Energy level diagrams for black hole orbits
Levin, Janna
2009-12-01
A spinning black hole with a much smaller black hole companion forms a fundamental gravitational system, like a colossal classical analog to an atom. In an appealing if imperfect analogy with atomic physics, this gravitational atom can be understood through a discrete spectrum of periodic orbits. Exploiting a correspondence between the set of periodic orbits and the set of rational numbers, we are able to construct periodic tables of orbits and energy level diagrams of the accessible states around black holes. We also present a closed-form expression for the rational q, thereby quantifying zoom-whirl behavior in terms of spin, energy and angular momentum. The black hole atom is not just a theoretical construct, but corresponds to extant astrophysical systems detectable by future gravitational wave observatories.
Energy level diagrams for black hole orbits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levin, Janna
2009-01-01
A spinning black hole with a much smaller black hole companion forms a fundamental gravitational system, like a colossal classical analog to an atom. In an appealing if imperfect analogy with atomic physics, this gravitational atom can be understood through a discrete spectrum of periodic orbits. Exploiting a correspondence between the set of periodic orbits and the set of rational numbers, we are able to construct periodic tables of orbits and energy level diagrams of the accessible states around black holes. We also present a closed-form expression for the rational q, thereby quantifying zoom-whirl behavior in terms of spin, energy and angular momentum. The black hole atom is not just a theoretical construct, but corresponds to extant astrophysical systems detectable by future gravitational wave observatories.
Eastham, Nicholas D; Logsdon, Jenna L; Manley, Eric F; Aldrich, Thomas J; Leonardi, Matthew J; Wang, Gang; Powers-Riggs, Natalia E; Young, Ryan M; Chen, Lin X; Wasielewski, Michael R; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S; Chang, Robert P H; Marks, Tobin J
2018-01-01
Bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic materials containing nonfullerene acceptors (NFAs) have seen remarkable advances in the past year, finally surpassing fullerenes in performance. Indeed, acceptors based on indacenodithiophene (IDT) have become synonymous with high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Nevertheless, NFAs have yet to achieve fill factors (FFs) comparable to those of the highest-performing fullerene-based materials. To address this seeming anomaly, this study examines a high efficiency IDT-based acceptor, ITIC, paired with three donor polymers known to achieve high FFs with fullerenes, PTPD3T, PBTI3T, and PBTSA3T. Excellent PCEs up to 8.43% are achieved from PTPD3T:ITIC blends, reflecting good charge transport, optimal morphology, and efficient ITIC to PTPD3T hole-transfer, as observed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Hole-transfer is observed from ITIC to PBTI3T and PBTSA3T, but less efficiently, reflecting measurably inferior morphology and nonoptimal energy level alignment, resulting in PCEs of 5.34% and 4.65%, respectively. This work demonstrates the importance of proper morphology and kinetics of ITIC → donor polymer hole-transfer in boosting the performance of polymer:ITIC photovoltaic bulk heterojunction blends. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Energy levels of a scalar particle in a static gravitational field close to the black hole limit
Gossel, G. H.; Berengut, J. C.; Flambaum, V. V.
2011-10-01
The bound-state energy levels of a scalar particle in the gravitational field of finite-sized objects with interiors described by the Florides and Schwarzschild metrics are found. For these metrics, bound states with zero energy (where the binding energy is equal to the rest mass of the scalar particle) only exist when a singularity occurs in the metric. Therefore, in contrast to the Coulomb case, no pairs are produced in the non-singular static metric. For the Florides metric the singularity occurs in the black hole limit, while for the Schwarzschild interior metric it corresponds to infinite pressure at the center. Moreover, the energy spectrum is shown to become quasi-continuous as the metric becomes singular.
Local Hawking temperature for dynamical black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayward, S A; Criscienzo, R Di; Nadalini, M; Vanzo, L; Zerbini, S
2009-01-01
A local Hawking temperature is derived for any future outer trapping horizon in spherical symmetry, using a Hamilton-Jacobi variant of the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method. It is given by a dynamical surface gravity as defined geometrically. The operational meaning of the temperature is that Kodama observers just outside the horizon measure an invariantly redshifted temperature, diverging at the horizon itself. In static, asymptotically flat cases, the Hawking temperature as usually defined by the Killing vector agrees in standard cases, but generally differs by a relative redshift factor between the horizon and infinity, this being the temperature measured by static observers at infinity. Likewise, the geometrical surface gravity reduces to the Newtonian surface gravity in the Newtonian limit, while the Killing definition instead reflects measurements at infinity. This may resolve a long-standing puzzle concerning the Hawking temperature for the extremal limit of the charged stringy black hole, namely that it is the local temperature which vanishes. In general, this confirms the quasi-stationary picture of black-hole evaporation in early stages. However, the geometrical surface gravity is generally not the surface gravity of a static black hole with the same parameters. (fast track communication)
Local and dynamic properties of light interacting with subwavelength holes
Prangsma, Jord
2009-01-01
The discovery of the extraordinary transmission phenomena has initiated an intense study of the interaction of light with subwavelength holes. In this thesis the dynamic and local properties of light interacting with subwavelength holes are investigated. First of all the role of hole shape on the
Hybrid Density Functional Study of the Local Structures and Energy Levels of CaAl2O4:Ce3.
Lou, Bibo; Jing, Weiguo; Lou, Liren; Zhang, Yongfan; Yin, Min; Duan, Chang-Kui
2018-05-03
First-principles calculations were carried out for the electronic structures of Ce 3+ in calcium aluminate phosphors, CaAl 2 O 4 , and their effects on luminescence properties. Hybrid density functional approaches were used to overcome the well-known underestimation of band gaps of conventional density functional approaches and to calculate the energy levels of Ce 3+ ions more accurately. The obtained 4f-5d excitation and emission energies show good consistency with measured values. A detailed energy diagram of all three sites is obtained, which explains qualitatively all of the luminescent phenomena. With the results of energy levels calculated by combining the hybrid functional of Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE06) and the constraint occupancy approach, we are able to construct a configurational coordinate diagram to analyze the processes of capture of a hole or an electron and luminescence. This approach can be applied for systematic high-throughput calculations in predicting Ce 3+ activated luminescent materials with a moderate computing requirement.
Excess-electron energy levels, localization and transport in disordered media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamill, W.H.
1980-01-01
In disordered dielectrics, the fundamental parameters which control the physics and chemistry of excess electrons are time, temperature and energy or mean scattering distance. Viscosity and hardness do not directly affect the electron affinity of media, the optical spectra, or the chemical reactivity of dry or delocalized electrons or of relaxed localized or trapped electrons. Since the mean scattering distance and the transport mechanism, including barrier height, are fundamental, both liquids and glasses (including polymers) are considered in order to cover the range of relevant information. Based on the above described background, transport, localization, dry electron scavenging, trapped electron scavenging and recombination are explained. There are no available data for the energy of excess dry electrons in the media relative to vacuum in glasses, unfortunately, because of the very small yield of separated charge pairs at cryogenic temperature. Thermoplastic glassy solids provide attractive possibility above 250 K, and deserve consideration as the substitutes for cryogenic glasses. The same consideration applies to the measurements of electron drift mobility, which are essential for the adequate description of electron scavenging. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Six-dimensional localized black holes: Numerical solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kudoh, Hideaki
2004-01-01
To test the strong-gravity regime in Randall-Sundrum braneworlds, we consider black holes bound to a brane. In a previous paper, we studied numerical solutions of localized black holes whose horizon radii are smaller than the AdS curvature radius. In this paper, we improve the numerical method and discuss properties of the six-dimensional (6D) localized black holes whose horizon radii are larger than the AdS curvature radius. At a horizon temperature T≅1/2πl, the thermodynamics of the localized black hole undergo a transition with its character changing from a 6D Schwarzschild black hole type to a 6D black string type. The specific heat of the localized black holes is negative, and the entropy is greater than or nearly equal to that of the 6D black strings with the same thermodynamic mass. The large localized black holes show flattened horizon geometries, and the intrinsic curvature of the horizon four-geometry becomes negative near the brane. Our results indicate that the recovery mechanism of lower-dimensional Einstein gravity on the brane works even in the presence of the black holes
Stability issues of black hole in non-local gravity
Myung, Yun Soo; Park, Young-Jai
2018-04-01
We discuss stability issues of Schwarzschild black hole in non-local gravity. It is shown that the stability analysis of black hole for the unitary and renormalizable non-local gravity with γ2 = - 2γ0 cannot be performed in the Lichnerowicz operator approach. On the other hand, for the unitary and non-renormalizable case with γ2 = 0, the black hole is stable against the metric perturbations. For non-unitary and renormalizable local gravity with γ2 = - 2γ0 = const (fourth-order gravity), the small black holes are unstable against the metric perturbations. This implies that what makes the problem difficult in stability analysis of black hole is the simultaneous requirement of unitarity and renormalizability around the Minkowski spacetime.
Local Operators in the Eternal Black Hole.
Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat
2015-11-20
In the AdS/CFT correspondence, states obtained by Hamiltonian evolution of the thermofield doubled state are also dual to an eternal black-hole geometry, which is glued to the boundary with a time shift generated by a large diffeomorphism. We describe gauge-invariant relational observables that probe the black hole interior in these states and constrain their properties using effective field theory. By adapting recent versions of the information paradox we show that these observables are necessarily described by state-dependent bulk-boundary maps, which we construct explicitly.
Local Operators in the Eternal Black Hole
Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat
2015-01-01
In the AdS/CFT correspondence, states obtained by Hamiltonian evolution of the thermofield doubled state are also dual to an eternal black-hole geometry, which is glued to the boundary with a time shift generated by a large diffeomorphism. We describe gauge-invariant relational observables that
Black supernovae and black holes in non-local gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bambi, Cosimo [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University,200433 Shanghai (China); Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard-Karls Universität Tübingen,72076 Tübingen (Germany); Malafarina, Daniele [Department of Physics, Nazarbayev University,010000 Astana (Kazakhstan); Modesto, Leonardo [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University,200433 Shanghai (China)
2016-04-22
In a previous paper, we studied the interior solution of a collapsing body in a non-local theory of gravity super-renormalizable at the quantum level. We found that the classical singularity is replaced by a bounce, after which the body starts expanding. A black hole, strictly speaking, never forms. The gravitational collapse does not create an event horizon but only an apparent one for a finite time. In this paper, we solve the equations of motion assuming that the exterior solution is static. With such an assumption, we are able to reconstruct the solution in the whole spacetime, namely in both the exterior and interior regions. Now the gravitational collapse creates an event horizon in a finite comoving time, but the central singularity is approached in an infinite time. We argue that these black holes should be unstable, providing a link between the scenarios with and without black holes. Indeed, we find a non catastrophic ghost-instability of the metric in the exterior region. Interestingly, under certain conditions, the lifetime of our black holes exactly scales as the Hawking evaporation time.
Ultrafast probing of core hole localization in N2.
Schöffler, M S; Titze, J; Petridis, N; Jahnke, T; Cole, K; Schmidt, L Ph H; Czasch, A; Akoury, D; Jagutzki, O; Williams, J B; Cherepkov, N A; Semenov, S K; McCurdy, C W; Rescigno, T N; Cocke, C L; Osipov, T; Lee, S; Prior, M H; Belkacem, A; Landers, A L; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Weber, Th; Dörner, R
2008-05-16
Although valence electrons are clearly delocalized in molecular bonding frameworks, chemists and physicists have long debated the question of whether the core vacancy created in a homonuclear diatomic molecule by absorption of a single x-ray photon is localized on one atom or delocalized over both. We have been able to clarify this question with an experiment that uses Auger electron angular emission patterns from molecular nitrogen after inner-shell ionization as an ultrafast probe of hole localization. The experiment, along with the accompanying theory, shows that observation of symmetry breaking (localization) or preservation (delocalization) depends on how the quantum entangled Bell state created by Auger decay is detected by the measurement.
Entropy localization and extensivity in the semiclassical black hole evaporation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casini, H.
2009-01-01
I aim to quantify the distribution of information in the Hawking radiation and inside the black hole in the semiclassical evaporation process. The structure of relativistic quantum field theory does not allow one to define a localized entropy unambiguously, but rather forces one to consider the shared information (mutual information) between two different regions of space-time. Using this tool, I first show that the entropy of a thermal gas at the Unruh temperature underestimates the actual amount of (shared) information present in a region of the Rindler space. Then, I analyze the mutual information between the black hole and the late time radiation region. A well-known property of the entropy implies that this is monotonically increasing with time. This means that in the semiclassical picture it is not possible to recover the eventual purity of the initial state in the final Hawking radiation through subtle correlations established during the whole evaporation period, no matter the interactions present in the theory. I find extensivity of the entropy as a consequence of a reduction to a two dimensional conformal problem in a simple approximation. However, the extensivity of information in the radiation region in a full four dimensional calculation seems not to be guaranteed on general grounds. I also analyze the localization of shared information inside the black hole finding that a large amount of it is contained in a small, approximately flat region of space-time near the point where the horizon begins. This gives place to large violations of the entropy bounds. I show that this problem is not eased by backscattering effects and argue that a breaking of conformal invariance is necessary to delocalize the entropy. Finally, I indicate that the mutual information could lead to a way to understand the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy which does not require a drastic reduction in degrees of freedom in order to regulate the entanglement entropy. On the contrary
Localized hole effects in inner-shell excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rescigno, T.N.; Orel, A.E.
1983-01-01
Ab initio calculations of valence shell ionization potentials have shown that orbital relaxation and correlation differences usually make contributions of comparable magnitude. In marked contrast to this observation is the situation for deep core ionization, where correlation differences (approx. 1 eV) play a relatively minor role compared to orbital relaxation (approx. 20 eV). Theoretical calculations have shown that this relaxation is most easily described if the 1s-vacancy created by a K-shell excitation is allowed to localize on one of the atomic centers. For molecules possessing a center of inversion, this means that the molecular orbitals that best describe the final state do not transform as any irreducible representation of the molecular point group. Recent experimental work by Shaw, King, Read and Cvejanovic and by Stefani and coworkers has prompted us to carry out further calculations on N 2 , as well as analogous investigations of 1s/sub N/ → π* excitation in NO and N 2 O. The generalized oscillator strengths display a striking similarity and point to the essential correctness of the localized hole picture for N 2 . The theoretical calculations are briefly described, followed by a summary of the results and comparison to experiment, followed by a short discussion
Control of hole localization in magnetic semiconductors by axial strain
Raebiger, Hannes; Bae, Soungmin; Echeverría-Arrondo, Carlos; Ayuela, Andrés
2018-02-01
Mn and Fe-doped GaN are widely studied prototype systems for hole-mediated magnetic semiconductors. The nature of the hole states around the Mn and Fe impurities, however, remains under debate. Our self-interaction corrected density-functional calculations show that the charge neutral Mn 0 and positively charged Fe+ impurities have symmetry-broken d5+h ground states, in which the hole is trapped by one of the surrounding N atoms in a small polaron state. We further show that both systems also have a variety of other d5+h configurations, including symmetric, delocalized states, which may be stabilized by axial strain. This finding opens a pathway to promote long-range hole-mediated magnetic interactions by strain engineering and clarifies why highly strained thin-films samples often exhibit anomalous magnetic properties.
Curing Black Hole Singularities with Local Scale Invariance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Predrag Dominis Prester
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We show that Weyl-invariant dilaton gravity provides a description of black holes without classical space-time singularities. Singularities appear due to the ill behaviour of gauge fixing conditions, one example being the gauge in which theory is classically equivalent to standard General Relativity. The main conclusions of our analysis are as follows: (1 singularities signal a phase transition from broken to unbroken phase of Weyl symmetry; (2 instead of a singularity, there is a “baby universe” or a white hole inside a black hole; (3 in the baby universe scenario, there is a critical mass after which reducing mass makes the black hole larger as viewed by outside observers; (4 if a black hole could be connected with white hole through the “singularity,” this would require breakdown of (classical geometric description; (5 the singularity of Schwarzschild BH solution is nongeneric and so it is dangerous to rely on it in deriving general results. Our results may have important consequences for resolving issues related to information loss puzzle. Though quantum effects are still crucial and may change the proposed classical picture, a position of building quantum theory around essentially regular classical solutions normally provides a much better starting point.
Influence of large local and non-local bispectra on primordial black hole abundance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Young, Sam; Regan, Donough; Byrnes, Christian T.
2016-01-01
Primordial black holes represent a unique probe to constrain the early universe on small scales—providing the only constraints on the primordial power spectrum on the majority of scales. However, these constraints are strongly dependent on even small amounts of non-Gaussianity, which is unconstrained on scales significantly smaller than those visible in the CMB. This paper goes beyond previous considerations to consider the effects of a bispectrum of the equilateral, orthogonal and local shapes with arbitrary magnitude upon the abundance of primordial black holes. Non-Gaussian density maps of the early universe are generated from a given bispectrum and used to place constraints on the small scale power spectrum. When small, we show that the skewness provides an accurate estimate for how the constraint depends on non-Gaussianity, independently of the shape of the bispectrum. We show that the orthogonal template of non-Gaussianity has an order of magnitude weaker effect on the constraints than the local and equilateral templates
Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Charbulák, Daniel; Schee, Jan
2018-03-01
We construct the light escape cones of isotropic spot sources of radiation residing in special classes of reference frames in the Kerr-de Sitter (KdS) black hole spacetimes, namely in the fundamental class of `non-geodesic' locally non-rotating reference frames (LNRFs), and two classes of `geodesic' frames, the radial geodesic frames (RGFs), both falling and escaping, and the frames related to the circular geodesic orbits (CGFs). We compare the cones constructed in a given position for the LNRFs, RGFs, and CGFs. We have shown that the photons locally counter-rotating relative to LNRFs with positive impact parameter and negative covariant energy are confined to the ergosphere region. Finally, we demonstrate that the light escaping cones govern the shadows of black holes located in front of a radiating screen, as seen by the observers in the considered frames. For shadows related to distant static observers the LNRFs are relevant.
Entropy of localized states and black hole evaporation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olum, K.D.
1997-01-01
We call a state 'vacuum bounded' if every measurement performed outside a specified interior region gives the same result as in the vacuum. We compute the maximum entropy of a vacuum-bounded state with a given energy for a one-dimensional model, with the aid of numerical calculations on a lattice. The maximum entropy is larger than it would be for rigid wall boundary conditions by an amount δS, which for large energies is approx-lt(1)/(6)ln(L in T), where L in is the length of the interior region. Assuming that the state resulting from the evaporation of a black hole is similar to a vacuum-bounded state, and that the similarity between vacuum-bounded and rigid-wall-bounded problems extends from 1 to 3 dimensions, we apply these results to the black hole information paradox. Under these assumptions we conclude that large amounts of information cannot be emitted in the final explosion of a black hole. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Localized AdS_{5}×S^{5} Black Holes.
Dias, Óscar J C; Santos, Jorge E; Way, Benson
2016-10-07
According to heuristic arguments, global AdS_{5}×S^{5} black holes are expected to undergo a phase transition in the microcanonical ensemble. At high energies, one expects black holes that respect the symmetries of the S^{5}; at low energies, one expects "localized" black holes that appear pointlike on the S^{5}. According to anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory on a 3-sphere should therefore exhibit spontaneous R-symmetry breaking at strong coupling. In this Letter, we numerically construct these localized black holes. We extrapolate the location of this phase transition, and compute the expectation value of the broken scalar operator with lowest conformal dimension. Via the correspondence, these results offer quantitative predictions for N=4 SYM theory.
Plasma balls in large-N gauge theories and localized black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aharony, Ofer; Minwalla, Shiraz; Wiseman, Toby
2006-01-01
We argue for the existence of plasma balls-metastable, nearly homogeneous lumps of gluon plasma at just above the deconfinement energy density-in a class of large-N confining gauge theories that undergo first-order deconfinement transitions. Plasma balls decay over a time scale of order N 2 by thermally radiating hadrons at the deconfinement temperature. In gauge theories that have a dual description that is well approximated by a theory of gravity in a warped geometry, we propose that plasma balls map to a family of classically stable finite-energy black holes localized in the IR. We present a conjecture for the qualitative nature of large-mass black holes in such backgrounds and numerically construct these black holes in a particular class of warped geometries. These black holes have novel properties; in particular, their temperature approaches a nonzero constant value at large mass. Black holes dual to plasma balls shrink as they decay by Hawking radiation; towards the end of this process, they resemble ten-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes, which we propose are dual to small plasma balls. Our work may find practical applications in the study of the physics of localized black holes from a dual viewpoint
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Ito, Yuto; Jeon, Imtak
2015-01-01
We use the techniques of supersymmetric localization to compute the BPS black hole entropy in N=2 supergravity. We focus on the n_v+1 vector multiplets on the black hole near horizon background which is AdS_2× S"2 space. We find the localizing saddle point of the vector multiplets by solving the localization equations, and compute the exact one-loop partition function on the saddle point. Furthermore, we propose the appropriate functional integration measure. Through this measure, the one-loop determinant is written in terms of the radius of the physical metric, which depends on the localizing saddle point value of the vector multiplets. The result for the one-loop determinant is consistent with the logarithmic corrections to the BPS black hole entropy from vector multiplets.
Local invariants vanishing on stationary horizons: a diagnostic for locating black holes.
Page, Don N; Shoom, Andrey A
2015-04-10
Inspired by the example of Abdelqader and Lake for the Kerr metric, we construct local scalar polynomial curvature invariants that vanish on the horizon of any stationary black hole: the squared norms of the wedge products of n linearly independent gradients of scalar polynomial curvature invariants, where n is the local cohomogeneity of the spacetime.
Hole localization, migration, and the formation of peroxide anion in perovskite SrTiO3
Chen, Hungru; Umezawa, Naoto
2014-07-01
Hybrid density functional calculations are carried out to investigate the behavior of holes in SrTiO3. As in many other oxides, it is shown that a hole tend to localize on one oxygen forming an O- anion with a concomitant lattice distortion; therefore a hole polaron. The calculated emission energy from the recombination of the localized hole and a conduction-band electron is about 2.5 eV, in good agreement with experiments. Therefore the localization of the hole or self-trapping is likely to be responsible for the green photoluminescence at low temperature, which was previously attributed to an unknown defect state. Compared to an electron, the calculated hole polaron mobility is three orders of magnitude lower at room temperature. In addition, two O- anions can bind strongly to form an O22- peroxide anion. No electronic states associated with the O22- peroxide anion are located inside the band gap or close to the band edges, indicating that it is electronically inactive. We suggest that in addition to the oxygen vacancy, the formation of the O22- peroxide anion can be an alternative to compensate acceptor doping in SrTiO3.
Quasinormal modes of brane-localized standard model fields. II. Kerr black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanti, P.; Konoplya, R. A.; Zhidenko, A.
2006-01-01
This paper presents a comprehensive study of the fundamental quasinormal modes of all standard model fields propagating on a brane embedded in a higher-dimensional rotating black-hole spacetime. The equations of motion for fields with spin s=0, 1/2 and 1 propagating in the induced-on-the-brane background are solved numerically, and the dependence of their QN spectra on the black-hole angular momentum and dimensionality of spacetime is investigated. It is found that the brane-localized field perturbations are longer-lived when the higher-dimensional black hole rotates faster, while an increase in the number of transverse-to-the-brane dimensions reduces their lifetime. Finally, the quality factor Q, that determines the best oscillator among the different field perturbations, is investigated and found to depend on properties of both the particular field studied (spin, multipole numbers) and the gravitational background (dimensionality, black-hole angular momentum parameter)
Kamarianakis, Z; Buliev, I; Pallikarakis, N
2011-05-01
Closed intramedullary nailing is a common technique for treatment of femur and tibia fractures. The most challenging step in this procedure is the precise placement of the lateral screws that stabilize the fragmented bone. The present work concerns the development and the evaluation of a method to accurately identify in the 3D space the axes of the nail hole canals. A limited number of projection images are acquired around the leg with the help of a C-arm. On two of them, the locking hole entries are interactively selected and a rough localization of the hole axes is performed. Perpendicularly to one of them, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstructions are produced. The accurate identification and localization of the hole axes are done by an identification of the centers of the nail holes on the tomograms and a further 3D linear regression through principal component analysis (PCA). Various feature-based approaches (RANSAC, least-square fitting, Hough transform) have been compared for best matching the contours and the centers of the holes on the tomograms. The robustness of the suggested method was investigated using simulations. Programming is done in Matlab and C++. Results obtained on synthetic data confirm very good localization accuracy - mean translational error of 0.14 mm (std=0.08 mm) and mean angular error of 0.84° (std=0.35°) at no radiation excess. Successful localization can be further used to guide a surgeon or a robot for correct drilling the bone along the nail openings. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gravitational-wave localization alone can probe origin of stellar-mass black hole mergers.
Bartos, I; Haiman, Z; Marka, Z; Metzger, B D; Stone, N C; Marka, S
2017-10-10
The recent discovery of gravitational waves from stellar-mass binary black hole mergers by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory opened the door to alternative probes of stellar and galactic evolution, cosmology and fundamental physics. Probing the origin of binary black hole mergers will be difficult due to the expected lack of electromagnetic emission and limited localization accuracy. Associations with rare host galaxy types-such as active galactic nuclei-can nevertheless be identified statistically through spatial correlation. Here we establish the feasibility of statistically proving the connection between binary black hole mergers and active galactic nuclei as hosts, even if only a sub-population of mergers originate from active galactic nuclei. Our results are the demonstration that the limited localization of gravitational waves, previously written off as not useful to distinguish progenitor channels, can in fact contribute key information, broadening the range of astrophysical questions probed by binary black hole observations.Binary black hole mergers have recently been observed through the detection of gravitational wave signatures. The authors demonstrate that their association with active galactic nuclei can be made through a statistical spatial correlation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zawadzki, Pawel; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Rossmeisl, Jan
2011-01-01
We study electronic hole localization in rutile and anatase titanium dioxide by means of Δ-Self-Consistent Field Density Functional Theory. In order to compare stabilities of the localized and the delocalized hole states we introduce a simple correction to the wrong description of the localizatio...
Selecting core-hole localization or delocalization in CS2 by photofragmentation dynamics.
Guillemin, R; Decleva, P; Stener, M; Bomme, C; Marin, T; Journel, L; Marchenko, T; Kushawaha, R K; Jänkälä, K; Trcera, N; Bowen, K P; Lindle, D W; Piancastelli, M N; Simon, M
2015-01-21
Electronic core levels in molecules are highly localized around one atomic site. However, in single-photon ionization of symmetric molecules, the question of core-hole localization versus delocalization over two equivalent atoms has long been debated as the answer lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. Here, using a joint experimental and theoretical study of core-ionized carbon disulfide (CS2), we demonstrate that it is possible to experimentally select distinct molecular-fragmentation pathways in which the core hole can be considered as either localized on one sulfur atom or delocalized between two indistinguishable sulfur atoms. This feat is accomplished by measuring photoelectron angular distributions within the frame of the molecule, directly probing entanglement or disentanglement of quantum pathways as a function of how the molecule dissociates.
Horizon wave function for single localized particles: GUP and quantum black-hole decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casadio, Roberto; Scardigli, Fabio
2014-01-01
A localized particle in Quantum Mechanics is described by a wave packet in position space, regardless of its energy. However, from the point of view of General Relativity, if the particle's energy density exceeds a certain threshold, it should be a black hole. To combine these two pictures, we introduce a horizon wave function determined by the particle wave function in position space, which eventually yields the probability that the particle is a black hole. The existence of a minimum mass for black holes naturally follows, albeit not in the form of a sharp value around the Planck scale, but rather like a vanishing probability that a particle much lighter than the Planck mass may be a black hole. We also show that our construction entails an effective generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), simply obtained by adding the uncertainties coming from the two wave functions associated with a particle. Finally, the decay of microscopic (quantum) black holes is also described in agreement with what the GUP predicts. (orig.)
Khan, Anwar; Ahmedy, Ismail; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Javaid, Nadeem; Ali, Ihsan; Khan, Nawsher; Alsaqer, Mohammed; Mahmood, Hasan
2018-01-09
Interference and energy holes formation in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) threaten the reliable delivery of data packets from a source to a destination. Interference also causes inefficient utilization of the limited battery power of the sensor nodes in that more power is consumed in the retransmission of the lost packets. Energy holes are dead nodes close to the surface of water, and their early death interrupts data delivery even when the network has live nodes. This paper proposes a localization-free interference and energy holes minimization (LF-IEHM) routing protocol for UWSNs. The proposed algorithm overcomes interference during data packet forwarding by defining a unique packet holding time for every sensor node. The energy holes formation is mitigated by a variable transmission range of the sensor nodes. As compared to the conventional routing protocols, the proposed protocol does not require the localization information of the sensor nodes, which is cumbersome and difficult to obtain, as nodes change their positions with water currents. Simulation results show superior performance of the proposed scheme in terms of packets received at the final destination and end-to-end delay.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anwar Khan
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Interference and energy holes formation in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs threaten the reliable delivery of data packets from a source to a destination. Interference also causes inefficient utilization of the limited battery power of the sensor nodes in that more power is consumed in the retransmission of the lost packets. Energy holes are dead nodes close to the surface of water, and their early death interrupts data delivery even when the network has live nodes. This paper proposes a localization-free interference and energy holes minimization (LF-IEHM routing protocol for UWSNs. The proposed algorithm overcomes interference during data packet forwarding by defining a unique packet holding time for every sensor node. The energy holes formation is mitigated by a variable transmission range of the sensor nodes. As compared to the conventional routing protocols, the proposed protocol does not require the localization information of the sensor nodes, which is cumbersome and difficult to obtain, as nodes change their positions with water currents. Simulation results show superior performance of the proposed scheme in terms of packets received at the final destination and end-to-end delay.
On the localization of four-dimensional brane-world black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanti, P; Pappas, N; Zuleta, K
2013-01-01
In the context of brane-world models, we pursue the question of the existence of five-dimensional solutions describing regular black holes localized close to the brane. Employing a perturbed Vaidya-type line-element embedded in a warped fifth dimension, we attempt to localize the extended black-string singularity, and to restore the regularity of the AdS spacetime at a finite distance from the brane by introducing an appropriate bulk energy–momentum tensor. As a source for this bulk matter, we are considering a variety of non-ordinary field-theory models of scalar fields either minimally coupled to gravity, but including non-canonical kinetic terms, mixing terms, derivative interactions and ghosts, or non-minimally coupled to gravity through a general coupling to the Ricci scalar. In all models considered, even in those characterized by a high degree of flexibility, a negative result was reached. Our analysis demonstrates how difficult the analytic construction of a localized brane-world black hole may be in the context of a well-defined field-theory model. Finally, with regard to the question of the existence or not of a static classical black-hole solution on the brane, our analysis suggests that such solutions could in principle exist; however, the associated field configuration itself has to be dynamic. (paper)
Micic, Miroslav; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sigurdsson, Steinn
2011-06-01
We explore the growth of ≤107 M⊙ black holes that reside at the centres of spiral and field dwarf galaxies in a Local Group type of environment. We use merger trees from a cosmological N-body simulation known as Via Lactea 2 (VL-2) as a framework to test two merger-driven semi-analytic recipes for black hole growth that include dynamical friction, tidal stripping and gravitational wave recoil in over 20 000 merger tree realizations. First, we apply a Fundamental Plane limited (FPL) model to the growth of Sgr A*, which drives the central black hole to a maximum mass limited by the black hole Fundamental Plane after every merger. Next, we present a new model that allows for low-level prolonged gas accretion (PGA) during the merger. We find that both models can generate an Sgr A* mass black hole. We predict a population of massive black holes in local field dwarf galaxies - if the VL-2 simulation is representative of the growth of the Local Group, we predict up to 35 massive black holes (≤106 M⊙) in Local Group field dwarfs. We also predict that hundreds of ≤105 M⊙ black holes fail to merge, and instead populate the Milky Way halo, with the most massive of them at roughly the virial radius. In addition, we find that there may be hundreds of massive black holes ejected from their hosts into the nearby intergalactic medium due to gravitational wave recoil. We discuss how the black hole population in the Local Group field dwarfs may help to constrain the growth mechanism for Sgr A*.
Localization of holes near charged defects in orbitally degenerate, doped Mott insulators
Avella, Adolfo; Oleś, Andrzej M.; Horsch, Peter
2018-05-01
We study the role of charged defects, disorder and electron-electron (e-e) interactions in a multiband model for t2g electrons in vanadium perovskites R1-xCaxVO3 (R = La,…,Y). By means of unrestricted Hartree-Fock calculations, we find that the atomic multiplet structure persists up to 50% Ca doping. Using the inverse participation number, we explore the degree of localization and its doping dependence for all electronic states. The observation of strongly localized wave functions is consistent with our conjecture that doped holes form spin-orbital polarons that are strongly bound to the charged Ca2+ defects. Interestingly, the long-range e-e interactions lead to a discontinuity in the wave function size across the chemical potential, where the electron removal states are more localized than the addition states.
Hole mobility enhancement of p-MOSFETs using global and local Ge-channel technologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takagi, Shinichi; Tezuka, T.; Irisawa, T.; Nakaharai, S.; Maeda, T.; Numata, T.; Ikeda, K.; Sugiyama, N.
2006-01-01
Mobility enhancement technologies have currently been recognized as mandatory for future scaled MOSFETs. In this paper, we review our recent results on high hole mobility p-MOSFETs using global/local SiGe or Ge channels. There are two directions for introducing SiGe or Ge channels into Si CMOS platform. One is to use SiGe or Ge global substrates and the other is to form SiGe or Ge-channel regions locally on Si wafers. In both cases, the Ge condensation technique, where Ge-channel layers are formed by oxidizing SiGe films on SOI substrates, are effectively utilized. As for the global technologies, ultrathin GOI substrates are prepared and used to fabricate high mobility GOI p-MOSFETs. As for the local technologies, SGOI or GOI channels are formed locally in the active area of p-MOSFETs on SOI wafers. It is shown that the hole mobility enhancement factor of as high as 10 is obtained in locally fabricated p-MOSFETs through the effects of high-Ge content and the compressive strain. Furthermore, the local Ge-channel technologies are combined with global SiGe or Ge substrates for pursuing the optimal and individual design of n-MOSFETs and p-MOSFETs on a single Si wafer. The CMOS device composed of strained-Si n-MOSFETs and SGOI p-MOSFETs is successfully integrated on a same wafer, which is a promising CMOS structure under deep sub 100 nm technology nodes
Energy level alignment symmetry at Co/pentacene/Co interfaces
Popinciuc, M.; Jonkman, H. T.; van Wees, B. J.
2006-01-01
We have employed x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopies (XPS and UPS) to study the energy level alignment and electronic structure at the Co/pentacene/Co interfaces. In the case of pentacene deposition on Co we found an interfacial dipole of about 1.05 eV and a hole injection barrier of
McWilliams, Sean T.; Lang, Ryan N.; Baker, John G.; Thorpe, James Ira
2011-01-01
We investigate the capability of LISA to measure the sky position of equal-mass, nonspinning black hole binaries, including for the first time the entire inspiral-merger-ringdown signal, the effect of the LISA orbits, and the complete three-channel LISA response. For an ensemble of systems near the peak of LISA's sensitivity band, with total rest mass of 2 x l0(exp 6) Stellar Mass at a redshift of z = 1 with random orientations and sky positions, we find median sky localization errors of approximately approx. 3 arcminutes. This is comparable to the field of view of powerful electromagnetic telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, that could be used to search for electromagnetic signals associated with merging black holes. We investigate the way in which parameter errors decrease with measurement time, focusing specifically on the additional information provided during the merger-ringdown segment of the signal. We find that this information improves all parameter estimates directly, rather than through diminishing correlations with any subset of well-determined parameters.
Scrambling time from local perturbations of the eternal BTZ black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caputa, Paweł [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, Stockholm, SE-106 91 (Sweden); Simón, Joan; Štikonas, Andrius [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, University of Edinburgh,King’s Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); Takayanagi, Tadashi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo,5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Watanabe, Kento [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan)
2015-08-04
We compute the mutual information between finite intervals in two non-compact 2d CFTs in the thermofield double formulation after one of them has been locally perturbed by a primary operator at some time t{sub ω} in the large c limit. We determine the time scale, called the scrambling time, at which the mutual information vanishes and the original entanglement between the thermofield double gets destroyed by the perturbation. We provide a holographic description in terms of a free falling particle in the eternal BTZ black hole that exactly matches our CFT calculations. Our results hold for any time t{sub ω}. In particular, when the latter is large, they reproduce the bulk shock-wave propagation along the BTZ horizon description.
REVERBERATION MAPPING MEASUREMENTS OF BLACK HOLE MASSES IN SIX LOCAL SEYFERT GALAXIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denney, K. D.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Atlee, D. W.; Bentz, M. C.; Bird, J. C.; Comins, M. L.; Dietrich, M.; Eastman, J. D.; Adair, A.; Au-Yong, K.; Chisholm, E.; Ewald, S.; Ferbey, S.; Jackson, K.; Brokofsky, D. J.; Gaskell, C. M.; Hedrick, C. H.; Doroshenko, V. T.; Efimov, Y. S.
2010-01-01
We present the final results from a high sampling rate, multi-month, spectrophotometric reverberation mapping campaign undertaken to obtain either new or improved Hβ reverberation lag measurements for several relatively low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have reliably measured the time delay between variations in the continuum and Hβ emission line in six local Seyfert 1 galaxies. These measurements are used to calculate the mass of the supermassive black hole at the center of each of these AGNs. We place our results in context to the most current calibration of the broad-line region (BLR) R BLR -L relationship, where our results remove outliers and reduce the scatter at the low-luminosity end of this relationship. We also present velocity-resolved Hβ time-delay measurements for our complete sample, though the clearest velocity-resolved kinematic signatures have already been published.
Evidence for Black Hole Growth in Local Analogs to Lyman Break Galaxies
Jia, Jianjun; Ptak, Andrew; Heckman, Timothy M.; Overzier, Roderik A.; Hornschemeier, Ann; LaMassa, Stephanie M.
2011-01-01
We have used XMM-Newton to observe six Lyman break analogs (LBAs): members of the rare population of local galaxies that have properties that are very similar to distant Lyman break galaxies. Our six targets were specifically selected because they have optical emission-line properties that are intermediate between starbursts and Type 2 (obscured) active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our new X-ray data provide an important diagnostic of the presence of an AGN. We find X-ray luminosities of order 10(sup 42) erg per second and ratios of X-ray to far-IR lummositles that are higher than values in pure starburst galaxies by factors ranging from approximately 3 to 30. This strongly suggests the presence of an AGN in at least some of the galaxies. The ratios of the luminosities of the hard (2-10 keV) X-ray to [O III] emission line are low by about an order of magnitude compared with Type 1 AGN, but are consistent with the broad range seen in Type 2 AGN. Either the AGN hard X-rays are significantly obscured or the [O III] emission is dominated by the starburst. We searched for an iron emission line at approximately 6.4 ke V, which is a key feature of obscured AGNs, but only detected emission at the approximately 2sigma level. Finally, we find that the ratios of the mid-infrared (24 micrometer) continuum to [O III]lambda 5007 luminosities in these LBAs are higher than the values for Type 2 AGN by an average of 0.8 dex. Combining all these clues, we conclude that an AGN is likely to be present, but that the bolometric luminosity is produced primarily by an intense starburst. If these black holes are radiating at the Eddington limit, their masses would lie in the range of 10(sup 5) - 10(sup 6) solar mass. These objects may offer ideal local laboratories to investigate the processes by which black holes grew in the early universe.
Black hole microstates in AdS{sub 4} from supersymmetric localization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benini, Francesco [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London,South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA),via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Hristov, Kiril [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences,Tsarigradsko Chaussee 72, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Zaffaroni, Alberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca,piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy)
2016-05-10
This paper addresses a long standing problem, the counting of the microstates of supersymmetric asymptotically AdS black holes in terms of a holographically dual field theory. We focus on a class of asymptotically AdS{sub 4} static black holes preserving two real supercharges which are dual to a topologically twisted deformation of the ABJM theory. We evaluate in the large N limit the topologically twisted index of the ABJM theory and we show that it correctly reproduces the entropy of the AdS{sub 4} black holes. An extremization of the index with respect to a set of chemical potentials is required. We interpret it as the selection of the exact R-symmetry of the superconformal quantum mechanics describing the horizon of the black hole.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wendin, G.
1979-01-01
Recent progress in descriptions of photoelectron spectra is reviewed with emphasis on cases where the one-electron and quasi-particle approximations break down and the hole level becomes spread over a number of discrete lines or a continuum or both. Unifying aspects and similarities between interaction processes in atoms, molecules and solids are stressed. 38 references
Atomic energy levels and Grotrian diagrams
Bashkin, Stanley
1975-01-01
Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams, Volume I: Hydrogen I - Phosphorus XV presents diagrams of various elements that show their energy level and electronic transitions. The book covers the first 15 elements according to their atomic number. The text will be of great use to researchers and practitioners of fields such as astrophysics that requires pictorial representation of the energy levels and electronic transitions of elements.
Frontiers of controlling energy levels at interfaces
Koch, Norbert
The alignment of electron energy levels at interfaces between semiconductors, dielectrics, and electrodes determines the function and efficiency of all electronic and optoelectronic devices. Reliable guidelines for predicting the level alignment for a given material combination and methods to adjust the intrinsic energy landscape are needed to enable efficient engineering approaches. These are sufficiently understood for established electronic materials, e.g., Si, but for the increasing number of emerging materials, e.g., organic and 2D semiconductors, perovskites, this is work in progress. The intrinsic level alignment and the underlying mechanisms at interfaces between organic and inorganic semiconductors are discussed first. Next, methods to alter the level alignment are introduced, which all base on proper charge density rearrangement at a heterojunction. As interface modification agents we use molecular electron acceptors and donors, as well as molecular photochromic switches that add a dynamic aspect and allow device multifunctionality. For 2D semiconductors surface transfer doping with molecular acceptors/donors transpires as viable method to locally tune the Fermi-level position in the energy gap. The fundamental electronic properties of a prototypical 1D interface between intrinsic and p-doped 2D semiconductor regions are derived from local (scanning probe) and area-averaged (photoemission) spectroscopy experiments. Future research opportunities for attaining unsurpassed interface control through charge density management are discussed.
Phase structure of the Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter black holes probed by non-local observables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong [Chongqing Jiaotong University, School of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Liu, Xian-Ming [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Hubei University for Nationalities, Center for Theoretical Physics, School of Sciences, Enshi, Hubei (China); Li, Li-Fang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Beijing (China)
2016-11-15
With the non-local observables such as two point correlation function and holographic entanglement entropy, we probe the phase structure of the Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter black holes. For the case bQ > 0.5, where b is the Born-Infeld parameter and Q is the charge of the black hole, the phase structure is found to be similar to that of the Van der Waals phase transition, namely the black hole undergoes a first order phase transition and a second order phase transition before it reaches a stable phase. While for the case bQ < 0.5, a new phase branch emerges besides the Van der Waals phase transition. For the first order phase transition, the equal area law is checked, and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the heat capacity is obtained. All these results are found to be the same as that observed in the entropy-temperature plane. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerosa, Matteo [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Di Valentin, Cristiana; Pacchioni, Gianfranco [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano-Bicocca, via R. Cozzi 55, 20125 Milan (Italy); Bottani, Carlo Enrico, E-mail: carlo.bottani@polimi.it [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Center for Nano Science and Technology @Polimi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Onida, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’ Universita’ degli Studi di Milano and European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)
2015-09-21
We investigate the long-standing problem of hole localization at the Al impurity in quartz SiO{sub 2}, using a relatively recent DFT hybrid-functional method in which the exchange fraction is obtained ab initio, based on an analogy with the static many-body COHSEX approximation to the electron self-energy. As the amount of the admixed exact exchange in hybrid functionals has been shown to be determinant for properly capturing the hole localization, this problem constitutes a prototypical benchmark for the accuracy of the method, allowing one to assess to what extent self-interaction effects are avoided. We obtain good results in terms of description of the charge localization and structural distortion around the Al center, improving with respect to the more popular B3LYP hybrid-functional approach. We also discuss the accuracy of computed hyperfine parameters, by comparison with previous calculations based on other self-interaction-free methods, as well as experimental values. We discuss and rationalize the limitations of our approach in computing defect-related excitation energies in low-dielectric-constant insulators.
Evaporation Spectrum of Black Holes from a Local Quantum Gravity Perspective.
Barrau, Aurélien
2016-12-30
We revisit the hypothesis of a possible line structure in the Hawking evaporation spectrum of black holes. Because of nonperturbative quantum gravity effects, this would take place arbitrarily far away from the Planck mass. We show, based on a speculative but consistent hypothesis, that this naive prediction might in fact hold in the specific context of loop quantum gravity. A small departure from the ideal case is expected for some low-spin transitions and could allow us to distinguish several quantum gravity models. We also show that the effect is not washed out by the dynamics of the process, by the existence of a mass spectrum up to a given width, or by the secondary component induced by the decay of neutral pions emitted during the time-integrated evaporation.
Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium
SRD 142 NIST Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium (Web, free access) This database provides theoretical values of energy levels of hydrogen and deuterium for principle quantum numbers n = 1 to 200 and all allowed orbital angular momenta l and total angular momenta j. The values are based on current knowledge of the revelant theoretical contributions including relativistic, quantum electrodynamic, recoil, and nuclear size effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Shao-Jun; Miao, Yan-Gang; Zhao, Ying-Jie
2015-01-01
As a generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) leads to the effects of the minimal length of the order of the Planck scale and UV/IR mixing, some significant physical concepts and quantities are modified or corrected correspondingly. On the one hand, we derive the maximally localized states—the physical states displaying the minimal length uncertainty associated with a new GUP proposed in our previous work. On the other hand, in the framework of this new GUP we calculate quantum corrections to the thermodynamic quantities of the Schwardzschild black hole, such as the Hawking temperature, the entropy, and the heat capacity, and give a remnant mass of the black hole at the end of the evaporation process. Moreover, we compare our results with that obtained in the frameworks of several other GUPs. In particular, we observe a significant difference between the situations with and without the consideration of the UV/IR mixing effect in the quantum corrections to the evaporation rate and the decay time. That is, the decay time can greatly be prolonged in the former case, which implies that the quantum correction from the UV/IR mixing effect may give rise to a radical rather than a tiny influence to the Hawking radiation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiwang Cui
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Leak localization is essential for the safety and maintenance of storage vessels. This study proposes a novel circular acoustic emission sensor array to realize the continuous CO2 leak localization from a circular hole on the surface of a large storage vessel in a carbon capture and storage system. Advantages of the proposed array are analyzed and compared with the common sparse arrays. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale stainless steel plate and leak signals were obtained from a circular hole in the center of this flat-surface structure. In order to reduce the influence of the ambient noise and dispersion of the acoustic wave on the localization accuracy, ensemble empirical mode decomposition is deployed to extract the useful leak signal. The time differences between the signals from the adjacent sensors in the array are calculated through correlation signal processing before estimating the corresponding distance differences between the sensors. A hyperbolic positioning algorithm is used to identify the location of the circular leak hole. Results show that the circular sensor array has very good directivity toward the circular leak hole. Furthermore, an optimized method is proposed by changing the position of the circular sensor array on the flat-surface structure or adding another circular sensor array to identify the direction of the circular leak hole. Experiential results obtained on a 100 cm × 100 cm stainless steel plate demonstrate that the full-scale error in the leak localization is within 0.6%.
Black Hole Area Quantization rule from Black Hole Mass Fluctuations
Schiffer, Marcelo
2016-01-01
We calculate the black hole mass distribution function that follows from the random emission of quanta by Hawking radiation and with this function we calculate the black hole mass fluctuation. From a complete different perspective we regard the black hole as quantum mechanical system with a quantized event horizon area and transition probabilities among the various energy levels and then calculate the mass dispersion. It turns out that there is a perfect agreement between the statistical and ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabio G. Santomauro
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We report on an element-selective study of the fate of charge carriers in photoexcited inorganic CsPbBr3 and CsPb(ClBr3 perovskite nanocrystals in toluene solutions using time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with 80 ps time resolution. Probing the Br K-edge, the Pb L3-edge, and the Cs L2-edge, we find that holes in the valence band are localized at Br atoms, forming small polarons, while electrons appear as delocalized in the conduction band. No signature of either electronic or structural changes is observed at the Cs L2-edge. The results at the Br and Pb edges suggest the existence of a weakly localized exciton, while the absence of signatures at the Cs edge indicates that the Cs+ cation plays no role in the charge transport, at least beyond 80 ps. This first, time-resolved element-specific study of perovskites helps understand the rather modest charge carrier mobilities in these materials.
On expectation values for nuclear energy levels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Wet, J.A.
1978-01-01
The nuclear model is built up by constructing measured states, including the ground state, from the vacuum state. All states are, however, not accessible from the ground state so that selection rules may be found which at the same time impose even more stringent conditions on the labelling of energy levels. These are the subject of this paper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Shuai; Song, Xue-ke; Shi, Jia-dong; Ye, Liu
2014-01-01
In this Letter, we analytically explore the effect of the Hawking radiation on the quantum correlation and Bell non-locality for Dirac particles in the background of Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that when the Hawking effect is almost nonexistent, corresponding to the case of an almost extreme black hole, the quantum properties of physically accessible state are the same for the initial situation. For finite Hawking temperature T, the accessible quantum correlation monotonously decreases along with increasing T owing to the thermal fields generated by the Hawking effect, and the accessible quantum non-locality will be disappeared when the Hawking temperature is more than a fixed value which increases with the parameter r of Werner state growing. Then we analyze the redistribution of quantum correlation, and find that for the case of the Hawking temperature being infinite, corresponding to the case of the black hole evaporating completely, the quantum correlation of physically accessible state is equal to the one of the inaccessible states. Moreover, due to the Pauli exclusion principle and the differences between Fermi–Dirac and Bose–Einstein statistics, for the Dirac fields the accessible classical correlation decreases with increase of the Hawking temperature, which is different for the scalar fields. For Bell non-locality, we also find that the quantum non-locality is always extinct for physically inaccessible states, and the strength of the non-locality decreases with enlarging intensity of Hawking effect when the non-locality is existent in physically accessible state.
Impurity energy level in the Haldane gap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Wei; Lu Yu
1995-11-01
An impurity bond J' in a periodic 1D antiferromagnetic spin 1 chain with exchange J is considered. Using the numerical density matrix renormalization group method, we find an impurity energy level in the Haldane gap, corresponding to a bound state near the impurity bond. When J' J. The impurity level appears only when the deviation dev = (J'- J)/J' is greater than B c , which is close to 0.3 in our calculation. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs
Spectrum and energy levels of Y VI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Persson, W.; Reader, J.
1986-01-01
The spectrum of the five-times-ionized yttrium atom (Y VI), excited in a sliding-spark discharge, was studied in the 160--2500 A-circle range. About 900 Y VI lines were classified as transitions between 101 odd and 69 even energy levels.The energy-level system established includes almost all levels of the 4s 2 4p 4 , 4s4p 5 , 4s 2 4p 3 4d, 5d, 5s, 6s, and 5p configurations and a number of levels of the 7s, 4f, and 4s4p 4 4d configurations. The observed level system has been theoretically interpreted by means of Hartree--Fock calculations and least-squares parametric fits. Strong configuration mixings are found between the 4s4p 5 and 4s 2 4p 3 4d configurations, between the 4s 2 4p 3 5p and 4s4p 4 4d configurations, and between the 4s 2 4p 3 4f and 4s4p 4 4d configurations. From the optimized energy-level values, a system of Ritz-type wavelength standards with accuracies varying from 0.0003 to 0.003 A-circle in the range 179--500 A-circle has been determined. The ionization energy as determined from 4s 2 4p 3 ns levels (n = 5-7) is 737 110 +- 200 cm/sup -1/ (91.390 +- 0.025 eV)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malmskog, S.G.; Hoejeberg, M.; Berg, V.
1969-02-01
Gamma ray spectra in the decay of 185 Ta and 185m W have been studied with Ge (Li) detectors. The 185m W isomeric transition at 131.6 keV is shown to be of E3 multipolarity. A level scheme of 185 W is proposed with the following energy levels (energies in keV, spin and K quantum numbers in brackets): 0 (3/2 - 3/2), 23.5 (1/2 - 1/2), 65.9 (5/2 - 3/2), 93.5 (3/2 - 1/2) (uncertain), 173.9 (7/2 - 3/2), 188.1 (5/2 - 1/2), 197.5 (11/2 + 11/2) , 243.5 (7/2 - 7/2), and 390.8 (9/2 - 7/2)
Suppressing recombination in polymer photovoltaic devices via energy-level cascades.
Tan, Zhi-Kuang; Johnson, Kerr; Vaynzof, Yana; Bakulin, Artem A; Chua, Lay-Lay; Ho, Peter K H; Friend, Richard H
2013-08-14
An energy cascading structure is designed in a polymer photovoltaic device to suppress recombination and improve quantum yields. By the insertion of a thin polymer interlayer with intermediate energy levels, electrons and holes can effectively shuttle away from each other while being spatially separated from recombination. An increase in open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current are observed in modified devices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feast, M.W.
1981-01-01
This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied
Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.
2001-01-01
Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Edme, Kedy; Bettis Homan, Stephanie; Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B.; Weiss, Emily A., E-mail: e-weiss@northwestern.edu
2016-06-01
Highlights: • We synthesize complexes of PbS quantum dots (QDs) and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). Each PbS QD spontaneously reduces up to 17 TCNQ molecules. • The photoluminescence of the PbS QDs is quenched in the presence of the reduced TCNQ species through ultrafast non-radiative, simultaneous decay of the electron and hole. • We assign this decay to a four-carrier, concerted charge recombination mechanism with the surface localized sulfur–TCNQ{sup x−} ion pair. - Abstract: This paper describes the ultrafast decay of the band-edge exciton in PbS quantum dots (QDs) through simultaneous recombination of the excitonic hole and electron with the surface localized ion pair formed upon adsorption of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). Each PbS QD (R = 1.8 nm) spontaneously reduces up to 17 TCNQ molecules upon adsorption of the TCNQ molecule to a sulfur on the QD surface. The photoluminescence of the PbS QDs is quenched in the presence of the reduced TCNQ species through ultrafast (⩽15-ps) non-radiative decay of the exciton; the rate constant for the decay process increases approximately linearly with the number of adsorbed, reduced TCNQ molecules. Near-infrared and mid-infrared transient absorption show that this decay occurs through simultaneous transfer of the excitonic electron and hole, and is assigned to a four-carrier, concerted charge recombination mechanism based on the observations that (i) the PL of the QDs recovers when spontaneously reduced TCNQ{sup 1−} desorbs from the QD surface upon addition of salt, and (ii) the PL of the QDs is preserved when another spontaneous oxidant, ferrocinium, which cannot participate in charge transfer in its reduced state, is substituted for TCNQ.
Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from Local Primordial Black Holes with the Fermi Large Area Telescope
Ackermann, M.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R. A.; Caputo, R.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Costantin, D.; D’Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Di Lalla, N.; Di Mauro, M.; Di Venere, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Green, D.; Grenier, I. A.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Horan, D.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, C.; Kensei, S.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J. D.; Maldera, S.; Malyshev, D.; Manfreda, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Meyer, M.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Ojha, R.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Palatiello, M.; Paliya, V. S.; Paneque, D.; Persic, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Principe, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Valverde, J.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K.; Wood, M.; Zaharijas, G.
2018-04-01
Black holes with masses below approximately 1015 g are expected to emit gamma-rays with energies above a few tens of MeV, which can be detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Although black holes with these masses cannot be formed as a result of stellar evolution, they may have formed in the early universe and are therefore called primordial black holes (PBHs). Previous searches for PBHs have focused on either short-timescale bursts or the contribution of PBHs to the isotropic gamma-ray emission. We show that, in cases of individual PBHs, the Fermi-LAT is most sensitive to PBHs with temperatures above approximately 16 GeV and masses 6 × 1011 g, which it can detect out to a distance of about 0.03 pc. These PBHs have a remaining lifetime of months to years at the start of the Fermi mission. They would appear as potentially moving point sources with gamma-ray emission that become spectrally harder and brighter with time until the PBH completely evaporates. In this paper, we develop a new algorithm to detect the proper motion of gamma-ray point sources, and apply it to 318 unassociated point sources at a high galactic latitude in the third Fermi-LAT source catalog. None of the unassociated point sources with spectra consistent with PBH evaporation show significant proper motion. Using the nondetection of PBH candidates, we derive a 99% confidence limit on the PBH evaporation rate in the vicinity of Earth, {\\dot{ρ }}PBH}< 7.2× {10}3 {pc}}-3 {yr}}-1. This limit is similar to the limits obtained with ground-based gamma-ray observatories.
Luo, Kun; Roberts, Matthew R; Hao, Rong; Guerrini, Niccoló; Pickup, David M; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Edström, Kristina; Guo, Jinghua; Chadwick, Alan V; Duda, Laurent C; Bruce, Peter G
2016-07-01
During the charging and discharging of lithium-ion-battery cathodes through the de- and reintercalation of lithium ions, electroneutrality is maintained by transition-metal redox chemistry, which limits the charge that can be stored. However, for some transition-metal oxides this limit can be broken and oxygen loss and/or oxygen redox reactions have been proposed to explain the phenomenon. We present operando mass spectrometry of (18)O-labelled Li1.2[Ni0.13(2+)Co0.13(3+)Mn0.54(4+)]O2, which demonstrates that oxygen is extracted from the lattice on charging a Li1.2[Ni0.13(2+)Co0.13(3+)Mn0.54(4+)]O2 cathode, although we detected no O2 evolution. Combined soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy demonstrates that, in addition to oxygen loss, Li(+) removal is charge compensated by the formation of localized electron holes on O atoms coordinated by Mn(4+) and Li(+) ions, which serve to promote the localization, and not the formation, of true O2(2-) (peroxide, O-O ~1.45 Å) species. The quantity of charge compensated by oxygen removal and by the formation of electron holes on the O atoms is estimated, and for the case described here the latter dominates.
Townsend, P. K.
1997-01-01
This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...
Magnon, Anne
2005-04-01
anticipated by black-hole event horizons, cosmic censors able to shelter causal geometry). In analogy with black-hole singularities, the Big-Bang can be viewed as a geometric hint that a transition from incoherence to (causal space-time) localization and related coherence (comprehensibility), is taking place (space-time demolition, a reverse process towards incoherence or information recycling, is expected in the vicinity of singularities, as hinted by black-holes and related "time-machines"). A theory of the emergence of perception (and life?), in connection with observability and the function of partition (able to screen totality), is on its way [interface incoherence-coherence, sleeping and awaking states of localization, horizons of perception etc, are anticipated by black-hole event horizons, beyond which a non causal, dimensionless incoherent regime or memorization process, presents itself with the loss of localization, suggesting a unifying regime (ultimate energies?) hidden in cosmic potentialities]. The decoherence process presented here, suggests an ultimate interaction, expression of the logical relation of subsystems to totality, and to be identified to the flow of information or its recycling through cosmic jump (this is anticipated by the dissipation of distance or hierarchies on null-cones, themselves recycled with information and events). The geometric projection of this unified irreversible dynamics is expressed by unified Yang-Mills field equations (coupled to Einsteinian gravity). An ultimate form of action ("set"-volumes of information) presents itself, whose extrema can be achieved through extremal transfer of information and related partition of cells of information (thus anticipating the mitosis of living cells, possibly triggered at the non localizable level, as imposed by the logical regime of cosmic decoherence: participating subsystems ?). The matching of the objective and subjective facets of (information and) decoherences is perceived as contact
Horowitz, Gary T.; Teukolsky, Saul A.
1998-01-01
Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.
Energy level alignment at the methylammonium lead iodide/copper phthalocyanine interface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shi Chen
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The energy level alignment at the CH3NH3PbI3/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc interface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS. XPS reveal a 0.3 eV downward band bending in the CuPc film. UPS validate this finding and further reveal negligible interfacial dipole formation – verifying the viability of vacuum level alignment. The highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPc is found to be closer to the Fermi level than the valance band maximum of CH3NH3PbI3, facilitating hole transfer from CH3NH3PbI3 to CuPc. However, subsequent hole extraction from CuPc may be impeded by the downward band bending in the CuPc layer.
Information Geometry, Inference Methods and Chaotic Energy Levels Statistics
Cafaro, Carlo
2008-01-01
In this Letter, we propose a novel information-geometric characterization of chaotic (integrable) energy level statistics of a quantum antiferromagnetic Ising spin chain in a tilted (transverse) external magnetic field. Finally, we conjecture our results might find some potential physical applications in quantum energy level statistics.
Hayward, Sean Alan
2013-01-01
Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h
The energy level alignment at the CH_3NH_3PbI_3/pentacene interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, Gengwu; Zhao, Bin; Song, Fei; Zheng, Guanhaojie; Zhang, Xiaonan; Shen, Kongchao; Yang, Yingguo; Chen, Shi; Gao, Xingyu
2017-01-01
Highlights: • The Energy Level Alignment at the CH_3NH_3PbI_3/Pentacene Interface was resolved experimentally. • The downward band bending and the dipole found at the pentacene side would favorably drive holes away from the interface into pentacene. • A ∼0.7 eV offset between pentacene HOMO and CH_3NH_3PbI_3 VBM would be in favor of hole transfer whereas a ∼1.35 eV offset between pentacene LUMO and CH_3NH_3PbI_3 CBM should efficiently block the unwanted electron transfer from perovskite to pentacene. • Pentacene could be a viable hole transfer material candidate on perovskite to be explored in perovskite devices. - Abstract: Pentacene thin film on CH_3NH_3PbI_3 was studied by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to determine their interfacial energy level alignment. A 0.2 eV downward band bending together with a 0.1 eV interfacial dipole was found at the pentacene side, whereas there was no band bending found at the CH_3NH_3PbI_3 side. The offset between CH_3NH_3PbI_3 Valance Band Maximum (VBM) and pentacene Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and that between CH_3NH_3PbI_3 Conduction Band Minimum (CBM) and pentacene Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) was determined to be 0.7 and 1.35 eV, respectively. The band alignment at this interface is favor of efficient hole transfer, which suggests pentacene as a viable HTL candidate to be explored in perovskite solar cells.
Hopkins, Deborah; Datuin, Marvin; Aldrin, John; Warchol, Mark; Warchol, Lyudmila; Forsyth, David
2018-04-01
The work presented here aims to develop and transition angled-beam shear-wave inspection techniques for crack localization at fastener sites in multi-layer aircraft structures. This requires moving beyond detection to achieve reliable crack location and size, thereby providing invaluable information for maintenance actions and service-life management. The technique presented is based on imaging cracks in "True" B-scans (depth view projected in the sheets along the beam path). The crack traces that contribute to localization in the True B-scans depend on small, diffracted signals from the crack edges and tips that are visible in simulations and experimental data acquired with sufficient gain. The most recent work shows that cracks rotated toward and away from the central ultrasonic beam also yield crack traces in True B-scans that allow localization in simulations, even for large obtuse angles where experimental and simulation results show very small or no indications in the C-scans. Similarly, for two sheets joined by sealant, simulations show that cracks in the second sheet can be located in True B-scans for all locations studied: cracks that intersect the front or back wall of the second sheet, as well as relatively small mid-bore cracks. These results are consistent with previous model verification and sensitivity studies that demonstrate crack localization in True B-scans for a single sheet and cracks perpendicular to the ultrasonic beam.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Liang; Jiang, Yunlong; Cui, Rongzhen; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Xuesen; Deng, Ruiping; Zhang, Hongjie, E-mail: hongjie@ciac.ac.cn
2016-02-15
In this study, we aim to further enhance the electroluminescence (EL) performances of trivalent europium complex Eu(TTA){sub 3}phen (TTA=thenoyltrifluoroacetone and phen=1,10-phenanthroline) by designing the device structure with stepwise energy levels. The widely used bipolar material 2,6-bis(3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)pyridine (26DCzPPy) was chosen as host material, while the doping concentration of Eu(TTA){sub 3}phen was optimized to be 4%. To facilitate the injection and transport of holes, MoO{sub 3} anode modification layer and 4,4′,4′′-Tris(carbazole-9-yl)triphenylamine (TcTa) hole transport layer were inserted in sequence. Efficient pure red emission with suppressed efficiency roll-off was obtained attributed to the reduction of accumulation holes, the broadening of recombination zone, and the improved balance of holes and electrons on Eu(TTA){sub 3}phen molecules. Finally, the device with 3 nm MoO{sub 3} and 5 nm TcTa obtained the highest brightness of 3278 cd/m{sup 2}, current efficiency of 12.45 cd/A, power efficiency of 11.50 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency of 6.60%. Such a device design strategy helps to improve the EL performances of emitters with low-lying energy levels and provides a chance to simplify device fabrication processes. - Highlights: • Electroluminescent performances of europium complex were further improved. • Device structure with stepwise energy levels was designed. • Better carriers' balance was realized by improving the injection and transport of holes. • The selection of bipolar host caused the broadening of recombination zone.
Comparing energy levels in isotropic and anisotropic potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pikovski, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.pikovski@colorado.edu
2015-11-06
Qualitative information about the quantized energy levels of a system can be of great value. We study the relationship between the bound-state energies of an anisotropic potential and those of its spherical average. It is shown that the two ground-state energies satisfy an inequality, and there is a similar inequality for the first excited states. - Highlights: • Quantized energy levels in an arbitrary non-central potential are studied. • We derive inequalities between energies in a potential and its spherical average. • The results hold in three and two dimensions for any ground state and, with additional symmetry requirements for the first excited state.
Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite
Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Sun, Keye; Saidi, Wissam A.; Scudiero, Louis; Gupta, Mool C.; Choi, Joshua J.
2015-06-01
Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.
Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Choi, Joshua J., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Sun, Keye; Gupta, Mool C., E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Saidi, Wissam A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); Scudiero, Louis, E-mail: jjc6z@virginia.edu, E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu, E-mail: scudiero@wsu.edu [Chemistry Department and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)
2015-06-15
Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.
Comparing energy levels in isotropic and anisotropic potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pikovski, Alexander
2015-01-01
Qualitative information about the quantized energy levels of a system can be of great value. We study the relationship between the bound-state energies of an anisotropic potential and those of its spherical average. It is shown that the two ground-state energies satisfy an inequality, and there is a similar inequality for the first excited states. - Highlights: • Quantized energy levels in an arbitrary non-central potential are studied. • We derive inequalities between energies in a potential and its spherical average. • The results hold in three and two dimensions for any ground state and, with additional symmetry requirements for the first excited state.
Electron Energy Level Statistics in Graphene Quantum Dots
De Raedt, H.; Katsnellson, M. I.; Katsnelson, M.I.
2008-01-01
Motivated by recent experimental observations of size quantization of electron energy levels in graphene quantum dots [7] we investigate the level statistics in the simplest tight-binding model for different dot shapes by computer simulation. The results are in a reasonable agreement with the
Parametric Statistics of Individual Energy Levels in Random Hamiltonians
Smolyarenko, I. E.; Simons, B. D.
2002-01-01
We establish a general framework to explore parametric statistics of individual energy levels in disordered and chaotic quantum systems of unitary symmetry. The method is applied to the calculation of the universal intra-level parametric velocity correlation function and the distribution of level shifts under the influence of an arbitrary external perturbation.
Energy level alignment at Co/AlOx/pentacene interfaces
Popinciuc, M.; Jonkman, H. T.; van Wees, B. J.
2007-01-01
X-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) experiments were performed in order to study the energy level alignment and electronic structure at Co/AlOx/pentacene interfaces as a function of the aluminum oxide (AlOx) tunnel barrier thickness and the oxidation state of Co. XPS was
Energy level alignment at interfaces in organic photovoltaic devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Opitz, Andreas; Frisch, Johannes; Schlesinger, Raphael; Wilke, Andreas; Koch, Norbert
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Energy level alignment is crucial for organic solar cell efficiency. ► Photoelectron spectroscopy can reliably determine energy levels of organic material interfaces. ► Care must be taken to avoid even subtle sample damage. -- Abstract: The alignment of energy levels at interfaces in organic photovoltaic devices is crucial for their energy conversion efficiency. Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is a well-established and widely used technique for determining the electronic structure of materials; at the same time PES measurements of conjugated organic materials often pose significant challenges, such as obtaining sufficiently defined sample structures and radiation-induced damage of the organic layers. Here we report how these challenges can be tackled to unravel the energy levels at interfaces in organic photovoltaic devices, i.e., electrode/organic and organic/organic interfaces. The electronic structure across entire photovoltaic multilayer devices can thus be reconciled. Finally, general considerations for correlating the electronic structure and the photovoltaic performance of devices will be discussed
Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We have done relativistic calculations for the evaluation of energy levels, oscillator strengths, transition probabilities and lifetimes for Cr VIII ion. Use has been made of configuration interaction technique by including Briet–Pauli approximation. The energies of various levels from the ground state to excited levels of 3s3p6, ...
Degeneracy of energy levels of pseudo-Gaussian oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iacob, Theodor-Felix; Iacob, Felix; Lute, Marina
2015-01-01
We study the main features of the isotropic radial pseudo-Gaussian oscillators spectral properties. This study is made upon the energy levels degeneracy with respect to orbital angular momentum quantum number. In a previous work [6] we have shown that the pseudo-Gaussian oscillators belong to the class of quasi-exactly solvable models and an exact solution has been found
Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
2013-08-05
Aug 5, 2013 ... optimum weights at dietary energy levels of 13.81, 13.23, 13.43 and ... Tadelle & Ogle (2000) reported that energy requirement of ..... The authors would like to acknowledge the National Research Foundation (NRF) and VLIR ...
Spin energy levels in axial symmetry: spin 4
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Biasi, R S; Portella, P D [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia e Ciencia dos Materiais
1979-01-01
The spin energy levels in axial symmetry are presented, in graphical and tabular form, for a spin 4. The levels are calculated for five different angles between the applied field and the symmetry axis 0/sup 0/, 30/sup 0/, 45/sup 0/, 60 and 90/sup 0/.
Spin energy levels in axial symmetry: spin 3/2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Biasi, R S; Portella, P D [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia e Ciencia dos Materiais
1977-01-01
The spin energy levels in axial symmetry are presented, in graphical and tabular form, for a spin 3/2. The levels are calculated for five different angles between the applied field and the symmetry axis: 0/sup 0/, 30/sup 0/, 45/sup 0/, 60/sup 0/ and 90/sup 0/.
Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A study was conducted to determine dietary energy levels for optimum productivity and carcass characteristics of indigenous Venda chickens raised in closed confinement. Four dietary treatments were considered in the first phase (1 to 7 weeks) on two hundred day-old unsexed indigenous Venda chicks indicated as EVS1, ...
Enhanced Performance of DSSCs Based on the Insertion Energy Level of CdS Quantum Dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoping Zou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide (CdS quantum dots (QDs are assembled onto the TiO2 films by chemical bath deposition method (CBD. And the QDs size is controlled by the times of CBD cycles. They are characterized by UV-visible absorption. To avoid the photo corrosion and electrolyte corrosion, CdS and N719 are sequentially assembled onto the nanocrystalline TiO2 films to prepare a CdS/N719 cosensitized photo electrode for the dye-sensitized solar cells. In the structure of TiO2/CdS/N719 electrode, the reorganization of energy levels between CdS and N719 forms a stepwise structure of band-edge levels which is advantageous to the electron injection and hole recovery of CdS and N719 QDs. The open circuit voltage (Voc, short circuit current density (Jsc, and efficiency are increased.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, Valeri P.; Mukohyama, Shinji
2011-01-01
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that in models with large extra dimensions under special conditions one can extract information from the interior of 4D black holes. For this purpose we study an induced geometry on a test brane in the background of a higher-dimensional static black string or a black brane. We show that, at the intersection surface of the test brane and the bulk black string or brane, the induced metric has an event horizon, so that the test brane contains a black hole. We call it a brane hole. When the test brane moves with a constant velocity V with respect to the bulk black object, it also has a brane hole, but its gravitational radius r e is greater than the size of the bulk black string or brane r 0 by the factor (1-V 2 ) -1 . We show that bulk ''photon'' emitted in the region between r 0 and r e can meet the test brane again at a point outside r e . From the point of view of observers on the test brane, the events of emission and capture of the bulk photon are connected by a spacelike curve in the induced geometry. This shows an example in which extra dimensions can be used to extract information from the interior of a lower-dimensional black object. Instead of the bulk black string or brane, one can also consider a bulk geometry without a horizon. We show that nevertheless the induced geometry on the moving test brane can include a brane hole. In such a case the extra dimensions can be used to extract information from the complete region of the brane-hole interior. We discuss thermodynamic properties of brane holes and interesting questions which arise when such an extra-dimensional channel for the information mining exists.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ou, Qing-Dong; Li, Chi; Li, Yan-Qing, E-mail: yqli@suda.edu.cn; Tang, Jian-Xin, E-mail: jxtang@suda.edu.cn
2015-10-01
Highlights: • The interface energetics of tandem OLEDs is overviewed. • Energy level alignment in CGLs is addressed via photoemission spectroscopy. • The n-type doping effect with cesium compounds is discussed. • Hole injection barrier is dependent on oxygen vacancies in transition metal oxides. • Device lifetime of tandem OLEDs is sensitive to interfacial stability of CGLs. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a tandem structure offer a highly attractive option for the applications of next-generation flat panel displays and solid-state lighting due to the extremely high brightness and efficiency along with the long operational lifetime. In general, reliable information about interface energetics of the charge generation layers (CGLs), which plays the central role in charge generation and carrier injection into the stacked emission units, is highly desirable and advantageous for interface engineering and the performance optimization of tandem OLEDs. In this review, our recent studies on tandem OLEDs are overviewed, especially from interface energetics perspective via photoemission spectroscopy. The electronic structures of various transition metal oxide (TMO)-based CGLs and their role in charge generation process are reviewed, addressing the n-type doping impact of organic layers in CGLs, thermal annealing-induced oxygen vacancy in TMOs, and the interfacial stability of CGLs on the device operational lifetime. The resulting energy level alignments are summarized in correspondence with tandem OLED performance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.
1979-01-01
Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)
Lamb shift of energy levels in quantum rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kryuchkyan, G Yu; Kyriienko, O; Shelykh, I A
2015-01-01
We study the vacuum radiative corrections to energy levels of a confined electron in quantum rings. The calculations are provided for the Lamb shift of energy levels in a low-momentum region of virtual photons and for both one-dimensional and two-dimensional quantum rings. We show that contrary to the well known case of a hydrogen atom the value of the Lamb shift increases with the magnetic momentum quantum number m. We also investigate the dependence of the Lamb shift on magnetic flux piercing the ring and demonstrate a presence of magnetic-flux-dependent oscillations. For a one-dimensional ring the value of the shift strongly depends on the radius of the ring. It is small for semiconductor rings but can attain measurable quantities in natural organic ring-shape molecules, such as benzene, cycloalcanes and porphyrins. (paper)
How to Draw Energy Level Diagrams in Excitonic Solar Cells.
Zhu, X-Y
2014-07-03
Emerging photovoltaic devices based on molecular and nanomaterials are mostly excitonic in nature. The initial absorption of a photon in these materials creates an exciton that can subsequently dissociate in each material or at their interfaces to give charge carriers. Any attempt at mechanistic understanding of excitonic solar cells must start with drawing energy level diagrams. This seemingly elementary exercise, which is described in textbooks for inorganic solar cells, has turned out to be a difficult subject in the literature. The problem stems from conceptual confusion of single-particle energy with quasi-particle energy and the misleading practice of mixing the two on the same energy level diagram. Here, I discuss how to draw physically accurate energy diagrams in excitonic solar cells using only single-particle energies (ionization potentials and electron affinities) of both ground and optically excited states. I will briefly discuss current understanding on the electronic energy landscape responsible for efficient charge separation in excitonic solar cells.
Energy level alignment in Au/pentacene/PTCDA trilayer stacks
Sehati, P.; Braun, S.; Fahlman, M.
2013-01-01
Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate the energy level alignment and molecular orientation at the interfaces in Au/pentacene/PTCDA trilayer stacks. We deduced a standing orientation for pentacene grown on Au while we conclude a flat lying geometry for PTCDA grown onto pentacene. We propose that the rough surface of polycrystalline Au induces the standing geometry in pentacene. It is further shown that in situ deposition of PTCDA on pentacene can influence the orientati...
Energy levels of germanium, Ge I through Ge XXXII
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugar, J.; Musgrove, A.
1993-01-01
Atomic energy levels of germanium have been compiled for all stages of ionization for which experimental data are available. No data have yet been published for Ge VIII through Ge XIII and Ge XXXII. Very accurate calculated values are compiled for Ge XXXI and XXXII. Experimental g-factors and leading percentages from calculated eigenvectors of levels are given. A value for the ionization energy, either experimental when available or theoretical, is included for the neutral atom and each ion. section
White holes and eternal black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, Stephen D H
2012-01-01
We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi-thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal. (paper)
New energy levels of praseodymium with large angular momentum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, Shamim; Siddiqui, Imran; Gamper, Bettina; Syed, Tanweer Iqbal; Guthoehrlein, Guenter H.; Windholz, Laurentius [Inst. f. Experimentalphysik, Techn. Univ. Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria)
2011-07-01
The electronic ground state configuration of praseodymium {sup 59}Pr{sub 141} is [Xe] 4f{sup 3}6s{sup 2}, with ground state level {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}. Our research is mainly devoted to find previously unknown energy levels by the investigation of spectral lines and their hyperfine structures. In a hollow cathode discharge lamp praseodymium atoms and ions in ground and excited states are excited to high lying states by laser light. The excitation source is a tunable ring-dye laser system, operated with R6G, Kiton Red, DCM and LD700. A high resolution Fourier transform spectrum is used for selecting promising excitation wavelengths. Then the laser wavelength is tuned to a strong hyperfine component of the spectral line to be investigated, and a search for fluorescence from excited levels is performed. From the observed hyperfine structure we determine J-values and hyperfine constants A of the combining levels. This information, together with excitation and fluorescence wavelengths, allows us to find the energies of involved new levels. Up to now we have discovered large number of previously unknown energy levels with various angular momentum values. We present here the data (energies, parities, angular momenta J, magnetic hyperfine constants A) of ca. 40 new, until now unknown energy levels with high angular momentum values: 15/2, 17/2, 19/2, 21/2.
Development of a microlesson in teaching energy levels of atoms
Rodriguez, Cherilyn A.; Buan, Amelia T.
2018-01-01
Energy levels of atoms is one of the difficult topics in understanding atomic structure of matter. It appears tobe abstract, theoretical and needs visual representation and images. Hence, in this study a microlesson in teaching the high school chemistry concept on the energy levels of atoms is developed and validated. The researchers utilized backward curriculum design in planning the microlesson to meet the standards of the science K-12 curriculum. The planning process of the microlesson involved a) Identifying the learning competencies in K-12 science curriculum b) write learning objectives c) planning of assessment tools d) making a storyboard e) designing the microlesson and validate and revise the microlesson. The microlesson made use of varied resources in the internet from which the students accessed and collected information about energy levels of atoms. Working in groups, the students synthesized the information on how and why fireworks produce various colors of light through a post card. Findings of the study showed that there was an increase of achievement in learning the content and the students were highly motivated to learn chemistry. Furthermore, the students perceived that the microlesson helped them to understand the chemistry concept through the use of appropriate multimedia activities.
Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Ti VI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aggarwal, K M; Keenan, F P; Msezane, A Z
2013-01-01
We report on calculations of energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths for transitions among the lowest 253 levels of the (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ) 3s 2 3p 5 , 3s3p 6 , 3s 2 3p 4 3d, 3s3p 5 3d, 3s 2 3p 3 3d 2 , 3s 2 3p 4 4s, 3s 2 3p 4 4p and 3s 2 3p 4 4d configurations of Ti VI. The general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package and flexible atomic code are adopted for the calculations. Radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths are reported for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the 253 levels, although calculations have been performed for a much larger number of levels. Comparisons are made with existing available results and the accuracy of the data is assessed. Additionally, lifetimes for all 253 levels are listed, although comparisons with other theoretical results are limited to only 88 levels. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 1% (within 0.03 Ryd), whereas results for other parameters are probably accurate to better than 20%. A reassessment of the energy level data on the National Institute of Standards and Technology website for Ti VI is suggested. (paper)
Emparan, Roberto; Figueras, Pau; Martinez, Marina
2014-01-01
We study six-dimensional rotating black holes with bumpy horizons: these are topologically spherical, but the sizes of symmetric cycles on the horizon vary non-monotonically with the polar angle. We construct them numerically for the first three bumpy families, and follow them in solution space until they approach critical solutions with localized singularities on the horizon. We find strong evidence of the conical structures that have been conjectured to mediate the transitions to black ring...
The Low Energy Level Structure of {sup 191}lr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malmskog, S G; Berg, V [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); [Inst. of Physics, U niv. of Stockholm (Sweden); Baecklin, A; Hedin, G [Inst. of Physics, Univ. of Upp sala (Sweden)
1970-02-15
The decay of {sup 191}Pt to {sup 191}Ir has been investigated using Ge(Li)-detectors and a double focusing beta spectrometer. 35 transitions were observed and most of them were placed in a level scheme. Special attention was given to the low energy level band structure. Several multipolarity mixing ratios were determined from L-subshell ratio measurements. Using the delayed coincidence technique the half-life of the 179.05 keV level was measured to 40 {+-} 12 psec. The low level decay properties are discussed in terms of the Nilsson model with the inclusion of Coriolis coupling.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirsch, J.E.; Marsiglio, F.
1989-01-01
The authors review recent work on a mechanism proposed to explain high T c superconductivity in oxides as well as superconductivity of conventional materials. It is based on pairing of hole carriers through their direct Coulomb interaction, and gives rise to superconductivity because of the momentum dependence of the repulsive interaction in the solid state environment. In the regime of parameters appropriate for high T c oxides this mechanism leads to characteristic signatures that should be experimentally verifiable. In the regime of conventional superconductors most of these signatures become unobservable, but the characteristic dependence of T c on band filling survives. New features discussed her include the demonstration that superconductivity can result from repulsive interactions even if the gap function does not change sign and the inclusion of a self-energy correction to the hole propagator that reduces the range of band filling where T c is not zero
Energy levels, lifetimes and radiative data of W LV
Ding, Xiao-bin; Sun, Rui; Koike, Fumihiro; Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Dong, Chen-zhong
2018-01-01
Calculations of energy levels, radiative data and lifetimes are reported for tungsten Ca-like ion (W LV) by using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method. The GRASP2K package is adopted to carry out a large-scale systematic computation with a restricted active space treatment; the Breit interaction and QED effects are included in subsequent relativistic configuration interaction calculations. The energies and lifetimes of the lowest 119 levels are listed; the main leading configuration of the levels is of the ground state configuration [Ne]3s23p63d2 and the first excited configuration [Ne]3s23p53d3. The wavelengths, radiative rates and oscillator strengths for relatively strong E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions are listed. Comparisons with earlier experimental and theoretical values are made. The average relative deviations of energy levels from the NIST results and E1 transition wavelengths from the EBIT experimental results have turned to be only 0.20% and 0.13%, respectively. The other present results are in reasonable agreement with available data. These agreements confirm the reliability and accuracy of the current results. The present datasets may help us with the investigation of the electron-electron correlation effects in complex multi-electron highly charged heavy ions and of the diagnosis of tungsten impurity plasmas in fusion science.
Energy Levels, wavelengths and hyperfine structure measurements of Sc II
Hala, Fnu; Nave, Gillian
2018-01-01
Lines of singly ionized Scandium (Sc II) along with other Iron group elements have been observed [1] in the region surrounding the massive star Eta Carinae [2,3] called the strontium filament (SrF). The last extensive analysis of Sc II was the four-decade old work of Johansson & Litzen [4], using low-resolution grating spectroscopy. To update and extend the Sc II spectra, we have made observation of Sc/Ar, Sc/Ne and Sc/Ge/Ar hollow cathode emission spectrum on the NIST high resolution FT700 UV/Vis and 2 m UV/Vis/IR Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS). More than 850 Sc II lines have been measured in the wavelength range of 187 nm to 3.2 μm. connecting a total of 152 energy levels. The present work also focuses to resolve hyperfine structure (HFS) in Sc II lines. We aim to obtain accurate transition wavelengths, improved energy levels and HFS constants of Sc II. The latest results from work in progress will be presented.Reference[1] Hartman H, Gull T, Johansson S and Smith N 2004 Astron. Astrophys. 419 215[2] Smith N, Morse J A and Gull T R 2004 Astrophys. J. 605 405[3] Davidson K and Humphreys R M 1997 Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 35[4] Johansson S and Litzén U 1980 Phys. Scr. 22 49
Net energy levels on the lipid profile of pork
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephan Alexander da Silva Alencar
2017-09-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of net energy levels on the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle of swines. A total of 90 animals, with initial weight of 71.94±4.43kg, were used, and distributed in a randomized block design in five net energy levels (2,300, 2,425, 2,550, 2,675, and 2,800Kcal kg-1 feed, with nine replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Lipid profiles of adipose tissue and muscle were analyzed using gas chromatography. Increasing the levels of net energy using soybean oil, improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle, increased linearly (P<0.05 the concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and α-linolenic acid, reduced linearly (P<0.05 the monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids and omega 6: omega 3. In adipose tissue was observed linear reduction (P<0.05 of atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. In conclusion, increasing the level of net energy of the diet using soybean oil improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle.
Hole dephasing caused by hole-hole interaction in a multilayered black phosphorus.
Li, Lijun; Khan, Muhammad Atif; Lee, Yoontae; Lee, Inyeal; Yun, Sun Jin; Youn, Doo-Hyeb; Kim, Gil-Ho
2017-11-01
We study the magnetotransport of holes in a multilayered black phosphorus in a temperature range of 1.9 to 21.5 K. We observed a negative magnetoresistance at magnetic fields up to 1.5 T. This negative magetoresistance was analyzed by weak localization theory in diffusive regime. At the lowest temperature and the highest carrier density we found a phase coherence length of 48 nm. The linear temperature dependence of the dephasing rate shows that the hole-hole scattering processes with small energy transfer are the dominant contribution in breaking the carrier phase coherence.
Black holes and cosmic censorship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiscock, W.A.
1979-01-01
It is widely accepted that the complete gravitational collapse of a body always yields a black hole, and that naked singularities are never produced (the cosmic censorship hypothesis). The local (or strong) cosmic censorship hypothesis states that singularities which are even locally naked (e.g., to an observer inside a black hole) are never produced. This dissertation studies the validity of these two conjectures. The Kerr-Newman metrics describes the black holes only when M 2 greater than or equal to Q 2 + P 2 , where M is the mass of the black hole, a = J/M its specific angular momentum, Q its electric charge, and P its magnetic charge. In the first part of this dissertation, the possibility of converting an extreme Kerr-Newman black hole (M 2 = a 2 + Q 2 + P 2 ) into a naked singularity by the accretion of test particles is considered. The motion of test particles is studied with a large angular momentum to energy ratio, and also test particles with a large charge to energy ratio. The final state is always found to be a black hole if the angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the black hole are all much greater than the corresponding angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the test particle. In Part II of this dissertation possible black hole interior solutions are studied. The Cauchy horizons and locally naked timelike singularities of the charged (and/or rotating) solutions are contrasted with the spacelike all-encompassing singularity of the Schwarzschild solution. It is determined which portions of the analytic extension of the Reissner-Nordstroem solution are relevant to realistic gravitational collapse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krzysztof Micun
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The study is an attempt to determine the size of sedimentation at the bottoms of the small kettle holes of Suwałki Landscape Park as well as the deposits that fill them. The size and the type of the transformations occurring in the kettle holes during the Holocene were determined on the basis of conducted analyses. The presence of allochtonic mineral deposits and autochtonic lacustrine and biogenic deposits was affirmed. The first group consisted of loam colluvium with a maximum thickness of up to 1m. The other one contains lacustrine clays and silts with a maximum thickness of several tens of centimeters and gytjas and peats with a total thickness of up to 9 m. Sediments’ sequence in Snołda, Łuśnin and Linówek depressions indicated a secondary nature of the colluvium deposition in relations to the biogenic acumulation that took place throughout the Holocene. Hillslope sediments accumulation intensified only in times of economic activity growth in the area. Steep gradients of slopes and considerable depth of kettle holes favor the development of hillslope processes. The material accumulated in the depressions remains immobilised. This limits the spatial extent of the denudation and thus stabilises the morphology of early post-glacial landscape.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Chih-Hao, E-mail: chc@saturn.yzu.edu.tw [Department of Photonics Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li 32003, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Zih-Jyun; Liang, Yi-Hu; Chang, Yu-Shuo; Chiu, Chuan-Hao; Tai, Cheng-Wei [Department of Photonics Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li 32003, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Hsin-Hua, E-mail: hhua3@mail.vnu.edu.tw [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, Vanung University, Chung-Li 32061, Taiwan, ROC (China)
2013-12-02
In general, organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) need to operate at higher current density levels to ensure an ample light flux. However, stressed operation will result in poor performance and limited device lifetime. Recently, a tandem structure has been proposed as a pivotal technique to meet the stringent lighting requirements for OLED commercialization, with a research focus on decreasing the concomitant higher operation voltage. Driving two connected emission units (EMUs) in a tandem structure often requires more than twice the driving voltage for a single EMU. This study investigates bipolar host materials and their effective employment in fabricating tandem white phosphorescent OLEDs (PhOLEDs). In addition, the design of a mechanism to align the energy level between the hole transport layer/emitting layer is shown to effectively mitigate operational voltages. In sharp contrast to devices using a unipolar host material, we demonstrate that the turn-on voltage of blue PhOLEDs could be decreased from 3.8 V to 2.7 V through utilizing a bipolar host. Furthermore, applying the proposed techniques to tandem white PhOLEDs produces a luminance of 10{sup 3} cd/m{sup 2} by a 10.1 V driving voltage. - Highlights: • The matched energy level between the hole transport/emitting layer lowers voltages. • Multiple conduction dopants were used to investigate charge generation layer. • Two-color emitters were used to quantify the charge generation strength.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Chih-Hao; Wu, Zih-Jyun; Liang, Yi-Hu; Chang, Yu-Shuo; Chiu, Chuan-Hao; Tai, Cheng-Wei; Chang, Hsin-Hua
2013-01-01
In general, organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) need to operate at higher current density levels to ensure an ample light flux. However, stressed operation will result in poor performance and limited device lifetime. Recently, a tandem structure has been proposed as a pivotal technique to meet the stringent lighting requirements for OLED commercialization, with a research focus on decreasing the concomitant higher operation voltage. Driving two connected emission units (EMUs) in a tandem structure often requires more than twice the driving voltage for a single EMU. This study investigates bipolar host materials and their effective employment in fabricating tandem white phosphorescent OLEDs (PhOLEDs). In addition, the design of a mechanism to align the energy level between the hole transport layer/emitting layer is shown to effectively mitigate operational voltages. In sharp contrast to devices using a unipolar host material, we demonstrate that the turn-on voltage of blue PhOLEDs could be decreased from 3.8 V to 2.7 V through utilizing a bipolar host. Furthermore, applying the proposed techniques to tandem white PhOLEDs produces a luminance of 10 3 cd/m 2 by a 10.1 V driving voltage. - Highlights: • The matched energy level between the hole transport/emitting layer lowers voltages. • Multiple conduction dopants were used to investigate charge generation layer. • Two-color emitters were used to quantify the charge generation strength
On Low Energy Levels in {sup 185}W
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malmskog, S G; Hoejeberg, M; Berg, V
1969-02-15
Gamma ray spectra in the decay of {sup 185}Ta and {sup 185m}W have been studied with Ge (Li) detectors. The {sup 185m}W isomeric transition at 131.6 keV is shown to be of E3 multipolarity. A level scheme of {sup 185}W is proposed with the following energy levels (energies in keV, spin and K quantum numbers in brackets): 0 (3/2{sup -} 3/2), 23.5 (1/2{sup -} 1/2), 65.9 (5/2{sup -} 3/2), 93.5 (3/2{sup -} 1/2) (uncertain), 173.9 (7/2{sup -} 3/2), 188.1 (5/2{sup -} 1/2), 197.5 (11/2{sup +} 11/2) , 243.5 (7/2{sup -} 7/2), and 390.8 (9/2{sup -} 7/2)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cui, Rongzhen; Zhou, Liang, E-mail: zhoul@ciac.ac.cn; Jiang, Yunlong; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Xuesen; Zhang, Hongjie, E-mail: hongjie@ciac.ac.cn
2015-10-15
In this work, we aim to further improve the electroluminescent (EL) performances of a yellow light-emitting iridium(III) complex by designing double light-emitting layers (EMLs) devices having stepwise energy levels. Compared with single-EML devices, these designed double-EML devices showed improved EL efficiency and brightness attributed to better balance in carriers. In addition, the stepwise distribution in energy levels of host materials is instrumental in broadening the recombination zone, thus delaying the roll-off of EL efficiency. Based on the investigation of carriers' distribution, device structure was further optimized by adjusting the thickness of deposited layers. Finally, yellow EL device (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.446, 0.542)) with maximum current efficiency, power efficiency and brightness up to 78.62 cd/A (external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 21.1%), 82.28 lm/W and 72,713 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively, was obtained. Even at the high brightness of 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, EL efficiency as high as 65.54 cd/A (EQE=17.6%) can be retained. - Highlights: • Yellow electroluminescent devices were designed and fabricated. • P-type and n-type materials having stepwise energy levels were chosen as host materials. • Better balance of holes and electrons causes the enhanced efficiencies. • Improved carriers' trapping suppresses the emission of host material.
Energy level alignment at C{sub 60}/DTDCTB/PEDOT:PSS interfaces in organic photovoltaics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, Jisu; Jung, Kwanwook; Jeong, Junkyeong; Hyun, Gyeongho [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyunbok, E-mail: hyunbok@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do 24341 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Yeonjin, E-mail: yeonjin@yonsei.ac.kr [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-04-30
Highlights: • The interfacial energy level alignment of C{sub 60}/DTDCTB/PEDOT:PSS was determined via in situ UPS and IPES measurements. • A large photovoltaic gap of 1.30 eV was evaluated between the DTDCTB donor and C{sub 60} acceptor. • A low hole extraction barrier of 0.42 eV from DTDCTB to PEDOT:PSS was evaluated. • The excellent electronic properties of DTDCTB with a narrow band gap were the source of its high OPV power conversion efficiencies. - Abstract: The electronic structure of a narrow band gap small molecule ditolylaminothienyl–benzothiadiazole–dicyanovinylene (DTDCTB), possessing a donor-acceptor-acceptor configuration, was investigated with regard to its application as an efficient donor material in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The interfacial orbital alignment of C{sub 60}/DTDCTB/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was determined using in situ ultraviolet photoelectron and inverse photoelectron spectroscopic methods. The ionization energy and electron affinity values of DTDCTB were measured to be 5.27 eV and 3.65 eV, respectively, and thus a very small transport gap of 1.62 eV was evaluated. Large band bending of DTDCTB on PEDOT:PSS was observed, resulting in a low hole extraction barrier. Additionally, the photovoltaic gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital level of the DTDCTB donor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level of the C{sub 60} acceptor was estimated to be 1.30 eV, which is known to be the theoretical maximum open-circuit voltage in OPVs employing the C{sub 60}/DTDCTB active layer. The unique electronic structures of DTDCTB contributed toward the recently reported excellent power conversion efficiencies of OPVs containing a DTDCTB donor material.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abílio Amiguinho
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.
Plasma horizons of a charged black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanni, R.S.
1977-01-01
The most promising way of detecting black holes seems to be through electromagnetic radiation emitted by nearby charged particles. The nature of this radiation depends strongly on the local electromagnetic field, which varies with the charge of the black hole. It has often been purported that a black hole with significant charge will not be observed, because, the dominance of the Coulomb interaction forces its neutralization through selective accretion. This paper shows that it is possible to balance the electric attraction of particles whose charge is opposite that of the black hole with magnetic forces and (assuming an axisymmetric, stationary solution) covariantly define the regions in which this is possible. A Kerr-Newman hole in an asymptotically uniform magnetic field and a current ring centered about a Reissner-Nordstroem hole are used as examples, because of their relevance to processes through which black holes may be observed. (Auth.)
Plasma electron hole kinematics. I. Momentum conservation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hutchinson, I. H.; Zhou, C. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2016-08-15
We analyse the kinematic properties of a plasma electron hole: a non-linear self-sustained localized positive electric potential perturbation, trapping electrons, which behaves as a coherent entity. When a hole accelerates or grows in depth, ion and electron plasma momentum is changed both within the hole and outside, by an energization process we call jetting. We present a comprehensive analytic calculation of the momentum changes of an isolated general one-dimensional hole. The conservation of the total momentum gives the hole's kinematics, determining its velocity evolution. Our results explain many features of the behavior of hole speed observed in numerical simulations, including self-acceleration at formation, and hole pushing and trapping by ion streams.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sinha, Sumona, E-mail: sumona.net.09@gmail.com [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Wang, C.-H. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Mukherjee, M. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)
2017-07-01
Highlights: • Impact of contact contaminations on the energy level alignment and molecular conformation at rubrene/Ag interfaces. • Adventitious contamination layer was acted as a spacer layer between Ag substrate surface and rubrene molecular layer. • Hole injection barrier height and interface dipole at rubrene/Ag interfaces depend on the cleanliness of Ag substrate. • Molecular conformation as well as orientation controlled by the cleanliness of Ag surface. • Resulted different surface morphology of rubrene thin films on unclean and clean Ag substrate. - Abstract: This paper addresses the impact of electrode contaminations on the interfacial energy level alignment, the molecular conformation, orientation and surface morphology deposited organic film at organic semiconductor/noble metal interfaces by varying of film thickness from sub-monolayer to multilayer, which currently draws significant attention with regard to its application in organic electronics. The UHV clean Ag and unclean Ag were employed as substrate whereas rubrene was used as an organic semiconducting material. The photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) was engaged to investigate the evolution of interfacial energetics; polarization dependent near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) was employed to understand the molecular conformation as well as orientation whereas atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate the surface morphologies of the films. The adventitious contamination layer was acted as a spacer layer between clean Ag substrate surface and rubrene molecular layer. As a consequence, hole injection barrier height, interface dipole as well as molecular-conformation, molecular-orientation and surface morphology of rubrene thin films were found to depend on the cleanliness of Ag substrate. The results have important inferences about the understanding of the impact of substrate contamination on the energy level alignment, the molecular conformation
Calculation of almost all energy levels of baryons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario Everaldo de Souza
2011-03-01
Full Text Available It is considered that the effective interaction between any two quarks of a baryon can be approximately described by a simple harmonic potential. The problem is firstly solved in Cartesian coordinates in order to find the energy levels irrespective of their angular momenta. Then, the problem is also solved in polar cylindrical coordinates in order to take into account the angular momenta of the levels. Comparing the two solutions, a correspondence is made between the angular momenta and parities for almost all experimentally determined levels. The agreement with the experimental data is quite impressive and, in general, the discrepancy between calculated and experimental values is below 5%. A couple of levels of $Delta$, $N$, $Sigma^{pm}$, and $Omega$ present discrepacies between 6.7% and 12.5% ($N(1655$, $N(1440$, $N(1675$, $N(1685$, $N(1700$, $N(1710$, $N(1720$, $N(1990$, $N(2600$, $Delta(1700$, $Delta(2000$, $Delta(2300$, $Sigma^{pm}(1189$, $Lambda(1520$, $Omega(1672$ and $Omega(2250$.Received: 6 June 2011, Accepted: 13 July 2011; Edited by: D. Restrepo; Reviewed by: J. H. Muñoz, Universidad del Tolima, Ibagué, Colombia and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisica; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.030003Cite as: M. E. de Souza, Papers in Physics 3, 030003 (2011
Investigation of the energy levels of 38AR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waanders, F.B.
1975-07-01
In this project information on the energy levels of 38 Ar was obtained by means of the (p,γ) reaction. The 1,1 MeV Cockroft-Walton accelerator of the Potchefstroom University for CHE was used to produce the proton beam while a 80 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector was used to detect the gamma-rays. Precise gamma-branchings were determined for 50 bound levels, of which four have not previously been determined. These branchings were obtained from the 28 resonances studied in the 37 Cl(p,γ) 38 Ar reaction. The resonance with a proton energy of (592 plus minus 3) keV was not detected previously. The resonance energies, Q-value and energies of the bound levels used in this project were taken from the study done by Alderliesten. The mean lifetimes of a few bound levels of 38 Ar were measured by means of the doppler shift attenuation method. The results concerning the bound states and mean lifetimes are in good agreement with previous experiments. Limitations on the spin and parities of 19 (p,γ) resonances have been set by means of Weisskopf estimates. Only those cases for which the spin could be limited to two values are discussed in the text. A summary of experimental data obtained on 38 Ar is compared with the results from shellmodel calculations done by various workers. A short discussion on the analogue states in 38 Ar is also given [af
Energy-level statistics and time relaxation in quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruver, J.L.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Aliaga, J.; Mello, P.A.; Proto, A.N.
1997-05-01
We study a quantum-mechanical system, prepared, at t = 0, in a model state, that subsequently decays into a sea of other states whose energy levels form a discrete spectrum with given statistical properties. An important quantity is the survival probability P(t), defined as the probability, at time t, to find the system in the original model state. Our main purpose is to analyze the influence of the discreteness and statistical properties of the spectrum on the behavior of P(t). Since P(t) itself is a statistical quantity, we restrict our attention to its ensemble average , which is calculated analytically using random-matrix techniques, within certain approximations discussed in the text. We find, for , an exponential decay, followed by a revival, governed by the two-point structure of the statistical spectrum, thus giving a nonzero asymptotic value for large t's. The analytic result compares well with a number of computer simulations, over a time range discussed in the text. (author). 17 refs, 1 fig
Higher order corrections to energy levels of muonic atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rinker, G.A. Jr.; Steffen, R.M.
1975-08-01
In order to facilitate the analysis of muonic x-ray spectra, the results of numerical computations of all higher order quantum electrodynamical corrections to the energy levels of muonic atoms are presented in tabular and graphical form. These corrections include the vacuum polarization corrections caused by emission and reabsorption of virtual electron pairs to all orders, including ''double-bubble'' and ''cracked-egg'' diagrams. An estimate of the Delbruecke scattering-type correction is presented. The Lamb-shift (second- and fourth-order vertex) corrections have been calculated including the correction for the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. The relativistic nuclear motion (or recoil) correction as well as the correction caused by the screening of the atomic electrons is presented in graphs. For the sake of completeness a graph of the nuclear polarization as computed on the basis of Chen's approach has been included. All calculations were made with a two-parameter Fermi distribution of the nuclear charge density. 7 figures, 23 references
Energy levels and transition probabilities for Fe XXV ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Norrington, P.H.; Kingston, A.E.; Boone, A.W. [Department of Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)
2000-05-14
The energy levels of the 1s{sup 2}, 1s2l and 1s3l states of helium-like iron Fe XXV have been calculated using two sets of configuration-interaction wavefunctions. One set of wavefunctions was generated using the fully relativistic GRASP code and the other was obtained using CIV3, in which relativistic effects are introduced using the Breit-Pauli approximation. For transitions from the ground state to the n=2 and 3 states and for transitions between the n=2 and 3 states, the calculated excitation energies obtained by these two independent methods are in very good agreement and there is good agreement between these results and recent theoretical and experimental results. However, there is considerable disagreement between the various excitation energies for the transitions among the n=2 and also among the n=3 states. The two sets of wavefunctions are also used to calculate the E1, E2, M1 and M2 transition probabilities between all of the 1s{sup 2}, 1s2l and 1s3l states of helium-like iron Fe XXV. The results from the two calculations are found to be similar and to compare very well with other recent results for {delta}n=1 or 2 transitions. For {delta}n=0 transitions the agreement is much less satisfactory; this is mainly due to differences in the excitation energies. (author)
Black hole complementarity: The inside view
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David A. Lowe
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Within the framework of black hole complementarity, a proposal is made for an approximate interior effective field theory description. For generic correlators of local operators on generic black hole states, it agrees with the exact exterior description in a region of overlapping validity, up to corrections that are too small to be measured by typical infalling observers.
Stationary black holes: large D analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro
2015-01-01
We consider the effective theory of large D stationary black holes. By solving the Einstein equations with a cosmological constant using the 1/D expansion in near zone of the black hole we obtain the effective equation for the stationary black hole. The effective equation describes the Myers-Perry black hole, bumpy black holes and, possibly, the black ring solution as its solutions. In this effective theory the black hole is represented as an embedded membrane in the background, e.g., Minkowski or Anti-de Sitter spacetime and its mean curvature is given by the surface gravity redshifted by the background gravitational field and the local Lorentz boost. The local Lorentz boost property of the effective equation is observed also in the metric itself. In fact we show that the leading order metric of the Einstein equation in the 1/D expansion is generically regarded as a Lorentz boosted Schwarzschild black hole. We apply this Lorentz boost property of the stationary black hole solution to solve perturbation equations. As a result we obtain an analytic formula for quasinormal modes of the singly rotating Myers-Perry black hole in the 1/D expansion.
Micro black holes and the democratic transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, Gia; Pujolas, Oriol
2009-01-01
Unitarity implies that the evaporation of microscopic quasiclassical black holes cannot be universal in different particle species. This creates a puzzle, since it conflicts with the thermal nature of quasiclassical black holes, according to which all of the species should see the same horizon and be produced with the same Hawking temperatures. We resolve this puzzle by showing that for the microscopic black holes, on top of the usual quantum evaporation time, there is a new time scale which characterizes a purely classical process during which the black hole loses the ability to differentiate among the species and becomes democratic. We demonstrate this phenomenon in a well-understood framework of large extra dimensions, with a number of parallel branes. An initially nondemocratic black hole is the one localized on one of the branes, with its high-dimensional Schwarzschild radius being much shorter than the interbrane distance. Such a black hole seemingly cannot evaporate into the species localized on the other branes that are beyond its reach. We demonstrate that in reality the system evolves classically in time, in such a way that the black hole accretes the neighboring branes. The end result is a completely democratic static configuration, in which all of the branes share the same black hole and all of the species are produced with the same Hawking temperature. Thus, just like their macroscopic counterparts, the microscopic black holes are universal bridges to the hidden sector physics.
Rotating black holes at future colliders. III. Determination of black hole evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ida, Daisuke; Oda, Kin-ya; Park, Seong Chan
2006-01-01
TeV scale gravity scenario predicts that the black hole production dominates over all other interactions above the scale and that the Large Hadron Collider will be a black hole factory. Such higher-dimensional black holes mainly decay into the standard model fields via the Hawking radiation whose spectrum can be computed from the greybody factor. Here we complete the series of our work by showing the greybody factors and the resultant spectra for the brane-localized spinor and vector field emissions for arbitrary frequencies. Combining these results with the previous works, we determine the complete radiation spectra and the subsequent time evolution of the black hole. We find that, for a typical event, well more than half a black hole mass is emitted when the hole is still highly rotating, confirming our previous claim that it is important to take into account the angular momentum of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penrose, R.
1980-01-01
Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M
2003-01-01
Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)
Constrained-DFT method for accurate energy-level alignment of metal/molecule interfaces
Souza, A. M.
2013-10-07
We present a computational scheme for extracting the energy-level alignment of a metal/molecule interface, based on constrained density functional theory and local exchange and correlation functionals. The method, applied here to benzene on Li(100), allows us to evaluate charge-transfer energies, as well as the spatial distribution of the image charge induced on the metal surface. We systematically study the energies for charge transfer from the molecule to the substrate as function of the molecule-substrate distance, and investigate the effects arising from image-charge confinement and local charge neutrality violation. For benzene on Li(100) we find that the image-charge plane is located at about 1.8 Å above the Li surface, and that our calculated charge-transfer energies compare perfectly with those obtained with a classical electrostatic model having the image plane located at the same position. The methodology outlined here can be applied to study any metal/organic interface in the weak coupling limit at the computational cost of a total energy calculation. Most importantly, as the scheme is based on total energies and not on correcting the Kohn-Sham quasiparticle spectrum, accurate results can be obtained with local/semilocal exchange and correlation functionals. This enables a systematic approach to convergence.
Constrained-DFT method for accurate energy-level alignment of metal/molecule interfaces
Souza, A. M.; Rungger, I.; Pemmaraju, C. D.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Sanvito, S.
2013-01-01
We present a computational scheme for extracting the energy-level alignment of a metal/molecule interface, based on constrained density functional theory and local exchange and correlation functionals. The method, applied here to benzene on Li(100), allows us to evaluate charge-transfer energies, as well as the spatial distribution of the image charge induced on the metal surface. We systematically study the energies for charge transfer from the molecule to the substrate as function of the molecule-substrate distance, and investigate the effects arising from image-charge confinement and local charge neutrality violation. For benzene on Li(100) we find that the image-charge plane is located at about 1.8 Å above the Li surface, and that our calculated charge-transfer energies compare perfectly with those obtained with a classical electrostatic model having the image plane located at the same position. The methodology outlined here can be applied to study any metal/organic interface in the weak coupling limit at the computational cost of a total energy calculation. Most importantly, as the scheme is based on total energies and not on correcting the Kohn-Sham quasiparticle spectrum, accurate results can be obtained with local/semilocal exchange and correlation functionals. This enables a systematic approach to convergence.
Thermodynamic phase transition in the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae
2014-01-01
We study the thermodynamic phase transition in the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole where the metric depends on the energy of the test particle. Identifying the black hole temperature with the energy from the modified dispersion relation, we obtain the modified entropy and thermodynamic energy along with the modified local temperature in the cavity to provide well defined black hole states. It is found that apart from the conventional critical temperature related to Hawking-Page phase transition there appears an additional critical temperature which is of relevance to the existence of a locally stable tiny black hole; however, the off-shell free energy tells us that this black hole should eventually tunnel into the stable large black hole. Finally, we discuss the reason why the temperature near the horizon is finite in the rainbow black hole by employing the running gravitational coupling constant, whereas it is divergent near the horizon in the ordinary Schwarzschild black hole
Quantum Black Hole Model and HAWKING’S Radiation
Berezin, Victor
The black hole model with a self-gravitating charged spherical symmetric dust thin shell as a source is considered. The Schroedinger-type equation for such a model is derived. This equation appeared to be a finite differences equation. A theory of such an equation is developed and general solution is found and investigated in details. The discrete spectrum of the bound state energy levels is obtained. All the eigenvalues appeared to be infinitely degenerate. The ground state wave functions are evaluated explicitly. The quantum black hole states are selected and investigated. It is shown that the obtained black hole mass spectrum is compatible with the existence of Hawking’s radiation in the limit of low temperatures both for large and nearly extreme Reissner-Nordstrom black holes. The above mentioned infinite degeneracy of the mass (energy) eigenvalues may appeared helpful in resolving the well known information paradox in the black hole physics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cosimo Bambi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We derive and study an approximate static vacuum solution generated by a point-like source in a higher derivative gravitational theory with a pair of complex conjugate ghosts. The gravitational theory is local and characterized by a high derivative operator compatible with Lee–Wick unitarity. In particular, the tree-level two-point function only shows a pair of complex conjugate poles besides the massless spin two graviton. We show that singularity-free black holes exist when the mass of the source M exceeds a critical value Mcrit. For M>Mcrit the spacetime structure is characterized by an outer event horizon and an inner Cauchy horizon, while for M=Mcrit we have an extremal black hole with vanishing Hawking temperature. The evaporation process leads to a remnant that approaches the zero-temperature extremal black hole state in an infinite amount of time.
Yao, Huifeng; Zhang, Hao; Ye, Long; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhang, Shaoqing; Hou, Jianhui
2016-02-17
Dialkylthio-substituted thienyl-benzodithiophene (BDT-DST) was designed and synthesized as a building block to modulate the molecular levels of the conjugated polymers, and three copolymers named PDST-BDD, PDST-TT and PDST-DPP were prepared and applied in polymer solar cells (PSCs). Theoretical calculations and electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement suggested that the dialkylthio group could decrease the molecular energy levels of the resulting polymers distinctly. The open-circuit voltage (VOC) of PSC devices based on PDST-BDD, PDST-TT, and PDST-DPP are as high as 1.0, 0.98, and 0.88 V, respectively, which are ∼0.15 V higher than those of the corresponding alky-substituted analogues. Moreover, the influence of the dialkylthio group on the absorption spectra, crystalline properties, hole mobilities, and blend morphologies of the polymers was also investigated. The results indicate that the dialkythio substitution is an effective method to modulate the molecular energy levels and that the BDT-DST unit has potential for constructing high-efficiency photovoltaic polymers.
Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge
2002-04-01
Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.
Energy levels and the de Broglie relationship for high school students
Gianino, Concetto
2008-07-01
In this article, four examples of possible lessons on energy levels for high school are described: a particle in a box, a finite square well, the hydrogen atom and a harmonic oscillator. The energy levels are deduced through the use of the steady-state condition and the de Broglie relationship. In particular, the harmonic oscillator energy levels are deduced using correspondence with circular uniform motion.
Li, Yongfang
2012-05-15
Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) sandwich a blend layer of conjugated polymer donor and fullerene derivative acceptor between a transparent ITO positive electrode and a low work function metal negative electrode. In comparison with traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, PSCs offer a simpler device structure, easier fabrication, lower cost, and lighter weight, and these structures can be fabricated into flexible devices. But currently the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSCs is not sufficient for future commercialization. The polymer donors and fullerene derivative acceptors are the key photovoltaic materials that will need to be optimized for high-performance PSCs. In this Account, I discuss the basic requirements and scientific issues in the molecular design of high efficiency photovoltaic molecules. I also summarize recent progress in electronic energy level engineering and absorption spectral broadening of the donor and acceptor photovoltaic materials by my research group and others. For high-efficiency conjugated polymer donors, key requirements are a narrower energy bandgap (E(g)) and broad absorption, relatively lower-lying HOMO (the highest occupied molecular orbital) level, and higher hole mobility. There are three strategies to meet these requirements: D-A copolymerization for narrower E(g) and lower-lying HOMO, substitution with electron-withdrawing groups for lower-lying HOMO, and two-dimensional conjugation for broad absorption and higher hole mobility. Moreover, better main chain planarity and less side chain steric hindrance could strengthen π-π stacking and increase hole mobility. Furthermore, the molecular weight of the polymers also influences their photovoltaic performance. To produce high efficiency photovoltaic polymers, researchers should attempt to increase molecular weight while maintaining solubility. High-efficiency D-A copolymers have been obtained by using benzodithiophene (BDT), dithienosilole
Black hole critical phenomena without black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
large values of Ф, black holes do form and for small values the scalar field ... on the near side of the ridge ultimately evolve to form black holes while those configu- ... The inset shows a bird's eye view looking down on the saddle point.
Black holes, qubits and octonions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borsten, L.; Dahanayake, D.; Duff, M.J.; Ebrahim, H.; Rubens, W.
2009-01-01
We review the recently established relationships between black hole entropy in string theory and the quantum entanglement of qubits and qutrits in quantum information theory. The first example is provided by the measure of the tripartite entanglement of three qubits (Alice, Bob and Charlie), known as the 3-tangle, and the entropy of the 8-charge STU black hole of N=2 supergravity, both of which are given by the [SL(2)] 3 invariant hyperdeterminant, a quantity first introduced by Cayley in 1845. Moreover the classification of three-qubit entanglements is related to the classification of N=2 supersymmetric STU black holes. There are further relationships between the attractor mechanism and local distillation protocols and between supersymmetry and the suppression of bit flip errors. At the microscopic level, the black holes are described by intersecting D3-branes whose wrapping around the six compact dimensions T 6 provides the string-theoretic interpretation of the charges and we associate the three-qubit basis vectors, |ABC>(A,B,C=0 or 1), with the corresponding 8 wrapping cycles. The black hole/qubit correspondence extends to the 56 charge N=8 black holes and the tripartite entanglement of seven qubits where the measure is provided by Cartan's E 7 contains [SL(2)] 7 invariant. The qubits are naturally described by the seven vertices ABCDEFG of the Fano plane, which provides the multiplication table of the seven imaginary octonions, reflecting the fact that E 7 has a natural structure of an O-graded algebra. This in turn provides a novel imaginary octonionic interpretation of the 56=7x8 charges of N=8: the 24=3x8 NS-NS charges correspond to the three imaginary quaternions and the 32=4x8 R-R to the four complementary imaginary octonions. We contrast this approach with that based on Jordan algebras and the Freudenthal triple system. N=8 black holes (or black strings) in five dimensions are also related to the bipartite entanglement of three qutrits (3-state systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke
2009-01-01
Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)
2007-11-15
We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.
Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus
2013-05-01
The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibbons, G.
1976-01-01
Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)
Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes.
Petermann, Jana S; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gossner, Martin M
2016-01-01
Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and
Moss, Ian G; Shiiki, N; Winstanley, E
2000-01-01
Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.
Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy
Haq, E.; Banerjee, T.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.
2005-01-01
A technique to study nanoscale spin transport of holes is presented: ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is used to inject hot electrons into a ferromagnetic heterostructure, where inelastic decay creates a distribution of electron-hole pairs.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...
Black Hole Safari: Tracking Populations and Hunting Big Game
McConnell, N. J.
2013-10-01
Understanding the physical connection, or lack thereof, between the growth of galaxies and supermassive black holes is a key challenge in extragalactic astronomy. Dynamical studies of nearby galaxies are building a census of black hole masses across a broad range of galaxy types and uncovering statistical correlations between galaxy bulge properties and black hole masses. These local correlations provide a baseline for studying galaxies and black holes at higher redshifts. Recent measurements have probed the extremes of the supermassive black hole population and introduced surprises that challenge simple models of black hole and galaxy co-evolution. Future advances in the quality and quantity of dynamical black hole mass measurements will shed light upon the growth of massive galaxies and black holes in different cosmic environments.
MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN STELLAR SYSTEMS: 'QUIESCENT' ACCRETION AND LUMINOSITY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volonteri, M.; Campbell, D.; Mateo, M.; Dotti, M.
2011-01-01
Only a small fraction of local galaxies harbor an accreting black hole, classified as an active galactic nucleus. However, many stellar systems are plausibly expected to host black holes, from globular clusters to nuclear star clusters, to massive galaxies. The mere presence of stars in the vicinity of a black hole provides a source of fuel via mass loss of evolved stars. In this paper, we assess the expected luminosities of black holes embedded in stellar systems of different sizes and properties, spanning a large range of masses. We model the distribution of stars and derive the amount of gas available to a central black hole through a geometrical model. We estimate the luminosity of the black holes under simple, but physically grounded, assumptions on the accretion flow. Finally, we discuss the detectability of 'quiescent' black holes in the local universe.
Application of OCT in traumatic macular hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wen-Li Fu
2017-12-01
Full Text Available AIM: To observe the application of optical coherence tomography(OCTin the diseases of traumatic macular hole. METHODS: Twenty-five eyes of 23 patients with traumatic macular hole from January 2015 to January 2017 were enrolled in this study, including 9 eyes treated without surgeries, 16 eyes with surgeries. The image features were analyzed using OCT from ZEISS. RESULTS: The OCT characteristics in patients with traumatic macular hole were partial or full-thickness disappearance of the neuro-epithelium. Posterior vitreous detachment was not seen in the traumatic macular hole. OCT examination revealed that 4 eyes had partial detachment of macular hole and 21 eyes had full thickness detachment. Of the twenty-one eyes, 4 eyes had simple macular hole, 10 eyes had macular full-layer division with peripheral nerve epithelium edema, 7 eyes had the macular full-layer hole with the neuro-epithelium localized detachment. In the 25 eyes, 9 eyes did not undergo the surgery, of which 7 eyes were self-healing; 16 eyes were surgically treated. Postoperative OCT showed the macular structure were normal in 12 eyes with the visual acuity improved 3 lines; retinal nerve epithelium were thinning in 4 eyes, visual acuities were not significant improved after surgery. CONCLUSION: OCT examination is necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic macular hole.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.
2010-01-01
We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.
Quantum corrections to Schwarzschild black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calmet, Xavier; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom)
2017-04-15
Using effective field theory techniques, we compute quantum corrections to spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's gravity and focus in particular on the Schwarzschild black hole. Quantum modifications are covariantly encoded in a non-local effective action. We work to quadratic order in curvatures simultaneously taking local and non-local corrections into account. Looking for solutions perturbatively close to that of classical general relativity, we find that an eternal Schwarzschild black hole remains a solution and receives no quantum corrections up to this order in the curvature expansion. In contrast, the field of a massive star receives corrections which are fully determined by the effective field theory. (orig.)
Wijers, R.A.M.J.
1996-01-01
Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes
The energy level alignment at the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}/pentacene interface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ji, Gengwu [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, Bin; Song, Fei [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China); Zheng, Guanhaojie; Zhang, Xiaonan [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Shen, Kongchao [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yang, Yingguo [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China); Chen, Shi, E-mail: ChenShi@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Gao, Xingyu, E-mail: gaoxingyu@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China)
2017-01-30
Highlights: • The Energy Level Alignment at the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}/Pentacene Interface was resolved experimentally. • The downward band bending and the dipole found at the pentacene side would favorably drive holes away from the interface into pentacene. • A ∼0.7 eV offset between pentacene HOMO and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} VBM would be in favor of hole transfer whereas a ∼1.35 eV offset between pentacene LUMO and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} CBM should efficiently block the unwanted electron transfer from perovskite to pentacene. • Pentacene could be a viable hole transfer material candidate on perovskite to be explored in perovskite devices. - Abstract: Pentacene thin film on CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} was studied by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to determine their interfacial energy level alignment. A 0.2 eV downward band bending together with a 0.1 eV interfacial dipole was found at the pentacene side, whereas there was no band bending found at the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} side. The offset between CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} Valance Band Maximum (VBM) and pentacene Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and that between CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} Conduction Band Minimum (CBM) and pentacene Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) was determined to be 0.7 and 1.35 eV, respectively. The band alignment at this interface is favor of efficient hole transfer, which suggests pentacene as a viable HTL candidate to be explored in perovskite solar cells.
Measurements and characterization of a hole trap in neutron-irradiated silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avset, B.S.
1996-04-01
The report describes measurements on a hole trap in neutron irradiated silicon diodes made one high resistivity phosphorus doped floatzone silicon. The hole trap was detected by Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy. This measurement gave a trap activation energy of 0.475 MeV. Other measurements showed that the trap has very small capture cross sections for both holes and electrons (10 -18 to 10 -20 cm 2 ) and that the hole capture cross section is temperature dependent. The energy level position of the trap has been estimated to be between 0.25 and 0.29 eV from the valence band. 25 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs
Rotating hairy black holes in arbitrary dimensions
Erices, Cristián; Martínez, Cristián
2018-01-01
A class of exact rotating black hole solutions of gravity nonminimally coupled to a self-interacting scalar field in arbitrary dimensions is presented. These spacetimes are asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter manifolds and have a Ricci-flat event horizon hiding a curvature singularity at the origin. The scalar field is real and regular everywhere, and its effective mass, coming from the nonminimal coupling with the scalar curvature, saturates the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound for the corresponding spacetime dimension. The rotating black hole is obtained by applying an improper coordinate transformation to the static one. Although both spacetimes are locally equivalent, they are globally different, as it is confirmed by the nonvanishing angular momentum of the rotating black hole. It is found that the mass is bounded from below by the angular momentum, in agreement with the existence of an event horizon. The thermodynamical analysis is carried out in the grand canonical ensemble. The first law is satisfied, and a Smarr formula is exhibited. The thermodynamical local stability of the rotating hairy black holes is established from their Gibbs free energy. However, the global stability analysis establishes that the vacuum spacetime is always preferred over the hairy black hole. Thus, the hairy black hole is likely to decay into the vacuum one for any temperature.
Hole history, rotary hole DC-3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1977-10-01
Purpose of hole DC-3 was to drill into the Umtanum basalt flow using both conventional rotary and core drilling methods. The borehole is to be utilized for geophysical logging, future hydrological testing, and the future installation of a borehole laboratory for long-term pressure, seismic, and moisture migration or accumulation recording in the Umtanum basalt flow in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Hole DC-3 is located east of the 200 West barricaded area on the Hanford reservation
Liechty, Derek S.; Lewis, Mark
2010-01-01
A new method of treating electronic energy level transitions as well as linking ionization to electronic energy levels is proposed following the particle-based chemistry model of Bird. Although the use of electronic energy levels and ionization reactions in DSMC are not new ideas, the current method of selecting what level to transition to, how to reproduce transition rates, and the linking of the electronic energy levels to ionization are, to the author s knowledge, novel concepts. The resulting equilibrium temperatures are shown to remain constant, and the electronic energy level distributions are shown to reproduce the Boltzmann distribution. The electronic energy level transition rates and ionization rates due to electron impacts are shown to reproduce theoretical and measured rates. The rates due to heavy particle impacts, while not as favorable as the electron impact rates, compare favorably to values from the literature. Thus, these new extensions to the particle-based chemistry model of Bird provide an accurate method for predicting electronic energy level transition and ionization rates in gases.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeldovich, Ya.; Novikov, I.; Starobinskij, A.
1978-01-01
The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius Rsub(r). At t>>Rsub(r)/c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius. (J.B.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeldovich, Ya; Novikov, I; Starobinskii, A
1978-07-01
The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius R/sub r/. At t>>R/sub r//c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novikov, I.; Polnarev, A.
1981-01-01
Proves are searched for of the formation of the so-called primary black holes at the very origin of the universe. The black holes would weigh less than 10 13 kg. The formation of a primary black hole is conditional on strong fluctuations of the gravitational field corresponding roughly to a half of the fluctuation maximally permissible by the general relativity theory. Only big fluctuations of the gravitational field can overcome the forces of the hot gas pressure and compress the originally expanding matter into a black hole. Low-mass black holes have a temperature exceeding that of the black holes formed from stars. A quantum process of particle formation, the so-called evaporation takes place in the strong gravitational field of a black hole. The lower the mass of the black hole, the shorter the evaporation time. The analyses of processes taking place during the evaporation of low-mass primary black holes show that only a very small proportion of the total mass of the matter in the universe could turn into primary black holes. (M.D.)
Ion distributions in RC at different energy levels retrieved from TWINS ENA images by voxel CT tech
Ma, S. Y.; McComas, David; Xu, Liang; Goldstein, Jerry; Yan, Wei-Nan
2012-07-01
Distributions of energetic ions in the RC regions in different energy levels are retrieved by using 3-D voxel CT inversion method from ENA measurements onboard TWINS constellation during the main phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm. It is assumed that the ion flux distribution in the RC is anisotropic in regard to pitch angle which complies with the adiabatic invariance of the magnetic moment as ion moving in the dipole magnetic mirror field. A semi-empirical model of the RC ion distribution in the magnetic equator is quoted to form the ion flux distribution shape at off-equatorial latitudes by mapping. For the concerned time interval, the two satellites of the TWINS flying in double Molnia orbits were located in nearly the same meridian plane at vantage points widely separated in magnetic local time, and both more than 5 RE geocentric distance from the Earth. The ENA data used in this study are differential fluxes averaged over 12 sweeps (corresponding to an interval of 16 min.) at different energy levels ranging from about 1 to 100 keV. The retrieved ion distributions show that in total the main part of the RC is located in the region with L value larger than 4, tending to increase at larger L. It reveals that there are two distinct dominant energy bands at which the ion fluxes are significantly larger magnitude than at other energy levels, one is at lower level around 2 keV and the other at higher level of 30-100 keV. Furthermore, it is very interesting that the peak fluxes of the RC ions at the two energy bands occurred in different magnetic local time, low energy ions appear preferentially in after midnight, while the higher energy ions mainly distributed around midnight and pre-midnight. This new profile is worthy of further study and needs to be demonstrated by more cases.
On the theory of hole propagation in an antiferromagnetic background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzemsky, A.L.
1994-10-01
The spectrum of hole quasiparticles and the role of magnetic correlations has been considered in the self-consistent Irreducible Green Functions formalism, motivated from Strongly Correlated Electron systems for correlated electron models of high-Tc superconductivity. The hole quasiparticle dynamics has been discussed for t-J model and compared with that of the spin-fermion model. For this Kondo-Heisenberg-type model it was clearly pointed out on the self-energy level, beyond Hartree-Fock approximation, how the one-and two magnon processes define the true nature of carriers in HTSC. (author). 57 refs
A random matrix approach to the crossover of energy-level statistics from Wigner to Poisson
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datta, Nilanjana; Kunz, Herve
2004-01-01
We analyze a class of parametrized random matrix models, introduced by Rosenzweig and Porter, which is expected to describe the energy level statistics of quantum systems whose classical dynamics varies from regular to chaotic as a function of a parameter. We compute the generating function for the correlations of energy levels, in the limit of infinite matrix size. The crossover between Poisson and Wigner statistics is measured by a renormalized coupling constant. The model is exactly solved in the sense that, in the limit of infinite matrix size, the energy-level correlation functions and their generating function are given in terms of a finite set of integrals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)
2017-08-01
The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of the neutral vanadium atom, V i, have been compiled. Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentage compositions for the levels are included where available, as well as wavelengths calculated from the energy levels (Ritz wavelengths). Wavelengths are reported for 3985 transitions, and 549 energy levels are determined. The observed relative intensities normalized to a common scale are provided.
Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica
2016-01-01
Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlitz, R.D.; Willey, R.S.
1987-01-01
We study the constraints placed by quantum mechanics upon the lifetime of a black hole. In the context of a moving-mirror analog model for the Hawking radiation process, we conclude that the period of Hawking radiation must be followed by a much longer period during which the remnant mass (of order m/sub P/) may be radiated away. We are able to place a lower bound on the time required for this radiation process, which translates into a lower bound for the lifetime of the black hole. Particles which are emitted during the decay of the remnant, like the particles which comprise the Hawking flux, may be uncorrelated with each other. But each particle emitted from the decaying remnant is correlated with one particle emitted as Hawking radiation. The state which results after the remnant has evaporated is one which locally appears to be thermal, but which on a much larger scale is marked by extensive correlations
Begelman, Mitchell C.
2014-01-01
I outline the theory of accretion onto black holes, and its application to observed phenomena such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts. The dynamics as well as radiative signatures of black hole accretion depend on interactions between the relatively simple black-hole spacetime and complex radiation, plasma and magnetohydrodynamical processes in the surrounding gas. I will show how transient accretion processes could provide clues to these ...
Nonextremal stringy black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, K.
1997-01-01
We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.
1997-01-01
It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Fluctuation properties of nuclear energy levels and widths: comparison of theory with experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohigas, O.; Haq, R.U.; Pandey, A.
1982-09-01
We analyze the fluctuation properties of nuclear energy levels and widths with new spectrally averaged measures. A remarkably close agreement between the predictions of random-matrix theories and experiment is found
Micro Black Holes and the Democratic Transition
Dvali, Gia
2009-01-01
Unitarity implies that the evaporation of microscopic quasi-classical black holes cannot be universal in different particle species. This creates a puzzle, since it conflicts with the thermal nature of quasi-classical black holes, according to which all the species should see the same horizon and be produced with the same Hawking temperatures. We resolve this puzzle by showing that for the microscopic black holes, on top the usual quantum evaporation time, there is a new time-scale which characterizes a purely classical process during which the black hole looses the ability to differentiate among the species, and becomes democratic. We demonstrate this phenomenon in a well-understood framework of large extra dimensions, with a number of parallel branes. An initially non-democratic black hole is the one localized on one of the branes, with its high-dimensional Schwarzschild radius being much shorter than the interbrane distance. Such a black hole seemingly cannot evaporate into the species localized on the oth...
Energy-level scheme and transition probabilities of Si-like ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, K.N.
1984-01-01
Theoretical energy levels and transition probabilities are presented for 27 low-lying levels of silicon-like ions from Z = 15 to Z = 106. The multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock technique is used to calculate energy levels and wave functions. The Breit interaction and Lamb shift contributions are calculated perturbatively as corrections to the Dirac-Fock energy. The M1 and E2 transitions between the first nine levels and the E1 transitions between excited and the ground levels are presented
Energy levels of mesic molecules ddμ and dt μ in a homogeneous magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi Nam Chol.
1990-01-01
The energy levels of mesic molecules ddμ and dtμ in a homogeneous magnetic field 0-10 8 Gs have been calculated. Calculations are carried out in the adiabatic representation of three-body problem. It is shown that in really existing fields ( 5 Gs) the shifts of energy levels produce no considerable effect on the process of resonant production of mesic molecules. 13 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs
On non-linear magnetic-charged black hole surrounded by quintessence
Nam, Cao H.
2018-06-01
We derive a non-linear magnetic-charged black hole surrounded by quintessence, which behaves asymptotically like the Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by quintessence but at the short distances like the dS geometry. The horizon properties of this black hole are investigated in detail. The thermodynamics of the black hole is studied in the local and global views. Finally, by calculating the heat capacity and the free energy, we point to that the black hole may undergo a thermal phase transition, between a larger unstable black hole and a smaller stable black hole, at a critical temperature.
Hagedorn temperature and physics of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakharov, V.I.; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verschelde, Henri
2016-01-01
A mini-review devoted to some implications of the Hagedorn temperature for black hole physics. The existence of a limiting temperature is a generic feature of string models. The Hagedorn temperature was introduced first in the context of hadronic physics. Nowadays, the emphasis is shifted to fundamental strings which might be a necessary ingredient to obtain a consistent theory of black holes. The point is that, in field theory, the local temperature close to the horizon could be arbitrarily high, and this observation is difficult to reconcile with the finiteness of the entropy of black holes. After preliminary remarks, we review our recent attempt to evaluate the entropy of large black holes in terms of fundamental strings. We also speculate on implications for dynamics of large-N_c gauge theories arising within holographic models
The covalence effect of energy levels of ZnS:Mn2+
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong-Yang, Li; Mao-Lu, Du; Yi, Huang
2013-01-01
The contribution of the different covalence for t 2 and e orbitals must be considered in the investigation of the optical and magnetic properties of the transition metal ion in II–VI and III–V semiconductors. In present paper, two covalent parameters N t and N e associated with t 2 and e orbitals have been adopted to describe the covalence. The energy matrices considering the different covalence for t 2 and e orbitals have been provided for d 5 ions in crystal. These matrices show that the contribution from the Racah parameter A cannot be neglected in calculation of energy-level of d 5 ions in covalent crystal. The calculated results using the matrix show that the energy levels of 4 E and 4 A 1 states split, and the energy-level difference between 4 E and 4 A 1 states increases with increase of the different covalence between t 2 and e orbitals. These energy levels are always degenerate, when the different covalence for t 2 and e orbitals is neglected. By using the energy matrices, the energy-level of ZnS:Mn 2+ has been calculated. The calculated energy levels of ZnS:Mn 2+ are in good agreement with the experiments
The effect of particle-hole interaction on the XPS core-hole spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohno, Masahide; Sjoegren, Lennart
2004-01-01
How the effective particle-hole interaction energy, U, or the polarization effect on a secondary electron in a final two-hole one-particle (2h1p) state created by the Coster-Kronig (CK) transition can solely affect the density of the CK particle states and consequently the core-hole spectral function, is discussed. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core-hole spectrum is predominantly governed by the unperturbed initial core-hole energy relative to the zero-point energy. At the latter energy, the real part of the initial core-hole self-energy becomes zero (no relaxation energy shift) and the imaginary part (the lifetime broadening) approximately maximizes. The zero-point energy relative to the double-ionization threshold energy is governed by the ratio of U relative to the bandwidth of the CK continuum. As an example, we study the 5p XPS spectra of atomic Ra (Z=88), Th (Z=90) and U (Z=92). The spectra are interpreted in terms of the change in the unperturbed initial core-hole energy relative to the zero-point energy. We explain why in general an ab initio atomic many-body calculation can provide an overall good description of solid-state spectra predominantly governed by the atomic-like localized core-hole dynamics. We explain this in terms of the change from free atom to metal in both U and the zero-point energy (self-energy)
de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.
2009-01-01
Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ravndal, F.
1978-01-01
Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kragh, Helge Stjernholm
2016-01-01
Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....
Hooft, G. 't
1987-01-01
This article is divided into three parts. First, a systematic derivation of the Hawking radiation is given in three different ways. The information loss problem is then discussed in great detail. The last part contains a concise discussion of black hole thermodynamics. This article was published as chapter $6$ of the IOP book "Lectures on General Relativity, Cosmology and Quantum Black Holes" (July $2017$).
Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.
2010-01-01
We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter
Science Teacher, 2005
2005-01-01
Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…
Lifshitz topological black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mann, R.B.
2009-01-01
I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.
Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew
2016-06-01
It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.
Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew
2016-06-10
It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.
LIGO Finds Lightest Black-Hole Binary
Kohler, Susanna
2017-11-01
Wednesdayevening the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) collaboration quietly mentioned that theyd found gravitational waves from yet another black-hole binary back in June. This casual announcement reveals what is so far the lightest pair of black holes weve watched merge opening the door for comparisons to the black holes weve detected by electromagnetic means.A Routine DetectionThe chirp signal of GW170608 detected by LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston. [LIGO collaboration 2017]After the fanfare of the previous four black-hole-binary merger announcements over the past year and a half as well as the announcement of the one neutron-star binary merger in August GW170608 marks our entry into the era in which gravitational-wave detections are officially routine.GW170608, a gravitational-wave signal from the merger of two black holes roughly a billion light-years away, was detected in June of this year. This detection occurred after wed already found gravitational waves from several black-hole binaries with the two LIGO detectors in the U.S., but before the Virgo interferometer came online in Europe and increased the joint ability of the detectors to localize sources.Mass estimates for the two components of GW170608 using different models. [LIGO collaboration 2017]Overall, GW170608 is fairly unremarkable: it was detected by both LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston some 7 ms apart, and the signal looks not unlike those of the previous LIGO detections. But because were still in the early days of gravitational-wave astronomy, every discovery is still remarkable in some way! GW170608 stands out as being the lightest pair of black holes weve yet to see merge, with component masses before the merger estimated at 12 and 7 times the mass of the Sun.Why Size MattersWith the exception of GW151226, the gravitational-wave signal discovered on Boxing Day last year, all of the black holes that have been discovered by LIGO/Virgo have been quite large: the masses
Effect of temperature-dependent energy-level shifts on a semiconductor's Peltier heat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emin, D.
1984-01-01
The Peltier heat of a charge carrier in a semiconductor is calculated for the situation in which the electronic energy levels are temperature dependent. The temperature dependences of the electronic energy levels, generally observed optically, arise from their dependences on the vibrational energy of the lattice (e.g., as caused by thermal expansion). It has been suggested that these temperature dependences will typically have a major effect on the Peltier heat. The Peltier heat associated with a given energy level is a thermodynamic quantity; it is the product of the temperature and the change of the entropy of the system when a carrier is added in that level. As such, the energy levels cannot be treated as explicitly temperature dependent. The electron-lattice interaction causing the temperature dependence must be expressly considered. It is found that the carrier's interaction with the atomic vibrations lowers its electronic energy. However, the interaction of the carrier with the atomic vibrations also causes an infinitesimal lowering (approx.1/N) of each of the N vibrational frequencies. As a result, there is a finite carrier-induced increase in the average vibrational energy. Above the Debye temperature, this cancels the lowering of the carrier's electronic energy. Thus, the standard Peltier-heat formula, whose derivation generally ignores the temperature dependence of the electronic energy levels, is regained. This explains the apparent success of the standard formula in numerous analyses of electronic transport experiments
Energy levels of one-dimensional systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernardo, Reginald Christian S., E-mail: rcbernardo@nip.upd.edu.ph; Esguerra, Jose Perico H., E-mail: jesguerra@nip.upd.edu.ph
2016-10-15
The standard approach to calculating the energy levels for quantum systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is to solve an eigenvalue problem involving a fourth- or higher-order differential equation in quasiposition space. It is shown that the problem can be reformulated so that the energy levels of these systems can be obtained by solving only a second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. Through this formulation the energy levels are calculated for the following potentials: particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, Pöschl–Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well. For the particle in a box, the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation is a second-order differential equation with constant coefficients. For the harmonic oscillator, Pöschl–Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well, a method that involves using Wronskians has been used to solve the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. It is observed for all of these quantum systems that the introduction of a nonzero minimal length uncertainty induces a positive shift in the energy levels. It is shown that the calculation of energy levels in systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is not limited to a small number of problems like particle in a box and the harmonic oscillator but can be extended to a wider class of problems involving potentials such as the Pöschl–Teller and Gaussian wells.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)
2017-08-01
The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of singly ionized vanadium, V ii, have been compiled. The experimentally derived energy levels belong to the configurations 3 d {sup 4}, 3 d {sup 3} ns ( n = 4, 5, 6), 3 d {sup 3} np , and 3 d {sup 3} nd ( n = 4, 5), 3 d {sup 3}4 f , 3 d {sup 2}4 s {sup 2}, and 3 d {sup 2}4 s 4 p . Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentages for the levels are included when available, as well as Ritz wavelengths calculated from the energy levels. Wavelengths and transition probabilities are reported for 3568 and 1896 transitions, respectively. From the list of observed wavelengths, 407 energy levels are determined. The observed intensities, normalized to a common scale, are provided. From the newly optimized energy levels, a revised value for the ionization energy is derived, 118,030(60) cm{sup −1}, corresponding to 14.634(7) eV. This is 130 cm{sup −1} higher than the previously recommended value from Iglesias et al.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.
2010-01-01
We trace the origin of the black hole entropy S, replacing a black hole by a quasiblack hole. Let the boundary of a static body approach its own gravitational radius, in such a way that a quasihorizon forms. We show that if the body is thermal with the temperature taking the Hawking value at the quasihorizon limit, it follows, in the nonextremal case, from the first law of thermodynamics that the entropy approaches the Bekenstein-Hawking value S=A/4. In this setup, the key role is played by the surface stresses on the quasihorizon and one finds that the entropy comes from the quasihorizon surface. Any distribution of matter inside the surface leads to the same universal value for the entropy in the quasihorizon limit. This can be of some help in the understanding of black hole entropy. Other similarities between black holes and quasiblack holes such as the mass formulas for both objects had been found previously. We also discuss the entropy for extremal quasiblack holes, a more subtle issue.
ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter
2015-01-01
Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production
The Fourier transform as a signature for chaos in nuclear energy levels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bybee, C.R.; Mitchell, G.E.; Shriner, J.F. Jr.
1996-01-01
The Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function is an alternative test to characterize level statistics. For GOE statistics there is a suppression of the Fourier transform near the origin; this correlation hole is absent for Poisson statistics. Numerical modeling has been used to quantify the method and determine the dependence of the correlation-hole area on number, density, sampling interval, and fraction of missing or spurious levels. For large N the normalized correlation-hole area is a nearly universal constant and insensitive to missing and spurious levels. However, for the smaller sample sizes typical of nuclear data, application of the FT method yields ambiguous results. (orig.)
The Fourier transform as a signature for chaos in nuclear energy levels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bybee, C.R. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Mitchell, G.E. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Shriner, J.F. Jr. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville (United States)
1996-08-01
The Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function is an alternative test to characterize level statistics. For GOE statistics there is a suppression of the Fourier transform near the origin; this correlation hole is absent for Poisson statistics. Numerical modeling has been used to quantify the method and determine the dependence of the correlation-hole area on number, density, sampling interval, and fraction of missing or spurious levels. For large N the normalized correlation-hole area is a nearly universal constant and insensitive to missing and spurious levels. However, for the smaller sample sizes typical of nuclear data, application of the FT method yields ambiguous results. (orig.)
Impact behaviour of Napier/polyester composites under different energy levels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fahmi, I., E-mail: fahmi-unimap@yahoo.com; Majid, M. S. Abdul, E-mail: shukry@unimap.edu.my; Afendi, M., E-mail: afendirojan@unimap.edu.my; Haameem, J. M.A., E-mail: mhaameem@gmail.com [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Arau (Malaysia); Haslan, M., E-mail: haslan@sirim.my; Helmi, E. A., E-mail: hilmi@sirim.my [Advanced Material Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Kulim (Malaysia)
2016-07-19
The effects of different energy levels on the impact behaviour of Napier fibre/polyester reinforced composites were investigated. Napier fibre was extracted using traditional water retting process to be utilized as reinforcing materials in polyester composite laminates. 25% fibre loading composite laminates were prepared and impacted at three different energy levels; 2.5,5 and 7.5 J using an instrumented drop weight impact testing machine (IMATEK IM10). The outcomes show that peak force and contact time increase with increased impact load. The energy absorption was then calculated from the force displacement curve. The results indicated that the energy absorption decreases with increasing energy levels of the impact. Impacted specimens were observed visually for fragmentation fracture using an optical camera to identify the failure mechanisms. Fracture fragmentation pattern from permanent dent to perforation with radial and circumferential was observed.
Van der Waals potential and vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer
Sheng, Xiaowei; Qian, Shifeng; Hu, Fengfei
2017-08-01
In the present paper, the ground state van der Waals potential of the Radon dimer is described by the Tang-Toennies potential model, which requires five essential parameters. Among them, the two dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 are estimated from the well determined dispersion coefficients C6 and C8 of Xe2. C10 is estimated by using the approximation equation that C6C10/C82 has an average value of 1.221 for all the rare gas dimers. With these estimated dispersion coefficients and the well determined well depth De and Re the Born-Mayer parameters A and b are derived. Then the vibrational energy levels of the ground state radon dimer are calculated. 40 vibrational energy levels are observed in the ground state of Rn2 dimer. The last vibrational energy level is bound by only 0.0012 cm-1.
Horizon strings and interior states of a black hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.P. Yogendran
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We provide an explicit construction of classical strings that have endpoints on the horizons of the 2D Lorentzian black hole. We argue that this is a dual description of geodesics that are localized around the horizon which are the Lorentzian counterparts of the winding strings of the Euclidean black hole (the cigar geometry. Identifying these with the states of the black hole, we can expect that issues of black hole information loss can be posed sharply in terms of a fully quantizable string theory.
Scalar-Tensor Black Holes Embedded in an Expanding Universe
Tretyakova, Daria; Latosh, Boris
2018-02-01
In this review we focus our attention on scalar-tensor gravity models and their empirical verification in terms of black hole and wormhole physics. We focus on a black hole, embedded in an expanding universe, describing both cosmological and astrophysical scales. We show that in scalar-tensor gravity it is quite common that the local geometry is isolated from the cosmological expansion, so that it does not backreact on the black hole metric. We try to extract common features of scalar-tensor black holes in an expanding universe and point out the gaps that must be filled.
Scalar-Tensor Black Holes Embedded in an Expanding Universe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daria Tretyakova
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In this review, we focus our attention on scalar-tensor gravity models and their empirical verification in terms of black hole and wormhole physics. We focus on black holes, embedded in an expanding universe, describing both cosmological and astrophysical scales. We show that in scalar-tensor gravity it is quite common that the local geometry is isolated from the cosmological expansion, so that it does not backreact on the black hole metric. We try to extract common features of scalar-tensor black holes in an expanding universe and point out the issues that are not fully investigated.
Excluding black hole firewalls with extreme cosmic censorship
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Page, Don N., E-mail: profdonpage@gmail.com [Department of Physics, 4-183 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)
2014-06-01
The AMPS argument for black hole firewalls seems to arise not only from the assumption of local effective field theory outside the stretched horizon but also from an overcounting of internal black hole states that include states that are singular in the past. Here I propose to exclude such singular states by Extreme Cosmic Censorship (the conjectured principle that the universe is entirely nonsingular, except for transient singularities inside black and/or white holes). I argue that the remaining set of nonsingular realistic states do not have firewalls but yet preserve information in Hawking radiation from black holes that form from nonsingular initial states.
Excluding black hole firewalls with extreme cosmic censorship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Page, Don N.
2014-01-01
The AMPS argument for black hole firewalls seems to arise not only from the assumption of local effective field theory outside the stretched horizon but also from an overcounting of internal black hole states that include states that are singular in the past. Here I propose to exclude such singular states by Extreme Cosmic Censorship (the conjectured principle that the universe is entirely nonsingular, except for transient singularities inside black and/or white holes). I argue that the remaining set of nonsingular realistic states do not have firewalls but yet preserve information in Hawking radiation from black holes that form from nonsingular initial states
The irreversible thermodynamics of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Candelas, P.; Sciama, D.W.
1978-01-01
The action of quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field may be regarded as the origin of the dissipative processes associated with Hawking radiation. In this picture the black hole possesses internal coherence by virtue of the localization of its mass. The cumulative effect of the quantum fluctuations in the geometry is that this coherence is corrupted and the mass is sapped away. (author)
Atomic structure calculation of energy levels and oscillator strengths in Ti ion, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, Keishi
1983-10-01
Energy levels and oscillator strengths are calculated for 3s-3p and 3p-3d transition arrays in Ti X, isoelectronic to Al I. The energy levels are obtained by the Slater-Condon theory of atomic structure, including explicitly the strong configuration interactions. The results are presented both in numerical tables and in diagrams. In the tables, the observed data are included for comparison, where available. The calculated weighted oscillator strengths (gf-value) are also displayed in figures, where the weighted oscillator strengths are plotted as a function of wavelength. (author)
Energy-level alignment at interfaces between manganese phthalocyanine and C60
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Waas
2017-04-01
Full Text Available We have used photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the energy-level alignment at organic heterojunctions made of manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc and the fullerene C60. We show that this energy-level alignment depends upon the preparation sequence, which is explained by different molecular orientations. Moreover, our results demonstrate that MnPc/C60 interfaces are hardly suited for application in organic photovoltaic devices, since the energy difference of the two lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs is rather small.
Plasma-screening effects upon energy levels and electron scattering from neutral and ionized caesium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chin, Y.J.; Radtke, R.; Zimmermann, R.
1988-01-01
Using interaction potentials screened with the Debye-Hueckel length, the effects of plasma shielding on energy levels and electrons scattering from neutral and ionized caesium are estimated. Both energy levels and atomic scattering cross-sections are found to be sensitive to the inclusion of screening. Relating to the scattering by the Cs + ion, a low-energy resonance near E = 0.3 Ryd is found which arises from the f-wave phase shift and reflects the individual behaviour of the scattering ion. (author)
Plasma-screening effects upon energy levels and electron scattering from neutral and ionized caesium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chin, Y J; Radtke, R; Zimmermann, R
1988-01-01
Using interaction potentials screened with the Debye-Hueckel length, the effects of plasma shielding on energy levels and electrons scattering from neutral and ionized caesium are estimated. Both energy levels and atomic scattering cross-sections are found to be sensitive to the inclusion of screening. Relating to the scattering by the Cs/sup +/ ion, a low-energy resonance near E = 0.3 Ryd is found which arises from the f-wave phase shift and reflects the individual behaviour of the scattering ion.
Bibliography on atomic energy levels and spectra. Special pub., Jul 1971--Jun 1975
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagan, L.
1977-01-01
This is the first supplement to the NBS Special Publication 363, 'Bibliography on Atomic Energy Levels and Spectra, July 1968 through June 1971,' and it covers the most recent literature from July 1971 through June 1975. It contains approximately 2150 references classified by subject for individual atoms and atomic ions. A number index identifies the references. An author index is included. References included contain data on energy levels, classified lines, wavelengths, Zeeman effect, Stark effect, hyperfine structure, isotope shift, ionization potentials, or theory which gives results for specific atoms or atomic ions
Thermodynamics and stability of hyperbolic charged black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai Ronggen; Wang Anzhong
2004-01-01
In AdS space the black hole horizon can be a hypersurface with a positive, zero, or negative constant curvature, resulting in different horizon topology. Thermodynamics and stability of black holes in AdS spaces are quite different for different horizon curvatures. In this paper we study thermodynamics and stability of hyperbolic charged black holes with negative constant curvature horizon in the grand canonical ensemble and canonical ensemble, respectively. They include hyperbolic Reissner-Nordstroem black holes in arbitrary dimensions and hyperbolic black holes in the D=5,4,7 gauged supergravities. It is found that associated Gibbs free energies are always negative, which implies that these black hole solutions are globally stable and the black hole phase is dominant in the grand canonical ensemble, but there is a region in the phase space where the black hole is not locally thermodynamically stable with a negative heat capacity for a given gauge potential. In the canonical ensemble, the Helmholtz free energies are not always negative and heat capacities with fixed electric charge are not always positive, which indicates that the Hawking-Page phase transition may happen and black holes are not always locally thermodynamically stable
Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara
2018-02-01
We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.
Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.
1971-01-01
discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)
Blonder, Benjamin
2016-04-01
Hypervolumes are used widely to conceptualize niches and trait distributions for both species and communities. Some hypervolumes are expected to be convex, with boundaries defined by only upper and lower limits (e.g., fundamental niches), while others are expected to be maximal, with boundaries defined by the limits of available space (e.g., potential niches). However, observed hypervolumes (e.g., realized niches) could also have holes, defined as unoccupied hyperspace representing deviations from these expectations that may indicate unconsidered ecological or evolutionary processes. Detecting holes in more than two dimensions has to date not been possible. I develop a mathematical approach, implemented in the hypervolume R package, to infer holes in large and high-dimensional data sets. As a demonstration analysis, I assess evidence for vacant niches in a Galapagos finch community on Isabela Island. These mathematical concepts and software tools for detecting holes provide approaches for addressing contemporary research questions across ecology and evolutionary biology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, Mainuddin
2005-01-01
A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekenstein, J.D.
1980-01-01
Including black holes in the scheme of thermodynamics has disclosed a deep-seated connection between gravitation, heat and the quantum that may lead us to a synthesis of the corresponding branches of physics
Connecting horizon pixels and interior voxels of a black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicolini, Piero; Singleton, Douglas
2014-01-01
In this paper we discuss to what extent one can infer details of the interior structure of a black hole based on its horizon. Recalling that black hole thermal properties are connected to the non-classical nature of gravity, we circumvent the restrictions of the no-hair theorem by postulating that the black hole interior is singularity free due to violations of the usual energy conditions. Further these conditions allow one to establish a one-to-one, holographic projection between Planckian areal “bits” on the horizon and “voxels”, representing the gravitational degrees of freedom in the black hole interior. We illustrate the repercussions of this idea by discussing an example of the black hole interior consisting of a de Sitter core postulated to arise from the local graviton quantum vacuum energy. It is shown that the black hole entropy can emerge as the statistical entropy of a gas of voxels
Black holes as mirrors: quantum information in random subsystems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayden, Patrick; Preskill, John
2007-01-01
We study information retrieval from evaporating black holes, assuming that the internal dynamics of a black hole is unitary and rapidly mixing, and assuming that the retriever has unlimited control over the emitted Hawking radiation. If the evaporation of the black hole has already proceeded past the ''half-way'' point, where half of the initial entropy has been radiated away, then additional quantum information deposited in the black hole is revealed in the Hawking radiation very rapidly. Information deposited prior to the half-way point remains concealed until the half-way point, and then emerges quickly. These conclusions hold because typical local quantum circuits are efficient encoders for quantum error-correcting codes that nearly achieve the capacity of the quantum erasure channel. Our estimate of a black hole's information retention time, based on speculative dynamical assumptions, is just barely compatible with the black hole complementarity hypothesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sexl, R.; Sexl, H.
1975-01-01
The physical arguments and problems of relativistic astrophysics are presented in a correct way, but without any higher mathematics. The book is addressed to teachers, experimental physicists, and others with a basic knowledge covering an introductory lecture in physics. The issues dealt with are: fundamentals of general relativity, classical tests of general relativity, curved space-time, stars and planets, pulsars, gravitational collapse and black holes, the search for black holes, gravitational waves, cosmology, cosmogony, and the early universe. (BJ/AK) [de
Roldán-Molina, A.; Nunez, A.S.; Duine, R. A.
2017-01-01
We show that the interaction between spin-polarized current and magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons - the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the imp...
de Wit, Bernard
2005-01-01
The effective action of $N=2$, $d=4$ supergravity is shown to acquire no quantum corrections in background metrics admitting super-covariantly constant spinors. In particular, these metrics include the Robinson-Bertotti metric (product of two 2-dimensional spaces of constant curvature) with all 8 supersymmetries unbroken. Another example is a set of arbitrary number of extreme Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. These black holes break 4 of 8 supersymmetries, leaving the other 4 unbroken. We ha...
Black Holes and Thermodynamics
Wald, Robert M.
1997-01-01
We review the remarkable relationship between the laws of black hole mechanics and the ordinary laws of thermodynamics. It is emphasized that - in analogy with the laws of thermodynamics - the validity the laws of black hole mechanics does not appear to depend upon the details of the underlying dynamical theory (i.e., upon the particular field equations of general relativity). It also is emphasized that a number of unresolved issues arise in ``ordinary thermodynamics'' in the context of gener...
Energy levels of a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well potential
Wang, Wen-Yuan; Cao, Hui; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-Bin
2015-02-01
We investigate the energy levels of a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well potential under the mean-field approximation. We find that the energy levels of the system can be significantly influenced by the atomic interactions. Without atomic interaction, four energy levels change linearly with the tunneling amplitude, the Raman coupling, and the spin-orbit coupling. However, whenever atomic interaction is considered, three more energy levels will appear, which have a nonlinear dependence on those parameters above. These three energy levels are multi-degenerate and related to the macro-symmetry of the system.
Energy levels of a spin–orbit-coupled Bose–Einstein condensate in a double-well potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Jie; Cao, Hui; Fu, Li-Bin; Zhu, Shi-Liang
2015-01-01
We investigate the energy levels of a spin–orbit-coupled Bose–Einstein condensate in a double-well potential under the mean-field approximation. We find that the energy levels of the system can be significantly influenced by the atomic interactions. Without atomic interaction, four energy levels change linearly with the tunneling amplitude, the Raman coupling, and the spin–orbit coupling. However, whenever atomic interaction is considered, three more energy levels will appear, which have a nonlinear dependence on those parameters above. These three energy levels are multi-degenerate and related to the macro-symmetry of the system. (paper)
The Phase Transition of Higher Dimensional Charged Black Holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Huaifan; Zhao, Ren; Zhang, Lichun; Guo, Xiongying
2016-01-01
We have studied phase transitions of higher dimensional charge black hole with spherical symmetry. We calculated the local energy and local temperature and find that these state parameters satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We analyze the critical behavior of black hole thermodynamic system by taking state parameters (Q,Φ) of black hole thermodynamic system, in accordance with considering the state parameters (P,V) of van der Waals system, respectively. We obtain the critical point of black hole thermodynamic system and find that the critical point is independent of the dual independent variables we selected. This result for asymptotically flat space is consistent with that for AdS spacetime and is intrinsic property of black hole thermodynamic system.
Simulation of magnetic holes formation in the magnetosheath
Ahmadi, Narges; Germaschewski, Kai; Raeder, Joachim
2017-12-01
Magnetic holes have been frequently observed in the Earth's magnetosheath and are believed to be the consequence of the nonlinear evolution of the mirror instability. Mirror mode perturbations mainly form as magnetic holes in regions where the plasma is marginally mirror stable with respect to the linear instability criterion. We present an expanding box particle-in-cell simulation to mimic the changing conditions in the magnetosheath as the plasma is convected through it that produces mirror mode magnetic holes. We show that in the initial nonlinear evolution, where the plasma conditions are mirror unstable, the magnetic peaks are dominant, while later, as the plasma relaxes toward marginal stability, the fluctuations evolve into deep magnetic holes. While the averaged plasma parameters in the simulation remain close to the mirror instability threshold, the local plasma in the magnetic holes is highly unstable to mirror instability and locally mirror stable in the magnetic peaks.
Energy-level alignment at metal-organic and organic-organic interfaces
Veenstra, Sjoerd; Jonkman, H.T.
2003-01-01
This article reports on the electronic structure at interfaces found in organic semiconductor devices. The studied organic materials are C-60 and poly (para-phenylenevinylene) (PPV)-like oligomers, and the metals are polycrystalline Au and Ag. To measure the energy levels at these interfaces,
Role of intrinsic molecular dipole in energy level alignment at organic interfaces
Lindell, L.; Cakir, Deniz; Brocks, G.; Fahlman, M.; Braun, S.
2013-01-01
The energy level alignment in metal-organic and organic-organic junctions of the widely used materials tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) and 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA) is investigated. The measured alignment schemes for single and bilayer films of Alq3 and NTCDA
Theoretical Study of Energy Levels and Transition Probabilities of Boron Atom
Tian Yi, Zhang; Neng Wu, Zheng
2009-08-01
Full Text PDF Though the electrons configuration for boron atom is simple and boron atom has long been of interest for many researchers, the theoretical studies for properties of BI are not systematic, there are only few results reported on energy levels of high excited states of boron, and transition measurements are generally restricted to transitions involving ground states and low excited states without considering fine structure effects, provided only multiplet results, values for transitions between high excited states are seldom performed. In this article, by using the scheme of the weakest bound electron potential model theory calculations for energy levels of five series are performed and with the same method we give the transition probabilities between excited states with considering fine structure effects. The comprehensive set of calculations attempted in this paper could be of some value to workers in the field because of the lack of published calculations for the BI systems. The perturbations coming from foreign perturbers are taken into account in studying the energy levels. Good agreement between our results and the accepted values taken from NIST has been obtained. We also reported some values of energy levels and transition probabilities not existing on the NIST data bases.
Shell-Tunneling Spectroscopy of the Single-Particle Energy Levels of Insulating Quantum Dots
Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Hens, Z.; Zunger, A.; Franceschetti, A; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Gurevich, L.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.
2001-01-01
The energy levels of CdSe quantum dots are studied by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. By varying the tip-dot distance, we switch from "shell-filling" spectroscopy (where electrons accumulate in the dot and experience mutual repulsion) to "shell-tunneling" spectroscopy (where electrons tunnel, one
Hodge, Andrew J.; Nettles, Alan T.; Jackson, Justin R.
2011-01-01
Notched (open hole) composite laminates were tested in compression. The effect on strength of various sizes of through holes was examined. Results were compared to the average stress criterion model. Additionally, laminated sandwich structures were damaged from low-velocity impact with various impact energy levels and different impactor geometries. The compression strength relative to damage size was compared to the notched compression result strength. Open-hole compression strength was found to provide a reasonable bound on compression after impact.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2002-02-01
Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for
Geometric inequalities for axially symmetric black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dain, Sergio
2012-01-01
A geometric inequality in general relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse; they are closely related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. Axially symmetric black holes are the natural candidates to study these inequalities because the quasi-local angular momentum is well defined for them. We review recent results in this subject and we also describe the main ideas behind the proofs. Finally, a list of relevant open problems is presented. (topical review)
Probing Black Hole Magnetic Fields with QED
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilaria Caiazzo
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The effect of vacuum birefringence is one of the first predictions of quantum electrodynamics (QED: the presence of a charged Dirac field makes the vacuum birefringent when threaded by magnetic fields. This effect, extremely weak for terrestrial magnetic fields, becomes important for highly magnetized astrophysical objects, such as accreting black holes. In the X-ray regime, the polarization of photons traveling in the magnetosphere of a black hole is not frozen at emission but is changed by the local magnetic field. We show that, for photons traveling along the plane of the disk, where the field is expected to be partially organized, this results in a depolarization of the X-ray radiation. Because the amount of depolarization depends on the strength of the magnetic field, this effect can provide a way to probe the magnetic field in black-hole accretion disks and to study the role of magnetic fields in astrophysical accretion in general.
Phases of Kaluza-Klein Black Holes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harmark, Troels; Obers, N. A.
2005-01-01
We review the latest progress in understanding the phase structure of static and neutral Kaluza-Klein black holes, i.e. static and neutral solutions of pure gravity with an event horizon that asymptote to a d-dimensional Minkowski-space times a circle. We start by reviewing the (mu,n) phase diagram...... and the split-up of the phase structure into solutions with an internal SO(d-1) symmetry and solutions with Kaluza-Klein bubbles. We then discuss the uniform black string, non-uniform black string and localized black hole phases, and how those three phases are connected, involving issues such as classical...... instability and horizon-topology changing transitions. Finally, we review the bubble-black hole sequences, their place in the phase structure and interesting aspects such as the continuously infinite non-uniqueness of solutions for a given mass and relative tension....
Wave function, spectrum and effective mass of holes in 2 D quantum antiferromagnet
Su, Zhao-bin; Ll, Yan-min; Lai, Wu-yan; Yu, Lu
1989-12-01
A new quantum Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdeG) formalism is developed to study the self-consistent motion of holes on an quantum antiferromagnetic (QAFM) background within the generalized t- J model. The local distortion of spin configurations and the renormalization of the hole motion due to virtual excitations of the distorted spin background are treated on an equal footing. The hole wave function and its spectrum, as well as the effective mass for a propagating hole are calculated explicitly.
σ-holes and π-holes: Similarities and differences.
Politzer, Peter; Murray, Jane S
2018-04-05
σ-Holes and π-holes are regions of molecules with electronic densities lower than their surroundings. There are often positive electrostatic potentials associated with them. Through these potentials, the molecule can interact attractively with negative sites, such as lone pairs, π electrons, and anions. Such noncovalent interactions, "σ-hole bonding" and "π-hole bonding," are increasingly recognized as being important in a number of different areas. In this article, we discuss and compare the natures and characteristics of σ-holes and π-holes, and factors that influence the strengths and locations of the resulting electrostatic potentials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mass inflation inside black holes revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav I
2014-01-01
The mass inflation phenomenon implies that black hole interiors are unstable due to a back-reaction divergence of the perturbed black hole mass function at the Cauchy horizon. The mass inflation was initially derived by using the generalized Dray–’t Hooft–Redmount (DTR) relation in the linear approximation of the Einstein equations near the perturbed Cauchy horizon of the Reissner–Nordström black hole. However, this linear approximation for the DTR relation is improper for the highly nonlinear behavior of back-reaction perturbations at the black hole horizons. An additional weak point in the standard mass inflation calculations is in a fallacious using of the global Cauchy horizon as a place for the maximal growth of the back-reaction perturbations instead of the local inner apparent horizon. It is derived the new spherically symmetric back-reaction solution for two counter-streaming light-like fluxes near the inner apparent horizon of the charged black hole by taking into account its separation from the Cauchy horizon. In this solution the back-reaction perturbations of the background metric are truly the largest at the inner apparent horizon, but, nevertheless, remain small. The back reaction, additionally, removes the infinite blue-shift singularity at the inner apparent horizon and at the Cauchy horizon. (paper)
Asymmetric interiors for small black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kabat, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College,City University of New York, Bronx NY 10468 (United States); Lifschytz, Gilad [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Science,University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel)
2016-08-16
We develop the representation of infalling observers and bulk fields in the CFT as a way to understand the black hole interior in AdS. We first discuss properties of CFT states which are dual to black holes. We then show that in the presence of a Killing horizon bulk fields can be decomposed into pieces we call ingoing and outgoing. The ingoing field admits a simple operator representation in the CFT, even inside a small black hole at late times, which leads to a simple CFT description of infalling geodesics. This means classical infalling observers will experience the classical geometry in the interior. The outgoing piece of the field is more subtle. In an eternal two-sided geometry it can be represented as an operator on the left CFT. In a stable one-sided geometry it can be described using entanglement via the PR construction. But in an evaporating black hole trans-horizon entanglement breaks down at the Page time, which means that for old black holes the PR construction fails and the outgoing field does not see local geometry. This picture of the interior allows the CFT to reconcile unitary Hawking evaporation with the classical experience of infalling observers.
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bender, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bloom, E. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cominsky, L. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others
1995-07-01
Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.
Black hole gravitohydromagnetics
Punsly, Brian
2008-01-01
Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-27
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.
Aghaei Abchouyeh, Maryam; Mirza, Behrouz; Karimi Takrami, Moein; Younesizadeh, Younes
2018-05-01
We propose a correspondence between an Anyon Van der Waals fluid and a (2 + 1) dimensional AdS black hole. Anyons are particles with intermediate statistics that interpolates between a Fermi-Dirac statistics and a Bose-Einstein one. A parameter α (0 quasi Fermi-Dirac statistics for α >αc, but a quasi Bose-Einstein statistics for α quasi Bose-Einstein statistics. For α >αc and a range of values of the cosmological constant, there is, however, no event horizon so there is no black hole solution. Thus, for these values of cosmological constants, the AdS Anyon Van der Waals black holes have only quasi Bose-Einstein statistics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews (United Kingdom)
2001-02-01
In modern physics, the unification of gravity and quantum mechanics remains a mystery. Gravity rules the macroscopic world of planets, stars and galaxies, while quantum mechanics governs the micro-cosmos of atoms, light quanta and elementary particles. However, cosmologists believe that these two disparate worlds may meet at the edges of black holes. Now Luis Garay, James Anglin, Ignacio Cirac and Peter Zoller at the University of Innsbruck in Austria have proposed a realistic way to make an artificial 'sonic' black hole in a tabletop experiment (L J Garay et al. 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 4643). In the February issue of Physics World, Ulf Leonhardt of the School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, UK, explains how the simulated black holes work. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joshi, Pankaj S.; Narayan, Ramesh
2016-01-01
We propose here that the well-known black hole paradoxes such as the information loss and teleological nature of the event horizon are restricted to a particular idealized case, which is the homogeneous dust collapse model. In this case, the event horizon, which defines the boundary of the black hole, forms initially, and the singularity in the interior of the black hole at a later time. We show that, in contrast, gravitational collapse from physically more realistic initial conditions typically leads to the scenario in which the event horizon and space-time singularity form simultaneously. We point out that this apparently simple modification can mitigate the causality and teleological paradoxes, and also lends support to two recently suggested solutions to the information paradox, namely, the ‘firewall’ and ‘classical chaos’ proposals. (paper)
Furmann, John M.
2003-03-01
Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.
Thermodynamics of novel charged dilatonic BTZ black holes
Dehghani, M.
2017-10-01
In this paper, the three-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory in the presence of a dilatonic scalar field has been studied. It has been shown that the dilatonic potential must be considered as the linear combination of two Liouville-type potentials. Two new classes of charged dilatonic BTZ black holes, as the exact solutions to the coupled scalar, vector and tensor field equations, have been obtained and their properties have been studied. The conserved charge and mass of the new black holes have been calculated, making use of the Gauss's law and Abbott-Deser proposal, respectively. Through comparison of the thermodynamical extensive quantities (i.e. temperature and entropy) obtained from both, the geometrical and the thermodynamical methods, the validity of the first law of black hole thermodynamics has been confirmed for both of the new black holes we just obtained. A black hole thermal stability or phase transition analysis has been performed, making use of the canonical ensemble method. Regarding the black hole heat capacity, it has been found that for either of the new black hole solutions there are some specific ranges in such a way that the black holes with the horizon radius in these ranges are locally stable. The points of type one and type two phase transitions have been determined. The black holes, with the horizon radius equal to the transition points are unstable. They undergo type one or type two phase transitions to be stabilized.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2011-01-01
The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, S.A.; Venugopalan, A.; Saksena, G.D.
1982-01-01
Isotope shift ΔT (156-160) have been evaluated for 52 odd and 90 even energy levels of the neutral gadolinium atom from the measurements carried out on 166 lines of the first spectrum in the region 4535 to 4975 A on a photoelectric recording Fabry-Perot Spectrometer and enriched samples of 156 Gd and 160 Gd. Earlier studies provide data for just two lines in this region. Assignment of electronic configurations to some of the energy levels have been either confirmed or revised; some unassigned levels have been assigned probable configurations. The present study provides, for the first time, isotope shift of the two levels of 4f 7 6s 2 7s configuration of Gd I. (author)
Delayed Dopamine Signaling of Energy Level Builds Appetitive Long-Term Memory in Drosophila
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pierre-Yves Musso
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Sensory cues relevant to a food source, such as odors, can be associated with post-ingestion signals related either to food energetic value or toxicity. Despite numerous behavioral studies, a global understanding of the mechanisms underlying these long delay associations remains out of reach. Here, we demonstrate in Drosophila that the long-term association between an odor and a nutritious sugar depends on delayed post-ingestion signaling of energy level. We show at the neural circuit level that the activity of two pairs of dopaminergic neurons is necessary and sufficient to signal energy level to the olfactory memory center. Accordingly, we have identified in these dopaminergic neurons a delayed calcium trace that correlates with appetitive long-term memory formation. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that the Drosophila brain remembers food quality through a two-step mechanism that consists of the integration of olfactory and gustatory sensory information and then post-ingestion energetic value.
Energy level broadening effect on the equation of state of hot dense Al and Au plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hou Yong; Jin Fengtao; Yuan Jianmin
2007-01-01
In the hot dense matter regime, the isothermal equation of state (EOS) of Al and Au is calculated using an average-atom (AA) model in which the broadening of energy levels of atoms and ions are accounted for by using with a Gaussian distribution of the density of states. The distribution of bound electrons in the energy bands is determined by the continuum Fermi-Dirac distribution. With a self-consistent field average atoms scheme, it is shown that the energy-level broadening has a significant effect on the isothermal equation of state (EOS) of Al and Au in the hot dense matter regime. The jumps in the equation of state (EOS) induced by pressure ionization of the one-electron orbital with the increase in density, which often occur in the normal average-atom model and have been avoided by generally introducing the pseudo-shape resonance states, disappear naturally
Fine-structure energy levels and radiative lifetime in Mo XIV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xiaodong; Pei Dong; Jiang Renbin; Wang Wanjue
2002-01-01
Energy levels, radiative lifetime and various transition parameters for allowed transitions among the 1508 fine-structure levels belong to the (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 ) 3d 10 4l, 3d 9 4l 2 , 3d 10 5l, 3d 9 4l4m, 3d 10 6l, 3d 10 7l and so on configurations of the Cu-like ions Mo XIV have been calculated by using the expanded fully relativistic GRASP code. The results are compared with those available in the literature, and the accuracy of the present data is assessed. Energy levels are expected to be accurate to within 0.81%. The authors have found some long lifetime levels
Energy-level splitting of multicharged ions due to interaction with own radiation field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gajnutdinov, R.Kh.; Kalashnikov, K.K.
1991-01-01
The overlapping of the energy levels of He-like uranium states with identical principal quantum numbers is investigated. Results are presented of a numerical calculation of the states produced as a result of mixing of the 2s 1/2 8p 1/2 and 2p 1/2 8p 1/2 states and of the respective spectral lines. It is shown that the interaction between the ion and its own radiation field splits each of the overlapping energy levels into several sublevels. The sublevels are isolated from each to other such an extent that interference effects become insignificant. The shapes of the spectral lines differ pronouncedly from the Lorentz shape and many of the line are anomaously narrow
Modeling black hole evaporation
Fabbri, Alessandro
2005-01-01
The scope of this book is two-fold: the first part gives a fully detailed and pedagogical presentation of the Hawking effect and its physical implications, and the second discusses the backreaction problem, especially in connection with exactly solvable semiclassical models that describe analytically the black hole evaporation process. The book aims to establish a link between the general relativistic viewpoint on black hole evaporation and the new CFT-type approaches to the subject. The detailed discussion on backreaction effects is also extremely valuable.
Characterizing Black Hole Mergers
Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard
2010-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.
Bena, Iosif; Chowdhury, Borun D.; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki
2011-01-01
We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that ...
Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin
2015-02-01
A (3 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed Ω+ can be used to define an effective spring constant, k =m Ω+2. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, k =κ , which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: 2 π T =κ -k . Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force F =1 /4 , which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.
Aarseth, S. J.
2008-05-01
We describe efforts over the last six years to implement regularization methods suitable for studying one or more interacting black holes by direct N-body simulations. Three different methods have been adapted to large-N systems: (i) Time-Transformed Leapfrog, (ii) Wheel-Spoke, and (iii) Algorithmic Regularization. These methods have been tried out with some success on GRAPE-type computers. Special emphasis has also been devoted to including post-Newtonian terms, with application to moderately massive black holes in stellar clusters. Some examples of simulations leading to coalescence by gravitational radiation will be presented to illustrate the practical usefulness of such methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Futterman, J.A.H.; Handler, F.A.; Matzner, R.A.
1987-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging
Hawking, Stephen W.
1995-01-01
One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...
Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson
2017-01-13
We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.
Roldán-Molina, A; Nunez, Alvaro S; Duine, R A
2017-02-10
We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons-the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Susskind, L.; Griffin, P.
1994-01-01
A light-front renormalization group analysis is applied to study matter which falls into massive black holes, and the related problem of matter with transplankian energies. One finds that the rate of matter spreading over the black hole's horizon unexpectedly saturates the causality bound. This is related to the transverse growth behavior of transplankian particles as their longitudinal momentum increases. This growth behavior suggests a natural mechanism to implement 't Hooft's scenario that the universe is an image of data stored on a 2 + 1 dimensional hologram-like projection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-09-22
A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jin Tae; Yi, Jong Hoon; Rhee, Yong Joo; Lee, Jong Min
2000-01-01
We have investigated the ionization processes, the energy values, and the strengths of ion signals by using a dye laser frequency in the ultra-violet range with one-color multi-photon ionization. Also, two color multi-photon ionization by using another near infrared photon has been done to investigate energy levels with odd-parity in the energy range of between 35500 cm -1 and 37700 cm -1
Kim, J T; Rhee, Y J; Lee, J M
2000-01-01
We have investigated the ionization processes, the energy values, and the strengths of ion signals by using a dye laser frequency in the ultra-violet range with one-color multi-photon ionization. Also, two color multi-photon ionization by using another near infrared photon has been done to investigate energy levels with odd-parity in the energy range of between 35500 cm sup - sup 1 and 37700 cm sup - sup 1
Zhang, Maojie; Guo, Xia; Zhang, Shaoqing; Hou, Jianhui
2014-02-01
The synergistic effect of fluorination on molecular energy level modulation is realized by introducing fluorine atoms onto both the donor and the acceptor moieties in a D-A polymer, and as a result, the polymer solar cell device based on the trifluorinated polymer, PBT-3F, shows a high efficiency of 8.6%, under illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-) (2) . © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Mean-field energy-level shifts and dielectric properties of strongly polarized Rydberg gases
Zhelyazkova, V.; Jirschik, R.; Hogan, S. D.
2016-01-01
Mean-field energy-level shifts arising as a result of strong electrostatic dipole interactions within dilute gases of polarized helium Rydberg atoms have been probed by microwave spectroscopy. The Rydberg states studied had principal quantum numbers n=70 and 72, and electric dipole moments of up to 14 050 D, and were prepared in pulsed supersonic beams at particle number densities on the order of 108 cm−3. Comparisons of the experimental data with the results of Monte Carlo calculations highl...
Delayed Dopamine Signaling of Energy Level Builds Appetitive Long-Term Memory in Drosophila
Pierre-Yves Musso; Paul Tchenio; Thomas Preat
2015-01-01
Sensory cues relevant to a food source, such as odors, can be associated with post-ingestion signals related either to food energetic value or toxicity. Despite numerous behavioral studies, a global understanding of the mechanisms underlying these long delay associations remains out of reach. Here, we demonstrate in Drosophila that the long-term association between an odor and a nutritious sugar depends on delayed post-ingestion signaling of energy level. We show at the neural circuit level t...
Calculations of energy levels and lifetimes of low-lying states of barium and radium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzuba, V. A.; Ginges, J. S. M.
2006-01-01
We use the configuration-interaction method and many-body perturbation theory to perform accurate calculations of energy levels, transition amplitudes, and lifetimes of low-lying states of barium and radium. Calculations for radium are needed for the planning of measurements of parity- and time-invariance-violating effects which are strongly enhanced in this atom. Calculations for barium are used to control the accuracy of the calculations
de, Naiara V
2018-01-01
In this article the authors study Hamiltonian flows associated to smooth functions H:\\mathbb R^4 \\to \\mathbb R restricted to energy levels close to critical levels. They assume the existence of a saddle-center equilibrium point p_c in the zero energy level H^{-1}(0). The Hamiltonian function near p_c is assumed to satisfy Moser's normal form and p_c is assumed to lie in a strictly convex singular subset S_0 of H^{-1}(0). Then for all E \\gt 0 small, the energy level H^{-1}(E) contains a subset S_E near S_0, diffeomorphic to the closed 3-ball, which admits a system of transversal sections \\mathcal F_E, called a 2-3 foliation. \\mathcal F_E is a singular foliation of S_E and contains two periodic orbits P_2,E\\subset \\partial S_E and P_3,E\\subset S_E\\setminus \\partial S_E as binding orbits. P_2,E is the Lyapunoff orbit lying in the center manifold of p_c, has Conley-Zehnder index 2 and spans two rigid planes in \\partial S_E. P_3,E has Conley-Zehnder index 3 and spans a one parameter family of planes in S_E \\setmin...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anantharaman, Rahul; Abbas, Own Syed; Gundersen, Truls
2006-01-01
Pinch Analysis, Exergy Analysis and Optimization have all been used independently or in combination for the energy integration of process plants. In order to address the issue of energy integration, taking into account composition and pressure effects, the concept of energy level as proposed by [X. Feng, X.X. Zhu, Combining pinch and exergy analysis for process modifications, Appl. Therm. Eng. 17 (1997) 249] has been modified and expanded in this work. We have developed a strategy for energy integration that uses process simulation tools to define the interaction between the various subsystems in the plant and a graphical technique to help the engineer interpret the results of the simulation with physical insights that point towards exploring possible integration schemes to increase energy efficiency. The proposed graphical representation of energy levels of processes is very similar to the Composite Curves of Pinch Analysis-the interpretation of the Energy Level Composite Curves reduces to the Pinch Analysis case when dealing with heat transfer. Other similarities and differences are detailed in this work. Energy integration of a methanol plant is taken as a case study to test the efficacy of this methodology. Potential integration schemes are identified that would have been difficult to visualize without the help of the new graphical representation
Energy Level Alignment at Aqueous GaN and ZnO Interfaces
Hybertsen, Mark S.; Kharche, Neerav; Muckerman, James T.
2014-03-01
Electronic energy level alignment at semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces is fundamental to electrochemical activity. Motivated in particular by the search for new materials that can be more efficient for photocatalysis, we develop a first principles method to calculate this alignment at aqueous interfaces and demonstrate it for the specific case of non-polar GaN and ZnO interfaces with water. In the first step, density functional theory (DFT) based molecular dynamics is used to sample the physical interface structure and to evaluate the electrostatic potential step at the interface. In the second step, the GW approach is used to evaluate the reference electronic energy level separately in the bulk semiconductor (valence band edge energy) and in bulk water (the 1b1 energy level), relative to the internal electrostatic energy reference. Use of the GW approach naturally corrects for errors inherent in the use of Kohn-Sham energy eigenvalues to approximate the electronic excitation energies in each material. With this predicted interface alignment, specific redox levels in water, with potentials known relative to the 1b1 level, can then be compared to the semiconductor band edge positions. Our results will be discussed in the context of experiments in which photoexcited GaN and ZnO drive the hydrogen evolution reaction. Research carried out at Brookhaven National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
The covalent effect on the energy levels of d3 ions in tetragonal compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Dong-Yang; Du, Mao-Lu
2015-01-01
For d 3 ions in covalent compounds with tetragonal symmetry, this paper presents a complete energy matrix, in which the different covalence of t 2 and e orbitals is considered not only in the electrostatic repulsions part of energy matrix elements but also in the crystal-field potential part of energy matrix elements. With taking and no taking the crystal field parameter B 00 0 into account, the effect of covalence on the energy levels of d 3 ions system were investigated, respectively. The investigation shows that it is very necessary for considering the different covalence of t 2 and e orbitals in both electrostatic repulsions part and crystal-field potential part when the optical properties of d 3 ions in strong covalent compounds with tetragonal symmetry is investigated. On the other hand, the crystal field parameter B 00 0 has a significant effect on the energy levels, and should be considered in investigations of d 3 ions in strong covalent compounds with tetragonal symmetry. Application to calculating the energy levels for Co 2+ in CdGa 2 Se 4 , the calculated results are in agreement with the experiment data
Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agustia, Yuda Virgantara, E-mail: yuda.mechanical.engineer@student.uns.ac.id; Suyitno,, E-mail: suyitno@uns.ac.id; Sutanto, Bayu, E-mail: bayu.sutanto@student.uns.ac.id [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Arifin, Zainal, E-mail: zainal-a@uns.ac.id [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brawijaya University, Malang (Indonesia)
2016-03-29
The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, E{sub HOMO} and E{sub LUMO} was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where E{sub red} = −0.37V, E{sub LUMO} = −4.28 eV, E{sub ox} = 1.15V, E{sub HOMO} = −5.83 eV, and E{sub band} {sub gap} = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.
Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agustia, Yuda Virgantara; Suyitno,; Sutanto, Bayu; Arifin, Zainal
2016-01-01
The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, E_H_O_M_O and E_L_U_M_O was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where E_r_e_d = −0.37V, E_L_U_M_O = −4.28 eV, E_o_x = 1.15V, E_H_O_M_O = −5.83 eV, and E_b_a_n_d _g_a_p = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.
Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L.
Agustia, Yuda Virgantara; Suyitno, Arifin, Zainal; Sutanto, Bayu
2016-03-01
The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, EHOMO and ELUMO was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where Ered = -0.37V, ELUMO = -4.28 eV, Eox = 1.15V, EHOMO = -5.83 eV, and Eband gap = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.
Energy Levels and Spectral Lines of Li Atoms in White Dwarf Strength Magnetic Fields
Zhao, L. B.
2018-04-01
A theoretical approach based on B-splines has been developed to calculate atomic structures and discrete spectra of Li atoms in a strong magnetic field typical of magnetic white dwarf stars. Energy levels are presented for 20 electronic states with the symmetries 20+, 20‑, 2(‑1)+, 2(‑1)‑, and 2(‑2)+. The magnetic field strengths involved range from 0 to 2350 MG. The wavelengths and oscillator strengths for the electric dipole transitions relevant to these magnetized atomic states are reported. The current results are compared to the limited theoretical data in the literature. A good agreement has been found for the lower energy levels, but a significant discrepancy is clearly visible for the higher energy levels. The existing discrepancies of the wavelengths and oscillator strengths are also discussed. Our investigation shows that the spectrum data of magnetized Li atoms previously published are obviously far from meeting requirements of analyzing discrete atomic spectra of magnetic white dwarfs with lithium atmospheres.
Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Degoli, Elena; Spallanzani, Nicola; Krishnan, Gopi; Kooi, Bart Jan; Ghica, Corneliu; Yarema, Maksym; Heiss, Wolfgang; Pulci, Olivia; Ossicini, Stefano; Loi, Maria Antonietta
2014-08-27
Colloidal nanocrystals electronic energy levels are determined by strong size-dependent quantum confinement. Understanding the configuration of the energy levels of nanocrystal superlattices is vital in order to use them in heterostructures with other materials. A powerful method is reported to determine the energy levels of PbS nanocrystal assemblies by combining the utilization of electric-double-layer-gated transistors and advanced ab-initio theory. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Cho, Ho Young; Park, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin-Hoo; Park, Lee Soon
2008-10-01
Copolymers containing carbazole and aromatic amine unit were synthesized by using Pd-catalyzed polycondensation reaction. The polymers were characterized in terms of their molecular weight and thermal stability and their UV and PL properties in solution and film state. The band gap energy of the polymers was also determined by the UV absorption and HOMO energy level data. The polymers had high HOMO energy level of 5.19-5.25 eV and work function close to that of ITO. The polymers were thus tested as hole injection/transport layer in the white organic light emitting diodes (OLED) by using 4,4'-bis(2,2-diphenyl-ethen-1-yl)diphenyl (DPVBi) as blue emitting material and 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (Rubrene) as orange emitting dopant. The synthesized polymer, poly bis[6-bromo-N-(2-ethylhexyl)-carbazole-3-yl] was found to be useful as hole injection layer/hole transport layer (HIL/HTL) multifunctional material with high luminance efficiency and stable white color coordinate in the wide range of applied voltage.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjærgaard, Christian Hauge; Rossmeisl, Jan; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet
2010-01-01
In this paper, we present a method to directly compare the energy levels of intermediates in enzymatic and inorganic oxygen reduction catalysts. We initially describe how the energy levels of a Pt(111) catalyst, operating at pH = 0, are obtained. By a simple procedure, we then convert the energy...... levels of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) models obtained at physiological pH = 7 to the energy levels at pH = 0, which allows for comparison. Furthermore, we illustrate how different bias voltages will affect the free-energy landscapes of the catalysts. This allows us to determine the so-called theoretical...
Activity coefficients of electrons and holes in semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orazem, M.E.; Newman, J.
1984-01-01
Dilute-solution transport equations with constant activity coefficients are commonly used to model semiconductors. These equations are consistent with a Boltzmann distribution and are invalid in regions where the species concentration is close to the respective site concentration. A more rigorous treatment of transport in a semiconductor requires activity coefficients which are functions of concentration. Expressions are presented for activity coefficients of electrons and holes in semiconductors for which conduction- and valence-band energy levels are given by the respective bandedge energy levels. These activity coefficients are functions of concentration and are thermodynamically consistent. The use of activity coefficients in macroscopic transport relationships allows a description of electron transport in a manner consistent with the Fermi-Dirac distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut (Lebanon); I.H.E.S., Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Mukhanov, Viatcheslav [Niels Bohr Institute, Niels Bohr International Academy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theoretical Physics, Munich (Germany); MPI for Physics, Munich (Germany)
2017-03-15
We consider the Schwarzschild black hole and show how, in a theory with limiting curvature, the physical singularity ''inside it'' is removed. The resulting spacetime is geodesically complete. The internal structure of this nonsingular black hole is analogous to Russian nesting dolls. Namely, after falling into the black hole of radius r{sub g}, an observer, instead of being destroyed at the singularity, gets for a short time into the region with limiting curvature. After that he re-emerges in the near horizon region of a spacetime described by the Schwarzschild metric of a gravitational radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/3}. In the next cycle, after passing the limiting curvature, the observer finds himself within a black hole of even smaller radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/9}, and so on. Finally after a few cycles he will end up in the spacetime where he remains forever at limiting curvature. (orig.)
Baker, John
2010-01-01
Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.
Black holes and quantum mechanics
Wilczek, Frank
1995-01-01
1. Qualitative introduction to black holes : classical, quantum2. Model black holes and model collapse process: The Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom metrics, The Oppenheimer-Volkov collapse scenario3. Mode mixing4. From mode mixing to radiance.
Quantum Mechanics of Black Holes
Giddings, Steven B.
1994-01-01
These lectures give a pedagogical review of dilaton gravity, Hawking radiation, the black hole information problem, and black hole pair creation. (Lectures presented at the 1994 Trieste Summer School in High Energy Physics and Cosmology)
Quantum aspects of black holes
2015-01-01
Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon-at@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)
2015-03-26
We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.
Thermodynamic phase transition of a black hole in rainbow gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhong-Wen Feng
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this letter, using the rainbow functions that were proposed by Magueijo and Smolin, we investigate the thermodynamics and the phase transition of rainbow Schwarzschild black hole. First, we calculate the rainbow gravity corrected Hawking temperature. From this modification, we then derive the local temperature, free energy, and other thermodynamic quantities in an isothermal cavity. Finally, we analyze the critical behavior, thermodynamic stability, and phase transition of the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole. The results show that the rainbow gravity can stop the Hawking radiation in the final stages of black holes' evolution and lead to the remnants of black holes. Furthermore, one can observe that the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole has one first-order phase transition, two second-order phase transitions, and three Hawking–Page-type phase transitions in the framework of rainbow gravity theory.
Lovelock black holes with maximally symmetric horizons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maeda, Hideki; Willison, Steven; Ray, Sourya, E-mail: hideki@cecs.cl, E-mail: willison@cecs.cl, E-mail: ray@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios CientIficos (CECs), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)
2011-08-21
We investigate some properties of n( {>=} 4)-dimensional spacetimes having symmetries corresponding to the isometries of an (n - 2)-dimensional maximally symmetric space in Lovelock gravity under the null or dominant energy condition. The well-posedness of the generalized Misner-Sharp quasi-local mass proposed in the past study is shown. Using this quasi-local mass, we clarify the basic properties of the dynamical black holes defined by a future outer trapping horizon under certain assumptions on the Lovelock coupling constants. The C{sup 2} vacuum solutions are classified into four types: (i) Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution; (ii) Nariai-type solution; (iii) special degenerate vacuum solution; and (iv) exceptional vacuum solution. The conditions for the realization of the last two solutions are clarified. The Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution is studied in detail. We prove the first law of black-hole thermodynamics and present the expressions for the heat capacity and the free energy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pérez, E.; Dueñas, S.; Castán, H.; García, H.; Bailón, L. [Dept. de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belén 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Montero, D.; García-Hernansanz, R.; García-Hemme, E.; González-Díaz, G. [Dept. de Física Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electrónica), Univ. Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Olea, J. [CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Energía Solar, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicación, Univ. Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2015-12-28
The energy levels created in supersaturated n-type silicon substrates with titanium implantation in the attempt to create an intermediate band in their band-gap are studied in detail. Two titanium ion implantation doses (10{sup 13 }cm{sup -2} and 10{sup 14 }cm{sup -2}) are studied in this work by conductance transient technique and admittance spectroscopy. Conductance transients have been measured at temperatures of around 100 K. The particular shape of these transients is due to the formation of energy barriers in the conduction band, as a consequence of the band-gap narrowing induced by the high titanium concentration. Moreover, stationary admittance spectroscopy results suggest the existence of different energy level configuration, depending on the local titanium concentration. A continuum energy level band is formed when titanium concentration is over the Mott limit. On the other hand, when titanium concentration is lower than the Mott limit, but much higher than the donor impurity density, a quasi-continuum energy level distribution appears. Finally, a single deep center appears for low titanium concentration. At the n-type substrate, the experimental results obtained by means of thermal admittance spectroscopy at high reverse bias reveal the presence of single levels located at around E{sub c}-425 and E{sub c}-275 meV for implantation doses of 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} and 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2}, respectively. At low reverse bias voltage, quasi-continuously distributed energy levels between the minimum of the conduction bands, E{sub c} and E{sub c}-450 meV, are obtained for both doses. Conductance transients detected at low temperatures reveal that the high impurity concentration induces a band gap narrowing which leads to the formation of a barrier in the conduction band. Besides, the relationship between the activation energy and the capture cross section values of all the energy levels fits very well to the Meyer-Neldel rule. As it is known
Neutrino constraints that transform black holes into grey holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruderfer, M.
1982-01-01
Existing black hole theory is found to be defective in its neglect of the physical properties of matter and radiation at superhigh densities. Nongravitational neutrino effects are shown to be physically relevant to the evolution of astronomical black holes and their equations of state. Gravitational collapse to supernovae combined with the Davis and Ray vacuum solution for neutrinos limit attainment of a singularity and require black holes to evolve into ''grey holes''. These allow a better justification than do black holes for explaining the unique existence of galactic masses. (Auth.)
Warped products and black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Soon-Tae
2005-01-01
We apply the warped product space-time scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes
Magnetohydrodynamics near a black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, J.R.
1975-01-01
A numerical computer study of hydromagnetic flow near a black hole is presented. First, the equations of motion are developed to a form suitable for numerical computations. Second, the results of calculations describing the magnetic torques exerted by a rotating black hole on a surrounding magnetic plasma and the electric charge that is induced on the surface of the black hole are presented. (auth)
Particle-hole excitations in N=50 nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnstone, I.P.; Skouras, L.D.
1997-01-01
Energy levels in N=50 nuclei are calculated allowing single-particle excitations from the p 1/2 and g 9/2 shells into the d 5/2 , s 1/2 , d 3/2 , and g 7/2 shells. Important parts of the interaction are determined by least-squares fits to known levels. Agreement with experiment is very good. The high-spin particle-hole states appear to be mainly yrast levels in mass 93 and higher, but are not in 90 Zr. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Composite vortex ordering in superconducting films with arrays of blind holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berdiyorov, G R; Milosevic, M V; Peeters, F M
2009-01-01
The pinning properties of a superconducting thin film with a square array of blind holes are studied using the nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau theory. Although blind holes provide a weaker pinning potential than holes (also called antidots), several novel vortex structures are predicted for different size and thickness of the blind holes. Orientational dimer and trimer vortex states as well as concentric vortex shells can nucleate in the blind holes. In addition, we predict the stabilization of giant vortices that may be located both in the pinning centers and/or at the interstitial sites, as well as the combination of giant vortices with sets of individual vortices. For large blind holes, local vortex shell structures inside the blind holes may transfer their symmetry to interstitial vortices as well. The subtle interplay of shell formation and traditional Abrikosov vortex lattices inside the blind holes is also studied for different numbers of trapped vortices.
Evolving Coronal Holes and Interplanetary Erupting Stream ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
prominences, have a significantly higher rate of occurrence in the vicinity of coronal .... coronal holes due to the birth of new holes or the growth of existing holes. .... Statistics of newly formed coronal hole areas (NFOCHA) associated with ...
From binary black hole simulation to triple black hole simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai Shan; Cao Zhoujian; Han, Wen-Biao; Lin, Chun-Yu; Yo, Hwei-Jang; Yu, Jui-Ping
2011-01-01
Black hole systems are among the most promising sources for a gravitational wave detection project. Now, China is planning to construct a space-based laser interferometric detector as a follow-on mission of LISA in the near future. Aiming to provide some theoretical support to this detection project on the numerical relativity side, we focus on black hole systems simulation in this work. Considering the globular galaxy, multiple black hole systems also likely to exist in our universe and play a role as a source for the gravitational wave detector we are considering. We will give a progress report in this paper on our black hole system simulation. More specifically, we will present triple black hole simulation together with binary black hole simulation. On triple black hole simulations, one novel perturbational method is proposed.
Gravitational entropy of nonstationary black holes and spherical shells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiscock, W.A.
1989-01-01
The problem of defining the gravitational entropy of a nonstationary black hole is considered in a simple model consisting of a spherical shell which collapses into a preexisting black hole. The second law of black-hole mechanics strongly suggests identifying one-quarter of the area of the event horizon as the gravitational entropy of the system. It is, however, impossible to accurately locate the position of the global event horizon using only local measurements. In order to maintain a local thermodynamics, it is suggested that the entropy of the black hole be identified with one-quarter the area of the apparent horizon. The difference between the event-horizon entropy (to the extent it can be determined) and the apparent-horizon entropy may then be interpreted as the gravitational entropy of the collapsing shell. The total (event-horizon) gravitational entropy evolves in a smooth (C 0 ) fashion, even in the presence of δ-functional shells of matter
Black-hole-regulated star formation in massive galaxies.
Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Brodie, Jean P; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Ruiz-Lara, Tomás; van de Ven, Glenn
2018-01-18
Supermassive black holes, with masses more than a million times that of the Sun, seem to inhabit the centres of all massive galaxies. Cosmologically motivated theories of galaxy formation require feedback from these supermassive black holes to regulate star formation. In the absence of such feedback, state-of-the-art numerical simulations fail to reproduce the number density and properties of massive galaxies in the local Universe. There is, however, no observational evidence of this strongly coupled coevolution between supermassive black holes and star formation, impeding our understanding of baryonic processes within galaxies. Here we report that the star formation histories of nearby massive galaxies, as measured from their integrated optical spectra, depend on the mass of the central supermassive black hole. Our results indicate that the black-hole mass scales with the gas cooling rate in the early Universe. The subsequent quenching of star formation takes place earlier and more efficiently in galaxies that host higher-mass central black holes. The observed relation between black-hole mass and star formation efficiency applies to all generations of stars formed throughout the life of a galaxy, revealing a continuous interplay between black-hole activity and baryon cooling.
Black-hole-regulated star formation in massive galaxies
Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Ruiz-Lara, Tomás; van de Ven, Glenn
2018-01-01
Supermassive black holes, with masses more than a million times that of the Sun, seem to inhabit the centres of all massive galaxies. Cosmologically motivated theories of galaxy formation require feedback from these supermassive black holes to regulate star formation. In the absence of such feedback, state-of-the-art numerical simulations fail to reproduce the number density and properties of massive galaxies in the local Universe. There is, however, no observational evidence of this strongly coupled coevolution between supermassive black holes and star formation, impeding our understanding of baryonic processes within galaxies. Here we report that the star formation histories of nearby massive galaxies, as measured from their integrated optical spectra, depend on the mass of the central supermassive black hole. Our results indicate that the black-hole mass scales with the gas cooling rate in the early Universe. The subsequent quenching of star formation takes place earlier and more efficiently in galaxies that host higher-mass central black holes. The observed relation between black-hole mass and star formation efficiency applies to all generations of stars formed throughout the life of a galaxy, revealing a continuous interplay between black-hole activity and baryon cooling.
Atomic energy levels of the iron-period elements: potassium through nickel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugar, J.; Corliss, C.
1985-01-01
Experimentally derived energy levels of the elements from potassium to nickel in all stages of ionization are critically compiled. The data for each level include its position in /cm (relative to the ground state), configuration, term designation, J-value, and, where available, the g-value and two leading percentages of the eigenvector composition in the most appropriate coupling scheme. For the He I and H I isoelectronic sequences, calculated level positions are given because they are considered more accurate than the measurements presently available. Ionization energies for each ion are derived either from Rydberg series, extrapolation, or calculation. Complete references are given for the compiled data
Spectrum and energy levels of the sodiumlike ion Sr/sup 27+/
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reader, J.
1986-01-01
The spectrum of Sr/sup 27+/ was observed with a laser-produced plasma and a 2.2-m grazing-incidence spectrograph in the region 12--160 A-circle. From the identification of 37 lines, a system of 27 energy levels of the type 2p 6 nl was determined. The level system includes the configurations ns(n = 3-5), np(n = 3-6), nd(n = 3-7), nf(n = 4-6), and 5g. The ionization energy is determined as 11 188200 +- 1000 cm/sup -1/ (1387.16 +- 0.12 eV)
In I isoelectronic sequence: wavelengths and energy levels for Xe VI through La IX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaufman, V.; Sugar, J.
1987-01-01
Spectra of Xe, Cs, Ba, and La produced with a high-voltage spark discharge were observed photographically with the National Bureau of Standards 10.7-m normal- and grazing-incidence spectrographs. Identified lines of the In I isoelectronic sequence were used to determine the energy levels of the 5s 2 5p, 5s5p 2 , 5s 2 5d, and 5s 2 6s configurations. Their interactions with unobserved configurations that include a 4f electron are discussed. Fitted values of the radial energy integrals were determined from the known levels
Measurement of discrete energy-level spectra in individual chemically synthesized gold nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Bolotin, Kirill I; Shi, Su-Fei
2008-01-01
We form single-electron transistors from individual chemically synthesized gold nanoparticles, 5-15 nm in diameter, with monolayers of organic molecules serving as tunnel barriers. These devices allow us to measure the discrete electronic energy levels of individual gold nanoparticles that are......, by virtue of chemical synthesis, well-defined in their composition, size and shape. We show that the nanoparticles are nonmagnetic and have spectra in good accord with random-matrix-theory predictions taking into account strong spin-orbit coupling....
New way for determining electron energy levels in quantum dots arrays using finite difference method
Dujardin, F.; Assaid, E.; Feddi, E.
2018-06-01
Electronic states are investigated in quantum dots arrays, depending on the type of cubic Bravais lattice (primitive, body centered or face centered) according to which the dots are arranged, the size of the dots and the interdot distance. It is shown that the ground state energy level can undergo significant variations when these parameters are modified. The results were obtained by means of finite difference method which has proved to be easily adaptable, efficient and precise. The symmetry properties of the lattice have been used to reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix.
The energy level splitting for Unharmonic dc SQUID to be used as phase Q-bit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klenov, Nicolai V.; Kornev, Victor K.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
2006-01-01
splitting. Threshold condition for the double-well form origin has been determined taking into account the impact of both harmonics. The splitting gap of the ground energy level has been calculated as a function of the harmonic amplitudes for different ratio s of characteristic Josephson energy E......-C to the Coulomb energy E-Q0. It has been shown that the gap value comes to about 7E(Q0) with increase of the ratio s. No external field needed, no bias current required and no circular currents are major advantages of such a qubit. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
New energy levels of atomic niobium (Nb I) discovered by laser-spectroscopic investigations
Kröger, S.; Windholz, L.; Başar, Gü.; Başar, Gö.
2018-06-01
We report the discovery of 9 previously unknown energy levels of the atomic niobium, all having even parity. Two levels have energies below 19,500 cm-1 and angular momentum J = 3/2, while the energies of the others are located between 39,700 and 43,420 cm-1. The levels were discovered by laser excitation of several unclassified spectral lines in the wavelength range between 554 nm and 650 nm and detection of laser-induced fluorescence with a monochromator.
Three-charge black holes on a circle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harmark, Troels; Obers, Niels A.; Roenne, Peter B.; Kristjansson, Kristjan R.
2007-01-01
We study phases of five-dimensional three-charge black holes with a circle in their transverse space. In particular, when the black hole is localized on the circle we compute the corrections to the metric and corresponding thermodynamics in the limit of small mass. When taking the near-extremal limit, this gives the corrections to the finite entropy of the extremal three-charge black hole as a function of the energy above extremality. For the partial extremal limit with two charges sent to infinity and one finite we show that the first correction to the entropy is in agreement with the microscopic entropy by taking into account that the number of branes shift as a consequence of the interactions across the transverse circle. Beyond these analytical results, we also numerically obtain the entire phase of non- and near-extremal three- and two-charge black holes localized on a circle. More generally, we find in this paper a rich phase structure, including a new phase of three-charge black holes that are non-uniformly distributed on the circle. All these three-charge black hole phases are found via a map that relates them to the phases of five-dimensional neutral Kaluza-Klein black holes
Gauss-Bonnet black holes in dS spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai Ronggen; Guo Qi
2004-01-01
We study the thermodynamic properties associated with the black hole horizon and cosmological horizon for the Gauss-Bonnet solution in de Sitter space. When the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient is positive, a locally stable small black hole appears in the case of spacetime dimension d=5, the stable small black hole disappears, and the Gauss-Bonnet black hole is always unstable quantum mechanically when d≥6. On the other hand, the cosmological horizon is found to be always locally stable independent of the spacetime dimension. But the solution is not globally preferred; instead, the pure de Sitter space is globally preferred. When the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient is negative, there is a constraint on the value of the coefficient, beyond which the gravity theory is not well defined. As a result, there is not only an upper bound on the size of black hole horizon radius at which the black hole horizon and cosmological horizon coincide with each other, but also a lower bound depending on the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient and spacetime dimension. Within the physical phase space, the black hole horizon is always thermodynamically unstable and the cosmological horizon is always stable; furthermore, as in the case of the positive coefficient, the pure de Sitter space is still globally preferred. This result is consistent with the argument that the pure de Sitter space corresponds to an UV fixed point of dual field theory
Stability of black holes based on horizon thermodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meng-Sen Ma
2015-12-01
Full Text Available On the basis of horizon thermodynamics we study the thermodynamic stability of black holes constructed in general relativity and Gauss–Bonnet gravity. In the framework of horizon thermodynamics there are only five thermodynamic variables E, P, V, T, S. It is not necessary to consider concrete matter fields, which may contribute to the pressure of black hole thermodynamic system. In non-vacuum cases, we can derive the equation of state, P=P(V,T. According to the requirements of stable equilibrium in conventional thermodynamics, we start from these thermodynamic variables to calculate the heat capacity at constant pressure and Gibbs free energy and analyze the local and global thermodynamic stability of black holes. It is shown that P>0 is the necessary condition for black holes in general relativity to be thermodynamically stable, however this condition cannot be satisfied by many black holes in general relativity. For black hole in Gauss–Bonnet gravity negative pressure can be feasible, but only local stable black hole exists in this case.
Statistical mechanics of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harms, B.; Leblanc, Y.
1992-01-01
We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black-hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed
Small AdS black holes from SYM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asplund, Curtis; Berenstein, David
2009-01-01
We provide a characterization of the set of configurations in N=4 SYM theory that are dual to small AdS black holes. Our construction shows that the black hole dual states are approximately thermal on a SU(M) subset of degrees of freedom of a SU(N) gauge theory. M is determined dynamically and the black hole degrees of freedom are dynamically insulated from the rest. These states are localized on the S 5 and have dynamical processes that correspond to matter absorption that make them behave as black objects
Al-bound hole polarons in TiO2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stashans, Arvids; Bermeo, Sthefano
2009-01-01
Changes in the structural and electronic properties of TiO 2 (anatase and rutile) due to the Al-doping are studied using a quantum-chemical approach based on the Hartree-Fock theory. The formation of hole polarons trapped at oxygen sites near the Al impurity has been discovered and their spatial configuration are discussed. The occurrence of well-localized one-center hole polarons in rutile may influence its photocatalytic activity. Optical absorption energy for this hole center is obtained, 0.4 eV, using the ΔSCF approach.
Thermodynamic stability of warped AdS3 black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birmingham, Danny; Mokhtari, Susan
2011-01-01
We study the thermodynamic stability of warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity. The spacelike stretched black hole is parametrized by its mass and angular momentum. We determine the local and global stability properties in the canonical and grand canonical ensembles. The presence of a Hawking-Page type transition is established, and the critical temperature is determined. The thermodynamic metric of Ruppeiner is computed, and the curvature is shown to diverge in the extremal limit. The consequences of these results for the classical stability properties of warped black holes are discussed within the context of the correlated stability conjecture.
Polchinski, Joseph
2015-04-01
Our modern understanding of space, time, matter, and even reality itself arose from the three great revolutions of the early twentieth century: special relativity, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. But a century later, this work is unfinished. Many deep connections have been discovered, but the full form of a unified theory incorporating all three principles is not known. Thought experiments and paradoxes have often played a key role in figuring out how to fit theories together. For the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics, black holes have been an important arena. I will talk about the quantum mechanics of black holes, the information paradox, and the latest version of this paradox, the firewall. The firewall points to a conflict between our current theories of spacetime and of quantum mechanics. It may lead to a new understanding of how these are connected, perhaps based on quantum entanglement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boslough, J.
1985-01-01
This book is about the life and work of Stephen Hawking. It traces the development of his theories about the universe and particularly black holes, in a biographical context. Hawking's lecture 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics' is presented as an appendix. In this, he discusses the possibility of achieving a complete, consistent and unified theory of the physical interactions which would describe all possible observations. (U.K.)
The BTZ black hole as a Lorentz-flat geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez, Pedro D., E-mail: alvarez@physics.ox.ac.uk [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Pais, Pablo, E-mail: pais@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Rodríguez, Eduardo, E-mail: eduarodriguezsal@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Matemática y Física Aplicadas, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Salgado-Rebolledo, Patricio, E-mail: pasalgado@udec.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Zanelli, Jorge, E-mail: z@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile)
2014-11-10
It is shown that 2+1 dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetimes are Lorentz-flat. This means, in particular, that any simply-connected patch of the BTZ black hole solution can be endowed with a Lorentz connection that is locally pure gauge. The result can be naturally extended to a wider class of black hole geometries and point particles in three-dimensional spacetime.
Internal structure of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cvetic, Mirjam
2013-01-01
Full text: We review recent progress that sheds light on the internal structure of general black holes. We first summarize properties of general multi-charged rotating black holes both in four and five dimensions. We show that the asymptotic boundary conditions of these general asymptotically flat black holes can be modified such that a conformal symmetry emerges. These subtracted geometries preserve the thermodynamic properties of the original black holes and are of the Lifshitz type, thus describing 'a black hole in the asymptotically conical box'. Recent efforts employ solution generating techniques to construct interpolating geometries between the original black hole and their subtracted geometries. Upon lift to one dimension higher, these geometries lift to AdS 3 times a sphere, and thus provide a microscopic interpretation of the black hole entropy in terms of dual two-dimensional conformal field theory. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathur, Samir D
2012-01-01
The idea of holography in gravity arose from the fact that the entropy of black holes is given by their surface area. The holography encountered in gauge/gravity duality has no such relation however; the boundary surface can be placed at an arbitrary location in AdS space and its area does not give the entropy of the bulk. The essential issues are also different between the two cases: in black holes we get Hawking radiation from the 'holographic surface' which leads to the information issue, while in gauge/gravity duality there is no such radiation. To resolve the information paradox we need to show that there are real degrees of freedom at the horizon of the hole; this is achieved by the fuzzball construction. In gauge/gravity duality we have instead a field theory defined on an abstract dual space; there are no gravitational degrees of freedom at the holographic boundary. It is important to understand the relations and differences between these two notions of holography to get a full understanding of the lessons from the information paradox.
Enhanced Circular Dichroism of Gold Bilayered Slit Arrays Embedded with Rectangular Holes.
Zhang, Hao; Wang, Yongkai; Luo, Lina; Wang, Haiqing; Zhang, Zhongyue
2017-01-01
Gold bilayered slit arrays with rectangular holes embedded into the metal surface are designed to enhance the circular dichroism (CD) effect of gold bilayered slit arrays. The rectangular holes in these arrays block electric currents and generate localized surface plasmons around these holes, thereby strengthening the CD effect. The CD enhancement factor depends strongly on the rotational angle and the structural parameters of the rectangular holes; this factor can be enhanced further by drilling two additional rectangular holes into the metal surfaces of the arrays. These results help facilitate the design of chiral structures to produce a strong CD effect and large electric fields.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding, X.; Sun, R.; Dong, C.; Koike, F.; Kato, D.; Murakami, I.; Sakaue, H.A.
2017-01-01
The electron correlation effects and Breit interaction as well as Quantum Electro-Dynamics (QED) effects were expected to have important contribution to the energy level and transition properties of heavy highly charged ions. The study of W 54+ ion provide necessary reference data for the fusion plasma physics as tungsten was chosen to be used as the armour material of the divertor of the ITER project. The ground states [Ne]3s 2 3p 6 3d 2 and first excited states [Ne]3s 2 3p 5 3d 3 of W 54+ ion have been studied by using Multi-Configuration Dirac-Fock method with the implementation of Grasp2K package. A restricted active space method was employed to investigate the correlation contribution from different models. The Breit interaction and QED effects were taken into account in the relativistic configuration interaction calculation with the converged wavefunction. It is found that the correlation contribution from 3s and 3p orbital have important contribution to the energy level, transition wavelength and probability of the ground and the first excited state of W 54+ ion. (authors)
Spectrum and energy levels of nine-times ionized strontium [Sr X
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acquista, N.; Reader, J.
1981-01-01
The spectrum of the copperlike ion Sr X was observed with a low-inductance spark in the region 70--630 A on the 10.7--m grazing-incidence spectrograph at the National Bureau of Standards. From the identification of 30 lines, a system of 23 energy levels of the type 3d 10 nl was determined. The level system includes the configurations ns (n = 4--7), np (n = 4--6), nd (n = 4--6), nf (n = 4--6), and ng (n = 5). The 4f 2 F term is inverted. Also identified were 12 transitions of the type 3d 10 4s--3d 9 4s4p and 3d 10 4p--3d 9 4p 2 , permitting the determination of several 3d 9 4s4p and 3d 9 4p 2 levels. The observed 3d 10 nl energy levels and parameters are compared with Hartree--Fock calculations. The ionization energy is determined from the 3d 10 ns and nf series to be 1 430 000 +- 500 cm -1 (177.30 +- 0.06 eV). Data for 3d--4p transitions in Sr IX and Sr XI and 3p--3d transitions in Sr XII are also presented
Energy levels, radiative rates, and lifetimes for transitions in W XL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aggarwal, Kanti M.; Keenan, Francis P.
2014-01-01
Energy levels and radiative rates are reported for transitions in Br-like tungsten, W XL, calculated with the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package (GRASP). Configuration interaction (CI) has been included among 46 configurations (generating 4215 levels) over a wide energy range up to 213 Ryd. However, for conciseness results are only listed for the lowest 360 levels (with energies up to ∼43 Ryd), which mainly belong to the 4s 2 4p 5 ,4s 2 4p 4 4d,4s 2 4p 4 4f,4s4p 6 ,4p 6 4d,4s4p 5 4d,4s 2 4p 3 4d 2 , and 4s 2 4p 3 4d4f configurations, and provided for four types of transitions, E1, E2, M1, and M2. Comparisons are made with existing (but limited) results. However, to fully assess the accuracy of our data, analogous calculations have been performed with the flexible atomic code, including an even larger CI than in GRASP. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 0.02 Ryd, whereas results for radiative rates (and lifetimes) should be accurate to better than 20% for a majority of the strong transitions
Spectrum and energy levels of five-times ionized zirconium (Zr VI)
Reader, Joseph; Lindsay, Mark D.
2016-02-01
We carried out a new analysis of the spectrum of five-times-ionized zirconium Zr VI. For this we used sliding-spark discharges together with normal- and grazing-incidence spectrographs to observe the spectrum from 160 to 2000 Å. These observations showed that the analysis of this spectrum by Khan et al (1985 Phys. Scr. 31 837) contained a significant number of incorrect energy levels. We have now classified ˜420 lines as transitions between 23 even-parity levels 73 odd-parity levels. The 4s24p5, 4s4p6, 4s24p44d, 5s, 5d, 6s configurations are now complete, although a few levels of 4s24p45d are tentative. We determined Ritz-type wavelengths for ˜135 lines from the optimized energy levels. The uncertainties range from 0.0003 to 0.0020 Å. Hartree-Fock calculations and least-squares fits of the energy parameters to the observed levels were used to interpret the observed configurations. Oscillator strengths for all classified lines were calculated with the fitted parameters. The results are compared with values for the level energies, percentage compositions, and transition probabilities from recent ab initio theoretical calculations. The ionization energy was revised to 777 380 ± 300 cm-1 (96.38 ± 0.04 eV).
Metabolizable energy levels for meat quails from 15 to 35 days of age
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge Cunha Lima Muniz
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietetic metabolizable energy levels on performance and carcass traits of meat quails from 15 to 35 days old. Five hundred sixty, 15-d old, meat quails were randomly assigned to five treatments (2.850; 2.950; 3.050; 3.150 e 3.250kcal of ME kg-1 of diet, with eight replicates and fourteen birds per experimental unit. Feed intake, protein and lysine intake and feed conversion decreased linearly as the metabolizable energy content of diets increased (P0.05 by the treatments. Diets did not influence (P>0.05 carcass traits as dry matter, moisture and protein content in carcass. However a quadratic effect (P<0.04 were observed on carcass fat content. Based on these results, the adequate metabolizable energy level to ensure better meat quails' growth is 3.250kcal of ME kg-1 diet, that corresponds to a metabolizable energy: crude protein ratio of 139,24.
Size-dependent energy levels of InSb quantum dots measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy.
Wang, Tuo; Vaxenburg, Roman; Liu, Wenyong; Rupich, Sara M; Lifshitz, Efrat; Efros, Alexander L; Talapin, Dmitri V; Sibener, S J
2015-01-27
The electronic structure of single InSb quantum dots (QDs) with diameters between 3 and 7 nm was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). In this size regime, InSb QDs show strong quantum confinement effects which lead to discrete energy levels on both valence and conduction band states. Decrease of the QD size increases the measured band gap and the spacing between energy levels. Multiplets of equally spaced resonance peaks are observed in the tunneling spectra. There, multiplets originate from degeneracy lifting induced by QD charging. The tunneling spectra of InSb QDs are qualitatively different from those observed in the STS of other III-V materials, for example, InAs QDs, with similar band gap energy. Theoretical calculations suggest the electron tunneling occurs through the states connected with L-valley of InSb QDs rather than through states of the Γ-valley. This observation calls for better understanding of the role of indirect valleys in strongly quantum-confined III-V nanomaterials.
Theory of energy level and its application in water-loop heat pump system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Qi Dong
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Novel theory of saving energy and its application in water loop heat pump. • Reverse energy caused by units to water loop and its solution. • New method for determining the energy-saving range of water loop heat pump. • Capacity model of auxiliary heat source and its size for all building types. • Advice for reducing total energy consumption of water loop heat pump. - Abstract: It is a difficult problem to how to determine the reverse energy caused by units to water loop when a water-loop heat pump (WLHP) is in cooling and heating simultaneous mode, which not only has a great impact on energy-saving rate but also decides the use of auxiliary heat source in winter. This paper presents a theory of energy level to improve the research on WLHP system by using the relationship among building, circulating water and units. In this theory, the circulating water replaces building load as a new method to convert the reverse energy into energy change of circulating water and the equation of energy level also is built to determine the energy-saving range of WLHP system and report the capacity model of auxiliary heat source for all building types. An office building with different auxiliary powers is tested to analyze system operation characteristic and the effect of auxiliary heat source on unit and system and the results validate previous conclusions and suggest that an energy balance should be considered between units and auxiliary power to improve overall operation.
Excitation of high energy levels under laser exposure of suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: shafeev@kapella.gpi.ru; Simakin, A.V. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bozon-Verduraz, F. [ITODYS, UMR CNRS 7086, Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, 2, place Jussieu, 75251 Paris cedex 05 (France); Robert, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie Moleculaire, UMR CNRS 7591, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, 2, place Jussieu, 75251 Paris cedex 05 (France)
2007-12-15
Laser exposure of suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids leads to excitation of high energy levels in both liquid and nanoparticle material. The emission spectrum of the colloidal solution under exposure of a suspension metallic nanoparticles in water to radiation of a Nd:YAG laser of a picosecond range of pulse duration is discussed. Excitation of nuclear energy levels and neutron release is experimentally studied on the model system of transmutation of Hg into Au that occurs under exposure of Hg nanodrops suspended in D{sub 2}O. The proposed mechanism involves: (i) emission of X-ray photons by Hg nanoparticles upon laser exposure, leading to neutron release from D{sub 2}O, (ii) initiation of Hg {yields} Au transmutation by the capture of neutrons. The effect of transmutation is more pronounced using {sup 196}Hg isotope instead of Hg of natural isotope composition. The influence of laser pulse duration on the degree of transmutation (from fs through ns range) is discussed.
Electronic Energy Levels and Band Alignment for Aqueous Phenol and Phenolate from First Principles.
Opalka, Daniel; Pham, Tuan Anh; Sprik, Michiel; Galli, Giulia
2015-07-30
Electronic energy levels in phenol and phenolate solutions have been computed using density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory. The valence and conduction bands of the solvent and the ionization energies of the solutes have been aligned with respect to the vacuum level based on the concept of a computational standard hydrogen electrode. We have found significant quantitative differences between the generalized-gradient approximation, calculations with the HSE hybrid functional, and many-body perturbation theory in the G0W0 approximation. For phenol, two ionization energies below the photoionization threshold of bulk water have been assigned in the spectrum of Kohn-Sham eigenvalues of the solution. Deprotonation to phenolate was found to lift a third occupied energy level above the valence band maximum of the solvent which is characterized by an electronic lone pair at the hydroxyl group. The second and third ionization energies of phenolate were found to be very similar and explain the intensity pattern observed in recent experiments using liquid-microjet photoemission spectroscopy.
Schlesinger, R.; Bianchi, F.; Blumstengel, S.; Christodoulou, C.; Ovsyannikov, R.; Kobin, B.; Moudgil, K.; Barlow, S.; Hecht, S.; Marder, S.R.; Henneberger, F.; Koch, N.
2015-01-01
The fundamental limits of inorganic semiconductors for light emitting applications, such as holographic displays, biomedical imaging and ultrafast data processing and communication, might be overcome by hybridization with their organic counterparts, which feature enhanced frequency response and colour range. Innovative hybrid inorganic/organic structures exploit efficient electrical injection and high excitation density of inorganic semiconductors and subsequent energy transfer to the organic semiconductor, provided that the radiative emission yield is high. An inherent obstacle to that end is the unfavourable energy level offset at hybrid inorganic/organic structures, which rather facilitates charge transfer that quenches light emission. Here, we introduce a technologically relevant method to optimize the hybrid structure's energy levels, here comprising ZnO and a tailored ladder-type oligophenylene. The ZnO work function is substantially lowered with an organometallic donor monolayer, aligning the frontier levels of the inorganic and organic semiconductors. This increases the hybrid structure's radiative emission yield sevenfold, validating the relevance of our approach. PMID:25872919
Delayed dopamine signaling of energy level builds appetitive long-term memory in Drosophila.
Musso, Pierre-Yves; Tchenio, Paul; Preat, Thomas
2015-02-24
Sensory cues relevant to a food source, such as odors, can be associated with post-ingestion signals related either to food energetic value or toxicity. Despite numerous behavioral studies, a global understanding of the mechanisms underlying these long delay associations remains out of reach. Here, we demonstrate in Drosophila that the long-term association between an odor and a nutritious sugar depends on delayed post-ingestion signaling of energy level. We show at the neural circuit level that the activity of two pairs of dopaminergic neurons is necessary and sufficient to signal energy level to the olfactory memory center. Accordingly, we have identified in these dopaminergic neurons a delayed calcium trace that correlates with appetitive long-term memory formation. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that the Drosophila brain remembers food quality through a two-step mechanism that consists of the integration of olfactory and gustatory sensory information and then post-ingestion energetic value. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schlesinger, R; Bianchi, F; Blumstengel, S; Christodoulou, C; Ovsyannikov, R; Kobin, B; Moudgil, K; Barlow, S; Hecht, S; Marder, S R; Henneberger, F; Koch, N
2015-04-15
The fundamental limits of inorganic semiconductors for light emitting applications, such as holographic displays, biomedical imaging and ultrafast data processing and communication, might be overcome by hybridization with their organic counterparts, which feature enhanced frequency response and colour range. Innovative hybrid inorganic/organic structures exploit efficient electrical injection and high excitation density of inorganic semiconductors and subsequent energy transfer to the organic semiconductor, provided that the radiative emission yield is high. An inherent obstacle to that end is the unfavourable energy level offset at hybrid inorganic/organic structures, which rather facilitates charge transfer that quenches light emission. Here, we introduce a technologically relevant method to optimize the hybrid structure's energy levels, here comprising ZnO and a tailored ladder-type oligophenylene. The ZnO work function is substantially lowered with an organometallic donor monolayer, aligning the frontier levels of the inorganic and organic semiconductors. This increases the hybrid structure's radiative emission yield sevenfold, validating the relevance of our approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, S.-S.
2005-01-01
Optimum frontier orbital energy levels and offsets of an organic donor/acceptor binary type photovoltaic material have been analyzed using classic Marcus electron transfer theory in order to achieve the most efficient photo induced charge separation. This study reveals that, an exciton quenching parameter (EQP) yields one optimum donor/acceptor frontier orbital energy offset that equals the sum of the exciton binding energy and the charge separation reorganization energy, where the photo generated excitons are converted into charges most efficiently. A recombination quenching parameter (RQP) yields a second optimum donor/acceptor energy offset where the ratio of charge separation rate constant over charge recombination rate constant becomes largest. It is desirable that the maximum RQP is coincidence or close to the maximum EQP. A third energy offset is also identified where charge recombination becomes most severe. It is desirable that the most severe charge recombination offset is far away from maximum EQP offset. These findings are very critical for evaluating and fine tuning frontier orbital energy levels of a donor/acceptor pair in order to realize high efficiency organic photovoltaic materials
Energy Levels and Co-evolution of Product Innovation in Supply Chain Clusters
Ji, Guojun
In the last decade supply chain clusters phenomenon has emerged as a new approach in product innovation studies. This article makes three contributions to the approach by addressing some open issues. The first contribution is to explicitly incorporate the energy levels in the analysis. Hence, the unit of analysis is widened from sectoral systems of innovation to socio-technical systems. Hence, the unit of analysis is widened from sectoral systems of innovation to socio-technical systems. The second contribution is to suggest an analytical distinction between different evolution method, actors involved in them, and the institutions which guide actor's perceptions and activities. Thirdly, the article opens up the black box of institutions, making them an integral part of supply chain. The article provides a coherent conceptual multi-level perspective, using insights from sociology, institutional theory and innovation studies. The perspective is particularly useful to analyze long-term dynamics supply chain clusters phenomenon, shifts from one energy level to another and the co-evolution of product innovation.
Energy-level alignment in organic dye-sensitized TiO2 from GW calculations.
Umari, P; Giacomazzi, L; De Angelis, F; Pastore, M; Baroni, Stefano
2013-07-07
The electronic energy levels of some representative isolated and oxide-supported organic dyes, relevant for photovoltaic applications, are investigated using many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation. We consider a set of all-organic dyes (denominated L0, L2, L3, and L4) featuring the same donor and anchor groups and differing for the linker moieties. We first calculate the energy levels of the isolated molecules, thus allowing us to address the effects of the different linker groups, and resulting in good agreement with photo-electron spectroscopic and electrochemical data. We then consider the L0 dye adsorbed on the (101) surface of anatase-TiO2. We find a density of occupied states in agreement with experimental photo-electron data. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap of the L0 dye is found to be reduced by ~1 eV upon adsorption. Our results validate the reliability of GW calculations for photovoltaic applications and point to their potential as a powerful tool for the screening and rational design of new components of electrochemical solar cells.
Spectrum and energy levels of five-times ionized zirconium (Zr VI)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reader, Joseph; Lindsay, Mark D
2016-01-01
We carried out a new analysis of the spectrum of five-times-ionized zirconium Zr VI. For this we used sliding-spark discharges together with normal- and grazing-incidence spectrographs to observe the spectrum from 160 to 2000 Å. These observations showed that the analysis of this spectrum by Khan et al (1985 Phys. Scr. 31 837) contained a significant number of incorrect energy levels. We have now classified ∼420 lines as transitions between 23 even-parity levels 73 odd-parity levels. The 4s 2 4p 5 , 4s4p 6 , 4s 2 4p 4 4d, 5s, 5d, 6s configurations are now complete, although a few levels of 4s 2 4p 4 5d are tentative. We determined Ritz-type wavelengths for ∼135 lines from the optimized energy levels. The uncertainties range from 0.0003 to 0.0020 Å. Hartree–Fock calculations and least-squares fits of the energy parameters to the observed levels were used to interpret the observed configurations. Oscillator strengths for all classified lines were calculated with the fitted parameters. The results are compared with values for the level energies, percentage compositions, and transition probabilities from recent ab initio theoretical calculations. The ionization energy was revised to 777 380 ± 300 cm −1 (96.38 ± 0.04 eV). (paper)
Energy level alignment at hybridized organic-metal interfaces from a GW projection approach
Chen, Yifeng; Tamblyn, Isaac; Quek, Su Ying
Energy level alignments at organic-metal interfaces are of profound importance in numerous (opto)electronic applications. Standard density functional theory (DFT) calculations generally give incorrect energy level alignments and missing long-range polarization effects. Previous efforts to address this problem using the many-electron GW method have focused on physisorbed systems where hybridization effects are insignificant. Here, we use state-of-the-art GW methods to predict the level alignment at the amine-Au interface, where molecular levels do hybridize with metallic states. This non-trivial hybridization implies that DFT result is a poor approximation to the quasiparticle states. However, we find that the self-energy operator is approximately diagonal in the molecular basis, allowing us to use a projection approach to predict the level alignments. Our results indicate that the metallic substrate reduces the HOMO-LUMO gap by 3.5 4.0 eV, depending on the molecular coverage/presence of Au adatoms. Our GW results are further compared with those of a simple image charge model that describes the level alignment in physisorbed systems. Syq and YC acknowledge Grant NRF-NRFF2013-07 and the medium-sized centre program from the National Research Foundation, Singapore.
Black Hole Hunters Set New Distance Record
2010-01-01
Astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have detected, in another galaxy, a stellar-mass black hole much farther away than any other previously known. With a mass above fifteen times that of the Sun, this is also the second most massive stellar-mass black hole ever found. It is entwined with a star that will soon become a black hole itself. The stellar-mass black holes [1] found in the Milky Way weigh up to ten times the mass of the Sun and are certainly not be taken lightly, but, outside our own galaxy, they may just be minor-league players, since astronomers have found another black hole with a mass over fifteen times the mass of the Sun. This is one of only three such objects found so far. The newly announced black hole lies in a spiral galaxy called NGC 300, six million light-years from Earth. "This is the most distant stellar-mass black hole ever weighed, and it's the first one we've seen outside our own galactic neighbourhood, the Local Group," says Paul Crowther, Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Sheffield and lead author of the paper reporting the study. The black hole's curious partner is a Wolf-Rayet star, which also has a mass of about twenty times as much as the Sun. Wolf-Rayet stars are near the end of their lives and expel most of their outer layers into their surroundings before exploding as supernovae, with their cores imploding to form black holes. In 2007, an X-ray instrument aboard NASA's Swift observatory scrutinised the surroundings of the brightest X-ray source in NGC 300 discovered earlier with the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory. "We recorded periodic, extremely intense X-ray emission, a clue that a black hole might be lurking in the area," explains team member Stefania Carpano from ESA. Thanks to new observations performed with the FORS2 instrument mounted on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have confirmed their earlier hunch. The new data show that the black hole and the Wolf-Rayet star dance
Electron and hole transport in ambipolar, thin film pentacene transistors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saudari, Sangameshwar R.; Kagan, Cherie R.
2015-01-01
Solution-processed, ambipolar, thin-film pentacene field-effect transistors were employed to study both electron and hole transport simultaneously in a single, organic solid-state device. Electron and hole mobilities were extracted from the respective unipolar saturation regimes and show thermally activated behavior and gate voltage dependence. We fit the gate voltage dependent saturation mobility to a power law to extract the characteristic Meyer-Neldel (MN) energy, a measure of the width of the exponential distribution of localized states extending into the energy gap of the organic semiconductor. The MN energy is ∼78 and ∼28 meV for electrons and holes, respectively, which reflects a greater density of localized tail states for electrons than holes. This is consistent with the lower measured electron than hole mobility. For holes, the well-behaved linear regime allows for four-point probe measurement of the contact resistance independent mobility and separate characterization of the width of the localized density of states, yielding a consistent MN energy of 28 meV
Electron and hole transport in ambipolar, thin film pentacene transistors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saudari, Sangameshwar R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Kagan, Cherie R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)
2015-01-21
Solution-processed, ambipolar, thin-film pentacene field-effect transistors were employed to study both electron and hole transport simultaneously in a single, organic solid-state device. Electron and hole mobilities were extracted from the respective unipolar saturation regimes and show thermally activated behavior and gate voltage dependence. We fit the gate voltage dependent saturation mobility to a power law to extract the characteristic Meyer-Neldel (MN) energy, a measure of the width of the exponential distribution of localized states extending into the energy gap of the organic semiconductor. The MN energy is ∼78 and ∼28 meV for electrons and holes, respectively, which reflects a greater density of localized tail states for electrons than holes. This is consistent with the lower measured electron than hole mobility. For holes, the well-behaved linear regime allows for four-point probe measurement of the contact resistance independent mobility and separate characterization of the width of the localized density of states, yielding a consistent MN energy of 28 meV.
Hole-to-surface resistivity measurements at Gibson Dome (drill hole GD-1) Paradox basin, Utah
Daniels, J.J.
1984-01-01
Hole-to-surface resistivity measurements were made in a deep drill hole (GD-1), in San Juan County, Utah, which penetrated a sequence of sandstone, shale, and evaporite. These measurements were made as part of a larger investigation to study the suitability of an area centered around the Gibson Dome structure for nuclear waste disposal. The magnitude and direction of the total electric field resulting from a current source placed in a drill hole is calculated from potential difference measurements for a grid of closely-spaced stations. A contour map of these data provides a detailed map of the distribution of the electric field away from the drill hole. Computation of the apparent resistivity from the total electric field helps to interpret the data with respect to the ideal situation of a layered earth. Repeating the surface measurements for different source depths gives an indication of variations in the geoelectric section with depth. The quantitative interpretation of the field data at Gibson Dome was hindered by the pressure of a conductive borehole fluid. However, a qualitative interpretation of the field data indicates the geoelectric section around drill hole GD-1 is not perfectly layered. The geoelectric section appears to dip to the northwest, and contains anomalies in the resistivity distribution that may be representative of localized thickening or folding of the salt layers.
Statistical black-hole thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekenstein, J.D.
1975-01-01
Traditional methods from statistical thermodynamics, with appropriate modifications, are used to study several problems in black-hole thermodynamics. Jaynes's maximum-uncertainty method for computing probabilities is used to show that the earlier-formulated generalized second law is respected in statistically averaged form in the process of spontaneous radiation by a Kerr black hole discovered by Hawking, and also in the case of a Schwarzschild hole immersed in a bath of black-body radiation, however cold. The generalized second law is used to motivate a maximum-entropy principle for determining the equilibrium probability distribution for a system containing a black hole. As an application we derive the distribution for the radiation in equilibrium with a Kerr hole (it is found to agree with what would be expected from Hawking's results) and the form of the associated distribution among Kerr black-hole solution states of definite mass. The same results are shown to follow from a statistical interpretation of the concept of black-hole entropy as the natural logarithm of the number of possible interior configurations that are compatible with the given exterior black-hole state. We also formulate a Jaynes-type maximum-uncertainty principle for black holes, and apply it to obtain the probability distribution among Kerr solution states for an isolated radiating Kerr hole
Schmidt, T.M.; Bochenkov, V.E.; Espinoza, J.D.A.; Smits, E.C.P.; Muzafarov, A.M.; Kononevich, Y.N.; Sutherland, D.S.
2014-01-01
The optical properties of aluminum hole arrays fabricated via colloidal lithography were investigated. By tuning the hole diameter and hole spacing independently, their influence on the Bloch wave-surface plasmon polariton (BW-SPP) and localized surface plasmon resonances resonances (LSPR) could be
Liu, Xiaoliang; Yi, Shijuan; Wang, Chenggong; Wang, Congcong; Gao, Yongli
2014-04-01
The electronic structure evolution and energy level alignment have been investigated at interfaces comprising fullerene (C60)/4,4'-cyclohexylidenebis[N,N-bis(4-methylphenyl) benzenamine] (TAPC)/ molybdenum oxide (MoOx)/ indium tin oxide with ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and inverse photoemission spectroscopy. With deposition of TAPC upon MoOx, a dipole of 1.58 eV was formed at the TAPC/MoOx interface due to electron transfer from TAPC to MoOx. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) onset of TAPC was pinned closed to the Fermi level, leading to a p-doped region and thus increasing the carrier concentration at the very interface. The downward band bending and the resulting built-in field in TAPC were favorable for the hole transfer toward the TAPC/MoOx interface. The rigid downward shift of energy levels of TAPC indicated no significant interface chemistry at the interface. With subsequent deposition of C60 on TAPC, a dipole of 0.27 eV was observed at the C60/TAPC heterojunction due to the electron transfer from TAPC to C60. This led to a drop of the HOMO of TAPC near the C60/TAPC interface, and hence further enhanced the band bending in TAPC. The band bending behavior was also observed in C60, similarly creating a built-in field in C60 film and improving the electron transfer away from the C60/TAPC interface. It can be deduced from the interface analysis that a promising maximum open circuit voltage of 1.5 eV is achievable in C60/TAPC-based organic photovoltaic cells.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teixeira, R.R.P.
1988-01-01
Calculations with the Unified Model (vibrator coupled to two particles), of the energy levels and the eletromagnetic properties have been performed and compared with the twelve pair isotopes from tellurium with A between 112 and 134. The results were analysed using as particles interaction: pairing and SDI (Surface Delta Interaction). The SDI and 3 fonons collective states were used in the fittings, and a syntematic comparison between the theoretical and experimental results was made. The dependence of the results with the model parameters was determined, through large variation sof them. Calculations using 4 fonons have been made, and the importance of the introduced variations in the results was discussed. Calculations have been made in the VAX Computer of the Pelletron at IFUSP. (author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redfors, A.
1991-01-01
Magnesiumlike and aluminumlike spectra of the elements calcium - germanium have been obtained through the use of laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and a 3 m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph. The spectral analyses were mainly based on isoelectronic regularities. Intermediate ionization stages of cerium (Ce V) and silicon (SI VI) have also been studied. The light sources in these cases were a sliding spark and a modified version of the LPP. The Eagle spectrograph at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaitherburg, Maryland was used to record the cerium spectrum. Ab initio calculations and least-squares fits of the Slater energy parameters to the experimental energy levels are reported for all investigated spectra. Theoretical predictions of oscillator strengths for Y III and Zr III in the region 1150-3200 AA are presented. The oscillator strengths are needed for abundance determinations of Y 2+ and Zr 2+ in chemically peculiar stars, Cp stars. (65 refs.)
Hu, Hong-Wei; Chen, Zhan-Bin; Chen, Wen-Cong; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Fu, Nian; Wang, Kai
2017-11-01
Considering the quantum effects of diffraction and the collective screening effects, the potential of test charge in semiclassical plasmas is derived. It is generalized exponential screened Coulomb potential. Using the Ritz variational method incorporating this potential, the effects of semiclassical plasma on the energy levels and radiative transitions are investigated systematically, taking highly charged H-like ion as an example. The Debye plasma model is also employed for comparison purposes. Comparisons and analysis are made between these two sets of results and the differences are discussed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Y.C.; Liu, Z.T.; Tang, J.X.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, S.T.
2009-01-01
The interface energy level alignment between copper phthalocyanine (CuPC) and fullerene (C60), the widely studied donor-acceptor pair in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), on indium-tin oxide (ITO) and Mg substrate was investigated. The CuPC/C60 interface formed on ITO shows a nearly common vacuum level, but a dipole and band bending exist, resulting in a 0.8 eV band offset at the same interface on Mg. This observation indicates that the energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPC and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of C60, which dictates the open circuit voltage of the CuPC/C60 OPV, can be tuned by the work function of the substrate. Furthermore, the substrate effect on the energy alignment at the donor/acceptor interface can satisfactorily explain that a device with an anode of a smaller work function can provide a higher open circuit voltage.
Spectrum and energy levels of six-times ionized yttrium (Y VII)
Reader, Joseph
2018-03-01
The spectrum of six-times ionized yttrium, Y VII, was photographed with a sliding-spark discharge on 10.7 m normal- and grazing-incidence spectrographs. The region of observation was 157-824 Å. The observations extend the known configurations 4s24p3, 4s4p4, 4p5, 4s24p25s, 4s24p26s to the nearly complete 4s24p24d configuration. Our results for 4s24p24d significantly revise results of Rahimullah et al (1978 Phys. Scr. 18 96); Ateqad et al (1984 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 17 4617). A total of 168 lines and 56 energy levels are now known for this ion. The observed configurations were interpreted with Hartree-Fock calculations and least-squares fits of the energy parameters to the observed levels. Transition probabilities for all classified lines were calculated with the fitted parameters.
Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities in Ni XVI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deb, N.C.; Msezane, A.Z.
2001-01-01
Fine-structure energy levels relative to the ground state, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for transitions among the lowest 40 fine-structure levels belonging to the configurations 3s 2 3p, 3s3p 2 , 3s 2 3d, 3p 3 and 3s3p3d of Ni XVI are calculated using a large scale CI in program CIV3 of Hibbert. Relativistic effects are included through the Breit-Pauli approximation via spin-orbit, spin-other-orbit, spin-spin, Darwin and mass correction terms. The existing discrepancies between the calculated and measured values for many of the relative energy positions are resolved in the present calculation which yields excellent agreement with measurement. Also, many of our oscillator strengths for allowed and intercombination transitions are in very good agreement with the recommended data by the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST). (orig.)
Li, Huashan; Lin, Zhibin; Lusk, Mark T; Wu, Zhigang
2014-10-21
The universal and fundamental criteria for charge separation at interfaces involving nanoscale materials are investigated. In addition to the single-quasiparticle excitation, all the two-quasiparticle effects including exciton binding, Coulomb stabilization, and exciton transfer are considered, which play critical roles on nanoscale interfaces for optoelectronic applications. We propose a scheme allowing adding these two-quasiparticle interactions on top of the single-quasiparticle energy level alignment for determining and illuminating charge separation at nanoscale interfaces. Employing the many-body perturbation theory based on Green's functions, we quantitatively demonstrate that neglecting or simplifying these crucial two-quasiparticle interactions using less accurate methods is likely to predict qualitatively incorrect charge separation behaviors at nanoscale interfaces where quantum confinement dominates.
Isotope shifts in odd and even energy levels of the neutral and singly ionised gadolinium atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, S.A.; Venugopalan, A.; Saksena, G.D.
1979-01-01
Isotope shift studies in the gadolinium spectra have been extended in the region 4140 to 4535 A. Isotope shift Δσ(156 to 160) have been measured in 315 lines of the neutral and singly ionised gadolinium atom using a recording Fabry-Perot Spectrometer and gadolinium samples enriched in 156 Gd and 160 Gd isotopes. Some of the Gd I lines studied involve transitions from newly identified high odd levels of 4f 8 6s6p, 4f 7 5d6s7s and 4f 7 5d 3 configurations to low even levels of 4f 8 6s 2 and 4f 7 6s 2 6p configurations. Electronic configurations of the energy levels have been discussed on the basis of observed isotope shifts. In some cases assigned configurations have been revised and probable configurations have been suggested. (author)
A theoretical study of exciton energy levels in laterally coupled quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barticevic, Z; Pacheco, M; Duque, C A; Oliveira, L E
2009-01-01
A theoretical study of the electronic and optical properties of laterally coupled quantum dots, under applied magnetic fields perpendicular to the plane of the dots, is presented. The exciton energy levels of such laterally coupled quantum-dot systems, together with the corresponding wavefunctions and eigenvalues, are obtained in the effective-mass approximation by using an extended variational approach in which the magnetoexciton states are simultaneously obtained. One achieves the expected limits of one single quantum dot, when the distance between the dots is zero, and of two uncoupled quantum dots, when the distance between the dots is large enough. Moreover, present calculations-with appropriate structural dimensions of the two-dot system-are shown to be in agreement with measurements in self-assembled laterally aligned GaAs quantum-dot pairs and naturally/accidentally occurring coupled quantum dots in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells.
Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.
Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A
2016-03-15
Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Study on the gain media with four energy level model using two dimensional FDTD method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Bo; Sun, Bingbing; Xue, Hui; Xiao, Feng [Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing and Signal Processing, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Huang, Zhixiang, E-mail: zxhuang@ahu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing and Signal Processing, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Wu, Xianliang, E-mail: xlwu@ahu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing and Signal Processing, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230061 (China)
2013-08-15
A four energy level model is applied to the gain media, which shows possible application to the complex metamaterials system due to its amplification effect. The coupled equations named polarization equation, rate equations of electronic population and Maxwell's equations are used to describe the coupling between the atoms and electromagnetic wave. Population inversion and lasing threshold are investigated using numerical simulations based on a novel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) treatment of the optical field. The validations of the method are also tested. The numerical results show the good agreement with the classic lasing theory. Our numerical model can be used as an efficient design tool for investigating novel physical phenomena for new laser devices.
Organic semiconductor density of states controls the energy level alignment at electrode interfaces
Oehzelt, Martin; Koch, Norbert; Heimel, Georg
2014-01-01
Minimizing charge carrier injection barriers and extraction losses at interfaces between organic semiconductors and metallic electrodes is critical for optimizing the performance of organic (opto-) electronic devices. Here, we implement a detailed electrostatic model, capable of reproducing the alignment between the electrode Fermi energy and the transport states in the organic semiconductor both qualitatively and quantitatively. Covering the full phenomenological range of interfacial energy level alignment regimes within a single, consistent framework and continuously connecting the limiting cases described by previously proposed models allows us to resolve conflicting views in the literature. Our results highlight the density of states in the organic semiconductor as a key factor. Its shape and, in particular, the energy distribution of electronic states tailing into the fundamental gap is found to determine both the minimum value of practically achievable injection barriers as well as their spatial profile, ranging from abrupt interface dipoles to extended band-bending regions. PMID:24938867
An Alternative Derivation of the Energy Levels of the "Particle on a Ring" System
Vincent, Alan
1996-10-01
All acceptable wave functions must be continuous mathematical functions. This criterion limits the acceptable functions for a particle in a linear 1-dimensional box to sine functions. If, however, the linear box is bent round into a ring, acceptable wave functions are those which are continuous at the 'join'. On this model some acceptable linear functions become unacceptable for the ring and some unacceptable cosine functions become acceptable. This approach can be used to produce a straightforward derivation of the energy levels and wave functions of the particle on a ring. These simple wave mechanical systems can be used as models of linear and cyclic delocalised systems such as conjugated hydrocarbons or the benzene ring. The promotion energy of an electron can then be used to calculate the wavelength of absorption of uv light. The simple model gives results of the correct order of magnitude and shows that, as the chain length increases, the uv maximum moves to longer wavelengths, as found experimentally.
Energy level alignment and quantum conductance of functionalized metal-molecule junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jin, Chengjun; Strange, Mikkel; Markussen, Troels
2013-01-01
We study the effect of functional groups (CH3*4, OCH3, CH3, Cl, CN, F*4) on the electronic transport properties of 1,4-benzenediamine molecular junctions using the non-equilibrium Green function method. Exchange and correlation effects are included at various levels of theory, namely density...... functional theory (DFT), energy level-corrected DFT (DFT+Σ), Hartree-Fock and the many-body GW approximation. All methods reproduce the expected trends for the energy of the frontier orbitals according to the electron donating or withdrawing character of the substituent group. However, only the GW method...... predicts the correct ordering of the conductance amongst the molecules. The absolute GW (DFT) conductance is within a factor of two (three) of the experimental values. Correcting the DFT orbital energies by a simple physically motivated scissors operator, Σ, can bring the DFT conductances close...
Energy levels and radiative transition rates for Ge XXXI, As XXXII, and Se XXXIII
Aggarwal, Sunny; Singh, J.; Jha, A. K. S.; Mohan, Man
2014-07-01
Fine-structure energies of the 67 levels belonging to the 1s2, 1s 2l, 1s3l, 1s4l, 1s5l, and 1s6l configurations of Ge XXXI, As XXXII, and Se XXXIII have been calculated using the General-Purpose Relativistic Atomic Structure Package. In addition, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, transition wavelengths, and line strengths have been calculated for all electric dipole, magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, and magnetic quadrupole transitions among these levels. Lifetimes are also presented for all excited levels of these three ions. We have compared our results with the results available in the literature and the accuracy of the data is assessed. We predict new energy levels, oscillator strengths, and transition probabilities where no other theoretical or experimental results are available, which will form the basis for future experimental work.
Energy levels of the single excited states in NaI and Na-like ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Sherbini, T.M.; Wahby, A.S.
1987-08-01
Energy levels of the single excited 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ns( 2 S), 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 mp( 2 P), 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 md( 2 D) and 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 nf( 2 F); n=4-7, m=3-6 states for NaI and Na-like ions are calculated using the one configuration Hartree-Fock method. Good agreement is obtained between our results for the higher members of the NaI sequence and previous data from photo-absorption and beam foil experiments. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs
Wavelengths and energy levels of Xe V and Xe VI obtained by collision-based spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larsson, M.O.; Gonzalez, A.M.; Hallin, R.; Heijkenskjoeld, F.; Nystroem, B.; O'Sullivan, G.; Weber, C.; Waennstroem, A.
1996-01-01
We have utilized collision-based spectroscopy to investigate the spectra of Xe V and Xe VI. The radiation emitted following electron capture by 50 keV Xe 5+ and 60 keV Xe 6+ ions impinging on a He (Ar) gas target has been recorded in the 350-6000 (1200-2500) A wavelength region. A number of new energy levels of Xe V and Xe VI have been established from lines identified by us. In particular, we have observed and identified transitions from the 5s 2 5p4f (5s 2 4f) configuration of Xe V (Xe VI). The analysis was supported by Hartree-Fock calculations. (orig.)
Visser, Matt; Volovik, Grigory E
2009-01-01
Physicists are pondering on the possibility of simulating black holes in the laboratory by means of various "analog models". These analog models, typically based on condensed matter physics, can be used to help us understand general relativity (Einstein's gravity); conversely, abstract techniques developed in general relativity can sometimes be used to help us understand certain aspects of condensed matter physics. This book contains 13 chapters - written by experts in general relativity, particle physics, and condensed matter physics - that explore various aspects of this two-way traffic.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, Anna E
2008-01-01
Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Casadio
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce
Quantum effects in black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, V.P.
1979-01-01
A strict definition of black holes is presented and some properties with regard to their mass are enumerated. The Hawking quantum effect - the effect of vacuum instability in the black hole gravitational field, as a result of shich the black hole radiates as a heated body is analyzed. It is shown that in order to obtain results on the black hole radiation it is sufficient to predetermine the in-vacuum state at a time moment in the past, when the collapsing body has a large size, and its gravitational field can be neglected. The causes and the place of particle production by the black hole, and also the space-time inside the black hole, are considered
Particle creation by black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hawking, S.W.
1975-01-01
In the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles. This thermal emission leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance: any primordial black hole of mass less than about 10 15 g would have evaporated by now. Although these quantum effects violate the classical law that the area of the event horizon of a black hole cannot decrease, there remains a Generalized Second Law: S + 1/4 A never decreases where S is the entropy of matter outside black holes and A is the sum of the surface areas of the event horizons. This shows that gravitational collapse converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. It is tempting to speculate that this might be the reason why the Universe contains so much entropy per baryon. (orig.) [de
Dvali, Gia
2013-01-01
According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.
Black-hole universe: time evolution.
Yoo, Chul-Moon; Okawa, Hirotada; Nakao, Ken-ichi
2013-10-18
Time evolution of a black hole lattice toy model universe is simulated. The vacuum Einstein equations in a cubic box with a black hole at the origin are numerically solved with periodic boundary conditions on all pairs of faces opposite to each other. Defining effective scale factors by using the area of a surface and the length of an edge of the cubic box, we compare them with that in the Einstein-de Sitter universe. It is found that the behavior of the effective scale factors is well approximated by that in the Einstein-de Sitter universe. In our model, if the box size is sufficiently larger than the horizon radius, local inhomogeneities do not significantly affect the global expansion law of the Universe even though the inhomogeneity is extremely nonlinear.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tipler, F.J.
1979-01-01
A definition of a black hole is proposed that should work in any stably causal space-time. This is that a black hole is the closure of the smaller future set that contains all noncosmological trapped surfaces and which has its boundary generated by null geodesic segments that are boundary generators of TIPs. This allows precise definitions of cosmic censorship and white holes. (UK)
Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reall Harvey S.
2008-09-01
Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.
Black holes in Lorentz-violating gravity theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barausse, Enrico; Sotiriou, Thomas P
2013-01-01
Lorentz symmetry and the notion of light cones play a central role in the definition of horizons and the existence of black holes. Current observations provide strong indications that astrophysical black holes do exist in Nature. Here we explore what happens to the notion of a black hole in gravity theories where local Lorentz symmetry is violated, and discuss the relevant astrophysical implications. Einstein-aether theory and Hořava gravity are used as the theoretical background for addressing this question. We review earlier results about static, spherically symmetric black holes, which demonstrate that in Lorentz-violating theories there can be a new type of horizon and, hence, a new notion of black hole. We also present both known and new results on slowly rotating black holes in these theories, which provide insights on how generic these new horizons are. Finally, we discuss the differences between black holes in Lorentz-violating theories and in General Relativity, and assess to what extent they can be probed with present and future observations. (paper)
Acceleration of black hole universe
Zhang, T. X.; Frederick, C.
2014-01-01
Recently, Zhang slightly modified the standard big bang theory and developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This paper investigates acceleration of the black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the redshift and luminosity distance measurements of type Ia supernovae. The results indicate that the black hole universe accelerates its expansion when it accretes the ambient matter in an increasing rate. In other words, i.e., when the second-order derivative of the mass of the black hole universe with respect to the time is positive . For a constant deceleration parameter , we can perfectly explain the type Ia supernova measurements with the reduced chi-square to be very close to unity, χ red˜1.0012. The expansion and acceleration of black hole universe are driven by external energy.
On black hole horizon fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuchin, K.L.
1999-01-01
A study of the high angular momentum particles 'atmosphere' near the Schwarzschild black hole horizon suggested that strong gravitational interactions occur at invariant distance of the order of 3 √M [2]. We present a generalization of this result to the Kerr-Newman black hole case. It is shown that the larger charge and angular momentum black hole bears, the larger invariant distance at which strong gravitational interactions occur becomes. This invariant distance is of order 3 √((r + 2 )/((r + - r - ))). This implies that the Planckian structure of the Hawking radiation of extreme black holes is completely broken
Black holes and the multiverse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun
2016-01-01
Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse
Black holes and the multiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Tufts University, 574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA, 02155 (United States)
2016-02-01
Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Punsly, B.M.
1988-01-01
This dissertation is a study of the physical mechanism that allows a large scale magnetic field to torque a rapidly rotating, supermassive black hole. This is an interesting problem as it has been conjectured that rapidly rotating black holes are the central engines that power the observed extragalactic double radio sources. Axisymmetric solutions of the curved space-time version of Maxwell's equations in the vacuum do not torque black holes. Plasma must be introduced for the hole to mechanically couple to the field. The dynamical aspect of rotating black holes that couples the magnetic field to the hole is the following. A rotating black hole forces the external geometry of space-time to rotate (the dragging of inertial frames). Inside of the stationary limit surface, the ergosphere, all physical particle trajectories must appear to rotate in the same direction as the black hole as viewed by the stationary observers at asymptotic infinity. In the text, it is demonstrated how plasma that is created on field lines that thread both the ergosphere and the equatorial plane will be pulled by gravity toward the equator. By the aforementioned properties of the ergosphere, the disk must rotate. Consequently, the disk acts like a unipolar generator. It drives a global current system that supports the toroidal magnetic field in an outgoing, magnetically dominated wind. This wind carries energy (mainly in the form of Poynting flux) and angular momentum towards infinity. The spin down of the black hole is the ultimate source of this energy and angular momentum flux
Statistical Hair on Black Holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strominger, A.
1996-01-01
The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.
Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David
2016-09-23
We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barseghyan, M.G., E-mail: mbarsegh@ysu.am
2016-11-10
Highlights: • The electron-impurity interaction on energy levels in nanoring have been investigated. • The electron-impurity interaction on far-infrared absorption have been investigated. • The energy levels are more stable for higher values of electric field. - Abstract: The effects of electron-impurity interaction on energy levels and far-infrared absorption in semiconductor nanoring under the action of intense laser and lateral electric fields have been investigated. Numerical calculations are performed using exact diagonalization technique. It is found that the electron-impurity interaction and external fields change the energy spectrum dramatically, and also have significant influence on the absorption spectrum. Strong dependence on laser field intensity and electric field of lowest energy levels, also supported by the Coulomb interaction with impurity, is clearly revealed.
State-Space Geometry, Statistical Fluctuations, and Black Holes in String Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Bellucci
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study the state-space geometry of various extremal and nonextremal black holes in string theory. From the notion of the intrinsic geometry, we offer a state-space perspective to the black hole vacuum fluctuations. For a given black hole entropy, we explicate the intrinsic geometric meaning of the statistical fluctuations, local and global stability conditions, and long range statistical correlations. We provide a set of physical motivations pertaining to the extremal and nonextremal black holes, namely, the meaning of the chemical geometry and physics of correlation. We illustrate the state-space configurations for general charge extremal black holes. In sequel, we extend our analysis for various possible charge and anticharge nonextremal black holes. From the perspective of statistical fluctuation theory, we offer general remarks, future directions, and open issues towards the intrinsic geometric understanding of the vacuum fluctuations and black holes in string theory.
Black hole thermodynamical entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsallis, Constantino; Cirto, Leonardo J.L.
2013-01-01
As early as 1902, Gibbs pointed out that systems whose partition function diverges, e.g. gravitation, lie outside the validity of the Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) theory. Consistently, since the pioneering Bekenstein-Hawking results, physically meaningful evidence (e.g., the holographic principle) has accumulated that the BG entropy S BG of a (3+1) black hole is proportional to its area L 2 (L being a characteristic linear length), and not to its volume L 3 . Similarly it exists the area law, so named because, for a wide class of strongly quantum-entangled d-dimensional systems, S BG is proportional to lnL if d=1, and to L d-1 if d>1, instead of being proportional to L d (d ≥ 1). These results violate the extensivity of the thermodynamical entropy of a d-dimensional system. This thermodynamical inconsistency disappears if we realize that the thermodynamical entropy of such nonstandard systems is not to be identified with the BG additive entropy but with appropriately generalized nonadditive entropies. Indeed, the celebrated usefulness of the BG entropy is founded on hypothesis such as relatively weak probabilistic correlations (and their connections to ergodicity, which by no means can be assumed as a general rule of nature). Here we introduce a generalized entropy which, for the Schwarzschild black hole and the area law, can solve the thermodynamic puzzle. (orig.)
Acoustic black holes: recent developments in the theory and applications.
Krylov, Victor
2014-08-01
Acoustic black holes are relatively new physical objects that have been introduced and investigated mainly during the last decade. They can absorb almost 100% of the incident wave energy, and this makes them very attractive for such traditional engineering applications as vibration damping in different engineering structures and sound absorption in gases and liquids. They also could be useful for some ultrasonic devices using Lamb wave propagation to provide anechoic termination for such waves. So far, acoustic black holes have been investigated mainly for flexural waves in thin plates, for which the required gradual changes in local wave velocity with distance can be easily achieved by changing the plates' local thickness. The present paper provides a brief review of the theory of acoustic black holes, including their comparison with optic black holes introduced about five years ago. Review is also given of the recent experimental work carried out at Loughborough University on damping structural vibrations using the acoustic black hole effect. This is followed by the discussion on potential applications of the acoustic black hole effect for sound absorption in air.
Effective theory of black holes in the 1/D expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emparan, Roberto; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro; Tanaka, Takahiro
2015-01-01
The gravitational field of a black hole is strongly localized near its horizon when the number of dimensions D is very large. In this limit, we can effectively replace the black hole with a surface in a background geometry (e.g. Minkowski or Anti-deSitter space). The Einstein equations determine the effective equations that this ‘black hole surface’ (or membrane) must satisfy. We obtain them up to next-to-leading order in 1/D for static black holes of the Einstein-(A)dS theory. To leading order, and also to next order in Minkowski backgrounds, the equations of the effective theory are the same as soap-film equations, possibly up to a redshift factor. In particular, the Schwarzschild black hole is recovered as a spherical soap bubble. Less trivially, we find solutions for ‘black droplets’, i.e. black holes localized at the boundary of AdS, and for non-uniform black strings.
Thermodynamic stability of modified Schwarzschild-AdS black hole in rainbow gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Yong-Wan [Chonbuk National University, Research Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Kook [Seonam University, Department of Physical Therapy, Namwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Jai [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
In this paper, we have extended the previous study of the thermodynamics and phase transition of the Schwarzschild black hole in the rainbow gravity to the Schwarzschild-AdS black hole where metric depends on the energy of a probe. Making use of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the modified dispersion relation, we have obtained the modified local Hawking temperature and thermodynamic quantities in an isothermal cavity. Moreover, we carry out the analysis of constant temperature slices of a black hole. As a result, we have shown that there also exists another Hawking-Page-like phase transition in which case a locally stable small black hole tunnels into a globally stable large black hole as well as the standard Hawking-Page phase transition from a hot flat space to a black hole. (orig.)
On black hole thermodynamics with a momentum relaxation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Chanyong
2016-01-01
We investigate black hole thermodynamics involving a scalar hair which is dual to a momentum relaxation of the dual field theory. This black hole geometry is able to be classified by two parameters. One is a momentum relaxation and the other is a mass density of another matter localized at the center. Even though all parameters are continuous, there exists a specific point where its thermodynamic interpretation is not continuously connected to the one defined in the other parameter regime. The similar feature also appears in a topological AdS black hole. In this work, we show why such an unusual thermodynamic feature happens and provide a unified way to understand such an exotic black hole thermodynamically in the entire parameter range. (paper)
Black Hole Horizons and Bose-Einstein Condensation
Ferrari, Frank
2016-01-01
Consider a particle sitting at a fixed position outside of a stable black hole. If the system is heated up, the black hole horizon grows and there should exist a critical temperature above which the particle enters the black hole interior. We solve a simple model describing exactly this situation: a large N matrix quantum mechanics modeling a fixed D-particle in a black hole background. We show that indeed a striking phenomenon occurs: above some critical temperature, there is a non-perturbative Bose-Einstein condensation of massless strings. The transition, even though precisely defined by the presence of the condensate, cannot be sharply detected by measurements made in a finite amount of time. The order parameter is fundamentally non-local in time and corresponds to infinite-time correlations.
30 CFR 57.7055 - Intersecting holes.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intersecting holes. 57.7055 Section 57.7055... Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7055 Intersecting holes. Holes shall not be drilled where there is a danger of intersecting a misfired hole or a hole containing explosives, blasting agents...
30 CFR 56.7055 - Intersecting holes.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intersecting holes. 56.7055 Section 56.7055... Piercing Drilling § 56.7055 Intersecting holes. Holes shall not be drilled where there is a danger of intersecting a misfired hole or a hole containing explosives blasting agents, or detonators. [56 FR 46508, Sept...
Pathak, P K; Roychoudhury, R; Saharia, J; Borah, M C; Dutta, D J; Bhuyan, R; Kalita, D
2018-06-01
The present study was formulated to find out the status of important season related thermal stress biomarkers of pure-bred (Hampshire) and crossbred (50% Hampshire × 50% local) pigs under the agro-climatic condition of Assam State, India. The experiment was also aimed to study the role of different level of energy ration (110, 100, and 90% energy of NRC feeding standard for pig) in variation of physiological and biochemical parameters in two genetic groups of pigs in different seasons. The metabolizable energy value were 3260, 2936.5, and 3585.8 kcal/kg in grower ration and 3260.2, 2936.6, and 3587 kcal/kg in finisher ration for normal energy (NE), low energy (LE) and high energy (HE), respectively. Both the genetic group of animals were housed separately under intensive system of management. Each pen was measuring 10' × 12' along with an outer enclosure. Six weaned piglets (almost similar body weight of average 10.55 kg) of each group were kept in a separate pen. However, after attainment of 35 kg body weight, the animals of a group were divided in two pens of three animals each. The present experiment indicated that average ambient temperature during summer months (27.33-29.51 °C) was above the comfort zone for pigs (22 °C). The significantly (P energy (HE) ration during summer season. Serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) concentrations were significantly (P energy level of the ration might be helpful to minimize the effects of thermal stress during summer.
Wavelengths, energy levels and hyperfine structure of Mn II and Sc II.
Nave, Gillian; Pickering, Juliet C.; Townley-Smith, Keeley I. M.; Hala, .
2015-08-01
For many decades, the Atomic Spectroscopy Groups at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Imperial College London (ICL) have measured atomic data of astronomical interest. Our spectrometers include Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers at NIST and ICL covering the region 1350 Å to 5.5 μm and a 10.7-m grating spectrometer at NIST covering wavelengths from 300 - 5000 Å. Sources for these spectra include high-current continuous and pulsed hollow cathode (HCL) lamps, Penning discharges, and sliding spark discharges. Recent work has focused on the measurement and analysis of wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure (HFS) constants for iron-group elements. The analysis of FT spectra of Cr I, Mn I, and Mn II is being led by ICL and is described in a companion poster [1]. Current work being led by NIST includes the analysis of HFS in Mn II, analysis of Mn II in the vacuum ultraviolet, and a comprehensive analysis of Sc II.Comprehensive HFS constants for Mn II are needed for the interpretation of stellar spectra and incorrect abundances may be obtained when HFS is omitted. Holt et al. [2] have measured HFS constants for 59 levels of Mn II using laser spectroscopy. We used FT spectra of Mn/Ni and Mn/Cu HCLs covering wavelength ranges from 1350 Å to 5.4 μm to confirm 26 of the A constants of Holt et al. and obtain values for roughly 40 additional levels. We aim to obtain HFS constants for the majority of lines showing significant HFS that are observed in chemically-peculiar stars.Spectra of Sc HCLs have been recorded from 1800 - 6700 Å using a vacuum ultraviolet FT spectrometer at NIST. Additional measurements to cover wavelengths above 6700 Å and below 1800 Å are in progress. The spectra are being analyzed by NIST and Alighar Muslim University, India in order to derive improved wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure parameters.This work was partially supported by NASA, the STFC and PPARC (UK), the Royal Society of the UK
Thermodynamics of Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter black holes in the grand canonical ensemble
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernando, Sharmanthie
2006-01-01
The main objective of this paper is to study thermodynamics and stability of static electrically charged Born-Infeld black holes in AdS space in D=4. The Euclidean action for the grand canonical ensemble is computed with the appropriate boundary terms. The thermodynamical quantities such as the Gibbs free energy, entropy and specific heat of the black holes are derived from it. The global stability of black holes are studied in detail by studying the free energy for various potentials. For small values of the potential, we find that there is a Hawking-Page phase transition between a BIAdS black hole and the thermal-AdS space. For large potentials, the black hole phase is dominant and is preferred over the thermal-AdS space. Local stability is studied by computing the specific heat for constant potentials. The nonextreme black holes have two branches: small black holes are unstable and the large black holes are stable. The extreme black holes are shown to be stable both globally as well as locally. In addition to the thermodynamics, we also show that the phase structure relating the mass M and the charge Q of the black holes is similar to the liquid-gas-solid phase diagram
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Marianne
2004-01-01
The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....
ATLAS simulated black hole event
Pequenão, J
2008-01-01
The simulated collision event shown is viewed along the beampipe. The event is one in which a microscopic-black-hole was produced in the collision of two protons (not shown). The microscopic-black-hole decayed immediately into many particles. The colors of the tracks show different types of particles emerging from the collision (at the center).
Drilling miniature holes, Part III
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gillespie, L.K.
1978-07-01
Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.
Optical appearance of white holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lake, K.; Roeder, R.C.
1978-01-01
The detailed optical properties of white holes are examined within the framework of geometrical optics. It is shown that the appearance of the objects most likely to be observed at late times is in fact determined by their early histories. These ccalculations indicate that one cannot invoke the simple concept of a stable white hole as a ''natural'' explanation of highly energetic astrophysical phenomena
Subramanian, Alagesan; Pan, Zhenghui; Zhang, Zhenbo; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Chen, Jing; Liu, Meinan; Cheng, Shuang; Xu, Yijun; Wu, Jun; Lei, Wei; Khan, Qasim; Zhang, Yuegang
2018-04-18
All-inorganic perovskite light-emitting diode (PeLED) has a high stability in ambient atmosphere, but it is a big challenge to achieve high performance of the device. Basically, device design, control of energy-level alignment, and reducing the energy barrier between adjacent layers in the architecture of PeLED are important factors to achieve high efficiency. In this study, we report a CsPbBr 3 -based PeLED with an inverted architecture using lithium-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles as the electron transport layer (ETL). The optimal lithium doping balances the charge carrier injection between the hole transport layer and ETL, leading to superior device performance. The device exhibits a current efficiency of 3 cd A -1 , a luminance efficiency of 2210 cd m -2 , and a low turn-on voltage of 2.3 V. The turn-on voltage is one of the lowest values among reported CsPbBr 3 -based PeLEDs. A 7-fold increase in device efficiencies has been obtained for lithium-doped TiO 2 compared to that for undoped TiO 2 -based devices.
The dynamics of electron and ion holes in a collisionless plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Eliasson
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We present a review of recent analytical and numerical studies of the dynamics of electron and ion holes in a collisionless plasma. The new results are based on the class of analytic solutions which were found by Schamel more than three decades ago, and which here work as initial conditions to numerical simulations of the dynamics of ion and electron holes and their interaction with radiation and the background plasma. Our analytic and numerical studies reveal that ion holes in an electron-ion plasma can trap Langmuir waves, due the local electron density depletion associated with the negative ion hole potential. Since the scale-length of the ion holes are on a relatively small Debye scale, the trapped Langmuir waves are Landau damped. We also find that colliding ion holes accelerate electron streams by the negative ion hole potentials, and that these streams of electrons excite Langmuir waves due to a streaming instability. In our Vlasov simulation of two colliding ion holes, the holes survive the collision and after the collision, the electron distribution becomes flat-topped between the two ion holes due to the ion hole potentials which work as potential barriers for low-energy electrons. Our study of the dynamics between electron holes and the ion background reveals that standing electron holes can be accelerated by the self-created ion cavity owing to the positive electron hole potential. Vlasov simulations show that electron holes are repelled by ion density minima and attracted by ion density maxima. We also present an extension of Schamel's theory to relativistically hot plasmas, where the relativistic mass increase of the accelerated electrons have a dramatic effect on the electron hole, with an increase in the electron hole potential and in the width of the electron hole. A study of the interaction between electromagnetic waves with relativistic electron holes shows that electromagnetic waves can be both linearly and nonlinearly
Black holes and everyday physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekenstein, J.D.
1982-01-01
Black holes have piqued much curiosity. But thus far they have been important only in ''remote'' subjects like astrophysics and quantum gravity. It is shown that the situation can be improved. By a judicious application of black hole physics, one can obtain new results in ''everyday physics''. For example, black holes yield a quantum universal upper bound on the entropy-to-energy ratio for ordinary thermodynamical systems which was unknown earlier. It can be checked, albeit with much labor, by ordinary statistical methods. Black holes set a limitation on the number of species of elementary particles-quarks, leptons, neutrinos - which may exist. And black holes lead to a fundamental limitation on the rate at which information can be transferred for given message energy by any communication system. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torn, K.
1976-01-01
Conceivable experimental investigations to prove the existence of black holes are discussed. Double system with a black hole turning around a star-satellite are in the spotlight. X-radiation emmited by such systems and resulting from accretion of the stellar gas by a black hole, and the gas heating when falling on the black hole might prove the model suggested. A source of strong X-radiation observed in the Cygnus star cluster and referred to as Cygnus X-1 may be thus identified as a black hole. Direct registration of short X-ray pulses with msec intervals might prove the suggestion. The lack of appropriate astrophysic facilities is pointed out to be the major difficulty on the way of experimental verifications
Black hole final state conspiracies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McInnes, Brett
2009-01-01
The principle that unitarity must be preserved in all processes, no matter how exotic, has led to deep insights into boundary conditions in cosmology and black hole theory. In the case of black hole evaporation, Horowitz and Maldacena were led to propose that unitarity preservation can be understood in terms of a restriction imposed on the wave function at the singularity. Gottesman and Preskill showed that this natural idea only works if one postulates the presence of 'conspiracies' between systems just inside the event horizon and states at much later times, near the singularity. We argue that some AdS black holes have unusual internal thermodynamics, and that this may permit the required 'conspiracies' if real black holes are described by some kind of sum over all AdS black holes having the same entropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hubeny, V.
2005-01-12
We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect--the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive. The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.
Compressibility of rotating black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolan, Brian P.
2011-01-01
Interpreting the cosmological constant as a pressure, whose thermodynamically conjugate variable is a volume, modifies the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Properties of the resulting thermodynamic volume are investigated: the compressibility and the speed of sound of the black hole are derived in the case of nonpositive cosmological constant. The adiabatic compressibility vanishes for a nonrotating black hole and is maximal in the extremal case--comparable with, but still less than, that of a cold neutron star. A speed of sound v s is associated with the adiabatic compressibility, which is equal to c for a nonrotating black hole and decreases as the angular momentum is increased. An extremal black hole has v s 2 =0.9 c 2 when the cosmological constant vanishes, and more generally v s is bounded below by c/√(2).
Characteristics of Low-latitude Coronal Holes near the Maximum of Solar Cycle 24
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hofmeister, Stefan J.; Veronig, Astrid; Reiss, Martin A.; Temmer, Manuela [University of Graz, Institute of Physics, IGAM-Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Graz (Austria); Vennerstrom, Susanne [National Space Institute, DTU Space (Denmark); Vršnak, Bojan [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, Zagreb (Croatia); Heber, Bernd, E-mail: stefan.hofmeister@uni-graz.at [Universität Kiel, Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Kiel (Germany)
2017-02-01
We investigate the statistics of 288 low-latitude coronal holes extracted from SDO /AIA-193 filtergrams over the time range of 2011 January 01–2013 December 31. We analyze the distribution of characteristic coronal hole properties, such as the areas, mean AIA-193 intensities, and mean magnetic field densities, the local distribution of the SDO /AIA-193 intensity and the magnetic field within the coronal holes, and the distribution of magnetic flux tubes in coronal holes. We find that the mean magnetic field density of all coronal holes under study is 3.0 ± 1.6 G, and the percentaged unbalanced magnetic flux is 49 ± 16%. The mean magnetic field density, the mean unsigned magnetic field density, and the percentaged unbalanced magnetic flux of coronal holes depend strongly pairwise on each other, with correlation coefficients cc > 0.92. Furthermore, we find that the unbalanced magnetic flux of the coronal holes is predominantly concentrated in magnetic flux tubes: 38% (81%) of the unbalanced magnetic flux of coronal holes arises from only 1% (10%) of the coronal hole area, clustered in magnetic flux tubes with field strengths >50 G (10 G). The average magnetic field density and the unbalanced magnetic flux derived from the magnetic flux tubes correlate with the mean magnetic field density and the unbalanced magnetic flux of the overall coronal hole (cc>0.93). These findings give evidence that the overall magnetic characteristics of coronal holes are governed by the characteristics of the magnetic flux tubes.
Discovery of new Praseodymium I energy levels with help of green laser light
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, Shamim; Siddiqui, Imran; Tanweer Iqbal, Syed; Windholz, Laurentius [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, A 8010 Graz (Austria)
2012-07-01
The hyperfine structure (hfs) of Praseodymium I spectral lines were experimentally investigated using LIF technique in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. We report here the investigation of 100 spectral lines which resulted in a discovery of 20 new energy levels of even and odd parity. The excitation source is a tunable ring-dye laser system, operated with Coumarin 102. The laser wavelength is tuned to a strong hyperfine component of the investigated spectral line, and fluorescence signals from excited levels are searched. The hfs of the investigated line is recorded by scanning the laser frequency across the investigated region. Magnetic hf interaction constant ''A'' and angular momentum ''J'' of the combining lower and upper levels involved in the formation of the line are evaluated. If one of the combining levels is not known (in most cases upper level), the determined angular momentum ''J'' and hyperfine constant ''A'' are used to identify one of the involved levels (in most cases the lower level) and the energy of the unknown level is determined by using center of mass wave number of line and the energy of the identified level. The level found in this way must explain most of the observed fluorescence wavelengths and the hyperfine structure of the fluorescence lines appearing in FT spectrum.
Studies of energy levels and lifetimes in neutral and ionized light atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huldt, S.
1980-05-01
The spectrum of singly ionized Titanium has been analysed by photographic spectral recordings of the light from a hollow- cathod. 1240 classified lines in the region 1200 A - 11000 A and 202 term values are reported. Lifetimes of the 3p 5 5p levels in neutral Argon have been measured by the High-frequency-Deflection technique considering the trapping of radiation from the excited 3p 5 4s level. Energy levels and lifetimes of excited states have been studied with the beam-foil method for selected ions in the atomic number range 7 - 30. Influence of transition probabilities caused by hyper-fine interaction for low members of the Helium iso-electronic sequence i verified. The oscillator strength for the inter-combination transition ls 2 1S 0 -1s3p 3 p 1 is measured in Beryllium-like Nitrogen, Oxygen and Fluorine. Accurate determinations of lifetimes for some of the lowest excited levels in Si I - Si IV and Zn II are reported. A large fraction of circularly polarized light is seen in the 0 VI n=6-7 hydrogenic transition when a 4 MeV beam of oxygen was passed through a tilted carbon foil. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ismail, M.; Adel, A.
2013-01-01
A realistic density-dependent nucleon–nucleon (NN) interaction with finite-range exchange part which produces the nuclear matter saturation curve and the energy dependence of the nucleon–nucleus optical model potential is used to calculate the preformation probability, S α , of α-decay from different isotones with neutron numbers N=124,126,128,130 and 132. We studied the variation of S α with the proton number, Z, for each isotone and found the effect of neutron and proton energy levels of parent nuclei on the behavior of the α-particle preformation probability. We found that S α increases regularly with the proton number when the proton pair in α-particle is emitted from the same level and the neutron level sequence is not changed during the Z-variation. In this case the neutron–proton (n–p) interaction of the two levels, contributing to emission process, is too small. On the contrary, if the proton or neutron level sequence is changed during the emission process, S α behaves irregularly, the irregular behavior increases if both proton and neutron levels are changed. This behavior is accompanied by change or rapid increase in the strength of n–p interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manon Morin
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the posttranscriptional regulatory system Csr was postulated to influence the transition from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis. Here, we explored the role of the Csr system in the glucose-acetate transition as a model of the glycolysis-to-gluconeogenesis switch. Mutations in the Csr system influence the reorganization of gene expression after glucose exhaustion and disturb the timing of acetate reconsumption after glucose exhaustion. Analysis of metabolite concentrations during the transition revealed that the Csr system has a major effect on the energy levels of the cells after glucose exhaustion. This influence was demonstrated to result directly from the effect of the Csr system on glycogen accumulation. Mutation in glycogen metabolism was also demonstrated to hinder metabolic adaptation after glucose exhaustion because of insufficient energy. This work explains how the Csr system influences E. coli fitness during the glycolysis-gluconeogenesis switch and demonstrates the role of glycogen in maintenance of the energy charge during metabolic adaptation.
Energy Levels of Defects Created in Silicon Supersaturated with Transition Metals
García, H.; Castán, H.; Dueñas, S.; García-Hemme, E.; García-Hernansaz, R.; Montero, D.; González-Díaz, G.
2018-03-01
Intermediate-band semiconductors have attracted much attention for use in silicon-based solar cells and infrared detectors. In this work, n-Si substrates have been implanted with very high doses (1013 cm-2 and 1014 cm-2) of vanadium, which gives rise to a supersaturated layer inside the semiconductor. However, the Mott limit was not exceeded. The energy levels created in the supersaturated silicon were studied in detail by means of thermal admittance spectroscopy. We found a single deep center at energy near E C - 200 meV. This value agrees with one of the levels found for vanadium in silicon. The capture cross-section values of the deep levels were also calculated, and we found a relationship between the capture cross-section and the energy position of the deep levels which follows the Meyer-Neldel rule. This process usually appears in processes involving multiple excitations. The Meyer-Neldel energy values agree with those previously obtained for silicon supersaturated with titanium and for silicon contaminated with iron.
Conjugated polymer energy level shifts in lithium-ion battery electrolytes.
Song, Charles Kiseok; Eckstein, Brian J; Tam, Teck Lip Dexter; Trahey, Lynn; Marks, Tobin J
2014-11-12
The ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs) of widely used conjugated polymers are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in conventional electrochemical and lithium-ion battery media, and also by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) in vacuo. By comparing the data obtained in the different systems, it is found that the IPs of the conjugated polymer films determined by conventional CV (IPC) can be correlated with UPS-measured HOMO energy levels (EH,UPS) by the relationship EH,UPS = (1.14 ± 0.23) × qIPC + (4.62 ± 0.10) eV, where q is the electron charge. It is also found that the EAs of the conjugated polymer films measured via CV in conventional (EAC) and Li(+) battery (EAB) media can be linearly correlated by the relationship EAB = (1.07 ± 0.13) × EAC + (2.84 ± 0.22) V. The slopes and intercepts of these equations can be correlated with the dielectric constants of the polymer film environments and the redox potentials of the reference electrodes, as modified by the surrounding electrolyte, respectively.
Influence of dense plasma on the energy levels and transition properties in highly charged ions
Chen, Zhan-Bin; Hu, Hong-Wei; Ma, Kun; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Guo, Xue-Ling; Li, Shuang; Zhu, Bo-Hong; Huang, Lian; Wang, Kai
2018-03-01
The studies of the influence of plasma environments on the level structures and transition properties for highly charged ions are presented. For the relativistic treatment, we implemented the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method incorporating the ion sphere (IS) model potential, in which the plasma screening is taken into account as a modified interaction potential between the electron and the nucleus. For the nonrelativistic treatment, analytical solutions of the Schrödinger equation with two types of the IS screened potential are proposed. The Ritz variation method is used with hydrogenic wave function as a trial wave function that contains two unknown variational parameters. Bound energies are derived from an energy equation, and the variational parameters are obtained from the minimisation condition of the expectation value of the energy. Numerical results for hydrogen-like ions in dense plasmas are presented as examples. A detailed analysis of the influence of relativistic effects on the energy levels and transition properties is also reported. Our results are compared with available results in the literature showing a good quantitative agreement.
Molecular design of new P3HT derivatives: Adjusting electronic energy levels for blends with PCBM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, Eliezer Fernando [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, POSMAT – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Materiais, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Lavarda, Francisco Carlos, E-mail: lavarda@fc.unesp.br [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, POSMAT – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Materiais, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Ciências, UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Física, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube, 14-01, 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil)
2014-12-15
An intensive search is underway for new materials to make more efficient organic solar cells through improvements in thin film morphology, transport properties, and adjustments to the energy of frontier electronic levels. The use of chemical modifications capable of modifying the electronic properties of materials already known is an interesting approach, as it can, in principle, provide a more adequate adjustment of the frontier electronic levels while preserving properties such as solubility. Based on this idea, we performed a theoretical study of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 13 new derivatives obtained by substitution with electron acceptor and donor groups, in order to understand how the energy levels of the frontier orbitals are modified. The results show that it is possible to deduce the modification of the electronic levels in accordance with the substituent's acceptor/donor character. We also evaluated how the substituents influence the open circuit voltage and the exciton binding energy. - Highlights: • Prediction of P3HT derivatives properties for bulk-heterojunction solar cells. • Correlating substituent properties with electronic levels of P3HT derivatives. • Fluorinated P3HT improves open circuit voltage and stability.
Spectroscopy and energy level location of the trivalent lanthanides in LiYP4O12
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorenbos, P.; Shalapska, T.; Stryganyuk, G.; Gektin, A.; Voloshinovskii, A.
2011-01-01
The excitation and emission properties of the lanthanides Ce 3+ , Pr 3+ , Nd 3+ , Sm 3+ , Eu 3+ , Tb 3+ , Er 3+ , Tm 3+ , and Yb 3+ in LiYP 4 O 12 were studied by vacuum ultra-violet spectroscopy at 10 K. It provides information on the energies of 4f-5d excitation and emission bands. In the case of Er 3+ spin forbidden emission was observed. Charge transfer excitation bands were identified for Eu 3+ , Sm 3+ , Tm 3+ , and Yb 3+ , and in the case of Yb 3+ charge transfer luminescence is observed. All data appear to be consistent with each other and have been used to construct a level scheme showing the location of the energy levels of all trivalent and divalent lanthanides in LiYP 4 O 12 . - Research Highlights: → The spectroscopy of most of the trivalent lanthanides in LiYP 4 O 12 is presented for the first time. → Charge transfer luminescence of Yb3+ is reported. → We demonstrate that the energy of the first 4f-5d transition and the charge transfer band agree with predictive models. → For the first time a scheme with the location of all lanthanide states (divalent and trivalent ) w.r.t. de-valence and conduction band of LIP 4 O 12 is presented.
Energy levels distribution in supersaturated silicon with titanium for photovoltaic applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pérez, E.; Castán, H.; García, H.; Dueñas, S.; Bailón, L.; Montero, D.; García-Hernansanz, R.; García-Hemme, E.; González-Díaz, G.; Olea, J.
2015-01-01
In the attempt to form an intermediate band in the bandgap of silicon substrates to give it the capability to absorb infrared radiation, we studied the deep levels in supersaturated silicon with titanium. The technique used to characterize the energy levels was the thermal admittance spectroscopy. Our experimental results showed that in samples with titanium concentration just under Mott limit there was a relationship among the activation energy value and the capture cross section value. This relationship obeys to the well known Meyer-Neldel rule, which typically appears in processes involving multiple excitations, like carrier capture/emission in deep levels, and it is generally observed in disordered systems. The obtained characteristic Meyer-Neldel parameters were Tmn = 176 K and kTmn = 15 meV. The energy value could be associated to the typical energy of the phonons in the substrate. The almost perfect adjust of all experimental data to the same straight line provides further evidence of the validity of the Meyer Neldel rule, and may contribute to obtain a deeper insight on the ultimate meaning of this phenomenon
Energy levels distribution in supersaturated silicon with titanium for photovoltaic applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pérez, E., E-mail: eduper@ele.uva.es; Castán, H.; García, H.; Dueñas, S.; Bailón, L. [Dept. de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicación, Paseo de Belén 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Montero, D.; García-Hernansanz, R.; García-Hemme, E.; González-Díaz, G. [Dept. de Física Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electrónica), Univ. Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Olea, J. [CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Energía Solar, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicación, Univ. Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2015-01-12
In the attempt to form an intermediate band in the bandgap of silicon substrates to give it the capability to absorb infrared radiation, we studied the deep levels in supersaturated silicon with titanium. The technique used to characterize the energy levels was the thermal admittance spectroscopy. Our experimental results showed that in samples with titanium concentration just under Mott limit there was a relationship among the activation energy value and the capture cross section value. This relationship obeys to the well known Meyer-Neldel rule, which typically appears in processes involving multiple excitations, like carrier capture/emission in deep levels, and it is generally observed in disordered systems. The obtained characteristic Meyer-Neldel parameters were Tmn = 176 K and kTmn = 15 meV. The energy value could be associated to the typical energy of the phonons in the substrate. The almost perfect adjust of all experimental data to the same straight line provides further evidence of the validity of the Meyer Neldel rule, and may contribute to obtain a deeper insight on the ultimate meaning of this phenomenon.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abad, Enrique
2013-07-01
A new calculational approach to describing metal/organic interfaces. A valuable step towards a better understanding of molecular electronics. Nominated as an outstanding contribution by the Autonomous University of Madrid. In recent years, ever more electronic devices have started to exploit the advantages of organic semiconductors. The work reported in this thesis focuses on analyzing theoretically the energy level alignment of different metal/organic interfaces, necessary to tailor devices with good performance. Traditional methods based on density functional theory (DFT), are not appropriate for analyzing them because they underestimate the organic energy gap and fail to correctly describe the van der Waals forces. Since the size of these systems prohibits the use of more accurate methods, corrections to those DFT drawbacks are desirable. In this work a combination of a standard DFT calculation with the inclusion of the charging energy (U) of the molecule, calculated from first principles, is presented. Regarding the dispersion forces, incorrect long range interaction is substituted by a van der Waals potential. With these corrections, the C60, benzene, pentacene, TTF and TCNQ/Au(111) interfaces are analyzed, both for single molecules and for a monolayer. The results validate the induced density of interface states model.
Enzyme Supplementation of Broiler Feeds with Reduced Mineral and Energy Levels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
JO Nunes
2015-12-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted with the purpose of evaluating enzyme blends on the performance, carcass traits, and bone mineralization of broilers. In total, 928 one-day-old Cobb 500 male chicks of were used. A completely randomized design with four treatments with eight replicates of 29 birds each was adopted. The evaluated treatments were: 1- Positive Control (PC, feed containing the nutritional recommendations of the genetic company's manual; 2- Negative Control (NC, feed with reductions of 75 kcal/kg AME and 0.10 and 0.12 percent points of phosphorus and calcium, respectively; 3 - NC + enzyme blend (amylase + b-glucanase, xylanase, and phytase; 250 g/t of feed and 4 - NC + enzyme complex (phytase, amylase, xylanase, glucanase, pectinase, cellulase, and protease; 200 g/t of feed. Birds fed the diet with reduced nutrient levels (NC presented the worst performance (p0.05 carcass or parts yields. The broilers fed the reduced-nutrient and energy diet presented lower (p<0.05 tibial ash, calcium, and phosphorus contents that the other treatments. The use of enzyme combinations improved the performance of broilers fed diets with reduced nutrient and energy levels.
Caged black holes: Black holes in compactified spacetimes. I. Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kol, Barak; Sorkin, Evgeny; Piran, Tsvi
2004-01-01
In backgrounds with compact dimensions there may exist several phases of black objects including a black hole and a black string. The phase transition between them raises questions and touches on fundamental issues such as topology change, uniqueness, and cosmic censorship. No analytic solution is known for the black hole, and moreover one can expect approximate solutions only for very small black holes, while phase transition physics happens when the black hole is large. Hence we turn to numerical solutions. Here some theoretical background to the numerical analysis is given, while the results will appear in a subsequent paper. The goals for a numerical analysis are set. The scalar charge and tension along the compact dimension are defined and used as improved order parameters which put both the black hole and the black string at finite values on the phase diagram. The predictions for small black holes are presented. The differential and the integrated forms of the first law are derived, and the latter (Smarr's formula) can be used to estimate the 'overall numerical error'. Field asymptotics and expressions for physical quantities in terms of the numerical values are supplied. The techniques include the 'method of equivalent charges', free energy, dimensional reduction, and analytic perturbation for small black holes
New geometries for black hole horizons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armas, Jay [Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Blau, Matthias [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)
2015-07-10
We construct several classes of worldvolume effective actions for black holes by integrating out spatial sections of the worldvolume geometry of asymptotically flat black branes. This provides a generalisation of the blackfold approach for higher-dimensional black holes and yields a map between different effective theories, which we exploit by obtaining new hydrodynamic and elastic transport coefficients via simple integrations. Using Euclidean minimal surfaces in order to decouple the fluid dynamics on different sections of the worldvolume, we obtain local effective theories for ultraspinning Myers-Perry branes and helicoidal black branes, described in terms of a stress-energy tensor, particle currents and non-trivial boost vectors. We then study in detail and present novel compact and non-compact geometries for black hole horizons in higher-dimensional asymptotically flat space-time. These include doubly-spinning black rings, black helicoids and helicoidal p-branes as well as helicoidal black rings and helicoidal black tori in D≥6.
Minidisks in Binary Black Hole Accretion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryan, Geoffrey; MacFadyen, Andrew, E-mail: gsr257@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)
2017-02-01
Newtonian simulations have demonstrated that accretion onto binary black holes produces accretion disks around each black hole (“minidisks”), fed by gas streams flowing through the circumbinary cavity from the surrounding circumbinary disk. We study the dynamics and radiation of an individual black hole minidisk using 2D hydrodynamical simulations performed with a new general relativistic version of the moving-mesh code Disco. We introduce a comoving energy variable that enables highly accurate integration of these high Mach number flows. Tidally induced spiral shock waves are excited in the disk and propagate through the innermost stable circular orbit, providing a Reynolds stress that causes efficient accretion by purely hydrodynamic means and producing a radiative signature brighter in hard X-rays than the Novikov–Thorne model. Disk cooling is provided by a local blackbody prescription that allows the disk to evolve self-consistently to a temperature profile where hydrodynamic heating is balanced by radiative cooling. We find that the spiral shock structure is in agreement with the relativistic dispersion relation for tightly wound linear waves. We measure the shock-induced dissipation and find outward angular momentum transport corresponding to an effective alpha parameter of order 0.01. We perform ray-tracing image calculations from the simulations to produce theoretical minidisk spectra and viewing-angle-dependent images for comparison with observations.
When Supermassive Black Holes Wander
Kohler, Susanna
2018-05-01
Are supermassive black holes found only at the centers of galaxies? Definitely not, according to a new study in fact, galaxies like the Milky Way may harbor several such monsters wandering through their midst.Collecting Black Holes Through MergersIts generally believed that galaxies are built up hierarchically, growing in size through repeated mergers over time. Each galaxy in a major merger likely hosts a supermassive black hole a black hole of millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun at its center. When a pair of galaxies merges, their supermassive black holes will often sink to the center of the merger via a process known as dynamical friction. There the supermassive black holes themselves will eventually merge in a burst of gravitational waves.Spatial distribution and velocities of wandering supermassive black holes in three of the authors simulated galaxies, shown in edge-on (left) and face-on (right) views of the galaxy disks. Click for a closer look. [Tremmel et al. 2018]But if a galaxy the size of the Milky Way was built through a history of many major galactic mergers, are we sure that all its accumulated supermassive black holes eventually merged at the galactic center? A new study suggests that some of these giants might have escaped such a fate and they now wander unseen on wide orbits through their galaxies.Black Holes in an Evolving UniverseLed by Michael Tremmel (Yale Center for Astronomy Astrophysics), a team of scientists has used data from a large-scale cosmological simulation, Romulus25, to explore the possibility of wandering supermassive black holes. The Romulus simulations are uniquely suited to track the formation and subsequent orbital motion of supermassive black holes as galactic halos are built up through mergers over the history of the universe.From these simulations, Tremmel and collaborators find an end total of 316 supermassive black holes residing within the bounds of 26 Milky-Way-mass halos. Of these, roughly a third are
Multiple shadows from distorted static black holes
Grover, Jai; Kunz, Jutta; Nedkova, Petya; Wittig, Alexander; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho
2018-04-01
We study the local shadow of the Schwarzschild black hole with a quadrupole distortion and the influence of the external gravitational field on the photon dynamics. The external matter sources modify the light ring structure and lead to the appearance of multiple shadow images. In the case of negative quadrupole moments we identify the most prominent mechanism causing multiple shadow formation. Furthermore, we obtain a condition under which this mechanism can be realized. This condition depends on the quadrupole moment, but also on the position of the observer and the celestial sphere.
Black holes and quantum processes in them
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, V.P.
1976-01-01
The latest achievements in the physics of black holes are reviewed. The problem of quantum production in a strong gravitational field of black holes is considered. Another parallel discovered during investigation of interactions between black holes and between black holes and surrounding media, is also drawn with thermodynamics. A gravitational field of rotating black holes is considered. Some cosmological aspects of evaporation of small black holes are discussed as well as possibilities to observe them
Black hole decay as geodesic motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha
2003-01-01
We show that a formalism for analyzing the near-horizon conformal symmetry of Schwarzschild black holes using a scalar field probe is capable of describing black hole decay. The equation governing black hole decay can be identified as the geodesic equation in the space of black hole masses. This provides a novel geometric interpretation for the decay of black holes. Moreover, this approach predicts a precise correction term to the usual expression for the decay rate of black holes
Particle–hole duality, integrability, and Russian doll BCS model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bork, L.V. [Center for Fundamental and Applied Research, N. L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pogosov, W.V., E-mail: walter.pogosov@gmail.com [Center for Fundamental and Applied Research, N. L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation)
2015-08-15
We address a generalized Richardson model (Russian doll BCS model), which is characterized by the breaking of time-reversal symmetry. This model is known to be exactly solvable and integrable. We point out that the Russian doll BCS model, on the level of Hamiltonian, is also particle–hole symmetric. This implies that the same state can be expressed both in the particle and hole representations with two different sets of Bethe roots. We then derive exact relations between Bethe roots in the two representations, which can hardly be obtained staying on the level of Bethe equations. In a quasi-classical limit, similar identities for usual Richardson model, known from literature, are recovered from our results. We also show that these relations for Richardson roots take a remarkably simple form at half-filling and for a symmetric with respect to the middle of the interaction band distribution of one-body energy levels, since, in this special case, the rapidities in the particle and hole representations up to the translation satisfy the same system of equations.
Investigation of Spiral and Sweeping Holes
Thurman, Douglas; Poinsatte, Philip; Ameri, Ali; Culley, Dennis; Raghu, Surya; Shyam, Vikram
2015-01-01
Surface infrared thermography, hotwire anemometry, and thermocouple surveys were performed on two new film cooling hole geometries: spiral/rifled holes and fluidic sweeping holes. The spiral holes attempt to induce large-scale vorticity to the film cooling jet as it exits the hole to prevent the formation of the kidney shaped vortices commonly associated with film cooling jets. The fluidic sweeping hole uses a passive in-hole geometry to induce jet sweeping at frequencies that scale with blowing ratios. The spiral hole performance is compared to that of round holes with and without compound angles. The fluidic hole is of the diffusion class of holes and is therefore compared to a 777 hole and Square holes. A patent-pending spiral hole design showed the highest potential of the non-diffusion type hole configurations. Velocity contours and flow temperature were acquired at discreet cross-sections of the downstream flow field. The passive fluidic sweeping hole shows the most uniform cooling distribution but suffers from low span-averaged effectiveness levels due to enhanced mixing. The data was taken at a Reynolds number of 11,000 based on hole diameter and freestream velocity. Infrared thermography was taken for blowing rations of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 at a density ration of 1.05. The flow inside the fluidic sweeping hole was studied using 3D unsteady RANS.
Unmanned Ground Vehicle Navigation and Coverage Hole Patching in Wireless Sensor Networks
Zhang, Guyu
2013-01-01
This dissertation presents a study of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) navigation and coverage hole patching in coordinate-free and localization-free Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Navigation and coverage maintenance are related problems since coverage hole patching requires effective navigation in the sensor network environment. A…
2001-08-01
, however, and will soon disrupt. At some moment, many of those young stars may get too close to the monster in the centre and suffer an unhappy fate... PR Photo 25a/01 : The active galaxy NGC 1097 (R-band image) PR Photo 25b/01 : The active galaxy NGC 1808 (H-band image) PR Photo 25c/01 : The active galaxy NGC 5728 (K-band image) PR Photo 25d/01 : Schematic drawing of the various structural components mentioned in the text. PR Photo 25e/01 : ISAAC spectrum (2.3 µm) of the central region of NGC 1808 PR Photo 25f/01 : Stellar motions at the centre of NGC 1808 Central black holes in galaxies ESO PR Photo 25a/01 ESO PR Photo 25a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 489 pix - 39k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 977 pix - 296k] ESO PR Photo 25b/01 ESO PR Photo 25b/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 499 pix - 40k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 997 pix - 168k] ESO PR Photo 25c/01 ESO PR Photo 25c/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 488 pix - 47k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 975 pix - 384k] Caption : Photos of three active galaxies that were observed with ISAAC during the present programme. They show NGC 1097 (R-band; Photo 25a/01) and the central areas of NGC 1808 (H-band; Photo 25b/01) and NGC 5728 (K-band; Photo 25c/01). The bar-like structures and the luminous centres where the Black Holes are located are well visible - they are discussed in the text. The distances to these galaxies are approximately 55, 35 and 120 million light-years, respectively; the local scales are indicated in the photos. Technical information about these photos is available below. Recent research with space- and ground-based astronomical telescopes indicate that there are very heavy Black Holes at the centres of most galaxies. There is also general agreement among scientists that many of the closest neighbours of our own Milky Way Galaxy, for example the large spiral Andromeda Galaxy and the peculiar Centaurus A galaxy (cf. ESO PR 04/01 ), do contain central black holes with masses from millions to billions of solar masses [2]. Black Holes have an
A nonsingular rotating black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Sushant G.
2015-01-01
The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)
Black holes: the membrane paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorne, K.S.; Price, R.H.; Macdonald, D.A.
1986-01-01
The physics of black holes is explored in terms of a membrane paradigm which treats the event horizon as a two-dimensional membrane embedded in three-dimensional space. A 3+1 formalism is used to split Schwarzschild space-time and the laws of physics outside a nonrotating hole, which permits treatment of the atmosphere in terms of the physical properties of thin slices. The model is applied to perturbed slowly or rapidly rotating and nonrotating holes, and to quantify the electric and magnetic fields and eddy currents passing through a membrane surface which represents a stretched horizon. Features of tidal gravitational fields in the vicinity of the horizon, quasars and active galalctic nuclei, the alignment of jets perpendicular to accretion disks, and the effects of black holes at the center of ellipsoidal star clusters are investigated. Attention is also given to a black hole in a binary system and the interactions of black holes with matter that is either near or very far from the event horizon. Finally, a statistical mechanics treatment is used to derive a second law of thermodynamics for a perfectly thermal atmosphere of a black hole
2006-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version This artist's concept shows a supermassive black hole at the center of a remote galaxy digesting the remnants of a star. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer had a 'ringside' seat for this feeding frenzy, using its ultraviolet eyes to study the process from beginning to end. The artist's concept chronicles the star being ripped apart and swallowed by the cosmic beast over time. First, the intact sun-like star (left) ventures too close to the black hole, and its own self-gravity is overwhelmed by the black hole's gravity. The star then stretches apart (middle yellow blob) and eventually breaks into stellar crumbs, some of which swirl into the black hole (cloudy ring at right). This doomed material heats up and radiates light, including ultraviolet light, before disappearing forever into the black hole. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer was able to watch this process unfold by observing changes in ultraviolet light. The area around the black hole appears warped because the gravity of the black hole acts like a lens, twisting and distorting light.
Black holes at neutrino telescopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kowalski, M.; Ringwald, A.; Tu, H.
2002-01-01
In scenarios with extra dimensions and TeV-scale quantum gravity, black holes are expected to be produced in the collision of light particles at center-of-mass energies above the fundamental Planck scale with small impact parameters. Black hole production and evaporation may thus be studied in detail at the large hadron collider (LHC). But even before the LHC starts operating, neutrino telescopes such as AMANDA/IceCube, ANTARES, Baikal, and RICE have an opportunity to search for black hole signatures. Black hole production in the scattering of ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos on nucleons in the ice or water may initiate cascades and through-going muons with distinct characteristics above the Standard Model rate. In this Letter, we investigate the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to black hole production and compare it to the one expected at the Pierre Auger Observatory, an air shower array currently under construction, and at the LHC. We find that, already with the currently available data, AMANDA and RICE should be able to place sensible constraints in black hole production parameter space, which are competitive with the present ones from the air shower facilities Fly's Eye and AGASA. In the optimistic case that a ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrino flux significantly higher than the one expected from cosmic ray interactions with the cosmic microwave background radiation is realized in nature, one even has discovery potential for black holes at neutrino telescopes beyond the reach of LHC. (orig.)
Thermodynamic theory of black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davies, P C.W. [King' s Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Mathematics
1977-04-21
The thermodynamic theory underlying black hole processes is developed in detail and applied to model systems. It is found that Kerr-Newman black holes undergo a phase transition at a = 0.68M or Q = 0.86M, where the heat capacity has an infinite discontinuity. Above the transition values the specific heat is positive, permitting isothermal equilibrium with a surrounding heat bath. Simple processes and stability criteria for various black hole situations are investigated. The limits for entropically favoured black hole formation are found. The Nernst conditions for the third law of thermodynamics are not satisfied fully for black holes. There is no obvious thermodynamic reason why a black hole may not be cooled down below absolute zero and converted into a naked singularity. Quantum energy-momentum tensor calculations for uncharged black holes are extended to the Reissner-Nordstrom case, and found to be fully consistent with the thermodynamic picture for Q < M. For Q < M the model predicts that 'naked' collapse also produces radiation, with such intensity that the collapsing matter is entirely evaporated away before a naked singularity can form.
Brans, Carl H.
1993-01-01
Exotic smooth manifolds, ${\\bf R^2\\times_\\Theta S^2}$, are constructed and discussed as possible space-time models supporting the usual Kruskal presentation of the vacuum Schwarzschild metric locally, but {\\em not globally}. While having the same topology as the standard Kruskal model, none of these manifolds is diffeomorphic to standard Kruskal, although under certain conditions some global smooth Lorentz-signature metric can be continued from the local Kruskal form. Consequently, it can be ...
Wang, Chunhua; Zhang, Chujun; Tong, Sichao; Xia, Huayan; Wang, Lijuan; Xie, Haipeng; Gao, Yongli; Yang, Junliang
2018-01-01
Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PHJ-PSCs) with an architecture of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3/PCBM/Al were fabricated by controlling the energy level and thickness of the PEDOT:PSS layer, where the PEDOT:PSS precursor was diluted with deionized water (H2O) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), i.e. W-PEDOT:PSS and I-PEDOT:PSS. The performance parameters of the PHJ-PSCs showed soaring enhancement after employing W-PEDOT:PSS or I-PEDOT:PSS instead of pristine PEDOT:PSS (P-PEDOT:PSS), resulting in an increase of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of W-PEDOT:PSS-based PHJ-PSCs to 15.60% from 11.95% for P-PEDOT:PSS-based PHJ-PSCs. The performance improvement results from two aspects. On the one hand, as compared to P-PEDOT:PSS, the occupied molecular orbital energy (HOMO) level of dilute PEDOT:PSS showed an impressive decrease and can well match the valence band of CH3NH3PbI3 film, resulting in less energy loss and a significant improvement in the open-circuit voltage (V oc). On the other hand, the dilute PEDOT:PSS could produce a thinner film as compared with the P-PEDOT:PSS, which also played an important role in the performance of the PHJ-PSCs. Furthermore, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results indicated that the interface between perovskite and PEDOT:PSS was greatly improved by employing W-PEDOT:PSS or I-PEDOT:PSS, leading to an obvious decrease in the series resistance (R s) and an increase in the recombination resistance (R rec). The research demonstrated that diluting PEDOT:PSS with a common solvent, such as H2O and IPA, is a feasible low-temperature way of achieving efficient PHJ-PSCs.
The effect of protein-energy levels dietary on Kacang goats performances
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MuchJi Martawidjaja
1999-10-01
Full Text Available An experiment was done to evaluate the protein-energy requirement for growing Kacang goats. Twelve males and 18 female goats, seven to eight months old were used in this study and randomized into three treatment groups, with four and six animals each, and were kept in individual pens. The treatments used were: R1= Elephant grass (E.G. + concentrate C1 (21% CP; 3.9 Mcal GE/kg, R2 = E.G. + concentrate C2 (17% CP; 3.7 Mcal GE/kg, and R3 = E.G. + concentrate C3 (12% CP; 3.5 Mcal GE/kg, respectively. Fresh Elephant grass was offered in restricted, and concentrate was offered at 3% of body weight. The experiment was carried out for 12 weeks. Data were analysed by using factorial completely randomized design 2x3 (3 rations and 2 sexes. Parameters measured were: feed intake; average daily gain and feed conversion. The results indicated that among treatments there was no significant difference on dry matter (DM and gross energy (GE intake (P>0.05, but crude protein (CP intake of R1 was 23,6% higher than treatment R2; treatment R2 was 38.1% higher than R3 (P0.05, but treatment R1 was 36.9% and significantly higher than R3 (P0.05, but ration R1 was more efficient than R3 (P0.05. It was concluded that protein intake and average daily gain were increased, and feed conversion was more efficient as the crude protein-energy levels increased in the ration. Feed intake and average daily gain of male goats were higher and feed conversion was more efficient than the female goats.
Hyperfine structure measurements and discovery of new energy levels in neutral praseodymium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Imran, Siddiqui; Khan, Shamim; Syed, Tanweer Iqbal; Gamper, Bettina; Windholz, Laurentius [Inst. f. Experimentalphysik, Techn. Univ. Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria)
2011-07-01
We present here 14 even and 17 odd parity new energy levels of the neutral praseodymium atom. Free praseodymium atoms in ground and excited states are produced in a hollow cathode discharge lamp by cathode sputtering. The hyperfine structure (hfs) of the spectral lines is investigated by the method of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. As an example of the method used we discuss briefly the finding of the new level at 27304.431 cm{sup -1}, even parity, J=9/2 and A=690(1) MHz. Laser excitation of the line at 6004.23 Aa is performed and a LIF signal is detected at fluorescence lines 5246.709, 5412.95, 5925.10, 6107.88, 6287.02, 6419.16, and 6620.63 A. The hfs is then recorded digitally and fitted to find reliable values of angular momentum J, magnetic and electric quadrupole hyperfine constants A and B for the combining fine structure levels. Assuming an unknown upper level, a lower level is searched in the data base of known levels, having the J and A values determined from the fit procedure. A level with 10654.11 cm{sup -1}, odd parity, J=7/2 and A=169(2) MHz is found. The energy of the upper level is calculated by adding the center of gravity wave number of the excited line to the energy of the lower level. The existence of the new level is checked by at least one additional laser excitation from another known lower level.
First-principles calculation of electronic energy level alignment at electrochemical interfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azar, Yavar T.; Payami, Mahmoud, E-mail: mpayami@aeoi.org.ir
2017-08-01
Highlights: • Using DFT calculation, level shifts of TiO{sub 2} and ZnO at the interfaces with MeCN and DMF are determined. • Level shifts are obtained using potential difference between the surfaces of asymmetric slabs. • Solvent molecules give an up-shift to the levels that varies with coverage. • MD simulations show that at room temperatures the surface is not fully covered by the solvent molecules. - Abstract: Energy level alignment at solid–solvent interfaces is an important step in determining the properties of electrochemical systems. The positions of conduction and valence band edges of a semiconductor are affected by its environment. In this study, using first-principles DFT calculation, we have determined the level shifts of the semiconductors TiO{sub 2} and ZnO at the interfaces with MeCN and DMF solvent molecules. The level shifts of semiconductor are obtained using the potential difference between the clean and exposed surfaces of asymmetric slabs. In this work, neglecting the effects of present ions in the electrolyte solution, we have shown that the solvent molecules give rise to an up-shift for the levels, and the amount of this shift varies with coverage. It is also shown that the shapes of density of states do not change sensibly near the gap. Molecular dynamics simulations of the interface have shown that at room temperatures the semiconductor surface is not fully covered by the solvent molecules, and one must use intermediate values in an static calculations.
Morin, Manon; Ropers, Delphine; Cinquemani, Eugenio; Portais, Jean-Charles; Enjalbert, Brice; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel
2017-10-31
In the bacterium Escherichia coli , the posttranscriptional regulatory system Csr was postulated to influence the transition from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis. Here, we explored the role of the Csr system in the glucose-acetate transition as a model of the glycolysis-to-gluconeogenesis switch. Mutations in the Csr system influence the reorganization of gene expression after glucose exhaustion and disturb the timing of acetate reconsumption after glucose exhaustion. Analysis of metabolite concentrations during the transition revealed that the Csr system has a major effect on the energy levels of the cells after glucose exhaustion. This influence was demonstrated to result directly from the effect of the Csr system on glycogen accumulation. Mutation in glycogen metabolism was also demonstrated to hinder metabolic adaptation after glucose exhaustion because of insufficient energy. This work explains how the Csr system influences E. coli fitness during the glycolysis-gluconeogenesis switch and demonstrates the role of glycogen in maintenance of the energy charge during metabolic adaptation. IMPORTANCE Glycogen is a polysaccharide and the main storage form of glucose from bacteria such as Escherichia coli to yeasts and mammals. Although its function as a sugar reserve in mammals is well documented, the role of glycogen in bacteria is not as clear. By studying the role of posttranscriptional regulation during metabolic adaptation, for the first time, we demonstrate the role of sugar reserve played by glycogen in E. coli Indeed, glycogen not only makes it possible to maintain sufficient energy during metabolic transitions but is also the key component in the capacity of cells to resume growth. Since the essential posttranscriptional regulatory system Csr is a major regulator of glycogen accumulation, this work also sheds light on the central role of posttranscriptional regulation in metabolic adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Morin et al.
Wu, Huawei; Zhang, Qing; Hua, Jia; Hua, Xiaolan; Xu, Jianrong
2013-01-01
Background The aim of this study was to determine the optimal monochromatic spectral CT pulmonary angiography (sCTPA) levels to obtain the highest image quality and diagnostic confidence for pulmonary embolism detection. Methods The Institutional Review Board of the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from all participating patients. Seventy-two patients with pulmonary embolism were scanned with spectral CT mode in the arterial phase. One hundred and one sets of virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) images were generated ranging from 40 keV to 140 keV. Image noise, clot diameter and clot to artery contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from seven sets of VMS images at selected monochromatic levels in sCTPA were measured and compared. Subjective image quality and diagnostic confidence for these images were also assessed and compared. Data were analyzed by paired t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results The lowest noise and the highest image quality score for the VMS images were obtained at 65 keV. The VMS images at 65 keV also had the second highest CNR value behind that of 50 keV VMS images. There was no difference in the mean noise and CNR between the 65 keV and 70 keV VMS images. The apparent clot diameter correlated with the keV levels. Conclusions The optimal energy level for detecting pulmonary embolism using dual-energy spectral CT pulmonary angiography was 65–70 keV. Virtual monochromatic spectral images at approximately 65–70 keV yielded the lowest image noise, high CNR and highest diagnostic confidence for the detection of pulmonary embolism. PMID:23667583
Energy utilization of light and heavy weaned piglets subjected to different dietary energy levels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andréa Machado Leal Ribeiro
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary metabolisable energy (ME: 3.25, 3.40, 3.55, or 3.70 Mcal kg−1 and weaning weight (WW: light 4.0±0.7 kg, and heavy: 6.3±0.6 kg on productive response and energy utilization of weaned piglets. Sixty-four male piglets were housed in 32 metabolic cages (two animals per cage during the first 14 d postweaning. At day 15, only one animal per cage was kept until day 28. Body composition, energy, and nutrient deposition rates and energy utilization efficiency were measured through a comparative slaughter procedure. Piglets with light WW had a poorer feed conversion ratio and lower weight gain and feed intake when expressed per live weight. Increased ME led to greater daily fat deposition in the empty bodies (defined as weighted mean of the carcass + organs + blood, no intestinal content, while light WW piglets had a reduced protein deposition. Light WW piglets increased heat production with increased ME, but no effect was seen for the heavy WW piglets. By contrast, heavy WW piglets increased empty body gross energy as ME increased, while no influence was observed on light WW piglets. Increasing dietary energy levels did not contribute to the subsequent growth performance of piglets that were lighter at weaning. The lack of interaction between weaning weight and dietary ME content on growth performance does not support the hypothesis that light piglets at weaning do not exhibit compensatory growth because of limitations in energy intake.
Geologic investigations of drill hole sloughing problems, Nevada Test Site
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Davies, W.J.; Gonzales, J.L.; Hawkins, W.L.
1983-01-01
Severe sloughing zones encountered while drilling large diameter emplacement holes in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, have been identified, correlated and predicted through detailed geologic investigations. In central and southeastern Area 7 and in northern Area 3, the unstable zones are a very fine-grained, well-sorted, unconsolidated sand deposit, probably eolian in origin, which will readily flow into large diameter drill holes. Other areas exhibit hole erosion related to poor induration or extensive zeolitization of the Tertiary tuff units which are very friable and porous. By examining drill hole samples, geophysical logs, caliper logs and drilling histories, these problem zones can be characterized, correlated and then projected into nearby sites. Maps have been generated to show the depth, thickness and areal extent of these strata. In some cases, they are local and have a lenticular geometry, while in others they are quite extensive. The ability to predict such features can enhance the quality of the hole construction and completion operations to avoid costly delays and the loss of valuable testing real estate. The control of hole enlargements will also eliminate related containment concerns, such as stemming uncertainties
Geometro-thermodynamics of tidal charged black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gergely, Laszlo Arpad; Pidokrajt, Narit; Winitzki, Sergei
2011-01-01
Tidal charged spherically symmetric vacuum brane black holes are characterized by their mass m and tidal charge q, an imprint of the five-dimensional Weyl curvature. For q>0 they are formally identical to the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole of general relativity. We study the thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometries of tidal charged black holes and discuss similarities and differences as compared to the Reissner-Nordstroe m black hole. As a similarity, we show that (for q>0) the heat capacity of the tidal charged black hole diverges on a set of measure zero of the parameter space, nevertheless both the regularity of the Ruppeiner metric and a Poincare stability analysis show no phase transition at those points. The thermodynamic state spaces being different indicates that the underlying statistical models could be different. We find that the q<0 parameter range, which enhances the localization of gravity on the brane, is thermodynamically preferred. Finally we constrain for the first time the possible range of the tidal charge from the thermodynamic limit on gravitational radiation efficiency at black hole mergers. (orig.)
Feedback Limits to Maximum Seed Masses of Black Holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pacucci, Fabio; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Ferrara, Andrea
2017-01-01
The most massive black holes observed in the universe weigh up to ∼10 10 M ⊙ , nearly independent of redshift. Reaching these final masses likely required copious accretion and several major mergers. Employing a dynamical approach that rests on the role played by a new, relevant physical scale—the transition radius—we provide a theoretical calculation of the maximum mass achievable by a black hole seed that forms in an isolated halo, one that scarcely merged. Incorporating effects at the transition radius and their impact on the evolution of accretion in isolated halos, we are able to obtain new limits for permitted growth. We find that large black hole seeds ( M • ≳ 10 4 M ⊙ ) hosted in small isolated halos ( M h ≲ 10 9 M ⊙ ) accreting with relatively small radiative efficiencies ( ϵ ≲ 0.1) grow optimally in these circumstances. Moreover, we show that the standard M • – σ relation observed at z ∼ 0 cannot be established in isolated halos at high- z , but requires the occurrence of mergers. Since the average limiting mass of black holes formed at z ≳ 10 is in the range 10 4–6 M ⊙ , we expect to observe them in local galaxies as intermediate-mass black holes, when hosted in the rare halos that experienced only minor or no merging events. Such ancient black holes, formed in isolation with subsequent scant growth, could survive, almost unchanged, until present.
Unveiling the edge of time black holes, white holes, wormholes
Gribbin, John
1992-01-01
Acclaimed science writer John Gribbin recounts dramatic stories that have led scientists to believe black holes and their more mysterious kin are not only real, but might actually provide a passage to other universes and travel through time.
Exploring Jets from a Supermassive Black Hole
Kohler, Susanna
2018-06-01
collaborators observations span the enormous radial distance of a thousand to a billion times the radius of the black hole, or about 54 light-days to more than a million light-years.Scale for ChangeThe width of the jet as a function of radial distance from the black hole, for NGC 4261 (red) compared to the few other jets from nearby supermassive black holes that weve measured. NGC 4261s jets transition from parabolic to conical at around 10,000 times the radius of the black hole (RS). [Nakahara et al. 2018]The authors observations of NGC 4261s jets indicate that a transition occurs at 10,000 times the radius of the black hole (thats a little over a light-year from the black hole). At this point, the jets structures change from parabolic (becoming more tightly beamed) to conical (expanding freely). Around the same location, Nakahara and collaborators also see the radiation profile of one of the jets change, suggesting the physical conditions in the jets transition here as well.This is the first time weve been able to examine jet width this closely for both of the jets emitted from a supermassive black hole. The fact that the structure changes at the same distance for both jets indicates that the shape of these powerful streams is likely governed by global properties of the environment surrounding the galaxys nucleus, or properties of the jets themselves, rather than by a local condition.The authors next hope to pin down velocities inside NGC 4261s jets to determine where the jets accelerate and decelerate. This nearby powerhouse is clearly going to be a useful laboratory in the future, helping to unveil the secrets of more distant, feeding monsters.BonusCurious what these hungry supermassive black holes look like? Check out this artists imagining of NGC 4261, which shows how it feeds from a large, swirling accretion disk and emits fast-moving, collimated jets. [Original video credit to Dana Berry, Space Telescope Science Institute]CitationSatomi Nakahara et al 2018 ApJ 854 148
Black holes and Higgs stability
Tetradis, Nikolaos
2016-09-20
We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.
Vacuum metastability with black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burda, Philipp [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline Street North,Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Moss, Ian G. annd [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University,Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)
2015-08-24
We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.
Orbital resonances around black holes.
Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja
2015-02-27
We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.
Vacuum metastability with black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G. annd
2015-01-01
We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.
Tunnelling from Goedel black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerner, Ryan; Mann, R. B.
2007-01-01
We consider the spacetime structure of Kerr-Goedel black holes, analyzing their parameter space in detail. We apply the tunnelling method to compute their temperature and compare the results to previous calculations obtained via other methods. We claim that it is not possible to have the closed timelike curve (CTC) horizon in between the two black hole horizons and include a discussion of issues that occur when the radius of the CTC horizon is smaller than the radius of both black hole horizons
Quantum mechanics of black holes.
Witten, Edward
2012-08-03
The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely.
Gravitational polarizability of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria
2009-01-01
The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h l of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h l EM . The Love numbers h l give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.
Huang, S.; Sahraoui, F.; Yuan, Z.; He, J.; Zhao, J.; Du, J.; Le Contel, O.; Wang, X.; Deng, X.; Fu, H.; Zhou, M.; Shi, Q.; Breuillard, H.; Pang, Y.; Yu, X.; Wang, D.
2017-12-01
Magnetic hole is characterized by a magnetic depression, a density peak, a total electron temperature increase (with a parallel temperature decrease but a perpendicular temperature increase), and strong currents carried by the electrons. The current has a dip in the core region of the magnetic hole and a peak in the outer region of the magnetic hole. There is an enhancement in the perpendicular electron fluxes at 90° pitch angles inside the magnetic hole, implying that the electrons are trapped within it. The variations of the electron velocity components Vem and Ven suggest that an electron vortex is formed by trapping electrons inside the magnetic hole in the circular cross-section. These observations demonstrate the existence of a new type of coherent structures behaving as an electron vortex magnetic hole in turbulent space plasmas as predicted by recent kinetic simulations. We perform a statistically study using high time solution data from the MMS mission. The magnetic holes with short duration (i.e., < 0.5 s) have their cross section smaller than the ion gyro-radius. Superposed epoch analysis of all events reveals that an increase in the electron density and total temperature, significantly increase (resp. decrease) the electron perpendicular (resp. parallel) temperature, and an electron vortex inside the holes. Electron fluxes at 90° pitch angles with selective energies increase in the KSMHs, are trapped inside KSMHs and form the electron vortex due to their collective motion. All these features are consistent with the electron vortex magnetic holes obtained in 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations, indicating that the observed the magnetic holes seem to be best explained as electron vortex magnetic holes. It is furthermore shown that the magnetic holes are likely to heat and accelerate the electrons. We also investigate the coupling between whistler waves and electron vortex magnetic holes. These whistler waves can be locally generated inside electron
Yuan, Conghui; Wu, Tong; Mao, Jie; Chen, Ting; Li, Yuntong; Li, Min; Xu, Yiting; Zeng, Birong; Luo, Weiang; Yu, Lingke; Zheng, Gaofeng; Dai, Lizong
2018-06-20
Core-shell structures are of particular interest in the development of advanced composite materials as they can efficiently bring different components together at nanoscale. The advantage of this structure greatly relies on the crucial design of both core and shell, thus achieving an intercomponent synergistic effect. In this report, we show that decorating semiconductor nanocrystals with a boronate polymer shell can easily achieve programmable core-shell interactions. Taking ZnO and anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals as inner core examples, the effective core-shell interactions can narrow the band gap of semiconductor nanocrystals, change the HOMO and LUMO levels of boronate polymer shell, and significantly improve the carrier density of core-shell particles. The hole mobility of core-shell particles can be improved by almost 9 orders of magnitude in comparison with net boronate polymer, while the conductivity of core-shell particles is at most 30-fold of nanocrystals. The particle engineering strategy is based on two driving forces: catechol-surface binding and B-N dative bonding and having a high ability to control and predict the shell thickness. Also, this approach is applicable to various inorganic nanoparticles with different components, sizes, and shapes.
van Herck, Walter; Wyder, Thomas
2010-04-01
The enumeration of BPS bound states in string theory needs refinement. Studying partition functions of particles made from D-branes wrapped on algebraic Calabi-Yau 3-folds, and classifying states using split attractor flow trees, we extend the method for computing a refined BPS index, [1]. For certain D-particles, a finite number of microstates, namely polar states, exclusively realized as bound states, determine an entire partition function (elliptic genus). This underlines their crucial importance: one might call them the ‘chromosomes’ of a D-particle or a black hole. As polar states also can be affected by our refinement, previous predictions on elliptic genera are modified. This can be metaphorically interpreted as ‘crossing-over in the meiosis of a D-particle’. Our results improve on [2], provide non-trivial evidence for a strong split attractor flow tree conjecture, and thus suggest that we indeed exhaust the BPS spectrum. In the D-brane description of a bound state, the necessity for refinement results from the fact that tachyonic strings split up constituent states into ‘generic’ and ‘special’ states. These are enumerated separately by topological invariants, which turn out to be partitions of Donaldson-Thomas invariants. As modular predictions provide a check on many of our results, we have compelling evidence that our computations are correct.
Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself
2009-03-01
New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don
Wang, Z. H.; Zheng, Q.; Wang, Xiaoguang; Li, Yong
2016-03-01
We study the energy-level crossing behavior in a two-dimensional quantum well with the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings (SOCs). By mapping the SOC Hamiltonian onto an anisotropic Rabi model, we obtain the approximate ground state and its quantum Fisher information (QFI) via performing a unitary transformation. We find that the energy-level crossing can occur in the quantum well system within the available parameters rather than in cavity and circuit quantum eletrodynamics systems. Furthermore, the influence of two kinds of SOCs on the QFI is investigated and an intuitive explanation from the viewpoint of the stationary perturbation theory is given.
Effect of logarithmic terms on the energy level and wave function of a dtμ system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhen, Z.
1990-01-01
The effect of the logarithmic terms on the ground-state energy level and wave function of a dtμ system is investigated. No significant contribution of the logarithmic terms on either the energy level or wave function is found. At the same time, we find the lowest upper bound of the ground-state energy ever obtained by the variational method using the Hylleraas-type trial function and that the corresponding wave function satisfies the cusp condition as r dt →0 automatically to a reasonable accuracy for r<3 (muonic a.u.), where r is the distance between the fused dt nuclear compound and the muon
Black hole evaporation: a paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashtekar, Abhay; Bojowald, Martin
2005-01-01
A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kallosh, R.
1993-01-01
In this talk some essential features of stringy black holes are described. The author considers charged U(1) and U(1) x U(1) four-dimensional axion-dilaton black holes. The Hawking temperature and the entropy of all solutions are shown to be simple functions of the squares of supercharges, defining the positivity bounds. Spherically symmetric and multi black hole solutions are presented. The extreme solutions with zero entropy (holons) represent a ground state of the theory and are characterized by elementary dilaton, axion, electric, and magnetic charges. The attractive gravitational and axion-dilaton force is balanced by the repulsive electromagnetic force. The author discusses the possibility of splitting of nearly extreme black holes. 11 refs
Holes in magneto electrostatic traps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, R.
1996-01-01
We observe that in magneto electrostatic confinement (MEC) devices the magnetic surfaces are not always equipotentials. The lack of symmetry in the equipotential surfaces can result in holes in MEC plasma traps. (author)
Black holes by analytic continuation
Amati, Daniele
1997-01-01
In the context of a two-dimensional exactly solvable model, the dynamics of quantum black holes is obtained by analytically continuing the description of the regime where no black hole is formed. The resulting spectrum of outgoing radiation departs from the one predicted by the Hawking model in the region where the outgoing modes arise from the horizon with Planck-order frequencies. This occurs early in the evaporation process, and the resulting physical picture is unconventional. The theory predicts that black holes will only radiate out an energy of Planck mass order, stabilizing after a transitory period. The continuation from a regime without black hole formation --accessible in the 1+1 gravity theory considered-- is implicit in an S matrix approach and provides in this way a possible solution to the problem of information loss.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Toušek, J.; Toušková, J.; Ludvík, Jiří; Liška, Alan; Remeš, Zdeněk; Kylián, O.; Kousal, J.; Chomutová, R.; Heckler, I. M.; Bundgaard, C.; Krebs, F.C.
2016-01-01
Roč. 116, FEB 2016 (2016), s. 111-118 ISSN 0038-1101 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : polythiophene * hole concentration * energy level diagram Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.580, year: 2016
Extraordinary mid-infrared transmission of subwavelength holes in gold films
Yue, Weisheng; Wang, Zhihong; Yang, Yang; Chen, Longqing; Syed, Ahad A.; Wang, Xianbin
2014-01-01
Gold (Au) nanoholes are fabricated with electron-beam lithography and used for the investigation of extraordinary transmission in mid-infrared regime. Transmission properties of the nanoholes are studied as the dependence on hole-size. Transmittance spectra are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and enhanced transmittance through the subwavelength holes is observed. The transmission spectra exhibit well-defined maximum and minimum of which the position are determined by the lattice of the hole array. The hole-size primarily influence the transmission intensity and bandwidth of the resonance peak. With an increase of hole-size, while keep lattice constant fixed, the intensity of the resonance peak and the bandwidth increases, which are due to the localized surface plasmons. Numerical simulation for the transmission through the subwavelength holes is performed and the simulated results agree with the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers.
Extraordinary mid-infrared transmission of subwavelength holes in gold films
Yue, Weisheng
2014-04-01
Gold (Au) nanoholes are fabricated with electron-beam lithography and used for the investigation of extraordinary transmission in mid-infrared regime. Transmission properties of the nanoholes are studied as the dependence on hole-size. Transmittance spectra are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and enhanced transmittance through the subwavelength holes is observed. The transmission spectra exhibit well-defined maximum and minimum of which the position are determined by the lattice of the hole array. The hole-size primarily influence the transmission intensity and bandwidth of the resonance peak. With an increase of hole-size, while keep lattice constant fixed, the intensity of the resonance peak and the bandwidth increases, which are due to the localized surface plasmons. Numerical simulation for the transmission through the subwavelength holes is performed and the simulated results agree with the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers.
Perturbations and quasi-normal modes of black holes in Einstein-Aether theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konoplya, R.A.; Zhidenko, A.
2007-01-01
We develop a new method for calculation of quasi-normal modes of black holes, when the effective potential, which governs black hole perturbations, is known only numerically in some region near the black hole. This method can be applied to perturbations of a wide class of numerical black hole solutions. We apply it to the black holes in the Einstein-Aether theory, a theory where general relativity is coupled to a unit time-like vector field, in order to observe local Lorentz symmetry violation. We found that in the non-reduced Einstein-Aether theory, real oscillation frequency and damping rate of quasi-normal modes are larger than those of Schwarzschild black holes in the Einstein theory
Self-consistent hole motion and spin excitations in a quantum antiferromagnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, Z.B.; Yu, L.; Li, Y.M.; Lai, W.Y.
1989-12-01
A new quantum Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdeG) formalism is developed to study the self-consistent motion of holes and spin excitations in a quantum antiferromagnet within the generalized t-J model. On the one hand, the effects of local distortion of spin configurations and the renormalization of the hole motion due to virtual excitations of the distorted spin background are treated on an equal footing to obtain the hole wave function and its spectrum, as well as the effective mass for a propagating hole. On the other hand, the change of the spin excitation spectrum and the spin correlations due to the presence of dynamical holes are studied within the same adiabatic approximation. The stability of the hole states with respect to such changes justifies the self-consistency of the proposed formalism. (author). 25 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab
Supermassive black holes do not correlate with galaxy disks or pseudobulges.
Kormendy, John; Bender, R; Cornell, M E
2011-01-20
The masses of supermassive black holes are known to correlate with the properties of the bulge components of their host galaxies. In contrast, they seem not to correlate with galaxy disks. Disk-grown 'pseudobulges' are intermediate in properties between bulges and disks; it has been unclear whether they do or do not correlate with black holes in the same way that bulges do. At stake in this issue are conclusions about which parts of galaxies coevolve with black holes, possibly by being regulated by energy feedback from black holes. Here we report pseudobulge classifications for galaxies with dynamically detected black holes and combine them with recent measurements of velocity dispersions in the biggest bulgeless galaxies. These data confirm that black holes do not correlate with disks and show that they correlate little or not at all with pseudobulges. We suggest that there are two different modes of black-hole feeding. Black holes in bulges grow rapidly to high masses when mergers drive gas infall that feeds quasar-like events. In contrast, small black holes in bulgeless galaxies and in galaxies with pseudobulges grow as low-level Seyfert galaxies. Growth of the former is driven by global processes, so the biggest black holes coevolve with bulges, but growth of the latter is driven locally and stochastically, and they do not coevolve with disks and pseudobulges.
Nave, Gillian
We propose to measure wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure parameters of Ni II, Mn II, Sc II and other singly-ionized iron-group elements, covering the wavelength range 80 nm to 5500 nm. We shall use archival data from spectrometers at NIST and Kitt Peak National Observatory for spectra above 140 nm. Additional experimental observations will be taken if needed using Fourier transform spectrometers at NIST. Spectra will be taken using our normal incidence grating spectrograph to provide better sensitivity than the FT spectra and to extend the wavelength range down to 80 nm. We aim to produce a comprehensive description of the spectra of all singly-ionized iron- group elements. The wavelength uncertainty of the strong lines will be better than 1 part in 10^7. For most singly-ionized iron-group elements available laboratory data have uncertainties an order of magnitude larger than astronomical observations over wide spectra ranges. Some of these laboratory measurements date back to the 1960's. Since then, Fourier transform spectroscopy has made significant progress in improving the accuracy and quantity of data in the UV-vis-IR region, but high quality Fourier transform spectra are still needed for Mn II, Ni II and Sc II. Fourier transform spectroscopy has low sensitivity in the VUV region and is limited to wavelengths above 140 nm. Spectra measured with high-resolution grating spectrographs are needed in this region in order to obtain laboratory data of comparable quality to the STIS and COS spectrographs on the Hubble Space Telescope. Currently, such data exist only for Fe II and Cr II. Lines of Sc II, V II, and Mn II show hyperfine structure, but hyperfine structure parameters have been measured for relatively few lines of these elements. Significant errors can occur if hyperfine structure is neglected when abundances are determined from stellar spectra. Measurements of hyperfine structure parameters will be made using Fourier transform spectroscopy
New regular black hole solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.
2011-01-01
In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.
Black holes from extended inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, S.D.H.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA
1990-01-01
It is argued that models of extended inflation, in which modified Einstein gravity allows a graceful exit from the false vacuum, lead to copious production of black holes. The critical temperature of the inflationary phase transition must be >10 8 GeV in order to avoid severe cosmological problems in a universe dominated by black holes. We speculate on the possibility that the interiors of false vacuum regions evolve into baby universes. (orig.)
Are Black Holes Elementary Particles?
Ha, Yuan K.
2009-01-01
Quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest conceivable elementary particles. They have a microscopic size but a macroscopic mass. Several fundamental types have been constructed with some remarkable properties. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox of ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected in Earth's atmosphere. They may also play a role as dark matter in cosmology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camenzind, M.
2005-01-01
While physicists have been grappling with the theory of black holes (BH), as shown by the many contributions to the Einstein year, astronomers have been successfully searching for real black holes in the Universe. Black hole astrophysics began in the 1960s with the discovery of quasars and other active galactic nuclei (AGN) in distant galaxies. Already in the 1960s it became clear that the most natural explanation for the quasar activity is the release of gravitational energy through accretion of gas onto supermassive black holes. The remnants of this activity have now been found in the centers of about 50 nearby galaxies. BH astrophysics received a new twist in the 1970s with the discovery of the X-ray binary (XRB) Cygnus X-1. The X-ray emitting compact object was too massive to be explained by a neutron star. Today, about 20 excellent BH candidates are known in XRBs. On the extragalactic scale, more than 100.000 quasars have been found in large galaxy surveys. At the redshift of the most distant ones, the Universe was younger than one billion year. The most enigmatic black hole candidates identified in the last years are the compact objects behind the Gamma-Ray Bursters. The formation of all these types of black holes is accompanied by extensive emission of gravitational waves. The detection of these strong gravity events is one of the biggest challenges for physicists in the near future. (author)
Stationary black holes as holographs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Racz, Istvan [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan); MTA KFKI, Reszecske- es Magfizikai Kutatointezet, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary)
2007-11-21
Smooth spacetimes possessing a (global) one-parameter group of isometries and an associated Killing horizon in Einstein's theory of gravity are investigated. No assumption concerning the asymptotic structure is made; thereby, the selected spacetimes may be considered as generic distorted stationary black holes. First, spacetimes of arbitrary dimension, n {>=} 3, with matter satisfying the dominant energy condition and allowing a non-zero cosmological constant are investigated. In this part, complete characterization of the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is given. It is shown that the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is allowed to possess a much larger variety than that of the isolated black hole configurations. In the second part, four-dimensional (non-degenerate) electrovac distorted black hole spacetimes are considered. It is shown that the spacetime geometry and the electromagnetic field are uniquely determined in the black hole region once the geometry of the bifurcation surface and one of the electromagnetic potentials are specified there. Conditions guaranteeing the same type of determinacy, in a neighbourhood of the event horizon, on the domain of outer communication side are also investigated. In particular, they are shown to be satisfied in the analytic case.
Atomic structure in black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagatani, Yukinori
2006-01-01
We propose that any black hole has atomic structure in its inside and has no horizon as a model of black holes. Our proposal is founded on a mean field approximation of gravity. The structure of our model consists of a (charged) singularity at the center and quantum fluctuations of fields around the singularity, namely, it is quite similar to that of atoms. Any properties of black holes, e.g. entropy, can be explained by the model. The model naturally quantizes black holes. In particular, we find the minimum black hole, whose structure is similar to that of the hydrogen atom and whose Schwarzschild radius is approximately 1.1287 times the Planck length. Our approach is conceptually similar to Bohr's model of the atomic structure, and the concept of the minimum Schwarzschild radius is similar to that of the Bohr radius. The model predicts that black holes carry baryon number, and the baryon number is rapidly violated. This baryon number violation can be used as verification of the model. (author)
Newman, P. A.; Nash, E. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.
2003-01-01
Since 1979, the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million km2. This area is most strongly controlled by levels of inorganic chlorine and bromine oncentrations. In addition, dynamical variations modulate the size of the ozone hole by either cooling or warming the polar vortex collar region. We will review the size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. Using a simple trajectory model, we will demonstrate the sensitivity of the ozone hole to dynamical forcing, and we will use these observations to discuss the size of the ozone hole during the 2002 Austral spring. We will further show how the Cly decreases in the stratosphere will cause the ozone hole to decrease by 1-1.5% per year. We will also show results from a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) that has been continuously run since 1999. These CTM results directly show how strong dynamics acts to reduce the size of the ozone hole.
Miller, M. Coleman; Colbert, E. J. M.
2004-01-01
The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (M~3 20 M⊙), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (M~106 1010 M⊙), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with M~102 104 M⊙. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work that will help clarify numerous outstanding questions about these objects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corda, Christian [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Advanced Mathematics (IFM) Einstein-Galilei, Prato (Italy); Istituto Universitario di Ricerca ' ' Santa Rita' ' , Prato (Italy); International Institute for Applicable Mathematics and Information Sciences (IIAMIS), Hyderabad (India)
2013-12-15
Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum ''overtone'' number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the ''hydrogen atom'' and the ''quasi-thermal emission'' in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox. (orig.)
Corda, Christian
2013-12-01
Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum "overtone" number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the "hydrogen atom" and the "quasi-thermal emission" in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox.
Black Hole Complementary Principle and Noncommutative Membrane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Ren
2006-01-01
In the spirit of black hole complementary principle, we have found the noncommutative membrane of Scharzchild black holes. In this paper we extend our results to Kerr black hole and see the same story. Also we make a conjecture that spacetimes are noncommutative on the stretched membrane of the more general Kerr-Newman black hole.
30 CFR 57.9360 - Shelter holes.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shelter holes. 57.9360 Section 57.9360 Mineral....9360 Shelter holes. (a) Shelter holes shall be— (1) Provided at intervals adequate to assure the safety... farthest projection of moving equipment. (b) Shelter holes shall not be used for storage unless a 40-inch...
Formation and Coalescence of Electron Solitary Holes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saeki, K.; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, H. L.
1979-01-01
Electron solitary holes were observed in a magnetized collisionless plasma. These holes were identified as Bernstein-Green-Kruskal equilibria, thus being purely kinetic phenomena. The electron hole does not damp even though its velocity is close to the electron thermal velocity. Two holes attract...
30 CFR 77.1010 - Collaring holes.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collaring holes. 77.1010 Section 77.1010... Control § 77.1010 Collaring holes. (a) Starter steels shall be used when collaring holes with hand-held drills. (b) Men shall not hold the drill steel while collaring holes, or rest their hands on the chuck or...
Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyly, Marika; Ohls, Nora; Lähteenmäki, Liisa
2010-01-01
at different dietary fibre (DF) concentrations, energy levels and viscosity levels. Design: A total of 29 healthy volunteers, age 1939, mean BMI 23.2 kg/m2 participated in this study. Measurement of subjective perceptions (satiety, fullness, hunger, desire to eat something/the sample food and thirst......) was performed during a 180-min period after ingestion of the sample. There were altogether six samples: two beverages without fibre at energy levels 700 and 1,400 kJ; two beverages containing 5 or 10 g oat DF (2.5 and 5 g oat b-glucan, respectively) at energy level 700 kJ, one beverage containing 10 g oat DF/1......,400 kJ and one beverage containing 10 g enzymatically treated oat DF with low viscosity at energy level 700 kJ. Each beverage portion weighted 300 g. The order of the samples was randomised for each subject and evaluated during six separate days. The results are reported in three sets of samples: 'fibre...
Near horizon geometry of rotating black holes in five dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cvetic, M.; Larsen, F.
1998-01-01
We interpret the general rotating black holes in five dimensions as rotating black strings in six dimensions. In the near-horizon limit the geometry is locally AdS 3 x S 3 , as in the non-rotating case. However, the global structure couples the AdS 3 and the S 3 , giving angular velocity to the S 3 . The asymptotic geometry is exploited to count the microstates and recover the precise value of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, with rotation taken properly into account. We discuss the perturbation spectrum of the rotating black hole, and its relation to the underlying conformal field theory. (orig.)
Hole Drilling Technique – on site stress measurement
Schueremans, Luc
2009-01-01
2. Hole Drilling Technique for onsite stress measurement has been used to validate the stress level at 2 pillars of the Sint-Jacobschurch (Leuven, B). The technique allows estimating the stress in a stone from measuring deformation when a small hole is made. It is a low intrusive technique. The application of it is limited to local stress measurements and is a complement to stress estimate from calculations of from the use of –for example- flat jacks. In addition to the flat-jack technique...
Quantum mechanics, common sense and the black hole information paradox
Danielsson, U H; Danielsson, Ulf H.; Schiffer, Marcelo
1993-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to analyse, in the light of information theory and with the arsenal of (elementary) quantum mechanics (EPR correlations, copying machines, teleportation, mixing produced in sub-systems owing to a trace operation, etc.) the scenarios available on the market to resolve the so-called black-hole information paradox. We shall conclude that the only plausible ones are those where either the unitary evolution of quantum mechanics is given up, in which information leaks continuously in the course of black-hole evaporation through non-local processes, or those in which the world is polluted by an infinite number of meta-stable remnants.
Traa, M.R.M.J.; Traa, M.R.M.J.; Caspers, W.J.; Caspers, W.J.; Banning, E.J.; Banning, E.J.
1994-01-01
In this paper the Hubbard-Anderson model on a square lattice with two holes is studied. The ground state (GS) is approximated by a variational RVB-type wave function. The holes interact by exchange of a localized spin excitation (SE), which is created or absorbed if a hole moves to a
Alternate Explosions: Collapse and Accretion Events with Red Holes instead of Black Holes
Graber, James S.
1999-01-01
A red hole is "just like a black hole" except it lacks an event horizon and a singularity. As a result, a red hole emits much more energy than a black hole during a collapse or accretion event. We consider how a red hole solution can solve the "energy crisis" and power extremely energetic gamma ray bursts and hypernovae.
Black Hole Entropy from Indistinguishable Quantum Geometric Excitations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abhishek Majhi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In loop quantum gravity the quantum geometry of a black hole horizon consists of discrete nonperturbative quantum geometric excitations (or punctures labeled by spins, which are responsible for the quantum area of the horizon. If these punctures are compared to a gas of particles, then the spins associated with the punctures can be viewed as single puncture area levels analogous to single particle energy levels. Consequently, if we assume these punctures to be indistinguishable, the microstate count for the horizon resembles that of Bose-Einstein counting formula for gas of particles. For the Bekenstein-Hawking area law to follow from the entropy calculation in the large area limit, the Barbero-Immirzi parameter (γ approximately takes a constant value. As a by-product, we are able to speculate the state counting formula for the SU(2 quantum Chern-Simons theory coupled to indistinguishable sources in the weak coupling limit.
Regular black hole in three dimensions
Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok
2008-01-01
We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Akihiko Nagata; Takeo Okun; Tsuyoshi Akiyaman; Atsushi Suzuki
2014-01-01
Organic solar cells based on copper naphthalocyanine (CuNc) and fullerene (C60) were fabricated, and their photovoltaic properties were investigated. C60 and CuNc were used as n-type and p-type semiconductors, respectively. In addition, the effect of Au nanoparticle addition on a hole transfer layer was investigated, and the power conversion efficiency of the devices was improved after blending the Au nanoparticles into the hole transport layer. Nanostructures of Au nanoparticles were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Energy levels of molecules were calculated by molecular orbital calculations, and the nanostructure and electronic properties were discussed.
QED loop effects in the spacetime background of a Schwarzschild black hole
Emelyanov, Viacheslav A.
2017-12-01
The black-hole evaporation implies that the quantum-field propagators in a local Minkowski frame acquire a correction, which gives rise to this process. The modification of the propagators causes, in turn, non-trivial local effects due to the radiative/loop diagrams in non-linear QFTs. In particular, there should be imprints of the evaporation in QED, if one goes beyond the tree-level approximation. Of special interest in this respect is the region near the black-hole horizon, which, already at tree level, appears to show highly non-classical features, e.g., negative energy density and energy flux into the black hole.
Quantum state of the black hole interior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brustein, Ram; Medved, A.J.M.
2015-01-01
If a black hole (BH) is initially in an approximately pure state and it evaporates by a unitary process, then the emitted radiation will be in a highly quantum state. As the purifier of this radiation, the state of the BH interior must also be in some highly quantum state. So that, within the interior region, the mean-field approximation cannot be valid and the state of the BH cannot be described by some semiclassical metric. On this basis, we model the state of the BH interior as a collection of a large number of excitations that are packed into closely spaced but single-occupancy energy levels; a sort-of “Fermi sea” of all light-enough particles. This highly quantum state is surrounded by a semiclassical region that lies close to the horizon and has a non-vanishing energy density. It is shown that such a state looks like a BH from the outside and decays via gravitational pair production in the near-horizon region at a rate that agrees with the Hawking rate. We also consider the fate of a classical object that has passed through to the BH interior and show that, once it has crossed over the near-horizon threshold, the object meets its demise extremely fast. This result cannot be attributed to a “firewall”, as the trauma to the in-falling object only begins after it has passed through the near-horizon region and enters a region where semiclassical spacetime ends but the energy density is still parametrically smaller than Planckian.
On the existence and dynamics of braneworld black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fitzpatrick, Andrew Liam; Randall, Lisa; Wiseman, Toby
2006-01-01
Based on holographic arguments Tanaka and Emparan et al have claimed that large localized static black holes do not exist in the one-brane Randall-Sundrum model. If such black holes are time-dependent as they propose, there are potentially significant phenomenological and theoretical consequences. We revisit the issue, arguing that their reasoning does not take into account the strongly coupled nature of the holographic theory. We claim that static black holes with smooth metrics should indeed exist in these theories, and give a simple example. However, although the existence of such solutions is relevant to exact and numerical solution searches, such static solutions might be dynamically unstable, again leading to time dependence with phenomenological consequences. We explore a plausible instability, suggested by Tanaka, analogous to that of Gregory and Laflamme, but argue that there is no reliable reason at this point to assume it must exist
Qubit transport model for unitary black hole evaporation without firewalls*
Osuga, Kento; Page, Don N.
2018-03-01
We give an explicit toy qubit transport model for transferring information from the gravitational field of a black hole to the Hawking radiation by a continuous unitary transformation of the outgoing radiation and the black hole gravitational field. The model has no firewalls or other drama at the event horizon, and it avoids a counterargument that has been raised for subsystem transfer models as resolutions of the firewall paradox. Furthermore, it fits the set of six physical constraints that Giddings has proposed for models of black hole evaporation. It does utilize nonlocal qubits for the gravitational field but assumes that the radiation interacts locally with these nonlocal qubits, so in some sense the nonlocality is confined to the gravitational sector. Although the qubit model is too crude to be quantitatively correct for the detailed spectrum of Hawking radiation, it fits qualitatively with what is expected.
Stellar-Mass Black Holes in the Solar Neighborhood
Chisholm, J S R; Kolb, Edward W; Chisholm, James R.; Dodelson, Scott; Kolb, Edward W.
2003-01-01
We search for nearby, isolated, accreting, ``stellar-mass'' (3 to $100M_\\odot$) black holes. Models suggest a synchrotron spectrum in visible wavelengths and some emission in X-ray wavelengths. Of 3.7 million objects in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Early Data Release, about 150,000 have colors and properties consistent with such a spectrum, and 47 of these objects are X-ray sources from the ROSAT All Sky Survey. Optical spectra exclude seven of these. We give the positions and colors of these 40 black-hole candidates, as well as a measure of their distances from the stellar loci in color--color space. We discuss uncertainties the expected number of sources, and the contribution of black holes to local dark matter.