13) C values that indicate consumption of maize (C(4)). As maize was only imported into Ireland in quantity from late 1846 and 1847, these results demonstrate relatively rapid bone collagen turnover in children and highlight the importance of age-related bone turnover rates, and the impact the age of the individual can have on studies of short-term dietary change or recent migration. Stable light isotope data in this study are consistent with the epigraphic and documentary evidence for the presence of migrants within the London cemetery. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Austerity Urbanism and Olympic Counter-legacies: Gendering, Defending and Expanding the Urban Commons in East London

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Tom; Hardy, Kate; Watt, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This article reflects on an occupation led by single mothers to contest the destruction of social housing in post-Olympics East London. In the process, it argues for a more gendered theorisation of the urban commons. Drawing on auto-ethnography, participant observation and qualitative interviews, the article argues three central points: First, that the occupation demonstrates the gendered nature of the urban commons and the leadership of women in defending them from enclosure; second that the...

  10. Generation X School Leaders as Agents of Care: Leader and Teacher Perspectives from Toronto, New York City and London

    OpenAIRE

    Edge, K. E.; Descours, K.; Frayman, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on evidence from our three-year Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded research study of the lives, careers, experiences and aspirations of Generation X (under 40 years of age) principals and vice-principals in London, New York City, and Toronto. More specifically, the paper examines interview evidence from nine school-based studies in which nine leaders and 54 teachers discuss their perspectives on leaders’ care of their staff members. The evidence demonstrates t...

  11. The London handicap scale: a re-evaluation of its validity using standard scoring and simple summation

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkinson, C.; Mant, J.; Carter, J.; Wade, D.; Winner, S.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the validity of the London handicap scale (LHS) using a simple unweighted scoring system compared with traditional weighted scoring
METHODS—323 patients admitted to hospital with acute stroke were followed up by interview 6 months after their stroke as part of a trial looking at the impact of a family support organiser. Outcome measures included the six item LHS, the Dartmouth COOP charts, the Frenchay activities index, the Barthel index, and the hospital...

  12. Cohort profile: Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London: the ENABLE London—Olympic Park cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Bina; Nightingale, Claire M; Hudda, Mohammed T; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Ellaway, Anne; Cooper, Ashley R; Page, Angie; Lewis, Daniel; Cummins, Steven; Giles-Corti, Billie; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London (ENABLE London) project is a natural experiment which aims to establish whether physical activity and other health behaviours show sustained changes among individuals and families relocating to East Village (formerly the London 2012 Olympics Athletes' Village), when compared with a control population living outside East Village throughout. Participants Between January 2013 and December 2015, 1497 individuals from 1006 households were recruited and assessed (at baseline) (including 392 households seeking social housing, 421 seeking intermediate and 193 seeking market rent homes). The 2-year follow-up rate is 62% of households to date, of which 57% have moved to East Village. Findings to date Assessments of physical activity (measured objectively using accelerometers) combined with Global Positioning System technology and Geographic Information System mapping of the local area are being used to characterise physical activity patterns and location among study participants and assess the attributes of the environments to which they are exposed. Assessments of body composition, based on weight, height and bioelectrical impedance, have been made and detailed participant questionnaires provide information on socioeconomic position, general health/health status, well-being, anxiety, depression, attitudes to leisure time activities and other personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity, including the use of recreational space and facilities in their residential neighbourhood. Future plans The main analyses will examine the changes in physical activity, health and well-being observed in the East Village group compared with controls and the influence of specific elements of the built environment on observed changes. The ENABLE London project exploits a unique opportunity to evaluate a ‘natural experiment’, provided by the building and rapid occupation of East

  13. Survey of gaseous air pollutants at selected UK sites: XX. Data digest for Central London Laboratory, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broughton, G.F.J.; Bower, J.; Drury, V.J.; Lilley, K.; Powell, K.

    1987-01-01

    Ambient air-quality measurements of six gaseous pollutants plus black smoke and particulate lead continued during 1984 at the Central London Laboratory. The data are presented here in the form of frequency distributions, averages, and other parameters for winter, summer, annual and monthly periods. Time-series graphs of pollutant concentrations for 1984 and of the historical data base between July 1972 and December 1984 are also included.

  14. Impact on and use of an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department by international migrants: a questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Graham; Hargreaves, Sally; Natkunarajah, Jana; Sandhu, Gurjinder; Dhasmana, Devesh; Eliahoo, Joseph; Holmes, Alison; Friedland, Jon S

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The UK has witnessed a considerable increase in immigration in the past decade. Migrant may face barriers to accessing appropriate health care on arrival and the current focus on screening certain migrants for tuberculosis on arrival is considered inadequate. We assessed the implications for an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department in a high migrant area. Methods We administered an anonymous 20-point questionnaire survey to all admitted patients during a 6 week ...

  15. The impact of public transportation strikes on use of a bicycle share program in London: interrupted time series design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Cummins, Steven; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the immediate and sustained effects of two London Underground strikes on use of a public bicycle share program. An interrupted time series design was used to examine the impact of two 24 hour strikes on the total number of trips per day and mean trip duration per day on the London public bicycle share program. The strikes occurred on September 6th and October 4th 2010 and limited service on the London Underground. The mean total number of trips per day over the whole study period was 14,699 (SD=5390) while the mean trip duration was 18.5 minutes (SD=3.7). Significant increases in daily trip count were observed following strike 1 (3864: 95% CI 125 to 7604) and strike 2 (11,293: 95% CI 5169 to 17,416). Events that greatly constrain the primary motorised mode of transportation for a population may have unintended short-term effects on travel behaviour. These findings suggest that limiting transportation options may have the potential to increase population levels of physical activity by promoting the use of cycling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: Supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilliland Jason

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario by using a geographic information system (GIS to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. Results The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Conclusion Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes.

  17. 'A place for men to come and do their thing': constructing masculinities in betting shops in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    During fieldwork conducted with workers and customers in betting shops in London research participants consistently conceptualized betting shops as masculine spaces in contrast to the femininity of other places including home and the bingo hall. According to this argument, betting on horses and dogs was 'men's business' and betting shops were 'men's worlds'. Two explanations were offered to account for this situation. The first suggested that betting was traditionally a pastime enjoyed by men rather than women. The second was that betting is intrinsically more appealing to men because it is based on calculation and measurement, and women prefer more intuitive, simpler challenges. I use interviews with older people to describe how the legalisation of betting in cash in 1961 changed the geography of betting. I then draw upon interviews with regular customers in order to show how knowledge about betting is shared within rather than between genders. Finally, I use my experience of training and working as a cashier to describe how the particular hegemonic masculinity found in betting shops in London is maintained through myriad everyday practices which reward certain kinds of gendered performances while at the same time suppressing alternatives. The article shows how particular spaces may become gendered as an unanticipated consequence of legislation and how contingent gendered associations are both naturalized and, at the same time, subjected to intense attention. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  18. Mapping the evolution of 'food deserts' in a Canadian city: Supermarket accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristian; Gilliland, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Background A growing body of research suggests that the suburbanization of food retailers in North America and the United Kingdom in recent decades has contributed to the emergence of urban 'food deserts', or disadvantaged areas of cities with relatively poor access to healthy and affordable food. This paper explores the evolution of food deserts in a mid-sized Canadian city (London, Ontario) by using a geographic information system (GIS) to map the precise locations of supermarkets in 1961 and 2005; multiple techniques of network analysis were used to assess changing levels of supermarket access in relation to neighbourhood location, socioeconomic characteristics, and access to public transit. Results The findings indicate that residents of inner-city neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status have the poorest access to supermarkets. Furthermore, spatial inequalities in access to supermarkets have increased over time, particularly in the inner-city neighbourhoods of Central and East London, where distinct urban food deserts now exist. Conclusion Contrary to recent findings in larger Canadian cities, we conclude that urban food deserts exist in London, Ontario. Policies aimed at improving public health must also recognize the spatial, as well as socioeconomic, inequities with respect to access to healthy and affordable food. Additional research is necessary to better understand how supermarket access influences dietary behaviours and related health outcomes. PMID:18423005

  19. SHORTER, Aylward. African recruits and missionary conscripts: the White Fathers and the Great War (1914 – 1922. London: Missionaries of Africa History Project, 2007. 270 p. ISBN: 9780955523502

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Olivatto da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Resenha do livroSHORTER, Aylward. African recruits and missionary conscripts: the White Fathers and the Great War (1914 – 1922. London: Missionaries of Africa History Project, 2007. 270 p. ISBN: 9780955523502

  20. Robillard, Amy E. and Ron Fortune (eds. Authorship Contested. Cultural Challenges to the Authentic Autonomous Author (New York, and London: Routledge, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ciorogar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of Amy E. Robillard and Ron Fortune's (eds Authorship Contested: Cultural Challenges to the Authentic Autonomous Author. New York, and London: Routledge, 2015. 214 pp. £100.