Local Polar Fluctuations in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals
Yaffe, Omer; Guo, Yinsheng; Tan, Liang Z.; Egger, David A.; Hull, Trevor; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Zheng, Fan; Heinz, Tony F.; Kronik, Leeor; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Owen, Jonathan S.; Rappe, Andrew M.; Pimenta, Marcos A.; Brus, Louis E.
2017-03-01
Hybrid lead-halide perovskites have emerged as an excellent class of photovoltaic materials. Recent reports suggest that the organic molecular cation is responsible for local polar fluctuations that inhibit carrier recombination. We combine low-frequency Raman scattering with first-principles molecular dynamics (MD) to study the fundamental nature of these local polar fluctuations. Our observations of a strong central peak in the cubic phase of both hybrid (CH3 NH3 PbBr3 ) and all-inorganic (CsPbBr3 ) lead-halide perovskites show that anharmonic, local polar fluctuations are intrinsic to the general lead-halide perovskite structure, and not unique to the dipolar organic cation. MD simulations indicate that head-to-head Cs motion coupled to Br face expansion, occurring on a few hundred femtosecond time scale, drives the local polar fluctuations in CsPbBr3 .
Local Polar Fluctuations in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yaffe, Omer; Guo, Yinsheng; Tan, Liang Z.; Egger, David A.; Hull, Trevor; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Zheng, Fan; Heinz, Tony F.; Kronik, Leeor; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Owen, Jonathan S.; Rappe, Andrew M.; Pimenta, Marcos A.; Brus, Louis E.
2017-03-01
Hybrid lead-halide perovskites have emerged as an excellent class of photovoltaic materials. Recent reports suggest that the organic molecular cation is responsible for local polar fluctuations that inhibit carrier recombination. We combine low-frequency Raman scattering with first-principles molecular dynamics (MD) to study the fundamental nature of these local polar fluctuations. Our observations of a strong central peak in the cubic phase of both hybrid (CH3NH3PbBr3) and all-inorganic (CsPbBr3) leadhalide perovskites show that anharmonic, local polar fluctuations are intrinsic to the general lead-halide perovskite structure, and not unique to the dipolar organic cation. MD simulations indicate that head-tohead Cs motion coupled to Br face expansion, occurring on a few hundred femtosecond time scale, drives the local polar fluctuations in CsPbBr3.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aji, D. P. B.; Johari, G. P., E-mail: joharig@mcmaster.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)
2015-06-07
Fluctuations confined to local regions in the structure of a glass are observed as the Johari-Goldstein (JG) relaxation. Properties of these regions and their atomic configuration are currently studied by relaxation techniques, by electron microscopy, and by high-energy X-ray scattering and extended x-ray absorption fine structure methods. One expects that these fluctuations (i) would kinetically freeze on cooling a glass, and the temperature coefficient of its enthalpy, dH/dT, would consequently show a gradual decrease with decrease in T, (ii) would kinetically unfreeze on heating the glass toward the glass-liquid transition temperature, T{sub g}, and dH/dT would gradually increase, and (iii) there would be a thermal hysteresis indicating the time and temperature dependence of the enthalpy. Since no such features have been found, thermodynamic consequences of these fluctuations are debated. After searching for these features in glasses of different types, we found it in one of the most stable metal alloy glasses of composition Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 30}P{sub 20}. On cooling from its T{sub g}, dH/dT decreased along a broad sigmoid-shape path as local-region fluctuations kinetically froze. On heating thereafter, dH/dT increased along a similar path as these fluctuations unfroze, and there is hysteresis in the cooling and heating paths, similar to that observed in the T{sub g}-endotherm range. After eliminating other interpretations, we conclude that local-region fluctuations seen as the JG relaxation in the non-equilibrium state of a glass contribute to its entropy, and we suggest conditions under which such fluctuations may be observed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aji, D. P. B.; Johari, G. P.
2015-01-01
Fluctuations confined to local regions in the structure of a glass are observed as the Johari-Goldstein (JG) relaxation. Properties of these regions and their atomic configuration are currently studied by relaxation techniques, by electron microscopy, and by high-energy X-ray scattering and extended x-ray absorption fine structure methods. One expects that these fluctuations (i) would kinetically freeze on cooling a glass, and the temperature coefficient of its enthalpy, dH/dT, would consequently show a gradual decrease with decrease in T, (ii) would kinetically unfreeze on heating the glass toward the glass-liquid transition temperature, T g , and dH/dT would gradually increase, and (iii) there would be a thermal hysteresis indicating the time and temperature dependence of the enthalpy. Since no such features have been found, thermodynamic consequences of these fluctuations are debated. After searching for these features in glasses of different types, we found it in one of the most stable metal alloy glasses of composition Pd 40 Ni 10 Cu 30 P 20 . On cooling from its T g , dH/dT decreased along a broad sigmoid-shape path as local-region fluctuations kinetically froze. On heating thereafter, dH/dT increased along a similar path as these fluctuations unfroze, and there is hysteresis in the cooling and heating paths, similar to that observed in the T g -endotherm range. After eliminating other interpretations, we conclude that local-region fluctuations seen as the JG relaxation in the non-equilibrium state of a glass contribute to its entropy, and we suggest conditions under which such fluctuations may be observed
Net charge fluctuations and local charge compensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu Jinghua
2006-01-01
We propose net charge fluctuation as a measure of local charge correlation length. It is demonstrated that, in terms of a schematic multiperipheral model, net charge fluctuation satisfies the same Quigg-Thomas relation as satisfied by charge transfer fluctuation. Net charge fluctuations measured in finite rapidity windows depend on both the local charge correlation length and the size of the observation window. When the observation window is larger than the local charge correlation length, the net charge fluctuation only depends on the local charge correlation length, while forward-backward charge fluctuations always have strong dependence on the observation window size. Net charge fluctuations and forward-backward charge fluctuations measured in the present heavy ion experiments show characteristic features similar to those from multiperipheral models. But the data cannot all be understood within this simple model
Local polar fluctuations in lead halide perovskites
Tan, Liang; Yaffe, Omer; Guo, Yinsheng; Brus, Louis; Rappe, Andrew; Egger, David; Kronik, Leeor
The lead halide perovskites have recently attracted much attention because of their large and growing photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies. However, questions remain regarding the temporal and spatial correlations of the structural fluctuations, their atomistic nature, and how they affect electronic and photovoltaic properties. To address these questions, we have performed a combined ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) study on CsPbBr3. We have observed prevalent anharmonic motion in our MD trajectories, with local polar fluctuations involving head-to-head motion of A-site Cs cations coupled with Br window opening. We calculate Raman spectra from the polarizability auto-correlation functions obtained from these trajectories and show that anharmonic A-site cation motion manifests as a broad central peak in the Raman spectrum, which increases in intensity with temperature. A comparison of the experimental Raman spectrum of hybrid organometallic MAPbBr3 and fully inorganic CsPbBr3 suggests that structural fluctuations in lead-halide perovskites is more general than rotation of polar organic cations and is intimately coupled to the inorganic framework.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, Nobuyuki; Ono, Ayako; Miyakoshi, Hiroyuki; Kamide, Hideki
2009-01-01
A quantitative evaluation on high cycle thermal fatigue due to temperature fluctuation in fluid is of importance for structural integrity in the reactor. It is necessary for the quantitative evaluation to investigate occurrence and propagation processes of temperature fluctuation, e.g., decay of fluctuation intensity near structures and transfer of temperature fluctuation from fluid to structures. The JSME published a guideline for evaluation of high-cycle thermal fatigue of a pipe as the JSME guideline in 2003. This JSME standard covers T-pipe junction used in LWRs operated in Japan. In the guideline, the effective heat transfer coefficients were obtained from temperature fluctuations in fluid and structure in experiments. In the previous studies, the effective heat transfer coefficients were 2 - 10 times larger than the heat transfer coefficients under steady state conditions in a straight tube. In this study, a water experiment of T-junction was performed to evaluate the transfer characteristics of temperature fluctuation from fluid to structure. In the experiment, temperatures in fluid and structure were measured simultaneously at 20 positions to obtain spatial distributions of the effective heat transfer coefficient. In addition, temperatures in structure and local velocities in fluid were measured simultaneously to evaluate the correlation between the temperature and velocity under the non-stationary fields. The large heat transfer coefficients were registered at the region where the local velocity was high. Furthermore it was found that the heat transfer coefficients were correlated with the time-averaged turbulent heat flux near the pipe wall. (author)
Localization of fluctuation measurement by wave scattering close to a cut off layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou, X.L.; Laurent, L.; Rax, J.M.; Lehner, T.
1990-01-01
The diagnostic of plasma fluctuations in tokamaks based on the scattering of an electromagnetic wave close to a cut off layer is investigated. A linear density profile is considered. An one-dimensional exact analysis is performed. Spatial and spectral localization of scattering process close to the cut off layer is studied and a modified Bragg rule is derived. The structure of pump and of scattered waves is analyzed. The diagnostic seems to be local and sensitive for low R fluctuations
Fluctuations and structure of amphiphilic films; Fluctuations et structure de films d`amphiphiles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gourier, CH
1996-07-01
This thesis is divided in three parts.The first part exposes in a theoretical point of view, how the fluctuations spectrum of an amphiphilic film is governed by its properties and its bidimensional characteristics.The measurements of fluctuations spectra of an interface are accessible with the measurement of intensity that interface diffuses out of the specular angle, we present in the second chapter the principles of the X rays diffusion by a real interface and see how the diffuse diffusion experiments allow to determine the fluctuations spectrum of an amphiphilic film. The second part is devoted to the different experimental techniques that have allowed to realize the study of fluctuation as well as the structural study.The third part is devoted to experimental results concerning the measurements of fluctuations spectra and to the study of the structure of amphiphilic films. We show that it is possible by using an intense source of X rays (ESRF: European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) to measure the water and amphiphilic films fluctuations spectra until molecular scales. The last chapter is devoted to the structural study and film fluctuations made of di-acetylenic molecules. (N.C.)
Lin, L; Ding, W X; Brower, D L
2014-11-01
Combined polarimetry-interferometry capability permits simultaneous measurement of line-integrated density and Faraday effect with fast time response (∼1 μs) and high sensitivity. Faraday effect fluctuations with phase shift of order 0.05° associated with global tearing modes are resolved with an uncertainty ∼0.01°. For physics investigations, local density fluctuations are obtained by inverting the line-integrated interferometry data. The local magnetic and current density fluctuations are then reconstructed using a parameterized fit of the polarimetry data. Reconstructed 2D images of density and magnetic field fluctuations in a poloidal cross section exhibit significantly different spatial structure. Combined with their relative phase, the magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle transport flux and its spatial distribution are resolved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, L.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.
2014-01-01
Combined polarimetry-interferometry capability permits simultaneous measurement of line-integrated density and Faraday effect with fast time response (∼1 μs) and high sensitivity. Faraday effect fluctuations with phase shift of order 0.05° associated with global tearing modes are resolved with an uncertainty ∼0.01°. For physics investigations, local density fluctuations are obtained by inverting the line-integrated interferometry data. The local magnetic and current density fluctuations are then reconstructed using a parameterized fit of the polarimetry data. Reconstructed 2D images of density and magnetic field fluctuations in a poloidal cross section exhibit significantly different spatial structure. Combined with their relative phase, the magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle transport flux and its spatial distribution are resolved
The Thick Market Effect on Local Unemployment Rate Fluctuations
Li Gan; Qinghua Zhang
2005-01-01
This paper studies how the thick market effect influences local unemployment rate fluctuations. The paper presents a model to demonstrate that the average matching quality improves as the number of workers and firms increases. Unemployed workers accumulate in a city until the local labor market reaches a critical minimum size, which leads to cyclical fluctuations in the local unemployment rates. Since larger cities attain the critical market size more frequently, they have shorter unemploymen...
Effect of altering local protein fluctuations using artificial intelligence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katsuhiko Nishiyama
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The fluctuations in Arg111, a significantly fluctuating residue in cathepsin K, were locally regulated by modifying Arg111 to Gly111. The binding properties of 15 dipeptides in the modified protein were analyzed by molecular simulations, and modeled as decision trees using artificial intelligence. The decision tree of the modified protein significantly differed from that of unmodified cathepsin K, and the Arg-to-Gly modification exerted a remarkable effect on the peptide binding properties. By locally regulating the fluctuations of a protein, we may greatly alter the original functions of the protein, enabling novel applications in several fields.
Effect of altering local protein fluctuations using artificial intelligence
Nishiyama, Katsuhiko
2017-03-01
The fluctuations in Arg111, a significantly fluctuating residue in cathepsin K, were locally regulated by modifying Arg111 to Gly111. The binding properties of 15 dipeptides in the modified protein were analyzed by molecular simulations, and modeled as decision trees using artificial intelligence. The decision tree of the modified protein significantly differed from that of unmodified cathepsin K, and the Arg-to-Gly modification exerted a remarkable effect on the peptide binding properties. By locally regulating the fluctuations of a protein, we may greatly alter the original functions of the protein, enabling novel applications in several fields.
Localization of waves in a fluctuating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Escande, D.F.; Souillard, B.
1984-01-01
We present the first application of localization theory to plasma physics: Density fluctuations induce exponential localization of longitudinal and transverse electron plasma waves, i.e., the eigenmodes have an amplitude decreasing exponentially for large distances without any dissipative mechanism in the plasma. This introduces a new mechanism for converting a convective instability into an absolute one. Localization should be observable in clear-cut experiments
Merlo, G.; Brunner, S.; Huang, Z.; Coda, S.; Görler, T.; Villard, L.; Bañón Navarro, A.; Dominski, J.; Fontana, M.; Jenko, F.; Porte, L.; Told, D.
2018-03-01
Axisymmetric (n = 0) density fluctuations measured in the TCV tokamak are observed to possess a frequency f 0 which is either varying (radially dispersive oscillations) or a constant over a large fraction of the plasma minor radius (radially global oscillations) as reported in a companion paper (Z Huang et al, this issue). Given that f 0 scales with the sound speed and given the poloidal structure of density fluctuations, these oscillations were interpreted as Geodesic Acoustic Modes, even though f 0 is in fact smaller than the local linear GAM frequency {f}{GAM}. In this work we employ the Eulerian gyrokinetic code GENE to simulate TCV relevant conditions and investigate the nature and properties of these oscillations, in particular their relation to the safety factor profile. Local and global simulations are carried out and a good qualitative agreement is observed between experiments and simulations. By varying also the plasma temperature and density profiles, we conclude that a variation of the edge safety factor alone is not sufficient to induce a transition from global to radially inhomogeneous oscillations, as was initially suggested by experimental results. This transition appears instead to be the combined result of variations in the different plasma profiles, collisionality and finite machine size effects. Simulations also show that radially global GAM-like oscillations can be observed in all fluxes and fluctuation fields, suggesting that they are the result of a complex nonlinear process involving also finite toroidal mode numbers and not just linear global GAM eigenmodes.
Localized Spectral Analysis of Fluctuating Power Generation from Solar Energy Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johan Nijs
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Fluctuations in solar irradiance are a serious obstacle for the future large-scale application of photovoltaics. Occurring regularly with the passage of clouds, they can cause unexpected power variations and introduce voltage dips to the power distribution system. This paper proposes the treatment of such fluctuating time series as realizations of a stochastic, locally stationary, wavelet process. Its local spectral density can be estimated from empirical data by means of wavelet periodograms. The wavelet approach allows the analysis of the amplitude of fluctuations per characteristic scale, hence, persistence of the fluctuation. Furthermore, conclusions can be drawn on the frequency of occurrence of fluctuations of different scale. This localized spectral analysis was applied to empirical data of two successive years. The approach is especially useful for network planning and load management of power distribution systems containing a high density of photovoltaic generation units.
Fluctuations and structure of amphiphilic films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gourier, CH.
1996-01-01
This thesis is divided in three parts.The first part exposes in a theoretical point of view, how the fluctuations spectrum of an amphiphilic film is governed by its properties and its bidimensional characteristics.The measurements of fluctuations spectra of an interface are accessible with the measurement of intensity that interface diffuses out of the specular angle, we present in the second chapter the principles of the X rays diffusion by a real interface and see how the diffuse diffusion experiments allow to determine the fluctuations spectrum of an amphiphilic film. The second part is devoted to the different experimental techniques that have allowed to realize the study of fluctuation as well as the structural study.The third part is devoted to experimental results concerning the measurements of fluctuations spectra and to the study of the structure of amphiphilic films. We show that it is possible by using an intense source of X rays (ESRF: European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) to measure the water and amphiphilic films fluctuations spectra until molecular scales. The last chapter is devoted to the structural study and film fluctuations made of di-acetylenic molecules. (N.C.)
Fluctuating exciton localization in giant π-conjugated spoked-wheel macrocycles
Aggarwal, A. Vikas; Thiessen, Alexander; Idelson, Alissa; Kalle, Daniel; Würsch, Dominik; Stangl, Thomas; Steiner, Florian; Jester, Stefan-S.; Vogelsang, Jan; Höger, Sigurd; Lupton, John M.
2013-11-01
Conjugated polymers offer potential for many diverse applications, but we still lack a fundamental microscopic understanding of their electronic structure. Elementary photoexcitations (excitons) span only a few nanometres of a molecule, which itself can extend over microns, and how their behaviour is affected by molecular dimensions is not immediately obvious. For example, where is the exciton formed within a conjugated segment and is it always situated on the same repeat units? Here, we introduce structurally rigid molecular spoked wheels, 6 nm in diameter, as a model of extended π conjugation. Single-molecule fluorescence reveals random exciton localization, which leads to temporally varying emission polarization. Initially, this random localization arises after every photon absorption event because of temperature-independent spontaneous symmetry breaking. These fast fluctuations are slowed to millisecond timescales after prolonged illumination. Intramolecular heterogeneity is revealed in cryogenic spectroscopy by jumps in transition energy, but emission polarization can also switch without a spectral jump occurring, which implies long-range homogeneity in the local dielectric environment.
Quantized fluctuational electrodynamics for three-dimensional plasmonic structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Tulkki, Jukka
2017-01-01
We recently introduced a quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism that provides a physically insightful definition of an effective position-dependent photon-number operator and the associated ladder operators. However, this far the formalism has been applicable only for the normal...... formalism, we apply it to study the local steady-state photon numbers and field temperatures in a light-emitting near-surface InGaN quantum-well structure with a metallic coating supporting surface plasmons....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoi, Yasuhiko; Take, Seisho; Tsuru, Tooru
2008-01-01
We have been studying application of electrochemical noise (Fluctuation) analysis for localized corrosion. Foils of Zinc, Aluminum and Magnesium were used as specimens for electrochemical cell simulating localized corrosion. These specimens were dipped in sodium chloride solutions adjusted to each exponent of hydrogen ion concentration (pH) condition of 5.5, 10, 12 respectively. Time variations of potential and current were measured in those solutions, and simultaneously the surfaces of specimens were observed using microscope with television monitor. Two types of electrochemical cells were arranged for experiments simulated localized corrosion. The fluctuations on trendy component of short-circuited potential and short-circuited current were appeared in synchronization. It was seemed that these fluctuations result from hydrogen evolution on the aluminum active site in the crevice from the microscopic observation. In the case of zinc and magnesium, fluctuations appeared on the trendy component of the corrosion potential. Two types fluctuation were detected. First one is the fluctuation varied periodically. The second one is the random fluctuation. It was seemed that these fluctuations result from generation of corrosion products and hydrogen evolution on the active site in the crevice of zinc and magnesium from the microscopic observation
Electronic structure and quantum spin fluctuations at the magnetic phase transition in MnSi
Povzner, A. A.; Volkov, A. G.; Nogovitsyna, T. A.
2018-05-01
The effect of spin fluctuations on the heat capacity and homogeneous magnetic susceptibility of the chiral magnetic MnSi in the vicinity of magnetic transition has been investigated by using the free energy functional of the coupled electron and spin subsystems and taking into account the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. For helical ferromagnetic ordering, we found that zero-point fluctuations of the spin density are large and comparable with fluctuations of the non-uniform magnetization. The amplitude of zero-point spin fluctuations shows a sharp decrease in the region of the magnetic phase transition. It is shown that sharp decrease of the amplitude of the quantum spin fluctuations results in the lambda-like maxima of the heat capacity and the homogeneous magnetic susceptibility. Above the temperature of the lambda anomaly, the spin correlation radius becomes less than the period of the helical structure and chiral fluctuations of the local magnetization appear. It is shown that formation of a "shoulder" on the temperature dependence of the heat capacity is due to disappearance of the local magnetization. Our finding allows to explain the experimentally observed features of the magnetic phase transition of MnSi as a result of the crossover of quantum and thermodynamic phase transitions.
Stability of synchrony against local intermittent fluctuations in tree-like power grids
Auer, Sabine; Hellmann, Frank; Krause, Marie; Kurths, Jürgen
2017-12-01
90% of all Renewable Energy Power in Germany is installed in tree-like distribution grids. Intermittent power fluctuations from such sources introduce new dynamics into the lower grid layers. At the same time, distributed resources will have to contribute to stabilize the grid against these fluctuations in the future. In this paper, we model a system of distributed resources as oscillators on a tree-like, lossy power grid and its ability to withstand desynchronization from localized intermittent renewable infeed. We find a remarkable interplay of the network structure and the position of the node at which the fluctuations are fed in. An important precondition for our findings is the presence of losses in distribution grids. Then, the most network central node splits the network into branches with different influence on network stability. Troublemakers, i.e., nodes at which fluctuations are especially exciting the grid, tend to be downstream branches with high net power outflow. For low coupling strength, we also find branches of nodes vulnerable to fluctuations anywhere in the network. These network regions can be predicted at high confidence using an eigenvector based network measure taking the turbulent nature of perturbations into account. While we focus here on tree-like networks, the observed effects also appear, albeit less pronounced, for weakly meshed grids. On the other hand, the observed effects disappear for lossless power grids often studied in the complex system literature.
Structural features that predict real-value fluctuations of globular proteins.
Jamroz, Michal; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kihara, Daisuke
2012-05-01
It is crucial to consider dynamics for understanding the biological function of proteins. We used a large number of molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories of nonhomologous proteins as references and examined static structural features of proteins that are most relevant to fluctuations. We examined correlation of individual structural features with fluctuations and further investigated effective combinations of features for predicting the real value of residue fluctuations using the support vector regression (SVR). It was found that some structural features have higher correlation than crystallographic B-factors with fluctuations observed in MD trajectories. Moreover, SVR that uses combinations of static structural features showed accurate prediction of fluctuations with an average Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.669 and a root mean square error of 1.04 Å. This correlation coefficient is higher than the one observed in predictions by the Gaussian network model (GNM). An advantage of the developed method over the GNMs is that the former predicts the real value of fluctuation. The results help improve our understanding of relationships between protein structure and fluctuation. Furthermore, the developed method provides a convienient practial way to predict fluctuations of proteins using easily computed static structural features of proteins. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Köberl, S; Giuliani, F; Woisetschläger, J; Fontaneto, F
2010-01-01
A validation of a novel interferometric measurement technique for the frequency-resolved detection of local density fluctuation in turbulent combustion analysis was performed in this work. Two laser vibrometer systems together with a signal analyser were used to obtain frequency spectra of density fluctuations across a methane-jet flame. Since laser vibrometry is based on interferometric techniques, the derived signals are path-integrals along the measurement beam. To obtain local frequency spectra of density fluctuations, long-time-averaged measurements from each of the two systems were performed using correlation functions and cross spectra. Results were compared to data recorded by standard interferometric techniques for validation purposes. Additionally, Raman scattering and laser Doppler velocimetry were used for flame characterization
Temperature and flow fluctuations under local boiling in a simulated fuel subassembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inujima, H.; Ogino, T.; Uotani, M.; Yamaguchi, K.
1980-08-01
Out-of-pile experiments were carried out with the sodium test loop SIENA in O-arai Engineering Center of PNC, and the feasibility studies had been made on the local boiling detection by use of temperature and flow fluctuations. The studies showed that the temperature fluctuation transferred the information on local boiling toward the end of the bundle, but hardly to the outlet. In addition, it was proved that the anomaly detection method, which used the algorithm of whiteness test method to the residual time series data of autoregressive model, is an effective one for detecting anomaly such as local boiling. (author)
Anderson, Jeffrey S; Zielinski, Brandon A; Nielsen, Jared A; Ferguson, Michael A
2014-04-01
Very low-frequency blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations have emerged as a valuable tool for describing brain anatomy, neuropathology, and development. Such fluctuations exhibit power law frequency dynamics, with largest amplitude at lowest frequencies. The biophysical mechanisms generating such fluctuations are poorly understood. Using publicly available data from 1,019 subjects of age 7-30, we show that BOLD fluctuations exhibit temporal complexity that is linearly related to local connectivity (regional homogeneity), consistently and significantly covarying across subjects and across gray matter regions. This relationship persisted independently of covariance with gray matter density or standard deviation of BOLD signal. During late neurodevelopment, BOLD fluctuations were unchanged with age in association cortex while becoming more random throughout the rest of the brain. These data suggest that local interconnectivity may play a key role in establishing the complexity of low-frequency BOLD fluctuations underlying functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity. Stable low-frequency power dynamics may emerge through segmentation and integration of connectivity during development of distributed large-scale brain networks. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The nucleation process and the roles of structure and density fluctuations in supercooled liquid Fe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Rong; Wu, Yongquan; Xiao, Junjiang
2014-01-01
We observed homogeneous nucleation process of supercooled liquid Fe by molecular dynamics simulations. Using bond-orientational order parameters together with Voronoi polyhedron method, we characterized local structure, calculated the volume of Voronoi polyhedra of atoms and identified the structure and density fluctuations. We monitored the formation of nucleus and analyzed its inner structure. The birth and growth of the pre-nucleus and nucleus are accompanied with aggregating and disaggregating processes in the time scale of femtosecond. Only the initial solid-like clusters (ISLC), ranging from 1 to 7 atoms, pop up directly from liquid. The relation between the logarithm of number of clusters and the cluster size was found to be linear for ISLCs and was observed to be parabolic for all solid-like clusters (SLC) due to aggregating and disaggregating effects. The nucleus and pre-nuclei mainly consist of body centered cubic (BCC) and hexagonal close packed atoms, while the BCC atoms tend to be located at the surface. Medium-range structure fluctuations induce the birth of ISLCs, benefit the aggregation of embryos and remarkably promote the nucleation. But density fluctuations contribute little to nucleation. The lifetime of most icosahedral-like atoms (ICO) is shorter than 0.7 ps. No obvious relationship was found between structure/density fluctuations and the appearance of ICO atoms
Fluctuations and rigidities in local labor markets. Part 2: reinterpreting contracts
G L Clark
1983-01-01
Local labor markets are characterized by rigidities in their patterns of adjustment to short-run fluctuations. With or without unions, fluctuations in employment, hours worked, and money wages are unlike the patterns predicted by conventional discrete-exchange labor-market theories. Moreover there are distinct geographical and industrial patterns in the observed rigidities. Neoclassical implicit contract theory has been vindicated. Or has it? Obvious empirical difficulties remain, especially ...
Giant fluctuations and structural effects in a flocking epithelium
Giavazzi, Fabio; Malinverno, Chiara; Corallino, Salvatore; Ginelli, Francesco; Scita, Giorgio; Cerbino, Roberto
2017-09-01
Epithelial cells cultured in a monolayer are very motile in isolation but reach a near-jammed state when mitotic division increases their number above a critical threshold. We have recently shown that a monolayer can be reawakened by over-expression of a single protein, RAB5A, a master regulator of endocytosis. This reawakening of motility was explained in terms of a flocking transition that promotes the emergence of a large-scale collective migratory pattern. Here we focus on the impact of this reawakening on the structural properties of the monolayer. We find that the unjammed monolayer is characterised by a fluidisation at the single cell level, and by enhanced non-equilibrium large-scale number fluctuations at a larger length scale. Also, with the help of numerical simulations, we trace back the origin of these fluctuations to the self-propelled active nature of the constituents, and to the existence of a local alignment mechanism, leading to the spontaneous breaking of the orientational symmetry.
Giant fluctuations and structural effects in a flocking epithelium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giavazzi, Fabio; Cerbino, Roberto; Malinverno, Chiara; Corallino, Salvatore; Scita, Giorgio; Ginelli, Francesco
2017-01-01
Epithelial cells cultured in a monolayer are very motile in isolation but reach a near-jammed state when mitotic division increases their number above a critical threshold. We have recently shown that a monolayer can be reawakened by over-expression of a single protein, RAB5A, a master regulator of endocytosis. This reawakening of motility was explained in terms of a flocking transition that promotes the emergence of a large-scale collective migratory pattern. Here we focus on the impact of this reawakening on the structural properties of the monolayer. We find that the unjammed monolayer is characterised by a fluidisation at the single cell level, and by enhanced non-equilibrium large-scale number fluctuations at a larger length scale. Also, with the help of numerical simulations, we trace back the origin of these fluctuations to the self-propelled active nature of the constituents, and to the existence of a local alignment mechanism, leading to the spontaneous breaking of the orientational symmetry. (paper)
Hierarchical structure of stock price fluctuations in financial markets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Ya-Chun; Cai, Shi-Min; Wang, Bing-Hong
2012-01-01
The financial market and turbulence have been broadly compared on account of the same quantitative methods and several common stylized facts they share. In this paper, the She–Leveque (SL) hierarchy, proposed to explain the anomalous scaling exponents deviating from Kolmogorov monofractal scaling of the velocity fluctuation in fluid turbulence, is applied to study and quantify the hierarchical structure of stock price fluctuations in financial markets. We therefore observed certain interesting results: (i) the hierarchical structure related to multifractal scaling generally presents in all the stock price fluctuations we investigated. (ii) The quantitatively statistical parameters that describe SL hierarchy are different between developed financial markets and emerging ones, distinctively. (iii) For the high-frequency stock price fluctuation, the hierarchical structure varies with different time periods. All these results provide a novel analogy in turbulence and financial market dynamics and an insight to deeply understand multifractality in financial markets. (paper)
Coherent density fluctuation model as a local-scale limit to ATDHF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonov, A.N.; Petkov, I.Zh.; Stoitsov, M.V.
1985-04-01
The local scale transformation method is used for the construction of an Adiabatic Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock approach in terms of the local density distribution. The coherent density fluctuation relations of the model result in a particular case when the ''flucton'' local density is connected with the plane wave determinant model function be means of the local-scale coordinate transformation. The collective potential energy expression is obtained and its relation to the nuclear matter energy saturation curve is revealed. (author)
Localized description of valence fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alascio, B.; Allub, R.; Aligia, A.
1979-07-01
The authors set up a model for intermediate valence equivalent to the ''atomic'' limit of the Anderson Hamiltonian. Detailed analysis of this model shows that most of the essential characteristics of valence fluctuators are already present in this crudely simplified Hamiltonian. The spin-spin and the 4f charge-charge correlation functions are studied and it is shown that it is possible to define a spin fluctuation frequency ωsub(s.f.) and a charge fluctuation frequency ωsub(ch.f.).ωsub(s.f.) and ωsub(ch.f.) can differ considerably for some values of the parameters of the model. The magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat are calculated as functions of temperature and it is shown how the results simulate the behaviour found in valence fluctuators. (author)
Fluctuating local field method probed for a description of small classical correlated lattices
Rubtsov, Alexey N.
2018-05-01
Thermal-equilibrated finite classical lattices are considered as a minimal model of the systems showing an interplay between low-energy collective fluctuations and single-site degrees of freedom. Standard local field approach, as well as classical limit of the bosonic DMFT method, do not provide a satisfactory description of Ising and Heisenberg small lattices subjected to an external polarizing field. We show that a dramatic improvement can be achieved within a simple approach, in which the local field appears to be a fluctuating quantity related to the low-energy degree(s) of freedom.
Structural Origins of Conductance Fluctuations in Gold–Thiolate Molecular Transport Junctions
French, William R.
2013-03-21
We report detailed atomistic simulations combined with high-fidelity conductance calculations to probe the structural origins of conductance fluctuations in thermally evolving Au-benzene-1,4-dithiolate-Au junctions. We compare the behavior of structurally ideal junctions (where the electrodes are modeled as flat surfaces) to structurally realistic, experimentally representative junctions resulting from break-junction simulations. The enhanced mobility of metal atoms in structurally realistic junctions results in significant changes to the magnitude and origin of the conductance fluctuations. Fluctuations are larger by a factor of 2-3 in realistic junctions compared to ideal junctions. Moreover, in junctions with highly deformed electrodes, the conductance fluctuations arise primarily from changes in the Au geometry, in contrast to results for junctions with nondeformed electrodes, where the conductance fluctuations are dominated by changes in the molecule geometry. These results provide important guidance to experimentalists developing strategies to control molecular conductance, and also to theoreticians invoking simplified structural models of junctions to predict their behavior. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Structural Origins of Conductance Fluctuations in Gold–Thiolate Molecular Transport Junctions
French, William R.; Iacovella, Christopher R.; Rungger, Ivan; Souza, Amaury Melo; Sanvito, Stefano; Cummings, Peter T.
2013-01-01
We report detailed atomistic simulations combined with high-fidelity conductance calculations to probe the structural origins of conductance fluctuations in thermally evolving Au-benzene-1,4-dithiolate-Au junctions. We compare the behavior of structurally ideal junctions (where the electrodes are modeled as flat surfaces) to structurally realistic, experimentally representative junctions resulting from break-junction simulations. The enhanced mobility of metal atoms in structurally realistic junctions results in significant changes to the magnitude and origin of the conductance fluctuations. Fluctuations are larger by a factor of 2-3 in realistic junctions compared to ideal junctions. Moreover, in junctions with highly deformed electrodes, the conductance fluctuations arise primarily from changes in the Au geometry, in contrast to results for junctions with nondeformed electrodes, where the conductance fluctuations are dominated by changes in the molecule geometry. These results provide important guidance to experimentalists developing strategies to control molecular conductance, and also to theoreticians invoking simplified structural models of junctions to predict their behavior. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Zhang, Yu; Li, Yan; Shao, Hao; Zhong, Yaozhao; Zhang, Sai; Zhao, Zongxi
2012-06-01
Band structure and wave localization are investigated for sea surface water waves over large-scale sand wave topography. Sand wave height, sand wave width, water depth, and water width between adjacent sand waves have significant impact on band gaps. Random fluctuations of sand wave height, sand wave width, and water depth induce water wave localization. However, random water width produces a perfect transmission tunnel of water waves at a certain frequency so that localization does not occur no matter how large a disorder level is applied. Together with theoretical results, the field experimental observations in the Taiwan Bank suggest band gap and wave localization as the physical mechanism of sea surface water wave propagating over natural large-scale sand waves.
Calorimetric evidence for localized spin fluctuations in UA12
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trainor, R.J.; Brodsky, M.B.; Isaacs, L.L.
1974-01-01
Results of heat capacity measurements on UAl 2 between 1.8 and 400 0 K are presented. The data are compared with recent resistivity and susceptibility measurements which indicate the existence of localized spin fluctuations in a narrow 5f band. Below about 50 0 K the electronic contribution to the heat capacity becomes large, equivalent to γ approximately 70 mJ/mole-K 2 . Below 6 0 K there is an upturn in C/T which is proportional to T 2 log (T/T/sub SF/), where T/sub SF/ = 10.6 0 K is identified as the spin fluctuation temperature. Extrapolation of this term to zero temperature yields m*/m approximately 2 for the spin-fluctuation mass enhancement. At 300 0 K, UAl 2 exhibits more typical metallic behavior, with γ approximately 15 mJ/mole-K 2 . Data are also presented for nonmagnetic URh 3 ; at low temperatures C = γT + βT 3 , with γ = 14.5 mJ/mole-K 2 and β corresponding to theta/sub D/ = 336 0 K. (U.S.)
Local fluctuations of the signed traded volumes and the dependencies of demands: a copula analysis
Wang, Shanshan; Guhr, Thomas
2018-03-01
We investigate how the local fluctuations of the signed traded volumes affect the dependence of demands between stocks. We analyze the empirical dependence of demands using copulas and show that they are well described by a bivariate K copula density function. We find that large local fluctuations strongly increase the positive dependence but lower slightly the negative one in the copula density. This interesting feature is due to cross-correlations of volume imbalances between stocks. Also, we explore the asymmetries of tail dependencies of the copula density, which are moderate for the negative dependencies but strong for the positive ones. For the latter, we reveal that large local fluctuations of the signed traded volumes trigger stronger dependencies of demands than of supplies, probably indicating a bull market with persistent raising of prices.
Bleuse, Joël; Ducroquet, Frédérique; Mariette, Henri
2018-03-01
Reports on Cu_2 ZnSn(S_x Se_{1-x} )_4 (CZTSSe) solar cell devices all show an open-circuit voltage lower than expected, especially when compared to CuIn_x Ga_{1-x} (S,Se)_2 devices, which reduces their power efficiency and delays their development. A high concentration of intrinsic defects in CZTSSe, and their stabilization through neutral complex formation, which induces some local fluctuations, are at the origin of local energy shifts in the conduction and valence band edges. The implied band tail in Cu_2 ZnSnS_4 is studied in this work by combining three types of optical spectroscopy data: emission spectra compared to photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, emission spectra as a function of excitation power, and time-resolved photoluminescence spectra. All these data converge to show that both the bandgap and the band tail of localized states just below are dependent on the degree of order/disorder in the Cu/Zn cation sublattice of the quaternary structure: in the more ordered structures, the bandgap increases by about 50 meV, and the energy range of the band tail is decreased from about 110 to 70 meV.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazzucato, E.
2002-01-01
Localized measurements of short-scale turbulent fluctuations in tokamaks are still an outstanding problem. In this paper, the method of coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves for the detection of density fluctuations is revisited. Results indicate that the proper choice of frequency, size and launching of the probing wave can transform this method into an excellent technique for high-resolution measurements of those fluctuations that plasma theory indicates as the potential cause of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The best spatial resolution can be achieved when the range of scattering angles corresponding to the spectrum of fluctuations under investigation is small. This favors the use of high frequency probing waves, such as those of far infrared lasers. The application to existing large tokamaks is discussed
Structural fluctuation governed dynamic diradical character in pentacene.
Yang, Hongfang; Chen, Mengzhen; Song, Xinyu; Bu, Yuxiang
2015-06-07
We unravel intriguing dynamical diradical behavior governed by structural fluctuation in pentacene using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. In contrast to static equilibrium configuration of pentacene with a closed-shell ground state without diradical character, due to structural fluctuation, some of its dynamical snapshot configurations exhibit an open-shell broken-symmetry singlet ground state with diradical character, and such diradical character presents irregular pulsing behavior in time evolution. Not all structural changes can lead to diradical character, only those involving the shortening of cross-linking C-C bonds and variations of the C-C bonds in polyacetylene chains are the main contributors. This scenario about diradicalization is distinctly different from that in long acenes. The essence is that structural distortion cooperatively raises the HOMO and lowers the LUMO, efficiently reducing the HOMO-LUMO and singlet-triplet energy gaps, which facilitate the formation of a broken-symmetry open-shell singlet state. The irregular pulsing behavior originates from the mixing of normal vibrations in pentacene. This fascinating behavior suggests the potential application of pentacene as a suitable building block in the design of new electronic devices due to its magnetism-controllability through energy induction. This work provides new insight into inherent electronic property fluctuation in acenes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montalvao, Rinaldo W.; De Simone, Alfonso; Vendruscolo, Michele
2012-01-01
Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) have the potential of providing detailed information about the conformational fluctuations of proteins. It is very challenging, however, to extract such information because of the complex relationship between RDCs and protein structures. A promising approach to decode this relationship involves structure-based calculations of the alignment tensors of protein conformations. By implementing this strategy to generate structural restraints in molecular dynamics simulations we show that it is possible to extract effectively the information provided by RDCs about the conformational fluctuations in the native states of proteins. The approach that we present can be used in a wide range of alignment media, including Pf1, charged bicelles and gels. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated by the analysis of the Q factors for RDCs not used as restraints in the calculations, which are significantly lower than those corresponding to existing high-resolution structures and structural ensembles, hence showing that we capture effectively the contributions to RDCs from conformational fluctuations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barada, K., E-mail: kshitish@ucla.edu; Rhodes, T. L.; Crocker, N. A.; Peebles, W. A. [University of California-Los Angeles, P.O. Box 957099, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)
2016-11-15
We present new measurements of internal magnetic fluctuations obtained with a novel eight channel cross polarization scattering (CPS) system installed on the DIII-D tokamak. Measurements of internal, localized magnetic fluctuations provide a window on an important physics quantity that we heretofore have had little information on. Importantly, these measurements provide a new ability to challenge and test linear and nonlinear simulations and basic theory. The CPS method, based upon the scattering of an incident microwave beam into the opposite polarization by magnetic fluctuations, has been significantly extended and improved over the method as originally developed on the Tore Supra tokamak. A new scattering geometry, provided by a unique probe beam, is utilized to improve the spatial localization and wavenumber range. Remotely controllable polarizer and mirror angles allow polarization matching and wavenumber selection for a range of plasma conditions. The quasi-optical system design, its advantages and challenges, as well as important physics validation tests are presented and discussed. Effect of plasma beta (ratio of kinetic to magnetic pressure) on both density and magnetic fluctuations is studied and it is observed that internal magnetic fluctuations increase with beta. During certain quiescent high confinement operational regimes, coherent low frequency modes not detected by magnetic probes are detected locally by CPS diagnostics.
Local thermal energy as a structural indicator in glasses
Zylberg, Jacques; Lerner, Edan; Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Bouchbinder, Eran
2017-07-01
Identifying heterogeneous structures in glasses—such as localized soft spots—and understanding structure-dynamics relations in these systems remain major scientific challenges. Here, we derive an exact expression for the local thermal energy of interacting particles (the mean local potential energy change caused by thermal fluctuations) in glassy systems by a systematic low-temperature expansion. We show that the local thermal energy can attain anomalously large values, inversely related to the degree of softness of localized structures in a glass, determined by a coupling between internal stresses—an intrinsic signature of glassy frustration—anharmonicity and low-frequency vibrational modes. These anomalously large values follow a fat-tailed distribution, with a universal exponent related to the recently observed universal ω4ω4 density of states of quasilocalized low-frequency vibrational modes. When the spatial thermal energy field—a “softness field”—is considered, this power law tail manifests itself by highly localized spots, which are significantly softer than their surroundings. These soft spots are shown to be susceptible to plastic rearrangements under external driving forces, having predictive powers that surpass those of the normal modes-based approach. These results offer a general, system/model-independent, physical/observable-based approach to identify structural properties of quiescent glasses and relate them to glassy dynamics.
Kaehler, G; Wagner, A J
2013-06-01
Current implementations of fluctuating ideal-gas descriptions with the lattice Boltzmann methods are based on a fluctuation dissipation theorem, which, while greatly simplifying the implementation, strictly holds only for zero mean velocity and small fluctuations. We show how to derive the fluctuation dissipation theorem for all k, which was done only for k=0 in previous derivations. The consistent derivation requires, in principle, locally velocity-dependent multirelaxation time transforms. Such an implementation is computationally prohibitively expensive but, with a small computational trick, it is feasible to reproduce the correct FDT without overhead in computation time. It is then shown that the previous standard implementations perform poorly for non vanishing mean velocity as indicated by violations of Galilean invariance of measured structure factors. Results obtained with the method introduced here show a significant reduction of the Galilean invariance violations.
Baryon number fluctuations and the phase structure in the PNJL model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shao, Guo-yun; Tang, Zhan-duo; Gao, Xue-yan; He, Wei-bo [Xi' an Jiaotong University, School of Science, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)
2018-02-15
We investigate the kurtosis and skewness of net-baryon number fluctuations in the Polyakov loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model, and discuss the relations between fluctuation distributions and the phase structure of quark-gluon matter. The calculation shows that the traces of chiral and deconfinement transitions can be effectively reflected by the kurtosis and skewness of net-baryon number fluctuations not only in the critical region but also in the crossover region. The contour plot of baryon number kurtosis derived in the PNJL model can qualitatively explain the behavior of net-proton number kurtosis in the STAR beam energy scan experiments. Moreover, the three-dimensional presentations of the kurtosis and skewness in this study are helpful to understand the relations between baryon number fluctuations and QCD phase structure. (orig.)
Effect of pressure fluctuations on Richtmyer-Meshkov coherent structures
Bhowmick, Aklant K.; Abarzhi, Snezhana
2016-11-01
We investigate the formation and evolution of Richtmyer Meshkov bubbles after the passage of a shock wave across a two fluid interface in the presence of pressure fluctuations. The fluids are ideal and incompressible and the pressure fluctuations are scale invariant in space and time, and are modeled by a power law time dependent acceleration field with exponent -2. Solutions indicate sensitivity to pressure fluctuations. In the linear regime, the growth of curvature and bubble velocity is linear. The growth rate is dominated by the initial velocity for weak pressure fluctuations, and by the acceleration term for strong pressure fluctuations. In the non-linear regime, the bubble curvature is constant and the solutions form a one parameter family (parametrized by the bubble curvature). The solutions are shown to be convergent and asymptotically stable. The physical solution (stable fastest growing) is a flat bubble for small pressure fluctuations and a curved bubble for large pressure fluctuations. The velocity field (in the frame of references accounting for the background motion) involves intense motion of the fluids in a vicinity of the interface, effectively no motion of the fluids away from the interfaces, and formation of vortical structures at the interface. The work is supported by the US National Science Foundation.
Förster-type energy transfer as a probe for changes in local fluctuations of the protein matrix.
Somogyi, B; Matkó, J; Papp, S; Hevessy, J; Welch, G R; Damjanovich, S
1984-07-17
Much evidence, on both theoretical and experimental sides, indicates the importance of local fluctuations (in energy levels, conformational substates, etc.) of the macromolecular matrix in the biological activity of proteins. We describe here a novel application of the Förster-type energy-transfer process capable of monitoring changes both in local fluctuations and in conformational states of macromolecules. A new energy-transfer parameter, f, is defined as an average transfer efficiency, [E], normalized by the actual average quantum efficiency of the donor fluorescence, [phi D]. A simple oscillator model (for a one donor-one acceptor system) is presented to show the sensitivity of this parameter to changes in amplitudes of local fluctuations. The different modes of averaging (static, dynamic, and intermediate cases) occurring for a given value of the average transfer rate, [kt], and the experimental requirements as well as limitations of the method are also discussed. The experimental tests were performed on the ribonuclease T1-pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate conjugate (a one donor-one acceptor system) by studying the change of the f parameter with temperature, an environmental parameter expectedly perturbing local fluctuations of proteins. The parameter f increased with increasing temperature as expected on the basis of the oscillator model, suggesting that it really reflects changes of fluctuation amplitudes (significant changes in the orientation factor, k2, as well as in the spectral properties of the fluorophores can be excluded by anisotropy measurements and spectral investigations). Possibilities of the general applicability of the method are also discussed.
Characterization of Alfvenic fluctuations in the magnetopause boundary layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezeau, L.; Morane, A.; Perraut, S.; Roux, A.; Schmidt, R.
1989-01-01
The European Space Agency GEOS 2 spacecraft happened to cross the magnetopause several times, at various local times. Intense electric and magnetic fluctuations, in the ultralow-frequency (ULF) range (0-10 Hz) have been detected during each such crossing, with a peak at the magnetopause and still large amplitudes in the adjacent magnetosheath and magnetopause boundary layer. By applying spectral analysis and correlations to the electric and magnetic fluctuations, and a minimum variance analysis to the magnetic fluctuations, the authors investigate the nature of these fluctuations which appear as short-lasting bursts in the spacecraft frame. Having reviewed possible interpretations, they show that the observed electric and magnetic signatures are consistent with small-scale (L ∼ ion Larmor radius) Alfvenic field-aligned structures passing by the spacecraft at high speed. It is suggested that these structures correspond to nonlinear Alfvenic structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diallo, A.; Kramer, G. J.; Bell, R. E.; Guttenfelder, W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Smith, D. R.; McKee, G. J. [Departments of Engineering Physics and Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831 (United States); Fonck, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Departments of Engineering Physics and Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)
2013-01-15
Characterization of the spatial structure of turbulence fluctuations during the edge localized mode cycle in the pedestal region is reported. Using the beam emission spectroscopy and the correlation reflectometry systems, measurements show spatial structure-k{sub Up-Tack }{rho}{sub i}{sup ped}-ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift direction at the pedestal top. These propagating spatial scales are found to be anisotropic and consistent with ion-scale microturbulence of the type ion temperature gradient and/or kinetic ballooning modes.
Towards uncovering the structure of power fluctuations of wind farms.
Liu, Huiwen; Jin, Yaqing; Tobin, Nicolas; Chamorro, Leonardo P
2017-12-01
The structure of the turbulence-driven power fluctuations in a wind farm is fundamentally described from basic concepts. A derived tuning-free model, supported with experiments, reveals the underlying spectral content of the power fluctuations of a wind farm. It contains two power-law trends and oscillations in the relatively low- and high-frequency ranges. The former is mostly due to the turbulent interaction between the flow and the turbine properties, whereas the latter is due to the advection between turbine pairs. The spectral wind-farm scale power fluctuations Φ_{P} exhibit a power-law decay proportional to f^{-5/3-2} in the region corresponding to the turbulence inertial subrange and at relatively large scales, Φ_{P}∼f^{-2}. Due to the advection and turbulent diffusion of large-scale structures, a spectral oscillation exists with the product of a sinusoidal behavior and an exponential decay in the frequency domain.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Buhl Stefan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV in IC engines is a well-known phenomenon and the definition and quantification is well-established for global quantities such as the mean pressure. On the other hand, the definition of CCV for local quantities, e.g. the velocity or the mixture distribution, is less straightforward. This paper proposes a new method to identify and calculate cyclic variations of the flow field in IC engines emphasizing the different contributions from large-scale energetic (coherent structures, identified by a combination of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD and conditional averaging, and small-scale fluctuations. Suitable subsets required for the conditional averaging are derived from combinations of the the POD coefficients of the second and third mode. Within each subset, the velocity is averaged and these averages are compared to the ensemble-averaged velocity field, which is based on all cycles. The resulting difference of the subset-average and the global-average is identified as a cyclic fluctuation of the coherent structures. Then, within each subset, remaining fluctuations are obtained from the difference between the instantaneous fields and the corresponding subset average. The proposed methodology is tested for two data sets obtained from scale resolving engine simulations. For the first test case, the numerical database consists of 208 independent samples of a simplified engine geometry. For the second case, 120 cycles for the well-established Transparent Combustion Chamber (TCC benchmark engine are considered. For both applications, the suitability of the method to identify the two contributions to CCV is discussed and the results are directly linked to the observed flow field structures.
Fluctuations and localization in mesoscopic electron
Janssen, Martin
2001-01-01
The quantum phenomena of tunneling and interference show up not only in the microscopic world of atoms and molecules, but also in cold materials of the real world, such as metals and semiconductors. Though not fully macroscopic, such mesoscopic systems contain a huge number of particles, and the holistic nature of quantum mechanics becomes evident already in simple electronic measurements. The measured quantity fluctuates as a function of applied fields in an unpredictable, yet reproducible way. Despite this fingerprint character of fluctuations, their statistical properties are universal, i.e
Evidence for pressure-tuned quantum structural fluctuations in KCuF3
Yuan, S.; Kim, M.; Seeley, J.; Lal, S.; Abbamonte, P.; Cooper, S. L.
2012-02-01
Frustrated magnetic systems are currently of great interest because of the possibility that these materials exhibit novel ground states such as orbital and spin liquids. We provide evidence in the orbital-ordering material KCuF3 for pressure-tuned quantum melting of a static structural phase to a phase that dynamically fluctuates even near T ˜ 0K.[1] Pressure-dependent Raman scattering measurements show that applied pressure above P* ˜ 7kbar reverses a low temperature structural distortion in KCuF3, resulting in the development of a φ ˜ 0 fluctuational (quasielastic) response near T ˜ 0K. This pressure-induced fluctuational response is temperature independent and exhibits a characteristic fluctuation rate that is much larger than the temperature, γ >> KBT, consistent with quantum fluctuations of the CuF6 octahedra. We show that a previous developed model of pseudospin-phonon coupling qualitatively describes both the temperature- and pressure-dependent evolution of the Raman spectra of KCuF3. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FG02-07ER46453 and by the National Science Foundation under Grant NSF DMR 08-56321. [4pt] [1] S. Yuan et al., arXiv:1107.1433 (2011).
Visualizing period fluctuations in strained-layer superlattices with scanning tunneling microscopy
Kanedy, K.; Lopez, F.; Wood, M. R.; Gmachl, C. F.; Weimer, M.; Klem, J. F.; Hawkins, S. D.; Shaner, E. A.; Kim, J. K.
2018-01-01
We show how cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) may be used to accurately map the period fluctuations throughout epitaxial, strained-layer superlattices based on the InAs/InAsSb and InGaAs/InAlAs material systems. The concept, analogous to Bragg's law in high-resolution x-ray diffraction, relies on an analysis of the [001]-convolved reciprocal-space satellite peaks obtained from discrete Fourier transforms of individual STM images. Properly implemented, the technique enables local period measurements that reliably discriminate vertical fluctuations localized to within ˜5 superlattice repeats along the [001] growth direction and orthogonal, lateral fluctuations localized to within ˜40 nm along directions in the growth plane. While not as accurate as x-ray, the inherent, single-image measurement error associated with the method may be made as small as 0.1%, allowing the vertical or lateral period fluctuations contributing to inhomogeneous energy broadening and carrier localization in these structures to be pinpointed and quantified. The direct visualization of unexpectedly large, lateral period fluctuations on nanometer length scales in both strain-balanced systems supports a common understanding in terms of correlated interface roughness.
Meteor localization via statistical analysis of spatially temporal fluctuations in image sequences
Kukal, Jaromír.; Klimt, Martin; Šihlík, Jan; Fliegel, Karel
2015-09-01
Meteor detection is one of the most important procedures in astronomical imaging. Meteor path in Earth's atmosphere is traditionally reconstructed from double station video observation system generating 2D image sequences. However, the atmospheric turbulence and other factors cause spatially-temporal fluctuations of image background, which makes the localization of meteor path more difficult. Our approach is based on nonlinear preprocessing of image intensity using Box-Cox and logarithmic transform as its particular case. The transformed image sequences are then differentiated along discrete coordinates to obtain statistical description of sky background fluctuations, which can be modeled by multivariate normal distribution. After verification and hypothesis testing, we use the statistical model for outlier detection. Meanwhile the isolated outlier points are ignored, the compact cluster of outliers indicates the presence of meteoroids after ignition.
2MASS Constraints on the Local Large-Scale Structure: A Challenge to LCDM?
Frith, W. J.; Shanks, T.; Outram, P. J.
2004-01-01
We investigate the large-scale structure of the local galaxy distribution using the recently completed 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). First, we determine the K-band number counts over the 4000 sq.deg. APM survey area where evidence for a large-scale `local hole' has previously been detected and compare them to a homogeneous prediction. Considering a LCDM form for the 2-point angular correlation function, the observed deficiency represents a 5 sigma fluctuation in the galaxy distribution. We...
Remarks on transport theories of interplanetary fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye Zhou; Matthaeus, W.H.
1990-01-01
The structure of approximate transport theories for the radial behavior of interplanetary fluctuations is reconsidered. The emphasis is on theories derived under the assumption of scale separation; i.e., the correlation length of the fluctuations is much less than the scale of large inhomogeneities. In these cases the zero-wavelength limit provides a first approximation to the spectral evolution equations for the radial dependence of interplanetary fluctuation spectra. The goal here is to investigate the structure of a recently presented (Zhou and Matthaeus, 1989) transport theory, in which coupling of inward- and outward-type fluctuations appears in the leading order, an effect the authors call mixing. In linear theory, mixing-type couplings of inward-type and outward-type waves are formally a nonresonant effect. However, leading order mixing terms do not vanish at zero wavelength for fluctuations that vary nearly perpendicular to the local magnetic field, or when the mean magnetic field is weak. Leading order mixing terms also survive when the dispersion relation fails and there is a nonunique relationship between frequency and wave number. The former case corresponds to nearly two-dimensional structures; these are included, for example, in isotropic models of turbulence. The latter instance occurs when wave-wave couplings are sufficiently strong. Thus there are a variety of situations in which leading order mixing effects are expected to be present
Structure of density fluctuations in the edge plasma of ASDEX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rudyj, A.; Carlson, A.; Endler, M.; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H.; Theimer, G.
1990-01-01
It is now generally believed that the anomalous particle and energy transport in tokamaks is caused by turbulent fluctuations. The physical nature of these fluctuations (mode type, the driving mechanism) have still to be identified experimentally before a self consistent transport theory can be developed. In contrast to the confinement region the plasma edge can be well diagnosed. H α -light, which is emitted at the edge, reacts to density and to some extend to temperature fluctuations. It delivers information about radially integrated spectra and correlations. Langmuir probes measure density and potential fluctuations with good spatial resolution. The edge transport governs the physics in the scrape-off layer and in the divertor which is extremely important for a reactor and therefore deserves a major experimental effort. In this paper we report on an attempt to gain detailed information about the spatial and temporal structure of the edge turbulence hoping to reduce the degrees of freedom for theoretical models to a manageable number. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs
Extreme concentration fluctuations due to local reversibility of mixing in turbulent flows
Xia, Hua; Francois, Nicolas; Punzmann, Horst; Szewc, Kamil; Shats, Michael
2018-05-01
Mixing of a passive scalar in a fluid (e.g. a radioactive spill in the ocean) is the irreversible process towards homogeneous distribution of a substance. In a moving fluid, due to the chaotic advection [H. Aref, J. Fluid Mech. 143 (1984) 1; J. M. Ottino, The Kinematics of Mixing: Stretching,Chaos and Transport (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989)] mixing is much faster than if driven by molecular diffusion only. Turbulence is known as the most efficient mixing flow [B. I. Shraiman and E. D. Siggia, Nature 405 (2000) 639]. We show that in contrast to spatially periodic flows, two-dimensional turbulence exhibits local reversibility in mixing, which leads to the generation of unpredictable strong fluctuations in the scalar concentration. These fluctuations can also be detected from the analysis of the fluid particle trajectories of the underlying flow.
Deformation analysis and prediction of bank protection structure with river level fluctuations
Hu, Rui; Xing, Yixuan
2017-04-01
Bank structure is an important barrier to maintain the safety of the embankment. The deformation of bank protection structure is not only affected by soil pressure caused by the excavation of the riverway, but also by the water pressure caused river water level fluctuations. Thus, it is necessary to establish a coupled soil-water model to analyze the deformation of bank structure. Based on Druck-Prager failure criteria and groundwater seepage theory, a numerical model of bank protection structure with consideration of the pore water pressure of soil mass is established. According to the measured river level data with seasonal fluctuating, numerical analysis of the deformation of bank protection structure is implemented. The simulation results show that the river water level fluctuation has clear influence on the maximum lateral displacement of the pile. Meanwhile, the distribution of plastic zone is related to the depth of groundwater level. Finally, according to the river water level data of the recent ten years, we analyze the deformation of the bank structure under extreme river level. The result shows that, compared with the scenario of extreme high river level, the horizontal displacement of bank protection structure is larger (up to 65mm) under extreme low river level, which is a potential risk to the embankment. Reference Schweiger H F. On the use of drucker-prager failure criteria for earth pressure problems[J]. Computers and Geotechnics, 1994, 16(3): 223-246. DING Yong-chun，CHENG Ze-kun. Numerical study on performance of waterfront excavation[J]. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering，2013，35(2):515-521. Wu L M, Wang Z Q. Three gorges reservoir water level fluctuation influents on the stability of the slope[J]. Advanced Materials Research. Trans Tech Publications, 2013, 739: 283-286.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, Sourendu
2007-01-01
In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence
Gupta, Sourendu
2007-02-01
In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gupta, Sourendu [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)
2007-02-15
In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence.
Entropic fluctuations in DNA sequences
Thanos, Dimitrios; Li, Wentian; Provata, Astero
2018-03-01
The Local Shannon Entropy (LSE) in blocks is used as a complexity measure to study the information fluctuations along DNA sequences. The LSE of a DNA block maps the local base arrangement information to a single numerical value. It is shown that despite this reduction of information, LSE allows to extract meaningful information related to the detection of repetitive sequences in whole chromosomes and is useful in finding evolutionary differences between organisms. More specifically, large regions of tandem repeats, such as centromeres, can be detected based on their low LSE fluctuations along the chromosome. Furthermore, an empirical investigation of the appropriate block sizes is provided and the relationship of LSE properties with the structure of the underlying repetitive units is revealed by using both computational and mathematical methods. Sequence similarity between the genomic DNA of closely related species also leads to similar LSE values at the orthologous regions. As an application, the LSE covariance function is used to measure the evolutionary distance between several primate genomes.
Fedorov, M V; Belousov, L V; Voeĭkov, V L; Zenchenko, K I; Zenchenko, T A; Konradov, A A; Shnol', S E
2001-01-01
The fine structures of distributions of photomultiplier dark current fluctuations measured in two laboratories 2000 km distant from other: in the international Institute of Biophysics (Neuss, Germany) and in the Moscow State University (Moscow, Russia) were compared. It is shown that similar forms of appropriate histograms are apparently more often realized at both locations at the same local time. This confirms the previous conclusion that the fine structure of distributions correlates with rotation of the Earth about its axis.
Structure of density fluctuations in the edge plasma of ASDEX
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rudyj, A; Carlson, A; Endler, M; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H; Theimer, G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)
1990-01-01
It is now generally believed that the anomalous particle and energy transport in tokamaks is caused by turbulent fluctuations. The physical nature of these fluctuations (mode type, the driving mechanism) have still to be identified experimentally before a self consistent transport theory can be developed. In contrast to the confinement region the plasma edge can be well diagnosed. H{sub {alpha}}-light, which is emitted at the edge, reacts to density and to some extend to temperature fluctuations. It delivers information about radially integrated spectra and correlations. Langmuir probes measure density and potential fluctuations with good spatial resolution. The edge transport governs the physics in the scrape-off layer and in the divertor which is extremely important for a reactor and therefore deserves a major experimental effort. In this paper we report on an attempt to gain detailed information about the spatial and temporal structure of the edge turbulence hoping to reduce the degrees of freedom for theoretical models to a manageable number. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.
Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Sughiyama, Yuki
2017-07-01
Adaptation in a fluctuating environment is a process of fueling environmental information to gain fitness. Living systems have gradually developed strategies for adaptation from random and passive diversification of the phenotype to more proactive decision making, in which environmental information is sensed and exploited more actively and effectively. Understanding the fundamental relation between fitness and information is therefore crucial to clarify the limits and universal properties of adaptation. In this work, we elucidate the underlying stochastic and information-thermodynamic structure in this process, by deriving causal fluctuation relations (FRs) of fitness and information. Combined with a duality between phenotypic and environmental dynamics, the FRs reveal the limit of fitness gain, the relation of time reversibility with the achievability of the limit, and the possibility and condition for gaining excess fitness due to environmental fluctuation. The loss of fitness due to causal constraints and the limited capacity of real organisms is shown to be the difference between time-forward and time-backward path probabilities of phenotypic and environmental dynamics. Furthermore, the FRs generalize the concept of the evolutionary stable state (ESS) for fluctuating environment by giving the probability that the optimal strategy on average can be invaded by a suboptimal one owing to rare environmental fluctuation. These results clarify the information-thermodynamic structures in adaptation and evolution.
Edge fluctuations and global confinement with lower hybrid current drive in the ASDEX tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoeckel, J; Soeldner, F X; Giannone, L.; Leuterer, F; Steuer, K H [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); ASDEX Team
1992-03-01
Electrostatic edge fluctuations were investigated by means of Langmuir probes on the ASDEX tokamak in lower hybrid current drive regimes, simultaneously with the global particle and energy balances. It was found that the edge fluctuations are reduced and the global particle/energy confinement improves when the LH power is below the initial ohmic power. The maximum reduction of the fluctuations and the best confinement occur when the total power input (OH + LH) is minimum. With a LH power higher than the initial OH value, the fluctuation level increases noticeably, while no improvement of the global confinement is observed. The increase of the edge fluctuations seems to be poloidally localized and caused by local power deposition in front of the grill antenna. Therefore, the relative positions of the probe and antenna structure have to be taken account for correct interpretation of the fluctuation data. (orig.).
Edge fluctuations and global confinement with lower hybrid current drive in the ASDEX tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoeckel, J.; Soeldner, F.X.; Giannone, L.; Leuterer, F.; Steuer, K.H.
1992-03-01
Electrostatic edge fluctuations were investigated by means of Langmuir probes on the ASDEX tokamak in lower hybrid current drive regimes, simultaneously with the global particle and energy balances. It was found that the edge fluctuations are reduced and the global particle/energy confinement improves when the LH power is below the initial ohmic power. The maximum reduction of the fluctuations and the best confinement occur when the total power input (OH + LH) is minimum. With a LH power higher than the initial OH value, the fluctuation level increases noticeably, while no improvement of the global confinement is observed. The increase of the edge fluctuations seems to be poloidally localized and caused by local power deposition in front of the grill antenna. Therefore, the relative positions of the probe and antenna structure have to be taken account for correct interpretation of the fluctuation data. (orig.)
An Efficient Null Model for Conformational Fluctuations in Proteins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harder, Tim Philipp; Borg, Mikael; Bottaro, Sandro
2012-01-01
Protein dynamics play a crucial role in function, catalytic activity, and pathogenesis. Consequently, there is great interest in computational methods that probe the conformational fluctuations of a protein. However, molecular dynamics simulations are computationally costly and therefore are often...... limited to comparatively short timescales. TYPHON is a probabilistic method to explore the conformational space of proteins under the guidance of a sophisticated probabilistic model of local structure and a given set of restraints that represent nonlocal interactions, such as hydrogen bonds or disulfide...... on conformational fluctuations that is in correspondence with experimental measurements. TYPHON provides a flexible, yet computationally efficient, method to explore possible conformational fluctuations in proteins....
Shiba, Hayato; Keim, Peter; Kawasaki, Takeshi
2018-03-01
It has recently been revealed that long-wavelength fluctuation exists in two-dimensional (2D) glassy systems, having the same origin as that given by the Mermin-Wagner theorem for 2D crystalline solids. In this paper, we discuss how to characterise quantitatively the long-wavelength fluctuation in a molecular dynamics simulation of a lightly supercooled liquid. We employ the cage-relative mean-square displacement (MSD), defined on relative displacement to its cage, to quantitatively separate the long-wavelength fluctuation from the original MSD. For increasing system size the amplitude of acoustic long wavelength fluctuations not only increases but shifts to later times causing a crossover with structural relaxation of caging particles. We further analyse the dynamic correlation length using the cage-relative quantities. It grows as the structural relaxation becomes slower with decreasing temperature, uncovering an overestimation by the four-point correlation function due to the long-wavelength fluctuation. These findings motivate the usage of cage-relative MSD as a starting point for analysis of 2D glassy dynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fanack, C.; Boucher, I.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G.; Clairet, F.; Zou, X.L.
1996-01-01
Ordinary wave reflectometry in a plasma containing a localized density perturbation is studied with a 1-D model. The phase response is studied as a function of the wavenumber and position of the perturbation. It is shown that it strongly depends upon the perturbation shape and size. For a small perturbation wavenumber, the response is due to the oscillation of the cut-off layer. For larger wavenumbers, two regimes are found: for a broad perturbation, the phase response is an image of the perturbation itself; for a narrow perturbation, it is rather an image of the Fourier transform. For tokamak plasmas it turns out that, for the fluctuation spectra usually observed, the phase response comes primarily from those fluctuations that are localized at the cut-off. Results of a 2-D numerical model show that geometry effects are negligible for the scattering by radial fluctuations. (author)
Stochastic Eulerian Lagrangian methods for fluid-structure interactions with thermal fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atzberger, Paul J.
2011-01-01
We present approaches for the study of fluid-structure interactions subject to thermal fluctuations. A mixed mechanical description is utilized combining Eulerian and Lagrangian reference frames. We establish general conditions for operators coupling these descriptions. Stochastic driving fields for the formalism are derived using principles from statistical mechanics. The stochastic differential equations of the formalism are found to exhibit significant stiffness in some physical regimes. To cope with this issue, we derive reduced stochastic differential equations for several physical regimes. We also present stochastic numerical methods for each regime to approximate the fluid-structure dynamics and to generate efficiently the required stochastic driving fields. To validate the methodology in each regime, we perform analysis of the invariant probability distribution of the stochastic dynamics of the fluid-structure formalism. We compare this analysis with results from statistical mechanics. To further demonstrate the applicability of the methodology, we perform computational studies for spherical particles having translational and rotational degrees of freedom. We compare these studies with results from fluid mechanics. The presented approach provides for fluid-structure systems a set of rather general computational methods for treating consistently structure mechanics, hydrodynamic coupling, and thermal fluctuations.
The effects of local blowing perturbations on thermal turbulent structures
Liu, Can; Araya, Guillermo; Leonardi, Stefano; Castillo, Luciano
2013-11-01
Blowing is an active flow control technique with several industrial applications, particularly in film cooling of turbine blades. In the past, the effects of localized blowing have been mostly analyzed on the velocity field and its influence of the flow parameters and turbulence structures (Krogstad and Kourakine, 2000). However, little literature can be found on the effects of blowing on the coherent thermal structures. In the present study, an incompressible turbulent channel flow with given steady blowing at the wall is simulated via DNS by means of five spanwise holes. The Reynolds number based on the friction velocity and half channel height is approximately Re = 394 and the molecular Prandtl number is Pr = 0.71. Temperature is considered a passive scalar with isothermal conditions at the wall. Different blowing amplitudes and perturbing angles (with respect to the streamwise direction) are applied to find out their effects on the turbulent thermal structures by means of a two-point correlation analysis. In addition, local reduction and increase of drag are connected to vorticity. The corresponding influence of perturbing amplitudes and angles on the energy budget of thermal fluctuations and turbulent Prandtl numbers are also shown and discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leandro Martínez
Full Text Available The analysis of structural mobility in molecular dynamics plays a key role in data interpretation, particularly in the simulation of biomolecules. The most common mobility measures computed from simulations are the Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD and Root Mean Square Fluctuations (RMSF of the structures. These are computed after the alignment of atomic coordinates in each trajectory step to a reference structure. This rigid-body alignment is not robust, in the sense that if a small portion of the structure is highly mobile, the RMSD and RMSF increase for all atoms, resulting possibly in poor quantification of the structural fluctuations and, often, to overlooking important fluctuations associated to biological function. The motivation of this work is to provide a robust measure of structural mobility that is practical, and easy to interpret. We propose a Low-Order-Value-Optimization (LOVO strategy for the robust alignment of the least mobile substructures in a simulation. These substructures are automatically identified by the method. The algorithm consists of the iterative superposition of the fraction of structure displaying the smallest displacements. Therefore, the least mobile substructures are identified, providing a clearer picture of the overall structural fluctuations. Examples are given to illustrate the interpretative advantages of this strategy. The software for performing the alignments was named MDLovoFit and it is available as free-software at: http://leandro.iqm.unicamp.br/mdlovofit.
Universal mesoscopic conductance fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evangelou, S.N.
1992-01-01
The theory of conductance fluctuations in disordered metallic systems with size large compared to the mean free path of the electron but small compared to localization length is considered. It is demonstrates that fluctuations have an universal character and are due to repulsion between levels and spectral rigidity. The basic fluctuation measures for the energy spectrum in the mesoscopic regime of disordered systems are consistent with the Gaussian random matrix ensemble predictions. Although our disordered electron random matrix ensemble does not belong to the Gaussian ensemble the two ensembles turn out to be essentially similar. The level repulsion and the spectral rigidity found in nuclear spectra should also be observed in the metallic regime of Anderson localization. 7 refs. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inomoto, Michiaki; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Ono, Yasushi; Kuwahata, Akihiro
2013-01-01
Large-amplitude electromagnetic fluctuations of ion-cyclotron-frequency range are detected in a laboratory experiment inside the diffusion region of a magnetic reconnection with a guide field. The fluctuations have properties similar to kinetic Alfvén waves propagating obliquely to the guide field. Temporary enhancement of the reconnection rate is observed during the occurrence of the fluctuations, suggesting a relationship between the modification in the local magnetic structure given by these fluctuations and the intermittent fast magnetic reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Z.G.; Smith, D.L.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.
1997-01-01
The electronic transmission across metal/conjugated-oligomer/metal structures in the presence of lattice fluctuations is studied for short oligomer chains. The lattice fluctuations are approximated by static white noise disorder. Resonant transmission occurs when the energy of an incoming electron coincides with a discrete electronic level of the oligomer. The corresponding transmission peak diminishes in intensity with increasing disorder strength. Because of disorder there is an enhancement of the electronic transmission for energies that lie within the electronic gap of the oligomer. If fluctuations are sufficiently strong, a transmission peak within the gap is found at the midgap energy E=0 for degenerate conjugated oligomers (e.g., trans-polyacetylene) and E≠0 for AB-type degenerate oligomers. These results can be interpreted in terms of soliton-antisoliton states created by lattice fluctuations. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Fluctuations in medium-range structure of Bi-based metallic liquid alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueno, H; Takeda, S; Kawakita, Y; Ohara, K; Kohara, S; Itou, M; Tahara, S
2012-01-01
Liquid structure of Bi 50 Zn 50 , which is situated at around the Bi-rich end of miscibility gap in Bi-Zn system, has been investigated by neutron and x-ray diffraction experiments and following analysis using reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) structural modelling. Among the partial correlations calculated from the structural model obtained by RMC, the Zn-Zn partial has a large temperature variation. It is found that there are medium-range fluctuations in Zn distribution which have a scale of 10 Å.
General framework for fluctuating dynamic density functional theory
Durán-Olivencia, Miguel A.; Yatsyshin, Peter; Goddard, Benjamin D.; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2017-12-01
We introduce a versatile bottom-up derivation of a formal theoretical framework to describe (passive) soft-matter systems out of equilibrium subject to fluctuations. We provide a unique connection between the constituent-particle dynamics of real systems and the time evolution equation of their measurable (coarse-grained) quantities, such as local density and velocity. The starting point is the full Hamiltonian description of a system of colloidal particles immersed in a fluid of identical bath particles. Then, we average out the bath via Zwanzig’s projection-operator techniques and obtain the stochastic Langevin equations governing the colloidal-particle dynamics. Introducing the appropriate definition of the local number and momentum density fields yields a generalisation of the Dean-Kawasaki (DK) model, which resembles the stochastic Navier-Stokes description of a fluid. Nevertheless, the DK equation still contains all the microscopic information and, for that reason, does not represent the dynamical law of observable quantities. We address this controversial feature of the DK description by carrying out a nonequilibrium ensemble average. Adopting a natural decomposition into local-equilibrium and nonequilibrium contribution, where the former is related to a generalised version of the canonical distribution, we finally obtain the fluctuating-hydrodynamic equation governing the time-evolution of the mesoscopic density and momentum fields. Along the way, we outline the connection between the ad hoc energy functional introduced in previous DK derivations and the free-energy functional from classical density-functional theory. The resultant equation has the structure of a dynamical density-functional theory (DDFT) with an additional fluctuating force coming from the random interactions with the bath. We show that our fluctuating DDFT formalism corresponds to a particular version of the fluctuating Navier-Stokes equations, originally derived by Landau and Lifshitz
Mesoscale wind fluctuations over Danish waters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vincent, C.L.
2010-12-15
Mesoscale wind fluctuations affect the large scale integration of wind power because they undermine the day-ahead predictability of wind speed and power production, and because they can result in large fluctuations in power generation that must be balanced using reserve power. Large fluctuations in generated power are a particular problem for offshore wind farms because the typically high concentration of turbines within a limited geographical area means that fluctuations can be correlated across large numbers of turbines. Furthermore, organised mesoscale structures that often form over water, such as convective rolls and cellular convection, have length scales of tens of kilometers, and can cause large wind fluctuations on a time scale of around an hour. This thesis is an exploration of the predictability of mesoscale wind fluctuations using observations from the world's first two large offshore wind farms - Horns Rev I in the North Sea, and Nysted in the Baltic Sea. The thesis begins with a climatological analysis of wind fluctuations on time scales of 1-10 hours at the two sites. A novel method for calculating conditional climatologies of spectral information is proposed, based on binning and averaging the time axis of the Hilbert spectrum. Results reveal clear patterns between wind fluctuations and locally observed meteorological conditions. The analysis is expanded by classifying wind fluctuations on time scales of 1-3 hours according to synoptic patterns, satellite pictures and wind classes. Results indicate that cold air outbreaks and open cellular convection are a significant contributor to mesoscale wind variability at Horns Rev. The predictability of mesoscale wind fluctuations is tested by implementing standard statistical models that relate local wind variability to parameters based on a large scale weather analysis. The models show some skill, but only achieve a 15% improvement on a persistence forecast. The possibility of explicitly modelling
Consideration of fluctuation in secondary beam intensity of heavy ion beam probe measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Lee, S.; Hamada, Y.
1997-01-01
Heavy ion beam probes have capability to detect local electron density fluctuation in the interior of plasmas through the detected beam intensity fluctuation. However, the intensity fluctuation should suffer a certain degree of distortion from electron density and temperature fluctuations on the beam orbits, and as a result the signal can be quite different from the local density fluctuation. This paper will present a condition that the intensity fluctuation can be regarded as being purely local electron density fluctuation, together with discussion about the contamination of the fluctuation along the beam orbits to the beam intensity fluctuation. (author)
Structural Fluctuations and Thermophysical Properties of Molten II-VI Compounds
Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Li, Chao; Scripa, R.; Lehoczky, Sandra L.; Kim, Y. W.; Baird, J. K.; Lin, B.; Ban, Heng; Benmore, Chris
2003-01-01
The objectives of the project are to conduct ground-based experimental and theoretical research on the structural fluctuations and thermophysical properties of molten II-VI compounds to enhance the basic understanding of the existing flight experiments in microgravity materials science programs as well as to study the fundamental heterophase fluctuation phenomena in these melts by: 1) conducting neutron scattering analysis and measuring quantitatively the relevant thermophysical properties of the II-VI melts (such as viscosity, electrical conductivity, thermal diffusivity and density) as well as the relaxation characteristics of these properties to advance the understanding of the structural properties and the relaxation phenomena in these melts and 2) performing theoretical analyses on the melt systems to interpret the experimental results. All the facilities required for the experimental measurements have been procured, installed and tested. It has long been recognized that liquid Te presents a unique case having properties between those of metals and semiconductors. The electrical conductivity for Te melt increases rapidly at melting point, indicating a semiconductor-metal transition. Te melts comprise two features, which are usually considered to be incompatible with each other: covalently bound atoms and metallic-like behavior. Why do Te liquids show metallic behavior? is one of the long-standing issues in liquid metal physics. Since thermophysical properties are very sensitive to the structural variations of a melt, we have conducted extensive thermophysical measurements on Te melt.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qian, Shaoxiang, E-mail: qian.shaoxiang@jgc.com [EN Technology Center, Process Technology Division, JGC Corporation, 2-3-1 Minato Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama 220-6001 (Japan); Kanamaru, Shinichiro [EN Technology Center, Process Technology Division, JGC Corporation, 2-3-1 Minato Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama 220-6001 (Japan); Kasahara, Naoto [Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)
2015-07-15
Highlights: • Numerical methods for accurate prediction of thermal loading were proposed. • Predicted fluid temperature fluctuation (FTF) intensity is close to the experiment. • Predicted structure temperature fluctuation (STF) range is close to the experiment. • Predicted peak frequencies of FTF and STF also agree well with the experiment. • CFD results show the proposed numerical methods are of sufficiently high accuracy. - Abstract: Temperature fluctuations generated by the mixing of hot and cold fluids at a T-junction, which is widely used in nuclear power and process plants, can cause thermal fatigue failure. The conventional methods for evaluating thermal fatigue tend to provide insufficient accuracy, because they were developed based on limited experimental data and a simplified one-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). CFD/FEA coupling analysis is expected as a useful tool for the more accurate evaluation of thermal fatigue. The present paper aims to verify the accuracy of proposed numerical methods of simulating fluid and structure temperature fluctuations at a T-junction for thermal fatigue evaluation. The dynamic Smagorinsky model (DSM) is used for large eddy simulation (LES) sub-grid scale (SGS) turbulence model, and a hybrid scheme (HS) is adopted for the calculation of convective terms in the governing equations. Also, heat transfer between fluid and structure is calculated directly through thermal conduction by creating a mesh with near wall resolution (NWR) by allocating grid points within the thermal boundary sub-layer. The simulation results show that the distribution of fluid temperature fluctuation intensity and the range of structure temperature fluctuation are remarkably close to the experimental results. Moreover, the peak frequencies of power spectrum density (PSD) of both fluid and structure temperature fluctuations also agree well with the experimental results. Therefore, the numerical methods used in the present paper are
Modular localization and the holistic structure of causal quantum theory, a historical perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroer, Bert
2014-01-01
Recent insights into the conceptual structure of localization in QFT ('modular localization') led to clarifications of old unsolved problems. The oldest one is the Einstein-Jordan conundrum which led Jordan in 1925 to the discovery of quantum field theory. This comparison of fluctuations in subsystems of heat bath systems (Einstein) with those resulting from the restriction of the QFT vacuum state to an open subvolume (Jordan) leads to a perfect analogy; the globally pure vacuum state becomes upon local restriction a strongly impure KMS state. This phenomenon of localization-caused thermal behavior as well as the vacuum-polarization clouds at the causal boundary of the localization region places localization in QFT into a sharp contrast with quantum mechanics and justifies the attribute 'holstic'. In fact it positions the E-J Gedankenexperiment into the same conceptual category as the cosmological constant problem and the Unruh Gedankenexperiment. The holistic structure of QFT resulting from 'modular localization' also leads to a revision of the conceptual origin of the crucial crossing property which entered particle theory at the time of the bootstrap S-matrix approach but suffered from incorrect use in the S-matrix settings of the dual model and string theory. The new holistic point of view, which strengthens the autonomous aspect of QFT, also comes with new messages for gauge theory by exposing the clash between Hilbert space structure and localization and presenting alternative solutions based on the use of string local fields in Hilbert space. Among other things this leads to a radical reformulation of the Englert-Higgs symmetry breaking mechanism. (author)
Perspective: Structural fluctuation of protein and Anfinsen's thermodynamic hypothesis
Hirata, Fumio; Sugita, Masatake; Yoshida, Masasuke; Akasaka, Kazuyuki
2018-01-01
The thermodynamics hypothesis, casually referred to as "Anfinsen's dogma," is described theoretically in terms of a concept of the structural fluctuation of protein or the first moment (average structure) and the second moment (variance and covariance) of the structural distribution. The new theoretical concept views the unfolding and refolding processes of protein as a shift of the structural distribution induced by a thermodynamic perturbation, with the variance-covariance matrix varying. Based on the theoretical concept, a method to characterize the mechanism of folding (or unfolding) is proposed. The transition state, if any, between two stable states is interpreted as a gap in the distribution, which is created due to an extensive reorganization of hydrogen bonds among back-bone atoms of protein and with water molecules in the course of conformational change. Further perspective to applying the theory to the computer-aided drug design, and to the material science, is briefly discussed.
Isshiki, Yuji; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Kiguchi, Manabu
2018-03-14
Structural and electronic detail at the metal-molecule interface has a significant impact on the charge transport across the molecular junctions, but its precise understanding and control still remain elusive. On the single-molecule scale, the metal-molecule interface structures and relevant charge transport properties are subject to fluctuation, which contain the fundamental science of single-molecule transport and implication for manipulability of the transport properties in electronic devices. Here, we present a comprehensive approach to investigate the fluctuation in the metal-molecule interface in single-molecule junctions, based on current-voltage ( I- V) measurements in combination with first-principles simulation. Contrary to conventional molecular conductance studies, this I- V approach provides a correlated statistical description of both the degree of electronic coupling across the metal-molecule interface and the molecular orbital energy level. This statistical approach was employed to study fluctuation in single-molecule junctions of 1,4-butanediamine (DAB), pyrazine (PY), 4,4'-bipyridine (BPY), and fullerene (C 60 ). We demonstrate that molecular-dependent fluctuation of σ-, π-, and π-plane-type interfaces can be captured by analyzing the molecular orbital (MO) energy level under mechanical perturbation. While the MO level of DAB with the σ-type interface shows weak distance dependence and fluctuation, the MO level of PY, BPY, and C 60 features unique distance dependence and molecular-dependent fluctuation against the mechanical perturbation. The MO level of PY and BPY with the σ+π-type interface increases with the increase in the stretch distance. In contrast, the MO level of C 60 with the π-plane-type interface decreases with the increase in the stretching perturbation. This study provides an approach to resolve the structural and electronic fluctuation in the single-molecule junctions and insight into the molecular-dependent fluctuation in
STRUCTURAL FLUCTUATIONS, ELECTRICAL RESPONSE AND THE RELIABILITY OF NANOSTRUCTURES (FINAL REPORT)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Philip J. Rous; Ellen D. Williams; Michael S. Fuhrer
2006-07-31
The goal of the research supported by DOE-FG02-01ER45939 was to synthesize a number of experimental and theoretical approaches to understand the relationship between morphological fluctuations, the electrical response and the reliability (failure) of metallic nanostructures. The primary focus of our work was the study of metallic nanowires which we regard as prototypical of nanoscale interconnects. Our research plan has been to link together these materials properties and behaviors by understanding the phenomenon of, and the effects of electromigration at nanometer length scales. The thrust of our research has been founded on the concept that, for nanostructures where the surface-to-volume ratio is necessarily high, surface diffusion is the dominant mass transport mechanism that governs the fluctuations, electrical properties and failure modes of nanostructures. Our approach has been to develop experimental methods that permit the direct imaging of the electromagnetic distributions within nanostructures, their structural fluctuations and their electrical response. This experimental research is complemented by a parallel theoretical and computational program that describes the temporal evolution of nanostructures in response to current flow.
Pressure Fluctuations Induced by a Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer
Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Zhang, Chao
2016-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to examine the pressure fluctuations generated by a spatially-developed Mach 5.86 turbulent boundary layer. The unsteady pressure field is analyzed at multiple wall-normal locations, including those at the wall, within the boundary layer (including inner layer, the log layer, and the outer layer), and in the free stream. The statistical and structural variations of pressure fluctuations as a function of wall-normal distance are highlighted. Computational predictions for mean velocity pro les and surface pressure spectrum are in good agreement with experimental measurements, providing a first ever comparison of this type at hypersonic Mach numbers. The simulation shows that the dominant frequency of boundary-layer-induced pressure fluctuations shifts to lower frequencies as the location of interest moves away from the wall. The pressure wave propagates with a speed nearly equal to the local mean velocity within the boundary layer (except in the immediate vicinity of the wall) while the propagation speed deviates from the Taylor's hypothesis in the free stream. Compared with the surface pressure fluctuations, which are primarily vortical, the acoustic pressure fluctuations in the free stream exhibit a significantly lower dominant frequency, a greater spatial extent, and a smaller bulk propagation speed. The freestream pressure structures are found to have similar Lagrangian time and spatial scales as the acoustic sources near the wall. As the Mach number increases, the freestream acoustic fluctuations exhibit increased radiation intensity, enhanced energy content at high frequencies, shallower orientation of wave fronts with respect to the flow direction, and larger propagation velocity.
Density Fluctuations in the Solar Wind Driven by Alfvén Wave Parametric Decay
Bowen, Trevor A.; Badman, Samuel; Hellinger, Petr; Bale, Stuart D.
2018-02-01
Measurements and simulations of inertial compressive turbulence in the solar wind are characterized by anti-correlated magnetic fluctuations parallel to the mean field and density structures. This signature has been interpreted as observational evidence for non-propagating pressure balanced structures, kinetic ion-acoustic waves, as well as the MHD slow-mode. Given the high damping rates of parallel propagating compressive fluctuations, their ubiquity in satellite observations is surprising and suggestive of a local driving process. One possible candidate for the generation of compressive fluctuations in the solar wind is the Alfvén wave parametric instability. Here, we test the parametric decay process as a source of compressive waves in the solar wind by comparing the collisionless damping rates of compressive fluctuations with growth rates of the parametric decay instability daughter waves. Our results suggest that generation of compressive waves through parametric decay is overdamped at 1 au, but that the presence of slow-mode-like density fluctuations is correlated with the parametric decay of Alfvén waves.
Measurement of magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiksel, G.; Prager, S.C.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.
1993-11-01
The local electron energy flux produced by magnetic fluctuations has been measured directly in the MST reversed field pinch (over the radial range r/a > 0.75). The flux, produced by electrons traveling parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field, is obtained from correlation between the fluctuations in the parallel heat flux and the radial magnetic field. The fluctuation induced flux is large (100 kW/cm 2 ) in the ''core'' (r/a 2 ) in the edge
Time scale defined by the fractal structure of the price fluctuations in foreign exchange markets
Kumagai, Yoshiaki
2010-04-01
In this contribution, a new time scale named C-fluctuation time is defined by price fluctuations observed at a given resolution. The intraday fractal structures and the relations of the three time scales: real time (physical time), tick time and C-fluctuation time, in foreign exchange markets are analyzed. The data set used is trading prices of foreign exchange rates; US dollar (USD)/Japanese yen (JPY), USD/Euro (EUR), and EUR/JPY. The accuracy of the data is one minute and data within a minute are recorded in order of transaction. The series of instantaneous velocity of C-fluctuation time flowing are exponentially distributed for small C when they are measured by real time and for tiny C when they are measured by tick time. When the market is volatile, for larger C, the series of instantaneous velocity are exponentially distributed.
Cosmophysical Factors in the Fluctuation Amplitude Spectrum of Brownian Motion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaminsky A. V.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Phenomenon of the regular variability of the fine structure of the fluctuation in the amplitude distributions (shapes of related histograms for the case of Brownian motion was investigated. We took an advantage of the dynamic light scattering method (DLS to get a stochastically fluctuated signal determined by Brownian motion. Shape of the histograms is most likely to vary, synchronous, in two proximally located independent cells containing Brownian particles. The synchronism persists in the cells distant at 2m from each other, and positioned meridionally. With a parallel-wise positioning of the cells, high probability of the synchronous variation in the shape of the histograms by local time has been observed. This result meets the previous conclusion about the dependency of histogram shapes ("fluctuation amplitudes" of the spectra of stochastic processes upon rotation of the Earth.
Cosmophysical Factors in the Fluctuation Amplitude Spectrum of Brownian Motion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaminsky A. V.
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Phenomenon of the regular variability of the fine structure of the fluctuation in the am- plitude distributions (shapes of related histograms for the case of Brownian motion was investigated. We took an advantage of the dynamic light scattering method (DLS to get a stochastically fluctuated signal determined by Brownian motion. Shape of the histograms is most likely to vary, synchronous, in two proximally located independent cells containing Brownian particles. The synchronism persists in the cells distant at 2 m from each other, and positioned meridionally. With a parallel-wise positioning of the cells, high probability of the synchronous variation in the shape of the histograms by local time has been observed. This result meets the previous conclusion about the dependency of histogram shapes (“fluctuation amplitudes” of the spectra of stochastic processes upon rotation of the Earth.
Structural Fluctuation and Thermophysical Properties of Molten II-VI Compounds
2003-01-01
The objectives of the project is to conduct ground-based experimental and theoretical research on the structural fluctuations and thermophysical properties of molten II-VI compounds to enhance the basic understanding of the existing flight experiments in microgravity materials science programs and to study the fundamental heterophase fluctuations phenomena in these melts by: 1) Conducting neutron scattering analysis and measuring quantitatively the relevant thermophysical properties of the II-VI melts such as viscosity, electrical conductivity, thermal diffusivity and density as well as the relaxation characteristics of these properties to advance the understanding of the structural properties and the relaxation phenomena in these melts and 2) Performing theoretical analyses on the melt systems to interpret the experimental results. All the facilities required for the experimental measurements have been procured, installed and tested. A relaxation phenomenon, which shows a slow drift of the measured thermal conductivity toward the equilibrium value after cooling of the sample, was observed for the first time. An apparatus based on the transient torque induced by a rotating magnetic field has been developed to determine the viscosity and electrical conductivity of semiconducting liquids. Viscosity measurements on molten tellurium showed similar relaxation behavior as the measured diffusivity. Neutron scattering experiments were performed on the HgTe and HgZnTe melts and the results on pair distribution showed better resolution than previous reported.
Instanton dominance of topological charge fluctuations in QCD?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hip, I.; Lippert, Th.; Schilling, K.; Schroers, W.; Neff, H.
2002-01-01
We consider the local chirality of near-zero eigenvectors from Wilson-Dirac and clover improved Wilson-Dirac lattice operators as proposed recently by Horvath et al. We study finer lattices and repair for the loss of orthogonality due to the non-normality of the Wilson-Dirac matrix. As a result we do see a clear double peak structure on lattices with resolutions higher than 0.1 fm. We find that the lattice artifacts can be considerably reduced by exploiting the biorthogonal system of left and right eigenvectors. We conclude that the dominance of instantons in topological charge fluctuations is not ruled out by local chirality measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamaya, Masayuki
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The source of the membrane constraint due to local temperature fluctuation was shown. • Thermal fatigue that occurred at a mixing tee and branched elbow was analyzed. • Cracking occurrence was reasonably explained by the constraint and stress conditions. - Abstract: This study was aimed at identifying the constraint conditions under local temperature fluctuation by thermal striping at a mixing tee and by thermal stratification at an elbow pipe branched from the main pipe. Numerical and analytical approaches were made to derive the thermal stress and its fluctuation. It was shown that an inhomogeneous temperature distribution in a straight pipe caused thermal stress due to a membrane constraint even if an external membrane constraint did not act on the pipe. Although the membrane constraint increased the mean stress at the mixing tee, it did not contribute to fluctuation of the thermal stress. On the other hand, the membrane constraint played an important role in the fatigue damage accumulation near the stratification layer of the branched elbow. Based on the constraint and stress conditions analyzed, the characteristics of the cracking observed in actual nuclear power plants were reasonably explained. Namely, at the mixing tee, where thermal crazing has been found, the lack of contribution of the membrane constraint to stress fluctuation caused a stress gradient in the thickness direction and arrested crack growth. On the other hand, at the branched elbow, where axial through-wall cracks have been found, the relatively large hoop stress fluctuation was brought about by movement of the stratified layer together with the membrane constraint even under a relatively low frequency of stress fluctuation
Effects of the layered structure of YBa2Cu3O7-δ on the superconducting fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baraduc, C.
1994-06-01
The study mainly addresses Gaussian fluctuations, with the Lawrence-Doniach model used as a framework for describing the coupled superconducting planes. The fluctuations in zero magnetic field and especially the conductivity fluctuations are studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that the conductivity does not follow the same mechanism when current flows along the planes or perpendicularly to them. When fluctuations are confined in each plane, a two-dimensional mechanism is observed for the parallel conductivity whereas a zero-dimensional one controls the perpendicular conductivity, which can be understood as a hopping process. Fluctuations under magnetic field, applied in the perpendicular direction, are also examined. Different scaling laws are proposed and compared for experimental magnetization data. It is shown that the 2D-3D cross-over, characterizing a layered structure, still remains under field. The observation of a crossing point in the magnetic curves raises the problem of vortex fluctuations even in this moderately anisotropic compound. 48 figs., 86 refs
Structural Health Monitoring Based on Combined Structural Global and Local Frequencies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jilin Hou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a parameter estimation method for Structural Health Monitoring based on the combined measured structural global frequencies and structural local frequencies. First, the global test is experimented to obtain the low order modes which can reflect the global information of the structure. Secondly, the mass is added on the member of structure to increase the local dynamic characteristic and to make the member have local primary frequency, which belongs to structural local frequency and is sensitive to local parameters. Then the parameters of the structure can be optimized accurately using the combined structural global frequencies and structural local frequencies. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method are verified by the experiment of a space truss.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kei Omata
Full Text Available The emergence of the occipital alpha rhythm on brain electroencephalogram (EEG is associated with brain activity in the cerebral neocortex and deep brain structures. To further understand the mechanisms of alpha rhythm power fluctuation, we performed simultaneous EEGs and functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings in human subjects during a resting state and explored the dynamic relationship between alpha power fluctuation and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signals of the brain. Based on the frequency characteristics of the alpha power time series (APTS during 20-minute EEG recordings, we divided the APTS into two components: fast fluctuation (0.04-0.167 Hz and slow fluctuation (0-0.04 Hz. Analysis of the correlation between the MRI signal and each component revealed that the slow fluctuation component of alpha power was positively correlated with BOLD signal changes in the brain stem and the medial part of the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex, while the fast fluctuation component was correlated with the lateral part of the thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex, but not the brain stem. In summary, these data suggest that different subcortical structures contribute to slow and fast modulations of alpha spectra on brain EEG.
Tombari, Elpidio; Johari, G P
2015-03-14
To investigate whether a non-exponential relaxation always indicates 2-4 nm-size regions of dynamic heterogeneity, we studied the kinetic freezing and unfreezing of structural fluctuations involving the rotational modes in orientationally disordered crystal (ODIC) of levoglucosan by calorimetry. The heat capacity, Cp, of levoglucosan measured over the 203 K-463 K range shows that its low-temperature, orientationally ordered crystal (ORC) transforms to ODIC phase on heating, which then melts to a low viscosity liquid. On cooling, the melt transforms to the ODIC which then does not transform to the ORC. Instead, the ODIC supercools. Fluctuations resulting from hindered (random) rotations of levoglucosan molecules confined to the lattice sites and from their conformational changes become progressively slower on cooling and an orientational glass (O-G) forms showing the sigmoid shape decrease in Cp characteristic of structural arrest like that of a glass. On heating the O-G state, rotational fluctuations begin to contribute to Cp at To-g of 247.8 K and there is an overshoot in Cp and thermal hysteresis (characteristic of physical ageing) in the temperature range of 230-260 K. The non-exponential relaxation parameter, β(cal), determined by fitting the Cp data to a non-exponential, nonlinear model for relaxation of a glass is 0.60, which is similar to β(cal) found for polymers, molecular liquids, and metal-alloy melts in which Brownian diffusion occurs. Such β(cal) glass formation, but its value of 0.60 for ODIC levoglucosan, in which Brownian diffusion does not occur, would not indicate such domains. Despite the lack of Brownian diffusion, we discuss these findings in the potential energy landscape paradigm. Levoglucosan melt, which is believed to vitrify and to stabilize a protein's disordered structure, did not supercool even at 200 K/min cooling rate. The findings have consequences for reports on the dielectric relaxation studies that indicated that levoglucosan
Wall-attached structures of streamwise velocity fluctuations in turbulent boundary layer
Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin
2017-11-01
The wall-attached structures of streamwise velocity fluctuations (u) are explored using direct numerical simulation data of turbulent boundary layer at Reτ = 1000 . We identify the structures of u, which are extended close to the wall. Their height (ly) ranges from the near-wall region to the edge of turbulent boundary layer. They are geometrically self-similar in a sense that the length and width of the structures are proportional to the distance from the wall. The population density of the attached structures shows that the tall attached structures (290 wall. The wall-attached structures of u identified in the present work are a proper candidate for Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis and these structures exist in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2017-013369) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP) and supported by the Supercomputing Center (KISTI).
Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation
Guazzelli, É lisabeth; Hinch, John
2011-01-01
This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations
Suppression of alloy fluctuations in GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loitsch, Bernhard; Winnerl, Julia; Parzinger, Eric; Matich, Sonja; Wurstbauer, Ursula; Riedl, Hubert; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Finley, Jonathan J.; Koblmüller, Gregor [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jeon, Nari; Lauhon, Lincoln J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Döblinger, Markus [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, 81377 München (Germany)
2016-08-29
Probing localized alloy fluctuations and controlling them by growth kinetics have been relatively limited so far in nanoscale structures such as semiconductor nanowires (NWs). Here, we demonstrate the tuning of alloy fluctuations in molecular beam epitaxially grown GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell NWs by modifications of shell growth temperature, as investigated by correlated micro-photoluminescence, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography. By reducing the shell growth temperature from T > 600 °C to below 400 °C, we find a strong reduction in alloy fluctuation mediated sharp-line luminescence, concurrent with a decrease in the non-randomness of the alloy distribution in the AlGaAs shell. This trend is further characterized by a change in the alloy compositional structure from unintentional quasi-superlattices of Ga- and Al-rich AlGaAs layers at high T to a nearly homogeneous random alloy distribution at low T.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diallo, A.; Battaglia, D. J.; Guttenfelder, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Groebner, R. J.; Osborne, T. H.; Snyder, P. B. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Rhodes, T. L. [Physics and Astronomy Department, P.O. Box 957099, Los Angeles, California 90095-7099 (United States); Smith, D. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Canik, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)
2015-05-15
Direct measurements of the pedestal recovery during an edge-localized mode cycle provide evidence that quasi-coherent fluctuations (QCFs) play a role in the inter-ELM pedestal dynamics. Using fast Thomson scattering measurements, the pedestal density and temperature evolutions are probed on sub-millisecond time scales to show a fast recovery of the density gradient compared to the temperature gradient. The temperature gradient appears to provide a drive for the onset of quasi-coherent fluctuations (as measured with the magnetic probe and the density diagnostics) localized in the pedestal. The amplitude evolution of these QCFs tracks the temperature gradient evolution including its saturation. Such correlation suggests that these QCFs play a key role in limiting the pedestal temperature gradient. The saturation of the QCFs coincides with the pressure gradient reaching the kinetic-ballooning mode (KBM) critical gradient as predicted by EPED1. Furthermore, linear microinstability analysis using GS2 indicates that the steep gradient is near the KBM threshold. Thus, the modeling and the observations together suggest that QCFs are consistent with dominant KBMs, although microtearing cannot be excluded as subdominant.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diallo, A.; Battaglia, D. J.; Guttenfelder, W.; Groebner, R. J.; Osborne, T. H.; Snyder, P. B.; Rhodes, T. L.; Smith, D. R.; Canik, J. M.
2015-01-01
Direct measurements of the pedestal recovery during an edge-localized mode cycle provide evidence that quasi-coherent fluctuations (QCFs) play a role in the inter-ELM pedestal dynamics. Using fast Thomson scattering measurements, the pedestal density and temperature evolutions are probed on sub-millisecond time scales to show a fast recovery of the density gradient compared to the temperature gradient. The temperature gradient appears to provide a drive for the onset of quasi-coherent fluctuations (as measured with the magnetic probe and the density diagnostics) localized in the pedestal. The amplitude evolution of these QCFs tracks the temperature gradient evolution including its saturation. Such correlation suggests that these QCFs play a key role in limiting the pedestal temperature gradient. The saturation of the QCFs coincides with the pressure gradient reaching the kinetic-ballooning mode (KBM) critical gradient as predicted by EPED1. Furthermore, linear microinstability analysis using GS2 indicates that the steep gradient is near the KBM threshold. Thus, the modeling and the observations together suggest that QCFs are consistent with dominant KBMs, although microtearing cannot be excluded as subdominant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baraduc, C.
1994-06-01
The study mainly addresses Gaussian fluctuations, with the Lawrence-Doniach model used as a framework for describing the coupled superconducting planes. The fluctuations in zero magnetic field and especially the conductivity fluctuations are studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that the conductivity does not follow the same mechanism when current flows along the planes or perpendicularly to them. When fluctuations are confined in each plane, a two-dimensional mechanism is observed for the parallel conductivity whereas a zero-dimensional one controls the perpendicular conductivity, which can be understood as a hopping process. Fluctuations under magnetic field, applied in the perpendicular direction, are also examined. Different scaling laws are proposed and compared for experimental magnetization data. It is shown that the 2D-3D cross-over, characterizing a layered structure, still remains under field. The observation of a crossing point in the magnetic curves raises the problem of vortex fluctuations even in this moderately anisotropic compound. 48 figs., 86 refs.
Hadronic Correlations and Fluctuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koch, Volker
2008-10-09
We will provide a review of some of the physics which can be addressed by studying fluctuations and correlations in heavy ion collisions. We will discuss Lattice QCD results on fluctuations and correlations and will put them into context with observables which have been measured in heavy-ion collisions. Special attention will be given to the QCD critical point and the first order co-existence region, and we will discuss how the measurement of fluctuations and correlations can help in an experimental search for non-trivial structures in the QCD phase diagram.
Towards structural controllability of local-world networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Shiwen; Ma, Yilin; Wu, Yafang; Wang, Li; Xia, Chengyi
2016-01-01
Controlling complex networks is of vital importance in science and engineering. Meanwhile, local-world effect is an important ingredient which should be taken into consideration in the complete description of real-world complex systems. In this letter, structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. Through extensive numerical simulations, firstly, effects of local world size M and network size N on structural controllability are examined. For local-world networks with sparse topological configuration, compared to network size, local-world size can induce stronger influence on controllability, however, for dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and local-world effect can be neglected. Secondly, relationships between controllability and topological properties are analyzed. Lastly, the robustness of local-world networks under targeted attacks regarding structural controllability is discussed. These results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity and connectivity patterns of complex systems. - Highlights: • Structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. • For sparse local-world networks, compared to network size, local-world size can bring stronger influence on controllability. • For dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and the effect of local-world size can be neglected. • Structural controllability against targeted node attacks is discussed.
Towards structural controllability of local-world networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Shiwen, E-mail: sunsw80@126.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligence Computing and Novel Software Technology, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Vision and System (Tianjin University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Ma, Yilin; Wu, Yafang; Wang, Li; Xia, Chengyi [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligence Computing and Novel Software Technology, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Vision and System (Tianjin University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China)
2016-05-20
Controlling complex networks is of vital importance in science and engineering. Meanwhile, local-world effect is an important ingredient which should be taken into consideration in the complete description of real-world complex systems. In this letter, structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. Through extensive numerical simulations, firstly, effects of local world size M and network size N on structural controllability are examined. For local-world networks with sparse topological configuration, compared to network size, local-world size can induce stronger influence on controllability, however, for dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and local-world effect can be neglected. Secondly, relationships between controllability and topological properties are analyzed. Lastly, the robustness of local-world networks under targeted attacks regarding structural controllability is discussed. These results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity and connectivity patterns of complex systems. - Highlights: • Structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. • For sparse local-world networks, compared to network size, local-world size can bring stronger influence on controllability. • For dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and the effect of local-world size can be neglected. • Structural controllability against targeted node attacks is discussed.
Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quentin S Hanley
Full Text Available Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026 while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029 indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes. Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.
Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.
Hanley, Quentin S; Khatun, Suniya; Yosef, Amal; Dyer, Rachel-May
2014-01-01
Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026) while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029) indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs) to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes). Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.
Aspirin locally disrupts the liquid-ordered phase
Alsop, Richard J.; Himbert, Sebastian; Dhaliwal, Alexander; Schmalzl, Karin; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.
2018-02-01
Local structure and dynamics of lipid membranes play an important role in membrane function. The diffusion of small molecules, the curvature of lipids around a protein and the existence of cholesterol-rich lipid domains (rafts) are examples for the membrane to serve as a functional interface. The collective fluctuations of lipid tails, in particular, are relevant for diffusion of membrane constituents and small molecules in and across membranes, and for structure and formation of membrane domains. We studied the effect of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) on local structure and dynamics of membranes composed of dimyristoylphosphocholine (DMPC) and cholesterol. Aspirin is a common analgesic, but is also used in the treatment of cholesterol. Using coherent inelastic neutron scattering experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we present evidence that ASA binds to liquid-ordered, raft-like domains and disturbs domain organization and dampens collective fluctuations. By hydrogen-bonding to lipid molecules, ASA forms `superfluid' complexes with lipid molecules that can organize laterally in superlattices and suppress cholesterol's ordering effect.
Cosmological perturbations from quantum fluctuations to large scale structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardeen, J.M.
1988-01-01
Classical perturbation theory is developed from the 3 + 1 form of the Einstein equations. A somewhat unusual form of the perturbation equations in the synchronous gauge is recommended for carrying out computations, but interpretation is based on certain hypersurface-invariant combinations of the variables. The formalism is used to analyze the origin of density perturbations from quantum fluctuations during inflation, with particular emphasis on dealing with 'double inflation' and deviations from the Zel'dovich spectrum. The evolution of the density perturbation to the present gives the final density perturbation power spectrum, whose relationship to observed large scale structure is discussed in the context of simple cold-dark-matter biasing schemes. 86 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batten, S.; Rees, D.
1990-01-01
At high geomagnetic latitudes, thermospheric wind flows are dramatically affected by the combined effects of magnetospheric ion convection and Joule and particle heating. Thermospheric winds have been observed by ground based and space-borne Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs). Short period, localized wind fluctuations have always been difficult to resolve with a conventional FPI, due to the limited time and spatial resolution. However, the highest quality wind data obtained by these instruments from the middle and upper thermosphere have implied that thermospheric winds may respond to the combination of strong local ion drag forcing and heating within the auroral oval and polar cap, with spatial scale sizes of 50-500 km, and with time scales as short as 10-30 min. Since the 1982/1983 winter, a prototype Doppler Imaging System (DIS) has been operated at Kiruna (67.84 0 N, 20.42 0 E). This instrument maps thermospheric wind flows over a region some 500 km in diameter centred on Kiruna and has observed many interesting features in the thermospheric wind fields. In particular, strong local wind gradients, rapid wind reversals and small scale structures are regularly observed, particularly during geomagnetically disturbed nights. (author)
Limitation and suppression of hot electron fluctuations in submicron semiconductor structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kochelap, V.A.; Zahleniuk, N.A.; Sokolov, V.N.
1992-09-01
We present theoretical investigations of fluctuations of hot electrons in submicron active regions, where the dimensions 2 d of the region is comparable to the electron energy relaxation length L ε . The new physical phenomenon is reported; the fluctuations depend on the sample thickness, with 2d ε a suppression of fluctuations arises in the range of fluctuation frequencies ω much less than T -1 ε , T ε is the electron energy relaxation time. (author). 12 refs, 7 figs
Bakken, M. R.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.; Rhodes, A. T.; Winz, G. R.
2016-10-01
A new diagnostic measuring local E-> (r , t) fluctuations is being developed for plasma turbulence studies in tokamaks. This is accomplished by measuring fluctuations in the separation of the π components in the Hα motional Stark spectrum. Fluctuations in this separation are expected to be Ẽ / ẼEMSE 10-3EMSE 10-3 . In addition to a high throughput, high speed spectrometer, the project requires a low divergence (Ω 0 .5°) , 80 keV, 2.5 A H0 beam and a target plasma test stand. The beam employs a washer-stack arc ion source to achieve a high species fraction at full energy. Laboratory tests of the ion source demonstrate repeatable plasmas with Te 10 eV and ne 1.6 ×1017 m-3, sufficient for the beam ion optics requirements. Te and ne scalings of the ion source plasma are presented with respect to operational parameters. A novel three-phase resonant converter power supply will provide 6 mA/cm2 of 80 keV H0 at the focal plane for pulse lengths up to 15 ms, with low ripple δV / 80 keV 0.05 % at 280 kHz. Diagnostic development and validation tests will be performed on a magnetized plasma test stand with 0.5 T field. The test chamber will utilize a washer-stack arc source to produce a target plasma comparable to edge tokamak plasmas. A bias-plate with programmable power supply will be used to impose Ẽ within the target plasma. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-89ER53296.
Anisotropic KPZ growth in 2+1 dimensions: fluctuations and covariance structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borodin, Alexei; Ferrari, Patrik L
2009-01-01
In Borodin and Ferrari (2008 arXiv:0804.3035) we studied an interacting particle system which can be also interpreted as a stochastic growth model. This model belongs to the anisotropic KPZ class in 2+1 dimensions. In this paper we present the results that are relevant from the perspective of stochastic growth models, in particular: (a) the surface fluctuations are asymptotically Gaussian on a √ln t scale and (b) the correlation structure of the surface is asymptotically given by the massless field
Fluctuation spectroscopy: From Rayleigh-Jeans waves to Abrikosov vortex clusters
Varlamov, A. A.; Galda, A.; Glatz, A.
2018-01-01
Superconducting (SC) fluctuations, discovered in the late 1960s, have constituted an important research area in superconductivity as they are manifest in a variety of phenomena. Indeed, the underlying physics of SC fluctuations makes it possible to elucidate the fundamental properties of the superconducting state. The interest in SC fluctuation phenomena was further enhanced with the discovery of cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTSs). In these materials, superconducting fluctuations appear over a wide range of temperatures due to the superconductors extremely short coherence lengths and low effective dimensionality of the electron systems. These strong fluctuations lead to anomalous properties of the normal state in some HTS materials. Within the framework of the phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau theory, and more extensively in the diagrammatic microscopic approach based on BCS theory, SC fluctuations as well as other quantum contributions (weak localization, etc.) enabled a new way to investigate and characterize disordered electron systems, granular metals, Josephson structures, artificial superlattices, and others. The characteristic feature of SC fluctuations is its strong dependence on temperature and magnetic field in the vicinity of the superconducting phase transition. This dependence allows the separation of fluctuation effects from other contributions and provides information about the microscopic parameters of a material, in particular, the critical temperature and the zero-temperature critical magnetic field. As such, SC fluctuations are very sensitive to the relaxation processes that break phase coherence and can be used as a versatile characterization instrument for SCs: Fluctuation spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool for studying the properties of superconducting systems on a quantitative level. Here the physics of SC fluctuations is reviewed, commencing from a qualitative description of thermodynamic fluctuations close to the
Origin of cosmological density fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr, B.J.
1984-11-01
The density fluctuations required to explain the large-scale cosmological structure may have arisen spontaneously as a result of a phase transition in the early Universe. There are several ways in which such fluctuations may have ben produced, and they could have a variety of spectra, so one should not necessarily expect all features of the large-scale structure to derive from a simple power law spectrum. Some features may even result from astrophysical amplification mechanisms rather than gravitational instability. 128 references
Su, Yen-Shuo; Liu, Yu-Hsuan; I, Lin
2012-11-01
Whether the static microstructural order information is strongly correlated with the subsequent structural rearrangement (SR) and their predicting power for SR are investigated experimentally in the quenched dusty plasma liquid with microheterogeneities. The poor local structural order is found to be a good alarm to identify the soft spot and predict the short term SR. For the site with good structural order, the persistent time for sustaining the structural memory until SR has a large mean value but a broad distribution. The deviation of the local structural order from that averaged over nearest neighbors serves as a good second alarm to further sort out the short time SR sites. It has the similar sorting power to that using the temporal fluctuation of the local structural order over a small time interval.
Edge plasma fluctuations in STOR-M
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, W.; Hirose, A.; Zhang, L.; Xiao, C.; Conway, G.D.; Skarsgard, H.M.
1993-01-01
In the STOR-M tokamak, the coherence and propagation nature of the density (n e ) and magnetic (B r ) fluctuations are investigated both in the scrape-off layer (SOL, r/a > 1) and at the plasma edge (r/a -2 is of the order of the reverse electron skin depth kθ ≅ ω pe /c. In terms of the hybrid ion Larmor radius ρ s = c s /Ω i , it corresponds to k θρ s ≅ 0.1. These observations support the skin size electromagnetic drift mode which predicts that a low β tokamak discharge is unstable against the skin size electromagnetic instability with a phase velocity significantly smaller than the electron diamagnetic drift velocity. Edge fluctuations observed in STOR-M appear to propagate at the local E x B drift, and the phase velocity in the plasma from is υ theta ≅ 5 x 10 4 cm/sec, compared with the local electron diamagnetic drift, υ e ≅ 2.5 x 10 5 cm/sec. In the SOL region, the density fluctuations propagate in the ion diamagnetic drift, but still with the local E x B drift because E r changes its sign at r/a ≅ 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parthimos, D; Osterloh, K; Pries, A R; Griffith, T M
2004-01-01
We have performed a nonlinear analysis of fluctuations in red cell velocity and arteriolar calibre in the mesenteric bed of the anaesthetized rat. Measurements were obtained under control conditions and during local superfusion with N G -nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 30 μM) and tetrabutylammonium (TBA, 0.1 mM), which suppress NO synthesis and block Ca 2+ activated K + channels (K Ca ), respectively. Time series were analysed by calculating correlation dimensions and largest Lyapunov exponents. Both statistics were higher for red cell velocity than diameter fluctuations, thereby potentially differentiating between global and local mechanisms that regulate microvascular flow. Evidence for underlying nonlinear structure was provided by analysis of surrogate time series generated from the experimental data following randomization of Fourier phase. Complexity indices characterizing time series under control conditions were in general higher than those derived from data obtained during superfusion with L-NNA and TBA
Fluctuations of local electric field and dipole moments in water between metal walls.
Takae, Kyohei; Onuki, Akira
2015-10-21
We examine the thermal fluctuations of the local electric field Ek (loc) and the dipole moment μk in liquid water at T = 298 K between metal walls in electric field applied in the perpendicular direction. We use analytic theory and molecular dynamics simulation. In this situation, there is a global electrostatic coupling between the surface charges on the walls and the polarization in the bulk. Then, the correlation function of the polarization density pz(r) along the applied field contains a homogeneous part inversely proportional to the cell volume V. Accounting for the long-range dipolar interaction, we derive the Kirkwood-Fröhlich formula for the polarization fluctuations when the specimen volume v is much smaller than V. However, for not small v/V, the homogeneous part comes into play in dielectric relations. We also calculate the distribution of Ek (loc) in applied field. As a unique feature of water, its magnitude |Ek (loc)| obeys a Gaussian distribution with a large mean value E0 ≅ 17 V/nm, which arises mainly from the surrounding hydrogen-bonded molecules. Since |μk|E0 ∼ 30kBT, μk becomes mostly parallel to Ek (loc). As a result, the orientation distributions of these two vectors nearly coincide, assuming the classical exponential form. In dynamics, the component of μk(t) parallel to Ek (loc)(t) changes on the time scale of the hydrogen bonds ∼5 ps, while its smaller perpendicular component undergoes librational motions on time scales of 0.01 ps.
Tan, C.; Liu, W. L.; Dong, F.
2016-01-01
Understanding of flow patterns and their transitions is significant to uncover the flow mechanics of two-phase flow. The local phase distribution and its fluctuations contain rich information regarding the flow structures. A wire-mesh sensor (WMS) was used to study the local phase fluctuations of horizontal gas���liquid two-phase flow, which was verified through comparing the reconstructed three-dimensional flow structure with photographs taken during the experiments. Each crossing point of t...
Cosmic bubble and domain wall instabilities I: parametric amplification of linear fluctuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braden, Jonathan [CITA, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada); Bond, J. Richard [CITA, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada); Mersini-Houghton, Laura [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States)
2015-03-03
This is the first paper in a series where we study collisions of nucleated bubbles taking into account the effects of small initial (quantum) fluctuations in a fully 3+1-dimensional setting. In this paper, we consider the evolution of linear fluctuations around highly symmetric though inhomogeneous backgrounds. In particular, we demonstrate that a large degree of asymmetry develops over time from tiny initial fluctuations superposed upon planar and SO(2,1) symmetric backgrounds. These fluctuations are inevitable consequences of zero-point vacuum oscillations, so excluding them by enforcing a high degree of spatial symmetry is inconsistent in a quantum treatment. To simplify the analysis we consider the limit of two colliding planar walls, with mode functions for the fluctuations characterized by the wavenumber transverse to the collision direction and a longitudinal shape along the collision direction x, which we solve for. In the linear regime, the fluctuations obey a linear wave equation with a time- and space-dependent mass m{sub eff}(x,t). In situations where the walls collide multiple times, m{sub eff} oscillates in time. We use Floquet theory to study the evolution of the fluctuations and generalize the calculations familiar from the preheating literature to the case with many coupled degrees of freedom. The inhomogeneous case has bands of unstable transverse wavenumbers k{sub ⊥} whose corresponding mode functions grow exponentially. By examining the detailed spatial structure of the mode functions in x, we identify both broad and narrow parametric resonance generalizations of the homogeneous m{sub eff}(t) case of preheating. The unstable k{sub ⊥} modes are longitudinally localized, yet can be described as quasiparticles in the Bogoliubov sense. We define an effective occupation number and show they are created in bursts for the case of well-defined collisions in the background. The transverse-longitudinal coupling accompanying nonlinearity radically
Cosmic bubble and domain wall instabilities I: parametric amplification of linear fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braden, Jonathan; Bond, J. Richard; Mersini-Houghton, Laura
2015-01-01
This is the first paper in a series where we study collisions of nucleated bubbles taking into account the effects of small initial (quantum) fluctuations in a fully 3+1-dimensional setting. In this paper, we consider the evolution of linear fluctuations around highly symmetric though inhomogeneous backgrounds. In particular, we demonstrate that a large degree of asymmetry develops over time from tiny initial fluctuations superposed upon planar and SO(2,1) symmetric backgrounds. These fluctuations are inevitable consequences of zero-point vacuum oscillations, so excluding them by enforcing a high degree of spatial symmetry is inconsistent in a quantum treatment. To simplify the analysis we consider the limit of two colliding planar walls, with mode functions for the fluctuations characterized by the wavenumber transverse to the collision direction and a longitudinal shape along the collision direction x, which we solve for. In the linear regime, the fluctuations obey a linear wave equation with a time- and space-dependent mass m eff (x,t). In situations where the walls collide multiple times, m eff oscillates in time. We use Floquet theory to study the evolution of the fluctuations and generalize the calculations familiar from the preheating literature to the case with many coupled degrees of freedom. The inhomogeneous case has bands of unstable transverse wavenumbers k ⊥ whose corresponding mode functions grow exponentially. By examining the detailed spatial structure of the mode functions in x, we identify both broad and narrow parametric resonance generalizations of the homogeneous m eff (t) case of preheating. The unstable k ⊥ modes are longitudinally localized, yet can be described as quasiparticles in the Bogoliubov sense. We define an effective occupation number and show they are created in bursts for the case of well-defined collisions in the background. The transverse-longitudinal coupling accompanying nonlinearity radically breaks this localized
Conformational Fluctuations in G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
Brown, Michael F.
2014-03-01
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise almost 50% of pharmaceutical drug targets, where rhodopsin is an important prototype and occurs naturally in a lipid membrane. Rhodopsin photoactivation entails 11-cis to all-trans isomerization of the retinal cofactor, yielding an equilibrium between inactive Meta-I and active Meta-II states. Two important questions are: (1) Is rhodopsin is a simple two-state switch? Or (2) does isomerization of retinal unlock an activated conformational ensemble? For an ensemble-based activation mechanism (EAM) a role for conformational fluctuations is clearly indicated. Solid-state NMR data together with theoretical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations detect increased local mobility of retinal after light activation. Resultant changes in local dynamics of the cofactor initiate large-scale fluctuations of transmembrane helices that expose recognition sites for the signal-transducing G-protein. Time-resolved FTIR studies and electronic spectroscopy further show the conformational ensemble is strongly biased by the membrane lipid composition, as well as pH and osmotic pressure. A new flexible surface model (FSM) describes how the curvature stress field of the membrane governs the energetics of active rhodopsin, due to the spontaneous monolayer curvature of the lipids. Furthermore, influences of osmotic pressure dictate that a large number of bulk water molecules are implicated in rhodopsin activation. Around 60 bulk water molecules activate rhodopsin, which is much larger than the number of structural waters seen in X-ray crystallography, or inferred from studies of bulk hydrostatic pressure. Conformational selection and promoting vibrational motions of rhodopsin lead to activation of the G-protein (transducin). Our biophysical data give a paradigm shift in understanding GPCR activation. The new view is: dynamics and conformational fluctuations involve an ensemble of substates that activate the cognate G-protein in the amplified visual
Edge transport and mode structure of a QCM-like fluctuation driven by the Shoelace antenna
Golfinopoulos, T.; LaBombard, B.; Brunner, D.; Terry, J. L.; Baek, S. G.; Ennever, P.; Edlund, E.; Han, W.; Burke, W. M.; Wolfe, S. M.; Irby, J. H.; Hughes, J. W.; Fitzgerald, E. W.; Granetz, R. S.; Greenwald, M. J.; Leccacorvi, R.; Marmar, E. S.; Pierson, S. Z.; Porkolab, M.; Vieira, R. F.; Wukitch, S. J.; The Alcator C-Mod Team
2018-05-01
The Shoelace antenna was built to drive edge fluctuations in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, matching the wavenumber (k\\perp≈1.5 cm‑1) and frequency (30≲ f ≲ 200 kHz) of the quasi-coherent mode (QCM), which is responsible for regulating transport across the plasma boundary in the steady-state, ELM-free Enhanced D α (EDA) H-mode. Initial experiments in 2012 demonstrated that the antenna drove a resonant response in the edge plasma in steady-state EDA and transient, non-ELMy H-modes, but transport measurements were unavailable. In 2016, the Shoelace antenna was relocated to enable direct measurements of driven transport by a reciprocating Mirror Langmuir Probe, while also making available gas puff imaging and reflectometer data to provide additional radial localization of the driven fluctuation. This new data suggests a ∼4 mm-wide mode layer centered on or just outside the separatrix. Fluctuations coherent with the antenna produced a radial electron flux with {Γ_e}/{n_e}∼4 m s‑1 in EDA H-mode, smaller than but comparable to the QCM level. But in transient ELM-free H-mode, {Γ_e}/{n_e} was an order of magnitude smaller, and driven fluctuations reduced by a factor of ≳ 3. The driven mode is quantitatively similar to the intrinsic QCM across measured spectral quantities, except that it is more coherent and weaker. This work informs the prospect of achieving control of edge transport by direct coupling to edge modes, as well as the use of such active coupling for diagnostic purposes.
Fluctuations and stability in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harris, J.H.; Charlton, L.A.; Bell, J.D.; Bigelow, T.S.; Carreras, B.A.; Colchin, R.J.; Crume, E.C.; Dominguez, N.; Dunlap, J.L.; Dyer, G.R.; England, A.C.; Glowienka, J.C.; Hillis, D.L.; Hiroe, S.; Horton, L.D.; Howe, H.C.; Isler, R.C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lee, D.K.; Lynch, V.E.; Lyon, J.F.; Menon, M.M.; Murakami, M.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Uckan, T.; Wilgen, J.B.; Wing, W.R.; Bell, G.L.; Crocker, N.A.; Hanson, G.R.; Thomas, C.E.; Wade, M.R.; Ritz, C.P.
1990-01-01
We present the results of experimental and theoretical studies of fluctuations and instabilities in the ATF torsatron, a type of stellarator. Measurements of globally coherent magnetic fluctuations in high-β plasmas with narrow pressure profiles produced by a field error show evidence of self-stabilization ('second stability'); the trends are compatible with theoretical analysis of self-stabilization of resistive curvature-driven instabilities, but there are discrepancies between the absolute experimental and theoretical fluctuation amplitudes. Fluctuation measurements in plasma with broad pressure profiles reveal new phenomena--specifically, toroidally localized magnetic fluctuations, whose amplitudes increase with plasma pressure, and coherent density fluctuations with significant radial width
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.M. Loktev
2008-09-01
Full Text Available We analyze the spectral properties of a phenomenological model for a weakly doped two-dimensional antiferromagnet, in which the carriers move within one of the two sublattices where they were introduced. Such a constraint results in the free carrier spectra with the maxima at k=(± π/2 , ± π/2 observed in some cuprates. We consider the spectral properties of the model by taking into account fluctuations of the spins in the antiferromagnetic background. We show that such fluctuations lead to a non-pole-like structure of the single-hole Green's function and these fluctuations can be responsible for some anomalous "strange metal" properties of underdoped cuprates in the nonsuperconducting regime.
Thermodynamic theory of equilibrium fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishin, Y.
2015-01-01
The postulational basis of classical thermodynamics has been expanded to incorporate equilibrium fluctuations. The main additional elements of the proposed thermodynamic theory are the concept of quasi-equilibrium states, a definition of non-equilibrium entropy, a fundamental equation of state in the entropy representation, and a fluctuation postulate describing the probability distribution of macroscopic parameters of an isolated system. Although these elements introduce a statistical component that does not exist in classical thermodynamics, the logical structure of the theory is different from that of statistical mechanics and represents an expanded version of thermodynamics. Based on this theory, we present a regular procedure for calculations of equilibrium fluctuations of extensive parameters, intensive parameters and densities in systems with any number of fluctuating parameters. The proposed fluctuation formalism is demonstrated by four applications: (1) derivation of the complete set of fluctuation relations for a simple fluid in three different ensembles; (2) fluctuations in finite-reservoir systems interpolating between the canonical and micro-canonical ensembles; (3) derivation of fluctuation relations for excess properties of grain boundaries in binary solid solutions, and (4) derivation of the grain boundary width distribution for pre-melted grain boundaries in alloys. The last two applications offer an efficient fluctuation-based approach to calculations of interface excess properties and extraction of the disjoining potential in pre-melted grain boundaries. Possible future extensions of the theory are outlined.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devynck, P.; Antar, G.; Wang, G.; Garbet, X.; Gunn, J.; Pascal, J.Y.
1999-01-01
The fluctuations in the Scrape Off Layer (S.O.L.) of Tore Supra are studied with a movable Langmuir probe biased to ion saturation current. The probe system consists of three probes separated poloidally (0.68 cm between two nearby probes). The probe has no magnetic connection to the mid plane limiter on which the plasma is leaning, but the radial profile of the ion saturation current fluctuations displays a dip at the limiter position. At the same location the ion saturation current displays a dip at the limiter position. At the same location the ion saturation current displays an inflexion point. A correlation analysis technique is developed to study the radial behaviour of the fluctuations. It reveals that this dip is associated with a reduction of the poloidal velocity of the fluctuations with no sign reversal. In the dip the mean poloidal correlation length of the fluctuations is also reduced. These observations are consistent with a reduction of the fluctuations by a shear of the radial electric field created at the limiter surface. The autocorrelation time is also calculated. It increases slightly in the dip and is found to be sensitive to both the convection time and lifetime of the turbulent structures, because these quantities are of the same order. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anindya Sen
2003-01-01
There is little consensus on whether higher retail gasoline prices in Canada are the result of international crude oil price fluctuations or local market power exercised by large vertically-integrated firms. I find that although both increasing local market concentration and higher average monthly wholesale prices are positively and significantly associated with higher retail prices, wholesale prices are more important than local market concentration. Similarly, crude oil prices are more important than the number of local wholesalers in determining wholesale prices. These results suggest that movements in gasoline prices are largely the result of input price fluctuations rather than local market structure. (author)
Neutrino propagation in a fluctuating sun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burgess, C.P.; Michaud, D.
1997-01-01
We adapt to neutrino physics a general formulation for particle propagation in fluctuating media, initially developed for applications to electromagnetism and neutron optics. In leading approximation this formalism leads to the usual MSW effective Hamiltonian governing neutrino propagation through a medium. Next-to-leading contributions describe deviations from this description, which arise due to neutrino interactions with fluctuations in the medium. We compute these corrections for two types of fluctuations: (i) microscopic thermal fluctuations and (ii) macroscopic fluctuations in the medium s density. While the first of these reproduces standard estimates, which are negligible for applications to solar neutrinos, we find that the second can be quite large, since it grows in size with the correlation length of the fluctuation. We consider two models in some detail. For fluctuations whose correlations extend only over a local region in space of length l, appreciable effects for MSW oscillations arise if (δn/n) 2 l approx-gt 100m or so. Alternatively, a crude model of helioseismic p-waves gives appreciable effects only when (δn/n)approx-gt 1%. In general the dominant effect is to diminish the quality of the resonance, making the suppression of the 7 Be neutrinos a good experimental probe of fluctuations deep within the sun. Fluctuations can also provide a new mechanism for reducing the solar neutrino flux, giving an energy-independent suppression factor of 1/2 away from the resonant region, even for small vacuum mixing angles. copyright 1997 Academic Press, Inc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, Weimin.
1992-08-01
Studies of magnetic fluctuation induced particle transport on Reversed Field Pinch plasmas were done on the Madison Symmetric Torus. Plasma current density and current density fluctuations were measured using a multi-coil magnetic probes. The low frequency (f parallel B r >. The result of zero net charged particle loss was obtained, meaning the flux is ambipolar. The ambipolarity of low frequency global tearing modes is satisfied through the phase relations determined by tearing instabilities. The ambipolarity of high frequency localized modes could be partially explained by the simple model of Waltz based on the radial average of small scale turbulence
Kinetic Scale Structure of Low-frequency Waves and Fluctuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
López, Rodrigo A.; Yoon, Peter H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Araneda, Jaime A., E-mail: rlopezh@umd.edu, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile)
2017-08-10
The dissipation of solar wind turbulence at kinetic scales is believed to be important for the heating of the corona and for accelerating the wind. The linear Vlasov kinetic theory is a useful tool for identifying various wave modes, including kinetic Alfvén, fast magnetosonic/whistler, and ion-acoustic (or kinetic slow), and their possible roles in the dissipation. However, the kinetic mode structure in the vicinity of ion-cyclotron modes is not clearly understood. The present paper aims to further elucidate the structure of these low-frequency waves by introducing discrete particle effects through hybrid simulations and Klimontovich formalism of spontaneous emission theory. The theory and simulation of spontaneously emitted low-frequency fluctuations are employed to identify and distinguish the detailed mode structures associated with ion-Bernstein modes versus quasi-modes. The spontaneous emission theory and simulation also confirm the findings of the Vlasov theory in that the kinetic Alfvén waves can be defined over a wide range of frequencies, including the proton cyclotron frequency and its harmonics, especially for high-beta plasmas. This implies that these low-frequency modes may play predominant roles even in the fully kinetic description of kinetic scale turbulence and dissipation despite the fact that cyclotron harmonic and Bernstein modes may also play important roles in wave–particle interactions.
Classical and quantum temperature fluctuations via holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balatsky, Alexander V. [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gudnason, Sven Bjarke [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Thorlacius, Larus [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Zarembo, Konstantin [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Krikun, Alexander [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kedem, Yaron [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)
2014-05-27
We study local temperature fluctuations in a 2+1 dimensional CFT on the sphere, dual to a black hole in asymptotically AdS space-time. The fluctuation spectrum is governed by the lowest-lying hydrodynamic sound modes of the system whose frequency and damping rate determine whether temperature fluctuations are thermal or quantum. We calculate numerically the corresponding quasinormal frequencies and match the result with the hydrodynamics of the dual CFT at large temperature. As a by-product of our analysis we determine the appropriate boundary conditions for calculating low-lying quasinormal modes for a four-dimensional Reissner-Nordstrom black hole in global AdS.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vega, H.J. de; Sanchez, N.
2002-01-01
We complete our study of the self-gravitating gas by computing the fluctuations around the saddle point solution for the three statistical ensembles (grand canonical, canonical and microcanonical). Although the saddle point is the same for the three ensembles, the fluctuations change from one ensemble to the other. The zeroes of the small fluctuations determinant determine the position of the critical points for each ensemble. This yields the domains of validity of the mean field approach. Only the S-wave determinant exhibits critical points. Closed formulae for the S- and P-wave determinants of fluctuations are derived. The local properties of the self-gravitating gas in thermodynamic equilibrium are studied in detail. The pressure, energy density, particle density and speed of sound are computed and analyzed as functions of the position. The equation of state turns out to be locally p(r→ )=Tρ V (r→ ) as for the ideal gas. Starting from the partition function of the self-gravitating gas, we prove in this microscopic calculation that the hydrostatic description yielding locally the ideal gas equation of state is exact in the N=∞ limit. The dilute nature of the thermodynamic limit (N∼L→∞ with N/L fixed) together with the long range nature of the gravitational forces play a crucial role in obtaining such ideal gas equation. The self-gravitating gas being inhomogeneous, we have PV/[NT]=f(η)≤1 for any finite volume V. The inhomogeneous particle distribution in the ground state suggests a fractal distribution with Haussdorf dimension D, D is slowly decreasing with increasing density, 1< D<3. The average distance between particles is computed in Monte Carlo simulations and analytically in the mean field approach. A dramatic drop at the phase transition is exhibited, clearly illustrating the properties of the collapse
Gaussian fluctuation of the diffusion exponent of virus capsid in a living cell nucleus
Itto, Yuichi
2018-05-01
In their work [4], Bosse et al. experimentally showed that virus capsid exhibits not only normal diffusion but also anomalous diffusion in nucleus of a living cell. There, it was found that the distribution of fluctuations of the diffusion exponent characterizing them takes the Gaussian form, which is, quite remarkably, the same form for two different types of the virus. This suggests high robustness of such fluctuations. Here, the statistical property of local fluctuations of the diffusion exponent of the virus capsid in the nucleus is studied. A maximum-entropy-principle approach (originally proposed for a different virus in a different cell) is applied for obtaining the fluctuation distribution of the exponent. Largeness of the number of blocks identified with local areas of interchromatin corrals is also examined based on the experimental data. It is shown that the Gaussian distribution of the local fluctuations can be derived, in accordance with the above form. In addition, it is quantified how the fluctuation distribution on a long time scale is different from the Gaussian distribution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lammert, Heiko; Noel, Jeffrey K.; Haglund, Ellinor; Onuchic, José N.; Schug, Alexander
2015-01-01
The diversity in a set of protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures provides an estimate of native state fluctuations that can be used to refine and enrich structure-based protein models (SBMs). Dynamics are an essential part of a protein’s functional native state. The dynamics in the native state are controlled by the same funneled energy landscape that guides the entire folding process. SBMs apply the principle of minimal frustration, drawn from energy landscape theory, to construct a funneled folding landscape for a given protein using only information from the native structure. On an energy landscape smoothed by evolution towards minimal frustration, geometrical constraints, imposed by the native structure, control the folding mechanism and shape the native dynamics revealed by the model. Native-state fluctuations can alternatively be estimated directly from the diversity in the set of NMR structures for a protein. Based on this information, we identify a highly flexible loop in the ribosomal protein S6 and modify the contact map in a SBM to accommodate the inferred dynamics. By taking into account the probable native state dynamics, the experimental transition state is recovered in the model, and the correct order of folding events is restored. Our study highlights how the shared energy landscape connects folding and function by showing that a better description of the native basin improves the prediction of the folding mechanism
Fluctuation measurements by Langmuir probes during LHCD on ASDEX tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoeckel, J.
1991-01-01
The level of edge electrostatic fluctuations decreases and the global particle/energy confinement improves during lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) regimes on ASDEX, when the total power remains below the initial OH power level. For higher powers, the fluctuations increase noticeably, whereas the global confinement is returning to its OH value. The observed increase of fluctuations is poloidally asymmetric and is caused by local power deposition in front of the grill antenna. (orig.)
Structure, stabilité et fluctuations
Glansdorff, P
1971-01-01
Théorie générale : lois de conservation et bilans ; le second principe de la thermodynamique et le bilan entropique ; thermodynamique linéaire des phénomènes irréversibles ; théorie de la stabilité de l'équilibre thermodynamique par la méthode Gibbs-Duhem ; théorie générale de la stabilité de l'équilibre thermodynamique ; conditions de stabilité thermodynamique et hydrodynamique des syst¿mes hors d'équilibre ; forme explicite des conditions de stablité des processus hors d'équilibre ; stabilité et fluctuations ; le critère général d'évolution.
Global/local methods for probabilistic structural analysis
Millwater, H. R.; Wu, Y.-T.
1993-04-01
A probabilistic global/local method is proposed to reduce the computational requirements of probabilistic structural analysis. A coarser global model is used for most of the computations with a local more refined model used only at key probabilistic conditions. The global model is used to establish the cumulative distribution function (cdf) and the Most Probable Point (MPP). The local model then uses the predicted MPP to adjust the cdf value. The global/local method is used within the advanced mean value probabilistic algorithm. The local model can be more refined with respect to the g1obal model in terms of finer mesh, smaller time step, tighter tolerances, etc. and can be used with linear or nonlinear models. The basis for this approach is described in terms of the correlation between the global and local models which can be estimated from the global and local MPPs. A numerical example is presented using the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis program with the finite element method used for the structural modeling. The results clearly indicate a significant computer savings with minimal loss in accuracy.
Many-body localization from one particle density matrix
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bera, Soumya; Bardarson, Jens [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden (Germany); Schomerus, Henning [Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)
2016-07-01
We show that the one-particle density matrix ρ can be used to characterize the interaction-driven many-body localization transition in isolated fermionic systems. The natural orbitals (the eigenstates) are localized in the many-body localized phase and spread out when one enters the delocalized phase, while the occupation spectrum (the set of eigenvalues) reveals the distinctive Fock- space structure of the many-body eigenstates, exhibiting a step-like discontinuity in the localized phase. The associated one-particle occupation entropy is small in the localized phase and large in the delocalized phase, with diverging fluctuations at the transition.
Haar wavelets, fluctuations and structure functions: convenient choices for geophysics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Lovejoy
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Geophysical processes are typically variable over huge ranges of space-time scales. This has lead to the development of many techniques for decomposing series and fields into fluctuations Δv at well-defined scales. Classically, one defines fluctuations as differences: (Δv_{diff} = v(x+Δx-v(x and this is adequate for many applications (Δx is the "lag". However, if over a range one has scaling Δv ∝ Δx^{H}, these difference fluctuations are only adequate when 0 < H < 1. Hence, there is the need for other types of fluctuations. In particular, atmospheric processes in the "macroweather" range ≈10 days to 10–30 yr generally have −1 < H < 0, so that a definition valid over the range −1 < H < 1 would be very useful for atmospheric applications. A general framework for defining fluctuations is wavelets. However, the generality of wavelets often leads to fairly arbitrary choices of "mother wavelet" and the resulting wavelet coefficients may be difficult to interpret. In this paper we argue that a good choice is provided by the (historically first wavelet, the Haar wavelet (Haar, 1910, which is easy to interpret and – if needed – to generalize, yet has rarely been used in geophysics. It is also easy to implement numerically: the Haar fluctuation (Δv_{Haar} at lag Δx is simply equal to the difference of the mean from x to x+ Δx/2 and from x+Δx/2 to x+Δx. Indeed, we shall see that the interest of the Haar wavelet is this relation to the integrated process rather than its wavelet nature per se.
Using numerical multifractal simulations, we show that it is quite accurate, and we compare and contrast it with another similar technique, detrended fluctuation analysis. We find that, for estimating scaling exponents, the two methods are very similar, yet
Local product structure for expansive homeomorphisms
Artigue, Alfonso; Brum, Joaquin; Potrie, Rafael
2008-01-01
Let $f\\colon M\\to M$ be an expansive homeomorphism with dense topologically hyperbolic periodic points, $M$ a compact manifold. Then there is a local product structure in an open and dense subset of $M$. Moreover, if some topologically hyperbolic periodic point has codimension one, then this local product structure is uniform. In particular, we conclude that the homeomorphism is conjugated to a linear Anosov diffeomorphism of a torus.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Smith, D. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Stotler, D. P.; Zweben, S. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2015-05-15
In this study, the close physical proximity of the Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) and Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostics on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) is leveraged to directly compare fluctuation measurements, and to study the local effects of the GPI neutral deuterium puff during H-mode plasmas without large Edge Localized Modes. The GPI and BES views on NSTX provide partially overlapping coverage of the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions above the outboard midplane. The separation in the toroidal direction is 16°, and field lines passing through diagnostic views are separated by ∼20 cm in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. Strong cross-correlation is observed, and strong cross-coherence is seen for frequencies between 5 and 15 kHz. Also, probability distribution functions of fluctuations measured ∼3 cm inside the separatrix exhibit only minor deviations from a normal distribution for both diagnostics, and good agreement between correlation length estimates, decorrelation times, and structure velocities is found at the ±40% level. While the two instruments agree closely in many respects, some discrepancies are observed. Most notably, GPI normalized fluctuation levels exceed BES fluctuations by a factor of ∼9. BES mean intensity is found to be sensitive to the GPI neutral gas puff, and BES normalized fluctuation levels for frequencies between 1 and 10 kHz are observed to increase during the GPI puff.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T.; Smith, D.; Stotler, D. P.; Zweben, S. J.
2015-01-01
In this study, the close physical proximity of the Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) and Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostics on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) is leveraged to directly compare fluctuation measurements, and to study the local effects of the GPI neutral deuterium puff during H-mode plasmas without large Edge Localized Modes. The GPI and BES views on NSTX provide partially overlapping coverage of the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions above the outboard midplane. The separation in the toroidal direction is 16°, and field lines passing through diagnostic views are separated by ∼20 cm in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. Strong cross-correlation is observed, and strong cross-coherence is seen for frequencies between 5 and 15 kHz. Also, probability distribution functions of fluctuations measured ∼3 cm inside the separatrix exhibit only minor deviations from a normal distribution for both diagnostics, and good agreement between correlation length estimates, decorrelation times, and structure velocities is found at the ±40% level. While the two instruments agree closely in many respects, some discrepancies are observed. Most notably, GPI normalized fluctuation levels exceed BES fluctuations by a factor of ∼9. BES mean intensity is found to be sensitive to the GPI neutral gas puff, and BES normalized fluctuation levels for frequencies between 1 and 10 kHz are observed to increase during the GPI puff
Pressure fluctuations induced by fluid flow in singular points of industrial circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibert, R.J.; Villard, B.
1977-01-01
Flow singularities (enlargements, bards, valves, tees,...) generate in the circuits of industrial plants wall pressure fluctuations which are the main cause of vibration. Two types of pressure fluctuations can be considered. - 'Local ' fluctuations: They are associated to the unsteadiness downstream from the singularity. These fluctuations may be characterized by frequency spectra, correlation length and phase lags. These parameters are used to calculate forces on the walls of the circuit. - 'Acoustic' fluctuations: The singularity acts as an acoustical source; its frequency spectrum and the acoustical transfer function of the circuit are needed to evaluate the acoustical level at any point. A methodical study of the most current singularities has been performed at C.E.A./D.E.M.T.: - On one hand a theory of noise generation by unsteady flow in internal acoustics has been developed. This theory uses the basic idea initiated by LIGHTILL. As a result it is shown that the plane wave propagation is a valid assumption and that a singularity can be acoustically modelled by a pressure and a mass-flow-rate discontinuities. Both are random functions of time, the spectra of which are determined from the local fluctuations characteristics. - On the other hand, characteristics of several singularities have been measured: (i) Intercorrelation spectra of local pressure fluctuations. (ii) Autocorrelation spectra of associated acoustical sources (the measure of the acoustical pressures in the experimental circuit are interpreted by using the D.E.M.T. computer code VIBRAPHONE which gives the acoustical response of a complex circuit). (Auth.)
A new analysing approach for the structure of density fluctuation of supercritical fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, T; Sugiyama, M; Itoh, K; Mori, K; Fukunaga, T; Misawa, M; Otomo, T; Takata, S
2008-01-01
Large scale structural evolution of supercritical carbon dioxide along the isotherm at 32 deg. C was investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The maximum of the density fluctuation, the so-called 'ridge', was confirmed with Ornstein-Zernike analysis. To investigate the structural change in more detail, the molecular distribution over a large domain was determined with a newly developed reverse Monte Carlo method. From the molecular distribution obtained, the pair distribution function and cluster-size distribution can be calculated. With increasing density of carbon dioxide, the cluster size increases monotonically, whereas the pair distribution function for the range of sizes shorter than 10 A shows a monotonic decrease. From this result, it is suggested that the structural change along the isotherm is caused by the change of balance between growth of clusters and increase of the average density
Fluctuations in the multiparticle dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bozek, P.; Ploszajczak, M.
1993-01-01
The appearance and properties of intermittent fluctuations in physical systems, in particular the formation of rare structures in transport phenomena are discussed. The distribution of fluctuations approaches a limiting log-normal statistical distribution. The log-normal distribution is introduced as a simple parametrization of the energy fluctuations leading to the subthreshold production of particles in nuclear collisions, and it is shown that it fits all available data both for total π 0 production cross section as well as the π 0 kinetic energy spectra for E/A < 90 MeV. It is suggested that the same universal distribution should also describe the subthreshold production of other hadrons like η and K. (author) 36 refs., 11 figs
Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation
Guazzelli, Élisabeth
2011-01-21
This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations of the velocities of spheres to increase with the size of the container, whereas experiments found no such variation. Two ideas have increased our understanding. First, the correlation length of the velocity fluctuations was found experimentally to be 20 interparticle separations. Second, in dilute suspensions, a vertical variation in the concentration due to the spreading of the front with the clear fluid can inhibit the velocity fluctuations. In a very dilute regime, a homogeneous suspension of fibers suffers a spontaneous instability in which fast descending fiber-rich columns are separated by rising fiber-sparse columns. In a semidilute regime, the settling is hindered, more so than for spheres. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Charge Fluctuations in the NdO1-xFxBiS2 Superconductors
Athauda, Anushika; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu; Nagao, Masanori; Neuefeind, Joerg; Louca, Despina
2017-12-01
The local atomic structure of superconducting NdO1-xFxBiS2 (x = 0.2 and 0.4) is investigated using neutron diffraction and the pair density function analysis technique. In the non-superconducting x = 0.2 composition, ferrodistortive displacements of the pyramidal sulfur ions break the tetragonal symmetry and a superlattice structure emerges with peaks appearing at h + k odd reflections superimposed on the even reflections of the P4/nmm symmetry. In the superconducting x = 0.4 composition, similar ferrodistortive displacements are observed but with different magnitudes coupled with in-plane Bi distortions which are indicative of charge fluctuations.
Particle transport due to magnetic fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoneking, M.R.; Hokin, S.A.; Prager, S.C.; Fiksel, G.; Ji, H.; Den Hartog, D.J.
1994-01-01
Electron current fluctuations are measured with an electrostatic energy analyzer at the edge of the MST reversed-field pinch plasma. The radial flux of fast electrons (E>T e ) due to parallel streaming along a fluctuating magnetic field is determined locally by measuring the correlated product e B r >. Particle transport is small just inside the last closed flux surface (Γ e,mag e,total ), but can account for all observed particle losses inside r/a=0.8. Electron diffusion is found to increase with parallel velocity, as expected for diffusion in a region of field stochasticity
Liu, W. L.; Dong, F.
2016-01-01
Understanding of flow patterns and their transitions is significant to uncover the flow mechanics of two-phase flow. The local phase distribution and its fluctuations contain rich information regarding the flow structures. A wire-mesh sensor (WMS) was used to study the local phase fluctuations of horizontal gas–liquid two-phase flow, which was verified through comparing the reconstructed three-dimensional flow structure with photographs taken during the experiments. Each crossing point of the WMS is treated as a node, so the measurement on each node is the phase fraction in this local area. An undirected and unweighted flow pattern network was established based on connections that are formed by cross-correlating the time series of each node under different flow patterns. The structure of the flow pattern network reveals the relationship of the phase fluctuations at each node during flow pattern transition, which is then quantified by introducing the topological index of the complex network. The proposed analysis method using the WMS not only provides three-dimensional visualizations of the gas–liquid two-phase flow, but is also a thorough analysis for the structure of flow patterns and the characteristics of flow pattern transition. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Supersensing through industrial process tomography’. PMID:27185959
Tan, C; Liu, W L; Dong, F
2016-06-28
Understanding of flow patterns and their transitions is significant to uncover the flow mechanics of two-phase flow. The local phase distribution and its fluctuations contain rich information regarding the flow structures. A wire-mesh sensor (WMS) was used to study the local phase fluctuations of horizontal gas-liquid two-phase flow, which was verified through comparing the reconstructed three-dimensional flow structure with photographs taken during the experiments. Each crossing point of the WMS is treated as a node, so the measurement on each node is the phase fraction in this local area. An undirected and unweighted flow pattern network was established based on connections that are formed by cross-correlating the time series of each node under different flow patterns. The structure of the flow pattern network reveals the relationship of the phase fluctuations at each node during flow pattern transition, which is then quantified by introducing the topological index of the complex network. The proposed analysis method using the WMS not only provides three-dimensional visualizations of the gas-liquid two-phase flow, but is also a thorough analysis for the structure of flow patterns and the characteristics of flow pattern transition. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. © 2016 The Author(s).
Stress-induced electric current fluctuations in rocks: a superstatistical model
Cartwright-Taylor, Alexis; Vallianatos, Filippos; Sammonds, Peter
2017-04-01
We recorded spontaneous electric current flow in non-piezoelectric Carrara marble samples during triaxial deformation. Mechanical data, ultrasonic velocities and acoustic emissions were acquired simultaneously with electric current to constrain the relationship between electric current flow, differential stress and damage. Under strain-controlled loading, spontaneous electric current signals (nA) were generated and sustained under all conditions tested. In dry samples, a detectable electric current arises only during dilatancy and the overall signal is correlated with the damage induced by microcracking. Our results show that fracture plays a key role in the generation of electric currents in deforming rocks (Cartwright-Taylor et al., in prep). We also analysed the high-frequency fluctuations of these electric current signals and found that they are not normally distributed - they exhibit power-law tails (Cartwright-Taylor et al., 2014). We modelled these distributions with q-Gaussian statistics, derived by maximising the Tsallis entropy. This definition of entropy is particularly applicable to systems which are strongly correlated and far from equilibrium. Good agreement, at all experimental conditions, between the distributions of electric current fluctuations and the q-Gaussian function with q-values far from one, illustrates the highly correlated, fractal nature of the electric source network within the samples and provides further evidence that the source of the electric signals is the developing fractal network of cracks. It has been shown (Beck, 2001) that q-Gaussian distributions can arise from the superposition of local relaxations in the presence of a slowly varying driving force, thus providing a dynamic reason for the appearance of Tsallis statistics in systems with a fluctuating energy dissipation rate. So, the probability distribution for a dynamic variable, u under some external slow forcing, β, can be obtained as a superposition of temporary local
Space potential fluctuations during MHD activities in the Compact Helical System (CHS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iguchi, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Crowley, T.P.
1998-02-01
Local space potential fluctuations have been measured during MHD activities in a low-beta NBI heated plasma in the Compact Helical System (CHS) by the use of a heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). Two types of MHD modes with accompanying potential oscillations are observed. One appears in periodic bursts with relatively low frequency (< 40 kHz) and large amplitude (20-40 volts), and is localized around the q=2 surface (average minor radius ρ ∼ 0.7). The other appears in continuous and coherent oscillation with higher frequency (105-125 kHz) and smaller amplitude (∼5 volts). This oscillation also has spatial structure. Possible interpretation for the space potential oscillations is presented. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raievski, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1958-07-01
The theory of the statistical fluctuations in a pile is extended to the space dependent case, and gives the fluctuations of the number of neutrons in a cell of the core or reflector of the pile. This number changes through elementary processes occurring at random, which are, capture, source, fission and scattering. Of all these processes, fission is the only one which changes more than one neutron at a time and so is responsible of the deviation of the fluctuations from a Poisson law. The importance of this deviation depends on the dimensions of the cell compared to the slowing down length. When the dimensions are small, the fluctuations close to a Poisson law. (author) [French] La theorie des fluctuations statistiques est etendue au cas local et donne les fluctuations du nombre de neutrons dans une cellule situee dans le coeur ou le reflecteur de la pile. Ce nombre evolue au cours du temps sous l'influence de phenomenes aleatoires qui sont la capture, la diffusion, les sources et les neutrons secondaires de fission. L'emission simultanee de plusieurs neutrons distingue ce phenomene des precedents qui n'affectent qu'un neutron individuellement. L'importance de ce phenomene sur la loi de fluctuation depend des dimensions de la cellule par rapport a la longueur de ralentissement. Quand ces dimensions sont petites, le caractere particulier de ce phenomene disparait. (auteur)
Trglavcnik, Victoria; Morrow, Dean; Weber, Kela P.; Li, Ling; Robinson, Clare E.
2018-04-01
Analysis of water table fluctuations can provide important insight into the hydraulic properties and structure of a coastal aquifer system including the connectivity between the aquifer and ocean. This study presents an improved approach for characterizing a permeable heterogeneous coastal aquifer system through analysis of the propagation of the tidal signal, as well as offshore storm pulse signals through a coastal aquifer. Offshore storms produce high wave activity, but are not necessarily linked to significant onshore precipitation. In this study, we focused on offshore storm events during which no onshore precipitation occurred. Extensive groundwater level data collected on a sand barrier island (Sable Island, NS, Canada) show nonuniform discontinuous propagation of the tide and offshore storm pulse signals through the aquifer with isolated inland areas showing enhanced response to both oceanic forcing signals. Propagation analysis suggests that isolated inland water table fluctuations may be caused by localized leakage from a confined aquifer that is connected to the ocean offshore but within the wave setup zone. Two-dimensional groundwater flow simulations were conducted to test the leaky confined-unconfined aquifer conceptualization and to identify the effect of key parameters on tidal signal propagation in leaky confined-unconfined coastal aquifers. This study illustrates that analysis of offshore storm signal propagation, in addition to tidal signal propagation, provides a valuable and low resource approach for large-scale characterization of permeable heterogeneous coastal aquifers. Such an approach is needed for the effective management of coastal environments where water resources are threatened by human activities and the changing climate.
PDF analysis of PuAl alloys local structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Platteau, C. [CEA Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)], E-mail: platteau.cyril@yahoo.fr; Bruckel, P.; Ravat, B.; Delaunay, F. [CEA Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)
2009-03-15
For understanding singular properties of plutonium, there is a need in studying the average and local atomic structure in Pu alloys. To study the local structure of the {delta} phase, a pair distribution function (PDF) analysis was done and has shown some significant differences with the average structure.
Measuring past glacier fluctuations from historic photographs geolocated using Structure from Motion
Vargo, L.; Anderson, B.; Horgan, H. J.; Mackintosh, A.; Lorrey, A.; Thornton, M.
2017-12-01
Quantifying glacier fluctuations is important for understanding how the cryosphere responds to climate variability and change. Photographs of past ice extents have become iconic images of climate change, but until now incorporating these images into quantitative estimates of glacier change has been problematic. We present a new method to quantitatively measure past glacier fluctuations from historic images. The method uses a large set of modern geolocated photographs and Structure from Motion (SfM) to calculate the camera parameters for the historic images, including the location from which they were taken. We initially apply this method to a small maritime New Zealand glacier (Brewster Glacier, 44°S, 2 km2), and quantify annual equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) and length changes from historic oblique aerial photographs (1981 - 2017). Results show that Brewster has retreated 364 ± 12 m since 1981 and, using independent field measurements of terminus positions (2005 - 2014), we show that this SfM-derived length record accurately captures glacier change. We calculate the uncertainties associated with this method using known coordinates of bedrock features surrounding the glacier. Mean uncertainties in the ELA and length records are 7 m and 11 m, respectively. In addition to Brewster, 49 other New Zealand glaciers have been monitored by aerial photographs since 1978. However, the length records for these glaciers only include years of relative advance or retreat, and no length changes have been quantified. We will ultimately apply this method to all 50 glaciers, expanding the database of New Zealand glacier fluctuations that until now included only a few glaciers. This method can be further applied to any glacier with historic images, and can be used to measure past changes in glacier width, area, and surface elevation in addition to ELA and length.
Local atomic structure of α-Pu
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espinosa, F. J.; Villella, P.; Lashley, J. C.; Conradson, S. D.; Cox, L. E.; Martinez, R.; Martinez, B.; Morales, L.; Terry, J.; Pereyra, R. A.
2001-01-01
The local atomic structure of α-Pu was investigated using x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. XAFS spectra were obtained for a zone-refined α-Pu and the results were compared to 32-year-old and Ce-doped (0.34 at.%) samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were also measured for the zone-refined and 32-year-old materials. The extent of the Bragg peaks showed that amorphization of the 32-year-old sample had not occurred despite the prolonged exposure to self-radiation. Analogous to metastable δ-Pu alloys, the local atomic structure around Pu for the zone-refined material shows the possible presence of noncrystallographic Pu-Pu distances. Conversely, the Ce and the 32-year-old sample show no evidence for such noncrystallographic distances. Disorder in the Pu local environment was found to be impurity dependent. The Ce-doped sample presented a larger Pu-Pu nearest neighbor disorder than the aged sample, although the total amount of Am, U, and He impurities was actually higher in the aged sample. The local environment around U and Ce impurities is consistent with these elements being in substitutional lattice sites. In addition, U and Ce do not introduce significant lattice distortion to their nearest neighbors. This is consistent with disorder being more related to the perturbation of the coupling between the electronic and crystal structure, or the Peierls--Jahn-Teller distortion that generates the monoclinic α-Pu structure, and less to strain fields produced in the vicinity of the impurities
Ding, Jun
Metallic glasses (MGs), discovered five decades ago as a newcomer in the family of glasses, are of current interest because of their unique structures and properties. There are also many fundamental materials science issues that remain unresolved for metallic glasses, as well as their predecessor above glass transition temperature, the supercooled liquids. In particular, it is a major challenge to characterize the local structure and unveil the structure-property relationship for these amorphous materials. This thesis presents a systematic study of the local structure of metallic glasses as well as supercooled liquids via classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Three typical MG models are chosen as representative candidate, Cu64 Zr36, Pd82Si18 and Mg65Cu 25Y10 systems, while the former is dominant with full icosahedra short-range order and the prism-type short-range order dominate for latter two. Furthermore, we move to unravel the underlying structural signature among several properties in metallic glasses. Firstly, the temperature dependence of specific heat and liquid fragility between Cu-Zr and Mg-Cu-Y (also Pd-Si) in supercooled liquids are quite distinct: gradual versus fast evolution of specific heat and viscosity/relaxation time with undercooling. Their local structural ordering are found to relate with the temperature dependence of specific heat and relaxation time. Then elastic heterogeneity has been studied to correlate with local structure in Cu-Zr MGs. Specifically, this part covers how the degree of elastic deformation correlates with the internal structure at the atomic level, how to quantitatively evaluate the local solidity/liquidity in MGs and how the network of interpenetrating connection of icosahedra determine the corresponding shear modulus. Finally, we have illustrated the structure signature of quasi-localized low-frequency vibrational normal modes, which resides the intriguing vibrational properties in MGs. Specifically, the
Small-scale structure and 21cm fluctuations by primordial black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Kitajima, Naoya, E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@apctp.org, E-mail: kitajima.naoya@f.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-08-01
We discuss early structure formation of small scales sourced by primordial black holes (PBHs) which constitute a small part of present cold dark matter component. We calculate the mass function and power spectrum of haloes originated from the Poisson fluctuations of PBH number and show that the number of small haloes is significantly modified in the presence of PBHs even if their fraction accounts for only 10{sup −4}–10{sup −3} of total dark matter abundance. We then compute the subsequent 21cm signature from those haloes. We find that PBHs can provide major contributions at high redshifts within the detectability of future experiments such as Square Kilometer Array, and provide a forecast constraint on the PBH fraction.
Zhang, Lifang; Meng, Junling; Liu, Xiaojuan; Yao, Fen; Meng, Jian; Zhang, Hongjie
2017-07-01
Among the iron-based superconductors, the 1111-type Fe-As-based superconductors REFeAs O1 -xFx (RE = rare earth) exhibit high transition temperatures (Tc) above 40 K. We perform first-principles calculations based on density functional theory with the consideration of both electronic correlations and spin-orbit couplings on rare earths and Fe ions to study the underlying mechanism as the microscopic structural distortions in REFeAsO tuned by both lanthanide contraction and external strain. The electronic structures evolve similarly in both cases. It is found that there exist an optimal structural regime that will not only initialize but also optimize the orbital fluctuations due to the competing Fe-As and Fe-Fe crystal fields. We also find that the key structural features in REFeAsO, such as As-Fe-As bond angle, intrinsically induce the modification of the Fermi surface and dynamic spin fluctuation. These results suggest that the superconductivity is mediated by antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations. Simultaneously, we show that the rare-earth 4 f electrons play important roles on the high transition temperature whose behavior might be analogous to that of the heavy-fermion superconductors. The superconductivity of these 1111-type iron-based superconductors with high-Tc is considered to originate from the synergistic effects of local structures and 4 f electrons.
Enhancing community detection by using local structural information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiang, Ju; Bao, Mei-Hua; Tang, Liang; Li, Jian-Ming; Hu, Ke; Chen, Benyan; Hu, Jing-Bo; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Yan-Ni; Gao, Yuan-Yuan
2016-01-01
Many real-world networks, such as gene networks, protein–protein interaction networks and metabolic networks, exhibit community structures, meaning the existence of groups of densely connected vertices in the networks. Many local similarity measures in the networks are closely related to the concept of the community structures, and may have a positive effect on community detection in the networks. Here, various local similarity measures are used to extract local structural information, which is then applied to community detection in the networks by using the edge-reweighting strategy. The effect of the local similarity measures on community detection is carefully investigated and compared in various networks. The experimental results show that the local similarity measures are crucial for the improvement of community detection methods, while the positive effect of the local similarity measures is closely related to the networks under study and applied community detection methods. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics)
Large-scale fluctuations in the diffusive decomposition of solid solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karpov, V.G.; Grimsditch, M.
1995-01-01
The concept of an instability in the classic Ostwald ripening theory with respect to compositional fluctuations is suggested. We show that small statistical fluctuations in the precipitate phase lead to gigantic Coulomb-like fluctuations in the solute concentration which in turn affect the ripening. As a result large-scale fluctuations in both the precipitate and solute concentrations appear. These fluctuations are characterized by amplitudes of the order of the average values of the corresponding quantities and by a space scale L∼(na) -1/2 which is considerably greater than both the average nuclear radius and internuclear distance. The Lifshitz-Slyozov theory of ripening is shown to remain locally applicable, over length scales much less than L. The implications of these findings for elastic light scattering in solid solutions that have undergone Ostwald ripening are considered
Large-scale fluctuations in the diffusive decomposition of solid solutions
Karpov, V. G.; Grimsditch, M.
1995-04-01
The concept of an instability in the classic Ostwald ripening theory with respect to compositional fluctuations is suggested. We show that small statistical fluctuations in the precipitate phase lead to gigantic Coulomb-like fluctuations in the solute concentration which in turn affect the ripening. As a result large-scale fluctuations in both the precipitate and solute concentrations appear. These fluctuations are characterized by amplitudes of the order of the average values of the corresponding quantities and by a space scale L~(na)-1/2 which is considerably greater than both the average nuclear radius and internuclear distance. The Lifshitz-Slyozov theory of ripening is shown to remain locally applicable, over length scales much less than L. The implications of these findings for elastic light scattering in solid solutions that have undergone Ostwald ripening are considered.
Carollo, Federico; Garrahan, Juan P; Lesanovsky, Igor; Pérez-Espigares, Carlos
2017-11-01
We consider a class of either fermionic or bosonic noninteracting open quantum chains driven by dissipative interactions at the boundaries and study the interplay of coherent transport and dissipative processes, such as bulk dephasing and diffusion. Starting from the microscopic formulation, we show that the dynamics on large scales can be described in terms of fluctuating hydrodynamics. This is an important simplification as it allows us to apply the methods of macroscopic fluctuation theory to compute the large deviation (LD) statistics of time-integrated currents. In particular, this permits us to show that fermionic open chains display a third-order dynamical phase transition in LD functions. We show that this transition is manifested in a singular change in the structure of trajectories: while typical trajectories are diffusive, rare trajectories associated with atypical currents are ballistic and hyperuniform in their spatial structure. We confirm these results by numerically simulating ensembles of rare trajectories via the cloning method, and by exact numerical diagonalization of the microscopic quantum generator.
Giménez, Mònica; Guinea-Izquierdo, Andrés; Villalta-Gil, Victoria; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Segalàs, Cinto; Subirà, Marta; Real, Eva; Pujol, Jesús; Harrison, Ben J; Haro, Josep Maria; Sato, Joao R; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Cardoner, Narcís; Alonso, Pino; Menchón, José Manuel; Soriano-Mas, Carles
2017-12-01
The extent of functional abnormalities in frontal-subcortical circuits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is still unclear. Although neuroimaging studies, in general, and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI), in particular, have provided relevant information regarding such alterations, rs-fMRI studies have been typically limited to the analysis of between-region functional connectivity alterations at low-frequency signal fluctuations (i.e., <0.08 Hz). Conversely, the local attributes of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signal across different frequency bands have been seldom studied, although they may provide valuable information. Here, we evaluated local alterations in low-frequency fluctuations across different oscillation bands in OCD. Sixty-five OCD patients and 50 healthy controls underwent an rs-fMRI assessment. Alterations in the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) were evaluated, voxel-wise, across four different bands (from 0.01 Hz to 0.25 Hz). OCD patients showed decreased fALFF values in medial orbitofrontal regions and increased fALFF values in the dorsal-medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) at frequency bands <0.08 Hz. This pattern was reversed at higher frequencies, where increased fALFF values also appeared in medial temporal lobe structures and medial thalamus. Clinical variables (i.e., symptom-specific severities) were associated with fALFF values across the different frequency bands. Our findings provide novel evidence about the nature and regional distribution of functional alterations in OCD, which should contribute to refine neurobiological models of the disorder. We suggest that the evaluation of the local attributes of BOLD signal across different frequency bands may be a sensitive approach to further characterize brain functional alterations in psychiatric disorders.
Effect of spin fluctuations on the electronic structure in iron-based superconductors
Heimes, Andreas; Grein, Roland; Eschrig, Matthias
2012-08-01
Magnetic inelastic neutron scattering studies of iron-based superconductors reveal a strongly temperature-dependent spin-fluctuation spectrum in the normal conducting state, which develops a prominent low-energy resonance feature when entering the superconducting state. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) allow us to study the fingerprints of fluctuation modes via their interactions with electronic quasiparticles. We calculate such fingerprints in 122 iron pnictides using an experimentally motivated spin-fluctuation spectrum and make a number of predictions that can be tested in ARPES and STS experiments. This includes discussions of the quasiparticle scattering rate and the superconducting order parameter. In quantitative agreement with experiment we reproduce the quasiparticle dispersions obtained from momentum distribution curves as well as energy distribution curves. We discuss the relevance of the coupling between spin fluctuations and electronic excitations for the superconducting mechanism.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Timofeev, V.B.; Larionov, A.V.; Ioselevich, A.S.
1999-01-01
The interwell luminescence (PL) of spatially separated e-h pairs exhibits systematic narrowing with temperature increase which are explained in terms of lateral thermo-activated tunneling of e-h pairs localized by random potential fluctuations (RPF). At critical temperatures the quasi-equilibrium......The interwell luminescence (PL) of spatially separated e-h pairs exhibits systematic narrowing with temperature increase which are explained in terms of lateral thermo-activated tunneling of e-h pairs localized by random potential fluctuations (RPF). At critical temperatures the quasi......-equilibrium of carriers, undergoes an abrupt transition. This occurs with significant redistribution of the electrical field inside the structure and give rise to a low frequency noice appearing in the luminescence. Below critical temperature the new steady state results in the accumulation of 2DEG in one of the well....
Quantum critical scaling and fluctuations in Kondo lattice materials
Yang, Yi-feng; Pines, David; Lonzarich, Gilbert
2017-01-01
We propose a phenomenological framework for three classes of Kondo lattice materials that incorporates the interplay between the fluctuations associated with the antiferromagnetic quantum critical point and those produced by the hybridization quantum critical point that marks the end of local moment behavior. We show that these fluctuations give rise to two distinct regions of quantum critical scaling: Hybridization fluctuations are responsible for the logarithmic scaling in the density of states of the heavy electron Kondo liquid that emerges below the coherence temperature T∗, whereas the unconventional power law scaling in the resistivity that emerges at lower temperatures below TQC may reflect the combined effects of hybridization and antiferromagnetic quantum critical fluctuations. Our framework is supported by experimental measurements on CeCoIn5, CeRhIn5, and other heavy electron materials. PMID:28559308
Automated Localization of Multiple Pelvic Bone Structures on MRI.
Onal, Sinan; Lai-Yuen, Susana; Bao, Paul; Weitzenfeld, Alfredo; Hart, Stuart
2016-01-01
In this paper, we present a fully automated localization method for multiple pelvic bone structures on magnetic resonance images (MRI). Pelvic bone structures are at present identified manually on MRI to locate reference points for measurement and evaluation of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Given that this is a time-consuming and subjective procedure, there is a need to localize pelvic bone structures automatically. However, bone structures are not easily differentiable from soft tissue on MRI as their pixel intensities tend to be very similar. In this paper, we present a model that combines support vector machines and nonlinear regression capturing global and local information to automatically identify the bounding boxes of bone structures on MRI. The model identifies the location of the pelvic bone structures by establishing the association between their relative locations and using local information such as texture features. Results show that the proposed method is able to locate the bone structures of interest accurately (dice similarity index >0.75) in 87-91% of the images. This research aims to enable accurate, consistent, and fully automated localization of bone structures on MRI to facilitate and improve the diagnosis of health conditions such as female POP.
Local conservation laws and the structure of the many-body localized states.
Serbyn, Maksym; Papić, Z; Abanin, Dmitry A
2013-09-20
We construct a complete set of local integrals of motion that characterize the many-body localized (MBL) phase. Our approach relies on the assumption that local perturbations act locally on the eigenstates in the MBL phase, which is supported by numerical simulations of the random-field XXZ spin chain. We describe the structure of the eigenstates in the MBL phase and discuss the implications of local conservation laws for its nonequilibrium quantum dynamics. We argue that the many-body localization can be used to protect coherence in the system by suppressing relaxation between eigenstates with different local integrals of motion.
Temporal structure of aggregate power fluctuations in large-eddy simulations of extended wind-farms
Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Meneveau, Charles
2014-01-01
Fluctuations represent a major challenge for the incorporation of electric power from large wind-farms into power grids. Wind-farm power output fluctuates strongly in time, over various time scales. Understanding these fluctuations, especially their spatio-temporal characteristics, is particularly
Probing non-thermal density fluctuations in the one-dimensional Bose gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacopo De Nardis, Miłosz Panfil, Andrea Gambassi, Leticia F. Cugliandolo, Robert Konik, Laura Foini
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Quantum integrable models display a rich variety of non-thermal excited states with unusual properties. The most common way to probe them is by performing a quantum quench, i.e., by letting a many-body initial state unitarily evolve with an integrable Hamiltonian. At late times, these systems are locally described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble with as many effective temperatures as their local conserved quantities. The experimental measurement of this macroscopic number of temperatures remains elusive. Here we show that they can be obtained by probing the dynamical structure factor of the system after the quench and by employing a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem that we provide. Our procedure allows us to completely reconstruct the stationary state of a quantum integrable system from state-of-the-art experimental observations.
1/ f noise from the laws of thermodynamics for finite-size fluctuations.
Chamberlin, Ralph V; Nasir, Derek M
2014-07-01
Computer simulations of the Ising model exhibit white noise if thermal fluctuations are governed by Boltzmann's factor alone; whereas we find that the same model exhibits 1/f noise if Boltzmann's factor is extended to include local alignment entropy to all orders. We show that this nonlinear correction maintains maximum entropy during equilibrium fluctuations. Indeed, as with the usual way to resolve Gibbs' paradox that avoids entropy reduction during reversible processes, the correction yields the statistics of indistinguishable particles. The correction also ensures conservation of energy if an instantaneous contribution from local entropy is included. Thus, a common mechanism for 1/f noise comes from assuming that finite-size fluctuations strictly obey the laws of thermodynamics, even in small parts of a large system. Empirical evidence for the model comes from its ability to match the measured temperature dependence of the spectral-density exponents in several metals and to show non-Gaussian fluctuations characteristic of nanoscale systems.
Mössbauer spectroscopy study of magnetic fluctuations in superconducting RbGd2Fe4As4O2
Li, Y.; Wang, Z. C.; Cao, G. H.; Zhang, J. M.; Zhang, B.; Wang, T.; Pang, H.; Li, F. S.; Li, Z. W.
2018-05-01
57Fe Mössbauer spectra were measured at different temperatures between 5.9 K and 300 K on the recently discovered self-doped superconducting RbGd2Fe4As4O2 with Tc as high as 35 K. Singlet pattern was observed down to the lowest temperature measured in this work, indicating the absence of static magnetic order on the Fe site. The intermediate isomer shift in comparison with that of the samples RbFe2As2 and GdFeAsO confirms the self doping induced local electronic structure change. Surprisingly, we observe two magnetic fluctuation induced spectral broadenings below ∼ 15 K and ∼ 100 K which are believed to be originated from the transferred magnetic fluctuations of the Gd3+ moments and that of the magnetic fluctuations of the Fe atoms, respectively.
PROCESS FEATURES OF FLUCTUATIONS PROPAGATION AT STRESS-STRAIN WORK OF THE RAILWAY TRACK
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. O. Bondarenko
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Scientific work aims at the determination the basic laws of fluctuations propagation process from exitation of rolling stock in the design system of permanent way and substructures of the railway lines for studing the deformation processes as the basis for a regulatory framework of the track operation in the conditions of ensuring the reliability of railways. Methodology. To achieve the aim the principles of elasticity theories and wave propagation process in describing the interaction track and rolling stock were applied. Findings. The kinds of fluctuations and system which should be used when considering the fluctuations in the deformation process of rail track were established. The general view of the displacement function was determined. Originality. The theoretical concepts and principles to consider fluctuations of a structures system of permanent way and substructures of the railway track, energised by rolling stock were grounded. This will allow studing the process of deformation work of the mentioned system, which changes its state. That in turn will allow us to determine the parameters of the trains functional reliability, as part of the security passes of rolling stock on the track section with regard to its technical condition. Practical value. Usually for safe crossing of rolling stock parameters of fluctuation process in the system «vehicle-track» are determined. Existing models or carefully consider fluctuations of rolling stock in generalized characteristics of the structures of permanent way and substructures of the railway tracks or view of quasi-dynamic fluctuations rails with general characteristics of under rail base. This review process of oscillations, energised by rolling stock and delivered to all the elements of the permanent way and substructures of the railway track do not allow determining both the reliability parameters of elements in the system of track construction and parameters of functional
Stress and strain fluctuations in plastic deformation of crystals with disordered microstructure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapetanou, O; Zaiser, M; Weygand, D
2015-01-01
We investigate the spatial structure of stress and strain patterns in crystal plasticity. To this end, we combine theoretical arguments with plasticity simulations using three different models: (i) a generic model of bulk crystal plasticity with stochastic evolution of the local microstructure, (ii) a 2D discrete dislocation simulation assuming single-slip deformation in a bulk crystal, and (iii) a 3D discrete dislocation model for deformation of micropillars in multiple slip. For all three models we investigate the scale-dependent magnitude of local fluctuations of internal stress and plastic strain, and we determine the spatial structure of the respective auto- and cross-correlation functions. The investigations show that, in the course of deformation, nontrivial long range correlations emerge in the stress and strain patterns. We investigate the influence of boundary conditions on the observed spatial patterns of stress and strain, and discuss implications of our findings for larger-scale plasticity models. (paper)
Properties of Asymmetric Detrended Fluctuation Analysis in the time series of RR intervals
Piskorski, J.; Kosmider, M.; Mieszkowski, D.; Krauze, T.; Wykretowicz, A.; Guzik, P.
2018-02-01
Heart rate asymmetry is a phenomenon by which the accelerations and decelerations of heart rate behave differently, and this difference is consistent and unidirectional, i.e. in most of the analyzed recordings the inequalities have the same directions. So far, it has been established for variance and runs based types of descriptors of RR intervals time series. In this paper we apply the newly developed method of Asymmetric Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, which so far has mainly been used with economic time series, to the set of 420 stationary 30 min time series of RR intervals from young, healthy individuals aged between 20 and 40. This asymmetric approach introduces separate scaling exponents for rising and falling trends. We systematically study the presence of asymmetry in both global and local versions of this method. In this study global means "applying to the whole time series" and local means "applying to windows jumping along the recording". It is found that the correlation structure of the fluctuations left over after detrending in physiological time series shows strong asymmetric features in both magnitude, with α+ physiological data after shuffling or with a group of symmetric synthetic time series.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchner, Abel-John; Kitsios, Vassili; Atkinson, Callum; Soria, Julio; Lozano-Durán, Adrián
2016-01-01
Previous works have shown that momentum transfer in the wall–normal direction within turbulent wall–bounded flows occurs primarily within coherent structures defined by regions of intense Reynolds stress [1]. Such structures may be classified into wall–attached and wall–detached structures with the latter being typically weak, small–scale, and isotropically oriented, while the former are larger and carry most of the Reynolds stresses. The mean velocity fluctuation within each structure may also be used to separate structures by their dynamic properties. This study aims to extract information regarding the scales, kinematics and dynamics of these structures within the topological framework of the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor (VGT). The local topological characteristics of these intense Reynolds stress structures are compared to the topological characteristics of vortex clusters defined by the discriminant of the velocity gradient tensor. The alignment of vorticity with the principal strain directions within these structures is also determined, and the implications of these findings are discussed. (paper)
Energy transfer between two vacuum-gapped metal plates: Coulomb fluctuations and electron tunneling
Zhang, Zu-Quan; Lü, Jing-Tao; Wang, Jian-Sheng
2018-05-01
Recent experimental measurements for near-field radiative heat transfer between two bodies have been able to approach the gap distance within 2 nm , where the contributions of Coulomb fluctuation and electron tunneling are comparable. Using the nonequilibrium Green's function method in the G0W0 approximation, based on a tight-binding model, we obtain for the energy current a Caroli formula from the Meir-Wingreen formula in the local equilibrium approximation. Also, the Caroli formula is consistent with the evanescent part of the heat transfer from the theory of fluctuational electrodynamics. We go beyond the local equilibrium approximation to study the energy transfer in the crossover region from electron tunneling to Coulomb fluctuation based on a numerical calculation.
Magnetic-field fluctuations from 0 to 26 Hz observed from a polar-orbiting satellite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erlandson, R.E.; Zanetti, L.J.; Potemra, T.A.
1989-01-01
The polar orbit of the Viking satellite provides a unique opportunity to obtain observations of magnetic fluctuations at mid-altitudes on the dayside of the magnetosphere and in the polar-cusp region. One type of magnetic-field fluctuation, observed in the dayside magnetosphere, was Pc 1 waves. Pc 1 waves are in the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron mode and are generated by anisotropies in energetic ion distributions. The waves are thought to be generated near the equator and to propagate large distances along magnetic-field lines. Most observations of Pc 1 waves have been obtained near the equator using geosynchronous satellites and on the surface of the earth. The Viking observations provide an opportunity to observe Pc 1 waves at mid-latitudes above the ionosphere and to determine the spectral structure and polarization of the waves. ULF/ELF broadband noise represents a second type of magnetic fluctuation acquired by Viking. This type of magnetic fluctuation was observed at high latitudes near the polar cusp and may be useful in the identification of polar-cusp boundaries. Thirdly, electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves have also been observed in the polar-cusp region. These waves occur only during an unusually high level of magnetic activity and appear to be generated locally
Density Fluctuations of Hard-Sphere Fluids in Narrow Confinement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Nygård
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Spatial confinement induces microscopic ordering of fluids, which in turn alters many of their dynamic and thermodynamic properties. However, the isothermal compressibility has hitherto been largely overlooked in the literature, despite its obvious connection to the underlying microscopic structure and density fluctuations in confined geometries. Here, we address this issue by probing density profiles and structure factors of hard-sphere fluids in various narrow slits, using x-ray scattering from colloid-filled nanofluidic containers and integral-equation-based statistical mechanics at the level of pair distributions for inhomogeneous fluids. Most importantly, we demonstrate that density fluctuations and isothermal compressibilities in confined fluids can be obtained experimentally from the long-wavelength limit of the structure factor, providing a formally exact and experimentally accessible connection between microscopic structure and macroscopic, thermodynamic properties. Our approach will thus, for example, allow direct experimental verification of theoretically predicted enhanced density fluctuations in liquids near solvophobic interfaces.
Impact of neutral density fluctuations on gas puff imaging diagnostics
Wersal, C.; Ricci, P.
2017-11-01
A three-dimensional turbulence simulation of the SOL and edge regions of a toroidally limited tokamak is carried out. The simulation couples self-consistently the drift-reduced two-fluid Braginskii equations to a kinetic equation for neutral atoms. A diagnostic neutral gas puff on the low-field side midplane is included and the impact of neutral density fluctuations on D_α light emission investigated. We find that neutral density fluctuations affect the D_α emission. In particular, at a radial distance from the gas puff smaller than the neutral mean free path, neutral density fluctuations are anti-correlated with plasma density, electron temperature, and D_α fluctuations. It follows that the neutral fluctuations reduce the D_α emission in most of the observed region and, therefore, have to be taken into account when interpreting the amplitude of the D_α emission. On the other hand, higher order statistical moments (skewness, kurtosis) and turbulence characteristics (such as correlation length, or the autocorrelation time) are not significantly affected by the neutral fluctuations. At distances from the gas puff larger than the neutral mean free path, a non-local shadowing effect influences the neutral density fluctuations. There, the D_α fluctuations are correlated with the neutral density fluctuations, and the high-order statistical moments and measurements of other turbulence properties are strongly affected by the neutral density fluctuations.
On the Fluctuations that Order and Frustrate Liquid Water
Limmer, David
2013-01-01
At ambient conditions, water sits close to phase coexistence with its crystal. More so than in many other materials, this fact is manifested in the fluctuations that maintain a large degree of local order in the liquid. These fluctuations and how they result in long-ranged order, or its absence, are emergent features of many interacting molecules. Their study therefore requires using the tools of statistical mechanics for their their systematic understanding. In this dissertation we develop s...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Yudong; Liu, Li
2010-01-01
This paper extends the work in Tabak and Cajueiro (Are the crude oil markets becoming weakly efficient over time, Energy Economics 29 (2007) 28-36) and Alvarez-Ramirez et al. (Short-term predictability of crude oil markets: a detrended fluctuation analysis approach, Energy Economics 30 (2008) 2645-2656). In this paper, we test for the efficiency of WTI crude oil market through observing the dynamic of local Hurst exponents employing the method of rolling window based on multiscale detrended fluctuation analysis. Empirical results show that short-term, medium-term and long-term behaviors were generally turning into efficient behavior over time. However, in this way, the results also show that the market did not evolve along stable conditions for long times. Multiscale analysis is also implemented based on multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. We found that the small fluctuations of WTI crude oil market were persistent; however, the large fluctuations had high instability, both in the short- and long-terms. Our discussion is also extended by incorporating arguments from the crude oil market structure for explaining the different correlation dynamics. (author)
Bond-length fluctuations in the copper oxide superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goodenough, John B [Texas Materials Institute, ETC 9.102, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
2003-02-26
Superconductivity in the copper oxides occurs at a crossover from localized to itinerant electronic behaviour, a transition that is first order. A spinodal phase segregation is normally accomplished by atomic diffusion; but where it occurs at too low a temperature for atomic diffusion, it may be realized by cooperative atomic displacements. Locally cooperative, fluctuating atomic displacements may stabilize a distinguishable phase lying between a localized-electron phase and a Fermi-liquid phase; this intermediate phase exhibits quantum-critical-point behaviour with strong electron-lattice interactions making charge transport vibronic. Ordering of the bond-length fluctuations at lower temperatures would normally stabilize a charge-density wave (CDW), which suppresses superconductivity. It is argued that in the copper oxide superconductors, crossover occurs at an optimal doping concentration for the formation of ordered two-electron/two-hole bosonic bags of spin S = 0 in a matrix of localized spins; the correlation bags contain two holes in a linear cluster of four copper centres ordered within alternate Cu-O-Cu rows of a CuO{sub 2} sheet. This ordering is optimal at a hole concentration per Cu atom of p {approx} 1/6, but it is not static. Hybridization of the vibronic electrons with the phonons that define long-range order of the fluctuating (Cu-O) bond lengths creates barely itinerant, vibronic quasiparticles of heavy mass. The heavy itinerant vibrons form Cooper pairs having a coherence length of the dimension of the bosonic bags. It is the hybridization of electrons and phonons that, it is suggested, stabilizes the superconductive state relative to a CDW state. (topical review)
Detrended fluctuation analysis of short datasets: An application to fetal cardiac data
Govindan, R. B.; Wilson, J. D.; Preißl, H.; Eswaran, H.; Campbell, J. Q.; Lowery, C. L.
2007-02-01
Using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) we perform scaling analysis of short datasets of length 500-1500 data points. We quantify the long range correlation (exponent α) by computing the mean value of the local exponents αL (in the asymptotic regime). The local exponents are obtained as the (numerical) derivative of the logarithm of the fluctuation function F(s) with respect to the logarithm of the scale factor s:αL=dlog10F(s)/dlog10s. These local exponents display huge variations and complicate the correct quantification of the underlying correlations. We propose the use of the phase randomized surrogate (PRS), which preserves the long range correlations of the original data, to minimize the variations in the local exponents. Using the numerically generated uncorrelated and long range correlated data, we show that performing DFA on several realizations of PRS and estimating αL from the averaged fluctuation functions (of all realizations) can minimize the variations in αL. The application of this approach to the fetal cardiac data (RR intervals) is discussed and we show that there is a statistically significant correlation between α and the gestation age.
A generative, probabilistic model of local protein structure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boomsma, Wouter; Mardia, Kanti V.; Taylor, Charles C.
2008-01-01
Despite significant progress in recent years, protein structure prediction maintains its status as one of the prime unsolved problems in computational biology. One of the key remaining challenges is an efficient probabilistic exploration of the structural space that correctly reflects the relative...... conformational stabilities. Here, we present a fully probabilistic, continuous model of local protein structure in atomic detail. The generative model makes efficient conformational sampling possible and provides a framework for the rigorous analysis of local sequence-structure correlations in the native state...
Shamim, Saquib; Mahapatra, S; Scappucci, G; Klesse, W M; Simmons, M Y; Ghosh, Arindam
2017-05-04
We report quantum transport measurements on two dimensional (2D) Si:P and Ge:P δ-layers and compare the inelastic scattering rates relevant for weak localization (WL) and universal conductance fluctuations (UCF) for devices of various doping densities (0.3-2.5 × 10 18 m -2 ) at low temperatures (0.3-4.2 K). The phase breaking rate extracted experimentally from measurements of WL correction to conductivity and UCF agree well with each other within the entire temperature range. This establishes that WL and UCF, being the outcome of quantum interference phenomena, are governed by the same dephasing rate.
An assessment of memristor intrinsic fluctuations: a measurement of single atomic motion
Borghetti, Julien; Yang, J. Joshua; Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto; Williams, R. Stanley
2010-03-01
Memristors provides electrically tunable resistance for upcoming non-volatile memory and future neuromorphic computing. One of the key benefits of such a device is its scalability, which can be demonstrated from an architectural perspective as well as from a fundamental physics limit. 4D addressing schemes utilizing cross bar structures that can be stacked several layers high above the chip embodies unlimited addressing space. On the other limit, the basic operating principles of memristive devices allow one to reach storage of information in a single atom. In this report of nanoscale (sub 50nm) devices, we detect single atom fluctuations, which would then represent the ultimate limit for noise sources thus delineating the boundary conditions for circuit design. We show that electrically induced individual atom migrations do not affect the overall device atomic configuration until a critical bias where a single local fluctuation triggers a general atomic reconfiguration. This instability illustrates the robustness of the device non-volatility upon small electrical stress.
Hadi, Nik Azran Ab; Rashid, Wan Norhisyam Abd; Hashim, Nik Mohd Zarifie; Mohamad, Najmiah Radiah; Kadmin, Ahmad Fauzan
2017-10-01
Electricity is the most powerful energy source in the world. Engineer and technologist combined and cooperated to invent a new low-cost technology and free carbon emission where the carbon emission issue is a major concern now due to global warming. Renewable energy sources such as hydro, wind and wave are becoming widespread to reduce the carbon emissions, on the other hand, this effort needs several novel methods, techniques and technologies compared to coal-based power. Power quality of renewable sources needs in depth research and endless study to improve renewable energy technologies. The aim of this project is to investigate the impact of renewable electric generator on its local distribution system. The power farm was designed to connect to the local distribution system and it will be investigated and analyzed to make sure that energy which is supplied to customer is clean. The MATLAB tools are used to simulate the overall analysis. At the end of the project, a summary of identifying various voltage fluctuates data sources is presented in terms of voltage flicker. A suggestion of the analysis impact of wave power generation on its local distribution is also presented for the development of wave generator farms.
Analysis of fluctuations in semiconductor devices
Andrei, Petru
The random nature of ion implantation and diffusion processes as well as inevitable tolerances in fabrication result in random fluctuations of doping concentrations and oxide thickness in semiconductor devices. These fluctuations are especially pronounced in ultrasmall (nanoscale) semiconductor devices when the spatial scale of doping and oxide thickness variations become comparable with the geometric dimensions of devices. In the dissertation, the effects of these fluctuations on device characteristics are analyzed by using a new technique for the analysis of random doping and oxide thickness induced fluctuations. This technique is universal in nature in the sense that it is applicable to any transport model (drift-diffusion, semiclassical transport, quantum transport etc.) and it can be naturally extended to take into account random fluctuations of the oxide (trapped) charges and channel length. The technique is based on linearization of the transport equations with respect to the fluctuating quantities. It is computationally much (a few orders of magnitude) more efficient than the traditional Monte-Carlo approach and it yields information on the sensitivity of fluctuations of parameters of interest (e.g. threshold voltage, small-signal parameters, cut-off frequencies, etc.) to the locations of doping and oxide thickness fluctuations. For this reason, it can be very instrumental in the design of fluctuation-resistant structures of semiconductor devices. Quantum mechanical effects are taken into account by using the density-gradient model as well as through self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger computations. Special attention is paid to the presenting of the technique in a form that is suitable for implementation on commercial device simulators. The numerical implementation of the technique is discussed in detail and numerous computational results are presented and compared with those previously published in literature.
A fluctuation relation for the probability of energy backscatter
Vela-Martin, Alberto; Jimenez, Javier
2017-11-01
We simulate the large scales of an inviscid turbulent flow in a triply periodic box using a dynamic Smagorinsky model for the sub-grid stresses. The flow, which is forced to constant kinetic energy, is fully reversible and can develop a sustained inverse energy cascade. However, due to the large number of degrees freedom, the probability of spontaneous mean inverse energy flux is negligible. In order to quantify the probability of inverse energy cascades, we test a local fluctuation relation of the form log P(A) = - c(V , t) A , where P(A) = p(| Cs|V,t = A) / p(| Cs|V , t = - A) , p is probability, and | Cs|V,t is the average of the least-squared dynamic model coefficient over volume V and time t. This is confirmed when Cs is averaged over sufficiently large domains and long times, and c is found to depend linearly on V and t. In the limit in which V 1 / 3 is of the order of the integral scale and t is of the order of the eddy-turnover time, we recover a global fluctuation relation that predicts a negligible probability of a sustained inverse energy cascade. For smaller V and t, the local fluctuation relation provides useful predictions on the occurrence of local energy backscatter. Funded by the ERC COTURB project.
Salem, C. S.; Hanson, E.; Bonnell, J. W.; Chaston, C. C.; Bale, S. D.; Mozer, F.
2017-12-01
We present here an analysis of kinetic-scale electromagnetic fluctuations in the solar wind using data from THEMIS and ARTEMIS spacecraft. We use high-time resolution electric and magnetic field measurements, as well as density fluctuations, up to 128 samples per second, as well as particle burst plasma data during carefully selected solar wind intervals. We focus our analysis on a few such intervals spanning different values of plasma beta and angles between the local magnetic field and the radial Sun-Earth direction. We discuss the careful analysis process of characterizing and removing the different instrumental effects and noise sources affecting the electric and magnetic field data at those scales, above 0.1 Hz or so, above the breakpoint marking the start of the so-called dissipation range of solar wind turbulence. We compute parameters such as the electric to magnetic field ratio, the magnetic compressibility, magnetic helicity, and other relevant quantities in order to diagnose the nature of the fluctuations at those scales between the ion and electron cyclotron frequencies, extracting information on the dominant modes composing the fluctuations. We also discuss the presence and role of coherent structures in the measured fluctuations. The nature of the fluctuations in the dissipation or dispersive scales of solar wind turbulence is still debated. This observational study is also highly relevant to the current Turbulent Dissipation Challenge.
Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li
2016-01-01
Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions. PMID:26735689
Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li
2016-01-01
Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mo-Zhu Wang
Full Text Available Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.
Fluctuation microscopy analysis of amorphous silicon models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gibson, J.M., E-mail: jmgibson@fsu.edu [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, Boston MA 02115 (United States); FAMU/FSU Joint College of Engineering, 225 Pottsdamer Street, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Treacy, M.M.J. [Arizona State University, Department of Physics, Tempe AZ 85287 (United States)
2017-05-15
Highlights: • Studied competing computer models for amorphous silicon and simulated fluctuation microscopy data. • Show that only paracrystalline/random network composite can fit published data. • Specifically show that pure random network or random network with void models do not fit available data. • Identify a new means to measure volume fraction of ordered material. • Identify unreported limitations of the Debye model for simulating fluctuation microscopy data. - Abstract: Using computer-generated models we discuss the use of fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) to identify the structure of amorphous silicon. We show that a combination of variable resolution FEM to measure the correlation length, with correlograph analysis to obtain the structural motif, can pin down structural correlations. We introduce the method of correlograph variance as a promising means of independently measuring the volume fraction of a paracrystalline composite. From comparisons with published data, we affirm that only a composite material of paracrystalline and continuous random network that is substantially paracrystalline could explain the existing experimental data, and point the way to more precise measurements on amorphous semiconductors. The results are of general interest for other classes of disordered materials.
Fluctuation microscopy analysis of amorphous silicon models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibson, J.M.; Treacy, M.M.J.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Studied competing computer models for amorphous silicon and simulated fluctuation microscopy data. • Show that only paracrystalline/random network composite can fit published data. • Specifically show that pure random network or random network with void models do not fit available data. • Identify a new means to measure volume fraction of ordered material. • Identify unreported limitations of the Debye model for simulating fluctuation microscopy data. - Abstract: Using computer-generated models we discuss the use of fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) to identify the structure of amorphous silicon. We show that a combination of variable resolution FEM to measure the correlation length, with correlograph analysis to obtain the structural motif, can pin down structural correlations. We introduce the method of correlograph variance as a promising means of independently measuring the volume fraction of a paracrystalline composite. From comparisons with published data, we affirm that only a composite material of paracrystalline and continuous random network that is substantially paracrystalline could explain the existing experimental data, and point the way to more precise measurements on amorphous semiconductors. The results are of general interest for other classes of disordered materials.
Fluctuation-driven mechanotransduction regulates mitochondrial-network structure and function
Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Imsirovic, Jasmin; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Wellman, Tyler J.; Martinez, Nuria; Allen, Philip G.; Frey, Urs; Suki, Béla
2015-10-01
Cells can be exposed to irregular mechanical fluctuations, such as those arising from changes in blood pressure. Here, we report that ATP production, assessed through changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, is downregulated in vascular smooth muscle cells in culture exposed to monotonous stretch cycles when compared with cells exposed to a variable cyclic stretch that incorporates physiological levels of cycle-by-cycle variability in stretch amplitude. Variable stretch enhances ATP production by increasing the expression of ATP synthase’s catalytic domain, cytochrome c oxidase and its tyrosine phosphorylation, mitofusins and PGC-1α. Such a fluctuation-driven mechanotransduction mechanism is mediated by motor proteins and by the enhancement of microtubule-, actin- and mitochondrial-network complexity. We also show that, in aorta rings isolated from rats, monotonous stretch downregulates--whereas variable stretch maintains--physiological vessel-wall contractility through mitochondrial ATP production. Our results have implications for ATP-dependent and mechanosensitive intracellular processes.
Fluctuating hydrodynamics for ionic liquids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lazaridis, Konstantinos [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States); Wickham, Logan [Department of Computer Science, Washington State University, Richland, 99354 (United States); Voulgarakis, Nikolaos, E-mail: n.voulgarakis@wsu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States)
2017-04-25
We present a mean-field fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) method for studying the structural and transport properties of ionic liquids in bulk and near electrified surfaces. The free energy of the system consists of two competing terms: (1) a Landau–Lifshitz functional that models the spontaneous separation of the ionic groups, and (2) the standard mean-field electrostatic interaction between the ions in the liquid. The numerical approach used to solve the resulting FHD-Poisson equations is very efficient and models thermal fluctuations with remarkable accuracy. Such density fluctuations are sufficiently strong to excite the experimentally observed spontaneous formation of liquid nano-domains. Statistical analysis of our simulations provides quantitative information about the properties of ionic liquids, such as the mixing quality, stability, and the size of the nano-domains. Our model, thus, can be adequately parameterized by directly comparing our prediction with experimental measurements and all-atom simulations. Conclusively, this work can serve as a practical mathematical tool for testing various theories and designing more efficient mixtures of ionic liquids. - Highlights: • A new fluctuating hydrodynamics method for ionic liquids. • Description of ionic liquid morphology in bulk and near electrified surfaces. • Direct comparison with experimental measurements.
A hybrid computation method for determining fluctuations of temperature in branched structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czomber, L.
1982-01-01
A hybrid computation method for determining temperature fluctuations at discrete points of slab like geometries is developed on the basis of a new formulation of the finite difference method. For this purpose, a new finite difference method is combined with an exact solution of the heat equation within the range of values of the Laplace transformation. Whereas the exact solution can be applied to arbitraryly large ranges, the finite difference formulation is given for structural ranges which need finer discretization. The boundary conditions of the exact solution are substituted by finite difference terms for the boundary residual flow or an internal heat source, depending on the problem. The resulting system of conditional equations contains only the node parameters of the finite difference method. (orig.) [de
Control of analog ferroelectric states by small dc-bias in conjunction with fluctuating waveforms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ricinschi, Dan; Okuyama, Masanori
2009-01-01
In this paper we demonstrate several possibilities to create and control partially switched analog states of ferroelectric materials, from measurements on PZT capacitors. By employing various types of fluctuating waveforms and controlling the domain dynamics with dc bias of small intensities, we have shown that it is possible to generate sequences of analog ferroelectric states that may appear identical from macroscopic measurements, yet they are unique at the local level. The experimental results have been analyzed theoretically by a simple microscopic model of switching. According to the model simulations, each analog state can be associated with a domain structure that captures subtle variations of the previously applied electric field as well as structural information about the inhomogeneities at the local level. The generation and control of such partially switched analog states may be important for new applications of ferroelectric materials to multi-value memories or in the field of artificial intelligence.
Mass density fluctuations in quantum and classical descriptions of liquid water
Galib, Mirza; Duignan, Timothy T.; Misteli, Yannick; Baer, Marcel D.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Hutter, Jürg; Mundy, Christopher J.
2017-06-01
First principles molecular dynamics simulation protocol is established using revised functional of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (revPBE) in conjunction with Grimme's third generation of dispersion (D3) correction to describe the properties of water at ambient conditions. This study also demonstrates the consistency of the structure of water across both isobaric (NpT) and isothermal (NVT) ensembles. Going beyond the standard structural benchmarks for liquid water, we compute properties that are connected to both local structure and mass density fluctuations that are related to concepts of solvation and hydrophobicity. We directly compare our revPBE results to the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) plus Grimme dispersion corrections (D2) and both the empirical fixed charged model (SPC/E) and many body interaction potential model (MB-pol) to further our understanding of how the computed properties herein depend on the form of the interaction potential.
Exploring the structure of the quenched QCD vacuum with overlap fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Koller, K.; Koma, Y.; Schierholz, G.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron; Streuer, T.; Weinberg, V.; Freie Univ. Berlin
2007-05-01
Overlap fermions have an exact chiral symmetry on the lattice and are thus an appropriate tool for investigating the chiral and topological structure of the QCD vacuum. We study various chiral and topological aspects of quenched gauge field configurations. This includes the localization and chiral properties of the eigenmodes, the local structure of the ultraviolet filtered field strength tensor, as well as the structure of topological charge fluctuations. We conclude that the vacuum has a multifractal structure. (orig.)
Mesoscopic fluctuations in the critical current in InAs-coupled Josephson junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takayanagi, Hideaki; Hansen, J.B.; Nitta, Junsaku
1994-01-01
Mesoscopic fluctuations were confirmed for the critical current in a p-type InAs-coupled Josephson junction. The critical current was measured as a function of the gate voltage corresponding to the change in the Fermi energy. The critical current showed a mesoscopic fluctuation and its behavior was the same as that of the conductance measured at the same time in both the weak and strong localization regimes. The magnitude and the typical period of the fluctuation are discussed and compared to theoretical predictions. ((orig.))
Serag, Maged F.
2014-10-06
Single-molecule localization and tracking has been used to translate spatiotemporal information of individual molecules to map their diffusion behaviours. However, accurate analysis of diffusion behaviours and including other parameters, such as the conformation and size of molecules, remain as limitations to the method. Here, we report a method that addresses the limitations of existing single-molecular localization methods. The method is based on temporal tracking of the cumulative area occupied by molecules. These temporal fluctuations are tied to molecular size, rates of diffusion and conformational changes. By analysing fluorescent nanospheres and double-stranded DNA molecules of different lengths and topological forms, we demonstrate that our cumulative-area method surpasses the conventional single-molecule localization method in terms of the accuracy of determined diffusion coefficients. Furthermore, the cumulative-area method provides conformational relaxation times of structurally flexible chains along with diffusion coefficients, which together are relevant to work in a wide spectrum of scientific fields.
Serag, Maged F.; Abadi, Maram; Habuchi, Satoshi
2014-01-01
Single-molecule localization and tracking has been used to translate spatiotemporal information of individual molecules to map their diffusion behaviours. However, accurate analysis of diffusion behaviours and including other parameters, such as the conformation and size of molecules, remain as limitations to the method. Here, we report a method that addresses the limitations of existing single-molecular localization methods. The method is based on temporal tracking of the cumulative area occupied by molecules. These temporal fluctuations are tied to molecular size, rates of diffusion and conformational changes. By analysing fluorescent nanospheres and double-stranded DNA molecules of different lengths and topological forms, we demonstrate that our cumulative-area method surpasses the conventional single-molecule localization method in terms of the accuracy of determined diffusion coefficients. Furthermore, the cumulative-area method provides conformational relaxation times of structurally flexible chains along with diffusion coefficients, which together are relevant to work in a wide spectrum of scientific fields.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicol, R. M.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.
2009-01-01
The power spectrum of the evolving solar wind shows evidence of a spectral break between an inertial range (IR) of turbulent fluctuations at higher frequencies and a '1/f' like region at lower frequencies. In the ecliptic plane at ∼1 AU, this break occurs approximately at timescales of a few hours and is observed in the power spectra of components of velocity and magnetic field. The '1/f' energy range is of more direct coronal origin than the IR, and carries signatures of the complex magnetic field structure of the solar corona, and of footpoint stirring in the solar photosphere. To quantify the scaling properties we use generic statistical methods such as generalized structure functions and probability density functions (PDFs), focusing on solar cycle dependence and on anisotropy with respect to the background magnetic field. We present structure function analysis of magnetic and velocity field fluctuations, using a novel technique to decompose the fluctuations into directions parallel and perpendicular to the mean local background magnetic field. Whilst the magnetic field is close to '1/f', we show that the velocity field is '1/f α ' with α ≠ 1. For the velocity, the value of α varies between parallel and perpendicular fluctuations and with the solar cycle. There is also variation in α with solar wind speed. We have examined the PDFs in the fast, quiet solar wind and intriguingly, whilst parallel and perpendicular are distinct, both the B field and velocity show the same PDF of their perpendicular fluctuations, which is close to gamma or inverse Gumbel. These results point to distinct physical processes in the corona and to their mapping out into the solar wind. The scaling exponents obtained constrain the models for these processes.
Fluctuation diamagnetism in two-band superconductors
Adachi, Kyosuke; Ikeda, Ryusuke
2016-04-01
Anomalously large fluctuation diamagnetism around the superconducting critical temperature has been recently observed in iron selenide (FeSe) [Kasahara et al. (unpublished)]. This indicates that superconducting fluctuations (SCFs) play a more significant role in FeSe, which supposedly has a two-band structure, than in the familiar single-band superconductors. Motivated by the data on FeSe, SCF-induced diamagnetism is examined in a two-band system, on the basis of a phenomenological approach with a Ginzburg-Landau functional. The obtained results indicate that the SCF-induced diamagnetism may be more enhanced than that in a single-band system due to the existence of two distinct fluctuation modes. Such enhancement of diamagnetism unique to a two-band system seems consistent with the large diamagnetism observed in FeSe, though still far from a quantitative agreement.
Absorption-Fluctuation Theorem for Nuclear Reactions: Brink-Axel, Incomplete Fusion and All That
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, M. S.
2008-01-01
We discuss the connection between absorption, averages and fluctuations in nuclear reactions. The fluctuations in the entrance channel result in the compound-nucleus Hauser-Feshbach cross section, and the fluctuations in the intermediate channels result in modifications of multistep reaction cross sections, while the fluctuations in the final channel result in hybrid cross sections that can be used to describe incomplete fusion reactions. We discuss the latter in detail and comment on the validity of the assumptions used in the development of the Surrogate method. We also discuss the theory of multistep reactions with regards to intermediate state fluctuations and the energy dependence and non-locality of the intermediate-channel optical potentials
Caruthers, James
2015-03-01
The current picture of the glass involves dynamic heterogeneity, where nanoscopic regions of the glass have order-of-magnitude differences in local mobility that evolve with time. Dynamic heterogeneity provides a critical challenge to the traditional nonlinear continuum models, where both temporal and spatial fluctuations are averaged as a result of the continuum postulate. In order to acknowledge dynamic heterogeneity, a Stochastic Constitutive Model (SCM) has been developed to describe the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of polymeric glasses, where (i) temporal fluctuations are explicitly included and (ii) the local mobility depends upon the local state of the material (e.g. local stress and local entropy) vs. traditional viscoelastic/viscoelastic models where macroscopic mobility depends upon the macroscopic state. The SCM is able to describe a number of nonlinear relaxation phenomena that cannot be predicted by traditional nonlinear viscoelastic/viscoplastic models, including (i) post-yield stress softening and its dependence on annealing time, (ii) the inversion of the strain dependence of nonlinear stress relaxation with the loading rate, (iii) stress memory and (iv) tertiary creep and creep-recovery. This paper will argue that incorporation of nanoscopic fluctuations is a necessary component for a description of the thermomechanical behavior of polymeric glasses. Support from NSF Grant 1363326-CMMI.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patrick, Christopher E., E-mail: chripa@fysik.dtu.dk; Thygesen, Kristian S., E-mail: thygesen@fysik.dtu.dk [Center for Atomic-Scale Materials Design (CAMD), Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK—2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)
2015-09-14
We present calculations of the correlation energies of crystalline solids and isolated systems within the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation formulation of density-functional theory. We perform a quantitative comparison of a set of model exchange-correlation kernels originally derived for the homogeneous electron gas (HEG), including the recently introduced renormalized adiabatic local-density approximation (rALDA) and also kernels which (a) satisfy known exact limits of the HEG, (b) carry a frequency dependence, or (c) display a 1/k{sup 2} divergence for small wavevectors. After generalizing the kernels to inhomogeneous systems through a reciprocal-space averaging procedure, we calculate the lattice constants and bulk moduli of a test set of 10 solids consisting of tetrahedrally bonded semiconductors (C, Si, SiC), ionic compounds (MgO, LiCl, LiF), and metals (Al, Na, Cu, Pd). We also consider the atomization energy of the H{sub 2} molecule. We compare the results calculated with different kernels to those obtained from the random-phase approximation (RPA) and to experimental measurements. We demonstrate that the model kernels correct the RPA’s tendency to overestimate the magnitude of the correlation energy whilst maintaining a high-accuracy description of structural properties.
Electron quantum interferences and universal conductance fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benoit, A.; Pichard, J.L.
1988-05-01
Quantum interferences yield corrections to the classical ohmic behaviour predicted by Boltzmann theory in electronic transport: for instance the well-known ''weak localization'' effects. Furthermore, very recently, quantum interference effects have been proved to be responsible for statistically different phenomena, associated with Universal Conductance Fluctuations and observed on very small devices [fr
Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds
Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.
2017-01-01
Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds.
Effect of beam-attenuation modulation on fluctuation measurements by heavy-ion beam probe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, D.W.; Sloan, M.L.; Wootton, A.J.
1991-03-01
Beam-attenuation modulation arising from density fluctuations along the orbit of the heavy-ion beam probe can distort the local amplitude, coherence, and phase derived from one- and two-point correlation measurements. Path-integral expressions for these effects are derived and applications to TEXT data are discussed. The effects depend critically on the ratio of the average fluctuation amplitude, n e , along the beam path to the local n e at the sample volume. Because the fluctuation amplitude is small in the core and rises sharply toward the plasma edge, the contamination effect is negligible in a radial zone near the edge but rises sharply to the interior of a critical radius. With increasing average plasma density, bar n e , the interior contamination increases strongly and the critical radius moves outward. 16 refs., 12 figs
Event texture search for critical fluctuations in Pb + Pb collisions
Kopytine, M L; Bearden, I G; Bøggild, H; Boissevain, J G; Conin, L; Dodd, J; Erazmus, B; Esumi, S C; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Ferenc, D; Fields, D E; Franz, A; Gaardhøje, J J; Hansen, A G; Hansen, O; Hardtke, D; van Hecke, H; Holzer, E B; Humanic, T J; Hummel, P; Jacak, B V; Jayanti, R; Kaimi, K; Kaneta, M; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M L; Leltchouk, M; Ljubicic, A; Lörstad, B; Maeda, N; Martin, L; Medvedev, A; Murray, M; Ohnishi, H; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Piuz, François; Pluta, J; Polychronakos, V; Potekhin, M V; Poulard, G; Reichhold, D M; Sakaguchi, A; Schmidt-Sørensen, J; Simon-Gillo, J; Sondheim, W E; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Sumi, Y; Willis, W J; Wolf, K L; Xu, N; Zachary, D S
2002-01-01
NA44 uses a 512 channel Si pad array covering $1.5 <\\eta < 3.3$ to study charged hadron production in 158 A GeV Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. We apply a multiresolution analysis, based on a Discrete Wavelet Transformation, to probe the texture of particle distributions event-by-event, by simultaneous localization of features in space and scale. Scanning a broad range of multiplicities, we look for a possible critical behaviour in the power spectra of local density fluctuations. The data are compared with detailed simulations of detector response, using heavy ion event generators, and with a reference sample created via event mixing. An upper limit is set on the probability and magnitude of dynamical fluctuations.
Effects of q-profile structure on turbulence spreading: A fluctuation intensity transport analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yi, S.; Kwon, J. M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Eoeun-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0429 (United States); Hahm, T. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-09-15
This paper studies effects of q-profile structure on turbulence spreading. It reports results of numerical experiments using global gyrokinetic simulations. We examine propagation of turbulence, triggered by an identical linear instability in a source region, into an adjacent, linearly stable region with variable q-profile. The numerical experiments are designed so as to separate the physics of turbulence spreading from that of linear stability. The strength of turbulence spreading is measured by the penetration depth of turbulence. Dynamics of spreading are elucidated by fluctuation intensity balance analysis, using a model intensity evolution equation which retains nonlinear diffusion and damping, and linear growth. It is found that turbulence spreading is strongly affected by magnetic shear s, but is hardly altered by the safety factor q itself. There is an optimal range of modest magnetic shear which maximizes turbulence spreading. For high to modest shear values, the spreading is enhanced by the increase of the mode correlation length with decreasing magnetic shear. However, the efficiency of spreading drops for sufficiently low magnetic shear even though the mode correlation length is comparable to that for the case of optimal magnetic shear. The reduction of spreading is attributed to the increase in time required for the requisite nonlinear mode-mode interactions. The effect of increased interaction time dominates that of increased mode correlation length. Our findings of the reduction of spreading and the increase in interaction time at weak magnetic shear are consistent with the well-known benefit of weak or reversed magnetic shear for core confinement enhancement. Weak shear is shown to promote locality, as well as stability.
Structure of local interactions in complex financial dynamics.
Jiang, X F; Chen, T T; Zheng, B
2014-06-17
With the network methods and random matrix theory, we investigate the interaction structure of communities in financial markets. In particular, based on the random matrix decomposition, we clarify that the local interactions between the business sectors (subsectors) are mainly contained in the sector mode. In the sector mode, the average correlation inside the sectors is positive, while that between the sectors is negative. Further, we explore the time evolution of the interaction structure of the business sectors, and observe that the local interaction structure changes dramatically during a financial bubble or crisis.
Fluctuation of shower front structure: measurements, Esub(p) approximately 1018 eV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrett, M.L.; Watson, A.A.; Wild, P.; Wilson, J.G.
1975-01-01
The work of Watson and Wilson (1974) on the introduction of a parameter of shower-front development fluctuations has been extended using a purpose-built recording system yielding results over an increased distance range from the shower axis. An exhaustive study of possible spurious sources of the observed features has been undertaken, and none of significance have been identified. The values of the fluctuation parameter now given are considered well-established. (orig.) [de
Role of fluctuations in the phase transitions of coupled plaquette spin models of glasses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giulio Biroli, Charlotte Rulquin, Gilles Tarjus, Marco Tarzia
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We study the role of fluctuations on the thermodynamic glassy properties of plaquette spin models, more specifically on the transition involving an overlap order parameter in the presence of an attractive coupling between different replicas of the system. We consider both short-range fluctuations associated with the local environment on Bethe lattices and long-range fluctuations that distinguish Euclidean from Bethe lattices with the same local environment. We find that the phase diagram in the temperature-coupling plane is very sensitive to the former but, at least for the $3$-dimensional (square pyramid model, appears qualitatively or semi-quantitatively unchanged by the latter. This surprising result suggests that the mean-field theory of glasses provides a reasonable account of the glassy thermodynamics of models otherwise described in terms of the kinetically constrained motion of localized defects and taken as a paradigm for the theory of dynamic facilitation. We discuss the possible implications for the dynamical behavior.
Maronga, B.; Moene, A.F.; Dinther, van D.; Raasch, S.
2012-01-01
Turbulent fluctuations of the refractive index (n) in the atmospheric boundary layer are related to local fluctuations in the air density, which can be expressed by the refractive-index structure parameter (Cn2). Since these fluctuations depend mainly on temperature and humidity, it is possible to
Time fluctuation analysis of forest fire sequences
Vega Orozco, Carmen D.; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Tonini, Marj; Golay, Jean; Pereira, Mário J. G.
2013-04-01
Forest fires are complex events involving both space and time fluctuations. Understanding of their dynamics and pattern distribution is of great importance in order to improve the resource allocation and support fire management actions at local and global levels. This study aims at characterizing the temporal fluctuations of forest fire sequences observed in Portugal, which is the country that holds the largest wildfire land dataset in Europe. This research applies several exploratory data analysis measures to 302,000 forest fires occurred from 1980 to 2007. The applied clustering measures are: Morisita clustering index, fractal and multifractal dimensions (box-counting), Ripley's K-function, Allan Factor, and variography. These algorithms enable a global time structural analysis describing the degree of clustering of a point pattern and defining whether the observed events occur randomly, in clusters or in a regular pattern. The considered methods are of general importance and can be used for other spatio-temporal events (i.e. crime, epidemiology, biodiversity, geomarketing, etc.). An important contribution of this research deals with the analysis and estimation of local measures of clustering that helps understanding their temporal structure. Each measure is described and executed for the raw data (forest fires geo-database) and results are compared to reference patterns generated under the null hypothesis of randomness (Poisson processes) embedded in the same time period of the raw data. This comparison enables estimating the degree of the deviation of the real data from a Poisson process. Generalizations to functional measures of these clustering methods, taking into account the phenomena, were also applied and adapted to detect time dependences in a measured variable (i.e. burned area). The time clustering of the raw data is compared several times with the Poisson processes at different thresholds of the measured function. Then, the clustering measure value
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yanchev, I.
2003-01-01
A new expression for the Fourier transform of the binary correlation function of the random potential near the semiconductor-insulator interface is derived. The screening from the metal electrode in MIS-structure is taken into account introducing an effective insulator thickness. An essential advantage of this correlation function is the finite dispersion of the random potential to which it leads in distinction with the so far known correlation functions leading to a divergent dispersion. The dispersion, an important characteristic of the random potential distribution, determining the amplitude of the potential fluctuations is calculated
Yanchev, I
2003-01-01
A new expression for the Fourier transform of the binary correlation function of the random potential near the semiconductor-insulator interface is derived. The screening from the metal electrode in MIS-structure is taken into account introducing an effective insulator thickness. An essential advantage of this correlation function is the finite dispersion of the random potential to which it leads in distinction with the so far known correlation functions leading to a divergent dispersion. The dispersion, an important characteristic of the random potential distribution, determining the amplitude of the potential fluctuations is calculated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yanchev, I
2003-07-01
A new expression for the Fourier transform of the binary correlation function of the random potential near the semiconductor-insulator interface is derived. The screening from the metal electrode in MIS-structure is taken into account introducing an effective insulator thickness. An essential advantage of this correlation function is the finite dispersion of the random potential to which it leads in distinction with the so far known correlation functions leading to a divergent dispersion. The dispersion, an important characteristic of the random potential distribution, determining the amplitude of the potential fluctuations is calculated.
Microwave Imaging Reflectometry for the Measurement of Turbulent Fluctuations in Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazzucato, E.
2004-01-01
This article describes a numerical study of microwave reflectometry for the measurement of turbulent fluctuations in tokamak-like plasmas with a cylindrical geometry. Similarly to what was found previously in plane-stratified plasmas, the results indicate that the characteristics of density fluctuations cannot be uniquely determined from the reflected waves if the latter are allowed to propagate freely to the point of detection, as in standard reflectometry. Again, we find that if the amplitude of fluctuations is below a threshold that is set by the spectrum of poloidal wave numbers, the local characteristics of density fluctuations can be obtained from the phase of reflected waves when these are collected with a wide aperture antenna, and an image of the cutoff is formed onto an array of phase-sensitive detectors
Scattering and Gaussian Fluctuation Theory for Semiflexible Polymers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiangyu Bu
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The worm-like chain is one of the best theoretical models of the semiflexible polymer. The structure factor, which can be obtained by scattering experiment, characterizes the density correlation in different length scales. In the present review, the numerical method to compute the static structure factor of the worm-like chain model and its general properties are demonstrated. Especially, the chain length and persistence length involved multi-scale nature of the worm-like chain model are well discussed. Using the numerical structure factor, Gaussian fluctuation theory of the worm-like chain model can be developed, which is a powerful tool to analyze the structure stability and to predict the spinodal line of the system. The microphase separation of the worm-like diblock copolymer is considered as an example to demonstrate the usage of Gaussian fluctuation theory.
Szczurek, Aleksander; Birk, Udo; Knecht, Hans; Dobrucki, Jurek; Mai, Sabine; Cremer, Christoph
2018-01-01
Methods of super-resolving light microscopy (SRM) have found an exponentially growing range of applications in cell biology, including nuclear structure analyses. Recent developments have proven that Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM), a type of SRM, is particularly useful for enhanced spatial analysis of the cell nucleus due to its highest resolving capability combined with very specific fluorescent labeling. In this commentary we offer a brief review of the latest methodological development in the field of SMLM of chromatin designated DNA Structure Fluctuation Assisted Binding Activated Localization Microscopy (abbreviated as fBALM) as well as its potential future applications in biology and medicine.
Measurement of core velocity fluctuations and the dynamo in a reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Den Hartog, D.J.; Craig, D.; Fiksel, G.; Fontana, P.W.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Chapman, J.T.
1998-01-01
Plasma flow velocity fluctuations have been directly measured in the high temperature magnetically confined plasma in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP). These measurements show that the flow velocity fluctuations are correlated with magnetic field fluctuations. This initial measurement is subject to limitations of spatial localization and other uncertainties, but is evidence for sustainment of the RFP magnetic field configuration by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo. Both the flow velocity and magnetic field fluctuations are the result of global resistive MHD modes of helicity m = 1, n = 5--10 in the core of MST. Chord-averaged flow velocity fluctuations are measured in the core of MST by recording the Doppler shift of impurity line emission with a specialized high resolution and throughput grating spectrometer. Magnetic field fluctuations are recorded with a large array of small edge pickup coils, which allows spectral decomposition into discrete modes and subsequent correlation with the velocity fluctuation data
Localized structures in vibrated emulsions
Falcón, Claudio; Bruggeman, Jake; Pasquali, Matteo; Deegan, Robert D.
2012-04-01
We report our observations of localized structures in a thin layer of an emulsion subjected to vertical oscillations. We observe persistent holes, which are voids that span the layer depth, and kinks, which are fronts between regions with and without fluid. These structures form in response to a finite amplitude perturbation. Combining experimental and rheological measurements, we argue that the ability of these structures to withstand the hydrostatic pressure of the surrounding fluid is due to convection within their rim. For persistent holes the oscillatory component of the convection generates a normal stress which opposes contraction, while for kinks the steady component of the convection generates a shear stress which opposes the hydrostatic stress of the surrounding fluid.
Species packing in eco-evolutionary models of seasonally fluctuating environments.
Kremer, Colin T; Klausmeier, Christopher A
2017-09-01
As ecology and evolution become ever more entwined, many areas of ecological theory are being re-examined. Eco-evolutionary analyses of classic coexistence mechanisms are yielding new insights into the structure and stability of communities. We examine fluctuation-dependent coexistence models, identifying communities that are both ecologically and evolutionarily stable. Members of these communities possess distinct environmental preferences, revealing widespread patterns of limiting similarity. This regularity leads to consistent changes in the structure of communities across fluctuation regimes. However, at high amplitudes, subtle differences in the form of fluctuations dramatically affect the collapse of communities. We also show that identical fluctuations can support multiple evolutionarily stable communities - a novel example of alternative stable states within eco-evolutionary systems. Consequently, the configuration of communities will depend on historical contingencies, including details of the adaptive process. Integrating evolution into the study of coexistence offers new insights, while enriching our understanding of ecology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
Structure-aware Local Sparse Coding for Visual Tracking
Qi, Yuankai
2018-01-24
Sparse coding has been applied to visual tracking and related vision problems with demonstrated success in recent years. Existing tracking methods based on local sparse coding sample patches from a target candidate and sparsely encode these using a dictionary consisting of patches sampled from target template images. The discriminative strength of existing methods based on local sparse coding is limited as spatial structure constraints among the template patches are not exploited. To address this problem, we propose a structure-aware local sparse coding algorithm which encodes a target candidate using templates with both global and local sparsity constraints. For robust tracking, we show local regions of a candidate region should be encoded only with the corresponding local regions of the target templates that are the most similar from the global view. Thus, a more precise and discriminative sparse representation is obtained to account for appearance changes. To alleviate the issues with tracking drifts, we design an effective template update scheme. Extensive experiments on challenging image sequences demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm against numerous stateof- the-art methods.
Sampling Realistic Protein Conformations Using Local Structural Bias
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hamelryck, Thomas Wim; Kent, John T.; Krogh, A.
2006-01-01
The prediction of protein structure from sequence remains a major unsolved problem in biology. The most successful protein structure prediction methods make use of a divide-and-conquer strategy to attack the problem: a conformational sampling method generates plausible candidate structures, which...... are subsequently accepted or rejected using an energy function. Conceptually, this often corresponds to separating local structural bias from the long-range interactions that stabilize the compact, native state. However, sampling protein conformations that are compatible with the local structural bias encoded...... in a given protein sequence is a long-standing open problem, especially in continuous space. We describe an elegant and mathematically rigorous method to do this, and show that it readily generates native-like protein conformations simply by enforcing compactness. Our results have far-reaching implications...
Reynolds stress of localized toroidal modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.
1995-02-01
An investigation of the 2D toroidal eigenmode problem reveals the possibility of a new consistent 2D structure, the dissipative BM-II mode. In contrast to the conventional ballooning mode, the new mode is poloidally localized at π/2 (or -π/2), and possesses significant radial asymmetry. The radial asymmetry, in turn, allows the dissipative BM-II to generate considerably larger Reynolds stress as compared to the standard slab drift type modes. It is also shown that a wide class of localized dissipative toroidal modes are likely to be of the dissipative BM-II nature, suggesting that at the tokamak edge, the fluctuation generated Reynolds stress (a possible source of poloidal flow) can be significant
Reynolds stress of localized toroidal modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.
1995-01-01
An investigation of the 2D toroidal eigenmode problem reveals the possibility of a new consistent 2D structure, the dissipative BM-II mode. In contrast to the conventional ballooning mode, the new mode is poloidally localized at π/2 (or -π/2), and possesses significant radial asymmetry. The radial asymmetry, in turn, allows the dissipative BM-II to generate considerably larger Reynolds stress as compared to the standard slab drift type modes. It is also shown that a wide class of localized dissipative toroidal modes are likely to be of the dissipative BM-II nature, suggesting that at the tokamak edge, the fluctuation generated Reynolds stress (a possible source of poloidal flow) can be significant. (author). 15 refs
Broadband magnetic and density fluctuations in the TCA tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hollenstein, Ch.; Keller, R.; Pochelon, A.; Ryter, F.; Sawley, M.L.; Simm, W.; Weisen, H.
1987-01-01
The results of comparative studies of broadband magnetic and density fluctuations during ohmic discharges in the TCA tokamak are described. Long coherence lengths are observed in poloidal and toroidal directions between magnetic probes in the scrape-off layer. A phase contrast diagnostic provides a newly accessible range of density fluctuations in the bulk plasma with very long wavelengths. Langmuir probes provide similar measurements in the scrape-off layer. Statistical dispersion relations for both density and magnetic fluctuations are deduced and are shown to be substantially different. Low mean poloidal wavenumbers (m ∼ 2 at 100 kHz) are obtained for the magnetic fluctuations, in contrast to the much higher values measured for density fluctuations. The difference between magnetic and density fluctuations is also reflected in different scalings with plasma parameters and with electron confinement time. The helicity of the coherent magnetic structures is analyzed to show that interior regions of the plasma, such as the q = 2 region contribute to the magnetic activity at the edge. This explains why the magnetic fluctuations measured at the edge are likely to reflect the confinement properties of the bulk plasma. The results of detailed probe rotation experiments and coherence measurements give indications of the physical nature and origin of magnetic fluctuations
Thermal fluctuation problems encountered in LMFRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelineau, O.; Sperandio, M.; Martin, P.; Ricard, J.B.; Martin, L.; Bougault, A.
1994-01-01
One of the most significant problems of LMFBRs deals with thermal fluctuations. The main reason is that LMFBRs operate with sodium coolant at very different temperatures which leads to the existence of several areas of transition between hot and cold sodium. These transitions areas which are the critical points, maybe found in the reactor block as well as in the secondary and auxiliary loops. The characteristics of these thermal fluctuations are not easy to quantify because of their complex (random) behaviour, and often demand the use of thermalhydraulic mock-up tests. A good knowledge of these phenomena is essential because of the potential high level of damage they can induce on structures. Two typical thermal fluctuation problems encountered on operation reactors are described. They were not originally anticipated at the design stage of the former Phenix and the latter Superphenix reactors. Description and the analyses performed to describe the damaging process are explained. A well known thermal fluctuation problem is presented. It is pointed out how the feedback from the damages observed on operating reactors is used to prevent the components from any high cycle fatigue
Deriving GENERIC from a Generalized Fluctuation Symmetry
Kraaij, Richard; Lazarescu, Alexandre; Maes, Christian; Peletier, Mark
2018-02-01
Much of the structure of macroscopic evolution equations for relaxation to equilibrium can be derived from symmetries in the dynamical fluctuations around the most typical trajectory. For example, detailed balance as expressed in terms of the Lagrangian for the path-space action leads to gradient zero-cost flow. We expose a new such fluctuation symmetry that implies GENERIC, an extension of gradient flow where a Hamiltonian part is added to the dissipative term in such a way as to retain the free energy as Lyapunov function.
The local structure of high-temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mustre de Leon, J.; Conradson, S.D.; Bishop, A.R.; Raistrick, I.D.
1992-01-01
We show how x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) has been successfully used in the determination of the local crystal structure of high-temperature superconductors, with advantages over traditional diffraction techniques. We review the experimental results that yielded the first evidence for an axial-oxygen-centered lattice instability connected with the superconductivity transition. The interpretation of this instability in terms of a dynamical tunneling model suggests the presence of polarons in these materials. XAFS on Tl 2 Ba 2 CuO 6 and other Tl-based superconductors indicate the presence of local instabilities in the CuO 2 planes of these materials, in addition to axial-oxygen instabilities
Theoretical studies on rapid fluctuations in solar flares
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vlahos, L.
1986-01-01
Rapid fluctuations in the emission of solar bursts may have many different origins, e.g., the acceleration process can have a pulsating structure, the propagation of energetic electrons and ions can be interrupted from plasma instabilities and finally the electromagnetic radiation produced by the interaction of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves may have a pulsating behavior in time. In two separate studies the conditions for rapid fluctuations in solar flare driven emission were analyzed
Theoretical studies on rapid fluctuations in solar flares
Vlahos, Loukas
1986-01-01
Rapid fluctuations in the emission of solar bursts may have many different origins e.g., the acceleration process can have a pulsating structure, the propagation of energetic electrons and ions can be interrupted from plasma instabilities and finally the electromagnetic radiation produced by the interaction of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves may have a pulsating behavior in time. In two separate studies the conditions for rapid fluctuations in solar flare driven emission were analyzed.
Study of thermal - hydraulic sensors signal fluctuations in PWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hennion, F.
1987-10-01
This thesis deals with signal fluctuations of thermal-hydraulic sensors in the main coolant primary of a pressurized water reactor. The aim of this work is to give a first response about the potentiality of use of these noise signals for the functionning monitoring. Two aspects have been studied: - the modelisation of temperature fluctuations of core thermocouples, by a Monte-Carlo method, gives the main characteristics of these signals and their domain of application. - the determination of eigenfrequency in the primary by an acoustic representation could permit the monitoring of local and global thermo-hydraulic conditions [fr
Martin, Juliette; Regad, Leslie; Etchebest, Catherine; Camproux, Anne-Claude
2008-11-15
Interresidue protein contacts in proteins structures and at protein-protein interface are classically described by the amino acid types of interacting residues and the local structural context of the contact, if any, is described using secondary structures. In this study, we present an alternate analysis of interresidue contact using local structures defined by the structural alphabet introduced by Camproux et al. This structural alphabet allows to describe a 3D structure as a sequence of prototype fragments called structural letters, of 27 different types. Each residue can then be assigned to a particular local structure, even in loop regions. The analysis of interresidue contacts within protein structures defined using Voronoï tessellations reveals that pairwise contact specificity is greater in terms of structural letters than amino acids. Using a simple heuristic based on specificity score comparison, we find that 74% of the long-range contacts within protein structures are better described using structural letters than amino acid types. The investigation is extended to a set of protein-protein complexes, showing that the similar global rules apply as for intraprotein contacts, with 64% of the interprotein contacts best described by local structures. We then present an evaluation of pairing functions integrating structural letters to decoy scoring and show that some complexes could benefit from the use of structural letter-based pairing functions.
Perspective on the structure of liquid water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nilsson, A.; Pettersson, L.G.M.
2011-01-01
Graphical abstract: Liquid water can be described in a fluctuating inhomogeneous picture with two local structural motifs that are spatially separated. At ambient temperatures most molecules favor a closer packing than tetrahedral, with strongly distorted hydrogen bonds giving higher density (yellow), which allows the quantized librational modes to be excited and contribute to the entropy, but with enthalpically favored tetrahedrally bonded water patches appearing as fluctuations (blue), i.e. a competition between entropy and enthalpy. Upon cooling water the amount of molecules participating in tetrahedral structures and the size of the tetrahedral patches increase. Highlights: ► Two components maximizing either enthalpy (tetrahedral, low-density) or entropy (non-specific H-bonding, higher density). ► Interconvert discontinuously and ratio depends on temperature. ► Density fluctuations on 1 nm length scale. ► Increasing size in supercooled region. ► Connection to Widom line and 2nd critical point. - Abstract: We present a picture that combines discussions regarding the thermodynamic anomalies in ambient and supercooled water with recent interpretations of X-ray spectroscopy and scattering data of water in the ambient regime. At ambient temperatures most molecules favor a closer packing than tetrahedral, with strongly distorted hydrogen bonds, which allows the quantized librational modes to be excited and contribute to the entropy, but with enthalpically favored tetrahedrally bonded water patches appearing as fluctuations, i.e. a competition between entropy and enthalpy. Upon cooling water the amount of molecules participating in tetrahedral structures and the size of the tetrahedral patches increase. The two local structures are connected to the liquid–liquid critical point hypothesis in supercooled water corresponding to high density liquid and low density liquid. We will discuss the interpretation of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray emission
Garcia, O. E.; Kube, R.; Theodorsen, A.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J. L.
2018-05-01
Plasma fluctuations in the scrape-off layer of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak in ohmic and high confinement modes have been analyzed using gas puff imaging data. In all cases investigated, the time series of emission from a single spatially resolved view into the gas puff are dominated by large-amplitude bursts, attributed to blob-like filament structures moving radially outwards and poloidally. There is a remarkable similarity of the fluctuation statistics in ohmic plasmas and in edge localized mode-free and enhanced D-alpha high confinement mode plasmas. Conditionally averaged waveforms have a two-sided exponential shape with comparable temporal scales and asymmetry, while the burst amplitudes and the waiting times between them are exponentially distributed. The probability density functions and the frequency power spectral densities are similar for all these confinement modes. These results provide strong evidence in support of a stochastic model describing the plasma fluctuations in the scrape-off layer as a super-position of uncorrelated exponential pulses. Predictions of this model are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements in both ohmic and high confinement mode plasmas. The stochastic model thus provides a valuable tool for predicting fluctuation-induced plasma-wall interactions in magnetically confined fusion plasmas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yanchev, I; Slavcheva, G.
1993-01-01
A new expression for the Fourier transform of the binary correlation function of the random potential near the semiconductor-insulator interface is derived. The screening from the metal electrode in MIS-structure is taken into account introducing an effective insulator thickness. An essential advantage of this correlation function is the finite dispersion of the random potential Γ 2 to which it leads in distinction with the so far known correlation functions leading to divergent dispersion. The important characteristic of the random potential distribution Γ 2 determining the amplitude of the potential fluctuations is calculated. 7 refs. (orig.)
Global/local methods research using a common structural analysis framework
Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ransom, Jonathan B.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.; Thompson, Danniella M.
1991-01-01
Methodologies for global/local stress analysis are described including both two- and three-dimensional analysis methods. These methods are being developed within a common structural analysis framework. Representative structural analysis problems are presented to demonstrate the global/local methodologies being developed.
A new simulation model for inhomogeneous Au/n-GaN structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kavasoglu, Nese, E-mail: knesese@gmail.com; Kavasoglu, Abdulkadir Sertap; Metin, Bengul [Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Photovoltaic Material and Device Laboratory (Turkey)
2016-05-15
The larger the device area, the more difficult to carry on homogeneity during the fabrication and following treatments. Structural inhomogeneity may indicate themselves in variations in local electronic device parameters. Electrical current through the potential barriers is exponentially sensitive to the local device parameters and its fluctuations in the Schottky devices. A new simulation program is developed to describe a relation between multiple, random barrier heights and current-voltage characteristics of the Schottky device. We model the barrier height inhomogeneity in terms of random microcells connected in parallel, which have different barrier height values. Analyzing the integral of the simulated light current-voltage curves show that fluctuations of the local barrier height result in a degradation of the open circuit voltage, fill factor and in consequence, of the over all power conversation efficiency. The implementation described here is quite general and can be used to simulate any device parameter fluctuations in the Schottky devices.
Magnetic fluctuations associated with density fluctuations in the tokamak edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.J.; Gentle, K.W.; Ritz, C.P.; Rhodes, T.L.; Bengtson, R.D.
1989-01-01
Electrostatic density and potential fluctuations occurring with high amplitude near the edge of a tokamak are correlated with components of the fluctuating magnetic field measured outside the limiter radius. It has been established that this turbulence is associated with fluctuations in current as well as density and potential. The correlation extends for substantial toroidal distances, but only if the probes are displaced approximately along field lines, consistent with the short coherence lengths poloidally but long coherence lengths parallel to the field which are characteristic for this turbulence. Furthermore, the correlation can be found only with density fluctuations measured inside the limiter radius; density fluctuations behind the limiter have no detectable magnetic concomitant for the toroidally spaced probes used here. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 12 refs, 3 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keskin Ozlem
2007-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background How antibodies recognize and bind to antigens can not be totally explained by rigid shape and electrostatic complimentarity models. Alternatively, pre-existing equilibrium hypothesis states that the native state of an antibody is not defined by a single rigid conformation but instead with an ensemble of similar conformations that co-exist at equilibrium. Antigens bind to one of the preferred conformations making this conformation more abundant shifting the equilibrium. Results Here, two antibodies, a germline antibody of 36–65 Fab and a monoclonal antibody, SPE7 are studied in detail to elucidate the mechanism of antibody-antigen recognition and to understand how a single antibody recognizes different antigens. An elastic network model, Anisotropic Network Model (ANM is used in the calculations. Pre-existing equilibrium is not restricted to apply to antibodies. Intrinsic fluctuations of eight proteins, from different classes of proteins, such as enzymes, binding and transport proteins are investigated to test the suitability of the method. The intrinsic fluctuations are compared with the experimentally observed ligand induced conformational changes of these proteins. The results show that the intrinsic fluctuations obtained by theoretical methods correlate with structural changes observed when a ligand is bound to the protein. The decomposition of the total fluctuations serves to identify the different individual modes of motion, ranging from the most cooperative ones involving the overall structure, to the most localized ones. Conclusion Results suggest that the pre-equilibrium concept holds for antibodies and the promiscuity of antibodies can also be explained this hypothesis: a limited number of conformational states driven by intrinsic motions of an antibody might be adequate to bind to different antigens.
THE STRUCTURE OF THE LOCAL HOT BUBBLE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, W.; Galeazzi, M.; Uprety, Y.; Ursino, E. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, 33124 (United States); Chiao, M.; Collier, M. R.; Porter, F. S.; Snowden, S. L.; Thomas, N. E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Cravens, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Koutroumpa, D. [Universite Versailles St-Quentin (France); Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ. Paris 06 (France); CNRS/INSU, LATMOS-IPSL, F-78280 (France); Kuntz, K. D. [The Henry A. Rowland Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lallement, R. [GEPI Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, F-92190, Meudon (France); Lepri, S. T. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); McCammon, D.; Morgan, K. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Walsh, B. M., E-mail: galeazzi@physics.miami.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)
2017-01-01
Diffuse X-rays from the Local Galaxy ( DXL ) is a sounding rocket mission designed to quantify and characterize the contribution of Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) to the Diffuse X-ray Background and study the properties of the Local Hot Bubble (LHB). Based on the results from the DXL mission, we quantified and removed the contribution of SWCX to the diffuse X-ray background measured by the ROSAT All Sky Survey. The “cleaned” maps were used to investigate the physical properties of the LHB. Assuming thermal ionization equilibrium, we measured a highly uniform temperature distributed around kT = 0.097 keV ± 0.013 keV (FWHM) ± 0.006 keV (systematic). We also generated a thermal emission measure map and used it to characterize the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the LHB, which we found to be in good agreement with the structure of the local cavity measured from dust and gas.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Lacombe
1997-04-01
Full Text Available Radio waves undergo angular scattering when they propagate through a plasma with fluctuating density. We show how the angular scattering coefficient can be calculated as a function of the frequency spectrum of the local density fluctuations. In the Earth's magnetosheath, the ISEE 1-2 propagation experiment measured the spectral power of the density fluctuations for periods in the range 300 to 1 s, which produce most of the scattering. The resultant local angular scattering coefficient can then be calculated for the first time with realistic density fluctuation spectra, which are neither Gaussian nor power laws. We present results on the variation of the local angular scattering coefficient during two crossings of the dayside magnetosheath, from the quasi-perpendicular bow shock to the magnetopause. For a radio wave at twice the local electron plasma frequency, the scattering coefficient in the major part of the magnetosheath is b(2fp ≃ 0.5 – 4 × 10–9 rad2/m. The scattering coefficient is about ten times stronger in a thin sheet (0.1 to1RE just downstream of the shock ramp, and close to the magnetopause.
Particle localization and hyperuniformity of polymer-grafted nanoparticle materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chremos, Alexandros [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Douglas, Jack F.
2017-05-15
The properties of materials largely reflect the degree and character of the localization of the molecules comprising them so that the study and characterization of particle localization has central significance in both fundamental science and material design. Soft materials are often comprised of deformable molecules and many of their unique properties derive from the distinct nature of particle localization. We study localization in a model material composed of soft particles, hard nanoparticles with grafted layers of polymers, where the molecular characteristics of the grafted layers allow us to ''tune'' the softness of their interactions. Soft particles are particular interesting because spatial localization can occur such that density fluctuations on large length scales are suppressed, while the material is disordered at intermediate length scales; such materials are called ''disordered hyperuniform''. We use molecular dynamics simulation to study a liquid composed of polymer-grafted nanoparticles (GNP), which exhibit a reversible self-assembly into dynamic polymeric GNP structures below a temperature threshold, suggesting a liquid-gel transition. We calculate a number of spatial and temporal correlations and we find a significant suppression of density fluctuations upon cooling at large length scales, making these materials promising for the practical fabrication of ''hyperuniform'' materials. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
In situ structure and dynamics of DNA origami determined through molecular dynamics simulations.
Yoo, Jejoong; Aksimentiev, Aleksei
2013-12-10
The DNA origami method permits folding of long single-stranded DNA into complex 3D structures with subnanometer precision. Transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and recently cryo-EM tomography have been used to characterize the properties of such DNA origami objects, however their microscopic structures and dynamics have remained unknown. Here, we report the results of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations that characterized the structural and mechanical properties of DNA origami objects in unprecedented microscopic detail. When simulated in an aqueous environment, the structures of DNA origami objects depart from their idealized targets as a result of steric, electrostatic, and solvent-mediated forces. Whereas the global structural features of such relaxed conformations conform to the target designs, local deformations are abundant and vary in magnitude along the structures. In contrast to their free-solution conformation, the Holliday junctions in the DNA origami structures adopt a left-handed antiparallel conformation. We find the DNA origami structures undergo considerable temporal fluctuations on both local and global scales. Analysis of such structural fluctuations reveals the local mechanical properties of the DNA origami objects. The lattice type of the structures considerably affects global mechanical properties such as bending rigidity. Our study demonstrates the potential of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to play a considerable role in future development of the DNA origami field by providing accurate, quantitative assessment of local and global structural and mechanical properties of DNA origami objects.
Calculation and analysis of thermal–hydraulics fluctuations in pressurized water reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malmir, Hessam; Vosoughi, Naser
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Single-phase thermal–hydraulics noise equations are originally derived in the frequency domain. • The fluctuations of all the coolant parameters are calculated, without any simplifying assumptions. • The radial distribution of the temperature fluctuations in the fuel, gap and cladding are taken into account. • The closed-loop calculations are performed by means of the point kinetics noise theory. • Both the space- and frequency-dependence of the thermal–hydraulics fluctuations are analyzed. - Abstract: Analysis of thermal–hydraulics fluctuations in pressurized water reactors (e.g., local and global temperature or density fluctuations, as well as primary and charging pumps fluctuations) has various applications in calculation or measurement of the core dynamical parameters (temperature or density reactivity coefficients) in addition to thermal–hydraulics surveillance and diagnostics. In this paper, the thermal–hydraulics fluctuations in PWRs are investigated. At first, the single-phase thermal–hydraulics noise equations (in the frequency domain) are originally derived, without any simplifying assumptions. The fluctuations of all the coolant parameters, as well as the radial distribution of the temperature fluctuations in the fuel, gap and cladding are taken into account. Then, the derived governing equations are discretized using the finite volume method (FVM). Based on the discretized equations and the proposed algorithm of solving, a single heated channel noise calculation code (SHC-Noise) is developed, by which the steady-state and fluctuating parameters of PWR fuel assemblies can be calculated. The noise sources include the inlet coolant temperature and velocity fluctuations, in addition to the power density noises. The developed SHC-Noise code is benchmarked in different cases and scenarios. Furthermore, to show the effects of the power feedbacks, the closed-loop calculations are performed by means of the point kinetics noise
Quantum work fluctuation theorem: Nonergodic Brownian motion case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai, Zhan-Wu
2014-01-01
The work fluctuations of a quantum Brownian particle driven by an external force in a general nonergodic heat bath are studied under a general initial state. The exact analytical expression of the work probability distribution function is derived. Results show the existence of a quantum asymptotic fluctuation theorem, which is in general not a direct generalization of its classical counterpart. The form of this theorem is dependent on the structure of the heat bath and the specified initial condition.
Phase transitions in transmission lines with long-range fluctuating correlated disorder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazo, E.; Diez, E.
2013-01-01
In this work we study the localization properties of the disordered classical dual transmission lines, when the values of capacitances {C j } and inductances {L j } fluctuate in phase in the form C j =C 0 +bsin(2πx j ) and L j =L 0 +bsin(2πx j ), where b is the fluctuation amplitude. {x j } is a disordered long-range correlated sequence obtained using the Fourier filtering method which depends on the correlation exponent α. To obtain the transition point in the thermodynamic limit, we study the critical behavior of the participation number D. To do so, we calculate the linear relationship between ln(D) versus ln(N), the relative fluctuation η D and the Binder cumulant B D . The critical value obtained with these three methods is totally coincident between them. In addition, we calculate the critical behavior of the normalized localization length Λ(b) as a function of the system size N. With these data we build the phase diagram (b,α), which separates the extended states from the localized states. A final result of our work is the disappearance of the conduction bands when we introduce a finite number of impurities in random sites. This process can serve as a mechanism of secure communication, since a little alteration of the original sequence of capacitances and inductances, can destroy the band of extended states
Science in the Sandbox: Fluctuations, Friction and Instabilities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Behringer, R.B.; Clement, Eric; Geng, Junfei
2001-01-01
The study of granular materials is a novel and rapidly growing field. These materials are interest for a number of reasons, both practical and theoretical. They exhibit a rich of novel dyanamical states, and they exhibit ‘phases’-solid, liquid, and gas-that resemble conventional thermodynamic...... descriptions for the mean and fluctuating behavior of these materials. We explore recent work that focuses on several important issues. These include force propagation and fluctuations in static and driven systems. It is well known that forces propagate through granular structures along networks-force chains......, whose structure is a function of history. It is much less clear how to describe this process, and even what kind of structures evolve in physical experiments. After a brief overview of the field, we consider models of force propagation and recent experiments to test these models. Among the latter...
Quantum fluctuations from thermal fluctuations in Jacobson formalism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia-Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Ashour, Amani; Alcheikh, Mohammad [Damascus University, Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Alasfar, Lina [Universite Clermont Auvergne, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Aubiere (France); Alsaleh, Salwa; Mahroussah, Ahmed [King Saud University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
2017-09-15
In the Jacobson formalism general relativity is obtained from thermodynamics. This is done by using the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area relation. However, as a black hole gets smaller, its temperature will increase. This will cause the thermal fluctuations to also increase, and these will in turn correct the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area relation. Furthermore, with the reduction in the size of the black hole, quantum effects will also start to dominate. Just as the general relativity can be obtained from thermodynamics in the Jacobson formalism, we propose that the quantum fluctuations to the geometry can be obtained from thermal fluctuations. (orig.)
State-Space Geometry, Statistical Fluctuations, and Black Holes in String Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Bellucci
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study the state-space geometry of various extremal and nonextremal black holes in string theory. From the notion of the intrinsic geometry, we offer a state-space perspective to the black hole vacuum fluctuations. For a given black hole entropy, we explicate the intrinsic geometric meaning of the statistical fluctuations, local and global stability conditions, and long range statistical correlations. We provide a set of physical motivations pertaining to the extremal and nonextremal black holes, namely, the meaning of the chemical geometry and physics of correlation. We illustrate the state-space configurations for general charge extremal black holes. In sequel, we extend our analysis for various possible charge and anticharge nonextremal black holes. From the perspective of statistical fluctuation theory, we offer general remarks, future directions, and open issues towards the intrinsic geometric understanding of the vacuum fluctuations and black holes in string theory.
Density fluctuations in ohmic-, L-mode an H-mode discharges of ASDEX
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dodel, G; Holzhauer, E [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaforschung; Niedermeyer, H; Endler, M; Gerhardt, J; Giannone, L.; Wagner, F; Zohm, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)
1991-01-01
The 119 [mu]m laser scattering device ASDEX was used to investigate the direction of propagation and temporal development of density fluctuations. In ohmic discharges the density fluctuations propagate predominantly in the electron-diamagnetic direction and change direction with NI co-injection. A strong drop in total scattered power together with a further increase in the frequency shift is observed after the build-up of the transport barrier. Similar observations have been reported on other tokamaks. Due to the finite spatial resolution of the scattering system the variation of the fluctuations with local parameters cannot be sufficiently resolved to confirm their nature. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs.
Density fluctuations in ohmic-, L-mode an H-mode discharges of ASDEX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodel, G.; Holzhauer, E.
1991-01-01
The 119 μm laser scattering device ASDEX was used to investigate the direction of propagation and temporal development of density fluctuations. In ohmic discharges the density fluctuations propagate predominantly in the electron-diamagnetic direction and change direction with NI co-injection. A strong drop in total scattered power together with a further increase in the frequency shift is observed after the build-up of the transport barrier. Similar observations have been reported on other tokamaks. Due to the finite spatial resolution of the scattering system the variation of the fluctuations with local parameters cannot be sufficiently resolved to confirm their nature. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs
Band structures and localization properties of aperiodic layered phononic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan Zhizhong, E-mail: zzyan@bit.edu.cn [Department of Applied Mathematics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Chuanzeng [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Siegen, D-57078 Siegen (Germany)
2012-03-15
The band structures and localization properties of in-plane elastic waves with coupling of longitudinal and transverse modes oblique propagating in aperiodic phononic crystals based on Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro sequences are studied. Using transfer matrix method, the concept of the localization factor is introduced and the correctness is testified through the Rytov dispersion relation. For comparison, the perfect periodic structure and the quasi-periodic Fibonacci system are also considered. In addition, the influences of the random disorder, local resonance, translational and/or mirror symmetries on the band structures of the aperiodic phononic crystals are analyzed in this paper.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoeckel, J [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czech Republic). Ustav Fyziky Plazmatu; Soeldner, F; Giannone, L.; Leuterer, F [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)
1991-01-01
The level of edge electrostatic fluctuations decreases and the global particle/energy confinement improves during lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) regimes on ASDEX, when the total power remains below the initial OH power level. For higher powers, the fluctuations increase noticeably, whereas the global confinement is returning to its OH value. The observed increase of fluctuations is poloidally asymmetric and is caused by local power deposition in front of the grill antenna. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs.
Fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges near the QCD critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu Weijie; Wu Yueliang
2010-01-01
We study the fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges, such as the baryon number, the electric charge and the strangeness, at the finite temperature and the nonzero baryon chemical potential in an effective model. The fluctuations are calculated up to the fourth-order and the correlations to the third-order. We find that the second-order fluctuations and correlations have a peak or valley structure when the chiral phase transition takes place with the increase of the baryon chemical potential; the third-order fluctuations and correlations change their signs during the chiral phase transition; and the fourth-order fluctuations have two maxima and one minimum. We also depict contour plots of various fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges in the plane of temperature and the baryon chemical potential. It is found that higher-order fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges are superior to the second-order ones to be used to search for the critical point in heavy ion collision experiments.
Dependence of Tc on the q -ω structure of the spin-fluctuation spectrum
Dahm, Thomas; Scalapino, D. J.
2018-05-01
A phenomenological spin-fluctuation analysis [Dahm et al., Nat. Phys. 5, 217 (2009), 10.1038/nphys1180], based upon inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and angular resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data for YBCO6.6(Tc=61 K) , is used to calculate the functional derivative of the d -wave eigenvalue λd of the linearized gap equation with respect to the imaginary part of the spin susceptibility χ''(q ,ω ) at 70 K. For temperatures near Tc, the variation of Tc with respect to χ''(q ,ω ) is proportional to this functional derivative. We find that above an energy ˜4 Tc the functional derivative becomes positive so that adding spin-fluctuation spectral weight at higher frequencies leads to an increase in Tc. The strongest pairing occurs for large momentum transfers, and small momentum spin-fluctuations suppress the pairing.
Observation of MHD fluctuation by ECE on W7-X first experimental campaign
Tsuchiya, Hayato; Hirsch, Matthias; Weir, Gavin; Hofel, Udo; Beurskens, Marc; Masuzaki, Suguru; W7-X Team
2016-10-01
Wendelstein 7-X is an optimized stellarator for ECRH high density steady-state discharges at reactor relevant collisionality regimes. The first experiment (OP1.1) was successfully conducted from Dec.2015. ECE (Electron Cyclotron Emission diagnostic) is one of the main diagnostic during the first experimental campaign. The 2nd harmonic x-mode emission is obtained by outside-antenna and detected by 32-channel heterodyne radiometer. The frequency band is from 126GHz to 162GHz. Radiometers are calibrated by LN2 temperature and room temperature. The absolute calibration error was estimated to be 10%. The electron temperature radial profile obtained by ECE agrees the Thomson scattering and imaging X-ray spectroscopy result. The asymmetric profile is still indicated due to mix of O2-mode. Fluctuations derived from MHD instability are often observed by electron temperature and magnetic fluctuations. The radial mode structure is clearly identified by ECE. It indicates the existence of magnetic island and from its appearance on both sides of the X2 emission spectrum the knowledge on the localization of the ECE channels can be improved by symmetrization.
Electron paramagnetic resonance parameters and local structure for ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
HUA-MING ZHANG. 1. , GUANG-DUO LU. 1 ... the above ZFSs, the local structure information for the impurity Gd. 3+ is obtained, i.e., .... parameters, extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) measurements and crystal-field spectrum ...
Compare local pocket and global protein structure models by small structure patterns
Cui, Xuefeng
2015-09-09
Researchers proposed several criteria to assess the quality of predicted protein structures because it is one of the essential tasks in the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) competitions. Popular criteria include root mean squared deviation (RMSD), MaxSub score, TM-score, GDT-TS and GDT-HA scores. All these criteria require calculation of rigid transformations to superimpose the the predicted protein structure to the native protein structure. Yet, how to obtain the rigid transformations is unknown or with high time complexity, and, hence, heuristic algorithms were proposed. In this work, we carefully design various small structure patterns, including the ones specifically tuned for local pockets. Such structure patterns are biologically meaningful, and address the issue of relying on a sufficient number of backbone residue fragments for existing methods. We sample the rigid transformations from these small structure patterns; and the optimal superpositions yield by these small structures are refined and reported. As a result, among 11; 669 pairs of predicted and native local protein pocket models from the CASP10 dataset, the GDT-TS scores calculated by our method are significantly higher than those calculated by LGA. Moreover, our program is computationally much more efficient. Source codes and executables are publicly available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/prosta/
Fluctuation theory for radiative transfer in random media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bal, Guillaume; Jing Wenjia
2011-01-01
We consider the effect of small scale random fluctuations of the constitutive coefficients on boundary measurements of solutions to radiative transfer equations. As the correlation length of the random oscillations tends to zero, the transport solution is well approximated by a deterministic, averaged, solution. In this paper, we analyze the random fluctuations to the averaged solution, which may be interpreted as a central limit correction to homogenization. With the inverse transport problem in mind, we characterize the random structure of the singular components of the transport measurement operator. In regimes of moderate scattering, such components provide stable reconstructions of the constitutive parameters in the transport equation. We show that the random fluctuations strongly depend on the decorrelation properties of the random medium.
Tian, Shu; Zhang, Ye; Yan, Yimin; Su, Nan; Zhang, Junping
2016-09-01
Latent low-rank representation (LatLRR) has been attached considerable attention in the field of remote sensing image segmentation, due to its effectiveness in exploring the multiple subspace structures of data. However, the increasingly heterogeneous texture information in the high spatial resolution remote sensing images, leads to more severe interference of pixels in local neighborhood, and the LatLRR fails to capture the local complex structure information. Therefore, we present a local sparse structure constrainted latent low-rank representation (LSSLatLRR) segmentation method, which explicitly imposes the local sparse structure constraint on LatLRR to capture the intrinsic local structure in manifold structure feature subspaces. The whole segmentation framework can be viewed as two stages in cascade. In the first stage, we use the local histogram transform to extract the texture local histogram features (LHOG) at each pixel, which can efficiently capture the complex and micro-texture pattern. In the second stage, a local sparse structure (LSS) formulation is established on LHOG, which aims to preserve the local intrinsic structure and enhance the relationship between pixels having similar local characteristics. Meanwhile, by integrating the LSS and the LatLRR, we can efficiently capture the local sparse and low-rank structure in the mixture of feature subspace, and we adopt the subspace segmentation method to improve the segmentation accuracy. Experimental results on the remote sensing images with different spatial resolution show that, compared with three state-of-the-art image segmentation methods, the proposed method achieves more accurate segmentation results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kar, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, S.P.
2011-01-01
Graphical abstract: Spatial symmetry-preserving sinusoidal fluctuations of symmetric double-well parameters cause enhancement of tunneling at ω ∼ ω 0 while rectified sinusoidal fluctuations suppress it at ω∼(ω 0 )/2 . Research highlights: → Spatial symmetry-preserving sinusoidal and rectified sinusoidal fluctuations of symmetrical double-well parameters have contrasting effects on tunneling. → Sinusoidal fluctuations at frequency ω ∼ ω 0 causes resonance enhancement of tunneling, ω 0 being the 0 + ↔ 1 + transition frequency. → Under rectified sinusoidal fluctuations at a frequency ω∼1/2 ω 0 suppression or coherent destruction of tunneling is observed due to barrier localization. → The observations are explained by energy-gain analysis and analysis of the time-dependent overlap amplitudes. - Abstract: We investigate how tunneling-time gets affected by spatial symmetry preserving fluctuations in the parameters determining the width, barrier height and well-depth of a symmetric double-well potential. Sinusoidal and rectified sinusoidal fluctuations of the well-parameters are shown to have contrasting effects. Significant enhancement of tunneling is noticed when the well-parameters fluctuate sinusoidally with frequency ω ∼ ω 0 while under rectified sinusoidal perturbation, quenching of tunneling takes place at a fluctuation frequency ω∼1/2 ω 0 ,ω 0 , being the frequency of the lowest transition allowed by the fluctuation induced spatial perturbation of even parity. Time-dependent Hellmann-Feynman theorem is invoked to analyze the energy changes induced by fluctuations. It turns out that the enhancement of tunneling in the sinusoidally fluctuating double well at frequency ω ∼ ω 0 is caused by transition to 1 ± levels under the barrier while in the rectified sinusoidal field at ω∼1/2 ω 0 , a two-photon like process suppresses the tunneling by inducing barrier localization.
Intermittent character of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruno, Roberto; Carbone, Vincenzo; Chapman, Sandra; Hnat, Bogdan; Noullez, Alain; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca
2007-01-01
Interplanetary magnetic field magnitude fluctuations are notoriously more intermittent than velocity fluctuations in both fast and slow wind. This behavior has been interpreted in terms of the anomalous scaling observed in passive scalars in fully developed hydrodynamic turbulence. In this paper, the strong intermittent nature of the interplanetary magnetic field is briefly discussed comparing results performed during different phases of the solar cycle. The scaling properties of the interplanetary magnetic field magnitude show solar cycle variation that can be distinguished in the scaling exponents revealed by structure functions. The scaling exponents observed around the solar maximum coincide, within the errors, to those measured for passive scalars in hydrodynamic turbulence. However, it is also found that the values are not universal in the sense that the solar cycle variation may be reflected in dependence on the structure of the velocity field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez R, J.T.
1998-01-01
This thesis presents a microscopic model for the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic of superfluid helium ( 4 He), model developed by means of the Maximum Entropy Method (Maxent). In the chapter 1, it is demonstrated the necessity to developing a microscopic model for the fluctuating hydrodynamic of the superfluid helium, starting from to show a brief overview of the theories and experiments developed in order to explain the behavior of the superfluid helium. On the other hand, it is presented the Morozov heuristic method for the construction of the non-linear hydrodynamic fluctuating of simple fluid. Method that will be generalized for the construction of the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic of the superfluid helium. Besides, it is presented a brief summary of the content of the thesis. In the chapter 2, it is reproduced the construction of a Generalized Fokker-Planck equation, (GFP), for a distribution function associated with the coarse grained variables. Function defined with aid of a nonequilibrium statistical operator ρhut FP that is evaluated as Wigneris function through ρ CG obtained by Maxent. Later this equation of GFP is reduced to a non-linear local FP equation from considering a slow and Markov process in the coarse grained variables. In this equation appears a matrix D mn defined with a nonequilibrium coarse grained statistical operator ρhut CG , matrix elements are used in the construction of the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamics equations of the superfluid helium. In the chapter 3, the Lagrange multipliers are evaluated for to determine ρhut CG by means of the local equilibrium statistical operator ρhut l -tilde with the hypothesis that the system presents small fluctuations. Also are determined the currents associated with the coarse grained variables and furthermore are evaluated the matrix elements D mn but with aid of a quasi equilibrium statistical operator ρhut qe instead of the local equilibrium operator ρhut l -tilde. Matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobson, A.R.
1981-04-01
A laser diagnostic scheme is described which facilitates localization of density fluctuations along the line of sight. The method exploits both the generally observed anisotropy of density fluctuations in low-beta plasmas, as well as the twisting of the magnetic field which occurs across the minor diameter of reversed-field pinches, spheromaks, etc. Both interferometric and schlieren variations are discussed
Consideration of magnetic field fluctuation measurements in a torus plasma with heavy ion beam probe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimizu, A.; Fujisawa, A.; Ohshima, S.; Nakano, H.
2004-03-01
The article discusses feasibility of magnetic fluctuation measurement with a heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) in an axisymmetric torus configuration. In the measurements, path integral fluctuation along the probing beam orbit should be considered as is similar to the density fluctuation measurements with HIBP. A calculation, based on an analytic formula, is performed to estimate the path integral effects for fluctuation patterns that have difference in profile, the correlation length, the radial wavelength, and the poloidal mode number. In addition, the large distance between the plasma and the detector is considered to lessen the path integral effect. As a result, it is found that local fluctuation of magnetic field can be properly detected with a heavy ion beam probe. (author)
Fine-Scale Fluctuations in the Corona Observed with Hi-C
Winebarger, Amy; Schuler, Timothy
2013-01-01
The High Resolution Coronal Imager(HiC) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket on 2012 July11 and captured roughly 345 s of high spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in a narrowband 193 Angstrom channel. We have analyzed the fluctuations in intensity of Active Region11520.We selected events based on a lifetime greater than 11s (twoHiC frames)and intensities greater than a threshold determined from the average background intensity in a pixel and the photon and electronic noise. We find fluctuations occurring down to the smallest timescale(11s).Typical intensity fluctuations are 20% background intensity, while some events peaka t100%the background intensity.Generally the fluctuations are clustered in solar structures, particularly the moss.We interpret the fluctuations in the moss as indicative of heating events. We use the observed events to model the active region core.
Local order and concentration fluctuations in K-Pb and Rb-Pb alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akinlade, O.
1992-08-01
The concentration fluctuations in the long wavelength limit S cc (0), short range order parameter and free energy of mixing of K-Pb and Rb-Pb alloys have been studied within the framework of the quasi-chemical theory. It is observed that the simple model could be used to shed more insight into the nature of chemical ordering that exists in such strongly compound forming binary alloys. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab
Nanoscale MOS devices: device parameter fluctuations and low-frequency noise (Invited Paper)
Wong, Hei; Iwai, Hiroshi; Liou, J. J.
2005-05-01
It is well-known in conventional MOS transistors that the low-frequency noise or flicker noise is mainly contributed by the trapping-detrapping events in the gate oxide and the mobility fluctuation in the surface channel. In nanoscale MOS transistors, the number of trapping-detrapping events becomes less important because of the large direct tunneling current through the ultrathin gate dielectric which reduces the probability of trapping-detrapping and the level of leakage current fluctuation. Other noise sources become more significant in nanoscale devices. The source and drain resistance noises have greater impact on the drain current noise. Significant contribution of the parasitic bipolar transistor noise in ultra-short channel and channel mobility fluctuation to the channel noise are observed. The channel mobility fluctuation in nanoscale devices could be due to the local composition fluctuation of the gate dielectric material which gives rise to the permittivity fluctuation along the channel and results in gigantic channel potential fluctuation. On the other hand, the statistical variations of the device parameters across the wafer would cause the noise measurements less accurate which will be a challenge for the applicability of analytical flicker noise model as a process or device evaluation tool for nanoscale devices. Some measures for circumventing these difficulties are proposed.
Indoor footstep localization from structural dynamics instrumentation
Poston, Jeffrey D.; Buehrer, R. Michael; Tarazaga, Pablo A.
2017-05-01
Measurements from accelerometers originally deployed to measure a building's structural dynamics can serve a new role: locating individuals moving within a building. Specifically, this paper proposes measurements of footstep-generated vibrations as a novel source of information for localization. The complexity of wave propagation in a building (e.g., dispersion and reflection) limits the utility of existing algorithms designed to locate, for example, the source of sound in a room or radio waves in free space. This paper develops enhancements for arrival time determination and time difference of arrival localization in order to address the complexities posed by wave propagation within a building's structure. Experiments with actual measurements from an instrumented public building demonstrate the potential of locating footsteps to sub-meter accuracy. Furthermore, this paper explains how to forecast performance in other buildings with different sensor configurations. This localization capability holds the potential to assist public safety agencies in building evacuation and incidence response, to facilitate occupancy-based optimization of heating or cooling and to inform facility security.
A Modified Water-Table Fluctuation Method to Characterize Regional Groundwater Discharge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lihong Yang
2018-04-01
Full Text Available A modified Water-Table Fluctuation (WTF method is developed to quantitatively characterize the regional groundwater discharge patterns in stressed aquifers caused by intensive agricultural pumping. Two new parameters are defined to express the secondary information in the observed data. One is infiltration efficiency and the other is discharge modulus (recurring head loss due to aquifer discharge. An optimization procedure is involved to estimate these parameters, based on continuous groundwater head measurements and precipitation records. Using the defined parameters and precipitation time series, water level changes are calculated for individual wells with fidelity. The estimated parameters are then used to further address the characterization of infiltration and to better quantify the discharge at the regional scale. The advantage of this method is that it considers recharge and discharge simultaneously, whereas the general WTF methods mostly focus on recharge. In the case study, the infiltration efficiency reveals that the infiltration is regionally controlled by the intrinsic characteristics of the aquifer, and locally distorted by engineered hydraulic structures that alter surface water-groundwater interactions. The seasonality of groundwater discharge is characterized by the monthly discharge modulus. These results from individual wells are clustered into groups that are consistent with the local land use pattern and cropping structures.
Correlation length of magnetosheath fluctuations: Cluster statistics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Gutynska
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Magnetosheath parameters are usually described by gasdynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models but these models cannot account for one of the most important sources of magnetosheath fluctuations – the foreshock. Earlier statistical processing of a large amount of magnetosheath observations has shown that the magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma flow fluctuations downstream of the quasiparallel shock are much larger than those at the opposite flank. These studies were based on the observations of a single spacecraft and thus they could not provide full information on propagation of the fluctuations through the magnetosheath.
We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations using two years of Cluster observations. We discuss the dependence of the cross-correlation coefficients between different spacecraft pairs on the orientation of the separation vector with respect to the average magnetic field and plasma flow vectors and other parameters. We have found that the correlation length does not exceed ~1 R_{E} in the analyzed frequency range (0.001–0.125 Hz and does not depend significantly on the magnetic field or plasma flow direction. A close connection of cross-correlation coefficients computed in the magnetosheath with the cross-correlation coefficients between a solar wind monitor and a magnetosheath spacecraft suggests that solar wind structures persist on the background of magnetosheath fluctuations.
Correlation length of magnetosheath fluctuations: Cluster statistics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Gutynska
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Magnetosheath parameters are usually described by gasdynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models but these models cannot account for one of the most important sources of magnetosheath fluctuations – the foreshock. Earlier statistical processing of a large amount of magnetosheath observations has shown that the magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma flow fluctuations downstream of the quasiparallel shock are much larger than those at the opposite flank. These studies were based on the observations of a single spacecraft and thus they could not provide full information on propagation of the fluctuations through the magnetosheath. We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations using two years of Cluster observations. We discuss the dependence of the cross-correlation coefficients between different spacecraft pairs on the orientation of the separation vector with respect to the average magnetic field and plasma flow vectors and other parameters. We have found that the correlation length does not exceed ~1 RE in the analyzed frequency range (0.001–0.125 Hz and does not depend significantly on the magnetic field or plasma flow direction. A close connection of cross-correlation coefficients computed in the magnetosheath with the cross-correlation coefficients between a solar wind monitor and a magnetosheath spacecraft suggests that solar wind structures persist on the background of magnetosheath fluctuations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michele C ePereira e Silva
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The milieu in soil in which microorganisms dwell is never constant. Conditions such as temperature, water availability, pH and nutrients frequently change, impacting the overall functioning of the soil system. To understand the effects of such factors on soil functioning, proxies (indicators of soil function are needed that, in a sensitive manner, reveal normal amplitude of variation. Thus, the so-called normal operating range (NOR of soil can be defined. In this study we determined different components of nitrification by analyzing, in eight agricultural soils, how the community structures and sizes of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA, respectively, and their activity, fluctuate over spatial and temporal scales. The results indicated that soil pH and soil type are the main factors that influence the size and structure of the AOA and AOB, as well as their function. The nitrification rates varied between 0.11 ± 0.03 µgN.h-1.gdw-1 and 1.68 ± 0.11 µgN.h-1.gdw-1, being higher in soils with higher clay content (1.09 ± 0.12 µgN.h-1.gdw-1 and lower in soils with lower clay percentages (0.27 ± 0.04 µgN.h-1.gdw-1. Nitrifying activity was driven by soil pH, mostly related to its effect on AOA but not on AOB abundance. Regarding the influence of soil parameters, clay content was the main soil factor shaping the structure of both the AOA and AOB communities. Overall, the potential nitrifying activities were higher and more variable over time in the clayey than in the sandy soils. Whereas the structure of AOB fluctuated more (62.7 ± 2.10% the structure of AOA communities showed lower amplitude of variation (53.65 ± 3.37%. Similar trends were observed for the sizes of these communities. The present work represents a first step towards defining a NOR for soil nitrification. Moreover, the clear effect of soil texture established here suggests that the NOR should be defined in a soil-type-specific manner.
Elastic constants from microscopic strain fluctuations
Sengupta; Nielaba; Rao; Binder
2000-02-01
Fluctuations of the instantaneous local Lagrangian strain epsilon(ij)(r,t), measured with respect to a static "reference" lattice, are used to obtain accurate estimates of the elastic constants of model solids from atomistic computer simulations. The measured strains are systematically coarse-grained by averaging them within subsystems (of size L(b)) of a system (of total size L) in the canonical ensemble. Using a simple finite size scaling theory we predict the behavior of the fluctuations as a function of L(b)/L and extract elastic constants of the system in the thermodynamic limit at nonzero temperature. Our method is simple to implement, efficient, and general enough to be able to handle a wide class of model systems, including those with singular potentials without any essential modification. We illustrate the technique by computing isothermal elastic constants of "hard" and "soft" disk triangular solids in two dimensions from Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. We compare our results with those from earlier simulations and theory.
Extremal-point densities of interface fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toroczkai, Z.; Korniss, G.; Das Sarma, S.; Zia, R. K. P.
2000-01-01
We introduce and investigate the stochastic dynamics of the density of local extrema (minima and maxima) of nonequilibrium surface fluctuations. We give a number of analytic results for interface fluctuations described by linear Langevin equations, and for on-lattice, solid-on-solid surface-growth models. We show that, in spite of the nonuniversal character of the quantities studied, their behavior against the variation of the microscopic length scales can present generic features, characteristic of the macroscopic observables of the system. The quantities investigated here provide us with tools that give an unorthodox approach to the dynamics of surface morphologies: a statistical analysis from the short-wavelength end of the Fourier decomposition spectrum. In addition to surface-growth applications, our results can be used to solve the asymptotic scalability problem of massively parallel algorithms for discrete-event simulations, which are extensively used in Monte Carlo simulations on parallel architectures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Distortion of Local Atomic Structures in Amorphous Ge-Sb-Te Phase Change Materials
Hirata, A.; Ichitsubo, T.; Guan, P. F.; Fujita, T.; Chen, M. W.
2018-05-01
The local atomic structures of amorphous Ge-Sb-Te phase-change materials have yet to be clarified and the rapid crystal-amorphous phase change resulting in distinct optical contrast is not well understood. We report the direct observation of local atomic structures in amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 using "local" reverse Monte Carlo modeling dedicated to an angstrom-beam electron diffraction analysis. The results corroborated the existence of local structures with rocksalt crystal-like topology that were greatly distorted compared to the crystal symmetry. This distortion resulted in the breaking of ideal octahedral atomic environments, thereby forming local disordered structures that basically satisfied the overall amorphous structure factor. The crystal-like distorted octahedral structures could be the main building blocks in the formation of the overall amorphous structure of Ge-Sb-Te.
Local Energies and Energy Fluctuations — Applied to the High Entropy Alloy CrFeCoNi
Fukushima, Tetsuya; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazunori; Ogura, Masako; Zeller, Rudolf; Dederichs, Peter H.
2017-11-01
High entropy alloys show a variety of fascinating properties like high hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, etc. They are random solid solutions of many components with rather high concentrations. We perform ab-initio calculations for the high entropy alloy CrFeCoNi, which equal concentration of 25% for each element. By the KKRnano program package, which is based on an order-N screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method, we consider a face-centered cubic (FCC) supercell with 1372 randomly distributed elements, and in addition also smaller supercells with 500 and 256 atoms. It is found from our calculations that the local moments of the Cr atoms show a large environmental variation, ranging from -1.70 μB to +1.01 μB with an average of about -0.51 μB. We present a new method to calculate "local energies" of all atoms. This is based on the partitioning of the whole space into Voronoi cells and allows to calculate the energetic contribution of each atomic cell to the total energy of the supercell. The supercell calculations show very large variations of the local energies, analogous to the variations of the local moments. This shows that the random solid solution is not stable and has a tendency to form an L12-structure with the Cr-atoms ordered at the corner of the cube and the elements Fe, Co, and Ni randomly distributed on the three other FCC sublattices. For this structure the variation of the local moments are much smaller.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takechi, M.; Matsunaga, G.; Takagi, S.
1999-09-01
Toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) destabilized by the pressure gradient of energetic alpha particles may expel the alpha particles before thermalization. TAE is important for tokamaks, and for helical systems (stellarators) as well. In CHS (compact helical system) TAE localized in the plasma core are destabilized when the plasma current is induced by co-injection of neutral beams. The observed TAE exhibits a ballooning nature. The internal structure of TAE was measured with a soft X-ray detector. The soft X-ray fluctuations level for TAE is too low to obtain the radial profiles of fluctuation intensities. (Tanaka, M.)
Thermalization vs. isotropization and azimuthal fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mrowczynski, Stanislaw
2005-01-01
Hydrodynamic description requires a local thermodynamic equilibrium of the system under study but an approximate hydrodynamic behaviour is already manifested when a momentum distribution of liquid components is not of equilibrium form but merely isotropic. While the process of equilibration is relatively slow, the parton system becomes isotropic rather fast due to the plasma instabilities. Azimuthal fluctuations observed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are argued to distinguish between a fully equilibrated and only isotropic parton system produced in the collision early stage
Wall-pressure fluctuations beneath a spatially evolving turbulent boundary layer
Mahesh, Krishnan; Kumar, Praveen
2016-11-01
Wall-pressure fluctuations beneath a turbulent boundary layer are important in applications dealing with structural deformation and acoustics. Simulations are performed for flat plate and axisymmetric, spatially evolving zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers at inflow Reynolds number of 1400 and 2200 based on momentum thickness. The simulations generate their own inflow using the recycle-rescale method. The results for mean velocity and second-order statistics show excellent agreement with the data available in literature. The spectral characteristics of wall-pressure fluctuations and their relation to flow structure will be discussed. This work is supported by ONR.
Intrinsically-generated fluctuating activity in excitatory-inhibitory networks
Mastrogiuseppe, Francesca; Ostojic, Srdjan
2017-01-01
Recurrent networks of non-linear units display a variety of dynamical regimes depending on the structure of their synaptic connectivity. A particularly remarkable phenomenon is the appearance of strongly fluctuating, chaotic activity in networks of deterministic, but randomly connected rate units. How this type of intrinsically generated fluctuations appears in more realistic networks of spiking neurons has been a long standing question. To ease the comparison between rate and spiking networks, recent works investigated the dynamical regimes of randomly-connected rate networks with segregated excitatory and inhibitory populations, and firing rates constrained to be positive. These works derived general dynamical mean field (DMF) equations describing the fluctuating dynamics, but solved these equations only in the case of purely inhibitory networks. Using a simplified excitatory-inhibitory architecture in which DMF equations are more easily tractable, here we show that the presence of excitation qualitatively modifies the fluctuating activity compared to purely inhibitory networks. In presence of excitation, intrinsically generated fluctuations induce a strong increase in mean firing rates, a phenomenon that is much weaker in purely inhibitory networks. Excitation moreover induces two different fluctuating regimes: for moderate overall coupling, recurrent inhibition is sufficient to stabilize fluctuations; for strong coupling, firing rates are stabilized solely by the upper bound imposed on activity, even if inhibition is stronger than excitation. These results extend to more general network architectures, and to rate networks receiving noisy inputs mimicking spiking activity. Finally, we show that signatures of the second dynamical regime appear in networks of integrate-and-fire neurons. PMID:28437436
DAMPING OF ELECTRON DENSITY STRUCTURES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERSTELLAR SCINTILLATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, K. W.; Terry, P. W.
2011-01-01
The forms of electron density structures in kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) turbulence are studied in connection with scintillation. The focus is on small scales L ∼ 10 8 -10 10 cm where the KAW regime is active in the interstellar medium, principally within turbulent H II regions. Scales at 10 times the ion gyroradius and smaller are inferred to dominate scintillation in the theory of Boldyrev et al. From numerical solutions of a decaying KAW turbulence model, structure morphology reveals two types of localized structures, filaments and sheets, and shows that they arise in different regimes of resistive and diffusive damping. Minimal resistive damping yields localized current filaments that form out of Gaussian-distributed initial conditions. When resistive damping is large relative to diffusive damping, sheet-like structures form. In the filamentary regime, each filament is associated with a non-localized magnetic and density structure, circularly symmetric in cross section. Density and magnetic fields have Gaussian statistics (as inferred from Gaussian-valued kurtosis) while density gradients are strongly non-Gaussian, more so than current. This enhancement of non-Gaussian statistics in a derivative field is expected since gradient operations enhance small-scale fluctuations. The enhancement of density gradient kurtosis over current kurtosis is not obvious, yet it suggests that modest density fluctuations may yield large scintillation events during pulsar signal propagation. In the sheet regime the same statistical observations hold, despite the absence of localized filamentary structures. Probability density functions are constructed from statistical ensembles in both regimes, showing clear formation of long, highly non-Gaussian tails.
Advantages of storage in a fluctuating environment.
Kooi, B.W.; Troost, T.A.
2006-01-01
We will elaborate the evolutionary course of an ecosystem consisting of a population in a chemostat environment with periodically fluctuating nutrient supply. The organisms that make up the population consist of structural biomass and energy storage compartments. In a constant chemostat environment
Charge fluctuations in high-electron-mobility transistors: a review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, F.
1993-01-01
The quasi-two-dimensional carrier population, free to move within a near-perfect crystalline matrix, is the key to remarkable improvements in signal gain, current density and quiet operation. Current-fluctuation effects are central to all of these properties. Some of these are easily understood within linear-response theory, but other fluctuation phenomena are less tractable. In particular, nonequilibrium noise poses significant theoretical challenges, both descriptive and predictive. This paper examines a few of the basic physical issues which motivate device-noise theory. The structure and operation of high-electron-mobility transistor are first reviewed. The recent nonlinear fluctuation theory of Stanton and Wilkins (1987) help to identify at least some of the complicated noise physics which can arise when carriers in GaAs-like conduction bands are subjected to high fields. Simple examples of fluctuation-dominated behaviour are discussed, with numerical illustrations. 20 refs., 9 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pradel, P.
1984-05-01
After a brief overview of the thermohydraulical conditions of liquid sodium leading to important temperature fluctuations near the metallic surfaces, the author examines the transfer modes of these fluctuations in the structure thickness and the long term mechanical effects. Dimensioning models based on thermal and metallurgical properties are under study for structures subject to such sodium loads [fr
Enzymatic conformational fluctuations along the reaction coordinate of cytidine deaminase
Noonan, Ryan C.; Carter, Charles W.; Bagdassarian, Carey K.
2002-01-01
Analysis of the crystal structures for cytidine deaminase complexed with substrate analog 3-deazacytidine, transition-state analog zebularine 3,4-hydrate, and product uridine establishes significant changes in the magnitude of atomic-scale fluctuations along the (approximate) reaction coordinate of this enzyme. Differences in fluctuations between the substrate analog complex, transition-state analog complex, and product complex are monitored via changes in corresponding crystallographic tempe...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nam, Y. U., E-mail: yunam@nfri.re.kr; Wi, H. M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zoletnik, S.; Lampert, M. [Wigner RCP Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Kovácsik, Ákos [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest Technical University, Budapest (Hungary)
2014-11-15
Beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) has recently been upgraded. The background intensity was reduced from 30% to 2% by suppressing the stray lights. This allows acquisition of the relative electron density profiles on the plasma edge without background subtraction from the beam power modulation signals. The KSTAR BES system has its spatial resolution of 1 cm, the temporal resolution of 2 MHz, and a total 32 channel (8 radial × 4 poloidal) avalanche photo diode array. Most measurements were done on the plasma edge, r/a ∼ 0.9, with 8 cm radial measurement width that covers the pedestal range. High speed density profile measurements reveal temporal behaviors of fast transient events, such as the precursors of edge localized modes and the transitions between confinement modes. Low background level also allows analysis of the edge density fluctuation patterns with reduced background fluctuations. Propagation of the density structures can be investigated by comparing the phase delays between the spatially distributed channels.
Muon spin relaxation measurements of the fluctuation modes in spin-glass AgNm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heffner, R.H.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E.; MacLaughlin, D.E.; Dodds, S.A.
1983-01-01
Recently reported zero-field ..mu..SR measurements below the spin-glass transition temperature in AgMn (1.6 at%) show a temperature dependent inhomogeneous width. The authors discuss these data in terms of a model in which the local field undergoes limited-amplitude fluctuations. The authors find that both very slow (approx. = 0.3 ..mu..s/sup -1/) and rapid (approx. = 3000 ..mu..s/sup -1/) fluctuations are required. 10 references, 1 figure, 1 table.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: schroer@cbpf.br
2002-08-01
The lightfront quantization of the 70s is reviewed in the more rigorous setting of lightfront (LF) restriction of free fields in which the lightfront is considered to be linear extension of the upper causal horizon of a wedge region. Particular attention is given to the change of localization structure in passing from the wedge to its horizon which results in the emergence of a transverse quantum mechanical substructure of the QFT on the horizon and its lightfront extension. The vacuum fluctuations of QFT on the LF are compressed into the direction of the lightray (where they become associated with a chiral QFT) and lead to the notion of area density of a 'split localization' entropy. To overcome the limitation of this restriction approach and include interacting theories with non-canonical short distance behavior, we introduce a new concept of algebraic lightfront holography which uses ideas of algebraic QFT, in particular the modular structure of its associated local operator algebras. In this way the localization properties of LF degrees of freedom including the absence of transverse vacuum fluctuations are confirmed to be stable against interactions. The important universality aspect of lightfront holography is emphasized. Only in this way one is able to extract from the 'split-localization' entropy a split-independent additive entropy-like measure of the entanglement of the vacuum upon restriction to the horizon algebra. (author)
On the origin of shape fluctuations of the cell nucleus.
Chu, Fang-Yi; Haley, Shannon C; Zidovska, Alexandra
2017-09-26
The nuclear envelope (NE) presents a physical boundary between the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm, sandwiched in between two highly active systems inside the cell: cytoskeleton and chromatin. NE defines the shape and size of the cell nucleus, which increases during the cell cycle, accommodating for chromosome decondensation followed by genome duplication. In this work, we study nuclear shape fluctuations at short time scales of seconds in human cells. Using spinning disk confocal microscopy, we observe fast fluctuations of the NE, visualized by fluorescently labeled lamin A, and of the chromatin globule surface (CGS) underneath the NE, visualized by fluorescently labeled histone H2B. Our findings reveal that fluctuation amplitudes of both CGS and NE monotonously decrease during the cell cycle, serving as a reliable cell cycle stage indicator. Remarkably, we find that, while CGS and NE typically fluctuate in phase, they do exhibit localized regions of out-of-phase motion, which lead to separation of NE and CGS. To explore the mechanism behind these shape fluctuations, we use biochemical perturbations. We find the shape fluctuations of CGS and NE to be both thermally and actively driven, the latter caused by forces from chromatin and cytoskeleton. Such undulations might affect gene regulation as well as contribute to the anomalously high rates of nuclear transport by, e.g., stirring of molecules next to NE, or increasing flux of molecules through the nuclear pores.
Mannheim, Philip D
2005-01-01
This timely and valuable book provides a detailed pedagogical introduction and treatment of the brane-localized gravity program of Randall and Sundrum, in which gravitational signals are able to localize around our four-dimensional world in the event that it is a brane embedded in an infinitely-sized, higher dimensional anti-de Sitter bulk space. A completely self-contained development of the material needed for brane-world studies is provided for both students and workers in the field, with a significant amount of the material being previously unpublished. Particular attention is given to issues not ordinarily treated in the brane-world literature, such as the completeness of tensor gravitational fluctuation modes, the causality of brane-world propagators, and the status of the massless graviton fluctuation mode in brane worlds in which it is not normalizable.
Electron-cyclotron wave scattering by edge density fluctuations in ITER
Tsironis, Christos; Peeters, Arthur G.; Isliker, Heinz; Strintzi, Dafni; Chatziantonaki, Ioanna; Vlahos, Loukas
2009-11-01
The effect of edge turbulence on the electron-cyclotron wave propagation in ITER is investigated with emphasis on wave scattering, beam broadening, and its influence on localized heating and current drive. A wave used for electron-cyclotron current drive (ECCD) must cross the edge of the plasma, where density fluctuations can be large enough to bring on wave scattering. The scattering angle due to the density fluctuations is small, but the beam propagates over a distance of several meters up to the resonance layer and even small angle scattering leads to a deviation of several centimeters at the deposition location. Since the localization of ECCD is crucial for the control of neoclassical tearing modes, this issue is of great importance to the ITER design. The wave scattering process is described on the basis of a Fokker-Planck equation, where the diffusion coefficient is calculated analytically as well as computed numerically using a ray tracing code.
Strength through structure: visualization and local assessment of the trabecular bone structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raeth, C; Monetti, R; Bauer, J; Sidorenko, I; Mueller, D; Matsuura, M; Lochmueller, E-M; Zysset, P; Eckstein, F
2008-01-01
The visualization and subsequent assessment of the inner human bone structures play an important role for better understanding the disease- or drug-induced changes of bone in the context of osteoporosis giving prospect for better predictions of bone strength and thus of the fracture risk of osteoporotic patients. In this work, we show how the complex trabecular bone structure can be visualized using μCT imaging techniques at an isotropic resolution of 26 μm. We quantify these structures by calculating global and local topological and morphological measures, namely Minkowski functionals (MFs) and utilizing the (an-)isotropic scaling index method (SIM) and by deriving suitable texture measures based on MF and SIM. Using a sample of 151 specimens taken from human vertebrae in vitro, we correlate the texture measures with the mechanically measured maximum compressive strength (MCS), which quantifies the strength of the bone probe, by using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The structure parameters derived from the local measures yield good correlations with the bone strength as measured in mechanical tests. We investigate whether the performance of the texture measures depends on the MCS value by selecting different subsamples according to MCS. Considering the whole sample the results for the newly defined parameters are better than those obtained for the standard global histomorphometric parameters except for bone volume/total volume (BV/TV). If a subsample consisting only of weak bones is analysed, the local structural analysis leads to similar and even better correlations with MCS as compared to BV/TV. Thus, the MF and SIM yield additional information about the stability of the bone especially in the case of weak bones, which corroborates the hypothesis that the bone structure (and not only its mineral mass) constitutes an important component of bone stability.
Localized structures of electromagnetic waves in hot electron-positron plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kartal, S.; Tsintsadze, L.N.; Berezhiani, V.I.
1995-08-01
The dynamics of relatively strong electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in hot electron-positron plasma is investigated. The possibility of finding localized stationary structures of EM waves is explored. It it shown that under certain conditions the EM wave forms a stable localized soliton-like structures where plasma is completely expelled from the region of EM field location. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs
Deriving GENERIC from a generalized fluctuation symmetry
Kraaij, R.; Lazarescu, A.; Maes, C.; Peletier, M.A.
2018-01-01
Much of the structure of macroscopic evolution equations for relaxation to equilibrium can be derived from symmetries in the dynamical fluctuations around the most typical trajectory. For example, detailed balance as expressed in terms of the Lagrangian for the path-space action leads to gradient
Electronic structure and local distortions in epitaxial ScGaN films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoll, S M; Zhang, S; Rovezzi, M; Joyce, T B; Moram, M A
2014-01-01
High energy resolution fluorescence-detected x-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations were used to investigate the local bonding and electronic structure of Sc in epitaxial wurtzite-structure Sc x Ga 1−x N films with x ≤ 0.059. Sc atoms are found to substitute for Ga atoms, accompanied by a local distortion involving an increase in the internal lattice parameter u around the Sc atoms. The local bonding and electronic structure at Sc are not affected strongly by the strain state or the defect microstructure of the films. These data are consistent with theoretical predictions regarding the electronic structure of dilute Sc x Ga 1−x N alloys. (paper)
Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds.
Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T
2017-06-01
Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1599-1605. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
Why did the price of solar PV Si feedstock fluctuate so wildly in 2004–2009?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Yang; Song Yuhua; Bao Haibo
2012-01-01
Great attention has been paid to the origin of observed wild price fluctuations of solar PV Si feedstock in both contract and spot markets during 2004–2009. This paper sheds light on this issue and tries to resolve it by addressing the following questions: what kind of structural shock is underlying the price fluctuations of PV Si feedstock? How can we quantify the magnitude, timing and relative importance of these shocks? What are their dynamic effects on the real price of PV Si feedstock? By carefully studying development conditions, the structural decomposition of the real price of PV Si feedstock is proposed: exchange rate shocks, production cost shocks, aggregate demand shocks and demand shocks specific to feedstock markets. With a Structural Vector Autoregression model, the paper quantifies and verifies the impact of structural shocks on PV Si feedstock real price changes. Based on national data, an analysis is further taken to confirm the essential role of demand shocks specific to feedstock markets in determining sharper price fluctuations during 2004–2009. The results of this study have important implications for national solar PV development, which can be better promoted and administrated if structural shocks in feedstock markets can be carefully evaluated and understood. - Highlights: ► The determination of solar PV Si feedstock price fluctuation is identified and quantified. ► Systematic structural shocks well explain 2004–2009 price fluctuations of PV Si feedstock. ► Production cost and aggregated demand shocks take longer effects on feedstock price. ► Exchange rate and feedstock specific demand shocks explain sharper price fluctuations. ► Development of national PV power should consider effects of structure shocks.
Pulsed Neutron Scattering Studies of Strongly Fluctuating solids, Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collin Broholm
2006-06-22
The conventional description of a solid is based on a static atomic structure with small amplitude so-called harmonic fluctuations about it. This is a final technical report for a project that has explored materials where fluctuations are sufficiently strong to severely challenge this approach and lead to unexpected and potentially useful materials properties. Fluctuations are enhanced when a large number of configurations share the same energy. We used pulsed spallation source neutron scattering to obtain detailed microscopic information about structure and fluctuations in such materials. The results enhance our understanding of strongly fluctuating solids and their potential for technical applications. Because new materials require new experimental techniques, the project has also developed new techniques for probing strongly fluctuating solids. Examples of material that were studied are ZrW2O8 with large amplitude molecular motion that leads to negative thermal expansion, NiGa2S4 where competing interactions lead to an anomalous short range ordered magnet, Pr1- xBixRu2O7 where a partially filled electron shell (Pr) in a weakly disordered environment produces anomalous metallic properties, and TbMnO3 where competing interactions lead to a magneto-electric phase. The experiments on TbMnO3 exemplify the relationship between research funded by this project and future applications. Magneto-electric materials may produce a magnetic field when an electric field is applied or vise versa. Our experiments have clarified the reason why electric and magnetic polarization is coupled in TbMnO3. While this knowledge does not render TbMnO3 useful for applications it will focus the search for a practical room temperature magneto-electric for applications.
ON THE NATURE OF X-RAY SURFACE BRIGHTNESS FLUCTUATIONS IN M87
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arévalo, P. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretana N 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso (Chile); Churazov, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Zhuravleva, I. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Forman, W. R.; Jones, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2016-02-10
X-ray images of galaxy clusters and gas-rich elliptical galaxies show a wealth of small-scale features that reflect fluctuations in density and/or temperature of the intracluster medium. In this paper we study these fluctuations in M87/Virgo to establish whether sound waves/shocks, bubbles, or uplifted cold gas dominate the structure. We exploit the strong dependence of the emissivity on density and temperature in different energy bands to distinguish between these processes. Using simulations we demonstrate that our analysis recovers the leading type of fluctuation even in the presence of projection effects and temperature gradients. We confirm the isobaric nature of cool filaments of gas entrained by buoyantly rising bubbles, extending to 7′ to the east and southwest, and the adiabatic nature of the weak shocks at 40″ and 3′ from the center. For features of ∼5–10 kpc, we show that the central 4′ × 4′ region is dominated by cool structures in pressure equilibrium with the ambient hotter gas while up to 30% of the variance in this region can be ascribed to adiabatic fluctuations. The remaining part of the central 14′ × 14′ region, excluding the arms and shocks described above, is dominated by apparently isothermal fluctuations (bubbles) with a possible admixture (at the level of ∼30%) of adiabatic (sound waves) and by isobaric structures. Larger features, of about 30 kpc, show a stronger contribution from isobaric fluctuations. The results broadly agree with a model based on feedback from an active galactic nucleus mediated by bubbles of relativistic plasma.
Spin fluctuation and small polaron conduction dominated electrical ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Administrator
temperature regime (20 K < T < 53 K), shows a minima near 53 K and increases with T ... Manganite nanoparticles; resistivity; spin fluctuation; electron–phonon interaction; electron– ... the low-doped regime because of the series of structural,.
Statistical fluctuations in reactors (1960); Fluctuations statistiques dans les piles (1960)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raievski, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1960-07-01
The theory of space dependent fluctuations is developed, taking into account the effect of delayed neutrons. The 'diffusion equation' or Fokker-Planck equation is worked out in the case of age and two group theory, but the first one because of in physical significance is used in this report. The theory is applied to the study of the spectral density of fluctuations and fluctuations of counting rate and current flowing through the charge resistor of an ionisation chamber, the effect of the entrance capacity is discussed. The space dependent theory shows that the fluctuations in the core and reflector of a near critical pile obey to the same law. The spectral densities in the core and reflector are similar, there is no sensible attenuation of high frequency fluctuations in the reflector. Compared to the space independent theory, this theory give better agreement with experience, one can use the simple space independent theory but in checking with experiment it is necessary to introduce numerical factors given by the space dependent theory. (author) [French] La theorie des fluctuations statistiques est developpee dans le cas spatial en tenant compte des neutrons retardes, et dans le cadre de la theorie de l'age vitesse. L'equation d'evolution de la probabilite est egalement etablie dans le cadre de la theorie a deux groupes. Ces considerations sont appliquees a l'etude de la densite spectrale des fluctuations et aux fluctuations des taux de comptage et du courant circulant dans la resistance de charge du detecteur. On etudie en particulier l'effet de la constante de temps introduite par la capacite d'entree. Cette theorie etablit que les fluctuations dans le coeur et le reflecteur suivent la meme loi pour une pile critique, il en est de meme pour la densite spectrale meme a frequence elevee. Par rapport a la theorie d'ensemble, la theorie spatiale donne des coefficients numeriques ou facteurs de forme, qui permettent d'obtenir un bon accord entre la theorie et l
Ferris, Kim; Jones, Dumont
2014-03-01
Local electric fields reflect the structural and dielectric fluctuations in a semiconductor, and affect the material performance both for electron transport and carrier lifetime properties. In this paper, we use the LOCALF methodology with periodic boundary conditions to examine the local electric field distributions and its perturbations for II-VI (CdTe, Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te) semiconductors, containing Te inclusions and small fluctuations in the local dielectric susceptibility. With inclusion of the induced-field term, the electric field distribution shows enhancements and diminishments compared to the macroscopic applied field, reflecting the microstructure characteristics of the dielectric. Learning methods are applied to these distributions to assess the spatial extent of the perturbation, and determine an electric field defined defect size as compared to its physical dimension. Critical concentrations of defects are assessed in terms of defect formation energies. This work was supported by the US Department of Homeland Security, Domestic Nuclear Detection Office, under competitively awarded contract/IAA HSHQDC-08-X-00872-e. This support does not constitute an express or implied endorsement on the part of the Gov't.
Time-dependent perpendicular fluctuations in the driven lattice Lorentz gas
Leitmann, Sebastian; Schwab, Thomas; Franosch, Thomas
2018-02-01
We present results for the fluctuations of the displacement of a tracer particle on a planar lattice pulled by a step force in the presence of impenetrable, immobile obstacles. The fluctuations perpendicular to the applied force are evaluated exactly in first order of the obstacle density for arbitrarily strong pulling and all times. The complex time-dependent behavior is analyzed in terms of the diffusion coefficient, local exponent, and the non-Skellam parameter, which quantifies deviations from the dynamics on the lattice in the absence of obstacles. The non-Skellam parameter along the force is analyzed in terms of an asymptotic model and reveals a power-law growth for intermediate times.
Ghosh, Sayantan; Manimaran, P.; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2011-11-01
We make use of wavelet transform to study the multi-scale, self-similar behavior and deviations thereof, in the stock prices of large companies, belonging to different economic sectors. The stock market returns exhibit multi-fractal characteristics, with some of the companies showing deviations at small and large scales. The fact that, the wavelets belonging to the Daubechies’ (Db) basis enables one to isolate local polynomial trends of different degrees, plays the key role in isolating fluctuations at different scales. One of the primary motivations of this work is to study the emergence of the k-3 behavior [X. Gabaix, P. Gopikrishnan, V. Plerou, H. Stanley, A theory of power law distributions in financial market fluctuations, Nature 423 (2003) 267-270] of the fluctuations starting with high frequency fluctuations. We make use of Db4 and Db6 basis sets to respectively isolate local linear and quadratic trends at different scales in order to study the statistical characteristics of these financial time series. The fluctuations reveal fat tail non-Gaussian behavior, unstable periodic modulations, at finer scales, from which the characteristic k-3 power law behavior emerges at sufficiently large scales. We further identify stable periodic behavior through the continuous Morlet wavelet.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Matsui
2012-03-01
Full Text Available In this event study, small-scale fluctuations in plasmaspheric plumes with time scales of ~10 s to minutes in the spacecraft frame are examined. In one event, plasmaspheric plumes are observed by Cluster, while IMAGE measured density enhancement at a similar location. Fluctuations in density exist in plumes as detected by Cluster and are accompanied by fluctuations in magnetic fields and electric fields. Magnetic fluctuations are transverse and along the direction of the plumes. The E/B ratio is smaller than the Alfvén velocity. Another similar event is briefly presented. We then consider physical properties of the fluctuations. Alfvén mode modulated by the feedback instability is one possibility, although non-local generation is likely. It is hard to show that the fluctuations represent a fast mode. Interchange motion is possible due to the consistency between measurements and expectations. The energy source could be a pressure or density gradient in plasmaspheric plumes. When more events are accumulated so that statistical analysis becomes feasible, this type of study will be useful to understand the time evolution of plumes.
An online substructure identification method for local structural health monitoring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hou, Jilin; Ou, Jinping; Jankowski, Łukasz
2013-01-01
This paper proposes a substructure isolation method, which uses time series of measured local response for online monitoring of substructures. The proposed monitoring process consists of two key steps: construction of the isolated substructure, and its identification. The isolated substructure is an independent virtual structure, which is numerically isolated from the global structure by placing virtual supports on the interface. First, the isolated substructure is constructed by a specific linear combination of time series of its measured local responses. Then, the isolated substructure is identified using its local natural frequencies extracted from the combined responses. The substructure is assumed to be linear; the outside part of the global structure can have any characteristics. The method has no requirements on the initial state of the structure, and so the process can be carried out repetitively for online monitoring. Online isolation and monitoring is illustrated in a numerical example with a frame model, and then verified in a cantilever beam experiment. (paper)
Local atomic structure inheritance in Ag50Sn50 melt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai, Yanwen; Bian, Xiufang; Qin, Jingyu; Hu, Lina; Yang, Jianfei; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Xiaolin; Yang, Chuncheng; Zhang, Shuo; Huang, Yuying
2014-01-01
Local structure inheritance signatures were observed during the alloying process of the Ag 50 Sn 50 melt, using high-temperature X-ray diffraction and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The coordination number N m around Ag atom is similar in the alloy and in pure Ag melts (N m ∼ 10), while, during the alloying process, the local structure around Sn atoms rearranges. Sn-Sn covalent bonds were substituted by Ag-Sn chemical bonds, and the total coordination number around Sn increases by about 70% as compared with those in the pure Sn melt. Changes in the electronic structure of the alloy have been studied by Ag and Sn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, as well as by calculations of the partial density of states. We propose that a leading mechanism for local structure inheritance in Ag 50 Sn 50 is due to s-p dehybridization of Sn and to the interplay between Sn-s and Ag-d electrons
Local magnetic structure determination using polarized neutron holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szakál, Alex; Markó, Márton; Cser, László
2015-01-01
A unique and important property of the neutron is that it possesses magnetic moment. This property is widely used for determination of magnetic structure of crystalline samples observing the magnetic components of the diffraction peaks. Investigations of diffraction patterns give information only about the averaged structure of a crystal but for discovering of local spin arrangement around a specific (e.g., impurity) nucleus remains still a challenging problem. Neutron holography is a useful tool to investigate the local structure around a specific nucleus embedded in a crystal lattice. The method has been successfully applied experimentally in several cases using non-magnetic short range interaction of the neutron and the nucleus. A mathematical model of the hologram using interaction between magnetic moment of the atom and the neutron spin for polarized neutron holography is provided. Validity of a polarized neutron holographic experiment is demonstrated by applying the proposed method on model systems
Effect of periodic fluctuation of soil particle rotation resistance on interface shear behaviour
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebrahimian, Babak; Noorzad, Asadollah
2010-01-01
The interface behaviour between infinite extended narrow granular layer and bounding structure is numerically investigated using finite element method. The micro-polar (Cosserat) continuum approach within the framework of elasto-plasticity is employed to remove the numerical difficulties caused by strain-softening of materials in classical continuum mechanics. Mechanical properties of cohesionless granular soil are described with Lade's model enhanced with polar terms including Cosserat rotations, curvatures and couple stresses via mean grain diameter as the internal length. The main attention of paper is laid on the influence of spatial periodic fluctuation of rotation resistance of soil particles interlocked with the surface of bounding structure on evolution and location of shear band developed inside granular body. The finite element results demonstrate that the location and evolution of shear localization in granular body is strongly affected by prescribed non-uniform micro-polar kinematic boundary conditions along the interface.
Evidence for large temperature fluctuations in quasar accretion disks from spectral variability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dexter, Jason, E-mail: jruan@astro.washington.edu [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2014-03-10
The well-known bluer-when-brighter trend observed in quasar variability is a signature of the complex processes in the accretion disk and can be a probe of the quasar variability mechanism. Using a sample of 604 variable quasars with repeat spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS), we construct difference spectra to investigate the physical causes of this bluer-when-brighter trend. The continuum of our composite difference spectrum is well fit by a power law, with a spectral index in excellent agreement with previous results. We measure the spectral variability relative to the underlying spectra of the quasars, which is independent of any extinction, and compare to model predictions. We show that our SDSS spectral variability results cannot be produced by global accretion rate fluctuations in a thin disk alone. However, we find that a simple model of an inhomogeneous disk with localized temperature fluctuations will produce power-law spectral variability over optical wavelengths. We show that the inhomogeneous disk will provide good fits to our observed spectral variability if the disk has large temperature fluctuations in many independently varying zones, in excellent agreement with independent constraints from quasar microlensing disk sizes, their strong UV spectral continuum, and single-band variability amplitudes. Our results provide an independent constraint on quasar variability models and add to the mounting evidence that quasar accretion disks have large localized temperature fluctuations.
Quantifying fluctuations of resting state networks using arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI.
Dai, Weiying; Varma, Gopal; Scheidegger, Rachel; Alsop, David C
2016-03-01
Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used to investigate spontaneous low-frequency signal fluctuations across brain resting state networks. However, BOLD only provides relative measures of signal fluctuations. Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) MRI holds great potential for quantitative measurements of resting state network fluctuations. This study systematically quantified signal fluctuations of the large-scale resting state networks using ASL data from 20 healthy volunteers by separating them from global signal fluctuations and fluctuations caused by residual noise. Global ASL signal fluctuation was 7.59% ± 1.47% relative to the ASL baseline perfusion. Fluctuations of seven detected resting state networks vary from 2.96% ± 0.93% to 6.71% ± 2.35%. Fluctuations of networks and residual noise were 6.05% ± 1.18% and 6.78% ± 1.16% using 4-mm resolution ASL data applied with Gaussian smoothing kernel of 6mm. However, network fluctuations were reduced by 7.77% ± 1.56% while residual noise fluctuation was markedly reduced by 39.75% ± 2.90% when smoothing kernel of 12 mm was applied to the ASL data. Therefore, global and network fluctuations are the dominant structured noise sources in ASL data. Quantitative measurements of resting state networks may enable improved noise reduction and provide insights into the function of healthy and diseased brain. © The Author(s) 2015.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slavcheva, G.; Yanchev, I.
1991-01-01
A new expression for the Fourier transform of the binary correlation function of the random potential near the semiconductor-insulator interface is derived. The screening due to the image charge with respect to the metal electrode in MIS-structure is taken into account, introducing an effective insulator thickness. An essential advantage of this correlation function is the finite dispersion of the random potential Γ 2 to which it leads in distinction with the so far known correlation functions leading to divergent dispersion. The important characteristic of the random potential distribution Γ 2 determining the amplitude of the potential fluctuations is calculated. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig
Shaped input distributions for structural damage localization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Bernal, Dionisio; Damkilde, Lars
2018-01-01
localization method is cast that operates on the premise of shaping inputs—whose spatial distribution is fixed—by use of a model, such that these inputs, in one structural subdomain at a time, suppress certain steady-state vibration quantities (depending on the type of damage one seeks to interrogate for......). Accordingly, damage is localized when the vibration signature induced by the shaped inputs in the damaged state corresponds to that in the reference state, hereby implying that the approach does not point directly to damage. Instead, it operates with interrogation based on postulated damage patterns...
Pajic-Lijakovic, Ivana
2015-12-01
An attempt was made to discuss and connect various modeling approaches on various time and space scales which have been proposed in the literature in order to shed further light on the erythrocyte membrane rearrangement caused by the cortex-lipid bilayer coupling under thermal fluctuations. Roles of the main membrane constituents: (1) the actin-spectrin cortex, (2) the lipid bilayer, and (3) the trans membrane protein band 3 and their course-consequence relations were considered in the context of the cortex non linear stiffening and corresponding anomalous nature of energy dissipation. The fluctuations induce alternating expansion and compression of the membrane parts in order to ensure surface and volume conservation. The membrane structural changes were considered within two time regimes. The results indicate that the cortex non linear stiffening and corresponding anomalous nature of energy dissipation are related to the spectrin flexibility distribution and the rate of its changes. The spectrin flexibility varies from purely flexible to semi flexible. It is influenced by: (1) the number of band 3 molecules attached to single spectrin filaments, and (2) phosphorylation of the actin-junctions. The rate of spectrin flexibility changes depends on the band 3 molecules rearrangement.
Inverse scattering problem in turbulent magnetic fluctuations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Treumann
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We apply a particular form of the inverse scattering theory to turbulent magnetic fluctuations in a plasma. In the present note we develop the theory, formulate the magnetic fluctuation problem in terms of its electrodynamic turbulent response function, and reduce it to the solution of a special form of the famous Gelfand–Levitan–Marchenko equation of quantum mechanical scattering theory. The last of these applies to transmission and reflection in an active medium. The theory of turbulent magnetic fluctuations does not refer to such quantities. It requires a somewhat different formulation. We reduce the theory to the measurement of the low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuation spectrum, which is not the turbulent spectral energy density. The inverse theory in this form enables obtaining information about the turbulent response function of the medium. The dynamic causes of the electromagnetic fluctuations are implicit to it. Thus, it is of vital interest in low-frequency magnetic turbulence. The theory is developed until presentation of the equations in applicable form to observations of turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations as input from measurements. Solution of the final integral equation should be done by standard numerical methods based on iteration. We point to the possibility of treating power law fluctuation spectra as an example. Formulation of the problem to include observations of spectral power densities in turbulence is not attempted. This leads to severe mathematical problems and requires a reformulation of inverse scattering theory. One particular aspect of the present inverse theory of turbulent fluctuations is that its structure naturally leads to spatial information which is obtained from the temporal information that is inherent to the observation of time series. The Taylor assumption is not needed here. This is a consequence of Maxwell's equations, which couple space and time evolution. The inversion procedure takes
Ion heating and MHD dynamo fluctuations in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scime, E.; Hokin, S.; Watts, C.; Mattor, N.
1992-01-01
Ion temperature measurements, time resolved to 10 μs, have been made in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch with a five channel charge exchange analyzer. The ion temperature, T i ∼ 200 eV for I = 350 kA, increases by as much as 100% during discrete dynamo bursts in MST discharges. Magnetic field fluctuations in the range 0.5--5 MHz were also measured. Structure in the fluctuation frequency spectrum at the ion cyclotron frequency appears as the bursts terminate, suggesting that the mechanism of ion heating involves the dissipation of dynamo fluctuations at ion gyro-orbit scales
Modelling the role of compositional fluctuations in nucleation kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ženíšek, J.; Kozeschnik, E.; Svoboda, J.; Fischer, F.D.
2015-01-01
The classical nucleation theory of precipitate nucleation in interstitial/substitutional alloys is applied to account for the influence of spatial A–B composition fluctuations in an A–B–C matrix on the kinetics of nucleation of (A,B) 3 C precipitates. A and B are substitutional elements in the matrix and C is an interstitial component, assumed to preferentially bind to B atoms. All lattice sites are considered as potential nucleation sites. The fluctuations of chemical composition result in a local variation of the nucleation probability. The nucleation sites are eliminated from the system if they are located in a C-depleted diffusion zone belonging to an already nucleated and growing precipitate. The chemistry is that of an Fe–Cr–C system, and the specific interface energy is treated as a free parameter. Random, regular and homogeneous A–B distributions in the matrix are simulated and compared for various values of the interface energy. An increasing enhancement of the role of compositional fluctuations on nucleation kinetics with increasing interface energy and decreasing chemical driving force is observed
Fluctuations in the DNA double helix
Peyrard, M.; López, S. C.; Angelov, D.
2007-08-01
DNA is not the static entity suggested by the famous double helix structure. It shows large fluctuational openings, in which the bases, which contain the genetic code, are temporarily open. Therefore it is an interesting system to study the effect of nonlinearity on the physical properties of a system. A simple model for DNA, at a mesoscopic scale, can be investigated by computer simulation, in the same spirit as the original work of Fermi, Pasta and Ulam. These calculations raise fundamental questions in statistical physics because they show a temporary breaking of equipartition of energy, regions with large amplitude fluctuations being able to coexist with regions where the fluctuations are very small, even when the model is studied in the canonical ensemble. This phenomenon can be related to nonlinear excitations in the model. The ability of the model to describe the actual properties of DNA is discussed by comparing theoretical and experimental results for the probability that base pairs open an a given temperature in specific DNA sequences. These studies give us indications on the proper description of the effect of the sequence in the mesoscopic model.
Solar wind fluctuations at large scale - A comparison between low and high solar activity conditions
Bavassano, B.; Bruno, R.
1991-02-01
The influence of the sun's activity cycle on the solar wind fluctuations at time scales from 1 hour to 3 days in the inner heliosphere (0.3 to 1 AU) is investigated. Hourly averages of plasma and magnetic field data by Helios spacecraft are used. Since fluctuations behave quite differently with changing scale, the analysis is performed separately for two different ranges in time scale. Between 1 and 6 hours Alfvenic fluctuations and pressure-balanced structures are extensively observed. At low solar activity and close to 0.3 AU Alfvenic fluctuations are more frequent than pressure-balanced structures. This predominance, however, weakens for rising solar activity and radial distance, to the point that a role-exchange, in terms of occurrence rate, is found at the maximum of the cycle close to 1 AU. On the other hand, in all cases Alfvenic fluctuations have a larger amplitude than pressure-balanced structures. The Alfvenic contribution to the solar wind energy spectrum comes out to be dominant at all solar activity conditions. These findings support the conclusion that the solar cycle evolution of the large-scale velocity pattern is the factor governing the observed variations.
Generalized noise terms for the quantized fluctuational electrodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Partanen, Mikko; Hayrynen, Teppo; Tulkki, Jukka
2017-01-01
position-dependent quantum models for the photon number in resonant structures have only been formulated very recently and only for dielectric media. Here we present a general position-dependent quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism that extends the consistent field quantization...
Lui, A. T. Y.; Krimigis, S. M.; Armstrong, T. P.
1982-01-01
The association between energetic protons (0.29-0.50 MeV) and simultaneous local fluctuations of magnetic field at 35 to 45 earth radii in the magnetotail is examined statistically with data from APL/JHU particle telescopes aboard IMP 7 and IMP 8. About four satellite years of 5.5 min averaged measurements are used in this study. In addition to confirming that the level of magnetic field fluctuations generally increases with the presence of energetic protons and their streaming anisotropy, it is found that increases in occurrence frequency of streaming of energetic protons are ordered far better by magnetic field fluctuations than by proximity to the neutral sheet. However, the presence of large magnetic field fluctuations (delta B greater than 5 nT or delta B/B greater than 50%) is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the detection of large streaming in energetic protons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robinson, Allen Lantham [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1996-05-01
An improved understanding of the factors that control radon entry into buildings is needed in order to reduce the public health risks caused by exposure to indoor radon. This dissertation examines three issues associated with radon entry into buildings: (1) the influence of a subslab gravel layer and the size of the openings between the soil and the building interior on radon entry; (2) the effect of atmospheric pressure fluctuations on radon entry; and (3) the development and validation of mathematical models which simulate radon and soil-gas entry into houses. Experiments were conducted using two experimental basements to examine the influence of a subslab gravel layer on advective radon entry driven by steady indoor-outdoor pressure differences. These basement structures are identical except that in one the floor slab lies directly on native soil whereas in the other the slab lies on a high-permeability gravel layer. The measurements indicate that a high permeability subslab gravel layer increases the advective radon entry rate into the structure by as much as a factor of 30. The magnitude of the enhancement caused by the subslab gravel layer depends on the area of the openings in the structure floor; the smaller the area of these openings the larger the enhancement in the radon entry rate caused by the subslab gravel layer. A three-dimensional, finite-difference model correctly predicts the effect of a subslab gravel layer and open area configuration on advective radon entry driven by steady indoor-outdoor pressure differences; however, the model underpredicts the absolute entry rate into each structure by a factor of 1.5.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, A.L.
1996-05-01
An improved understanding of the factors that control radon entry into buildings is needed in order to reduce the public health risks caused by exposure to indoor radon. This dissertation examines three issues associated with radon entry into buildings: (1) the influence of a subslab gravel layer and the size of the openings between the soil and the building interior on radon entry; (2) the effect of atmospheric pressure fluctuations on radon entry; and (3) the development and validation of mathematical models which simulate radon and soil-gas entry into houses. Experiments were conducted using two experimental basements to examine the influence of a subslab gravel layer on advective radon entry driven by steady indoor-outdoor pressure differences. These basement structures are identical except that in one the floor slab lies directly on native soil whereas in the other the slab lies on a high-permeability gravel layer. The measurements indicate that a high permeability subslab gravel layer increases the advective radon entry rate into the structure by as much as a factor of 30. The magnitude of the enhancement caused by the subslab gravel layer depends on the area of the openings in the structure floor; the smaller the area of these openings the larger the enhancement in the radon entry rate caused by the subslab gravel layer. A three-dimensional, finite-difference model correctly predicts the effect of a subslab gravel layer and open area configuration on advective radon entry driven by steady indoor-outdoor pressure differences; however, the model underpredicts the absolute entry rate into each structure by a factor of 1.5
Experiments and numerical simulations of fluctuating thermal stratification in a branch pipe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, Akira; Murase, Michio; Sasaki, Toru [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Hamatani, Daisuke [Kobe Univ. (Japan)
2002-09-01
Many pipes branch off from the main pipe in plants. When the main flow in the main pipe is hotter than a branch pipe that branches off downward, the hot water penetrates into the branch pipe with the cavity flow that is induced by the main flow and causes thermal stratification. If the interface of the stratification fluctuates in an occluded branch pipe, thermal fatigue may occur in pipe wall. Some experiments and numerical simulations were conducted to elucidate the mechanism of this fluctuating thermal stratification. The vortex structures were observed in the experiments of straight or bent branch pipes. When the main flow was heated and the thermal stratification interface was at the elbow, a ''burst'' phenomenon occurred in the interface in connection with large heat fluctuation. The effects of pipe shape on the length of penetration were investigated in order to modify simulation conditions. The vortex structures and the fluctuating thermal stratification at elbow in the numerical simulation showed good agreement with experiments. (author)
Dynamically fluctuating electric dipole moments in fullerene-based magnets.
Kambe, Takashi; Oshima, Kokichi
2014-09-19
We report here the direct evidence of the existence of a permanent electric dipole moment in both crystal phases of a fullerene-based magnet--the ferromagnetic α-phase and the antiferromagnetic α'-phase of tetra-kis-(dimethylamino)-ethylene-C60 (TDAE-C60)--as determined by dielectric measurements. We propose that the permanent electric dipole originates from the pairing of a TDAE molecule with surrounding C60 molecules. The two polymorphs exhibit clear differences in their dielectric responses at room temperature and during the freezing process with dynamically fluctuating electric dipole moments, although no difference in their room-temperature structures has been previously observed. This result implies that two polymorphs have different local environment around the molecules. In particular, the ferromagnetism of the α-phase is founded on the homogeneous molecule displacement and orientational ordering. The formation of the different phases with respect to the different rotational states in the Jahn-Teller distorted C60s is also discussed.
Quantifying fluctuations in reversible enzymatic cycles and clocks
Wierenga, Harmen; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Becker, Nils B.
2018-04-01
Biochemical reactions are fundamentally noisy at a molecular scale. This limits the precision of reaction networks, but it also allows fluctuation measurements that may reveal the structure and dynamics of the underlying biochemical network. Here, we study nonequilibrium reaction cycles, such as the mechanochemical cycle of molecular motors, the phosphorylation cycle of circadian clock proteins, or the transition state cycle of enzymes. Fluctuations in such cycles may be measured using either of two classical definitions of the randomness parameter, which we show to be equivalent in general microscopically reversible cycles. We define a stochastic period for reversible cycles and present analytical solutions for its moments. Furthermore, we associate the two forms of the randomness parameter with the thermodynamic uncertainty relation, which sets limits on the timing precision of the cycle in terms of thermodynamic quantities. Our results should prove useful also for the study of temporal fluctuations in more general networks.
Manifestly non-Gaussian fluctuations in superconductor-normal metal tunnel nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laakso, Matti [Institut fuer Theorie der Statistischen Physik, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Heikkilae, Tero [Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Nazarov, Yuli [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)
2013-07-01
Recently, temperature fluctuation statistics has been studied in non-interacting islands and overheated single-electron transistors. We propose a mesoscopic setup which exhibits strong and manifestly non-Gaussian fluctuations of energy and temperature when suitably driven out of equilibrium. The setup consists of a normal metal island (N) coupled by tunnel junctions (I) to two superconducting leads (S), forming a SINIS structure, and is biased near the threshold voltage for quasiparticle tunneling, eV ∼ 2Δ. The fluctuations can be measured by monitoring the time-dependent electric current through the system, which makes the setup suitable for the realization of feedback schemes which allow to stabilize the temperature to the desired value.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filippas, A.V.; Bengston, R.D.; Li, G.; Meier, M.; Ritz, C.P.; Powers, E.J.
1995-01-01
Fluctuations in floating potential in the scrape-off layer and plasma edge were analyzed using a conditional statistical analysis technique. The floating potential fluctuations had a nearly Gaussian probability density function with the largest deviation from a Gaussian at the shear layer. The conditional averaging technique followed the statistical evolution of selected conditions in the floating potential signal. The decay rate of a conditional feature in time or space showed a small systematic variation with the amplitude of condition chosen. Either long-lived coherent structures are not present in statistically significant numbers, or the fluctuations are dominated by a large number of coherent structures with a nearly Gaussian distribution of fluctuation amplitudes, or conditional analysis using the amplitude of the floating potential as a condition is not a sensitive technique for identifying coherent structures
Local response of concrete structures to explosive loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freund, H.U.; Krutzik, N.J.; Muller, K.
1989-01-01
This paper reports on the HDR safety program experiments performed concerning demolition of concrete structures and pipes by explosive charges. The precalculability of the local structure reaction as well as that of the global plant was checked. The effect on the bore hole wall by the detonating explosive and the local concrete behavior around the bore hole were investigated. The measured pressure-time history in and around the bore hole is compared with the calculated values. The calculated values seem to be near reality (as far as measurements are available), concerning pressure rise curve within the bore hole and the peak pressure. The analysis of the blow off contours performed with two variations of the material strength of the concrete plates is presented
Plasma fluctuation measurements in tokamaks using beam-plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fonck, R.J.; Duperrex, P.A.; Paul, S.F.
1990-01-01
High-frequency observations of light emitted from the interactions between plasma ions and injected neutral beam atoms allow the measurement of moderate-wavelength fluctuations in plasma and impurity ion densities. To detect turbulence in the local plasma ion density, the collisionally excited fluorescence from a neutral beam is measured either separately at several spatial points or with a multichannel imaging detector. Similarly, the role of impurity ion density fluctuations is measured using charge exchange recombination excited transitions emitted by the ion species of interest. This technique can access the relatively unexplored region of long-wavelength plasma turbulence with k perpendicular ρ i much-lt 1, and hence complements measurements from scattering experiments. Optimization of neutral beam geometry and optical sightlines can result in very good localization and resolution (Δx≤1 cm) in the hot plasma core region. The detectable fluctuation level is determined by photon statistics, atomic excitation processes, and beam stability, but can be as low as 0.2% in a 100 kHz bandwidth over the 0--1 MHz frequency range. The choices of beam species (e.g., H 0 , He 0 , etc.), observed transition (e.g., H α , L α , He I singlet or triplet transitions, C VI Δn=1, etc.) are dictated by experiment-specific factors such as optical access, flexibility of beam operation, plasma conditions, and detailed experimental goals. Initial tests on the PBX-M tokamak using the H α emissions from a heating neutral beam show low-frequency turbulence in the edge plasma region
Edge transport and fluctuation induced turbulence characteristics in early SST-1 plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kakati, B., E-mail: bharat.kakati@ipr.res.in; Pradhan, S., E-mail: pradhan@ipr.res.in; Dhongde, J.; Semwal, P.; Yohan, K.; Banaudha, M.
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Anomalous particle transport during the high MHD activity at SST-1. • Electrostatic turbulence is modulated by MHD activity at SST-1 tokamak. • Edge floating potential fluctuations shows poloidal long-range cross correlation. - Abstract: Plasma edge transport characteristics are known to be heavily influenced by the edge fluctuation induced turbulences. These characteristics play a critical role towards the confinement of plasma column in a Tokamak. The edge magnetic fluctuations and its subsequent effect on electrostatic fluctuations have been experimentally investigated for the first time at the edge of the SST-1 plasma column. This paper reports the correlations that exist and is experimentally been observed between the edge densities and floating potential fluctuations with the magnetic fluctuations. The edge density and floating potential fluctuations have been measured with the help of poloidally separated Langmuir probes, whereas the magnetic fluctuations have been measured with poloidally spaced Mirnov coils. Increase in magnetic fluctuations associated with enhanced MHD activities has been found to increase the floating potential and ion saturation current. These observations indicate electrostatic turbulence getting influenced with the MHD activities and reveal the edge anomalous particle transport during SST-1 tokamak discharge. Large-scale coherent structures have been observed in the floating potential fluctuations, indicating long-distance cross correlation in the poloidal directions. From bispectral analysis, a strong nonlinear coupling among the floating potential fluctuations is observed in the low-frequency range about 0–15 kHz.
Alfvénic fluctuations in "newborn"' polar solar wind
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Bavassano
2005-06-01
Full Text Available The 3-D structure of the solar wind is strongly dependent upon the Sun's activity cycle. At low solar activity a bimodal structure is dominant, with a fast and uniform flow at the high latitudes, and slow and variable flows at low latitudes. Around solar maximum, in sharp contrast, variable flows are observed at all latitudes. This last kind of pattern, however, is a relatively short-lived feature, and quite soon after solar maximum the polar wind tends to regain its role. The plasma parameter distributions for these newborn polar flows appear very similar to those typically observed in polar wind at low solar activity. The point addressed here is about polar wind fluctuations. As is well known, the low-solar-activity polar wind is characterized by a strong flow of Alfvénic fluctuations. Does this hold for the new polar flows too? An answer to this question is given here through a comparative statistical analysis on parameters such as total energy, cross helicity, and residual energy, that are of general use to describe the Alfvénic character of fluctuations. Our results indicate that the main features of the Alfvénic fluctuations observed in low-solar-activity polar wind have been quickly recovered in the new polar flows developed shortly after solar maximum. Keywords. Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence; Sources of the solar wind – Space plasma physics (Turbulence
Testing Inflation with Large Scale Structure: Connecting Hopes with Reality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, Marcello; Baldauf, T.; Bond, J. Richard; Dalal, N.; Putter, R. D.; Dore, O.; Green, Daniel; Hirata, Chris; Huang, Zhiqi; Huterer, Dragan; Jeong, Donghui; Johnson, Matthew C.; Krause, Elisabeth; Loverde, Marilena; Meyers, Joel; Meeburg, Daniel; Senatore, Leonardo; Shandera, Sarah; Silverstein, Eva; Slosar, Anze; Smith, Kendrick; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Assassi, Valentin; Braden, Jonathan; Hajian, Amir; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Stein, George; Engelen, Alexander van
2014-01-01
The statistics of primordial curvature fluctuations are our window into the period of inflation, where these fluctuations were generated. To date, the cosmic microwave background has been the dominant source of information about these perturbations. Large-scale structure is, however, from where drastic improvements should originate. In this paper, we explain the theoretical motivations for pursuing such measurements and the challenges that lie ahead. In particular, we discuss and identify theoretical targets regarding the measurement of primordial non-Gaussianity. We argue that when quantified in terms of the local (equilateral) template amplitude floc\
Influence of thermal fluctuations on ligament break-up: a fluctuating lattice Boltzmann study
Xue, Xiao; Biferale, Luca; Sbragaglia, Mauro; Toschi, Federico
2017-11-01
Thermal fluctuations are essential ingredients in a nanoscale system, driving Brownian motion of particles and capillary waves at non-ideal interfaces. Here we study the influence of thermal fluctuations on the breakup of liquid ligaments at the nanoscale. We offer quantitative characterization of the effects of thermal fluctuations on the Plateau-Rayleigh mechanism that drives the breakup process of ligaments. Due to thermal fluctuations, the droplet sizes after break-up need to be analyzed in terms of their distribution over an ensemble made of repeated experiments. To this aim, we make use of numerical simulations based on the fluctuating lattice Boltzmann method (FLBM) for multicomponent mixtures. The method allows an accurate and efficient simulation of the fluctuating hydrodynamics equations of a binary mixture, where both stochastic viscous stresses and diffusion fluxes are introduced. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No 642069.
Formation of local nanocrystalline structure in a boron steel induced by electropulsing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Bingdong; Zhao, Yuguang; Ma, Jun; Guo, Haichao; Yang, Qing
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► The local NC structures in the uniform size of ∼15 nm were obtained by electropulsing. ► The NC structures were made up of γ-Fe without any other phases coexisting. ► The reduction in nucleation barrier of the γ-Fe helped form the local γ-Fe NC structure. ► The steel consisting of the lath martensitic and the γ-Fe nanocrystalline structure exhibits high mechanical properties. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline γ-Fe was obtained locally in a cold-rolled boron steel as a result of transient high-energy electropulsing. The nano-grains of γ-Fe were uniformly about 15 nm in size. No phases other than γ-Fe have been found in the nanocrystalline structure. It is believed that the pulse current enhances the nucleation rate of γ-Fe phase during the phase transformation from α-Fe to γ-Fe, resulting in the formation of local nanostructure. Moreover, in this study the steel consisting of the lath martensitic and the γ-Fe nanocrystalline structure exhibits high mechanical properties.
Heterophase fluctuation of omega phase and X-ray diffuse scattering from dual phase structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farjami, Susan; Kubo, Hiroshi
2003-01-01
Heterophase fluctuation of athermal omega embryos has been analyzed by assuming a dual phase structure of omega embryos composed of omega and bcc matrix phase. The two-dimensional modulation of dual phase was suggested from the quantitative estimation of coherent free energy of omega embryos using microscopic theory of elasticity and the Landau anharmonic theory for phase transformation. The X-ray diffraction theory was developed in connection to the formation of omega embryos having the dual phase structure. The offset of the diffuse peak position from the ideal omega point in the X-ray diffraction pattern is attributed to the dual phase (incommensurate phase) of omega embryos. It was also shown that the ellipsoidal shape of the diffuse intensity tailing toward the fundamental spot of the matrix phase is originated from the equilibrium shape of the omega embryo. The quantitative estimation of elastic energy modulus (EEM) in the disordered bcc matrix and in the ordered bcc matrix indicates a difference in the deviation amount of the minimum point k(q m ) from the ideal omega point k(q ω ) and a difference in the elliptical shape of embryos
Deciphering the shape and deformation of secondary structures through local conformation analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Camproux Anne-Claude
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein deformation has been extensively analysed through global methods based on RMSD, torsion angles and Principal Components Analysis calculations. Here we use a local approach, able to distinguish among the different backbone conformations within loops, α-helices and β-strands, to address the question of secondary structures' shape variation within proteins and deformation at interface upon complexation. Results Using a structural alphabet, we translated the 3 D structures of large sets of protein-protein complexes into sequences of structural letters. The shape of the secondary structures can be assessed by the structural letters that modeled them in the structural sequences. The distribution analysis of the structural letters in the three protein compartments (surface, core and interface reveals that secondary structures tend to adopt preferential conformations that differ among the compartments. The local description of secondary structures highlights that curved conformations are preferred on the surface while straight ones are preferred in the core. Interfaces display a mixture of local conformations either preferred in core or surface. The analysis of the structural letters transition occurring between protein-bound and unbound conformations shows that the deformation of secondary structure is tightly linked to the compartment preference of the local conformations. Conclusion The conformation of secondary structures can be further analysed and detailed thanks to a structural alphabet which allows a better description of protein surface, core and interface in terms of secondary structures' shape and deformation. Induced-fit modification tendencies described here should be valuable information to identify and characterize regions under strong structural constraints for functional reasons.
Deciphering the shape and deformation of secondary structures through local conformation analysis.
Baussand, Julie; Camproux, Anne-Claude
2011-02-01
Protein deformation has been extensively analysed through global methods based on RMSD, torsion angles and Principal Components Analysis calculations. Here we use a local approach, able to distinguish among the different backbone conformations within loops, α-helices and β-strands, to address the question of secondary structures' shape variation within proteins and deformation at interface upon complexation. Using a structural alphabet, we translated the 3 D structures of large sets of protein-protein complexes into sequences of structural letters. The shape of the secondary structures can be assessed by the structural letters that modeled them in the structural sequences. The distribution analysis of the structural letters in the three protein compartments (surface, core and interface) reveals that secondary structures tend to adopt preferential conformations that differ among the compartments. The local description of secondary structures highlights that curved conformations are preferred on the surface while straight ones are preferred in the core. Interfaces display a mixture of local conformations either preferred in core or surface. The analysis of the structural letters transition occurring between protein-bound and unbound conformations shows that the deformation of secondary structure is tightly linked to the compartment preference of the local conformations. The conformation of secondary structures can be further analysed and detailed thanks to a structural alphabet which allows a better description of protein surface, core and interface in terms of secondary structures' shape and deformation. Induced-fit modification tendencies described here should be valuable information to identify and characterize regions under strong structural constraints for functional reasons.
MONETARY POLICIES AND INDUSTRIAL FLUCTUATIONS IN EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihaela IFRIM
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Industrial fluctuations are closely related to the evolution of relative prices of produced goods and resources involved in production activity. Industrial fluctuations, as an expression of forces manifested in the real economy, are caused by changes in individuals’ consumption and investment decisions, produced within expansionary monetary policies. The ease of obtaining a bank loan in the context of decreasing interest rates and of larger amounts of money caused an increase in individuals’ demand for goods resulted from longer, capital intensive production processes. The rise in prices of intermediate and capital goods in a faster pace compared to the increase in prices of consumer goods is doubled by the increase of the share of higher order industries in the structure of production. The objective of this paper is to analyze changes in industrial structure of Eastern Europe countries within the policies of quick access to monetary resources. The analyzed states (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania are part of the European Union and have autonomous monetary policies, meaning that they have not yet adopted the common currency. In all economies analyzed, we find approximately the same patterns of monetary expansion and industrial fluctuations.
ASSIST: a fast versatile local structural comparison tool.
Caprari, Silvia; Toti, Daniele; Viet Hung, Le; Di Stefano, Maurizio; Polticelli, Fabio
2014-04-01
Structural genomics initiatives are increasingly leading to the determination of the 3D structure of target proteins whose catalytic function is not known. The aim of this work was that of developing a novel versatile tool for searching structural similarity, which allows to predict the catalytic function, if any, of these proteins. The algorithm implemented by the tool is based on local structural comparison to find the largest subset of similar residues between an input protein and known functional sites. The method uses a geometric hashing approach where information related to residue pairs from the input structures is stored in a hash table and then is quickly retrieved during the comparison step. Tests on proteins belonging to different functional classes, done using the Catalytic Site Atlas entries as targets, indicate that the algorithm is able to identify the correct functional class of the input protein in the vast majority of the cases. The application was developed in Java SE 6, with a Java Swing Graphic User Interface (GUI). The system can be run locally on any operating system (OS) equipped with a suitable Java Virtual Machine, and is available at the following URL: http://www.computationalbiology.it/software/ASSISTv1.zip.
China; Sources of Real Exchange Rate Fluctuations
Tao Wang
2004-01-01
This paper reviews the evolution of China's real effective exchange rate between 1980 and 2002, and uses a structural vector autoregression model to study the relative importance of different types of macroeconomic shocks for fluctuations in the real exchange rate. The structural decomposition shows that relative real demand and supply shocks account for most of the variations in real exchange rate changes during the estimation period. The paper also finds that supply shocks are as important ...
Calderón, Luciano; Campagna, Leonardo; Wilke, Thomas; Lormee, Hervé; Eraud, Cyril; Dunn, Jenny C; Rocha, Gregorio; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Bakaloudis, Dimitrios E; Metzger, Benjamin; Cecere, Jacopo G; Marx, Melanie; Quillfeldt, Petra
2016-11-07
Understanding how past climatic oscillations have affected organismic evolution will help predict the impact that current climate change has on living organisms. The European turtle dove, Streptopelia turtur, is a warm-temperature adapted species and a long distance migrant that uses multiple flyways to move between Europe and Africa. Despite being abundant, it is categorized as vulnerable because of a long-term demographic decline. We studied the demographic history and population genetic structure of the European turtle dove using genomic data and mitochondrial DNA sequences from individuals sampled across Europe, and performing paleoclimatic niche modelling simulations. Overall our data suggest that this species is panmictic across Europe, and is not genetically structured across flyways. We found the genetic signatures of demographic fluctuations, inferring an effective population size (Ne) expansion that occurred between the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, followed by a decrease in the Ne that started between the mid Holocene and the present. Our niche modelling analyses suggest that the variations in the Ne are coincident with recent changes in the availability of suitable habitat. We argue that the European turtle dove is prone to undergo demographic fluctuations, a trait that makes it sensitive to anthropogenic impacts, especially when its numbers are decreasing. Also, considering the lack of genetic structure, we suggest all populations across Europe are equally relevant for conservation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saida, Junji; Imafuku, Muneyuki; Sato, Shigeo; Sanada, Takashi; Matsubara, Eiichiro; Inoue, Akihisa
2007-01-01
The correlation between the local structure and stability of supercooled liquid state is investigated in the Zr 70 (Ni, Cu) 30 binary and Zr 70 Al 10 (Ni, Cu) 20 (numbers indicate at.%) ternary metallic glasses. The Zr 70 Ni 30 binary amorphous alloy with a low stability of supercooled liquid state has a tetragonal Zr 2 Ni-like local structure around Ni atom. Meanwhile, the Zr 70 Cu 30 binary metallic glass has a different local structure of tetragonal Zr 2 Cu, where we suggest the icosahedral local structure by the quasicrystallization behavior in addition of a very small amount of noble metals. The effect of Al addition on the local structure in the Zr-Ni alloy is also examined. We have investigated that the dominant local structure changes in the icosahedral-like structure from the tetragonal Zr 2 Ni-like local structure by the Al substitution with Ni accompanying with the significant stabilization of supercooled liquid state. It is concluded that the formation of icosahedral local structure contributes to the enhancement of stability of supercooled liquid state in the Zr-based alloys
Introduction to multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis in matlab.
Ihlen, Espen A F
2012-01-01
Fractal structures are found in biomedical time series from a wide range of physiological phenomena. The multifractal spectrum identifies the deviations in fractal structure within time periods with large and small fluctuations. The present tutorial is an introduction to multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) that estimates the multifractal spectrum of biomedical time series. The tutorial presents MFDFA step-by-step in an interactive Matlab session. All Matlab tools needed are available in Introduction to MFDFA folder at the website www.ntnu.edu/inm/geri/software. MFDFA are introduced in Matlab code boxes where the reader can employ pieces of, or the entire MFDFA to example time series. After introducing MFDFA, the tutorial discusses the best practice of MFDFA in biomedical signal processing. The main aim of the tutorial is to give the reader a simple self-sustained guide to the implementation of MFDFA and interpretation of the resulting multifractal spectra.
Investigation of Parametric Instability of the Planetary Gear under Speed Fluctuations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinghui Qiu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Planetary gear is widely used in engineering and usually has symmetrical structure. As the number of teeth in contact changes during rotation, the time-varying mesh stiffness parametrically excites the planetary gear and may cause severe vibrations and instabilities. Taking speed fluctuations into account, the time-varying mesh stiffness is frequency modulated, and therefore sideband instabilities may arise and original instabilities are significantly affected. Considering two different speed fluctuations, original and sideband instabilities are numerically and analytically investigated. A rotational lumped-parameter model of the planetary gear is developed, in which the time-varying mesh stiffness, input speed fluctuations, and damping are considered. Closed-form approximations of instability boundaries for primary and combination instabilities are obtained by perturbation analysis and verified by numerical analysis. The effects of speed fluctuations and damping on parametric instability are systematically examined. Because of the frequency modulation, whether a parametric instability occurs cannot be simply predicted by the planet meshing phase which is applicable to constant speed. Besides adjusting the planet meshing phase, speed fluctuation supplies a new thought to minimize certain instability by adjusting the amplitude or frequency of the speed fluctuation. Both original and sideband instabilities are shrunken by damping, and speed fluctuation further shrinks the original instability.
Detecting structure of haplotypes and local ancestry
We present a two-layer hidden Markov model to detect the structure of haplotypes for unrelated individuals. This allows us to model two scales of linkage disequilibrium (one within a group of haplotypes and one between groups), thereby taking advantage of rich haplotype information to infer local an...
Multiscale probability distribution of pressure fluctuations in fluidized beds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghasemi, Fatemeh; Sahimi, Muhammad; Reza Rahimi Tabar, M; Peinke, Joachim
2012-01-01
Analysis of flow in fluidized beds, a common chemical reactor, is of much current interest due to its fundamental as well as industrial importance. Experimental data for the successive increments of the pressure fluctuations time series in a fluidized bed are analyzed by computing a multiscale probability density function (PDF) of the increments. The results demonstrate the evolution of the shape of the PDF from the short to long time scales. The deformation of the PDF across time scales may be modeled by the log-normal cascade model. The results are also in contrast to the previously proposed PDFs for the pressure fluctuations that include a Gaussian distribution and a PDF with a power-law tail. To understand better the properties of the pressure fluctuations, we also construct the shuffled and surrogate time series for the data and analyze them with the same method. It turns out that long-range correlations play an important role in the structure of the time series that represent the pressure fluctuation. (paper)
Temperature dependent XAFS studies of local atomic structure of the perovskite-type zirconates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vedrinskii, R. V.; Lemeshko, M. P.; Novakovich, A. A.; Nazarenko, E. S.; Nassif, V.; Proux, O.; Joly, Y.
2006-01-01
Temperature dependent preedge and extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements at the Zr K edge for the perovskite-type zirconates PbZr 0.515 Ti 0.485 O 3 (PZT), PbZrO 3 (PZ), and BaZrO 3 are performed. To carry out a more accurate study of the weak reconstruction of the local atomic structure we employed a combination of two techniques: (i) analysis of the preedge fine structure, and (ii) analysis of the Fourier transform of the difference between χ(k) functions obtained at different temperatures. A detailed investigation of local atomic structure in the cubic phase for all the crystals is also performed. It is shown that neither the displacive nor the order-disorder model can describe correctly the changes of local atomic structure during phase transitions in PZ and PZT. A spherical model describing the local atomic structure of perovskite-type crystals suffering structural phase transitions is proposed
Temporal scaling and spatial statistical analyses of groundwater level fluctuations
Sun, H.; Yuan, L., Sr.; Zhang, Y.
2017-12-01
Natural dynamics such as groundwater level fluctuations can exhibit multifractionality and/or multifractality due likely to multi-scale aquifer heterogeneity and controlling factors, whose statistics requires efficient quantification methods. This study explores multifractionality and non-Gaussian properties in groundwater dynamics expressed by time series of daily level fluctuation at three wells located in the lower Mississippi valley, after removing the seasonal cycle in the temporal scaling and spatial statistical analysis. First, using the time-scale multifractional analysis, a systematic statistical method is developed to analyze groundwater level fluctuations quantified by the time-scale local Hurst exponent (TS-LHE). Results show that the TS-LHE does not remain constant, implying the fractal-scaling behavior changing with time and location. Hence, we can distinguish the potentially location-dependent scaling feature, which may characterize the hydrology dynamic system. Second, spatial statistical analysis shows that the increment of groundwater level fluctuations exhibits a heavy tailed, non-Gaussian distribution, which can be better quantified by a Lévy stable distribution. Monte Carlo simulations of the fluctuation process also show that the linear fractional stable motion model can well depict the transient dynamics (i.e., fractal non-Gaussian property) of groundwater level, while fractional Brownian motion is inadequate to describe natural processes with anomalous dynamics. Analysis of temporal scaling and spatial statistics therefore may provide useful information and quantification to understand further the nature of complex dynamics in hydrology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kyobu, J.; Murata, Y.; Morinaga, M.
1994-01-01
A new computer program has been developed for the simulation of local atomic displacements in alloys with face-centered-cubic and body-centered-cubic lattices. The combined use of this program with the Gehlen-Cohen program for the simulation of chemical short-range order completely describes atomic fluctuations in alloys. The method has been applied to the structural simulation of Guinier-Preston (GP) zones in an Al-Cu alloy, using the experimental data of Matsubara and Cohen. Characteristic displacements of atoms have been observed around the GP zones and new structural models including local displacements have been proposed for a single-layer zone and several multilayer zones. (orig.)
A GDP fluctuation model based on interacting firms
Li, Honggang; Gao, Yan
2008-09-01
A distinctive feature of the market economies is the short-run fluctuations in output around the trend of long-run growth over time, and we regard this feature is internal to complex economic systems composed of interacting heterogeneous units. To explore such internal mechanisms of macroeconomic fluctuations, we present a multi-agent Keynesian theory-based model, which can provide a good approximation to the key empirical features of the western business cycles in the 20th Century, such as the structure of the autocorrelation function of overall output growth, correlations between the output growth of individual agents over time, the distribution of recessions, etc.
Spontaneous Fluctuations of PO2 in the Rabbit Somatosensory Cortex.
Linsenmeier, Robert A; Aksenov, Daniil P; Faber, Holden M; Makar, Peter; Wyrwicz, Alice M
2016-01-01
In many tissues, PO2 fluctuates spontaneously with amplitudes of a few mmHg. Here we further characterized these oscillations. PO2 recordings were made from the whisker barrel cortex of six rabbits with acutely or chronically placed polarographic electrodes. Measurements were made while rabbits were awake and while anesthetized with isoflurane, during air breathing, and during 100% oxygen inspiration. In awake rabbits, 90% of the power was between 0 and 20 cycles per minute (cpm), not uniformly distributed over this range, but with a peak frequently near 10 cpm. This was much slower than heart or respiratory rhythms and is similar to the frequency content observed in other tissues. During hyperoxia, total power was higher than during air-breathing, and the dominant frequencies tended to shift toward lower values (0-10 cpm). These observations suggest that at least the lower frequency fluctuations represent efforts by the circulation to regulate local PO2. There were no consistent changes in total power during 0.5 or 1.5% isoflurane anesthesia, but the power shifted to lower frequencies. Thus, both hyperoxia and anesthesia cause characteristic, but distinct, changes in spontaneous fluctuations. These PO2 fluctuations may be caused by vasomotion, but other factors cannot be ruled out.
Analysis of swarm behaviors based on an inversion of the fluctuation theorem.
Hamann, Heiko; Schmickl, Thomas; Crailsheim, Karl
2014-01-01
A grand challenge in the field of artificial life is to find a general theory of emergent self-organizing systems. In swarm systems most of the observed complexity is based on motion of simple entities. Similarly, statistical mechanics focuses on collective properties induced by the motion of many interacting particles. In this article we apply methods from statistical mechanics to swarm systems. We try to explain the emergent behavior of a simulated swarm by applying methods based on the fluctuation theorem. Empirical results indicate that swarms are able to produce negative entropy within an isolated subsystem due to frozen accidents. Individuals of a swarm are able to locally detect fluctuations of the global entropy measure and store them, if they are negative entropy productions. By accumulating these stored fluctuations over time the swarm as a whole is producing negative entropy and the system ends up in an ordered state. We claim that this indicates the existence of an inverted fluctuation theorem for emergent self-organizing dissipative systems. This approach bears the potential of general applicability.
Fluctuating Thermodynamics for Biological Processes
Ham, Sihyun
Because biomolecular processes are largely under thermodynamic control, dynamic extension of thermodynamics is necessary to uncover the mechanisms and driving factors of fluctuating processes. The fluctuating thermodynamics technology presented in this talk offers a practical means for the thermodynamic characterization of conformational dynamics in biomolecules. The use of fluctuating thermodynamics has the potential to provide a comprehensive picture of fluctuating phenomena in diverse biological processes. Through the application of fluctuating thermodynamics, we provide a thermodynamic perspective on the misfolding and aggregation of the various proteins associated with human diseases. In this talk, I will present the detailed concepts and applications of the fluctuating thermodynamics technology for elucidating biological processes. This work was supported by Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Project Number SSTF-BA1401-13.
Probing gluon number fluctuation effects in future electron–hadron colliders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amaral, J.T.; Gonçalves, V.P. [Instituto de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, CEP 96010-900, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Kugeratski, M.S. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Joinville, Rua Presidente Prudente de Moraes, 406, CEP 89218-000, Joinville, SC (Brazil)
2014-10-15
The description of the QCD dynamics in the kinematical range which will be probed in the future electron–hadron colliders is still an open question. Although phenomenological studies indicate that the gluon number fluctuations, which are related to discreteness in the QCD evolution, are negligible at HERA, the magnitude of these effects for the next generation of colliders still should be estimated. In this paper we investigate inclusive and diffractive ep observables considering a model for the physical scattering amplitude which describes the HERA data. Moreover, we estimate, for the first time, the contribution of the fluctuation effects for the nuclear structure functions. Our results indicate that the study of these observables in the future colliders can be useful to constrain the presence of gluon number fluctuations.
Rougier, E.; Combarnous, F.; Fauré, Yves-André
2018-01-01
Social transfers impact local economic growth through local demand multiplier and local productive structures. Using original data on productive structures, growth determinants and Bolsa Familia conditional transfers (BFP) for the 184 municipalities of the Brazilian state of Ceará during 2003–10, we show that the positive impact of the transfers on local growth is in fact conditional on the direction of local economic structure transformation. Indeed, transfers did spur light manufactur...
Conserved number fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garg, P.; Mishra, D.K.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, A.K.; Singh, B.K.; Xu, N.
2013-01-01
Net-baryon, net-charge and net-strangeness number fluctuations in high energy heavy-ion collisions are discussed within the framework of a hadron resonance gas (HRG) model. Ratios of the conserved number susceptibilities calculated in HRG are being compared to the corresponding experimental measurements to extract information about the freeze-out condition and the phase structure of systems with strong interactions. We emphasize the importance of considering the actual experimental acceptances in terms of kinematics (pseudorapidity (η) and transverse momentum (p T )), the detected charge state, effect of collective motion of particles in the system and the resonance decay contributions before comparisons are made to the theoretical calculations. In this work, based on HRG model, we report that the net-baryon number fluctuations are least affected by experimental acceptances compared to the net-charge and net-strangeness number fluctuations
Structural-change localization and monitoring through a perturbation-based inverse problem.
Roux, Philippe; Guéguen, Philippe; Baillet, Laurent; Hamze, Alaa
2014-11-01
Structural-change detection and characterization, or structural-health monitoring, is generally based on modal analysis, for detection, localization, and quantification of changes in structure. Classical methods combine both variations in frequencies and mode shapes, which require accurate and spatially distributed measurements. In this study, the detection and localization of a local perturbation are assessed by analysis of frequency changes (in the fundamental mode and overtones) that are combined with a perturbation-based linear inverse method and a deconvolution process. This perturbation method is applied first to a bending beam with the change considered as a local perturbation of the Young's modulus, using a one-dimensional finite-element model for modal analysis. Localization is successful, even for extended and multiple changes. In a second step, the method is numerically tested under ambient-noise vibration from the beam support with local changes that are shifted step by step along the beam. The frequency values are revealed using the random decrement technique that is applied to the time-evolving vibrations recorded by one sensor at the free extremity of the beam. Finally, the inversion method is experimentally demonstrated at the laboratory scale with data recorded at the free end of a Plexiglas beam attached to a metallic support.
Fully local orbital-free calculation of electronic structure using pseudopotentials
Pino, R.; Markvoort, Albert. J.; Santen, van R.A.; Hilbers, P.A.J.
2003-01-01
An exactly solvable orbital-free technique is applied to the calculation of the electronic structure of polyatomic systems. The Thomas–Fermi kinetic energy, local exchange, local electrostatic energy functionals, and pseudopotentials are used. Given the potential, the cost of the calculation of the
Nakatsuka, Osamu; Kitada, Hideki; Kim, Youngsuk; Mizushima, Yoriko; Nakamura, Tomoji; Ohba, Takayuki; Zaima, Shigeaki
2011-05-01
We have demonstrated the characterization of the local strain structure in thinned Si layers for wafer-on-a-wafer (WOW) applications by using X-ray microdiffraction with a synchrotron radiation source. The microdiffraction reveals the fluctuation of strains in the thin Si layer around through-silicon via (TSV) interconnects with a sub-micrometer scale. We can separately estimated the in-plane and out-of-plane strain structures in the Si layer, and found that the anisotropic strain is induced in the Si layer between the TSV interconnects.
Superconductivity and spin fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scalapino, D.J.
1999-01-01
The organizers of the Memorial Session for Herman Rietschel asked that the author review some of the history of the interplay of superconductivity and spin fluctuations. Initially, Berk and Schrieffer showed how paramagnon spin fluctuations could suppress superconductivity in nearly-ferromagnetic materials. Following this, Rietschel and various co-workers wrote a number of papers in which they investigated the role of spin fluctuations in reducing the Tc of various electron-phonon superconductors. Paramagnon spin fluctuations are also believed to provide the p-wave pairing mechanism responsible for the superfluid phases of 3 He. More recently, antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations have been proposed as the mechanism for d-wave pairing in the heavy-fermion superconductors and in some organic materials as well as possibly the high-Tc cuprates. Here the author will review some of this early history and discuss some of the things he has learned more recently from numerical simulations
Holocene sea-level fluctuation in the southern hemisphere
Isla, Federico Ignacio
If rising sea levels dominate in the northern hemisphere (NH), falling or fluctuating sea levels predominate in the southern hemisphere (SH). Endogenic processes (tectonics, isostasy or geoidal changes) could explain local or regional mean sea level (MSL) fluctuations but not an hemispherical one. Evidence from South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia and the Pacific and Indian Oceans suggest that the Holocene transgression rose above the present MSL, in higher latitudes before the tropics. By plotting latitude against the age of MSL arrival at present coasts, good correlation is observed. Oceanic salinity mixing has been already proposed to explain this mid-Holocene sea-level fluctuation. Climate could be the only factor responsible for this hemisphere-wide behavior of MSL. It has been suggested previously that the climate of the SH precedes that of the NH by 3000 years. The climatic optimum, or maximum warmth, occurred predominantly about 6000 BP in the NH, but about 10-9000 BP in the SH. Short-term climatic effects on the sea level (monsoons, southern oscillation/El Niño phenomena) should have significant occurrences during the past in the windiest oceanic hemisphere. This latitudinal trend in former MSL should be considered when using shorelines as reference points for measuring vertical crustal movements.
Local and average structure of Mn- and La-substituted BiFeO3
Jiang, Bo; Selbach, Sverre M.
2017-06-01
The local and average structure of solid solutions of the multiferroic perovskite BiFeO3 is investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The average experimental structure is determined by Rietveld refinement and the local structure by total scattering data analyzed in real space with the pair distribution function (PDF) method. With equal concentrations of La on the Bi site or Mn on the Fe site, La causes larger structural distortions than Mn. Structural models based on DFT relaxed geometry give an improved fit to experimental PDFs compared to models constrained by the space group symmetry. Berry phase calculations predict a higher ferroelectric polarization than the experimental literature values, reflecting that structural disorder is not captured in either average structure space group models or DFT calculations with artificial long range order imposed by periodic boundary conditions. Only by including point defects in a supercell, here Bi vacancies, can DFT calculations reproduce the literature results on the structure and ferroelectric polarization of Mn-substituted BiFeO3. The combination of local and average structure sensitive experimental methods with DFT calculations is useful for illuminating the structure-property-composition relationships in complex functional oxides with local structural distortions.
Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities.
Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael K; Fordyce, James A; Rahbek, Carsten; Weiser, Michael D; Dunn, Robert R; Sanders, Nathan J
2012-01-22
There is a long tradition in ecology of evaluating the relative contribution of the regional species pool and local interactions on the structure of local communities. Similarly, a growing number of studies assess the phylogenetic structure of communities, relative to that in the regional species pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that the definition of the source pool influences interpretations of patterns of community structure. We use a continent-wide dataset of local ant communities and implement ecologically explicit source pool definitions to examine the relative importance of regional species pools and local interactions for shaping community structure. Then we assess which factors underlie systematic variation in the structure of communities along climatic gradients. We find that the average phylogenetic relatedness of species in ant communities decreases from tropical to temperate regions, but the strength of this relationship depends on the level of ecological realism in the definition of source pools. We conclude that the evolution of climatic niches influences the phylogenetic structure of regional source pools and that the influence of regional source pools on local community structure is strong.
Non-classical homogeneous precipitation mediated by compositional fluctuations in titanium alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nag, S.; Zheng, Y.; Williams, R.E.A.; Devaraj, A.; Boyne, A.; Wang, Y.; Collins, P.C.; Viswanathan, G.B.; Tiley, J.S.; Muddle, B.C.; Banerjee, R.
2012-01-01
This paper presents experimental evidence of homogeneous precipitation of the α-phase within the β matrix of a titanium alloy, and then accounts for this phase transformation by a new, non-classical mechanism involving compositional fluctuations, based on the pseudo-spinodal concept [1]. This mechanism involves local compositional fluctuations of small amplitude which, when of a certain magnitude, can favor thermodynamically certain regions of the β matrix to transform congruently to the α-phase but with compositions far from equilibrium. Subsequently, as measured experimentally using the tomographical atom probe, continuous diffusional partitioning between the parent β- and product α-phases during isothermal annealing drives their compositions towards equilibrium. For a given alloy composition, the decomposition mechanism is strongly temperature dependent, which would be expected for homogeneous precipitation via the compositional fluctuation-mediated mechanism but not necessarily for one based on classical nucleation theory. The applicability of this mechanism to phase transformations in general is noted.
The business fluctuations and the lobbying evolution in European Union, Canada and USA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oanta Ilie Stefan
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Business fluctuations are associated with business cycles but are not implying the regularity. We consider that the lobbying activities can influence the periods of economic recession and expansion from business fluctuations. The role of lobbying is to affect the decisions made by officials in the government or international corporations and agencies or organizations. In this paper we describe the structure of lobbying practice in European Union, Canada and United States of America and the characteristics of business fluctuations. Specifically, this paper looks at the lobbying activities evolution in European Union, Canada and United States of America and also at a potential relationship between lobbying and business fluctuations, from periods of boom to periods of recession.
Music Structure Analysis from Acoustic Signals
Dannenberg, Roger B.; Goto, Masataka
Music is full of structure, including sections, sequences of distinct musical textures, and the repetition of phrases or entire sections. The analysis of music audio relies upon feature vectors that convey information about music texture or pitch content. Texture generally refers to the average spectral shape and statistical fluctuation, often reflecting the set of sounding instruments, e.g., strings, vocal, or drums. Pitch content reflects melody and harmony, which is often independent of texture. Structure is found in several ways. Segment boundaries can be detected by observing marked changes in locally averaged texture.
Coherence properties of holes subject to a fluctuating spin chirality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wheatley, J.M.; Hong, T.M.
1991-01-01
The coherence properties of holes coupled to short-ranged chiral spin fluctuations with a characteristic chiral spin fluctuation time τ ch =ω ch -1 are investigated in two dimensions. At temperatures kT much-lt 4π 2 left-angle φ 2 right-angle -1 ℎω ch hole quasiparticles exist and propagate with a renormalized mass m * /m=1+left-angle φ 2 right-angle ℎ/16πma 0 2 ω ch . $langle phi sup 2 rangle--- is the amplitude of the local fictitious flux fluctuation and a 0 is a lattice cutoff. At temperatures kT much-gt 4π 2 left-angle φ 2 right-angle -1 ℎω ch an effective-mass approximation is invalid and we find that the hole diffuses according to a logarithmic diffusion law in the quasistatic chiral field. The unusual diffusion law is a consequence of the long-ranged nature of the gauge field. The result shows that the holes do not form a coherent quantum fluid in the quasistatic regime
Non-Gaussian conductivity fluctuations in semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melkonyan, S.V.
2010-01-01
A theoretical study is presented on the statistical properties of conductivity fluctuations caused by concentration and mobility fluctuations of the current carriers. It is established that mobility fluctuations result from random deviations in the thermal equilibrium distribution of the carriers. It is shown that mobility fluctuations have generation-recombination and shot components which do not satisfy the requirements of the central limit theorem, in contrast to the current carrier's concentration fluctuation and intraband component of the mobility fluctuation. It is shown that in general the mobility fluctuation consist of thermal (or intraband) Gaussian and non-thermal (or generation-recombination, shot, etc.) non-Gaussian components. The analyses of theoretical results and experimental data from literature show that the statistical properties of mobility fluctuation and of 1/f-noise fully coincide. The deviation from Gaussian statistics of the mobility or 1/f fluctuations goes hand in hand with the magnitude of non-thermal noise (generation-recombination, shot, burst, pulse noises, etc.).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casati, G.; Chirikov, B.V.
1996-01-01
Various fluctuations in quantum systems with discrete spectrum are discussed, including recent unpublished results. Open questions and unexplained peculiarities of quantum fluctuations are formulated [ru
On microscopic structure of the QCD vacuum
Pak, D. G.; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Kim, Youngman; Tsukioka, Takuya; Zhang, P. M.
2018-05-01
We propose a new class of regular stationary axially symmetric solutions in a pure QCD which correspond to monopole-antimonopole pairs at macroscopic scale. The solutions represent vacuum field configurations which are locally stable against quantum gluon fluctuations in any small space-time vicinity. This implies that the monopole-antimonopole pair can serve as a structural element in microscopic description of QCD vacuum formation.
Nuclear Enhanced X-ray Maximum Entropy Method Used to Analyze Local Distortions in Simple Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Sebastian; Bindzus, Niels; Christensen, Mogens
We introduce a novel method for reconstructing pseudo nuclear density distributions (NDDs): Nuclear Enhanced X-ray Maximum Entropy Method (NEXMEM). NEXMEM offers an alternative route to experimental NDDs, exploiting the superior quality of synchrotron X-ray data compared to neutron data. The method...... proposed to result from anharmonic phonon scattering or from local fluctuating dipoles on the Pb site.[1,2] No macroscopic symmetry change are associated with these effects, rendering them invisible to conventional crystallographic techniques. For this reason PbX was until recently believed to adopt...
Influence of longitudinal spin fluctuations on the phase transition features in chiral magnets
Belemuk, A. M.; Stishov, S. M.
2018-04-01
Using the classical Monte Carlo calculations, we investigate the effects of longitudinal spin fluctuations on the helimagnetic transition in a Heisenberg magnet with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. We use variable spin amplitudes in the framework of the spin-lattice Hamiltonian. It is this kind of fluctuations that naturally occur in an itinerant system. We show that the basic features of the helical phase transition are not changed much by the longitudinal spin fluctuations though the transition temperature Tc and the fluctuation hump seen in specific heat at T >Tc is significantly affected. We report thermodynamic and structural effects of these fluctuations. By increasing the system size in the Monte Carlo modeling, we are able to reproduce the ring shape scattering intensity above the helimagnetic transition temperature Tc, which transforms into the spiral spots seen below Tc in the neutron scattering experiments.
Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS)
Tetin, Sergey
2012-01-01
This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and includes chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy Contains chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells.
Fluctuating selection on basal metabolic rate.
Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, Jan-Åke
2016-02-01
BMR (Basal metabolic rate) is an important trait in animal life history as it represents a significant part of animal energy budgets. BMR has also been shown to be positively related to sustainable work rate and maximal thermoregulatory capacity. To this date, most of the studies have focused on the causes of interspecific and intraspecific variation in BMR, and fairly little is known about the fitness consequences of different metabolic strategies. In this study, we show that winter BMR affects local survival in a population of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), but that the selection direction differs between years. We argue that this fluctuating selection is probably a consequence of varying winter climate with a positive relation between survival and BMR during cold and harsh conditions, but a negative relation during mild winters. This fluctuating selection can not only explain the pronounced variation in BMR in wild populations, but will also give us new insights into how energy turnover rates can shape the life-history strategies of animals. Furthermore, the study shows that the process of global warming may cause directional selection for a general reduction in BMR, affecting the general life-history strategy on the population level.
Structure and Function of Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations: Mind the Gaps.
Battipaglia, Giovanna; Campelo, Filipe; Vieira, Joana; Grabner, Michael; De Micco, Veronica; Nabais, Cristina; Cherubini, Paolo; Carrer, Marco; Bräuning, Achim; Čufar, Katarina; Di Filippo, Alfredo; García-González, Ignacio; Koprowski, Marcin; Klisz, Marcin; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Zafirov, Nikolay; de Luis, Martin
2016-01-01
Tree rings are natural archives of climate and environmental information with a yearly resolution. Indeed, wood anatomical, chemical, and other properties of tree rings are a synthesis of several intrinsic and external factors, and their interaction during tree growth. In particular, Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations (IADFs) can be considered as tree-ring anomalies that can be used to better understand tree growth and to reconstruct past climate conditions with intra-annual resolution. However, the ecophysiological processes behind IADF formation, as well as their functional impact, remain unclear. Are IADFs resulting from a prompt adjustment to fluctuations in environmental conditions to avoid stressful conditions and/or to take advantage from favorable conditions? In this paper we discuss: (1) the influence of climatic factors on the formation of IADFs; (2) the occurrence of IADFs in different species and environments; (3) the potential of new approaches to study IADFs and identify their triggering factors. Our final aim is to underscore the advantages offered by network analyses of data and the importance of high-resolution measurements to gain insight into IADFs formation processes and their relations with climatic conditions, including extreme weather events.
Structure and Function of Intra–Annual Density Fluctuations: Mind the Gaps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanna eBattipaglia
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Tree rings are natural archives of climate and environmental information with a yearly resolution. Indeed, wood anatomical, chemical and other properties of tree rings are a synthesis of several intrinsic, environmental factors, and interconnected processes acting during tree growth. In particular, Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations (IADFs can be considered as tree-ring anomalies that can be used to better understand tree growth and to reconstruct past climate conditions with intra-annual resolution. However, the ecophysiological processes behind IADF formation, as well as their functional impact, remain unclear. Are IADFs resulting from a prompt adjustment to fluctuations in environmental conditions to avoid stressful conditions and/or to take advantage from favorable conditions? In this paper we discuss: (1 the influence of climatic factors on the formation of IADFs; (2 the occurrence of IADFs in different species and environments; (3 the potential of new approaches to study IADFs and identify their triggering factors. Our final aim is to underscore the advantages offered by network analyses of data and the importance of high-resolution measurements to gain insight into IADFs formation processes and their relations with climatic conditions, including extreme weather events.
Structure of conduction electrons on polysilanes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ichikawa, Tsuneki [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Kumagai, Jun
1998-10-01
The orbital structures of conduction electrons on permethylated oligosilane, Si{sub 2n}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2n+2}(n = 2 - 8), and poly(cyclohexylmethylsilane) have been determined by the electron spin-echo envelope modulation signals of the radical anions of these silanes in a deuterated rigid matrix at 77 K. The conduction electron on permethylated oligosilane is delocalized over the entire main chain, whereas that on poly(cyclohexylmethylsilane) is localized on a part of the main chain composed of about six Si atoms. Quantum-chemical calculations suggest that Anderson localization due to fluctuation of {sigma} conjugation by conformational disorder of the main chain is responsible for the localization of both the conduction electron and the hole. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharya, Somesh Kr; Tanaka, Shingo; Kohyama, Masanori; Shiihara, Yoshinori
2013-01-01
We present first-principle calculations on symmetric tilt grain boundaries (GBs) in bcc Fe. Using density functional theory (DFT), we studied the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Σ3(111) and Σ11(332) GBs formed by rotation around the [110] axis. The optimized structures, GB energies and GB excess free volumes are consistent with previous DFT and classical simulation studies. The GB configurations can be interpreted by the structural unit model as given by Nakashima and Takeuchi (2000 ISIJ 86 357). Both the GBs are composed of similar structural units of three- and five-membered rings with different densities at the interface according to the rotation angle. The interface atoms with larger atomic volumes reveal higher magnetic moments than the bulk value, while the interface atoms with shorter bond lengths have reduced magnetic moments in each GB. The charge density and local density of states reveal that the interface bonds with short bond lengths have more covalent nature, where minority-spin electrons play a dominant role as the typical nature of ferromagnetic Fe. In order to understand the structural stability of these GBs, we calculated the local energy and local stress for each atomic region using the scheme of Shiihara et al (2010 Phys. Rev. B 81 075441). In each GB, the interface atoms with larger atomic volumes and enhanced magnetic moments reveal larger local energy increase and tensile stress. The interface atoms constituting more covalent-like bonds with reduced magnetic moments have lower local energy increase, contributing to the stabilization, while compressive stress is generated at these atoms. The relative stability between the two GBs can be understood by the local energies at the structural units. The local energy and local stress analysis is a powerful tool to investigate the structural properties of GBs based on the behavior of valence electrons. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheikhi, Amir; Sotudeh-Gharebagh, Rahmat; Mostoufi, Navid; Zarghami, Reza
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Bed shell vibration fluctuation is introduced as a novel non-invasive monitoring method in three-phase fluidized beds. • Analyses of vibration signatures and pressure fluctuations were performed to characterize gas–liquid–solid fluidized beds. • These enabled further investigation on the dual effect of solid particles on the local and global bed hydrodynamics. -- Abstract: Simultaneous analyses of vibration signatures and pressure fluctuations were performed to investigate the hydrodynamics of a conventional three-phase gas–liquid–solid fluidized bed over a wide range of operating conditions. Non-intrusive vibration signature and pressure fluctuation signals were acquired by means of accelerometers and a piezoresistive pressure transducer, respectively. Comprehensive study on the standard deviation of pressure fluctuations was conducted simultaneously with two new statistical analyses on the pressure fluctuations, namely signal energy and average cycle frequency, which presented a new method of determining minimum liquid-fluidization velocity. This enabled further investigation on the dual effect of solid particles on the local hydrodynamics in the three-phase beds. The vibration analysis of the bed was introduced as a novel and non-invasive tool, which proved to be a robust representative of the global governing regimes suggesting a new approach on the dual effect of solid particles on the bed global hydrodynamics. These methods can pave the way towards the non-invasive hydrodynamic characterization of industrial three-phase reactors
EMRS Spring Meeting 2014 Symposium D: Phonons and fluctuations in low dimensional structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2014-01-01
The E-MRS 2014 Spring meeting, held from 26-30th May 2014 in Lille included the Symposium D entitled ''Phonons and Fluctuations in Low Dimensional Structures'', the first edition of its kind. The symposium was organised in response to the increasing interest in the study of phonons in the context of advances in condensed matter physics, electronics, experimental methods and theory and, in particular, the transfer of energy across atomic interfaces and the propagation of energy in the nm-scale. Steering heat by light or vice versa and examining nano-scale energy conversion (as in thermoelectricity and harvesting e.g. in biological systems) are two aspects that share the underlying science of energy processes across atomic interfaces and energy propagation in the nanoscale and or in confined systems. The nanometer scale defies several of the bulk relationships as confinement of electrons and phonons, locality and non-equilibrium become increasingly important. The propagation of phonons as energy carriers impacts not only heat transfer, but also the very concept and handling of temperature in non-equilibrium and highly localised conditions. Much of the needed progress depends on the materials studied and this symposium targeted the interface material aspects as well as the emerging concepts to advance in this field. The symposium had its origins in a series of meetings and seminars including: (1) the first Phonon Engineering Workshop, funded by Catalan Institute for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), the then MICINN, the CNRS, VTT, and several EU projects, held in Saint Feliu de Guixols (Girona, Spain) from 24th to 27th of May 2010 with 65 participants from Europe, the USA and Japan; (2) the first Phonons and Fluctuations workshop, held in Paris on 8th and 9th November 2010, supported by French, Spanish and Finnish national projects and EU projects, attended by about 50 researchers; (3) the second Phonon and Fluctuations workshop, held in Paris
EMRS Spring Meeting 2014 Symposium D: Phonons and fluctuations in low dimensional structures
2014-11-01
The E-MRS 2014 Spring meeting, held from 26-30th May 2014 in Lille included the Symposium D entitled ''Phonons and Fluctuations in Low Dimensional Structures'', the first edition of its kind. The symposium was organised in response to the increasing interest in the study of phonons in the context of advances in condensed matter physics, electronics, experimental methods and theory and, in particular, the transfer of energy across atomic interfaces and the propagation of energy in the nm-scale. Steering heat by light or vice versa and examining nano-scale energy conversion (as in thermoelectricity and harvesting e.g. in biological systems) are two aspects that share the underlying science of energy processes across atomic interfaces and energy propagation in the nanoscale and or in confined systems. The nanometer scale defies several of the bulk relationships as confinement of electrons and phonons, locality and non-equilibrium become increasingly important. The propagation of phonons as energy carriers impacts not only heat transfer, but also the very concept and handling of temperature in non-equilibrium and highly localised conditions. Much of the needed progress depends on the materials studied and this symposium targeted the interface material aspects as well as the emerging concepts to advance in this field. The symposium had its origins in a series of meetings and seminars including: (1) the first Phonon Engineering Workshop, funded by Catalan Institute for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), the then MICINN, the CNRS, VTT, and several EU projects, held in Saint Feliu de Guixols (Girona, Spain) from 24th to 27th of May 2010 with 65 participants from Europe, the USA and Japan; (2) the first Phonons and Fluctuations workshop, held in Paris on 8th and 9th November 2010, supported by French, Spanish and Finnish national projects and EU projects, attended by about 50 researchers; (3) the second Phonon and Fluctuations workshop, held in Paris on 8th and 9th
Plasma fluctuation measurements in tokamaks using beam-plasma interactions (abstract)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fonck, R.J.; Duperrex, P.A.; Paul, S.F.
1990-01-01
High-frequency observations of light emitted from the interactions between plasma ions and injected neutral beam atoms allow the measurement of moderate-wavelength fluctuations in plasma and impurity ion densities. To detect turbulence in the local plasma ion density, the collisionally excited fluorescence from a neutral beam is measured either separately at several spatial points or with a multichannel imaging detector. Similarly, the role of impurity ion density fluctuations is measured using charge exchange recombination excited transitions emitted by the ion species of interest. This technique can access the relatively unexplored region of long-wavelength plasma turbulence with k perpendicular ρ i much-lt 1, and hence complements measurements from scattering experiments. Optimization of neutral beam geometry and optical sightlines can result in very good localization and resolution (Δx≤1 cm) in the hot plasma core region. The detectable fluctuation level is determined by photon statistics, atomic excitation processes, and beam stability, but can be as low as 0.2% in a 100 kHz bandwidth over the 0--1 MHz frequency range. The choices of beam species (e.g., H 0 , He 0 , etc.), observed transition (e.g., H α , L α , He I singlet or triplet transitions, C VI Δn=1, etc.) are dictated by experiment-specific factors such as optical access, flexibility of beam operation, plasma conditions, and detailed experimental goals. Initial tests on the PBX-M tokamak using the H α emissions from a heating neutral beam show low-frequency turbulence in the edge plasma region
Local Structure of Cerium in Aluminophosphate and Silicophosphate Glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rygel, Jennifer L.; Chen, Yongsheng; Pantano, Carlo G.; Shibata, Tomohiro; Du, Jincheng; Kokou, Leopold; Woodman, Robert; Belcher, James
2011-01-01
The local structure of cerium in two systematic compositional series of glasses, nominally CeP 3 O 9 -AlP 3 O 9 and CeP 3 O 9 -SiP 2 O 7 , was interrogated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. XPS revealed that, for glasses melted in air, ≥95% of cerium ions are Ce 3+ . This was independently confirmed using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). Ce K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) has been used to determine the local structure of Ce 3+ . Near the metaphosphate composition, cerium was found to have an average cerium coordination number of ∼7.0 and an average cerium-oxygen bond length of 2.41 (angstrom). The average cerium coordination number and average cerium-oxygen bond distance were found to increase with decreasing cerium concentration in both compositional series. Rare-earth clustering is suggested based on numerical calculations for glasses containing ≥14 and ≥15 mol% Ce 2 O 3 for the aluminophosphate and silicophosphate series, respectively.
Calculations of carrier localization in InxGa1-xN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Lin-Wang
2001-01-01
The electronic structures of cubic InGaN systems are calculated using an atomistic empirical pseudopotential method. Two extreme cases are studied. One is a pure InN quantum dot embedded in a pure GaN matrix, another is a pure In x Ga 1-x N alloy without clustering. We find hole localizations in both cases. The hole wave function starts to be localized as soon as a few In atoms segregate to form a small cluster, while the electron wave function only becomes localized after the number of In atoms in the quantum dot becomes larger than 200. The hole state is also strongly localized in a pure In x Ga 1-x N alloy, on top of randomly formed (110) directioned In-N-In chains. Using one proposed model, we have calculated the hole energy fluctuation, and related that to photoluminescence linewidth. The calculated linewidth is about 100 meV, close to the experimental results. Wurtzite InGaN is also studied for optical anisotropies. We find that in both quantum dot and pure alloy, the polarization is in the xy plane perpendicular to the c axis of the wurtzite structure
Local features with large spiky non-Gaussianities during inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Khosravi, Shahram; Sasaki, Misao
2012-01-01
We provide a dynamical mechanism to generate localized features during inflation. The local feature is due to a sharp waterfall phase transition which is coupled to the inflaton field. The key effect is the contributions of waterfall quantum fluctuations which induce a sharp peak on the curvature perturbation which can be as large as the background curvature perturbation from inflaton field. Due to non-Gaussian nature of waterfall quantum fluctuations a large spike non-Gaussianity is produced which is narrowly peaked at modes which leave the Hubble radius at the time of phase transition. The large localized peaks in power spectrum and bispectrum can have interesting consequences on CMB anisotropies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Telesca, Luciano; Colangelo, Gerardo; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Macchiato, Maria
2004-01-01
We analyzed fluctuations in the time dynamics of nonstationary geoelectrical data, recorded in a seismic area of southern Italy, by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). The multifractal character of the signal depends mostly on the different long-range properties for small and large fluctuations. The time variation of indices, denoting the departure from monofractal behaviour, reveals an enhancement of the multifractality of the signal prior seismic occurrences
Functional classification of protein structures by local structure matching in graph representation.
Mills, Caitlyn L; Garg, Rohan; Lee, Joslynn S; Tian, Liang; Suciu, Alexandru; Cooperman, Gene; Beuning, Penny J; Ondrechen, Mary Jo
2018-03-31
As a result of high-throughput protein structure initiatives, over 14,400 protein structures have been solved by structural genomics (SG) centers and participating research groups. While the totality of SG data represents a tremendous contribution to genomics and structural biology, reliable functional information for these proteins is generally lacking. Better functional predictions for SG proteins will add substantial value to the structural information already obtained. Our method described herein, Graph Representation of Active Sites for Prediction of Function (GRASP-Func), predicts quickly and accurately the biochemical function of proteins by representing residues at the predicted local active site as graphs rather than in Cartesian coordinates. We compare the GRASP-Func method to our previously reported method, structurally aligned local sites of activity (SALSA), using the ribulose phosphate binding barrel (RPBB), 6-hairpin glycosidase (6-HG), and Concanavalin A-like Lectins/Glucanase (CAL/G) superfamilies as test cases. In each of the superfamilies, SALSA and the much faster method GRASP-Func yield similar correct classification of previously characterized proteins, providing a validated benchmark for the new method. In addition, we analyzed SG proteins using our SALSA and GRASP-Func methods to predict function. Forty-one SG proteins in the RPBB superfamily, nine SG proteins in the 6-HG superfamily, and one SG protein in the CAL/G superfamily were successfully classified into one of the functional families in their respective superfamily by both methods. This improved, faster, validated computational method can yield more reliable predictions of function that can be used for a wide variety of applications by the community. © 2018 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.
Ehteshami, Hossein; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.
2017-12-01
First-principles-based thermodynamic modeling of cubic α and β phases of Mn represent a challenge due to their structural complexity and the necessity of simultaneous treatment of several types of disorder (electronic, magnetic, and vibrational) that have very different characteristic time scales. Here we employ mean-field theoretical models to describe the different types of disorder and then we connect each layer of theory to the others using the adiabatic principle of separating faster and slower degrees of freedom. The slowest (vibrational) degrees of freedom are treated using the Moruzzi, Janak, and Schwarz formalism [Phys. Rev. B 37, 790 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevB.37.790] of the Debye-Grüneisen model parametrized based on the first-principles calculated equation of state which includes the free-energy contributions due to the fast (electronic and magnetic) degrees of freedom via the Fermi-Dirac distribution function and a mean-field theory of transverse spin fluctuations. The magnetic contribution due to transverse spin fluctuations has been computed self-consistently within the disordered local moment picture of the paramagnetic state. The obtained results for thermodynamic properties such as lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, and heat capacity of both phases show a good agreement with available experimental data. We also tested the assumption about the nature (localized versus delocalized) of magnetic moment on site IV in α -Mn and site I in β -Mn on the thermodynamic properties of these two phases. Similar to the findings of experimental studies, we conclude that magnetic moment on site IV in α -Mn is not of a localized character. However, a similar analysis suggests that the magnetic moment of site I in β -Mn should be treated as localized.
Strain fluctuations and elastic constants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.
1982-03-01
It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.
Hahn, Intaek; Brixey, Laurie A; Wiener, Russell W; Henkle, Stacy W; Baldauf, Richard
2009-12-01
Analyses of outdoor traffic-related particulate matter (PM) concentration distribution and fluctuation patterns in urban street canyons within a microscale distance of less than 500 m from a highway source are presented as part of the results from the Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study. Various patterns of spatial and temporal changes in the street canyon PM concentrations were investigated using time-series data of real-time PM concentrations measured during multiple monitoring periods. Concurrent time-series data of local street canyon wind conditions and wind data from the John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport National Weather Service (NWS) were used to characterize the effects of various wind conditions on the behavior of street canyon PM concentrations.Our results suggest that wind direction may strongly influence time-averaged mean PM concentration distribution patterns in near-highway urban street canyons. The rooftop-level wind speeds were found to be strongly correlated with the PM concentration fluctuation intensities in the middle sections of the street blocks. The ambient turbulence generated by shifting local wind directions (angles) showed a good correlation with the PM concentration fluctuation intensities along the entire distance of the first and second street blocks only when the wind angle standard deviations were larger than 30 degrees. Within-canyon turbulent shearing, caused by fluctuating local street canyon wind speeds, showed no correlation with PM concentration fluctuation intensities. The time-averaged mean PM concentration distribution along the longitudinal distances of the street blocks when wind direction was mostly constantly parallel to the street was found to be similar to the distribution pattern for the entire monitoring period when wind direction fluctuated wildly. Finally, we showed that two different PM concentration metrics-time-averaged mean
Evaluation of random temperature fluctuation problems with frequency response approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lejeail, Yves; Kasahara, Naoto
2000-01-01
Since thermal striping is a coupled thermohydraulic and thermomechanical phenomenon, sodium mock-up tests were usually required to confirm structural integrity. Authors have developed the frequency response function to establish design-by-analysis methodology for this phenomenon. Applicability of this method to sinusoidal fluctuation was validated through two benchmark problems with FAENA and TIFFSS facilities under EJCC contract. This report describes the extension of the frequency response method to random fluctuations. As an example of application, fatigue strength of a Tee junction of PHENIX secondary piping system was investigated. (author)
Brain networks, structural realism, and local approaches to the scientific realism debate.
Yan, Karen; Hricko, Jonathon
2017-08-01
We examine recent work in cognitive neuroscience that investigates brain networks. Brain networks are characterized by the ways in which brain regions are functionally and anatomically connected to one another. Cognitive neuroscientists use various noninvasive techniques (e.g., fMRI) to investigate these networks. They represent them formally as graphs. And they use various graph theoretic techniques to analyze them further. We distinguish between knowledge of the graph theoretic structure of such networks (structural knowledge) and knowledge of what instantiates that structure (nonstructural knowledge). And we argue that this work provides structural knowledge of brain networks. We explore the significance of this conclusion for the scientific realism debate. We argue that our conclusion should not be understood as an instance of a global structural realist claim regarding the structure of the unobservable part of the world, but instead, as a local structural realist attitude towards brain networks in particular. And we argue that various local approaches to the realism debate, i.e., approaches that restrict realist commitments to particular theories and/or entities, are problematic insofar as they don't allow for the possibility of such a local structural realist attitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Analysis of local influences in structural details of the bridges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam RUDZIK
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The article analyses the problems of local influences in structural details of bridges as the critical locations, whose damages or excessive force may directly affect the safety of users. These analyses are shown on selected examples. Presented is the example of local changes in the forms of proper vibrations in the node of the truss bridge that can be used in expert issues concerning the causes of damages. The second example are the changes in stresses in the stay cable anchorage element including the nonlinear material models. Models of this type can be successfully used by engineers as they allow for analysis of selected structural details without the need for detailed mapping of the entire structure, but only a selected section.
Linear response to long wavelength fluctuations using curvature simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baldauf, Tobias; Zaldarriaga, Matias [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Seljak, Uroš [Physics Department, Astronomy Department and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Senatore, Leonardo, E-mail: baldauf@ias.edu, E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu, E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu, E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)
2016-09-01
We study the local response to long wavelength fluctuations in cosmological N -body simulations, focusing on the matter and halo power spectra, halo abundance and non-linear transformations of the density field. The long wavelength mode is implemented using an effective curved cosmology and a mapping of time and distances. The method provides an alternative, more direct, way to measure the isotropic halo biases. Limiting ourselves to the linear case, we find generally good agreement between the biases obtained from the curvature method and the traditional power spectrum method at the level of a few percent. We also study the response of halo counts to changes in the variance of the field and find that the slope of the relation between the responses to density and variance differs from the naïve derivation assuming a universal mass function by approximately 8–20%. This has implications for measurements of the amplitude of local non-Gaussianity using scale dependent bias. We also analyze the halo power spectrum and halo-dark matter cross-spectrum response to long wavelength fluctuations and derive second order halo bias from it, as well as the super-sample variance contribution to the galaxy power spectrum covariance matrix.
Solar wind fluctuations at large scale: A comparison between low and high solar activity conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bavassano, B.; Bruno, R.
1991-01-01
The influence of the Sun's activity cycle on the solar wind fluctuations at time scales from 1 hour to 3 days in the inner heliosphere (0.3 to 1 AU) is investigated. Hourly averages of plasma and magnetic field data by Helios spacecraft are used. Since fluctuations behave quite differently with changing scale, the analysis is performed separately for two different ranges in time scale. Between 1 and 6 hours Alfvenic fluctuations and pressure-balanced structures are extensively observed. At low solar activity and close to 0.3 AU, Alfvenic fluctuations are more frequent than pressure-balanced structures. This predominance, however, weakens for rising solar activity and radial distance, to the point that a role exchange, in terms of occurrence rate, is found at the maximum of the cycle close to 1 AU. On the other hand, in all cases Alfvenic fluctuations have a larger amplitude than pressure-balanced structures. On the whole, the Alfvenic contribution to the solar wind energy spectrum comes out to be dominant at all solar activity conditions. At scales from 0.5 to 3 days the most important feature is the growth, as the solar wind expansion develops, of strong positive correlations between magnetic and thermal pressures. These structures are progressively built up by the interaction between different wind flows. This effect is more pronounced at low than at high activity. Our findings support the conclusion that the solar cycle evolution of the large-scale velocity pattern is the factor governing the observed variations
Pressure fluctuations induced by fluid flow in singular points of industrial circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibert, R.J.; Villard, B.
1977-01-01
Flow singularities (enlargements, bards, valves, tees, ...) generate in the circuits of industrial plants wall pressure fluctuations which are the main cause of vibration. A methodical study of the most current singularities has been performed at C.E.A./D.E.M.T. On one hand a theory of noise generation by unsteady flow in internal acoustics has been developed. This theory uses the basic ideas initiated by LIGHTILL. As a result it is shown that the plane wave propagation is a valid assumption and that a singularity can be acoustically modelled by a pressure and a mass-flow-rate discontinuities. Both are random functions of time, the spectra of which are determined from the local fluctuations characteristics. On other hand, characteristics of several singularities have been measured: intercorrelation spectra of local pressure fluctuations. Autocorrelation spectra of associated acoustical sources (the measure of the acoustical pressures in the experimental circuit are interpreted by using the D.E.M.T. computer code VIBRAPHONE which gives the acoustical response of a complex circuit. Experimental atmospheric air and water loops have been used. The Reynolds number has been changed between about 10 5 and 10 6 ; the Mach number between about 0,01 and 0,5. Simple laws with dimensionless parameters are formulated and can be used for the estimation of the acoustical and mechanical vibration level of a circuit with given singularities
Fluctuations and dark count rates in superconducting NbN single-photon detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engel, Andreas; Semenov, Alexei; Huebers, Heinz-Wilhelm; Il'in, Kostya; Siegel, Michael
2005-01-01
We measured the temperature- and current-dependence of dark count rates of a superconducting singlephoton detector. The detector's key element is a 84 nm wide meander strip line fabricated from a 5 nm thick NbN film. Due to its reduced dimensions various types of fluctuations can cause temporal and localized transitions into a resistive state leading to dark count events. Adopting a recent refinement of the hotspot model we achieve a satisfying description of the experimental dark count rates taking into account fluctuations of the Cooper-pair density and current-assisted unbinding of vortex-antivortex pairs. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Statistical parameter characteristics of gas-phase fluctuations for gas-liquid intermittent flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsui, G.; Monji, H.; Takaguchi, M. [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan)
1995-09-01
This study deals with theoretical analysis on the general behaviour of statistical parameters of gas-phase fluctuations and comparison of statistical parameter characteristics for the real void fraction fluctuations measured with those for the wave form modified the real fluctuations. In order to investigate the details of the relation between the behavior of the statistical parameters in real intermittent flow and analytical results obtained from information on the real flow, the distributions of statistical parameters for general fundamental wave form of gas-phase fluctuations are discussed in detail. By modifying the real gas-phase fluctuations to a trapezoidaly wave, the experimental results can be directly compared with the analytical results. The analytical results for intermittent flow show that the wave form parameter, and the total amplitude of void fraction fluctuations, affects strongly on the statistical parameter characteristics. The comparison with experiment using nitrogen gas-water intermittent flow suggests that the parameters of skewness and excess may be better as indicators of flow pattern. That is, the macroscopic nature of intermittent flow can be grasped by the skewness and the excess, and the detailed flow structure may be described by the mean and the standard deviation.
Statistical parameter characteristics of gas-phase fluctuations for gas-liquid intermittent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsui, G.; Monji, H.; Takaguchi, M.
1995-01-01
This study deals with theoretical analysis on the general behaviour of statistical parameters of gas-phase fluctuations and comparison of statistical parameter characteristics for the real void fraction fluctuations measured with those for the wave form modified the real fluctuations. In order to investigate the details of the relation between the behavior of the statistical parameters in real intermittent flow and analytical results obtained from information on the real flow, the distributions of statistical parameters for general fundamental wave form of gas-phase fluctuations are discussed in detail. By modifying the real gas-phase fluctuations to a trapezoidaly wave, the experimental results can be directly compared with the analytical results. The analytical results for intermittent flow show that the wave form parameter, and the total amplitude of void fraction fluctuations, affects strongly on the statistical parameter characteristics. The comparison with experiment using nitrogen gas-water intermittent flow suggests that the parameters of skewness and excess may be better as indicators of flow pattern. That is, the macroscopic nature of intermittent flow can be grasped by the skewness and the excess, and the detailed flow structure may be described by the mean and the standard deviation
Fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background on a 2.3 deg angular scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calzolari, P.; Cortiglioni, S.; Mandolesi, N.
1982-01-01
The study of fluctuations in the temperature of the cosmic microwave background may provide important information on the origin of the large scale structures in the Universe. An experiment is in operation at Medicina (Bologna) for studying such temperature fluctuations on a 2 deg 3 angular scale at lambda=2.8 cm. Preliminary results seem to indicate ΔT/T -4
Role of stochastic fluctuations in the charge on macroscopic particles in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaulina, O.S.; Nefedov, A.P.; Petrov, O.F.; Khrapak, S.A.
1999-01-01
The currents which charge a macroscopic particle placed in a plasma consist of discrete charges; hence, the charge can undergo random fluctuations about its equilibrium value. These random fluctuations can be described by a simple model which, if the mechanisms for charging of macroscopic particles are known, makes it possible to determine the dependence of the temporal and amplitude characteristics of the fluctuations on the plasma parameters. This model can be used to study the effect of charge fluctuations on the dynamics of the macroscopic particles. The case of so-called plasma-dust crystals (i.e., highly ordered structures which develop because of strong interactions among macroscopic particles) in laboratory gaseous discharge plasmas is considered as an example. The molecular dynamics method shows that, under certain conditions, random fluctuations in the charge can effectively heat a system of macroscopic particles, thereby impeding the ordering process
Bryce, Richard A.; Vincent, Mark A.; Malcolm, Nathaniel O. J.; Hillier, Ian H.; Burton, Neil A.
1998-08-01
A new hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical model of solvation is developed and used to describe the structure and dynamics of small fluoride/water clusters, using an ab initio wave function to model the ion and a fluctuating charge potential to model the waters. Appropriate parameters for the water-water and fluoride-water interactions are derived, with the fluoride anion being described by density functional theory and a large Gaussian basis. The role of solvent polarization in determining the structure and energetics of F(H2O)4- clusters is investigated, predicting a slightly greater stability of the interior compared to the surface structure, in agreement with ab initio studies. An extended Lagrangian treatment of the polarizable water, in which the water atomic charges fluctuate dynamically, is used to study the dynamics of F(H2O)4- cluster. A simulation using a fixed solvent charge distribution indicates principally interior, solvated states for the cluster. However, a preponderance of trisolvated configurations is observed using the polarizable model at 300 K, which involves only three direct fluoride-water hydrogen bonds. Ab initio calculations confirm this trisolvated species as a thermally accessible state at room temperature, in addition to the tetrasolvated interior and surface structures. Extension of this polarizable water model to fluoride clusters with five and six waters gave less satisfactory agreement with experimental energies and with ab initio geometries. However, our results do suggest that a quantitative model of solvent polarization is fundamental for an accurate understanding of the properties of anionic water clusters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blaquiere, A [Faculte des Sciences de Paris, 75 (France); Pachowska, R [Universite Technique de Varsovie (Poland)
1962-07-01
We have previously developed a method for studying neutronic fluctuations in nuclear reactors using the analogy between the behaviour of a reactor and that of certain common radioelectric circuits. The fluctuations may then be calculated by introducing into the circuit a suitable noise source. By this method we have been able to consider the overall fluctuations in a particularly simple form and we have provided a physical significance for certain results obtained more laboriously by other methods. The object of the present report is to generalise this method and in particular to extend it to the case of a reactor having a cellular structure and to apply it to fluctuations within a cell. It is thus shown that the fluctuations in a cell are the resultant of two terms: - a rapidly evolving Poissonian noise, not related to the overall fluctuations; - a slowly evolving noise, when the reactor is not too far from criticality, which is related to the overall fluctuations. The first term arises from a rapid 'ordering' of the system, during which time the cells come mutually into equilibrium. The second term is due to the coordinated evolution of all the cells, after the end of the first transitory phase. The conclusions reached show that it would be useful to complete the study with an analysis of non-linear phenomena which can considerably influence the transitory behaviour of the cells during the initial pre-equilibrium phase. This report also Stresses the relationship of the new method to the old methods. It tends also to place pile fluctuation theory in a more general framework, that of the fluctuations of a system depending on several random parameters; from this point of view, the method could easily be transposed and adapted to the study of other physical problems of this type. (authors) [French] Nous avons precedemment developpe une methode d'etude des fluctuations neutroniques des reacteurs nucleaires mettant a profit l'analogie entre le comportement d
Nonequilibrium fluctuations in a resistor.
Garnier, N; Ciliberto, S
2005-06-01
In small systems where relevant energies are comparable to thermal agitation, fluctuations are of the order of average values. In systems in thermodynamical equilibrium, the variance of these fluctuations can be related to the dissipation constant in the system, exploiting the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In nonequilibrium steady systems, fluctuations theorems (FT) additionally describe symmetry properties of the probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations of injected and dissipated energies. We experimentally probe a model system: an electrical dipole driven out of equilibrium by a small constant current I, and show that FT are experimentally accessible and valid. Furthermore, we stress that FT can be used to measure the dissipated power P = R I2 in the system by just studying the PDFs' symmetries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scherrer, B.
2008-12-01
Accurate magnetic resonance brain scan segmentation is critical in a number of clinical and neuroscience applications. This task is challenging due to artifacts, low contrast between tissues and inter-individual variability that inhibit the introduction of a priori knowledge. In this thesis, we propose a new MR brain scan segmentation approach. Unique features of this approach include (1) the coupling of tissue segmentation, structure segmentation and prior knowledge construction, and (2) the consideration of local image properties. Locality is modeled through a multi-agent framework: agents are distributed into the volume and perform a local Markovian segmentation. As an initial approach (LOCUS, Local Cooperative Unified Segmentation), intuitive cooperation and coupling mechanisms are proposed to ensure the consistency of local models. Structures are segmented via the introduction of spatial localization constraints based on fuzzy spatial relations between structures. In a second approach, (LOCUS-B, LOCUS in a Bayesian framework) we consider the introduction of a statistical atlas to describe structures. The problem is reformulated in a Bayesian framework, allowing a statistical formalization of coupling and cooperation. Tissue segmentation, local model regularization, structure segmentation and local affine atlas registration are then coupled in an EM framework and mutually improve. The evaluation on simulated and real images shows good results, and in particular, a robustness to non-uniformity and noise with low computational cost. Local distributed and cooperative MRF models then appear as a powerful and promising approach for medical image segmentation. (author)
Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS): a novel probe for local structure of glassy solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, J.
1979-01-01
The extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) is the oscillation in the absorption coefficient extending a few hundred eVs on the high energy side of an x-ray absorption edge. This mode of spectroscopy has recently been realized to be a powerful tool in probing the local atomic structure of all states of matter, particularly with the advent of intense synchrotron radiation. More importantly is the unique ability of EXAFS to probe the structure and dynamics around individual atomic species in a multi-atomic system. In this paper, the physical processes associated with the EXAFS phenomenon will be discussed. Experimental results obtained at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on some oxide and metallic glasses will be presented. The local structure in these materials are elucidated using a Fourier transform technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kun, S.Yu.; Noerenberg, W.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt
1992-02-01
We study the effect from dissipation of relative angular momentum on fluctuations of exitations functions in dissipative heavy-ion collisions. Dissipation and fluctuation of relative angular momentum modify and smooth the time-angle localization of the roating dinuclear system. The secondary maxima in the energy correlation function of the cross-section are shifted to smaller values of the energy difference, the shift depending on the relaxation time and the diffusion coefficient for the angular-momentum dissipation. The results are illustrated for the collision 28 Si(E lab =130MeV)+ 48 Ti. (orig.)
Fluctuations in work motivation: tasks do not matter!
Navarro, Jose; Curioso, Fernando; Gomes, Duarte; Arrieta, Carlos; Cortes, Mauricio
2013-01-01
Previous studies have shown that work motivation fluctuates considerably and in a nonlinear way over time. In the present research, we are interested in studying if the task at hand does or does not influence the presence of these fluctuations. We gathered daily registers from 69 workers during 21 consecutive working days (7036 registers) of task developed and levels of motivation, self-efficacy beliefs and instrumentalities perception. These registers were then categorized into a list of labor activities in main tasks and subtasks by means of three judges with a high level of agreement (97.47% for tasks, and 98.64% for subtasks). Taking the MSSD statistic (mean squared successive difference) of the average of motivation, self-efficacy and instrumentality, and using hierarchical regression analysis we have found that tasks (beta = .03; p = .188) and subtasks (beta = .10; p = .268) do not affect the presence of fluctuations in motivation. These results reveal instability in work motivation independently from the tasks and subtasks that the workers do. We proceed to find that fluctuations in work motivation show a fractal structure across the different tasks we do in a working day. Implications of these results to motivational theory will be discussed as well as possible explanations (e.g. the influence of affect in work motivation) and directions for future research are provided.
Stock Market Fluctuations and Self-Harm among Children and Adolescents in Hong Kong.
Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Lee, James Chun-Yin; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Li, Tim Man-Ho; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun-Bong
2017-06-09
Although a few studies investigated the impact of stock market fluctuations on population health, the question of whether stock market fluctuations have an impact on self-harm in children and adolescents remain unanswered. This study therefore investigated the association between stock market fluctuations and self-harm among children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Daily self-harm attendance records were retrieved from all 18 local Accident and Emergency Departments (AED) from 2001 to 2012. 4931 children and adolescents who committed self-harm were included. The results indicated positive correlation between daily change in stock market index, Hang Seng Index (∇HSI, per 300 points), and daily self-harm incident risk of children and adolescents, without time lag between the two. The incident risk ratio for ∇HSI was 1.09 ( p = 0.0339) in children and 1.06 ( p = 0.0246) in adolescents. Importantly, non-trading days were found to impose significant protective effect in both groups against self-harm risk. Our results showed that stock market fluctuations were related to self-harm behaviors in children and adolescents. Parents and professionals should be educated about the potential harm of stock market fluctuations and the importance of effective parenting in reducing self-harm among children and adolescents.
Local structure in the disordered solid solution of cis- and trans-perinones
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Teteruk, Jaroslav L.; Glinnemann, Juergen; Heyse, Winfried
2016-01-01
preferred local arrangements, ordering lengths, and probabilities for the arrangement of neighbouring molecules. The superposition of the atomic positions of all energetically favourable calculated models corresponds well with the experimentally determined crystal structures, explaining not only the atomic....... The crystal structure of the solid solution was determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Extensive lattice-energy minimizations with force-field and DFT-D methods were carried out on combinatorially complete sets of ordered models. For the disordered systems, local structures were calculated, including...
Fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics of flocking
Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Das, Shankar P.
2018-03-01
Starting from a microscopic model, the continuum field theoretic description of the dynamics of a system of active ingredients or "particles" is presented. The equations of motion for the respective collective densities of mass and momentum follow exactly from that of a single element in the flock. The single-particle dynamics has noise and anomalous momentum dependence in its frictional terms. The equations for the collective densities are averaged over a local equilibrium distribution to obtain the corresponding coarse grained equations of fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics (FNH). The latter are the equations used frequently for describing active systems on the basis of intuitive arguments. The transport coefficients which appear in the macroscopic FNH equations are determined in terms of the parameters of the microscopic dynamics.
Multiscale gyrokinetics for rotating tokamak plasmas: fluctuations, transport and energy flows.
Abel, I G; Plunk, G G; Wang, E; Barnes, M; Cowley, S C; Dorland, W; Schekochihin, A A
2013-11-01
This paper presents a complete theoretical framework for studying turbulence and transport in rapidly rotating tokamak plasmas. The fundamental scale separations present in plasma turbulence are codified as an asymptotic expansion in the ratio ε = ρi/α of the gyroradius to the equilibrium scale length. Proceeding order by order in this expansion, a set of coupled multiscale equations is developed. They describe an instantaneous equilibrium, the fluctuations driven by gradients in the equilibrium quantities, and the transport-timescale evolution of mean profiles of these quantities driven by the interplay between the equilibrium and the fluctuations. The equilibrium distribution functions are local Maxwellians with each flux surface rotating toroidally as a rigid body. The magnetic equilibrium is obtained from the generalized Grad-Shafranov equation for a rotating plasma, determining the magnetic flux function from the mean pressure and velocity profiles of the plasma. The slow (resistive-timescale) evolution of the magnetic field is given by an evolution equation for the safety factor q. Large-scale deviations of the distribution function from a Maxwellian are given by neoclassical theory. The fluctuations are determined by the 'high-flow' gyrokinetic equation, from which we derive the governing principle for gyrokinetic turbulence in tokamaks: the conservation and local (in space) cascade of the free energy of the fluctuations (i.e. there is no turbulence spreading). Transport equations for the evolution of the mean density, temperature and flow velocity profiles are derived. These transport equations show how the neoclassical and fluctuating corrections to the equilibrium Maxwellian act back upon the mean profiles through fluxes and heating. The energy and entropy conservation laws for the mean profiles are derived from the transport equations. Total energy, thermal, kinetic and magnetic, is conserved and there is no net turbulent heating. Entropy is produced
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uribe Laverde, M.A.; Landinez Tellez, D.A.; Roa-Rojas, J.
2010-01-01
Single-phase polycrystalline samples of HoBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconductor and SrTiO 3 isolator were produced by means of the solid state reaction technique. After structural characterization of both materials, superconductor-isolator composites were produced with nominal isolator volume percentages between 0% and 10%. Resistivity measurements for the composites and the HoBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ sample with different currents evidenced a superconducting transition with critical temperature T C = 92 K, with wider transitions with increasing either isolator content or measurement current. Fluctuation conductivity analyses were carried out to obtain the exponents characterizing the conductivity divergence. Above T C , apart from the typical Gaussian and critical fluctuations an atypical regime with critical exponent about 0.14 is observed as a precursor of the transition. Below T C , it is observed that the coherence transition characteristic exponent increases rapidly with increasing isolator percentage in the composites and does not show important changes when modifying the current in the pure superconductor sample.
Local Structure and Magnetism of (Ga,Mn)As
AUTHOR|(CDS)2093111; Temst, Kristiaan
Throughout the years, dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have emerged as promising materials for semiconductor-based spintronics. In particular, (Ga,Mn)As has become the model system in which to explore the physics of carrier-mediated ferromagnetism in semiconductors and the associated spintronic phenomena, with a number of interesting functionalities and demonstrated proof-of-concept devices. It constitutes the perfect example of how the magnetic behavior of DMS materials is strongly influenced by local structure. In this thesis, we address key aspects of the interplay between local structure and ferromagnetism of (Ga,Mn)As. We unambiguously identify the lattice site occupied by interstitial Mn as the tetrahedral interstitial site with As nearest neighbors T(As). We show, furthermore, that the T(As) is the most energetically favorable site regardless of the interstitial atom forming or not complexes with substitutional Mn. We also evaluate the thermal stability of both interstitial and substitutional Mn si...
Magnetic Field Fluctuations in the High Ionosphere at Polar Latitudes: Impact of the IMF Conditions
De Michelis, P.; Consolini, G.; Tozzi, R.
2016-12-01
The characterization of ionospheric turbulence plays an important role for all those communication systems affected by the ionospheric medium. For instance, independently of geomagnetic latitude, ionospheric turbulence represents a considerable issue for all Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Swarm constellation measurements of the Earth's magnetic field allow a precise characterization of ionospheric turbulence. This is possible using a range of indices derived from the analysis of the scaling properties of the geomagnetic field. In particular, by the scaling properties of the 1st order structure function, a scale index can be obtained, with a consequent characterization of the degree of persistence of the fluctuations and of their spectral properties. The knowledge of this index provides a global characterization of the nature and level of ionospheric turbulence on a local scale, which can be displayed along a single satellite orbit or through maps over the region of interest. The present work focuses on the analysis of the scaling properties of the 1st order structure function of magnetic field fluctuations measured by Swarm constellation at polar latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. They are studied according to different interplanetary magnetic field conditions and Earth's seasons to characterize the possible drivers of magnetic field variability. The obtained results are discussed in the framework of Sun-Earth relationship and ionospheric polar convection. This work is supported by the Italian National Program for Antarctic Research (PNRA) Research Project 2013/AC3.08
On the possible effects of gluon number fluctuations on {gamma}{gamma} collisions at high energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goncalves, V. P.; De Santana Amaral, J. T. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)
2013-03-25
We investigate the effects of the fluctuations on the total {gamma}{gamma}, {gamma}*{gamma}* cross sections and the real photon structure function F{sup {gamma}}{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}), considering a saturation phenomenological model for the dipole-dipole cross section and scattering amplitude with fluctuations included.
Order parameter fluctuations and collective modes in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, R.V.
1975-06-01
Measurements of the frequency and wave vector dependence of the pair-field susceptibility and the dynamical structure factor of homogeneous, short mean free path aluminum films have been carried out. These measurements critically probe the dynamical nature of order parameter fluctuations in the vicinity of the superconducting phase transition. Two important results are found. The first is that at temperatures higher than the transition temperature of the aluminum film, the fluctuations of the order parameter can be described by a diffusive time-dependent generalization of the Ginzburg-Landau equation. Detailed comparison of the data to the results of theoretical calculations of Scalapino, and Shenoy and Lee is carried out. Except in the immediate vicinity of the transition, there is excellent agreement with the theories. A major discrepancy between theory and experiment does exist in the vicinity of the superconducting transition, in that the pair relaxation frequency falls well below the theoretical predictions. Possible explanations of this behavior are discussed. Below the transition temperature measurements of the structure factor (Fourier transform of the order parameter-order parameter correlation function) provide the first clear cut demonstration of the existence of a propagating, low frequency, order parameter collective mode which appears as a finite frequency peak in the structure factor. This mode has been identified with fluctuations in the phase of the order parameter and has a linear dispersion relation over the range in which it is observed. A detailed comparison to some of the theoretical explanations is made, with the conclusion that at this time, existing theories do not adequately explain the behavior of the mode over the range of temperature and magnetic field in which it is observed. (4 figures, 4 tables, 86 references) (U.S.)
Search for coherent structure within tokamak plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zweben, S.J.
1985-01-01
Two-dimensional tokamak edge density turbulence data are examined for possible coherent or organized structure. The spatial patterns of density fluctuations n appear to consist of localized ''blobs'' of relatively high or low density which can move irregularly both radially and poloidally through the edge region. However, a statistical analysis of the lifetime, area, direction, speed, and amplitude of these blobs does not as yet suggest any organized structure associated with the blobs beyond that which can be described by time-averaged correlation functions
Statistical properties of turbulent transport and fluctuations in tokamak and stellarator devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hidalgo, C; Pedrosa, M A; Milligen, B Van; Sanchez, E; Balbin, R; Garcia-Cortes, I [Euratom-CIEMAT Association, Madrid (Spain); Bleuel, J; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H [Euratom-IPP Association, Garching (Germany)
1997-05-01
The statistical properties of fluctuations and turbulent transport have been studied in the plasma boundary region of stellarator (TJ-IU, W7-AS) and tokamak (TJ-I) devices. The local flux probability distribution function shows the bursty character of the flux and presents a systematic change as a function of the radial location. There exist large amplitude transport bursts that account for a significant part of the total flux. There is a strong similarity between the statistical properties of the turbulent fluxes in different devices. The value of the radial coherence associated with fluctuations and turbulent transport is strongly intermittent. This result emphasizes the importance of measurements with time resolution in understanding the interplay between the edge and the core regions in the plasma. For measurements in the plasma edge region of the TJ-IU torsatron, the turbulent flux does not, in general, show a larger radial coherence than the one associated with the fluctuations. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs.
Hydrodynamical fluctuations in smooth shear flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chagelishvili, G.D.; Khujadze, G.R.; Lominadze, J.G.
1999-11-01
Background of hydrodynamical fluctuations in a intrinsically/stochastically forced, laminar, uniform shear flow is studied. The employment of so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis makes it possible to represent the background of fluctuations in a new light and to get more insight into the physics of its formation. The basic physical processes responsible for the formation of vortex and acoustic wave fluctuation backgrounds are analyzed. Interplay of the processes at low and moderate shear rates is described. Three-dimensional vortex fluctuations around a given macroscopic state are numerically calculated. The correlation functions of the fluctuations of physical quantities are analyzed. It is shown that there exists subspace D k in the wave-number space (k-space) that is limited externally by spherical surface with radius k ν ≡ A/ν (where A is the velocity shear parameter, ν - the kinematic viscosity) in the nonequilibrium open system under study. The spatial Fourier harmonics of vortex as well as acoustic wave fluctuations are strongly subjected by flow shear (by the open character of the system) at wave-numbers satisfying the condition k ν . Specifically it is shown that in D k : The fluctuations are non-Markovian; the spatial spectral density of energy of the vortex fluctuations by far exceeds the white-noise; the term of a new type associated to the hydrodynamical fluctuation of velocity appears in the correlation function of pressure; the fluctuation background of the acoustic waves is completely different at low and moderate shear rates (at low shear rates it is reduced in D k in comparison to the uniform (non-shear) flow; at moderate shear rates it it comparable to the background of the vortex fluctuations). The fluctuation background of both the vortex and the acoustic wave modes is anisotropic. The possible significance of the fluctuation background of vortices for the subcritical transition to turbulence and Brownian motion of small macroscopic
Effect of magnetic configuration on density fluctuation and particle transport in LHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, K.; Michael, C.; Yamagishi, O.; Ida, K.; Yamada, H.; Yoshinuma, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Miyazawa, J.; Morita, S.; Kawahata, K.; Tokzawa, T.; Shoji, M.; Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Sanin, A.L.
2005-01-01
The study of fluctuations and particle transport is important issue in heliotron and stellarator devices as well as in tokamaks. A two dimensional phase contrast interferometer (2D PCI) was developed to investigate fluctuation characteristics, which play role in confinement. The current 2D PCI can detect fluctuations for which -1 0.3 -1 and 5< f<500kHz. With the use of magnetic shear and the 2D detector, the spatial resolution around 20% of averaged minor radius is possible presently. The strongest fluctuations are localized in the plasma edge, where density gradients are negative, but fluctuations also exist in the positive density gradient region of the hollow density profile. The phase velocity of fluctuations in the positive gradient region is close to plasma ErxBt rotation. On the other hand, fluctuations in the negative density gradient region propagate in the ion diamagnetic direction in the plasma frame and do not follow ErxBt rotation. This suggests there is a different nature of the fluctuations in the positive and negative density gradient regions. A particle transport was studied by means of density modulation experiments. The systematic study was done at Rax=3.6m, which is so-called standard configuration. The density profiles vary from peaked to hollow with increasing heating power. It was also found that particle diffusion and convection are functions of electron temperature and its gradient respectively. The magnetic configuration is another parameter, which characterizes particle confinement. At more outward shifted configurations, helical ripple becomes larger and the ergodic region becomes thicker, then neoclassical transport becomes larger. However estimated diffusion coefficients are still around one order of magnitude larger than neoclassical values in edge region, where ρ = 0.7 ∼ 1.0 and they are larger at more outward configurations. At the same time the convection velocity is found to be comparable with neoclassical prediction at Rax=3
Observation of weak carrier localization in green emitting InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohanta, Antaryami; Wang, Shiang-Fu; Jang, Der-Jun, E-mail: djjang@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Young, Tai-Fa [Department of Mechanical and Electromechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Ping-Hung; Ling, Dah-Chin [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China); Lee, Meng-En [Department of Physics, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 80264, Taiwan (China)
2015-04-14
Green emitting InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well samples were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy. Weak carrier localization with characteristic energy of ∼12 meV due to an inhomogeneous distribution of In in the InGaN quantum (QW) layer is observed. The temperature dependence of the PL peak energy exhibits S-shape phenomenon and is comparatively discussed within the framework of the Varshni's empirical formula. The full width at half maximum of the PL emission band shows an increasing-decreasing-increasing behavior with increasing temperature arising from the localized states caused by potential fluctuations. The radiative life time, τ{sub r}, extracted from the TRPL profile shows ∼T{sup 3/2} dependence on temperature above 200 K, which confirms the absence of the effect of carrier localization at room temperature.
Global financial crisis making a V-shaped fluctuation in NO2 pollution over the Yangtze River Delta
Du, Yin; Xie, Zhiqing
2017-04-01
The Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China's main cultural and economic center, has become one of the most seriously polluted areas in the world with respect to nitrogen oxides (NOx), owing to its rapid industrialization and urbanization, as well as substantial coal consumption. On the basis of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) density data from ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) and ground-based observations, the effects of industrial fluctuations due to the financial crisis on local NO2 pollution were quantitatively assessed. The results were as follows. (1) A distinct V-shaped fluctuation of major industrial products, thermal generating capacity, electricity consumption, and tropospheric NO2 densities was associated with the global financial crisis from May 2007 to December 2009, with the largest anomalies 1.5 times more than standard deviations at the height of the crisis period from November 2008 to February 2009. (2) Among all industrial sectors, thermal power plants were mainly responsible for fluctuations in local NO2 pollution during the crisis period. Thermal generating capacity had its greatest decrease of 12.10% at the height of the crisis compared with that during November 2007-February 2008, leading to local tropospheric NO2 density decreasing by 16.97%. As the crisis appeased, thermal generating capacity increased by 29.63% from November 2009 to February 2010, and tropospheric NO2 densities correspondingly increased by 30.07%. (3) Among all industrial sectors in the YRD, the thermal power sector has the greatest coal consumption of about 65.96%. A decline in thermal power of about 10% can induce a decrease of about 30% in NOx emissions and NO2 densities, meaning that a relative small fluctuation in industrial production can lead to a large decrease in tropospheric NO2 densities over industrially developed areas like the YRD region. Since electricity is mainly obtained from local coal-burning thermal plants without NOx-processing equipment, installing NOx
Equidistant structure and effective nucleon mass in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tezuka, Hirokazu.
1981-11-01
The effective nucleon mass of the Equidistant Multi-Layer Structure (EMULS) is discussed self-consistently. In the density region where the Fermi gas state in nuclear matter is unstable against the density fluctuation, the EMULS gives lower binding energy. It is, however, shown that such a structure with an ordinary nucleon mass collapses due to too strong attraction. We point out that such a collapse can be avoided by taking account of an effective nucleon mass affected by the localization of nucleons. (author)
Correlaciones entre sistemas del Universo Local y el Fondo de Radiación Cósmica
Piccirilli, M. P.; Luparello, H. E.; García Lambas, D.; Vucetich, H.; Lares, M.; Domínguez Romero, M. J. L.
In this paper we show some preliminary results of a work in progress, which is aimed to analyse the correlation between the fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation and structure in the Local Uni- verse. We concentrate here on large-scale regions corresponding to future virialized superstructures. For this purpose, we construct appropriate maps with SDSS data and WMAP maps publicly available using HEALPix soft- ware. We use a two-point cross-correlation function analysis, finding signal at different scales, which shows contribution from distinct structures. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH
From local pixel structure to global image super-resolution: a new face hallucination framework.
Hu, Yu; Lam, Kin-Man; Qiu, Guoping; Shen, Tingzhi
2011-02-01
We have developed a new face hallucination framework termed from local pixel structure to global image super-resolution (LPS-GIS). Based on the assumption that two similar face images should have similar local pixel structures, the new framework first uses the input low-resolution (LR) face image to search a face database for similar example high-resolution (HR) faces in order to learn the local pixel structures for the target HR face. It then uses the input LR face and the learned pixel structures as priors to estimate the target HR face. We present a three-step implementation procedure for the framework. Step 1 searches the database for K example faces that are the most similar to the input, and then warps the K example images to the input using optical flow. Step 2 uses the warped HR version of the K example faces to learn the local pixel structures for the target HR face. An effective method for learning local pixel structures from an individual face, and an adaptive procedure for fusing the local pixel structures of different example faces to reduce the influence of warping errors, have been developed. Step 3 estimates the target HR face by solving a constrained optimization problem by means of an iterative procedure. Experimental results show that our new method can provide good performances for face hallucination, both in terms of reconstruction error and visual quality; and that it is competitive with existing state-of-the-art methods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
López, Rodrigo A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4070386 (Chile); Muñoz, Víctor [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F. [Geospace Physics Laboratory, Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Valdivia, Juan A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología (CEDENNA), Santiago 9170124 (Chile)
2015-09-15
We use a particle-in-cell simulation to study the propagation of localized structures in a magnetized electron-positron plasma with relativistic finite temperature. We use as initial condition for the simulation an envelope soliton solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, derived from the relativistic two fluid equations in the strongly magnetized limit. This envelope soliton turns out not to be a stable solution for the simulation and splits in two localized structures propagating in opposite directions. However, these two localized structures exhibit a soliton-like behavior, as they keep their profile after they collide with each other due to the periodic boundary conditions. We also observe the formation of localized structures in the evolution of a spatially uniform circularly polarized Alfvén wave. In both cases, the localized structures propagate with an amplitude independent velocity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
López, Rodrigo A.; Muñoz, Víctor; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Valdivia, Juan A.
2015-01-01
We use a particle-in-cell simulation to study the propagation of localized structures in a magnetized electron-positron plasma with relativistic finite temperature. We use as initial condition for the simulation an envelope soliton solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, derived from the relativistic two fluid equations in the strongly magnetized limit. This envelope soliton turns out not to be a stable solution for the simulation and splits in two localized structures propagating in opposite directions. However, these two localized structures exhibit a soliton-like behavior, as they keep their profile after they collide with each other due to the periodic boundary conditions. We also observe the formation of localized structures in the evolution of a spatially uniform circularly polarized Alfvén wave. In both cases, the localized structures propagate with an amplitude independent velocity
Normalized fluctuations, H2O vs n-hexane: Site-correlated percolation
Koga, Yoshikata; Westh, Peter; Sawamura, Seiji; Taniguchi, Yoshihiro
1996-08-01
Entropy, volume and the cross fluctuations were normalized to the average volume of a coarse grain with a fixed number of molecules, within which the local and instantaneous value of interest is evaluated. Comparisons were made between liquid H2O and n-hexane in the range from -10 °C to 120 °C and from 0.1 MPa to 500 MPa. The difference between H2O and n-hexane in temperature and pressure dependencies of these normalized fluctuations was explained in terms of the site-correlated percolation theory for H2O. In particular, the temperature increase was confirmed to reduce the hydrogen bond probability, while the pressure appeared to have little effect on the hydrogen bond probability. According to the Le Chatelier principle, however, the putative formation of ``ice-like'' patches at low temperatures due to the site-correlated percolation requirement is retarded by pressure increases. Thus, only in the limited region of low pressure (<300 MPa) and temperature (<60 °C), the fluctuating ice-like patches are considered to persist.
Matsui, Fumihiko; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Daimon, Hiroshi
2018-06-01
The local atomic structure around a specific element atom can be recorded as a photoelectron diffraction pattern. Forward focusing peaks and diffraction rings around them indicate the directions and distances from the photoelectron emitting atom to the surrounding atoms. The state-of-the-art holography reconstruction algorithm enables us to image the local atomic arrangement around the excited atom in a real space. By using circularly polarized light as an excitation source, the angular momentum transfer from the light to the photoelectron induces parallax shifts in these diffraction patterns. As a result, stereographic images of atomic arrangements are obtained. These diffraction patterns can be used as atomic-site-resolved probes for local electronic structure investigation in combination with spectroscopy techniques. Direct three-dimensional atomic structure visualization and site-specific electronic property analysis methods are reviewed. Furthermore, circular dichroism was also found in valence photoelectron and Auger electron diffraction patterns. The investigation of these new phenomena provides hints for the development of new techniques for local structure probing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conard, J.; Perrin, C.; Pena, O.; Sergent, M.
1992-01-01
Three series of YBaCuOF powdered samples have been derived from the characteristic compositions O 6 , O 6.7 and O 7 by a soft fluorination. The fluorine atoms occupy at first the O vacancies in the chains, then the bridging sites between the chains. 19 F NMR shows 4 types of lines corresponding temperature range around T N with a very high local AF correlation. This structure is seen again in the superconducting samples and reveals an equilibrium between two magnetic structures at T C with slow magnetic fluctuations and lineshift. When put in the bridges, the F atoms seem to harden the magnetic lattice and push the sample out of the SC domain. 5 refs., 4 figs
Breakdown Localization Studies on the SwissFEL C-band Test Structures
Klavins, J; Le Pimpec, F; Locans, U; Shipman, N; Stingelin, L; Wohlmuther, M; Zennaro, R
2013-01-01
The SwissFEL main LINAC will consist of 104 Cband structures with a nominal accelerating gradient of 28MV/m. First power tests were performed on short constant impedance test-structures composed of eleven double-rounded cups. In order to localize breakdowns, two or three acoustic emission sensors were installed on the test-structures. In order to localize breakdowns we have analysed, in addition to acoustic measurements, the delay and phase of the RF power signals. Parasitic, acoustic noise emitted from the loads of the structure complicated the data interpretation and necessitated appropriate processing of the acoustic signals. The Goals of the experiments were to identify design and manufacturing errors of the structures. The results indicate that breakdowns occur mostly at the input power coupler, as also confirmed by vacuumevents at the same location. The experiments show that the LINAC test-structures fulfil the requirements in breakdown probability. Moreover developing a detection system based on acoust...
Local Atomic Structure and Discommensurations in the Charge Density Wave of CeTe3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, H.J.; Tomic, A.T.; Tessmer, S.H.; Billinge, S.J.L.; Malliakas, C.D.; Kanatzidis, M.G.
2006-01-01
The local structure of CeTe 3 in the incommensurate charge density wave (IC-CDW) state has been obtained using atomic pair distribution function analysis of x-ray diffraction data. Local atomic distortions in the Te nets due to the CDW are larger than observed crystallographically, resulting in distinct short and long Te-Te bonds. Observation of different distortion amplitudes in the local and average structures is explained by the discommensurated nature of the CDW, since the pair distribution function is sensitive to the local displacements within the commensurate regions, whereas the crystallographic result averages over many discommensurated domains. The result is supported by STM data. This is the first quantitative local structural study within the commensurate domains in an IC-CDW system
The seesaw space, a vector space to identify and characterize large-scale structures at 1 AU
Lara, A.; Niembro, T.
2017-12-01
We introduce the seesaw space, an orthonormal space formed by the local and the global fluctuations of any of the four basic solar parameters: velocity, density, magnetic field and temperature at any heliospheric distance. The fluctuations compare the standard deviation of a moving average of three hours against the running average of the parameter in a month (consider as the local fluctuations) and in a year (global fluctuations) We created this new vectorial spaces to identify the arrival of transients to any spacecraft without the need of an observer. We applied our method to the one-minute resolution data of WIND spacecraft from 1996 to 2016. To study the behavior of the seesaw norms in terms of the solar cycle, we computed annual histograms and fixed piecewise functions formed by two log-normal distributions and observed that one of the distributions is due to large-scale structures while the other to the ambient solar wind. The norm values in which the piecewise functions change vary in terms of the solar cycle. We compared the seesaw norms of each of the basic parameters due to the arrival of coronal mass ejections, co-rotating interaction regions and sector boundaries reported in literature. High seesaw norms are due to large-scale structures. We found three critical values of the norms that can be used to determined the arrival of coronal mass ejections. We present as well general comparisons of the norms during the two maxima and the minimum solar cycle periods and the differences of the norms due to large-scale structures depending on each period.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakairi, M.; Shimoyama, Y.; Nagasawa, D.
2008-01-01
A new type of electrochemical random signal (electrochemical noise) analysis technique was applied to localized corrosion of anodic oxide film formed 1100 aluminum alloy in 0.5 kmol/m 3 H 3 BO 4 /0.05 kmol/m 3 Na 2 B 4 O 7 with 0.01 kmol/m 3 NaCl. The effect of anodic oxide film structure, barrier type, porous type, and composite type on galvanic corrosion resistance was also examined. Before localized corrosion started, incubation period for pitting corrosion, both current and potential slightly change as initial value with time. The incubation period of porous type anodic oxide specimens are longer than that of barrier type anodic oxide specimens. While pitting corrosion, the current and potential were changed with fluctuations and the potential and the current fluctuations show a good correlation. The records of the current and potential were processed by calculating the power spectrum density (PSD) by the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method. The potential and current PSD decrease with increasing frequency, and the slopes are steeper than or equal to minus one (-1). This technique allows observation of electrochemical impedance changes during localized corrosion
Beam energy gain fluctuation in a linac caused by RF system noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakaki, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Hori, T.; Yokomizo, H.
2002-01-01
In this paper, energy gain fluctuation caused by white noise in a linear accelerator is calculated. First, we formulate a computational procedure to determine the energy gain in the acceleration structure. Then, using this computational procedure, the size of the white noise of the gain is calculated. These noise sources are caused by various RF components, especially the thyratron. The calculated gain fluctuation per one RF system is ±0.054%∼±0.134%(±3σ). In general, it is difficult to control white noise. This gain fluctuation is composed only of the white noise. Therefore, this value has the same meaning as a 'Control threshold'. Thus, the control method can be evaluated based on this value
Vessel size effect on the characteristic frequency of the free surface fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nam, Ho Yun; Kim, Min Joon; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byoung Hae
2004-01-01
Studies of the free surface fluctuations is one of the important topics in a liquid metal nuclear reactor using sodium as the coolant that has a free surface in the upper plenum of the reactor vessel. The main reasons for the study on the free surface fluctuations can be summarized as: 1. to secure the structural integrity of a reactor vessel by considering the thermal stress on the vessel wall induced by the fluctuations of the free surface between the hot sodium and cold cover gas, 2. to prevent the cover gas entrainment at the free surface of the sodium because the entrained gas causes a change in the reactivity and also reduces the heat removal capability in the core. Some experimental studies on the free surface fluctuations have been reported. However, most of them focus on the gas entrainment phenomena and only a few works concern the basic characteristics of the free surface fluctuations. Since the thermal stress on the wall is strongly dependent on the amplitude and frequency of the free surface fluctuations, studies on the amplitudes and frequencies should receive more attention. In Nam, empirical formulae on the amplitudes and frequencies with respect to the geometric and hydraulic parameters were introduced. It is an interesting result, but the experiment was performed within the parameter range near the onset point of the fluctuations. In the real reactor condition, larger sized fluctuations may exist and the formula needs to be modified. In this study, we performed experiments on the free surface fluctuations, especially on larger sized fluctuations and made an analysis of the amplitudes and frequencies. The main focus of this paper is the effect of the vessel size on the characteristic frequencies. It is thought to be helpful for finding the scaling laws, for example, designing a scale-down experiment
Structure of BRS-invariant local functionals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandt, F.
1993-01-01
For a large class of gauge theories a nilpotent BRS-operator s is constructed and its cohomology in the space of local functionals of the off-shell fields is shown to be isomorphic to the cohomology of s=s+d on functions f(C,T) of tensor fields T and of variables C which are constructed of the ghosts and the connection forms. The result allows general statements about the structure of invariant classical actions and anomaly cadidates whose BRS-variation vanishes off-shell. The assumptions under which the result holds are thoroughly discussed. (orig.)
Lee, Hui Sun; Im, Wonpil
2016-04-01
Molecular recognition by protein mostly occurs in a local region on the protein surface. Thus, an efficient computational method for accurate characterization of protein local structural conservation is necessary to better understand biology and drug design. We present a novel local structure alignment tool, G-LoSA. G-LoSA aligns protein local structures in a sequence order independent way and provides a GA-score, a chemical feature-based and size-independent structure similarity score. Our benchmark validation shows the robust performance of G-LoSA to the local structures of diverse sizes and characteristics, demonstrating its universal applicability to local structure-centric comparative biology studies. In particular, G-LoSA is highly effective in detecting conserved local regions on the entire surface of a given protein. In addition, the applications of G-LoSA to identifying template ligands and predicting ligand and protein binding sites illustrate its strong potential for computer-aided drug design. We hope that G-LoSA can be a useful computational method for exploring interesting biological problems through large-scale comparison of protein local structures and facilitating drug discovery research and development. G-LoSA is freely available to academic users at http://im.compbio.ku.edu/GLoSA/. © 2016 The Protein Society.
Fluctuations in Schottky barrier heights
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahan, G.D.
1984-01-01
A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity
Fully Quantum Fluctuation Theorems
Åberg, Johan
2018-02-01
Systems that are driven out of thermal equilibrium typically dissipate random quantities of energy on microscopic scales. Crooks fluctuation theorem relates the distribution of these random work costs to the corresponding distribution for the reverse process. By an analysis that explicitly incorporates the energy reservoir that donates the energy and the control system that implements the dynamic, we obtain a quantum generalization of Crooks theorem that not only includes the energy changes in the reservoir but also the full description of its evolution, including coherences. Moreover, this approach opens up the possibility for generalizations of the concept of fluctuation relations. Here, we introduce "conditional" fluctuation relations that are applicable to nonequilibrium systems, as well as approximate fluctuation relations that allow for the analysis of autonomous evolution generated by global time-independent Hamiltonians. We furthermore extend these notions to Markovian master equations, implicitly modeling the influence of the heat bath.
Curvature of fluctuation geometry and its implications on Riemannian fluctuation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velazquez, L
2013-01-01
Fluctuation geometry was recently proposed as a counterpart approach of the Riemannian geometry of inference theory (widely known as information geometry). This theory describes the geometric features of the statistical manifold M of random events that are described by a family of continuous distributions dp(x|θ). A main goal of this work is to clarify the statistical relevance of the Levi-Civita curvature tensor R ijkl (x|θ) of the statistical manifold M. For this purpose, the notion of irreducible statistical correlations is introduced. Specifically, a distribution dp(x|θ) exhibits irreducible statistical correlations if every distribution dp(x-check|θ) obtained from dp(x|θ) by considering a coordinate change x-check = φ(x) cannot be factorized into independent distributions as dp(x-check|θ) = prod i dp (i) (x-check i |θ). It is shown that the curvature tensor R ijkl (x|θ) arises as a direct indicator about the existence of irreducible statistical correlations. Moreover, the curvature scalar R(x|θ) allows us to introduce a criterium for the applicability of the Gaussian approximation of a given distribution function. This type of asymptotic result is obtained in the framework of the second-order geometric expansion of the distribution family dp(x|θ), which appears as a counterpart development of the high-order asymptotic theory of statistical estimation. In physics, fluctuation geometry represents the mathematical apparatus of a Riemannian extension for Einstein’s fluctuation theory of statistical mechanics. Some exact results of fluctuation geometry are now employed to derive the invariant fluctuation theorems. Moreover, the curvature scalar allows us to express some asymptotic formulae that account for the system fluctuating behavior beyond the Gaussian approximation, e.g.: it appears as a second-order correction of the Legendre transformation between thermodynamic potentials, P(θ)=θ i x-bar i -s( x-bar |θ)+k 2 R(x|θ)/6. (paper)
Recent results of studies of plasma fluctuations in stellarators by microwave scattering technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skvortsova, N.N.; Batanov, G.M.; Kolik, L.V.; Petrov, A.E.; Pshenichnikov, A.A.; Sarksyan, K.A.; Kharchev, N.K.; Khol'nov, Yu.V.; Kubo, S.; Sanchez, J.
2005-01-01
Microwave scattering diagnostics are described that allow direct measurements of the turbulent processes in a high-temperature plasma of magnetic confinement systems. Plasma density fluctuations in the heating region of the L-2M stellarator were measured from microwave scattering at the fundamental and the second harmonics of the heating gyrotron radiation. In the TJ-II stellarator, a separate 2-mm microwave source was used to produce a probing beam; the measurements were performed at the middle of the plasma radius. Plasma density fluctuations in the axial (heating) region of the LHD stellarator were measured from microwave scattering at the fundamental harmonic of the heating gyrotron radiation. Characteristic features of fluctuations, common for all three devices, are revealed with the methods of statistical and spectral analysis. These features are the wide frequency Fourier and wavelet spectra, autocorrelation functions with slowly decreasing tails, and non-Gaussian probability distributions of the magnitudes and the increments of the magnitude of fluctuations. The drift-dissipative instability and the instability driven by trapped electrons are examined as possible sources of turbulence in a high-temperature plasma. Observations showed the high level of coherence between turbulent fluctuations in the central region and at the edge of the plasma in L-2M. It is shown in L-2M that the relative intensity of the second harmonic of gyrotron radiation on the axis of a microwave beam after quasi-optical filtering in a four-mirror quasi-optical transmission line is about -50 dB of the total radiation intensity. Spatiotemporal structures in plasma density fluctuations were observed in the central region of the plasma column. The correlation time between the structures was found to be on the order of 1 ms. It is shown that, the spectrum of the signal from the second-harmonic scattering extends to higher frequencies in comparison with that from the fundamental
Hillmert, Steffen; Hartung, Andreas; Weßling, Katarina
2017-01-01
We investigate to what extent individual transitions to vocational training in Germany have been affected by local labour-market conditions. A statistical decomposition approach is developed and applied, allowing for a systematic differentiation between long-term change, short-term fluctuations, and structural regional differences in labour-market conditions. To study individual-level consequences for transitions to vocational training, regionalized labour-market data are merged with longitud...
Site-specific local structure of Mn in artificial manganese ferrite films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kravtsov, E.; Haskel, D.; Cady, A.; Yang, A.; Vittoria, C.; Harris, V. G.; Zuo, X.
2006-01-01
Diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS) spectroscopy has been applied to resolve site-specific Mn local structure in manganese ferrite films grown under nonequilibrium conditions. The DAFS spectra were measured at a number of Bragg reflections in the vicinity of the Mn absorption K edge. The DAFS data analysis done with an iterative Kramers-Kroenig algorithm made it possible to solve separately the local structure around crystallographically inequivalent Mn sites in the unit cell with nominal octahedral and tetrahedral coordination. The strong preference for Mn to be tetrahedrally coordinated in this compound is not only manifested in the relative site occupancies but also in a strong reduction in coordination number for Mn ions at nominal octahedral sites
Radial Variations of Outward and Inward Alfvénic Fluctuations Based on Ulysses Observations
Yang, L.; Lee, L. C.; Li, J. P.; Luo, Q. Y.; Kuo, C. L.; Shi, J. K.; Wu, D. J.
2017-12-01
Ulysses magnetic and plasma data are used to study hourly scale Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar polar wind. The calculated energy ratio {R}{vA}2(cal) of inward to outward Alfvén waves is obtained from the observed Walén slope through an analytical expression, and the observed {R}{vA}2(obs) is based on a direct decomposition of original Alfvénic fluctuations into outward- and inward-propagating Alfvén waves. The radial variation of {R}{vA}2(cal) shows a monotonically increasing trend with heliocentric distance r, implying the increasing local generation or contribution of inward Alfvén waves. The contribution is also shown by the radial increase in the occurrence of dominant inward fluctuations. We further pointed out a higher occurrence (˜ 83 % of a day in average) of dominant outward Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind than previously estimated. Since {R}{vA}2(cal) is more accurate than {R}{vA}2(obs) in the measurement of the energy ratio for dominant outward fluctuations, the values of {R}{vA}2(cal) in our results are likely more realistic in the solar wind than those previously estimated as well as {R}{vA}2(obs) in our results. The duration ratio R T of dominant inward to all Alfvénic fluctuations increases monotonically with r, and is about two or more times that from Voyager 2 observations at r≥slant 4 {au}. These results reveal new qualitative and quantitative features of Alfvénic fluctuations therein compared with previous studies and put constraints on modeling the variation of solar wind fluctuations.
Local Reasoning about Programs that Alter Data Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
O'Hearn, Peter W.; Reynolds, John Clifton; Yang, Hongseok
2001-01-01
We describe an extension of Hoare's logic for reasoning about programs that alter data structures. We consider a low-level storage model based on a heap with associated lookup, update, allocation and deallocation operations, and unrestricted address arithmetic. The assertion language is based....... Through these and a number of examples we show that the formalism supports local reasoning: A speci-cation and proof can concentrate on only those cells in memory that a program accesses. This paper builds on earlier work by Burstall, Reynolds, Ishtiaq and O'Hearn on reasoning about data structures....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Santarelli
2007-11-01
Full Text Available We conduct a statistical analysis of the coherence and phase difference of low frequency geomagnetic fluctuations between two Antarctic stations, Mario Zucchelli Station (geographic coordinates: 74.7° S, 164.1° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S, 307.7° E and Scott Base (geographic coordinates: 77.8° S 166.8° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S 326.5° E, both located in the polar cap. Due to the relative position of the stations, whose displacement is essentially along a geomagnetic parallel, the phase difference analysis allows to determine the direction of azimuthal propagation of geomagnetic fluctuations. The results show that coherent fluctuations are essentially detectable around local geomagnetic midnight and, in a minor extent, around noon; moreover, the phase difference reverses in the night time hours, indicating a propagation direction away from midnight, and also around local geomagnetic noon, indicating a propagation direction away from the subsolar point. The nigh time phase reversal is more clear for southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, suggesting a relation with substorm activity. The introduction, in this analysis, of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions, gave interesting results, indicating a relation with substorm activity during nighttime hours. We also conducted a study of three individual pulsation events in order to find a correspondence with the statistical behaviour. In particular, a peculiar event, characterized by quiet magnetospheric and northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, shows a clear example of waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic noon; two more events, occurring during southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, in one case even during a moderate storm, show waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic midnight.
Quantum fluctuations and inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardeen, J.M.; Bublik, G.J.
1986-05-01
We study the effect of quantum fluctuations on the roll-down rate of the inflation field in a semiclassical approximation; this is done by treating the inflation field as a classical random field. The quantum fluctuations are simulated by a noise term in the equation of motion. We consider two different inflationary scenarios (new and chaotic inflation) and find that the roll-down rate of the median value of the inflation field is increased by the quantum fluctuations. Non-linear effects may become important in the later stages of the inflationary regime. 8 refs., 2 figs
Quantum fluctuations and inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardeen, J.M.; Bublik, G.J.
1987-01-01
The authors study the effect of quantum fluctuations on the roll-down rate of the inflation field in a semiclassical approximation; this is done by treating the inflation field as a classical random field. The quantum fluctuations are simulated by a noise term in the equation of motion. Two different inflationary scenarios (new and chaotic inflation) are considered and it is found that the roll-down rate of the median value of the inflation field is increased by the quantum fluctuations. Non-linear effects may become important in the later stages of the inflationary regime. (author)
Huang, Wenxi; Liu, Wanting; Jin, Jingjie; Xiao, Qilan; Lu, Ruibin; Chen, Wei; Xiong, Sheng; Zhang, Gong
2018-03-25
Translational pausing coordinates protein synthesis and co-translational folding. It is a common factor that facilitates the correct folding of large, multi-domain proteins. For small proteins, pausing sites rarely occurs in the gene body, and the 3'-end pausing sites are only essential for the folding of a fraction of proteins. The determinant of the necessity of the pausings remains obscure. In this study, we demonstrated that the steady-state structural fluctuation is a predictor of the necessity of pausing-mediated co-translational folding for small proteins. Validated by experiments with 5 model proteins, we found that the rigid protein structures do not, while the flexible structures do need 3'-end pausings to fold correctly. Therefore, rational optimization of translational pausing can improve soluble expression of small proteins with flexible structures, but not the rigid ones. The rigidity of the structure can be quantitatively estimated in silico using molecular dynamic simulation. Nevertheless, we also found that the translational pausing optimization increases the fitness of the expression host, and thus benefits the recombinant protein production, independent from the soluble expression. These results shed light on the structural basis of the translational pausing and provided a practical tool for industrial protein fermentation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Current density fluctuations and ambipolarity of transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, W.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.
1991-10-01
The fluctuation in the plasma current density is measured in the MIST reversed field pinch experiment. Such fluctuations, and the measured radial profile of the k spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, supports the view and that low frequency fluctuations (f r >) demonstrates that radial particle transport from particle motion parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field is ambipolar over the full frequency range
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trombe, Pierre-Julien; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik
2011-01-01
The substantial impact of wind power fluctuations at large offshore wind farms calls for the development of dedicated monitoring and prediction approaches. Based on recent findings, a Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) was installed at Horns Rev with the aim of improving predictability, controlability...... and potentially maintenance planning. Additional images are available from a Doppler radar covering the same area. The parallel analysis of rain events detection and of regime sequences in wind (and power) fluctuations demonstrates the interest of employing weather radars for a better operation and management...... of offshore wind farms....
Localization of weakly interacting Bose gas in quasiperiodic potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ray, Sayak; Pandey, Mohit; Ghosh, Anandamohan; Sinha, Subhasis
2016-01-01
We study the localization properties of weakly interacting Bose gas in a quasiperiodic potential. The Hamiltonian of the non-interacting system reduces to the well known ‘Aubry–André model’, which shows the localization transition at a critical strength of the potential. In the presence of repulsive interaction we observe multi-site localization and obtain a phase diagram of the dilute Bose gas by computing the superfluid fraction and the inverse participation ratio. We construct a low-dimensional classical Hamiltonian map and show that the onset of localization is manifested by the chaotic phase space dynamics. The level spacing statistics also identify the transition to localized states resembling a Poisson distribution that are ubiquitous for both non-interacting and interacting systems. We also study the quantum fluctuations within the Bogoliubov approximation and compute the quasiparticle energy spectrum. Enhanced quantum fluctuation and multi-site localization phenomenon of non-condensate density are observed above the critical coupling of the potential. We briefly discuss the effect of the trapping potential on the localization of matter wave. (paper)
Turbulent Spot Pressure Fluctuation Wave Packet Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dechant, Lawrence J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-05-01
Wave packet analysis provides a connection between linear small disturbance theory and subsequent nonlinear turbulent spot flow behavior. The traditional association between linear stability analysis and nonlinear wave form is developed via the method of stationary phase whereby asymptotic (simplified) mean flow solutions are used to estimate dispersion behavior and stationary phase approximation are used to invert the associated Fourier transform. The resulting process typically requires nonlinear algebraic equations inversions that can be best performed numerically, which partially mitigates the value of the approximation as compared to a more complete, e.g. DNS or linear/nonlinear adjoint methods. To obtain a simpler, closed-form analytical result, the complete packet solution is modeled via approximate amplitude (linear convected kinematic wave initial value problem) and local sinusoidal (wave equation) expressions. Significantly, the initial value for the kinematic wave transport expression follows from a separable variable coefficient approximation to the linearized pressure fluctuation Poisson expression. The resulting amplitude solution, while approximate in nature, nonetheless, appears to mimic many of the global features, e.g. transitional flow intermittency and pressure fluctuation magnitude behavior. A low wave number wave packet models also recover meaningful auto-correlation and low frequency spectral behaviors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, E D; Bondarchuk, O; Tao, C G; Yan, W; Cullen, W G; Rous, P J; Bole, T
2007-01-01
Scattering of charge carriers from surface structures will become an increasing factor in the resistivity as the structure decreases in size to the nanoscale. The effects of scattering at the most basic surface defect, a kink in a step edge, are here analyzed using the continuum step model. Using a Langevin analysis, it has been shown that the electromigration force on the atoms at the step edge causes changes in the temporal evolution of the step-edge. For an electromigration force acting perpendicular to the average step edge and mass-transport dominated by step-edge diffusion, significant deviations from the usual t 1/4 scaling of the displacement correlation function occur dependent on a critical time τ and the direction of the force relative to the step edge (i.e. uphill or downhill). Experimental observations of step fluctuations on Ag(111) show the predicted changes among step fluctuations without current, and with current in the up- and down-hill directions for a current density of order 10 5 A cm -2 . The results yield the magnitude of the electromigration force acting on kinked sites at the step-edge. This in turn yields the contribution of the fluctuating steps to the surface resistivity, which exceeds 1% of the bulk resistivity as wire diameters decrease below 10s of nanometres. The temporal fluctuations of kink density can thus also be related to resistivity noise. Relating the known fluctuation spectrum of the step displacements to fluctuations in their lengths, the corresponding resistivity noise is predicted to show spectral signatures of ∼f -1/2 for step fluctuations governed by random attachment/detachment, and ∼f -3/4 for step fluctuations governed by step-edge diffusion
The Spectrum of Wind Power Fluctuations
Bandi, Mahesh
2016-11-01
Wind is a variable energy source whose fluctuations threaten electrical grid stability and complicate dynamical load balancing. The power generated by a wind turbine fluctuates due to the variable wind speed that blows past the turbine. Indeed, the spectrum of wind power fluctuations is widely believed to reflect the Kolmogorov spectrum; both vary with frequency f as f - 5 / 3. This variability decreases when aggregate power fluctuations from geographically distributed wind farms are averaged at the grid via a mechanism known as geographic smoothing. Neither the f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum nor the mechanism of geographic smoothing are understood. In this work, we explain the wind power fluctuation spectrum from the turbine through grid scales. The f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum results from the largest length scales of atmospheric turbulence of order 200 km influencing the small scales where individual turbines operate. This long-range influence spatially couples geographically distributed wind farms and synchronizes farm outputs over a range of frequencies and decreases with increasing inter-farm distance. Consequently, aggregate grid-scale power fluctuations remain correlated, and are smoothed until they reach a limiting f - 7 / 3 spectrum. This work was funded by the Collective Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, Japan.
Interplanetary Alfvenic fluctuations: A stochastic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, A.
1981-01-01
The strong alignment of the average directions of minimum magnetic variance and mean magnetic field in interplanetary Alfvenic fluctuations is inconsistent with the usual wave-propagation models. We investigate the concept of minimum variance for nonplanar Alfvenic fluctuations in which the field direction varies stochastically. It is found that the tendency of the minimum variance and mean field directions to be aligned may be purely a consequence of the randomness of the field direction. In particular, a well-defined direction of minimum variance does not imply that the fluctuations are necessarily planar. The fluctuation power spectrum is a power law for frequencies much higher than the inverse of the correlation time. The probability distribution of directions a randomly fluctuating field of constant magnitude is calculated. A new approach for observational studies of interplanetary fluctuations is suggested
Probing the topological structure of the QCD vacuum with overlap fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Schierholz, G.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron; Streuer, T.; Weinberg, V.; Freie Univ. Berlin
2005-12-01
Overlap fermions implement exact chiral symmetry on the lattice and are thus an appropriate tool for investigating the chiral and topological structure of the QCD vacuum. We study various chiral and topological aspects on Luescher-Weisz-type quenched gauge field configurations using overlap fermions as a probe. Particular emphasis is placed upon the analysis of the spectral density and the localisation properties of the eigenmodes as well as on the local structure of topological charge fluctuations. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagashima, Y; Itoh, K; Itoh, S-I; Fujisawa, A; Hoshino, K; Takase, Y; Yagi, M; Ejiri, A; Ida, K; Shinohara, K; Uehara, K; Kusama, Y
2006-01-01
This paper presents results of bispectral analysis applied to floating potential fluctuations in the edge region of ohmically heated plasmas in the JAERI Fusion Torus-2 Modified (JFT-2M) tokamak. Inside the outermost surface of plasmas, coherent mode fluctuations (CMs) in floating potential were observed around the frequency of the geodesic acoustic mode. The squared bicoherence shows significant nonlinear couplings between the CMs and background fluctuations. The biphase at the frequency of the CMs is localized around π, while that at frequencies of background fluctuations distributes in a wide range. The total bicoherence at the frequency of the CMs is proportional to the squared amplitude of the CMs. These observations are consistent with the theoretical prediction on the drift wave-zonal flow systems. Interpretation of the absolute value of the total bicoherence is also discussed
Topics in fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milner, S.T.
1986-01-01
Models of fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics have enjoyed much success in explaining the effect of long-wavelength fluctuations in diverse hydrodynamic systems. This thesis explores two such problems; in both, the body of hydrodynamic assumptions powerfully constrains the predictions of a well-posed theory. The effects of layer fluctuations in smectic-A liquid crystals are first examined. The static theory (introduced by Grinstein and Pelcovits) is reviewed. Ward identities, resulting from the arbitrariness of the layering direction, are derived and exploited. The static results motivate an examination of dynamic fluctuation effects. A new sound-damping experiment is proposed that would probe singular dependence of viscosities on applied stress. A theory of Procaccia and Gitterman that reaction rates of chemically reacting binary mixtures are drastically reduced near their thermodynamic critical points is analyzed. Hydrodynamic arguments and Van Hove theory are applied, concluding that the PG idea is drastically slowed, and spatially varying composition fluctuations are at best slowed down over a narrow range of wavenumbers
Role of model structure on the response of soil biogeochemistry to hydro-climatic fluctuations
Manzoni, S.; Porporato, A.
2005-05-01
Soil carbon and nutrient cycles are strongly affected by hydro-climatic variability, which interacts with the internal ecosystem structure. Here we test the implications of biogeochemical model structure on such dynamics by extending an existing model by the authors and coworkers. When forced by hydro-climatic fluctuations, the different model structures induce specific preferential nutrient paths among the soil pools, which in turn affect nutrient distribution and availability to microbes and plants. In particular, if it is assumed that microbes can directly assimilate organic nitrogen, plants tend to be inferior competitors for nutrients even in well-watered conditions, while if a certain amount of organic nitrogen is assumed to be mineralized without being first incorporated into microbial cells, vegetation can be advantaged over a wide range of soil moisture values. We also investigate the intensification of competition for nutrients (e.g., nitrogen) between plant and soil microbial communities under extreme hydrologic conditions, such as droughts and intense storms. Frequent rainfall events may determine ideal soil moisture conditions for plant uptake, enhancing nitrogen leaching while lowering oxygen concentration and inhibiting microbial activity. During droughts, the soil water potential often drops to the point of hampering the plant nutrient uptake while still remaining high enough for microbial decomposition and nitrogen immobilization. The interplay of microbe and vegetation water stress is investigated in depth as it controls the ability of one community (e.g., plants or soil microbes) to establish competitive advantage on the other. The long-term effects of these dynamics of competition and nutrient allocation are explored under steady-state and stochastic soil moisture conditions to analyze the feedbacks between soil organic matter and vegetation dynamics.
Principle of minimal work fluctuations.
Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin
2015-08-01
Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality 〈e-βW〉=e-βΔF, a change in the fluctuations of e-βW may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-βW converges towards the theoretical value e-βΔF, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and ΔF is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014)].
Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2014-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of Mach 6 turbulent boundary layer with nominal freestream Mach number of 6 and Reynolds number of Re(sub T) approximately 460 are conducted at two wall temperatures (Tw/Tr = 0.25, 0.76) to investigate the generated pressure fluctuations and their dependence on wall temperature. Simulations indicate that the influence of wall temperature on pressure fluctuations is largely limited to the near-wall region, with the characteristics of wall-pressure fluctuations showing a strong temperature dependence. Wall temperature has little influence on the propagation speed of the freestream pressure signal. The freestream radiation intensity compares well between wall-temperature cases when normalized by the local wall shear; the propagation speed of the freestream pressure signal and the orientation of the radiation wave front show little dependence on the wall temperature.
CheShift-2 resolves a local inconsistency between two X-ray crystal structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vila, Jorge A.; Sue, Shih-Che; Fraser, James S.; Scheraga, Harold A.; Dyson, H. Jane
2012-01-01
Since chemical shifts provide important and relatively accessible information about protein structure in solution, a Web server, CheShift-2, was developed for structure interrogation, based on a quantum mechanics database of 13 C α chemical shifts. We report the application of CheShift-2 to a local inconsistency between two X-ray crystal structures (PDB IDs 1IKN and 1NFI) of the complex between the p65/p50 heterodimer of NFκB and its inhibitor IκBα. The availability of NMR resonance assignments that included the region of the inconsistency provided an opportunity for independent validation of the CheShift-2 server. Application of the server showed that the 13 C α chemical shifts measured for the Gly270-Pro281 sequence close to the C-terminus of IκBα were unequivocally consistent with the backbone structure modeled in the 1IKN structure, and were inconsistent with the 1NFI structure. Previous NOE measurements had demonstrated that the position of a tryptophan ring in the region immediately N-terminal in this region was not consistent with either structure. Subsequent recalculation of the local structure in this region, based on the electron density of the deposited structure factors for 1IKN, confirmed that the local backbone structure was best modeled by 1IKN, but that the rotamer of Trp258 is consistent with the 1NFI structure, including the presence of a hydrogen bond between the ring NεH of Trp258 and the backbone carbonyl group of Gln278. The consensus between all of these measures suggests that the CheShift-2 server operates well under circumstances in which backbone chemical shifts are available but where local plasticity may render X-ray structural data ambiguous.
The anisotropy of fluorescence in ring units II: transfer integral fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herman, Pavel; Barvik, Ivan; Reiter, Michal
2005-01-01
The time dependence of the anisotropy of fluorescence after an impulsive excitation in the molecular ring (resembling the B850 ring of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila) is calculated. Fast fluctuations of the environment are simulated by dynamic disorder and slow fluctuations by static disorder. Without dynamic disorder, modest degrees of static disorder are sufficient to cause the experimentally found initial drop of the anisotropy on a sub-100 fs time scale. In the present investigation we are comparing results for the time-dependent optical anisotropy of the molecular ring for three models of the static disorder: Gaussian disorder in the local energies (Model A), Gaussian disorder in the transfer integrals (Model B) and Gaussian disorder in radial positions of molecules (Model C). Both types of disorder-static and dynamic-are taken into account simultaneously
Magnetic viscosity, susceptibility and fluctuation fields in sintered NdFeB
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomka, G.J.; Bissell, P.R.; O'Grady, K.; Chantrell, R.W.
1990-01-01
Magnetic viscosity and irreversible susceptibility of a sample of anisotropic sintered NdFeB have been measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The fluctuation field as a function of local field is found to decrease with increasing demagnetizing field with a dip at the coercivity. This behavior is compared with an existing computer model based on a non-interacting system of fine, uniaxial, randomly oriented particles
Local damage to reinforced concrete structures caused by impact of aircraft engine missiles. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugano, T.; Tsubota, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Ohnuma, H.; Von Riesemann, W.A.; Bickel, D.C.; Parks, M.B.
1993-01-01
Structural damage induced by an aircraft crashing into a reinforced concrete structure includes local damage caused by the deformable engines, and global damage caused by the entire aircraft. Local damage to the target may consist of spalling of concrete from its front face together with missile penetration into it, scabbing of concrete from its rear face, and perforation of missile through it. Until now, local damage to concrete structures has been mainly evaluated by rigid missile impact tests. Past research work regarding local damage caused by impact of deformable missiles has been limited. This paper presents the results of a series of impact tests of small-, intermediate-, and full-scale engine models into reinforced concrete panels. The purpose of the tests was to determine the local damage to a reinforced concrete structure caused by the impact of a deformable aircraft engine. (orig.)
Nonlinear growth dynamics and the origin of fluctuating asymmetry
Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.; Graham, J.H.
1993-01-01
The nonlinear, complex nature of biosynthesis magnifies the impacts of small, random perturbations on organism growth, leading to distortions in adaptive allometries and, in particular, to fluctuating asymmetry. These distortions can be partly checked by cell-cell and inter-body part feedback during growth and development, though the latter mechanism also may lead to complex patterns in right-left asymmetry. Stress can be expected to increase the degree to which random growth perturbations are magnified and may also result in disruption of the check mechanisms, thus exaggerating fluctuating asymmetry.The processes described not only provide one explanation for the existence of fluctuating asymmetry and its augmentation under stress, but suggest additional effects of stress as well. Specifically, stress is predicted to lead to decreased fractal dimension of bone sutures and branching structures in animals, and in increased dimension of growth trace patterns such as those found in mollusc shells and fish otoliths and scales.A basic yet broad primer on fractals and chaos is provided as background for the theoretical development in this manuscript.
Superconducting fluctuations and characteristic time scales in amorphous WSi
Zhang, Xiaofu; Lita, Adriana E.; Sidorova, Mariia; Verma, Varun B.; Wang, Qiang; Nam, Sae Woo; Semenov, Alexei; Schilling, Andreas
2018-05-01
We study magnitudes and temperature dependencies of the electron-electron and electron-phonon interaction times which play the dominant role in the formation and relaxation of photon-induced hotspots in two-dimensional amorphous WSi films. The time constants are obtained through magnetoconductance measurements in a perpendicular magnetic field in the superconducting fluctuation regime and through time-resolved photoresponse to optical pulses. The excess magnetoconductivity is interpreted in terms of the weak-localization effect and superconducting fluctuations. Aslamazov-Larkin and Maki-Thompson superconducting fluctuations alone fail to reproduce the magnetic field dependence in the relatively high magnetic field range when the temperature is rather close to Tc because the suppression of the electronic density of states due to the formation of short-lifetime Cooper pairs needs to be considered. The time scale τi of inelastic scattering is ascribed to a combination of electron-electron (τe -e) and electron-phonon (τe -p h) interaction times, and a characteristic electron-fluctuation time (τe -f l) , which makes it possible to extract their magnitudes and temperature dependencies from the measured τi. The ratio of phonon-electron (τp h -e) and electron-phonon interaction times is obtained via measurements of the optical photoresponse of WSi microbridges. Relatively large τe -p h/τp h -e and τe -p h/τe -e ratios ensure that in WSi the photon energy is more efficiently confined in the electron subsystem than in other materials commonly used in the technology of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs). We discuss the impact of interaction times on the hotspot dynamics and compare relevant metrics of SNSPDs from different materials.
Driving reconnection in sheared magnetic configurations with forced fluctuations
Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera; Makwana, Kirit D.; Ruffolo, David
2018-02-01
We investigate reconnection of magnetic field lines in sheared magnetic field configurations due to fluctuations driven by random forcing by means of numerical simulations. The simulations are performed with an incompressible, pseudo-spectral magnetohydrodynamics code in 2D where we take thick, resistively decaying, current-sheet like sheared magnetic configurations which do not reconnect spontaneously. We describe and test the forcing that is introduced in the momentum equation to drive fluctuations. It is found that the forcing does not change the rate of decay; however, it adds and removes energy faster in the presence of the magnetic shear structure compared to when it has decayed away. We observe that such a forcing can induce magnetic reconnection due to field line wandering leading to the formation of magnetic islands and O-points. These reconnecting field lines spread out as the current sheet decays with time. A semi-empirical formula is derived which reasonably explains the formation and spread of O-points. We find that reconnection spreads faster with stronger forcing and longer correlation time of forcing, while the wavenumber of forcing does not have a significant effect. When the field line wandering becomes large enough, the neighboring current sheets with opposite polarity start interacting, and then the magnetic field is rapidly annihilated. This work is useful to understand how forced fluctuations can drive reconnection in large scale current structures in space and astrophysical plasmas that are not susceptible to reconnection.
RF current drive and plasma fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peysson, Yves; Decker, Joan; Morini, L; Coda, S
2011-01-01
The role played by electron density fluctuations near the plasma edge on rf current drive in tokamaks is assessed quantitatively. For this purpose, a general framework for incorporating density fluctuations in existing modelling tools has been developed. It is valid when rf power absorption takes place far from the fluctuating region of the plasma. The ray-tracing formalism is modified in order to take into account time-dependent perturbations of the density, while the Fokker–Planck solver remains unchanged. The evolution of the electron distribution function in time and space under the competing effects of collisions and quasilinear diffusion by rf waves is determined consistently with the time scale of fluctuations described as a statistical process. Using the ray-tracing code C3PO and the 3D linearized relativistic bounce-averaged Fokker–Planck solver LUKE, the effect of electron density fluctuations on the current driven by the lower hybrid (LH) and the electron cyclotron (EC) waves is estimated quantitatively. A thin fluctuating layer characterized by electron drift wave turbulence at the plasma edge is considered. The effect of fluctuations on the LH wave propagation is equivalent to a random scattering process with a broadening of the poloidal mode spectrum proportional to the level of the perturbation. However, in the multipass regime, the LH current density profile remains sensitive to the ray chaotic behaviour, which is not averaged by fluctuations. The effect of large amplitude fluctuations on the EC driven current is found to be similar to an anomalous radial transport of the fast electrons. The resulting lower current drive efficiency and broader current profile are in better agreement with experimental observations. Finally, applied to the ITER ELMy H-mode regime, the model predicts a significant broadening of the EC driven current density profile with the fluctuation level, which can make the stabilization of neoclassical tearing mode potentially
Amplitude of low frequency fluctuation abnormalities in adolescents with online gaming addiction.
Yuan, Kai; Jin, Chenwang; Cheng, Ping; Yang, Xuejuan; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; von Deneen, Karen M; Yu, Dahua; Liu, Junyu; Liang, Jun; Cheng, Tingting; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie
2013-01-01
The majority of previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated both structural and task-related functional abnormalities in adolescents with online gaming addiction (OGA). However, few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies focused on the regional intensity of spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) during the resting state and fewer studies investigated the relationship between the abnormal resting-state properties and the impaired cognitive control ability. In the present study, we employed the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method to explore the local features of spontaneous brain activity in adolescents with OGA and healthy controls during resting-state. Eighteen adolescents with OGA and 18 age-, education- and gender-matched healthy volunteers participated in this study. Compared with healthy controls, adolescents with OGA showed a significant increase in ALFF values in the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the left precuneus, the left supplementary motor area (SMA), the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and the bilateral middle cingulate cortex (MCC). The abnormalities of these regions were also detected in previous addiction studies. More importantly, we found that ALFF values of the left medial OFC and left precuneus were positively correlated with the duration of OGA in adolescents with OGA. The ALFF values of the left medial OFC were also correlated with the color-word Stroop test performance. Our results suggested that the abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of OGA.
Amplitude of low frequency fluctuation abnormalities in adolescents with online gaming addiction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kai Yuan
Full Text Available The majority of previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated both structural and task-related functional abnormalities in adolescents with online gaming addiction (OGA. However, few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies focused on the regional intensity of spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD during the resting state and fewer studies investigated the relationship between the abnormal resting-state properties and the impaired cognitive control ability. In the present study, we employed the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF method to explore the local features of spontaneous brain activity in adolescents with OGA and healthy controls during resting-state. Eighteen adolescents with OGA and 18 age-, education- and gender-matched healthy volunteers participated in this study. Compared with healthy controls, adolescents with OGA showed a significant increase in ALFF values in the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, the left precuneus, the left supplementary motor area (SMA, the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG and the bilateral middle cingulate cortex (MCC. The abnormalities of these regions were also detected in previous addiction studies. More importantly, we found that ALFF values of the left medial OFC and left precuneus were positively correlated with the duration of OGA in adolescents with OGA. The ALFF values of the left medial OFC were also correlated with the color-word Stroop test performance. Our results suggested that the abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of OGA.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyoshi, Koji; Nakamura, Akira; Utanohara, Yoichi
2014-01-01
Thermal fatigue cracking may initiate at a T-junction pipe where high and low temperature fluids flow in from different directions and mix. Thermal stress is caused by a temperature gradient in a structure and by its variation. It is possible to obtain stress distributions if the temperature distributions at the pipe inner surface are obtained by experiments. The wall temperature distributions at a T-junction pipe were measured by experiments. The thermal stress distributions were calculated using the experimental data. The circumferential and axial stress fluctuations were larger than the radial stress fluctuation range. The stress fluctuation at the position of the maximum stress fluctuation had 10sec period. The distribution of the stress fluctuation was similar to that of the temperature fluctuation. The large stress fluctuations were caused by the time variation of the heating region by the hot jet flow. (author)
Modeling amorphization of tetrahedral structures under local approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jesurum, C.E.; Pulim, V.; Berger, B.; Hobbs, L.W.
1997-01-01
Many crystalline ceramics can be topologically disordered (amorphized) by disordering radiation events involving high-energy collision cascades or (in some cases) successive single-atom displacements. The authors are interested in both the potential for disorder and the possible aperiodic structures adopted following the disordering event. The potential for disordering is related to connectivity, and among those structures of interest are tetrahedral networks (such as SiO 2 , SiC and Si 3 N 4 ) comprising corner-shared tetrahedral units whose connectivities are easily evaluated. In order to study the response of these networks to radiation, the authors have chosen to model their assembly according to the (simple) local rules that each corner obeys in connecting to another tetrahedron; in this way they easily erect large computer models of any crystalline polymorphic form. Amorphous structures can be similarly grown by application of altered rules. They have adopted a simple model of irradiation in which all bonds in the neighborhood of a designated tetrahedron are destroyed, and they reform the bonds in this region according to a set of (possibly different) local rules appropriate to the environmental conditions. When a tetrahedron approaches the boundary of this neighborhood, it undergoes an optimization step in which a spring is inserted between two corners of compatible tetrahedra when they are within a certain distance of one another; component forces are then applied that act to minimize the distance between these corners and minimize the deviation from the rules. The resulting structure is then analyzed for the complete adjacency matrix, irreducible ring statistics, and bond angle distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karnes, John J.; Benjamin, Ilan, E-mail: benjamin@chemistry.ucsc.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)
2016-07-07
Molecular dynamics simulations and umbrella sampling free energy calculations are used to examine the thermodynamics, energetics, and structural fluctuations that accompany the transfer of a small hydrophilic ion (Cl{sup −}) across the water/nitrobenzene interface. By examining several constrained interface structures, we isolate the energetic costs of interfacial deformation and co-transfer of hydration waters during the ion transfer. The process is monitored using both energy-based solvation coordinates and a geometric coordinate recently introduced by Morita and co-workers to describe surface fluctuations. Our simulations show that these coordinates provide a complimentary description of the water surface fluctuations during the transfer and are necessary for elucidating the mechanism of the ion transfer.