WorldWideScience

Sample records for local electromechanical probing

  1. Quadratic electromechanical strain in silicon investigated by scanning probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junxi; Esfahani, Ehsan Nasr; Zhu, Qingfeng; Shan, Dongliang; Jia, Tingting; Xie, Shuhong; Li, Jiangyu

    2018-04-01

    Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is a powerful tool widely used to characterize piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity at the nanoscale. However, it is necessary to distinguish microscopic mechanisms between piezoelectricity and non-piezoelectric contributions measured by PFM. In this work, we systematically investigate the first and second harmonic apparent piezoresponses of a silicon wafer in both vertical and lateral modes, and we show that it exhibits an apparent electromechanical response that is quadratic to the applied electric field, possibly arising from ionic electrochemical dipoles induced by the charged probe. As a result, the electromechanical response measured is dominated by the second harmonic response in the vertical mode, and its polarity can be switched by the DC voltage with the evolving coercive field and maximum amplitude, in sharp contrast to typical ferroelectric materials we used as control. The ionic activity in silicon is also confirmed by the scanning thermo-ionic microscopy measurement, and the work points toward a set of methods to distinguish true piezoelectricity from the apparent ones.

  2. Electromechanical response of amorphous LaAlO3 thin film probed by scanning probe microscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiak, Alexis S.; Baboux, Nicolas; Albertini, David; Vilquin, Bertrand; Saint Girons, Guillaume; Pelloquin, Sylvain; Gautier, Brice

    2014-07-01

    The electromechanical response of a 3 nm thick amorphous LaAlO3 layer obtained by molecular beam epitaxy has been studied using scanning probe microscopies. Although this kind of sample is not ferroelectric due to its amorphous nature, the resulting images are identical to what is generally obtained on truly ferroelectric samples probed by piezoresponse force microscopy: domains of apparently opposite polarisation are detected, and perfect, square shaped hysteresis loops are recorded. Moreover, written patterns are stable within 72 h. We discuss in the general case the possible origins of this behaviour in terms of charge injection, ionic conduction and motion of oxygen vacancies. In the case presented in this paper, since the writing process has been conducted with applied voltages lower than the injection threshold measured by conductive atomic force Microscopy, allowing to withdraw the hypothesis of charge injection in the sample, we propose that a bistable distribution of oxygen vacancies is responsible for this contrast.

  3. Electromechanical response of amorphous LaAlO3 thin film probed by scanning probe microscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowiak, Alexis S.; Baboux, Nicolas; Albertini, David; Gautier, Brice; Vilquin, Bertrand; Saint Girons, Guillaume; Pelloquin, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The electromechanical response of a 3 nm thick amorphous LaAlO 3 layer obtained by molecular beam epitaxy has been studied using scanning probe microscopies. Although this kind of sample is not ferroelectric due to its amorphous nature, the resulting images are identical to what is generally obtained on truly ferroelectric samples probed by piezoresponse force microscopy: domains of apparently opposite polarisation are detected, and perfect, square shaped hysteresis loops are recorded. Moreover, written patterns are stable within 72 h. We discuss in the general case the possible origins of this behaviour in terms of charge injection, ionic conduction and motion of oxygen vacancies. In the case presented in this paper, since the writing process has been conducted with applied voltages lower than the injection threshold measured by conductive atomic force Microscopy, allowing to withdraw the hypothesis of charge injection in the sample, we propose that a bistable distribution of oxygen vacancies is responsible for this contrast.

  4. Electro-mechanical probe positioning system for large volume plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Sugandhi, R.; Srivastava, P. K.; Srivastav, Prabhakar; Awasthi, L. M.

    2018-05-01

    An automated electro-mechanical system for the positioning of plasma diagnostics has been designed and implemented in a Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD). The system consists of 12 electro-mechanical assemblies, which are orchestrated using the Modbus communication protocol on 4-wire RS485 communications to meet the experimental requirements. Each assembly has a lead screw-based mechanical structure, Wilson feed-through-based vacuum interface, bipolar stepper motor, micro-controller-based stepper drive, and optical encoder for online positioning correction of probes. The novelty of the system lies in the orchestration of multiple drives on a single interface, fabrication and installation of the system for a large experimental device like the LVPD, in-house developed software, and adopted architectural practices. The paper discusses the design, description of hardware and software interfaces, and performance results in LVPD.

  5. Electromechanical response of amorphous LaAlO{sub 3} thin film probed by scanning probe microscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowiak, Alexis S.; Baboux, Nicolas; Albertini, David; Gautier, Brice, E-mail: brice.gautier@insa-lyon.fr [Institut des nanotechnologies de Lyon (INL), Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon, Université de Lyon, UMR CNRS 5270, 7 Avenue Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Vilquin, Bertrand; Saint Girons, Guillaume; Pelloquin, Sylvain [Institut des nanotechnologies de Lyon (INL), Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Université de Lyon, UMR CNRS 5270, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongues, F-69134 Ecully Cedex (France)

    2014-07-07

    The electromechanical response of a 3 nm thick amorphous LaAlO{sub 3} layer obtained by molecular beam epitaxy has been studied using scanning probe microscopies. Although this kind of sample is not ferroelectric due to its amorphous nature, the resulting images are identical to what is generally obtained on truly ferroelectric samples probed by piezoresponse force microscopy: domains of apparently opposite polarisation are detected, and perfect, square shaped hysteresis loops are recorded. Moreover, written patterns are stable within 72 h. We discuss in the general case the possible origins of this behaviour in terms of charge injection, ionic conduction and motion of oxygen vacancies. In the case presented in this paper, since the writing process has been conducted with applied voltages lower than the injection threshold measured by conductive atomic force Microscopy, allowing to withdraw the hypothesis of charge injection in the sample, we propose that a bistable distribution of oxygen vacancies is responsible for this contrast.

  6. Electromechanical Characterization of Single GaN Nanobelt Probed with Conductive Atomic Force Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. Y.; Peng, J. F.; Yan, S. A.; Zheng, X. J.

    2018-04-01

    The electromechanical characterization of the field effect transistor based on a single GaN nanobelt was performed under different loading forces by using a conductive atomic force microscope (C-AFM), and the effective Schottky barrier height (SBH) and ideality factor are simulated by the thermionic emission model. From 2-D current image, the high value of the current always appears on the nanobelt edge with the increase of the loading force less than 15 nN. The localized (I-V) characteristic reveals a typical rectifying property, and the current significantly increases with the loading force at the range of 10-190 nN. The ideality factor is simulated as 9.8 within the scope of GaN nano-Schottky diode unity (6.5-18), therefore the thermionic emission current is dominant in the electrical transport of the GaN-tip Schottky junction. The SBH is changed through the piezoelectric effect induced by the loading force, and it is attributed to the enhanced current. Furthermore, a single GaN nanobelt has a high mechanical-induced current ratio that could be made use of in a nanoelectromechanical switch.

  7. Dynamics of spiral waves in a cardiac electromechanical model with a local electrical inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesin, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► I study spirals in a model of electromechanical coupling in a cardiac tissue. ► The model is anisotropic and includes an electrical heterogeneity. ► Mechanical deformation is described under the active strain hypothesis. ► Joint effect of inhomogeneity and deformation influences spiral dynamics. ► Conductivity of stretch activated current is the parameter most affecting spirals. - Abstract: Joint effect of electrical heterogeneity (e.g. induced by ischemia) and mechanical deformation is investigated for an anisotropic, quasi–incompressible model of cardiac electromechanical coupling (EMC) using the active strain approach and periodic boundary conditions. Three local inhomogeneities with different geometry are simulated. Under a specific stimulation protocol, the heterogeneities are able to induce spirals. The interplay between the dimension of the electrical inhomogeneity, the EMC and the mechano-electrical feedback provided by the stretch activated current (SAC) determines the dynamics of the spiral waves of excitation, which could extinguish (in the case of low SAC), or be stable (with the tip rotating inside the inhomogeneity), or drift and be annihilated (in the case of high SAC).

  8. Electromechanical and elastic probing of bacteria in a cell culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G L; Reukov, V V; Vertegel, A A; Nikiforov, M P; Jesse, S; Kalinin, S V

    2012-01-01

    Rapid phenotype characterization and identification of cultured cells, which is needed for progress in tissue engineering and drug testing, requires an experimental technique that measures physical properties of cells with sub-micron resolution. Recently, band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy (BEPFM) has been proven useful for recognition and imaging of bacteria of different types in pure water. Here, the BEPFM method is performed for the first time on physiologically relevant electrolyte media, such as Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) and Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM). Distinct electromechanical responses for Micrococcus lysodeikticus (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (Gram-negative) bacteria in DPBS are demonstrated. The results suggest that mechanical properties of the outer surface coating each bacterium, as well as the electrical double layer around them, are responsible for the BEPFM image formation mechanism in electrolyte media. (paper)

  9. Interferometric probes of many-body localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbyn, M; Knap, M; Gopalakrishnan, S; Papić, Z; Yao, N Y; Laumann, C R; Abanin, D A; Lukin, M D; Demler, E A

    2014-10-03

    We propose a method for detecting many-body localization (MBL) in disordered spin systems. The method involves pulsed coherent spin manipulations that probe the dephasing of a given spin due to its entanglement with a set of distant spins. It allows one to distinguish the MBL phase from a noninteracting localized phase and a delocalized phase. In particular, we show that for a properly chosen pulse sequence the MBL phase exhibits a characteristic power-law decay reflecting its slow growth of entanglement. We find that this power-law decay is robust with respect to thermal and disorder averaging, provide numerical simulations supporting our results, and discuss possible experimental realizations in solid-state and cold-atom systems.

  10. Probing Local Ionic Dynamics in Functional Oxides: From Nanometer to Atomic Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Sergei

    2014-03-01

    Vacancy-mediated electrochemical reactions in oxides underpin multiple applications ranging from electroresistive memories, to chemical sensors to energy conversion systems such as fuel cells. Understanding the functionality in these systems requires probing reversible (oxygen reduction/evolution reaction) and irreversible (cathode degradation and activation, formation of conductive filaments) electrochemical processes. In this talk, I summarize recent advances in probing and controlling these transformations locally on nanometer level using scanning probe microscopy. The localized tip concentrates the electric field in the nanometer scale volume of material, inducing local transition. Measured simultaneously electromechanical response (piezoresponse) or current (conductive AFM) provides the information on the bias-induced changes in material. Here, I illustrate how these methods can be extended to study local electrochemical transformations, including vacancy dynamics in oxides such as titanates, LaxSr1-xCoO3, BiFeO3, and YxZr1-xO2. The formation of electromechanical hysteresis loops and their bias-, temperature- and environment dependences provide insight into local electrochemical mechanisms. In materials such as lanthanum-strontium cobaltite, mapping both reversible vacancy motion and vacancy ordering and static deformation is possible, and can be corroborated by post mortem STEM/EELS studies. In ceria, a broad gamut of electrochemical behaviors is observed as a function of temperature and humidity. The possible strategies for elucidation ionic motion at the electroactive interfaces in oxides using high-resolution electron microscopy and combined ex-situ and in-situ STEM-SPM studies are discussed. In the second part of the talk, probing electrochemical phenomena on in-situ grown surfaces with atomic resolution is illustrated. I present an approach based on the multivariate statistical analysis of the coordination spheres of individual atoms to reveal

  11. Constructive nanolithography and nanochemistry : local probe oxidation and chemical modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, D.; Schubert, U.S.

    2003-01-01

    The possibility to prepare and use submicrometer-sized patterns in successive functionalization reactions with quaternary ammonium salts and (functional) chlorosilanes, as well as cationic gold nanoparticles, is presented. Submicrometer-sized structures were prepared by local probe oxidation of

  12. Local mechanical and electromechanical properties of the P(VDF-TrFE)-graphene oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silibin, M. V.; Bystrov, V. S.; Karpinsky, D. V.; Nasani, N.; Goncalves, G.; Gavrilin, I. M.; Solnyshkin, A. V.; Marques, P. A. A. P.; Singh, Budhendra; Bdikin, I. K.

    2017-11-01

    Recently, many organic materials, including carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene (single-walled carbon sheet structure) were studied in order to improve their mechanical and electrical properties. In particular, copolymers of poly (vinylidene fluoride) and poly trifluoroethylene [P(VDF-TrFE)] are promising materials, which can be used as probes, sensors, actuators, etc. Composite thin film of the copolymer P(VDF-TrFE) with graphene oxide (GO) were prepared by spin coating. The obtained films were investigated using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). The switching behavior, piezoelectric response, dielectric permittivity and mechanical properties of the films were found to depend on the presence of GO. For understanding the mechanism of piezoresponse evolution of the composite we used models of PVDF chain, its behavior in electrical field and computed the data for piezoelectric coefficients using HyperChem software. The summarized models of graphene oxide based on graphene layer from 96 carbon atoms C: with oxygen and OH groups and with COOH groups arranged by hydrogen were used for PVDF/Graphene oxide complex: 1) with H-side (hydrogen atom) connected from PVDF to graphene oxide, 2) with F-side (fluorine atom) connected from PVDF graphene oxide and 3) Graphene Oxide/PVDF with both sides (sandwich type). Experimental results qualitatively correlate with those obtained in the calculations.

  13. Measuring probe for measurement of local velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, V.; Arnold, G.; Kirchner, R.; Kussmaul, H.; Miller, H.

    1988-03-01

    The report describes a method for measurement of local velocities. It bases on the detection of the propagation of a temperature pulse induced into the fluid. The method can also be applied in flowing liquid metals with superimposed magnetic field; in this case common measuring principles fail application. The measuring system discussed consists of, a measuring head, a heating system, amplifiers and a PC. The latter performs process operation, data sampling, and evaluation of velocity. The measuring head itself includes a miniaturized heater (as a pulse marker) heated by the heating system in a short pulse, and a number of thermocouples (sensors) for detection of signals. The design, construction, and examination of a developed measuring device is described. (orig.) [de

  14. A Local Probe for Universal Non-equilibrium Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    shown are polarizing beam splitters . About 700µW are superimposed with a reference laser on a glass plate and coupled into an optical fiber to detect...A Local Probe for Universal Non -equilibrium Dynamics We report on the results obtained across a nine-month ARO-sponsored project, whose purpose was...to implement a local probe for a gas of ultracold atoms. We used a phase plate with a spiral phase gradient to create a hollow-core laser beam . This

  15. Electromechanics of graphene spirals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, Topi; Koskinen, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.koskinen@iki.fi [NanoScience Center, Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2014-12-15

    Among the most fascinating nanostructure morphologies are spirals, hybrids of somewhat obscure topology and dimensionality with technologically attractive properties. Here, we investigate mechanical and electromechanical properties of graphene spirals upon elongation by using density-functional tight-binding, continuum elasticity theory, and classical force field molecular dynamics. It turns out that electronic properties are governed by interlayer interactions as opposed to strain effects. The structural behavior is governed by van der Waals interaction: in its absence spirals unfold with equidistant layer spacings, ripple formation at spiral perimeter, and steadily increasing axial force; in its presence, on the contrary, spirals unfold via smooth local peeling, complex geometries, and nearly constant axial force. These electromechanical trends ought to provide useful guidelines not only for additional theoretical investigations but also for forthcoming experiments on graphene spirals.

  16. Performance and applications of the ORNL local electrode atom probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.K.; Russell, K.F.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The commercial introduction in 2003 of the local electrode atom probe (LEAP) developed by Imago Scientific Instruments has made dramatic, orders of magnitude improvements in the data acquisition rate and the size of the analyzed volume compared to previous types of three-dimensional atom probes and other scanning atom probes. This state-of-the-art instrument may be used for the analysis of traditional needle-shaped specimens and specimens fabricated from 'flat' specimens with focused ion beam (FIB) techniques. The advantage of this local electrode configuration is that significantly lower (∼50 %) standing and pulse voltages are required to produce the field strength required to field evaporate ions from the specimen. New high speed (200 kHz) pulse generators coupled with crossed delay line detectors and faster timing systems also enable significantly faster (up to 300 times) data acquisition rates to be achieved. This new design also permits a significantly larger field of view to be analyzed and results in data sets containing up to 10 8 atoms. In the local electrode atom probe, a ∼10-50 μm diameter aperture is typically positioned approximately one aperture diameter in front of the specimen. In order to accurately align the specimen to the aperture in the funnel-shaped electrode, the specimen is mounted on a three axis nanopositioning stage. An approximate alignment is performed while viewing the relative positions of the specimen and the local electrode with a pair of low magnification video cameras and then a pair of higher magnification video cameras attached to long range microscopes. The final alignment is performed with the use of the field evaporated ions from the specimen. A discussion on the alignment of the specimen with the local electrode, the effects of the fields on the specimen, and the effects of aperture size on aperture lifetime will be presented. The performance of the ORNL local electrode atom probe will be described. The

  17. Probing the statistical properties of Anderson localization with quantum emitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Sapienza, Luca

    2011-01-01

    experiments by measuring the intensity of an external light source after propagation through a disordered medium. However, discriminating between Anderson localization and losses in these experiments remains a major challenge. In this paper, we present an alternative approach where we use quantum emitters...... of disorder induced in the photonic crystal, we observe a pronounced increase in the localization length that is attributed to changes in the local density of states, a behavior that is in stark contrast to entirely random systems. The analysis may pave the way for accurate models and the control of Anderson......Wave propagation in disordered media can be strongly modified by multiple scattering and wave interference. Ultimately, the so-called Anderson-localized regime is reached when the waves become strongly confined in space. So far, Anderson localization of light has been probed in transmission...

  18. Probing the statistical properties of Anderson localization with quantum emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolka, Stephan; Thyrrestrup, Henri; Sapienza, Luca; Lehmann, Tau B; Rix, Kristian R; GarcIa, Pedro D; Lodahl, Peter; Froufe-Perez, Luis S

    2011-01-01

    Wave propagation in disordered media can be strongly modified by multiple scattering and wave interference. Ultimately, the so-called Anderson-localized regime is reached when the waves become strongly confined in space. So far, Anderson localization of light has been probed in transmission experiments by measuring the intensity of an external light source after propagation through a disordered medium. However, discriminating between Anderson localization and losses in these experiments remains a major challenge. In this paper, we present an alternative approach where we use quantum emitters embedded in disordered photonic crystal waveguides as light sources. Anderson-localized modes are efficiently excited and the analysis of the photoluminescence spectra allows us to explore their statistical properties, for example the localization length and average loss length. With increasing the amount of disorder induced in the photonic crystal, we observe a pronounced increase in the localization length that is attributed to changes in the local density of states, a behavior that is in stark contrast to entirely random systems. The analysis may pave the way for accurate models and the control of Anderson localization in disordered photonic crystals.

  19. Ultrafast probing of core hole localization in N2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffler, M S; Titze, J; Petridis, N; Jahnke, T; Cole, K; Schmidt, L Ph H; Czasch, A; Akoury, D; Jagutzki, O; Williams, J B; Cherepkov, N A; Semenov, S K; McCurdy, C W; Rescigno, T N; Cocke, C L; Osipov, T; Lee, S; Prior, M H; Belkacem, A; Landers, A L; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Weber, Th; Dörner, R

    2008-05-16

    Although valence electrons are clearly delocalized in molecular bonding frameworks, chemists and physicists have long debated the question of whether the core vacancy created in a homonuclear diatomic molecule by absorption of a single x-ray photon is localized on one atom or delocalized over both. We have been able to clarify this question with an experiment that uses Auger electron angular emission patterns from molecular nitrogen after inner-shell ionization as an ultrafast probe of hole localization. The experiment, along with the accompanying theory, shows that observation of symmetry breaking (localization) or preservation (delocalization) depends on how the quantum entangled Bell state created by Auger decay is detected by the measurement.

  20. Local probing and stimulation of neuronal cells by optical manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojoc, Dan

    2014-09-01

    During development and in the adult brain, neurons continuously explore the environment searching for guidance cues, leading to the appropriate connections. Elucidating these mechanisms represents a gold goal in neurobiology. Here, I discuss our recent achievements developing new approaches to locally probe the growth cones and stimulate neuronal cell compartments with high spatial and temporal resolution. Optical tweezers force spectroscopy applied in conjunction with metabolic inhibitors reveals new properties of the cytoskeleton dynamics. On the other hand, using optically manipulated microvectors as functionalized beads or filled liposomes, we demonstrate focal stimulation of neurons by small number of signaling molecules.

  1. The microfluidic probe: operation and use for localized surface processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Cecile M; Qasaimeh, Mohammad A; Juncker, David

    2009-06-04

    Microfluidic devices allow assays to be performed using minute amounts of sample and have recently been used to control the microenvironment of cells. Microfluidics is commonly associated with closed microchannels which limit their use to samples that can be introduced, and cultured in the case of cells, within a confined volume. On the other hand, micropipetting system have been used to locally perfuse cells and surfaces, notably using push-pull setups where one pipette acts as source and the other one as sink, but the confinement of the flow is difficult in three dimensions. Furthermore, pipettes are fragile and difficult to position and hence are used in static configuration only. The microfluidic probe (MFP) circumvents the constraints imposed by the construction of closed microfluidic channels and instead of enclosing the sample into the microfluidic system, the microfluidic flow can be directly delivered onto the sample, and scanned across the sample, using the MFP. . The injection and aspiration openings are located within a few tens of micrometers of one another so that a microjet injected into the gap is confined by the hydrodynamic forces of the surrounding liquid and entirely aspirated back into the other opening. The microjet can be flushed across the substrate surface and provides a precise tool for localized deposition/delivery of reagents which can be used over large areas by scanning the probe across the surface. In this video we present the microfluidic probe (MFP). We explain in detail how to assemble the MFP, mount it atop an inverted microscope, and align it relative to the substrate surface, and finally show how to use it to process a substrate surface immersed in a buffer.

  2. Probing N=2 superconformal field theories with localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiol, Bartomeu [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos,Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Garolera, Blai [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica,11501-2060 San José (Costa Rica); Torrents, Genís [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos,Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2016-01-27

    We use supersymmetric localization to study probes of four dimensional Lagrangian N=2 superconformal field theories. We first derive a unique equation for the eigenvalue density of these theories. We observe that these theories have a Wigner eigenvalue density precisely when they satisfy a necessary condition for having a holographic dual with a sensible higher-derivative expansion. We then compute in the saddle-point approximation the vacuum expectation value of 1/2-BPS circular Wilson loops, and the two-point functions of these Wilson loops with the Lagrangian density and with the stress-energy tensor. This last computation also provides the corresponding Bremsstrahlung functions and entanglement entropies. As expected, whenever a finite fraction of the matter is in the fundamental representation, the results are drastically different from those of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.

  3. Retarded Local Dynamics of Single Fluorescent Probes in Polymeric Glass due to Interaction Strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jingfa; Zhao, Jiang

    The effect of strengthening of interaction between single fluorescent probes and polymer matrix to the probes dynamics is investigated using single molecule fluorescence defocus microscopy. By introducing multiple hydroxyl groups to the fluorescent probes, which builds up hydrogen bonds between the probe and polymer matrix, the dynamics is discovered to be retarded. This is evidenced by the lowering of the frequency of the vibrational modes in the power spectra of the rotation trajectories of individual fluorescent probes, and also by the lowering of population of rotating probes. The results show that by strengthening the probe-matrix interaction, the local dynamics detected by the probes is equivalent to that detected by a bigger probe, due to the enhanced friction between the probe and the polymer matrix. the National Basic Research Program of China (2012CB821500).

  4. Probing the Locality of Excited States with Linear Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Thibaud

    2015-04-14

    This article reports a novel theoretical approach related to the analysis of molecular excited states. The strategy introduced here involves gathering two pieces of physical information, coming from Hilbert and direct space operations, into a general, unique quantum mechanical descriptor of electronic transitions' locality. Moreover, the projection of Hilbert and direct space-derived indices in an Argand plane delivers a straightforward way to visually probe the ability of a dye to undergo a long- or short-range charge-transfer. This information can be applied, for instance, to the analysis of the electronic response of families of dyes to light absorption by unveiling the trend of a given push-pull chromophore to increase the electronic cloud polarization magnitude of its main transition with respect to the size extension of its conjugated spacer. We finally demonstrate that all the quantities reported in this article can be reliably approximated by a linear algebraic derivation, based on the contraction of detachment/attachment density matrices from canonical to atomic space. This alternative derivation has the remarkable advantage of a very low computational cost with respect to the previously used numerical integrations, making fast and accurate characterization of large molecular systems' excited states easily affordable.

  5. Local probing spinel and perovskite complex magnetic systems

    CERN Document Server

    De Pinho Oliveira, Goncalo; Lima Lopes, Armandina Maria

    Materials with multifunctional physical properties are crucial for the modern society, especially those which display a strong coupling between magnetic, lattice and polar degrees of freedom. This by far unexploited capability promises new paradigm-shift technologies for cooling technologies, magnetic data storage, high-frequency magnetic devices, spintronics, and micro-electromechanical systems. Alongside with the understanding of the properties of these materials, the need to improve them and to make them smaller and more efficient is a current goal. Device miniaturization towards very high-density data storage stands also as a trend in modern science and technology. Here, the integration of several functions into one material system has become highly desirable. Research in this area has already highlighted complex magnetic materials with po- tential for multifunctional applications based on spinel type structures like CdMn2O4 or multiferroic CdCr2S4 or even RCrO3 with orthorhombically distorted perovskite ...

  6. Electromechanical Engineering Technology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia State Univ., Atlanta. Dept. of Vocational and Career Development.

    This guide offers information and procedures necessary to train electromechanical engineering technicians. Discussed first are the rationale and objectives of the curriculum. The occupational field of electromechanical engineering technology is described. Next, a curriculum model is set forth that contains information on the standard…

  7. Efficient atom localization via probe absorption in an inverted-Y atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianchun; Wu, Bo; Mao, Jiejian

    2018-06-01

    The behaviour of atom localization in an inverted-Y atomic system is theoretically investigated. For the atoms interacting with a weak probe field and several orthogonal standing-wave fields, their position information can be obtained by measuring the probe absorption. Compared with the traditional scheme, we couple the probe field to the transition between the middle and top levels. It is found that the probe absorption sensitively depends on the detuning and strength of the relevant light fields. Remarkably, the atom can be localized at a particular position in the standing-wave fields by coupling a microwave field to the transition between the two ground levels.

  8. Scanning probes for new energy materials: probing local structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balke, N.; Bonnell, D.; Ginger, D.S.; Kemerink, M.

    2012-01-01

    The design and control of materials properties, often at the nanoscale, are the foundation of many new strategies for energy generation, storage, and efficiency. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has evolved into a very large toolbox for the characterization of properties spanning size scales from

  9. Electromechanical systems and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lyshevski, Sergey Edward

    2008-01-01

    ""The book begins with a good, well-written review of some of the basic equations used for electromechanical designs . . . There is very good technical depth to each of the sections in this book, giving the reader the ability to design real systems using the equations and examples from this book . . . aimed at electrical engineering students because it contains homework problems at the end of each chapter and is very instructive for power and electromechanical engineers."" - John J. Shea, in IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, March-April 2009, Vol. 25, No. 2

  10. Wilson loop's phase transition probed by non-local observable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ling Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to give further insights into the holographic Van der Waals phase transition, it would be of great interest to investigate the behavior of Wilson loop across the holographic phase transition for a higher dimensional hairy black hole. We offer a possibility to proceed with a numerical calculation in order to discussion on the hairy black hole's phase transition, and show that Wilson loop can serve as a probe to detect a phase structure of the black hole. Furthermore, for a first order phase transition, we calculate numerically the Maxwell's equal area construction; and for a second order phase transition, we also study the critical exponent in order to characterize the Wilson loop's phase transition.

  11. Is cosmic acceleration proven by local cosmological probes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutusaus, I.; Lamine, B.; Dupays, A.; Blanchard, A.

    2017-06-01

    Context. The cosmological concordance model (ΛCDM) matches the cosmological observations exceedingly well. This model has become the standard cosmological model with the evidence for an accelerated expansion provided by the type Ia supernovae (SNIa) Hubble diagram. However, the robustness of this evidence has been addressed recently with somewhat diverging conclusions. Aims: The purpose of this paper is to assess the robustness of the conclusion that the Universe is indeed accelerating if we rely only on low-redshift (z ≲ 2) observations, that is to say with SNIa, baryonic acoustic oscillations, measurements of the Hubble parameter at different redshifts, and measurements of the growth of matter perturbations. Methods: We used the standard statistical procedure of minimizing the χ2 function for the different probes to quantify the goodness of fit of a model for both ΛCDM and a simple nonaccelerated low-redshift power law model. In this analysis, we do not assume that supernovae intrinsic luminosity is independent of the redshift, which has been a fundamental assumption in most previous studies that cannot be tested. Results: We have found that, when SNIa intrinsic luminosity is not assumed to be redshift independent, a nonaccelerated low-redshift power law model is able to fit the low-redshift background data as well as, or even slightly better, than ΛCDM. When measurements of the growth of structures are added, a nonaccelerated low-redshift power law model still provides an excellent fit to the data for all the luminosity evolution models considered. Conclusions: Without the standard assumption that supernovae intrinsic luminosity is independent of the redshift, low-redshift probes are consistent with a nonaccelerated universe.

  12. Probing many-body localization with neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Frank; Regnault, Nicolas; Neupert, Titus

    2017-06-01

    We show that a simple artificial neural network trained on entanglement spectra of individual states of a many-body quantum system can be used to determine the transition between a many-body localized and a thermalizing regime. Specifically, we study the Heisenberg spin-1/2 chain in a random external field. We employ a multilayer perceptron with a single hidden layer, which is trained on labeled entanglement spectra pertaining to the fully localized and fully thermal regimes. We then apply this network to classify spectra belonging to states in the transition region. For training, we use a cost function that contains, in addition to the usual error and regularization parts, a term that favors a confident classification of the transition region states. The resulting phase diagram is in good agreement with the one obtained by more conventional methods and can be computed for small systems. In particular, the neural network outperforms conventional methods in classifying individual eigenstates pertaining to a single disorder realization. It allows us to map out the structure of these eigenstates across the transition with spatial resolution. Furthermore, we analyze the network operation using the dreaming technique to show that the neural network correctly learns by itself the power-law structure of the entanglement spectra in the many-body localized regime.

  13. Two-dimensional atom localization via probe absorption in a four-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi-Ping; Ge Qiang; Ruan Yu-Hua; Yu Ben-Li

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the two-dimensional (2D) atom localization via probe absorption in a coherently driven four-level atomic system by means of a radio-frequency field driving a hyperfine transition. It is found that the detecting probability and precision of 2D atom localization can be significantly improved via adjusting the system parameters. As a result, our scheme may be helpful in laser cooling or the atom nano-lithography via atom localization

  14. Optical Polarization as a Probe of the Local Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinbergen, J.

    1984-01-01

    The use of interstellar polarization as a tool for measuring interstellar dust is discussed. Problems resulting from dust and magnetic field configurations becoming mixed up are discussed, as is the availability of sufficiently bright stars to obtain the photons needed for precision measurements. It is proposed that: (1) on the scale of several hundred parsec, there is a preferential magnetic field direction, as evidenced by observations at the Galactic poles and selected longitudes in the Galactic plane; (2) the local (r 50 pc) region is devoid of dust, as evidenced by the mean square degree of polarization as a function of distance; and, less certainly, that (3) at a distance of less than 5 pc, there is a patch of dust which may be of interest in connection with cloud models.

  15. Localized excitations in superconducting point contacts: probing the Andreev doublet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretheau, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Josephson effect describes the coherent coupling between superconductors and the resulting supercurrent. Microscopically, it arises from the existence of discrete quasiparticle states, localized at the weak link, the Andreev bound states. They come in doublets in each conduction channel of the weak link, with energies symmetric about the Fermi energy and opposite supercurrents. Each Andreev doublet gives rise to four states: the ground state |-> and the excited state |+>, with even parity, and the excited odd states |↑> and |↓>. Is it possible to address and control Andreev doublets? This thesis describes two sets of experiments designed to answer this question using the most basic Josephson element, a one-atom contact between two superconducting electrodes. In a first experiment, we have observed and characterized the excited odd states |↑> and |↓>. As expected for a spin-degenerate system, they do not carry supercurrent. In this experiment the excitation was uncontrolled and resulted from trapping of spurious quasiparticles. We have measured the lifetime of the odd states: under some condition, it is found to exceed 100 μs. The second experiment is a photon-absorption spectroscopy of the Andreev doublet. It was performed by using a Josephson junction as an integrated on-chip microwave emitter and detector. The observed Andreev transitions correspond to excitation from the ground state |->to the excited even state |+>, and are well accounted for by our quantum model. This result opens the way to coherent manipulation of this two level system. The direct observation of the excited Andreev state, either by quasiparticle-injection or photon-absorption, strongly supports the mesoscopic theory of the Josephson effect. It shows that in addition to the phase difference, each channel of a Josephson weak link possesses an internal fermionic degree of freedom. It could be used to code information in a novel type of superconducting qubit. (author) [fr

  16. Near-field optical microscopy of localized excitations on rough surfaces: influence of a probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Starting from the general principles of near-field optical microscopy. I consider the influence of a probe when being used to image localized dipolar excitations and suggest a way of evaluating the perturbation thus introduced. Using the rigorous microscopic (electric) point-dipole description, I...

  17. Simultaneous in vivo recording of local brain temperature and electrophysiological signals with a novel neural probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Z.; Csernai, M.; Kocsis, K.; Horváth, Á. C.; Pongrácz, A.; Barthó, P.

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Temperature is an important factor for neural function both in normal and pathological states, nevertheless, simultaneous monitoring of local brain temperature and neuronal activity has not yet been undertaken. Approach. In our work, we propose an implantable, calibrated multimodal biosensor that facilitates the complex investigation of thermal changes in both cortical and deep brain regions, which records multiunit activity of neuronal populations in mice. The fabricated neural probe contains four electrical recording sites and a platinum temperature sensor filament integrated on the same probe shaft within a distance of 30 µm from the closest recording site. The feasibility of the simultaneous functionality is presented in in vivo studies. The probe was tested in the thalamus of anesthetized mice while manipulating the core temperature of the animals. Main results. We obtained multiunit and local field recordings along with measurement of local brain temperature with accuracy of 0.14 °C. Brain temperature generally followed core body temperature, but also showed superimposed fluctuations corresponding to epochs of increased local neural activity. With the application of higher currents, we increased the local temperature by several degrees without observable tissue damage between 34-39 °C. Significance. The proposed multifunctional tool is envisioned to broaden our knowledge on the role of the thermal modulation of neuronal activity in both cortical and deeper brain regions.

  18. Mobile Device Passive Localization Based on IEEE 802.11 Probe Request Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel passive mobile device localization mode based on IEEE 802.11 Probe Request frames. In this approach, the listener can discover mobile devices by receiving the Probe Request frames and localize them on his walking path. The unique location of the mobile device is estimated on a geometric diagram and right-angled walking path. In model equations, site-related parameter, that is, path loss exponent, is eliminated to make the approach site-independent. To implement unique localization, the right-angled walking path is designed and the optimal location is estimated from the optional points. The performance of our method has been evaluated inside the room, outside the room, and in outdoor scenarios. Three kinds of walking paths, for example, horizontal, vertical, and slanted, are also tested.

  19. Fabrication of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Fiber Probes Using Ionic Self-Assembled Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Wan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An nm-thickness composite gold thin film consisting of gold nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes is fabricated through ionic self-assembled multilayers (ISAM technique and is deposited on end-faces of optical fibers to construct localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR fiber probes. We demonstrate that the LSPR spectrum induced by ISAM gold films can be fine-tuned through the ISAM procedure. We investigate variations of reflection spectra of the probe with respect to the layer-by-layer adsorption of ISAMs onto end-faces of fibers, and study the spectral variation mechanism. Finally, we demonstrated using this fiber probe to detect the biotin-streptavidin bioconjugate pair. ISAM adsorbed on optical fibers potentially provides a simple, fast, robust, and low-cost, platform for LSPR biosensing applications.

  20. Scanning thermo-ionic microscopy for probing local electrochemistry at the nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshghinejad, Ahmadreza; Nasr Esfahani, Ehsan; Wang, Peiqi; Li, Jiangyu, E-mail: jjli@uw.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Xie, Shuhong [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Nanobiomechanics, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong (China); Geary, Timothy C.; Adler, Stuart B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Conventional electrochemical characterization techniques based on voltage and current measurements only probe faradaic and capacitive rates in aggregate. In this work we develop a scanning thermo-ionic microscopy (STIM) to probe local electrochemistry at the nanoscale, based on imaging of Vegard strain induced by thermal oscillation. It is demonstrated from both theoretical analysis and experimental validation that the second harmonic response of thermally induced cantilever vibration, associated with thermal expansion, is present in all solids, whereas the fourth harmonic response, caused by local transport of mobile species, is only present in ionic materials. The origin of STIM response is further confirmed by its reduced amplitude with respect to increased contact force, due to the coupling of stress to concentration of ionic species and/or electronic defects. The technique has been applied to probe Sm-doped Ceria and LiFePO{sub 4}, both of which exhibit higher concentrations of mobile species near grain boundaries. The STIM gives us a powerful method to study local electrochemistry with high sensitivity and spatial resolution for a wide range of ionic systems, as well as ability to map local thermomechanical response.

  1. Smart electromechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This carefully edited book introduces the latest achievements of the scientists of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the field of theory and practice of Smart Electromechanical Systems (SEMS). The book also focuses on methods of designing and modeling of SEMS based on the principles of adaptability, intelligence, biomorphism of parallel kinematics and parallelism in information processing and control computation. The book chapters are dedicated to the following points of interest: - methods of design of SEMS modules and intelligent robots based on them; - synthesis of neural systems of automatic control over SEMS modules; - mathematical and computer modeling of SEMS modules and Cyber Physical Systems based on them; - vitality control and reliability analysis based on logic-and-probabilistic and logic-and-linguistic forecasting; - methods of optimization of SEMS control systems based on mathematical programming methods in ordinal scale and generalized mathematical programming; - information-measuring software...

  2. Electromechanical Drivetrain Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego-Calderon, Juan; Branner, Kim; Natarajan, Anand

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is another step from the DTU Wind Energy efforts to advance understanding of the electromechanical drive-train loads and its interaction with the rest of the components in the wind turbine. The main objective of the PhD is to investigate the modelling and simulation...... flexibilities, the generator dynamics and the grid, along with the structural loads in the wind turbine. In this paper, two simulation approaches are presented and conclusions are made according to their advantages and disadvantages. The drive-train is described by means of a torsional model composed...... of the main shaft, gearbox and generator. Special attention is given to the modelling of the gearbox and the generator in order to study the mechanical vibrations caused by turbulent wind and grid dynamics....

  3. Gravitational-wave localization alone can probe origin of stellar-mass black hole mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, I; Haiman, Z; Marka, Z; Metzger, B D; Stone, N C; Marka, S

    2017-10-10

    The recent discovery of gravitational waves from stellar-mass binary black hole mergers by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory opened the door to alternative probes of stellar and galactic evolution, cosmology and fundamental physics. Probing the origin of binary black hole mergers will be difficult due to the expected lack of electromagnetic emission and limited localization accuracy. Associations with rare host galaxy types-such as active galactic nuclei-can nevertheless be identified statistically through spatial correlation. Here we establish the feasibility of statistically proving the connection between binary black hole mergers and active galactic nuclei as hosts, even if only a sub-population of mergers originate from active galactic nuclei. Our results are the demonstration that the limited localization of gravitational waves, previously written off as not useful to distinguish progenitor channels, can in fact contribute key information, broadening the range of astrophysical questions probed by binary black hole observations.Binary black hole mergers have recently been observed through the detection of gravitational wave signatures. The authors demonstrate that their association with active galactic nuclei can be made through a statistical spatial correlation.

  4. Holographic Reconstruction of Photoelectron Diffraction and Its Circular Dichroism for Local Structure Probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Fumihiko; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    The local atomic structure around a specific element atom can be recorded as a photoelectron diffraction pattern. Forward focusing peaks and diffraction rings around them indicate the directions and distances from the photoelectron emitting atom to the surrounding atoms. The state-of-the-art holography reconstruction algorithm enables us to image the local atomic arrangement around the excited atom in a real space. By using circularly polarized light as an excitation source, the angular momentum transfer from the light to the photoelectron induces parallax shifts in these diffraction patterns. As a result, stereographic images of atomic arrangements are obtained. These diffraction patterns can be used as atomic-site-resolved probes for local electronic structure investigation in combination with spectroscopy techniques. Direct three-dimensional atomic structure visualization and site-specific electronic property analysis methods are reviewed. Furthermore, circular dichroism was also found in valence photoelectron and Auger electron diffraction patterns. The investigation of these new phenomena provides hints for the development of new techniques for local structure probing.

  5. Contribution of local probes in the understanding of mechanical effect on localized corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignal, Vincent; Oltra, Roland; Mary, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the actual effects of mechanical stresses on the processes leading to pitting corrosion necessitates to develop both a mechanical approach and electrochemical experiments at a microscopic scale. Typical embrittlement can be observed after straining around MnS inclusions on a re-sulfurized 316 stainless steels and their corrosion sensitivity have been classified using the micro-capillary electrochemical cell technique. It has been shown that the numerical simulation of the location of stress gradients is possible before the local electrochemical analysis and could be a very interesting way to define the pitting susceptibility of micro-cracked areas during straining. (authors)

  6. Measurement of local flow pattern in boiling R12 simulating PWR conditions with multiple optical probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, J.

    1998-01-01

    For a comprehensive approach of boiling crisis phenomenon in order to get more reliable predictions of critical heat flux in PWR core, a flow pattern study is under progress at CEA GRENOBLE (in a joint program with Electricite de France: EdF). The first aim is to get experimental results on flow structure in the range of thermal hydraulic parameters involved in the core of a PWR (pressure up to 16 MPa, heat flux about 1 MW/m 2 , mass velocity up to 5000 kg/s/m 2 . As critical heat flux is a local phenomenon and is the result of the flow development, the data has to be measured from the beginning of boiling until boiling crisis, and from the bulk flow until the boundary layer close to the heating walls. Therefore, these results will be useful in modeling not only boiling crisis phenomenon but also condensation in subcooled boiling, coalescence, splitting up, mass and energy transfers at interfaces, and so on. In a first step, the test section is a vertical tube 19.2 mm internal diameter with an axial uniform heat flux over a 3.5m length. The study is performed on the DEBORA loop with Freon 12 as coolant fluid. We assume that basic boiling phenomena (and the knowledge we get about them) only depend on the fluid properties by means of dimensionless parameters but not on the fluid itself. In a first part, we briefly recall that interfacial detection is the most important parameter of a flow pattern study. Therefore, the use of probes able to measure the Phase Indicator Function (P.I.F.) is necessary. A first study of flow conditions shows that the flow pattern is essentially a bubbly one with vapor particles of low diameter (about 300 clm) and high velocity (up to 7 m/s). These criteria induce that a multiple optical probe is the most appropriate tool provided we improve the technology. We detail the way to obtain probes able to detect small particles at high velocity. Each fiber is stretched to get a tip of 10 Clm with the cladding kept on 50 μm length which defines

  7. Three-dimensional atom localization via probe absorption in a cascade four-level atomic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For an atomic system with cascade four-level type, a useful scheme about three-dimensional (3D atom localization is proposed. In our scheme the atomic system is coherently controlled by using a radio-frequency field to couple with two-folded levels under the condition of the existence of probe absorption. Our results show that detecting precision of 3D atom localization may be obviously improved by properly adjusting the frequency detuning and strength of the radio-frequency driving field. So our scheme could be helpful to realize 3D atom localization with high-efficiency and high-precision . In the field of laser cooling or the atom nano-lithography, our studies provide potential applications.

  8. Three-dimensional atom localization via probe absorption in a cascade four-level atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Deng, Li; Chen, Aixi

    2018-03-01

    For an atomic system with cascade four-level type, a useful scheme about three-dimensional (3D) atom localization is proposed. In our scheme the atomic system is coherently controlled by using a radio-frequency field to couple with two-folded levels under the condition of the existence of probe absorption. Our results show that detecting precision of 3D atom localization may be obviously improved by properly adjusting the frequency detuning and strength of the radio-frequency driving field. So our scheme could be helpful to realize 3D atom localization with high-efficiency and high-precision . In the field of laser cooling or the atom nano-lithography, our studies provide potential applications.

  9. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  10. Ester carbonyl vibration as a sensitive probe of protein local electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Ileana M; Ghosh, Ayanjeet; Tucker, Matthew J; Gai, Feng

    2014-06-10

    The ability to quantify the local electrostatic environment of proteins and protein/peptide assemblies is key to gaining a microscopic understanding of many biological interactions and processes. Herein, we show that the ester carbonyl stretching vibration of two non-natural amino acids, L-aspartic acid 4-methyl ester and L-glutamic acid 5-methyl ester, is a convenient and sensitive probe in this regard, since its frequency correlates linearly with the local electrostatic field for both hydrogen-bonding and non-hydrogen-bonding environments. We expect that the resultant frequency-electric-field map will find use in various applications. Furthermore, we show that, when situated in a non-hydrogen-bonding environment, this probe can also be used to measure the local dielectric constant (ε). For example, its application to amyloid fibrils formed by Aβ(16-22) revealed that the interior of such β-sheet assemblies has an ε value of approximately 5.6. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  12. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjie; Meng, Fansheng; Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Yeyao; Shi, Ping

    2018-02-16

    Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO) procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  13. An improved tracking framework for ultrasound probe localization in image-guided radiosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipsen Svenja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Real-time target localization with ultrasound holds high potential for image guidance and motion compensation in radiosurgery due to its non-invasive image acquisition free from ionizing radiation. However, a two-step localization has to be performed when integrating ultrasound into the existing radiosurgery workflow. In addition to target localization inside the ultrasound volume, the probe itself has to be localized in order to transform the target position into treatment room coordinates. By adapting existing camera calibration tools, we have developed a method to extend the stereoscopic X-ray tracking system of a radiosurgery platform in order to locate objects such as marker geometries with six degrees of freedom. The calibration was performed with 0.1 mm reprojection error. By using the full area of the flat-panel detectors without pre-processing the extended software increased the tracking volume and resolution by up to 80%, substantially improving patient localization and marker detectability. Furthermore, marker-tracking showed sub-millimeter accuracy and rotational errors below 0.1°. This demonstrates that the developed extension framework can accurately localize marker geometries using an integrated X-ray system, establishing the link for the integration of real-time ultrasound image guidance into the existing system.

  14. Investigating the micro-rheology of the vitreous humor using an optically trapped local probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Fiona; Ean Tan, Lay; Wilson, Clive G.; Girkin, John M.; Tassieri, Manlio; Wright, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that an optically trapped silica bead can be used as a local probe to measure the micro-rheology of the vitreous humor. The Brownian motion of the bead was observed using a fast camera and the micro-rheology determined by analysis of the time-dependent mean-square displacement of the bead. We observed regions of the vitreous that showed different degrees of viscoelasticity, along with the homogeneous and inhomogeneous nature of different regions. The motivation behind this study is to understand the vitreous structure, in particular changes due to aging, allowing more confident prediction of pharmaceutical drug behavior and delivery within the vitreous humor.

  15. Investigating the micro-rheology of the vitreous humor using an optically trapped local probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, Fiona; Wright, Amanda J; Tan, Lay Ean; Wilson, Clive G; Girkin, John M; Tassieri, Manlio

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that an optically trapped silica bead can be used as a local probe to measure the micro-rheology of the vitreous humor. The Brownian motion of the bead was observed using a fast camera and the micro-rheology determined by analysis of the time-dependent mean-square displacement of the bead. We observed regions of the vitreous that showed different degrees of viscoelasticity, along with the homogeneous and inhomogeneous nature of different regions. The motivation behind this study is to understand the vitreous structure, in particular changes due to aging, allowing more confident prediction of pharmaceutical drug behavior and delivery within the vitreous humor. (paper)

  16. Development of an instantaneous local fuel-concentration measurement probe: an engine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, P.; Boutar, Z.; Lemoyne, L.

    2003-11-01

    This work presents a new tool which can deliver instantaneous local measurements of fuel concentration in an engine cylinder with a high temporal resolution, particularly during compression strokes. Fuel concentration is represented by means of equivalence fuel-air ratio, i.e. the real engine mass ratio of fuel to air divided by the same ratio in ideal stoichiometry conditions. Controlling the mixture configuration for any strategy in a spark ignition engine and for auto-ignition combustion has a dominant effect on the subsequent processes of ignition, flame propagation and auto-ignition combustion progression, pollutant formation under lean or even stoichiometric operating conditions. It is extremely difficult, under a transient operation, to control the equivalence air/fuel ratio precisely at a required value and at the right time. This requires the development of a highly accurate equivalence air/fuel ratio control system and a tool to measure using crank angle (CA) resolution. Although non-intrusive laser techniques have considerable advantages, they are most of the time inappropriate due to their optical inaccessibility or the complex experimental set-up involved. Therefore, as a response to the demand for a relatively simple fuel-concentration measurement system a probe is presented that replaces a spark plug and allows the engine to run completely normally. The probe is based on hot-wire like apparatus, but involves catalytic oxidation at the wire surface. The development, characteristics and calibration of the probe are presented followed by applications to in-cylinder engine measurements.

  17. Numerical evaluation of the five sensor probe method for measurement of local interfacial area concentration of cap bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euh, D.J.; Yun, B.J.; Song, C.H.; Kwon, T.S.; Chung, M.K.; Lee, U.C.

    2000-01-01

    The interfacial area concentration (IAC) is one of the most important parameters in the two-fluid model for two-phase flow analysis. The IAC can be measured by a local conductivity probe method that uses the difference of conductivity between water and air/steam. The number of sensors in the conductivity probe may be differently chosen by considering the flow regime of two-phase flow. The four sensor conductivity probe method predicts the IAC without any assumptions of the bubble shape. The local IAC can be obtained by measuring the three dimensional velocity vector elements at the measuring point, and the directional cosines of the sensors. The five sensor conductivity probe method proposed in this study is based on the four sensor probe method. With the five sensor probe, the local IAC for a given referred measuring area of the probe can be predicted more exactly. In this paper, the mathematical approach of the five sensor probe method for measuring the IAC is described, and a numerical simulation is carried out for ideal cap bubbles of which the sizes and locations are determined by a random number generator. (author)

  18. First local electrode atom probe analysis of magnetite (Fe3O4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, K.R.; Kelly, T.F.; Miller, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: We have successfully fabricated atom probe samples of a metamorphic magnetite and performed an analysis of one of these samples using a local electrode atom probe (LEAP). This particular magnetite, previously designated LP204-1, was extracted from a polymetamorphosed, granulite-facies marble and contains grain scale heterogeneity in its oxygen isotope ratios. Crystals of LP204-1 contain a high number density of nanometer-scale, disk-shaped Al-Mn-Fe-spinel precipitates making this magnetite particularly attractive for demonstrating the capabilities of the LEAP with regard to geological materials. Field ion microscope images of these magnetite crystals show precipitate size and morphology that agrees with previous results. A sample of LP-204-1 was analyzed in the LEAP, resulting in a cylindrical analyzed volume approx. 26 nm in diameter and 21 nm high. The mass spectrum contained nearly 106,000 atoms, 97.1 % of which were identified. Peaks for singly, doubly and triply ionized species were fully resolved. The analysis volume appeared to be purely magnetite, i.e. no precipitates were observed. If it is assumed that 77 % of the ions in the peak at 16 are O 2 ++ rather than O+, the stoichiometry measured for this sample using electron probe microanalysis is achieved. The high fraction of O 2 ++ can be explained by lack of a peak for O ++ and significant peaks for FeO x indicating a relatively low field strength, which in turn favors molecular ions. This work is an encouraging beginning for analysis of geological materials in atom probes. Refs. 4 (author)

  19. Quantitative generalized ratiometric fluorescence spectroscopy for turbid media based on probe encapsulated by biologically localized embedding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Zeng-Ping; Cui, Yin-Yin; Hu, Yuan-Liang; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-01-01

    PEBBLE (probe encapsulated by biologically localized embedding) nanosensor encapsulating an intensity-based fluorescence indicator and an inert reference fluorescence dye inside the pores of stable matrix can be used as a generalized wavelength-ratiometric probe. However, the lack of an efficient quantitative model render the choices of inert reference dyes and intensity-based fluorescence indicators used in PEBBLEs based generalized wavelength-ratiometric probes rather limited. In this contribution, an extended quantitative fluorescence model was derived specifically for generalized wavelength-ratiometric probes based on PEBBLE technique (QFM GRP ) with a view to simplify the design of PEBBLEs and hence further extend their application potentials. The effectiveness of QFM GRP has been tested on the quantitative determination of free Ca 2+ in both simulated and real turbid media using a Ca 2+ sensitive PEBBLE nanosensor encapsulating Rhod-2 and eosin B inside the micropores of stable polyacrylamide matrix. Experimental results demonstrated that QFM GRP could realize precise and accurate quantification of free Ca 2+ in turbid samples, even though there is serious overlapping between the fluorescence excitation peaks of eosin B and Ca 2+ bound Rhod-2. The average relative predictive error value of QFM GRP for the test simulated turbid samples was 5.9%, about 2–4 times lower than the corresponding values of partial least squares calibration model and the empirical ratiometric model based on the ratio of fluorescence intensities at the excitation peaks of Ca 2+ bound Rhod-2 and eosin B. The recovery rates of QFM GRP for the real and spiked turbid samples varied from 93.1% to 101%, comparable to the corresponding results of atomic absorption spectrometry. - Highlights: • An advanced model was derived for generalized wavelength-ratiometric PEBBLEs. • The model can simplify the design of generalized wavelength-ratiometric PEBBLEs. • The model realized accurate

  20. Selective probe of the morphology and local vibrations at carbon nanoasperities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, Toshihiko; Endo, Morinobu; Kaneko, Katsumi [Research Center for Exotic Nanocarbons (JST), Shinshu University, 4-17-1, Wakasato, Nagano-city 380-8553 (Japan); Urita, Koki; Moriguchi, Isamu [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki-shi, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Tomanek, David [Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Ohba, Tomonori [Department of Chemistry, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2012-02-14

    We introduce a way to selectively probe local vibration modes at nanostructured asperities such as tips of carbon nanohorns. Our observations benefit from signal amplification in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) at sites near a silver surface. We observe nanohorn tip vibration modes in the range 200-500 cm{sup -1}, which are obscured in regular Raman spectra. Ab initio density functional calculations assign modes in this frequency range to local vibrations at the nanohorn cap resembling the radial breathing mode of fullerenes. Careful interpretation of our SERS spectra indicates presence of caps with 5 or 6 pentagons, which are chemically the most active sites. Changes in the peak intensities and frequencies with time indicate that exposure to laser irradiation may cause structural rearrangements at the cap.

  1. Infrared Hollow Optical Fiber Probe for Localized Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Respiratory Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Takashi; Shibayama, Kyosuke; Iida, Takeru; Matsuura, Yuji

    2018-03-27

    A real-time gas monitoring system based on optical absorption spectroscopy is proposed for localized carbon dioxide (CO₂) measurement in respiratory tracts. In this system, a small gas cell is attached to the end of a hollow optical fiber that delivers mid-infrared light with small transmission loss. The diameters of the fiber and the gas cell are smaller than 1.2 mm so that the probe can be inserted into a working channel of common bronchoscopes. The dimensions of the gas cell are designed based on absorption spectra of CO₂ standard gases in the 4.2 μm wavelength region, which are measured using a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. A miniature gas cell that is comprised of a stainless-steel tube with slots for gas inlet and a micro-mirror is fabricated. A compact probing system with a quantum cascade laser (QCL) light source is built using a gas cell with a hollow optical fiber for monitoring CO₂ concentration. Experimental results using human breaths show the feasibility of the system for in-situ measurement of localized CO₂ concentration in human airways.

  2. Infrared Hollow Optical Fiber Probe for Localized Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Respiratory Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Katagiri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A real-time gas monitoring system based on optical absorption spectroscopy is proposed for localized carbon dioxide (CO2 measurement in respiratory tracts. In this system, a small gas cell is attached to the end of a hollow optical fiber that delivers mid-infrared light with small transmission loss. The diameters of the fiber and the gas cell are smaller than 1.2 mm so that the probe can be inserted into a working channel of common bronchoscopes. The dimensions of the gas cell are designed based on absorption spectra of CO2 standard gases in the 4.2 μm wavelength region, which are measured using a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. A miniature gas cell that is comprised of a stainless-steel tube with slots for gas inlet and a micro-mirror is fabricated. A compact probing system with a quantum cascade laser (QCL light source is built using a gas cell with a hollow optical fiber for monitoring CO2 concentration. Experimental results using human breaths show the feasibility of the system for in-situ measurement of localized CO2 concentration in human airways.

  3. Magnetization measurements reveal the local shear stiffness of hydrogels probed by ferromagnetic nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, P., E-mail: nano@p-bender.de; Tschöpe, A., E-mail: antsch@mx.uni-saarland.de; Birringer, R., E-mail: r.birringer@nano.uni-saarland.de

    2014-12-15

    The local mechanical coupling of ferromagnetic nanorods in hydrogels was characterized by magnetization measurements. Nickel nanorods were synthesized by the AAO-template method and embedded in gelatine hydrogels with mechanically soft or hard matrix properties determined by the gelatine weight fraction. By applying a homogeneous magnetic field during gelation the nanorods were aligned along the field resulting in uniaxially textured ferrogels. The magnetization curves of the soft ferrogel exhibited not only important similarities but also characteristic differences as compared to the hard ferrogel. The hystereses measured in a field parallel to the texture axis were almost identical for both samples indicating effective coupling of the nanorods with the polymer network. By contrast, measurements in a magnetic field perpendicular to the texture axis revealed a much higher initial susceptibility of the soft as compared to the hard ferrogel. This difference was attributed to the additional rotation of the nanorods allowed by the reduced shear modulus in the soft ferrogel matrix. Two methods for data analysis were presented which enabled us to determine the shear modulus of the gelatine matrix which was interpreted as a local rather than macroscopic quantity in consideration of the nanoscale of the probe particles. - Highlights: • Nanorods are embedded as magnetic probes in gelatine gels. • Elastic rotation of the rods can be induced by applying a homogeneous magnetic field. • Rod rotation has significant influence on the magnetization curves. • Two methods are presented to estimate the shear modulus of the matrix from the magnetization curves.

  4. Experimental investigation on local parameter measurement using optical probes in two-phase flow under rolling condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Daogui; Sun Licheng; Yan Changqi; Liu Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    In order to get more local interfacial information as well as to further comprehend the intrinsic mechanism of two-phase flow under rolling condition, a method was proposed to measure the local parameters by using optical probes under rolling condition in this paper. An experimental investigation of two-phase flow under rolling condition was conducted using the probe fabricated by the authors. It is verified that the probe method is feasible to measure the local parameters in two'-phase flow under rolling condition. The results show that the interfacial parameters distribution near wall region has a distinct periodicity due to the rolling motion. The averaged deviation of the void fraction measured by the probe from that obtained from measured pressure drop is about 8%. (authors)

  5. PROBING THE LOCAL BUBBLE WITH DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS. II. THE DIB PROPERTIES IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhang, Amin; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Javadi, Atefeh; Molaeinezhad, Alireza; Tavasoli, Saeed; Habibi, Farhang; Kourkchi, Ehsan; Rezaei, Sara; Saberi, Maryam [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), PO Box 19395-5746 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Bailey, Mandy [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Hardy, Liam, E-mail: a.farhang@ipm.ir [Isaac Newton Group, Apartado 321, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma (Spain)

    2015-02-10

    We present a new high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic survey of the Northern hemisphere to probe the Local Bubble and its surroundings using the λ5780 Å and λ5797 Å diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). We observed 432 sightlines to a distance of 200 pc over a duration of three years. In this study, we establish the λ5780 and λ5797 correlations with Na I, Ca II and E {sub B-V}, for both inside and outside the Local Bubble. The correlations show that among all neutral and ionized atoms, the correlation between Ca II and λ5780 is stronger than its correlation with λ5797, suggesting that λ5780 is more associated with regions where Ca{sup +} is more abundant. We study the λ5780 correlation with λ5797, which shows a tight correlation within and outside the Local Bubble. In addition, we investigate the DIB properties in UV irradiated and UV shielded regions. We find that, within and beyond the Local Bubble, λ5797 is located in denser parts of clouds, protected from UV irradiation, while λ5780 is located in the low-density regions of clouds.

  6. Local charge trapping in Ge nanoclustersdetected by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratenko, S.V., E-mail: kondr@univ.kiev.ua [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13 Volodymyrska Str., 01601, Kyiv (Ukraine); Lysenko, V.S. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 41 Prospect Nauki, 03028, Kyiv (Ukraine); Kozyrev, Yu. N. [O.O. Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 GeneralaNaumova Str. 03164, Kiev (Ukraine); Kratzer, M. [Institute of Physics, MontanuniversitätLeoben, Franz Josef Str. 18, A-8700, Leoben (Austria); Storozhuk, D.P.; Iliash, S.A. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13 Volodymyrska Str., 01601, Kyiv (Ukraine); Czibula, C. [Institute of Physics, MontanuniversitätLeoben, Franz Josef Str. 18, A-8700, Leoben (Austria); Teichert, C., E-mail: teichert@unileoben.ac.at [Institute of Physics, MontanuniversitätLeoben, Franz Josef Str. 18, A-8700, Leoben (Austria)

    2016-12-15

    The understanding of local charge trapping on the nanoscale is crucial for the design of novel electronic devices and photodetectors based on SiGe nanoclusters (NCs). Here, the local spatial distribution of the surface potential of the Ge NCs was detected using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Different surface potentials between Ge NCs and the wetting layer (WL) surface were detected at room temperature. Changes of the local contact potential differences (CPD) were studied after injection of electrons or holes into single Ge NCs on top of the Si layer using a conductive atomic force microscopy tip. The CPD image contrast was increased after electron injection by applying a forward bias to the n-tip/i-Ge NC/p-Si junction. Injecting holes into a single Ge NC was also accompanied by filling of two-dimensional states in the surrounding region, which is governed by leakage currents through WL or surface states and Coulomb charging effects. A long retention time of holes trapped by the Ge NC was found.

  7. Intraoperative use of gamma-detecting probes to localize neuroendocrine tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.; Baum, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are characterized by the expression of different peptides and biogenic amines. These rare tumors tend to grow slowly and are notoriously difficult to localize, at least in the early stages. Surgical removal is the only definitive therapeutic option for neuroendocrine tumors and relief from hyper functional status. The effectiveness of surgical treatment is invariably dependent upon the complete surgical excision of all tumor tissue, because microscopic and occult disease not readily seen by the surgeon may remain in sit, leading to shortened survival. Radio guided surgery (RGS) is an intraoperative technique that enables the surgeon to localize radiolabelled tissue based on the characteristics of the various tissues. For imaging recurrent MTC (Medullary Thyroid Cancer) many radiopharmaceuticals have been used to visualize tumor sites, but none of them has shown excellent sensitivity. Preoperative somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and intraoperative RGS in patients with recurrent MTC demonstrate only part of the tumor sites and cannot visualize small tumor sites (less than 10 mm). In patients with recurrent MTC, intraoperative gamma probe examination is able to localize over 30% more tumor lesions when compared with conventional preoperative imaging modalities and surgical findings. In addition to scintigraphy of the adrenal glands by precursors of adrenal hormones, imaging with a radiolabelled somatostatin analogue is possible; however ( 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe 1 )-pentetreotide is not specific for any adrenal disease or function and the relatively high radioligand accumulation in the kidneys limited the use for detection of tumors in the area of the adrenal glands

  8. Intraoperative use of gamma-detecting probes to localize neuroendocrine tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe Univ., Frankfurt/Main (Germany). Medical Center, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Baum, R.P. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka GmbH, Bad Berka (Germany). Clinic of Nuclear Medicine/PET Center

    2000-03-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are characterized by the expression of different peptides and biogenic amines. These rare tumors tend to grow slowly and are notoriously difficult to localize, at least in the early stages. Surgical removal is the only definitive therapeutic option for neuroendocrine tumors and relief from hyper functional status. The effectiveness of surgical treatment is invariably dependent upon the complete surgical excision of all tumor tissue, because microscopic and occult disease not readily seen by the surgeon may remain in sit, leading to shortened survival. Radio guided surgery (RGS) is an intraoperative technique that enables the surgeon to localize radiolabelled tissue based on the characteristics of the various tissues. For imaging recurrent MTC (Medullary Thyroid Cancer) many radiopharmaceuticals have been used to visualize tumor sites, but none of them has shown excellent sensitivity. Preoperative somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and intraoperative RGS in patients with recurrent MTC demonstrate only part of the tumor sites and cannot visualize small tumor sites (less than 10 mm). In patients with recurrent MTC, intraoperative gamma probe examination is able to localize over 30% more tumor lesions when compared with conventional preoperative imaging modalities and surgical findings. In addition to scintigraphy of the adrenal glands by precursors of adrenal hormones, imaging with a radiolabelled somatostatin analogue is possible; however ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-pentetreotide is not specific for any adrenal disease or function and the relatively high radioligand accumulation in the kidneys limited the use for detection of tumors in the area of the adrenal glands.

  9. Equilibration of a strongly interacting plasma: holographic analysis of local and nonlocal probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellantuono Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relaxation of a strongly coupled plasma towards the hydrodynamic regime is studied by analyzing the evolution of local and nonlocal observables in the holographic approach. The system is driven in an initial anisotropic and far-from equilibrium state through an impulsive time-dependent deformation (quench of the boundary spacetime geometry. Effective temperature and entropy density are related to the position and area of a black hole horizon, which has formed as a consequence of the distortion. The behavior of stress-energy tensor, equal-time correlation functions and Wilson loops of different shapes is examined, and a hierarchy among their thermalization times emerges: probes involving shorter length scales thermalize faster.

  10. Spin exchange between ion probes and localized moments in ferromagnets as the origin of transient fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagelberg, F.; Das, T.P.; Speidel, K.

    1993-01-01

    The transient field phenomenon has been ascribed to a polarization transfer between the electrons of the ionic projectiles and the surplus of majority spin electrons of the ferromagnetic host over the minority spin electrons. Earlier attempts to explain this crucial process failed to account for the order of magnitude of the experimentally observed transient field strengths. A recent model which proposes spin exchange scattering between bound projectile electrons and quasifree host electrons as the mechanism of polarization transfer arrives at the correct orders of magnitude but is in conflict with the weak velocity dependence of the experimental polarization, exhibiting a strongly decreasing behavior with increasing velocity. The new model presented here proposes spin exchange between the ionic shell and localized electrons of the ferromagnet as a more adequate approach to the problem. It is shown that calculations involving hydrogenlike ions explain the size of the experimentally observed polarization effects as well as their velocity dependence for various ion probes traversing thin iron foils

  11. Local probe studies on lattice distortions and electronic correlations in manganites

    CERN Document Server

    lopes, Armandina; Correia, João Guilherme

    This thesis presents an experimental study on lattice distortions and electronic correlations in colossal magnetoresistive magnetic oxides. The Perturbed Angular Correlation local probe technique is used to study selected manganite systems in order to obtain relevant insight into microscopic phenomena responsible for their macroscopic pr operties. Complementary structural, magnetic and electric characterization was performed. The work is focused on the following aspects: \\\\Lattice distortions and polaron clusters in LaMnO$_{3+ \\Delta}$ system. A study of the electric field gradi ent and magnetic hyperfine field was performed in representative samples of the LaMnO$_{3+ \\Delta}$ system, and correlated with macroscopic information obtained in the same samples. Particular attention was given to the LaMnO$_{3.12}$ sample since this compound is a prototype of a ferromagnetic-insulat or manganite, presenting a rhombohedric- orthorhombic structural phase transition near room temperature. We found that random distribu...

  12. Observation of local fields in ZnO using the 111Cd probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, W.; Komatsuda, S.; Imagawa, E.; Ohkubo, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The authors prepared the ZnO sample ( 111m Cd-CZO) that contains totally 0.5 at.% of Cd including 111m Cd, and the ZnO sample ( 111m Cd-ICZO) made by doping with 0.5 at.% of In to 111m Cd-CZO, and measured γ-ray perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectra. They compared these measurement results with the PAC spectra that were observed in the sample ( 111 In-IZO) made by doping with 0.5 at.% of stable In isotope in addition to ( 111 In→) 111 Cd probe, and examined the two characteristics of 111 In-IZO. As for 111 In-IZO, large electric field gradient and late effect due to remarkable EC decay was observed compared with the sample ( 111 In-UZO), where several ppt level of ( 111 In→) 111 Cd probe was solely doped into ZnO. This fact suggests that In atoms and 111 In atoms flocculate locally. When this flocculating condition is made of many In atom groups, several occupation positions of 111 In can be considered, and they cannot form the single frequency component as obtained in the PAC spectra. Therefore, the results of this experiment can be understood that In atoms themselves form the pairs in the nearest position while replacing the lattice positions of Zn. In is generally stable under the condition of three valence, but it can take one valence depending on compounds. Therefore, it can be considered that if In 3+ and In + mixture in this ratio replace Zn 2+ sites, this pairs can exist from the viewpoint of charge balance. (A.O.)

  13. Challenges for Super-Resolution Localization Microscopy and Biomolecular Fluorescent Nano-Probing in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Nataša; Pilarczyk, Götz; Lee, Jin-Ho; Logeswaran, Abiramy; Borroni, Aurora Paola; Krufczik, Matthias; Theda, Franziska; Waltrich, Nadine; Bestvater, Felix; Hildenbrand, Georg; Cremer, Christoph; Blank, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Understanding molecular interactions and regulatory mechanisms in tumor initiation, progression, and treatment response are key requirements towards advanced cancer diagnosis and novel treatment procedures in personalized medicine. Beyond decoding the gene expression, malfunctioning and cancer-related epigenetic pathways, investigations of the spatial receptor arrangements in membranes and genome organization in cell nuclei, on the nano-scale, contribute to elucidating complex molecular mechanisms in cells and tissues. By these means, the correlation between cell function and spatial organization of molecules or molecular complexes can be studied, with respect to carcinogenesis, tumor sensitivity or tumor resistance to anticancer therapies, like radiation or antibody treatment. Here, we present several new applications for bio-molecular nano-probes and super-resolution, laser fluorescence localization microscopy and their potential in life sciences, especially in biomedical and cancer research. By means of a tool-box of fluorescent antibodies, green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagging, or specific oligonucleotides, we present tumor relevant re-arrangements of Erb-receptors in membranes, spatial organization of Smad specific ubiquitin protein ligase 2 (Smurf2) in the cytosol, tumor cell characteristic heterochromatin organization, and molecular re-arrangements induced by radiation or antibody treatment. The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate how nano-scaled distance measurements between bio-molecules, tagged by appropriate nano-probes, can be applied to elucidate structures and conformations of molecular complexes which are characteristic of tumorigenesis and treatment responses. These applications open new avenues towards a better interpretation of the spatial organization and treatment responses of functionally relevant molecules, at the single cell level, in normal and cancer cells, offering new potentials for individualized medicine. PMID:28956810

  14. Challenges for Super-Resolution Localization Microscopy and Biomolecular Fluorescent Nano-Probing in Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hausmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding molecular interactions and regulatory mechanisms in tumor initiation, progression, and treatment response are key requirements towards advanced cancer diagnosis and novel treatment procedures in personalized medicine. Beyond decoding the gene expression, malfunctioning and cancer-related epigenetic pathways, investigations of the spatial receptor arrangements in membranes and genome organization in cell nuclei, on the nano-scale, contribute to elucidating complex molecular mechanisms in cells and tissues. By these means, the correlation between cell function and spatial organization of molecules or molecular complexes can be studied, with respect to carcinogenesis, tumor sensitivity or tumor resistance to anticancer therapies, like radiation or antibody treatment. Here, we present several new applications for bio-molecular nano-probes and super-resolution, laser fluorescence localization microscopy and their potential in life sciences, especially in biomedical and cancer research. By means of a tool-box of fluorescent antibodies, green fluorescent protein (GFP tagging, or specific oligonucleotides, we present tumor relevant re-arrangements of Erb-receptors in membranes, spatial organization of Smad specific ubiquitin protein ligase 2 (Smurf2 in the cytosol, tumor cell characteristic heterochromatin organization, and molecular re-arrangements induced by radiation or antibody treatment. The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate how nano-scaled distance measurements between bio-molecules, tagged by appropriate nano-probes, can be applied to elucidate structures and conformations of molecular complexes which are characteristic of tumorigenesis and treatment responses. These applications open new avenues towards a better interpretation of the spatial organization and treatment responses of functionally relevant molecules, at the single cell level, in normal and cancer cells, offering new potentials for individualized medicine.

  15. A compact and versatile microfluidic probe for local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cors, J. F.; Lovchik, R. D.; Delamarche, E.; Kaigala, G. V.

    2014-03-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) is a non-contact, scanning microfluidic technology for local (bio)chemical processing of surfaces based on hydrodynamically confining nanoliter volumes of liquids over tens of micrometers. We present here a compact MFP (cMFP) that can be used on a standard inverted microscope and assist in the local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens. The cMFP has a footprint of 175 × 100 × 140 mm3 and can scan an area of 45 × 45 mm2 on a surface with an accuracy of ±15 μm. The cMFP is compatible with standard surfaces used in life science laboratories such as microscope slides and Petri dishes. For ease of use, we developed self-aligned mounted MFP heads with standardized "chip-to-world" and "chip-to-platform" interfaces. Switching the processing liquid in the flow confinement is performed within 90 s using a selector valve with a dead-volume of approximately 5 μl. We further implemented height-compensation that allows a cMFP head to follow non-planar surfaces common in tissue and cellular ensembles. This was shown by patterning different macroscopic copper-coated topographies with height differences up to 750 μm. To illustrate the applicability to tissue processing, 5 μm thick M000921 BRAF V600E+ melanoma cell blocks were stained with hematoxylin to create contours, lines, spots, gradients of the chemicals, and multiple spots over larger areas. The local staining was performed in an interactive manner using a joystick and a scripting module. The compactness, user-friendliness, and functionality of the cMFP will enable it to be adapted as a standard tool in research, development and diagnostic laboratories, particularly for the interaction with tissues and cells.

  16. Regional localization of DNA probes on the short arm of chromosome 11 using aniridia-Wilms' tumor-associated deletions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannens, M.; Slater, R. M.; Heyting, C.; Geurts van Kessel, A.; Goedde-Salz, E.; Frants, R. R.; van Ommen, G. J.; Pearson, P. L.

    1987-01-01

    We are interested in the precise localization of various DNA probes on the short arm of chromosome 11 for our research on the aniridia-Wilms' tumor association (AWTA), assigned to region 11p13 (Knudson and Strong 1972; Riccardi et al. 1978). For this purpose we have screened lymphocyte DNA and

  17. Directional Histogram Ratio at Random Probes: A Local Thresholding Criterion for Capillary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Na; Silva, Jharon; Gu, Yu; Gerber, Scott; Wu, Hulin; Gelbard, Harris; Dewhurst, Stephen; Miao, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    With the development of micron-scale imaging techniques, capillaries can be conveniently visualized using methods such as two-photon and whole mount microscopy. However, the presence of background staining, leaky vessels and the diffusion of small fluorescent molecules can lead to significant complexity in image analysis and loss of information necessary to accurately quantify vascular metrics. One solution to this problem is the development of accurate thresholding algorithms that reliably distinguish blood vessels from surrounding tissue. Although various thresholding algorithms have been proposed, our results suggest that without appropriate pre- or post-processing, the existing approaches may fail to obtain satisfactory results for capillary images that include areas of contamination. In this study, we propose a novel local thresholding algorithm, called directional histogram ratio at random probes (DHR-RP). This method explicitly considers the geometric features of tube-like objects in conducting image binarization, and has a reliable performance in distinguishing small vessels from either clean or contaminated background. Experimental and simulation studies suggest that our DHR-RP algorithm is superior over existing thresholding methods. PMID:23525856

  18. Erythrocyte Membrane Failure by Electromechanical Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We envision that electrodeformation of biological cells through dielectrophoresis as a new technique to elucidate the mechanistic details underlying membrane failure by electrical and mechanical stresses. Here we demonstrate the full control of cellular uniaxial deformation and tensile recovery in biological cells via amplitude-modified electric field at radio frequency by an interdigitated electrode array in microfluidics. Transient creep and cyclic experiments were performed on individually tracked human erythrocytes. Observations of the viscoelastic-to-viscoplastic deformation behavior and the localized plastic deformations in erythrocyte membranes suggest that electromechanical stress results in irreversible membrane failure. Examples of membrane failure can be separated into different groups according to the loading scenarios: mechanical stiffening, physical damage, morphological transformation from discocyte to echinocyte, and whole cell lysis. These results show that this technique can be potentially utilized to explore membrane failure in erythrocytes affected by other pathophysiological processes.

  19. Multiphysics simulation electromechanical system applications and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Dede, Ercan M; Nomura, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    This book highlights a unique combination of numerical tools and strategies for handling the challenges of multiphysics simulation, with a specific focus on electromechanical systems as the target application. Features: introduces the concept of design via simulation, along with the role of multiphysics simulation in today's engineering environment; discusses the importance of structural optimization techniques in the design and development of electromechanical systems; provides an overview of the physics commonly involved with electromechanical systems for applications such as electronics, ma

  20. Probing the local microwave properties of superconducting thin films by a scanning microwave near-field microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, L Y; Wang, K L; Jiang, T; Kang, L; Yang, S Z; Wu, P H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present our approach to probe the local microwave properties of superconducting thin films by using the microwave near-field scanning technique. We have employed a coaxial cavity together with a niobium tip as the probe and established a scanning sample stage cooled by liquid nitrogen to study thin film devices at low temperature in our scanning microwave near-field microscope. Nondestructive images have been obtained on the inhomogeneity of the YBaCuO superconducting thin films at microwave frequency. We believe that these results would be helpful in evaluating the microwave performance of the devices.

  1. Magnetic micro-manipulations to probe the local physical properties of porous scaffolds and to confine stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Damien; Fayol, Delphine; Le Visage, Catherine; Frasca, Guillaume; Brulé, Séverine; Ménager, Christine; Gazeau, Florence; Letourneur, Didier; Wilhelm, Claire

    2010-03-01

    The in vitro generation of engineered tissue constructs involves the seeding of cells into porous scaffolds. Ongoing challenges are to design scaffolds to meet biochemical and mechanical requirements and to optimize cell seeding in the constructs. In this context, we have developed a simple method based on a magnetic tweezer set-up to manipulate, probe, and position magnetic objects inside a porous scaffold. The magnetic force acting on magnetic objects of various sizes serves as a control parameter to retrieve the local viscosity of the scaffolds internal channels as well as the stiffness of the scaffolds pores. Labeling of human stem cells with iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles makes it possible to perform the same type of measurement with cells as probes and evaluate their own microenvironment. For 18 microm diameter magnetic beads or magnetically labeled stem cells of similar diameter, the viscosity was equivalently equal to 20 mPa s in average. This apparent viscosity was then found to increase with the magnetic probes sizes. The stiffness probed with 100 microm magnetic beads was found in the 50 Pa range, and was lowered by a factor 5 when probed with cells aggregates. The magnetic forces were also successfully applied to the stem cells to enhance the cell seeding process and impose a well defined spatial organization into the scaffold. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of local hydrophobicity on sapphire (0001) surfaces in aqueous environment by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Tomoya; Yamazaki, Kenji; Isono, Toshinari; Ogino, Toshio, E-mail: ogino-toshio-rx@ynu.ac.jp

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Local hydrophobicity of phase-separated sapphire (0001) surfaces was investigated. • These surfaces are featured by coexistence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. • Each domain was characterized by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy in water. • Both domains can be distinguished by adhesive forces of the probe to the surfaces. • Characterization in aqueous environment is important in bio-applications of sapphire. - Abstract: Sapphire (0001) surfaces exhibit a phase-separation into hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains upon high-temperature annealing, which were previously distinguished by the thickness of adsorbed water layers in air using atomic force microscopy (AFM). To characterize their local surface hydrophobicity in aqueous environment, we used AFM equipped with a colloidal probe and measured the local adhesive force between each sapphire domain and a hydrophilic SiO{sub 2} probe surface, or a hydrophobic polystyrene one. Two data acquisition modes for statistical analyses were used: one is force measurements at different positions of the surface and the other repeated measurement at a fixed position. We found that adhesive force measurements using the polystyrene probe allow us to distinctly separate the hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. The dispersion in the force measurement data at different positions of the surface is larger than that in the repeated measurements at a fixed position. It indicates that the adhesive force measurement is repeatable although their data dispersion for the measurement positions is relatively large. From these results, we can conclude that the hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains on the sapphire (0001) surfaces are distinguished by a difference in their hydration degrees.

  3. d-PET-controlled “off-on” Polarity-sensitive Probes for Reporting Local Hydrophilicity within Lysosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Fan, Jiangli; Mu, Huiying; Zhu, Tao; Zhang, Zhen; Du, Jianjun; Peng, Xiaojun

    2016-10-01

    Polarity-sensitive fluorescent probes are powerful chemical tools for studying biomolecular structures and activities both in vitro and in vivo. However, the lack of “off-on” polarity-sensing probes has limited the accurate monitoring of biological processes that involve an increase in local hydrophilicity. Here, we design and synthesize a series of “off-on” polarity-sensitive fluorescent probes BP series consisting of the difluoroboron dippyomethene (BODIPY) fluorophore connected to a quaternary ammonium moiety via different carbon linkers. All these probes showed low fluorescence quantum yields in nonpolar solution but became highly fluorescent in polar media. BP-2, which contains a two-carbon linker and a trimethyl quaternary ammonium, displayed a fluorescence intensity and quantum yield that were both linearly correlated with solvent polarity. In addition, BP-2 exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity for polarity over other environmental factors and a variety of biologically relevant species. BP-2 can be synthesized readily via an unusual Mannich reaction followed by methylation. Using electrochemistry combined with theoretical calculations, we demonstrated that the “off-on” sensing behavior of BP-2 is primarily due to the polarity-dependent donor-excited photoinduced electron transfer (d-PET) effect. Live-cell imaging established that BP-2 enables the detection of local hydrophilicity within lysosomes under conditions of lysosomal dysfunction.

  4. Electromechanical converters for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambros, T.; Burduniuc, M.; Deaconu, S. I.; Rujanschi, N.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of various constructive schemes of synchronous electromechanical converters with permanent magnets fixed on the rotor and asynchronous with the short-circuit rotor. Various electrical stator winding schemes have also been compared, demonstrating the efficiency of copper utilization in toroidal windings. The electromagnetic calculus of the axial machine has particularities compared to the cylindrical machine, in the paper is presented the method of correlating the geometry of the cylindrical and axial machines. In this case the method and recommendations used in the design of such machines may be used.

  5. A new method for intraoperative localization of epilepsy focus by means of a gamma probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro Filho, Omar; Vilela Filho, Osvaldo; Ragazzo, Paulo Cesar; Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the utility of a new multimodal image-guided intervention technique to detect epileptogenic areas with a gamma probe as compared with intraoperative electrocorticography. Materials and methods: two symptomatic patients with refractory epilepsy underwent magnetic resonance imaging, videoelectroencephalography, brain SPECT scan, neuropsychological evaluation and were submitted to gamma probe-assisted surgery. Results: in patient 1, maximum radioactive count was initially observed on the temporal gyrus at about 3.5 cm posteriorly to the tip of the left temporal lobe. After corticotomy, the gamma probe indicated maximum count at the head of the hippocampus, in agreement with the findings of intraoperative electrocorticography. In patient 2, maximum count was observed in the occipital region at the transition between the temporal and parietal lobes (right hemisphere). During the surgery, the area of epileptogenic activity mapped at electrocorticography was also delimited, demarcated, and compared with the gamma probe findings. After lesionectomy, new radioactive counts were performed both in the patients and on the surgical specimens (ex-vivo). Conclusion: the comparison between intraoperative electrocorticography and gamma probe-assisted surgery showed similarity of both methods. The advantages of gamma probe include: noninvasiveness, low cost and capacity to demonstrate decrease in the radioactive activity at the site of excision after lesionectomy. (author)

  6. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS): a novel probe for local structure of glassy solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.

    1979-01-01

    The extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) is the oscillation in the absorption coefficient extending a few hundred eVs on the high energy side of an x-ray absorption edge. This mode of spectroscopy has recently been realized to be a powerful tool in probing the local atomic structure of all states of matter, particularly with the advent of intense synchrotron radiation. More importantly is the unique ability of EXAFS to probe the structure and dynamics around individual atomic species in a multi-atomic system. In this paper, the physical processes associated with the EXAFS phenomenon will be discussed. Experimental results obtained at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on some oxide and metallic glasses will be presented. The local structure in these materials are elucidated using a Fourier transform technique

  7. Electromechanical Componentry. High-Technology Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Don

    This training module on electromechanical components contains 10 units for a two-year vocational program packaging system equipment control course at Wisconsin Indianhead Technical College. This module describes the functions of electromechanical devices essential for understanding input/output devices for Programmable Logic Control (PLC)…

  8. Electromechanical wave imaging for arrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost, Jean; Nguyen, Vu Thanh-Hieu; Legrand, Diégo; Okrasinski, Stan; Costet, Alexandre; Konofagou, Elisa E; Gambhir, Alok; Garan, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) is a novel ultrasound-based imaging modality for mapping of the electromechanical wave (EW), i.e. the transient deformations occurring in immediate response to the electrical activation. The correlation between the EW and the electrical activation has been established in prior studies. However, the methods used previously to map the EW required the reconstruction of images over multiple cardiac cycles, precluding the application of EWI for non-periodic arrhythmias such as fibrillation. In this study, new imaging sequences are developed and applied based on flash- and wide-beam emissions to image the entire heart at very high frame rates (2000 fps) during free breathing in a single heartbeat. The methods are first validated by imaging the heart of an open-chest canine while simultaneously mapping the electrical activation using a 64-electrode basket catheter. Feasibility is then assessed by imaging the atria and ventricles of closed-chest, conscious canines during sinus rhythm and during right-ventricular pacing following atrio-ventricular dissociation, i.e., during a non-periodic rhythm. The EW was validated against electrode measurements in the open-chest case, and followed the expected electrical propagation pattern in the closed-chest setting. These results indicate that EWI can be used for the characterization of non-periodic arrhythmias in conditions similar to the clinical setting, in a single heartbeat, and during free breathing. (fast track communication)

  9. Probing the transition from non-localization to localization by K-shell photoemission from isotope-substituted N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolles, Daniel; Braune, Markus; Cvejanovic, Slobodan; Gessner, Oliver; Hentges, Rainer; Korica, Sanja; Langer, Burkhard; Lischke, Toralf; Pruemper, Georg; Reinkoester, Axel; Viefhaus, Jens; Zimmermann, Bjoern; McKoy, Vince; Becker, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    In homonuclear diatomic molecules such as N 2 , the inversion symmetry of the system causes non-local, coherent behavior of the otherwise localized core holes. The non-locality of the electron emission and the remaining core hole changes in a continuous way into partially localized behaviour if a gradual breakdown of the inversion symmetry is induced by isotope substitution. This is reflected by a loss of interference and a parity mixing of the outgoing photoelectron waves. Our results represent the first experimentally observed isotope effect on the electronic structure of a diatomic molecule

  10. Flexible probe for measuring local conductivity variations in Li-ion electrode films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Emilee; Clement, Derek; Vogel, John; Wheeler, Dean; Mazzeo, Brian

    2018-04-01

    Li-ion battery performance is governed by electronic and ionic properties of the battery. A key metric that characterizes Li-ion battery cell performance is the electronic conductivity of the electrodes, which are metal foils with thin coatings of electrochemically active materials. To accurately measure the spatial variation of electronic conductivity of these electrodes, a micro-four-line probe (μ4LP) was designed and used to non-destructively measure the properties of commercial-quality Li-ion battery films. This previous research established that the electronic conductivity of film electrodes is not homogeneous throughout the entirety of the deposited film area. In this work, a micro-N-line probe (μNLP) and a flexible micro-flex-line probe (μFLP) were developed to improve the non-destructive micro-scale conductivity measurements that we can take. These devices were validated by comparing test results to that of the predecessor, the micro-four-line probe (μ4LP), on various commercial-quality Li-ion battery electrodes. Results show that there is significant variation in conductivity on a millimeter and even micrometer length scale through the electrode film. Compared to the μ4LP, the μNLP and μFLP also introduce additional measurement configuration possibilities, while providing a more robust design. Researchers and manufacturers can use these probes to identify heterogeneity in their electrodes during the fabrication process, which will lead to the development of better batteries.

  11. Two-phase flow measurements with advanced instrumented spool pieces and local conductivity probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnage, K.G.; Davis, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    A series of two-phase, air-water and steam-water tests performed with instrumented spool pieces and with conductivity probes obtained from Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd. is described. The behavior of the three-beam densitometer, turbine meter, and drag flowmeter is discussed in terms of two-phase models. Application of some two-phase mass flow models to the recorded spool piece data is made and preliminary results are shown. Velocity and void fraction information derived from the conductivity probes is presented and compared to velocities and void fractions obtained using the spool piece instrumentation

  12. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) - a new imaging technique for in situ localization of spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottmann, Matthias; Stepp, Herbert; Sroka, Ronald; Heide, Michael; Liedl, Bernhard; Reese, Sven; Becker, Armin J; Stief, Christian G; Kölle, Sabine

    2015-05-01

    In azoospermic patients, spermatozoa are routinely obtained by testicular sperm extraction (TESE). However, success rates of this technique are moderate, because the site of excision of testicular tissue is determined arbitrarily. Therefore the aim of this study was to establish probe-based laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) a noval biomedical imaging technique, which provides the opportunity of non-invasive, real-time visualisation of tissue at histological resolution. Using pCLE we clearly visualized longitudinal and horizontal views of the tubuli seminiferi contorti and localized vital spermatozoa. Obtained images and real-time videos were subsequently compared with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of spermatozoa and tissues, respectively. Comparative visualization of single native Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, left) and probe-based laser endomicroscopy (pCLE, right) using Pro Flex(TM) UltraMini O after staining with acriflavine. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Micro electro-mechanical heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yunje; Asif, Syed Amanulla Syed; Cyrankowski, Edward; Warren, Oden Lee

    2016-04-19

    A sub-micron scale property testing apparatus including a test subject holder and heating assembly. The assembly includes a holder base configured to couple with a sub-micron mechanical testing instrument and electro-mechanical transducer assembly. The assembly further includes a test subject stage coupled with the holder base. The test subject stage is thermally isolated from the holder base. The test subject stage includes a stage subject surface configured to receive a test subject, and a stage plate bracing the stage subject surface. The stage plate is under the stage subject surface. The test subject stage further includes a heating element adjacent to the stage subject surface, the heating element is configured to generate heat at the stage subject surface.

  14. Electromechanical characterization of cymbal piezocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, P; De Frutos, J; Fernandez, J F

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a methodology for the characterization of complex piezocomposites under external mechanical forces. In this specific procedure the samples were axially loaded in a universal mechanical test machine and monitored with an electrometer. The force versus displacement and the generated charge versus the applied force were measured. Cymbal piezocomposites were chosen due to their complex design which illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology during the application of compression force loops. The occurrence of depolarization can be evaluated by measuring the electrical charge generated during the application of a compression loop. The results showed the dependence of electromechanical properties on both the PZT ceramics and the cymbal piezocomposite with the compressive load loops. The depolarization effect associated with the mechanical stress induced by switching of a non- 180° ferroelectric domain was evaluated

  15. Creation of electromechanical device for electric vehicle traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Юрьевич Зубенко

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of creation of electromechanical device for electric vehicle traction are considered in the article. The aim of creation this design are the replacement of the internal combustion engine on electromechanical device. For this electromechanical device are constructed model, which describe processes that occur in the electric drive of electromechanical device. Characteristics of the main modes of motion were recorded. The introduction of electromechanical device will reduce the level of emissions and reduce noise in the cities

  16. The magnetic particle in a box: Analytic and micromagnetic analysis of probe-localized spin wave modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Manuilov, Sergei A.; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Fengyuan; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-05-01

    The dipole field from a probe magnet can be used to localize a discrete spectrum of standing spin wave modes in a continuous ferromagnetic thin film without lithographic modification to the film. Obtaining the resonance field for a localized mode is not trivial due to the effect of the confined and inhomogeneous magnetization precession. We compare the results of micromagnetic and analytic methods to find the resonance field of localized modes in a ferromagnetic thin film, and investigate the accuracy of these methods by comparing with a numerical minimization technique that assumes Bessel function modes with pinned boundary conditions. We find that the micromagnetic technique, while computationally more intensive, reveals that the true magnetization profiles of localized modes are similar to Bessel functions with gradually decaying dynamic magnetization at the mode edges. We also find that an analytic solution, which is simple to implement and computationally much faster than other methods, accurately describes the resonance field of localized modes when exchange fields are negligible, and demonstrating the accessibility of localized mode analysis.

  17. Flexoelectric MEMS: towards an electromechanical strain diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhaskar, U.K.; Banerjee, N.; Abdollahi, A.; Solanas, E.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Catalan, G.

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectricity and flexoelectricity are two independent but not incompatible forms of electromechanical response exhibited by nanoscale ferroelectrics. Here, we show that flexoelectricity can either enhance or suppress the piezoelectric response of the cantilever depending on the ferroelectric

  18. Circuit electromechanics with single photon strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Zheng-Yuan, E-mail: zyxue@scnu.edu.cn; Yang, Li-Na [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, and School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhou, Jian, E-mail: jianzhou8627@163.com [Department of Electronic Communication Engineering, Anhui Xinhua University, Hefei 230088 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, and School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-07-13

    In circuit electromechanics, the coupling strength is usually very small. Here, replacing the capacitor in circuit electromechanics by a superconducting flux qubit, we show that the coupling among the qubit and the two resonators can induce effective electromechanical coupling which can attain the strong coupling regime at the single photon level with feasible experimental parameters. We use dispersive couplings among two resonators and the qubit while the qubit is also driven by an external classical field. These couplings form a three-wave mixing configuration among the three elements where the qubit degree of freedom can be adiabatically eliminated, and thus results in the enhanced coupling between the two resonators. Therefore, our work constitutes the first step towards studying quantum nonlinear effect in circuit electromechanics.

  19. Chronic neural probe for simultaneous recording of single-unit, multi-unit, and local field potential activity from multiple brain sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothof, F.; Bonini, L.; Lanzilotto, M.; Livi, A.; Fogassi, L.; Orban, G. A.; Paul, O.; Ruther, P.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Drug resistant focal epilepsy can be treated by resecting the epileptic focus requiring a precise focus localisation using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) probes. As commercial SEEG probes offer only a limited spatial resolution, probes of higher channel count and design freedom enabling the incorporation of macro and microelectrodes would help increasing spatial resolution and thus open new perspectives for investigating mechanisms underlying focal epilepsy and its treatment. This work describes a new fabrication process for SEEG probes with materials and dimensions similar to clinical probes enabling recording single neuron activity at high spatial resolution. Approach. Polyimide is used as a biocompatible flexible substrate into which platinum electrodes and leads are integrated with a minimal feature size of 5 μm. The polyimide foils are rolled into the cylindrical probe shape at a diameter of 0.8 mm. The resulting probe features match those of clinically approved devices. Tests in saline solution confirmed the probe stability and functionality. Probes were implanted into the brain of one monkey (Macaca mulatta), trained to perform different motor tasks. Suitable configurations including up to 128 electrode sites allow the recording of task-related neuronal signals. Main results. Probes with 32 and 64 electrode sites were implanted in the posterior parietal cortex. Local field potentials and multi-unit activity were recorded as early as one hour after implantation. Stable single-unit activity was achieved for up to 26 days after implantation of a 64-channel probe. All recorded signals showed modulation during task execution. Significance. With the novel probes it is possible to record stable biologically relevant data over a time span exceeding the usual time needed for epileptic focus localisation in human patients. This is the first time that single units are recorded along cylindrical polyimide probes chronically implanted 22 mm deep into the

  20. Pentamethinium fluorescent probes: The impact of molecular structure on photophysical properties and subcellular localization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bříza, T.; Rimpelová, S.; Králová, Jarmila; Záruba, K.; Kejík, Z.; Ruml, T.; Martásek, P.; Král, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 107, August 2014 (2014), s. 51-59 ISSN 0143-7208 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/1291; GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.01.05/2.1.00/01.00.30; GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.300/30.0060 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Pentamethinium salts * Fluorescent probes * Mitochondria * Cardiolipin Photostability * Organelle imaging Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.966, year: 2014

  1. The generalized Cauchy relation: a probe for local structure in materials with isotropic symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bactavatchalou, R [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Alnot, P [Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy I (France); Bailer, J [Universite du Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Kolle, M [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Mueller, U [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Philipp, M [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Possart, W [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Rouxel, D [Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy I (France); Sanctuary, R [Universite du Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Tschoepe, A [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Vergnat, Ch [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Wetzel, B [Institut fuer Verbundwerkstoffe TU Kaiserslautern 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Krueger, J K [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg)

    2006-05-15

    The elastic properties of the isotropic state of condensed matter are given by the elastic constants ell and c44. In the liquid state the static shear stiffness c44 vanishes whereas at sufficient high probe frequencies a dynamic shear stiffness may appear. In that latter case the question about the existence of a Cauchy relation appears. It will be shown that a pure Cauchy relation can appear only under special conditions which are rarely fulfilled. For all investigated materials, including ceramics, liquids and glasses, a linear relation between ell and c44 called generalized Cauchy relation is observed, which, surprisingly, follows a linear transformation.

  2. Combining adhesive contact mechanics with a viscoelastic material model to probe local material properties by AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganser, Christian; Czibula, Caterina; Tscharnuter, Daniel; Schöberl, Thomas; Teichert, Christian; Hirn, Ulrich

    2017-12-20

    Viscoelastic properties are often measured using probe based techniques such as nanoindentation (NI) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Rarely, however, are these methods verified. In this article, we present a method that combines contact mechanics with a viscoelastic model (VEM) composed of springs and dashpots. We further show how to use this model to determine viscoelastic properties from creep curves recorded by a probe based technique. We focus on using the standard linear solid model and the generalized Maxwell model of order 2. The method operates in the range of 0.01 Hz to 1 Hz. Our approach is suitable for rough surfaces by providing a defined contact area using plastic pre-deformation of the material. The very same procedure is used to evaluate AFM based measurements as well as NI measurements performed on polymer samples made from poly(methyl methacrylate) and polycarbonate. The results of these measurements are then compared to those obtained by tensile creep tests also performed on the same samples. It is found that the tensile test results differ considerably from the results obtained by AFM and NI methods. The similarity between the AFM results and NI results suggests that the proposed method is capable of yielding results comparable to NI but with the advantage of the imaging possibilities of AFM. Furthermore, all three methods allowed a clear distinction between PC and PMMA by means of their respective viscoelastic properties.

  3. Influence of Passive Muscle Tension on Electromechanical Delay in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourpaille, Lilian; Hug, François; Nordez, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Background Electromechanical delay is the time lag between onsets of muscle activation and muscle force production and reflects both electro-chemical processes and mechanical processes. The aims of the present study were two-fold: to experimentally determine the slack length of each head of the biceps brachii using elastography and to determine the influence of the length of biceps brachii on electromechanical delay and its electro-chemical/mechanical processes using very high frame rate ultrasound. Methods/Results First, 12 participants performed two passive stretches to evaluate the change in passive tension for each head of the biceps brachii. Then, they underwent two electrically evoked contractions from 120 to 20° of elbow flexion (0°: full extension), with the echographic probe maintained over the muscle belly and the myotendinous junction of biceps brachii. The slack length was found to occur at 95.5 ± 6.3° and 95.3 ± 8.2° of the elbow joint angle for the long and short heads of the biceps brachii, respectively. The electromechanical delay was significantly longer at 120° (16.9 ± 3.1 ms; p0.95). Conclusion In contrast to previous observations on gastrocnemius medialis, the onset of muscle motion and the onset of myotendinous junction motion occurred simultaneously regardless of the length of the biceps brachii. That suggests that the between-muscles differences reported in the literature cannot be explained by different muscle passive tension but instead may be attributable to muscle architectural differences. PMID:23308153

  4. Graphene as a local probe to investigate near-field properties of plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserroth, Sören; Bisswanger, Timo; Mueller, Niclas S.; Kusch, Patryk; Heeg, Sebastian; Clark, Nick; Schedin, Fredrik; Gorbachev, Roman; Reich, Stephanie

    2018-04-01

    Light interacting with metallic nanoparticles creates a strongly localized near-field around the particle that enhances inelastic light scattering by several orders of magnitude. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering describes the enhancement of the Raman intensity by plasmonic nanoparticles. We present an extensive Raman characterization of a plasmonic gold nanodimer covered with graphene. Its two-dimensional nature and energy-independent optical properties make graphene an excellent material for investigating local electromagnetic near-fields. We show the localization of the near-field of the plasmonic dimer by spatial Raman measurements. Energy- and polarization-dependent measurements reveal the local near-field resonance of the plasmonic system. To investigate the far-field resonance we perform dark-field spectroscopy and find that near-field and far-field resonance energies differ by 170 meV, much more than expected from the model of a damped oscillator (40 meV).

  5. Electromechanical capacitor for energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, T.A.; Chowdhuri, P.; Marshall, J.

    1983-01-01

    Inductive energy transfer between two magnets can be achieved with almost 100% efficiency with a transfer capacitor. However, the bulk and cost will be high, and reliability low if conventional capacitors are used. A homopolar machine, used as a capacitor, will be compact and economical. A homopolar machine was designed with counter-rotating copper disks completely immersed in a liquid metal (NaK-78) to work as a pulse capacitor. Absence of solid-brush collectors minimized wear and frictional losses. Wetting of the copper disks throughout the periphery by the liquid metal minimized the resistive losses at the collector interface. A liquid-metal collector would, however, introduce hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic losses. The selected liquid metal, e.g., NaK-78 will produce the lowest of such losses among the available liquid metals. An electromechanical capacitor of this design was tested at various dc magnetic fields. Its measured capacitance was about 100 farads at a dc magnetic field of 1.15 tesla

  6. Probing Anderson localization of light by weak non-linear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling, T; Bührer, W; Maret, G; Ackermann, M; Aegerter, C M

    2014-01-01

    Breakdown of wave transport due to strong disorder is a universal phenomenon known as Anderson localization (AL). It occurs because of the macroscopic population of reciprocal multiple scattering paths, which in three dimensional systems happens at a critical scattering strength. Intensities on these random loops should thus be highly increased relative to those of a diffusive sample. In order to highlight localized modes of light, we exploit the optical nonlinearities of TiO 2 . Power dependent and spectrally resolved time of flight distribution measurements in transmission through slabs of TiO 2 powders at various turbidities reveal that mostly long loops are affected by nonlinearities and that the deviations from diffusive transport observed at long times are due to these localized modes. Our data are a first step in the experimental investigation of the interplay between nonlinear effects and AL in 3D. (fast track communication)

  7. Fluctuating local field method probed for a description of small classical correlated lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsov, Alexey N.

    2018-05-01

    Thermal-equilibrated finite classical lattices are considered as a minimal model of the systems showing an interplay between low-energy collective fluctuations and single-site degrees of freedom. Standard local field approach, as well as classical limit of the bosonic DMFT method, do not provide a satisfactory description of Ising and Heisenberg small lattices subjected to an external polarizing field. We show that a dramatic improvement can be achieved within a simple approach, in which the local field appears to be a fluctuating quantity related to the low-energy degree(s) of freedom.

  8. Technical Note: A 3-D rendering algorithm for electromechanical wave imaging of a beating heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauleau, Pierre; Melki, Lea; Wan, Elaine; Konofagou, Elisa

    2017-09-01

    Arrhythmias can be treated by ablating the heart tissue in the regions of abnormal contraction. The current clinical standard provides electroanatomic 3-D maps to visualize the electrical activation and locate the arrhythmogenic sources. However, the procedure is time-consuming and invasive. Electromechanical wave imaging is an ultrasound-based noninvasive technique that can provide 2-D maps of the electromechanical activation of the heart. In order to fully visualize the complex 3-D pattern of activation, several 2-D views are acquired and processed separately. They are then manually registered with a 3-D rendering software to generate a pseudo-3-D map. However, this last step is operator-dependent and time-consuming. This paper presents a method to generate a full 3-D map of the electromechanical activation using multiple 2-D images. Two canine models were considered to illustrate the method: one in normal sinus rhythm and one paced from the lateral region of the heart. Four standard echographic views of each canine heart were acquired. Electromechanical wave imaging was applied to generate four 2-D activation maps of the left ventricle. The radial positions and activation timings of the walls were automatically extracted from those maps. In each slice, from apex to base, these values were interpolated around the circumference to generate a full 3-D map. In both cases, a 3-D activation map and a cine-loop of the propagation of the electromechanical wave were automatically generated. The 3-D map showing the electromechanical activation timings overlaid on realistic anatomy assists with the visualization of the sources of earlier activation (which are potential arrhythmogenic sources). The earliest sources of activation corresponded to the expected ones: septum for the normal rhythm and lateral for the pacing case. The proposed technique provides, automatically, a 3-D electromechanical activation map with a realistic anatomy. This represents a step towards a

  9. Probing the dynamics of complexed local anesthetics via neutron scattering spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longo Martins, Murillo; Eckert, Juergen; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Since potential changes in the dynamics and mobility of drugs upon complexation for delivery may affect their ultimate efficacy, we have investigated the dynamics of two local anesthetic molecules, bupivacaine (BVC, C18H28N2O) and ropivacaine (RVC, C17H26N2O), in both their crystalline forms...

  10. Probing the local, electronic and magnetic structure of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torchio, R.; Boccato, S.; Cerantola, V.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present recent achievements in the field of investigation of the local, electronic and magnetic structure of the matter under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. These results were obtained thanks to the coupling of a compact laser heating system to the energy-dispersive...

  11. Probing the Local Bubble with diffuse interstellar bands. I. Project overview and southern hemisphere survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Mandy; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Farhang, Amin; Javadi, Atefeh; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Sarre, Peter J.; Smith, Keith T.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The Sun traverses a low-density, hot entity called the Local Bubble. Despite its relevance to life on Earth, the conditions in the Local Bubble and its exact configuration are not very well known. Besides that, there is some unknown interstellar substance that causes a host of absorption bands across the optical spectrum, called diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). Aims: We have started a project to chart the Local Bubble in a novel way and learn more about the carriers of the DIBs, by using DIBs as tracers of diffuse gas and environmental conditions. Methods: We conducted a high signal-to-noise spectroscopic survey of 670 nearby early-type stars to map DIB absorption in and around the Local Bubble. The project started with a southern hemisphere survey conducted at the European Southern Observatory's New Technology Telescope and has since been extended to an all-sky survey using the Isaac Newton Telescope. Results: In this first paper in the series, we introduce the overall project and present the results from the southern heiphere survey. We make aviable a catalogue of equivalent-width measurements of the DIBs at 5780, 5797, 5850, 6196, 6203, 6270, 6283, and 6614 Å, of the interstellar Na I D lines at 5890 and 5896 Å, and of the stellar He I line at 5876 Å. We find that the 5780 Å DIB is relatively strong throughout, as compared to the 5797 Å DIB, but especially within the Local Bubble and at the interface iwth a more neutral medium. The 6203 Å DIB shows similar behaviour with respect to the 6196 Å DIB. Some nearby stars show surprisingly strong DIBs, whereas some distant stars show very weak DIBs, indicating small-scale structure within, as well as outside, the Local Bubble. The sight lines with non-detections trace the extent of the Local Bubble especially clearly and show it opening out into the halo. Conclusions: The Local Bubble has a wall that is in contact with hot gas and/or a harsh interstellar radiation field. That wall is perforated

  12. Analysis of medical device materials with the local electrode atom probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, S.L.; Mengelt, T.J.; Ali, M.; Ulfig, R.M.; Martens, R.M.; Kelly, T.F.; Kostrna, S.L.P.; Kostrna, M.S.; Carmichael, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: As medical technology advances towards microsurgical and minimally invasive techniques, there is a drive to produce ever-smaller devices that demand higher material performance and hence enhanced nano and micro-scale control of material structure. These devices are made from stainless steel alloys, Nitinol, titanium, CoCrMo, and non-metals such as pyrolytic carbon and silicon. These applications are made possible due to suitable physical and mechanical properties, good corrosion resistance in biological environments, reasonable biocompatibility, and good manufacturability. With respect to the metals, the nano-structure and composition of the material surface, typically an oxide, is especially critical since biological responses and corrosion occur at the material-environment interface. Thus, there is an increasing need to understand the 3-D structure and composition of metallic biomaterials at the atomic scale. Three-dimensional atom probe microscopy can uniquely provide such atomic-level structural information. In the present study several of these medical device materials were examined. These include a 316L stainless steel alloy which is widely used in implanted spinal fixation devices, bone screws, cardiovascular and neurological stents, a cast CoCrMo acetabular hip cup of a Cormet metal-on-metal Hip Resurfacing System (Corin Group, Cirencester, England) that was rejected for clinical use, Nitinol wires specimens such as are used for stents and guide wires, and low temperature pyrolytic carbon as used in clinical heart valve prosthetics. (author)

  13. Fast Magnetosonic Waves Observed by Van Allen Probes: Testing Local Wave Excitation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyungguk; Liu, Kaijun; Wang, Xueyi; Chen, Lunjin; Denton, Richard E.

    2018-01-01

    Linear Vlasov theory and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for electromagnetic fluctuations in a homogeneous, magnetized, and collisionless plasma are used to investigate a fast magnetosonic wave event observed by the Van Allen Probes. The fluctuating magnetic field observed exhibits a series of spectral peaks at harmonics of the proton cyclotron frequency Ωp and has a dominant compressional component, which can be classified as fast magnetosonic waves. Furthermore, the simultaneously observed proton phase space density exhibits positive slopes in the perpendicular velocity space, ∂fp/∂v⊥>0, which can be a source for these waves. Linear theory analyses and PIC simulations use plasma and field parameters measured in situ except that the modeled proton distribution is modified to have larger ∂fp/∂v⊥ under the assumption that the observed distribution corresponds to a marginally stable state when the distribution has already been scattered by the excited waves. The results show that the positive slope is the source of the proton cyclotron harmonic waves at propagation quasi-perpendicular to the background magnetic field, and as a result of interactions with the excited waves the evolving proton distribution progresses approximately toward the observed distribution.

  14. Cavity opto-electromechanical system combining strong electrical actuation with ultrasensitive transduction

    OpenAIRE

    McRae, Terry G.; Lee, Kwan H.; Harris, Glen I.; Knittel, Joachim; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2010-01-01

    A cavity opto-electromechanical system is reported which combines the ultrasensitive transduction of cavity optomechanical systems with the electrical actuation of nanoelectromechanical systems. Ultrasensitive mechanical transduction is achieved via opto-mechanical coupling. Electrical gradient forces as large as 0.40 $\\mu$N are realized, facilitating strong actuation with ultralow dissipation. A scanning probe microscope is implemented, capable of characterizing the mechanical modes. The int...

  15. Probing the Dusty Stellar Populations of the Local Volume Galaxies with JWST /MIRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Olivia C.; Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Justtanont, Kay [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Glasse, Alistair [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-20

    The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) for the James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ) will revolutionize our understanding of infrared stellar populations in the Local Volume. Using the rich Spitzer -IRS spectroscopic data set and spectral classifications from the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE)–Spectroscopic survey of more than 1000 objects in the Magellanic Clouds, the Grid of Red Supergiant and Asymptotic Giant Branch Star Model (grams), and the grid of YSO models by Robitaille et al., we calculate the expected flux densities and colors in the MIRI broadband filters for prominent infrared stellar populations. We use these fluxes to explore the JWST /MIRI colors and magnitudes for composite stellar population studies of Local Volume galaxies. MIRI color classification schemes are presented; these diagrams provide a powerful means of identifying young stellar objects, evolved stars, and extragalactic background galaxies in Local Volume galaxies with a high degree of confidence. Finally, we examine which filter combinations are best for selecting populations of sources based on their JWST colors.

  16. Probing spatial locality in ionic liquids with the grand canonical adaptive resolution molecular dynamics technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrack Jabes, B.; Krekeler, C.; Klein, R.; Delle Site, L.

    2018-05-01

    We employ the Grand Canonical Adaptive Resolution Simulation (GC-AdResS) molecular dynamics technique to test the spatial locality of the 1-ethyl 3-methyl imidazolium chloride liquid. In GC-AdResS, atomistic details are kept only in an open sub-region of the system while the environment is treated at coarse-grained level; thus, if spatial quantities calculated in such a sub-region agree with the equivalent quantities calculated in a full atomistic simulation, then the atomistic degrees of freedom outside the sub-region play a negligible role. The size of the sub-region fixes the degree of spatial locality of a certain quantity. We show that even for sub-regions whose radius corresponds to the size of a few molecules, spatial properties are reasonably reproduced thus suggesting a higher degree of spatial locality, a hypothesis put forward also by other researchers and that seems to play an important role for the characterization of fundamental properties of a large class of ionic liquids.

  17. Josephson scanning tunneling microscopy -- a local and direct probe of the superconducting order parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Hikari; Dynes, Robert; Barber Jr., Richard. P.; Ono, S.; Ando, Y.

    2009-09-01

    Direct measurements of the superconducting superfluid on the surface of vacuum-cleaved Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta (BSCCO) samples are reported. These measurements are accomplished via Josephson tunneling into the sample using a novel scanning tunneling microscope (STM) equipped with a superconducting tip. The spatial resolution of the STM of lateral distances less than the superconducting coherence length allows it to reveal local inhomogeneities in the pair wavefunction of the BSCCO. Instrument performance is demonstrated first with Josephson measurements of Pb films followed by the layered superconductor NbSe2. The relevant measurement parameter, the Josephson ICRN product, is discussed within the context of both BCS superconductors and the high transition temperature superconductors. The local relationship between the ICRN product and the quasiparticle density of states (DOS) gap are presented within the context of phase diagrams for BSCCO. Excessive current densities can be produced with these measurements and have been found to alter the local DOS in the BSCCO. Systematic studies of this effect were performed to determine the practical measurement limits for these experiments. Alternative methods for preparation of the BSCCO surface are also discussed.

  18. Measurement of local critical currents in TFA-MOD processed coated conductors by use of scanning Hall-probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiohara, K.; Higashikawa, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Inoue, M.; Kiss, T.; Yoshizumi, M.; Izumi, T.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated 2-dimensional distribution of critical current density. We have measured TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductor. We used scanning Hall-probe microscopy. These provided information is useful for fabrication process of coated conductor. We have carried out 2-dimensional (2D) measurement of local critical current in a Trifluoroacetates-Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed YBCO coated conductor using scanning Hall-probe microscopy. Recently, remarkable R and D accomplishments on the fabrication processes of coated conductors have been conducted extensively and reported. The TFA-MOD process has been expected as an attractive process to produce coated conductors with high performance at a low production cost due to a simple process using non-vacuum equipments. On the other hand, enhancement of critical currents and homogenization of the critical current distribution in the coated conductors are definitely very important for practical applications. According to our measurements, we can detect positions and spatial distribution of defects in the conductor. This kind of information will be very helpful for the improvement of the TFA-MOD process and for the design of the conductor intended for practical electric power device applications.

  19. Local work function analysis of Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst by a Kelvin probe force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiehata, K; Sasahara, A; Onishi, H

    2007-01-01

    Nanometre-sized Pt clusters were prepared on a TiO 2 (110)-(1 x 1) surface, and the lateral distribution of work function was examined by using a Kelvin probe force microscope. Local work function on the Pt clusters was smaller than that on the surrounding TiO 2 surface. Assuming that the dipole moments which perturb the work function are produced by uneven electron distribution, the decrease of the work function indicates electron transfer from the clusters to the TiO 2 surface. After decomposition of pivalate anions on the surfaces by UV irradiation, the work function increased on some Pt clusters. It is known that holes photoexcited in TiO 2 attach to pivalate anions to cause a decomposition reaction. Hence the increase of the observed work function by UV irradiation can be ascribed to the trapping of the accompanying electrons to the Pt clusters

  20. Optimized probes for dose rate measurements at local government sites and in emergency planning zones and their integration into measurement networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuca, Petr; Helebrant, Jan; Cespirova, Irena; Judas, Libor; Skala, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    The results of a security project aimed at the development of a radiation situation monitoring system using optimized probes for dose rate measurements are described. The system is suitable for use at local government sites as well as at other sites. The system includes dose rate measurement probes with the variable configuration functionality (detection part), equipment for data transfer to a central workplace (communication part) and application for collection, storage and administration of the results and their presentation at a website (presentation part). The dosimetric and other operational properties of the probes were tested and the feasibility of their integration into measurement networks using the IMS central application was examined. (orig.)

  1. Probing the parameter space of HD 49933: A comparison between global and local methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creevey, O L [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bazot, M, E-mail: orlagh@iac.es, E-mail: bazot@astro.up.pt [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2011-01-01

    We present two independent methods for studying the global stellar parameter space (mass M, age, chemical composition X{sub 0}, Z{sub 0}) of HD 49933 with seismic data. Using a local minimization and an MCMC algorithm, we obtain consistent results for the determination of the stellar properties: M 1.1-1.2 M{sub sun} Age {approx} 3.0 Gyr, Z{sub 0} {approx} 0.008. A description of the error ellipses can be defined using Singular Value Decomposition techniques, and this is validated by comparing the errors with those from the MCMC method.

  2. Measurement of local two-phase flow parameters of nanofluids using conductivity double-sensor probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Sun; Chang, Soon Heung

    2011-04-04

    A two-phase flow experiment using air and water-based γ-Al2O3 nanofluid was conducted to observe the basic hydraulic phenomenon of nanofluids. The local two-phase flow parameters were measured with a conductivity double-sensor two-phase void meter. The void fraction, interfacial velocity, interfacial area concentration, and mean bubble diameter were evaluated, and all of those results using the nanofluid were compared with the corresponding results for pure water. The void fraction distribution was flattened in the nanofluid case more than it was in the pure water case. The higher interfacial area concentration resulted in a smaller mean bubble diameter in the case of the nanofluid. This was the first attempt to measure the local two-phase flow parameters of nanofluids using a conductivity double-sensor two-phase void meter. Throughout this experimental study, the differences in the internal two-phase flow structure of the nanofluid were identified. In addition, the heat transfer enhancement of the nanofluid can be resulted from the increase of the interfacial area concentration which means the available area of the heat and mass transfer.

  3. Distribution Analysis of the Local Critical Temperature and Current Density in YBCO Coated Conductors using Low-temperature Scanning Laser and Hall Probe Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. K.; Cho, B. R.; Park, H. Y.; Ri, H. C.

    2011-01-01

    Distribution of the local critical temperature and current density in YBCO coated conductors were analyzed using Low-temperature Scanning Laser and Hall Probe Microscopy (LTSLHPM). We prepared YBCO coated conductors of various bridge types to study the spatial distribution of the critical temperature and the current density in single and multi bridges. LTSLHPM system was modified for detailed linescan or two-dimensional scan both scanning laser and scanning Hall probe method simultaneously. We analyzed the local critical temperature of single and multi bridges from series of several linescans of scanning laser microscopy. We also investigated local current density and hysteresis curve of single bridge from experimental results of scanning Hall probe microscopy.

  4. Magnetoresistance Probe of Ultrathin Mn5Ge3 Films with Anderson Weak Localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Jun, Chen; De-Yong, Wang; Qing-Feng, Zhan; Wei, He; Qing-An, Li

    2008-01-01

    We present the magnetoresistance measurements of ultrathin Mn 5 Ge 3 films with different thicknesses at low temperatures. Owing to the lattice mismatch between Mn 5 Ge 3 and Ge (111), the thickness of Mn 5 Ge 3 films has a significant effect on the magnetoresistance. When the thickness of Mn is more than 72 monolayers (MLs), the magnetoresistance of the Mn 5 Ge 3 films appears a peak at about 6kOe, which shows that the magnetoresistance results from the Anderson weak localization effect and the variable range hopping in the presence of a magnetic field. The magnetic and semiconducting properties indicate that the Mn 5 Ge 3 film is a potential material for spin injection. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  5. PROBING THE LOCAL BUBBLE WITH DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS. III. THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE DATA AND CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhang, Amin; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Javadi, Atefeh [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5746, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: a.farhang@ipm.ir [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    We present new high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) observations of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the Local Bubble and its surroundings. We observed 432 sightlines and obtain the equivalent widths of the λ5780 and λ5797 Å DIBs up to a distance of ∼200 pc. All of the observations were carried out using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope, during three years, to reach a minimum S/N of ∼2000. All of the λ5780 and λ5797 absorptions are presented in this paper and we tabulate the observed values of the interstellar parameters, λ5780, λ5797, Na ID{sub 1}, and Na ID{sub 2}, including the uncertainties.

  6. PROBING THE LOCAL BUBBLE WITH DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS. III. THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE DATA AND CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhang, Amin; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Javadi, Atefeh; Van Loon, Jacco Th.

    2015-01-01

    We present new high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) observations of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the Local Bubble and its surroundings. We observed 432 sightlines and obtain the equivalent widths of the λ5780 and λ5797 Å DIBs up to a distance of ∼200 pc. All of the observations were carried out using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope, during three years, to reach a minimum S/N of ∼2000. All of the λ5780 and λ5797 absorptions are presented in this paper and we tabulate the observed values of the interstellar parameters, λ5780, λ5797, Na ID 1 , and Na ID 2 , including the uncertainties

  7. Probing the local environment of a single OPE3 molecule using inelastic tunneling electron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisenda, Riccardo; Perrin, Mickael L; van der Zant, Herre S J

    2015-01-01

    We study single-molecule oligo(phenylene ethynylene)dithiol junctions by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). The molecule is contacted with gold nano-electrodes formed with the mechanically controllable break junction technique. We record the IETS spectrum of the molecule from direct current measurements, both as a function of time and electrode separation. We find that for fixed electrode separation the molecule switches between various configurations, which are characterized by different IETS spectra. Similar variations in the IETS signal are observed during atomic rearrangements upon stretching of the molecular junction. Using quantum chemistry calculations, we identity some of the vibrational modes which constitute a chemical fingerprint of the molecule. In addition, changes can be attributed to rearrangements of the local molecular environment, in particular at the molecule-electrode interface. This study shows the importance of taking into account the interaction with the electrodes when describing inelastic contributions to transport through single-molecule junctions.

  8. Probing the Local Bubble with Diffuse Interstellar Bands. III. The Northern Hemisphere Data and Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhang, Amin; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Javadi, Atefeh; van Loon, Jacco Th.

    2015-02-01

    We present new high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) observations of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the Local Bubble and its surroundings. We observed 432 sightlines and obtain the equivalent widths of the λ5780 and λ5797 Å DIBs up to a distance of ~200 pc. All of the observations were carried out using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope, during three years, to reach a minimum S/N of ~2000. All of the λ5780 and λ5797 absorptions are presented in this paper and we tabulate the observed values of the interstellar parameters, λ5780, λ5797, Na ID1, and Na ID2, including the uncertainties.

  9. Local probe (170Yb3+) measurements of magnetic fields in YBa2Cu3Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, J.A.; Bonville, P.; Vincent, E.

    1989-01-01

    We introduce the technique of studying the field dependence of the electro-nuclear energy levels of a rare earth to measure the magnetic field present at the rare earth/yttrium site in YBa 2 Cu 3 O x . Measurements were made by 170 Yb spectroscopy. The hyperfine spectrum of the ground state Kramers doublet for Yb 3+ ions diluted into this matrix is sensitive to fields in the range 100 to 2000G. Flux penetration and trapping at the local site level have been measured in superconducting samples. A molecular field exists on the rare earth site in non superconducting samples suggesting that the ordered Cu2 magnetic moments are intrinsically non colinear

  10. 25 CFR 502.8 - Electronic or electromechanical facsimile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic or electromechanical facsimile. 502.8 Section 502.8 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.8 Electronic or electromechanical facsimile. Electronic or electromechanical...

  11. Detecting the local transport properties and the dimensionality of transport of epitaxial graphene by a multi-point probe approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, Lucas; Perkins, Edward; Johannsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The electronic transport properties of epitaxial monolayer graphene (MLG) and hydrogen-intercalated quasi free-standing bilayer graphene (QFBLG) on SiC(0001) are investigated by micro multi-point probes. Using a probe with 12 contacts, we perform four-point probe measurements with the possibility...

  12. The dynamics of the Local Group as a probe of dark energy and modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Mota, David F.; Winther, Hans A.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we study the dynamics of the Local Group (LG) within the context of cosmological models beyond General Relativity (GR). Using observable kinematic quantities to identify candidate pairs, we build up samples of simulated LG-like objects drawing from f(R), symmetron, Dvali, Gabadadze & Porrati and quintessence N-body simulations together with their Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) counterparts featuring the same initial random phase realizations. The variables and intervals used to define LG-like objects are referred to as LG model; different models are used throughout this work and adapted to study their dynamical and kinematic properties. The aim is to determine how well the observed LG dynamics can be reproduced within cosmological theories beyond GR, We compute kinematic properties of samples drawn from alternative theories and ΛCDM and compare them to actual observations of the LG mass, velocity and position. As a consequence of the additional pull, pairwise tangential and radial velocities are enhanced in modified gravity and coupled dark energy with respect to ΛCDM inducing significant changes to the total angular momentum and energy of the LG. For example, in models such as f(R) and the symmetron this increase can be as large as 60 per cent, peaking well outside of the 95 per cent confidence region allowed by the data. This shows how simple considerations about the LG dynamics can lead to clear small-scale observational signatures for alternative scenarios, without the need of expensive high-resolution simulations.

  13. Advanced Controllers for Electromechanical Motion Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duy Cuong

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop advanced controllers for electromechanical motion systems. In order to increase efficiency and reliability, these control systems are required to achieve high performance and robustness in the face of model uncertainty, measurement noise, and reproducible

  14. Probing Local Heterogeneity in the Optoelectronic Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskites Using Fluorescence Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Quilettes, Dane W.

    rational design of materials and is leveraged to deploy chemical passivation techniques to improve the optoelectronic quality of the material, with the ultimate goal of improving photovoltaic power conversion efficiency. Reducing non-radiative recombination in semiconducting materials is a prerequisite for achieving the highest performance in a host of light-emitting and photovoltaic applications. In the first study described herein, we used confocal fluorescence microscopy correlated with scanning electron microscopy to spatially resolve the photoluminescence (PL) decay dynamics from films of nonstoichiometric organic-inorganic perovskites, CH3NH 3PbI3(Cl). The PL intensities and lifetimes varied between different grains in the same film, even for films that exhibited long bulk lifetimes. The grain boundaries were dimmer and exhibited faster non-radiative decay. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed a positive correlation between chlorine concentration and regions of brighter PL, while PL imaging revealed that chemical treatment with pyridine could activate previously dark grains. Next, to better elucidate the sources of these loss pathways, we performed a systematic study using confocal and widefield fluorescence microscopy to deconvolve the contributions from diffusion and non-radiative recombination which lead to the observed image heterogeneity. We showed that, in addition to local variations in non-radiative loss, carriers diffuse anisotropically due to heterogeneous intergrain connectivity. In addition to non-radiative recombination impeding material performance, we also showed that the materials exhibit a range of complex dynamic phenomena under illumination. We used a unique combination of confocal PL microscopy and chemical imaging to correlate the local changes in photophysics with composition in CH3NH 3PbI3 films under illumination. We demonstrated that the photo-induced "brightening" of the perovskite PL can be attributed to an order

  15. ReseqChip: Automated integration of multiple local context probe data from the MitoChip array in mitochondrial DNA sequence assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spang Rainer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Affymetrix MitoChip v2.0 is an oligonucleotide tiling array for the resequencing of the human mitochondrial (mt genome. For each of 16,569 nucleotide positions of the mt genome it holds two sets of four 25-mer probes each that match the heavy and the light strand of a reference mt genome and vary only at their central position to interrogate all four possible alleles. In addition, the MitoChip v2.0 carries alternative local context probes to account for known mtDNA variants. These probes have been neglected in most studies due to the lack of software for their automated analysis. Results We provide ReseqChip, a free software that automates the process of resequencing mtDNA using multiple local context probes on the MitoChip v2.0. ReseqChip significantly improves base call rate and sequence accuracy. ReseqChip is available at http://code.open-bio.org/svnweb/index.cgi/bioperl/browse/bioperl-live/trunk/Bio/Microarray/Tools/. Conclusions ReseqChip allows for the automated consolidation of base calls from alternative local mt genome context probes. It thereby improves the accuracy of resequencing, while reducing the number of non-called bases.

  16. Electromechanical properties of biomembranes and nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimburg, T; Blicher, A; Mosgaard, L D; Zecchi, K

    2014-01-01

    Lipid membranes are insulators and capacitors, which can be charged by an external electric field. This phenomenon plays an important role in the field of electrophysiology, for instance when describing nerve pulse conduction. Membranes are also made of polar molecules meaning that they contain molecules with permanent electrical dipole moments. Therefore, the properties of membranes are subject to changes in trans-membrane voltage. Vice versa, mechanical forces on membranes lead to changes in the membrane potential. Associated effects are flexoelectricity, piezoelectricity, and electrostriction. Lipid membranes can melt from an ordered to a disordered state. Due to the change of membrane dimensions associated with lipid membrane melting, electrical properties are linked to the melting transition. Melting of the membrane can induce changes in trans-membrane potential, and application of voltage can lead to a shift of the melting transition. Further, close to transitions membranes are very susceptible to piezoelectric phenomena. We discuss these phenomena in relation with the occurrence of lipid ion channels. Close to melting transitions, lipid membranes display step-wise ion conduction events, which are indistinguishable from protein ion channels. These channels display a voltage-dependent open probability. One finds asymmetric current-voltage relations of the pure membrane very similar to those found for various protein channels. This asymmetry falsely has been considered a criterion to distinguish lipid channels from protein channels. However, we show that the asymmetry can arise from the electromechanical properties of the lipid membrane itself. Finally, we discuss electromechanical behavior in connection with the electromechanical theory of nerve pulse transduction. It has been found experimentally that nerve pulses are related to changes in nerve thickness. Thus, during the nerve pulse a solitary mechanical pulse travels along the nerve. Due to

  17. Electromechanical properties of biomembranes and nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimburg, T.; Blicher, A.; Mosgaard, L. D.; Zecchi, K.

    2014-12-01

    Lipid membranes are insulators and capacitors, which can be charged by an external electric field. This phenomenon plays an important role in the field of electrophysiology, for instance when describing nerve pulse conduction. Membranes are also made of polar molecules meaning that they contain molecules with permanent electrical dipole moments. Therefore, the properties of membranes are subject to changes in trans-membrane voltage. Vice versa, mechanical forces on membranes lead to changes in the membrane potential. Associated effects are flexoelectricity, piezoelectricity, and electrostriction. Lipid membranes can melt from an ordered to a disordered state. Due to the change of membrane dimensions associated with lipid membrane melting, electrical properties are linked to the melting transition. Melting of the membrane can induce changes in trans-membrane potential, and application of voltage can lead to a shift of the melting transition. Further, close to transitions membranes are very susceptible to piezoelectric phenomena. We discuss these phenomena in relation with the occurrence of lipid ion channels. Close to melting transitions, lipid membranes display step-wise ion conduction events, which are indistinguishable from protein ion channels. These channels display a voltage-dependent open probability. One finds asymmetric current-voltage relations of the pure membrane very similar to those found for various protein channels. This asymmetry falsely has been considered a criterion to distinguish lipid channels from protein channels. However, we show that the asymmetry can arise from the electromechanical properties of the lipid membrane itself. Finally, we discuss electromechanical behavior in connection with the electromechanical theory of nerve pulse transduction. It has been found experimentally that nerve pulses are related to changes in nerve thickness. Thus, during the nerve pulse a solitary mechanical pulse travels along the nerve. Due to

  18. Proposal for efficient two-dimensional atom localization using probe absorption in a microwave-driven four-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Chunling; Li Jiahua; Yang Xiaoxue; Xiong Hao; Zhang Duo

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization is explored by monitoring the probe absorption in a microwave-driven four-level atomic medium under the action of two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Because of the position-dependent atom-field interaction, the information about the position of the atom can be obtained via the absorption measurement of the weak probe field. It is found that the localization behavior is significantly improved due to the joint quantum interference induced by the standing-wave and microwave-driven fields. Most importantly, the atom can be localized at a particular position and the maximal probability of finding the atom in one period of the standing-wave fields reaches unity by properly adjusting the system parameters. The proposed scheme may provide a promising way to achieve high-precision and high-resolution 2D atom localization.

  19. TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The...

  20. Handy-type gamma probe-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer under ambulatory local anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Ikuya; Nagata, Hiroaki; Takaki, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Prior to surgery for clinically node-negative breast cancer, we diagnosed metastases on the basis of permanent sections and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) using the combined radio isotope (RI)/blue dye method with a hand-type gamma probe under ambulatory local anesthesia. SNB was performed for 99 patients with 103 lesions, including 4 patients with bilateral breast cancer. We achieved an identification rate of 100%, in which the identification pattern included detection by RI and blue-dye in 65 patients (63.1%), detection by RI alone in 37 patients (35.9%), and blue-dye alone in one patient (1.0%). Sentinel lymph node metastasis was macrometastasis in 21 patients (20.4%), micrometastasis in 8 patients (7.8%), and isolated tumor cells in patients (4.9%). In the 80 patients who did not undergo post-SNB axillary lymph node dissection, the median observation period was 33 months and there were no recurrences in the axillary lymph nodes observed. Although the present procedure requires two surgeries, it is a useful method that enables metastasis detection and highly accurate SNB. (author)

  1. Phase structure of the Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter black holes probed by non-local observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong [Chongqing Jiaotong University, School of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Liu, Xian-Ming [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Hubei University for Nationalities, Center for Theoretical Physics, School of Sciences, Enshi, Hubei (China); Li, Li-Fang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Beijing (China)

    2016-11-15

    With the non-local observables such as two point correlation function and holographic entanglement entropy, we probe the phase structure of the Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter black holes. For the case bQ > 0.5, where b is the Born-Infeld parameter and Q is the charge of the black hole, the phase structure is found to be similar to that of the Van der Waals phase transition, namely the black hole undergoes a first order phase transition and a second order phase transition before it reaches a stable phase. While for the case bQ < 0.5, a new phase branch emerges besides the Van der Waals phase transition. For the first order phase transition, the equal area law is checked, and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the heat capacity is obtained. All these results are found to be the same as that observed in the entropy-temperature plane. (orig.)

  2. Field emission sensing for non-contact probe recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Fèbre, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    In probe recording an array of thousands of nanometer-sharp probes is used to write and read on a storage medium. By using micro-electromechanical system technology (MEMS) for fabrication, small form factor memories with high data density and low power consumption can be obtained. Such a system is

  3. Smart electromechanical systems the central nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Kurbanov, Vugar

    2017-01-01

    This book describes approaches to solving the problems of developing the central nervous system of robots (CNSR) based on smart electromechanical systems (SEMS) modules, principles of construction of the various modules of the central nervous system and variants of mathematical software CNSR in control systems for intelligent robots. It presents the latest advances in theory and practice at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Developers of intelligent robots to solve modern problems in robotics are increasingly addressing the use of the bionic approach to create robots that mimic the complexity and adaptability of biological systems. These have smart electromechanical system (SEMS), which are used in various cyber-physical systems (CPhS), and allow the functions of calculation, control, communications, information storage, monitoring, measurement and control of parameters and environmental parameters to be integrated. The behavior of such systems is based on the information received from the central nervous syst...

  4. Modelling and validation of electromechanical shock absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonoli, Andrea; Amati, Nicola; Girardello Detoni, Joaquim; Galluzzi, Renato; Gasparin, Enrico

    2013-08-01

    Electromechanical vehicle suspension systems represent a promising substitute to conventional hydraulic solutions. However, the design of electromechanical devices that are able to supply high damping forces without exceeding geometric dimension and mass constraints is a difficult task. All these challenges meet in off-road vehicle suspension systems, where the power density of the dampers is a crucial parameter. In this context, the present paper outlines a particular shock absorber configuration where a suitable electric machine and a transmission mechanism are utilised to meet off-road vehicle requirements. A dynamic model is used to represent the device. Subsequently, experimental tests are performed on an actual prototype to verify the functionality of the damper and validate the proposed model.

  5. Electromechanical Model of Blood Flow in Vessels

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Cap; Barbora Czippelova

    2008-01-01

    The present paper deals with some theoretical derivations connected with very efficient method of solution of hydrodynamic problems of blood flow in human cardiovascular system. The electromechanical analogy of liquid flow in a tube and electromagnetic wave propagating along an electric transmission line is discussed. We have derived a detailed circuit-like model of an elementary section of the elastic tube with viscose Newtonian liquid. The analogy harmonic current electrical cir...

  6. Electromechanical Model of Blood Flow in Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Cap

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with some theoretical derivations connected with very efficient method of solution of hydrodynamic problems of blood flow in human cardiovascular system. The electromechanical analogy of liquid flow in a tube and electromagnetic wave propagating along an electric transmission line is discussed. We have derived a detailed circuit-like model of an elementary section of the elastic tube with viscose Newtonian liquid. The analogy harmonic current electrical circuit has been designed

  7. Mobile probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anna Neustrup; Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    A project investigating the effectiveness of a collection of online resources for teachers' professional development used mobile probes as a data collection method. Teachers received questions and tasks on their mobile in a dialogic manner while in their everyday context as opposed...... to in an interview. This method provided valuable insight into the contextual use, i.e. how did the online resource transfer to the work practice. However, the research team also found that mobile probes may provide the scaffolding necessary for individual and peer learning at a very local (intra-school) community...... level. This paper is an initial investigation of how the mobile probes process proved to engage teachers in their efforts to improve teaching. It also highlights some of the barriers emerging when applying mobile probes as a scaffold for learning....

  8. Development of an electromechanical principle for wet and dry milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbedel, Bernd; Kazak, Oleg

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents a novel electromechanical principle for wet and dry milling of different materials, in which the milling beads are moved under a time- and local-variable magnetic field. A possibility to optimize the milling process in such a milling machine by simulation of the vector gradient distribution of the electromagnetic field in the process room is presented. The mathematical model and simulation methods based on standard software packages are worked out. The results of numerical simulations and experimental measurements of the electromagnetic field in the working chamber of a developed and manufactured laboratory plant correlate well with each other. Using the obtained operating parameters, dry milling experiments with crushed cement clinker and wet milling experiments of organic agents in the laboratory plant are performed and the results are discussed here.

  9. Robust Position Control of Electro-mechanical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Mei; Mou Chen

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the robust position control scheme is proposed for the electro-mechanical system using the disturbance observer and backstepping control method. To the external unknown load of the electro-mechanical system, the nonlinear disturbance observer is given to estimate the external unknown load. Combining the output of the developed nonlinear disturbance observer with backstepping technology, the robust position control scheme is proposed for the electro-mechanical system. The stabili...

  10. Local pH Monitoring of Small Cluster of Cells using a Fiber-Optic Dual-Core Micro-Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sisi; Yang, Qingbo; Xiao, Hai; Shi, Honglan; Ma, Yinfa

    2017-03-31

    Biological studies of tissues and cells have enabled numerous discoveries, but these studies still bear potential risks of invalidation because of cell heterogeneity. Through high-accuracy techniques, recent studies have demonstrated that discrepancies do exist between the results from low-number-cell studies and cell-population-based results. Thus the urgent need to re-evaluate key principles on limited number of cells has been provoked. In this study, a novel designed dual-core fiber-optic pH micro-probe was fabricated and demonstrated for niche environment pH sensing with high spatial resolution. An organic-modified silicate (OrMoSils) sol-gel thin layer was functionalized by entrapping a pH indicator, 2', 7'-Bis (2-carbonylethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), on a ~70 μm sized probe tip. Good linear correlation between fluorescence ratio of I 560 nm /I 640 nm and intercellular pH values was obtained within a biological-relevant pH range from 6.20 to 7.92 (R 2 = 0.9834), and with a pH resolution of 0.035 ± 0.005 pH units. The probe's horizontal spatial resolution was demonstrated to be less than 2mm. Moreover, the probe was evaluated by measuring the localized extracellular pH changes of cultured human lung cancer cells (A549) when exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs). Results showed that the probe has superior capability for fast, local, and continual monitoring of a small cluster of cells, which provides researchers a fast and accurate technique to conduct local pH measurements for cell heterogeneity-related studies.

  11. Active Electromechanical Suspension System for Planetary Rovers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Balcones Technologies, LLC proposes to adapt actively controlled suspension technology developed by The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics...

  12. Determination of ferroelectric contributions to electromechanical response by frequency dependent piezoresponse force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Daehee; Park, Seongjae; Varenyk, Olexandr V; Lee, Shinbuhm; Lee, Ho Nyung; Morozovska, Anna N; Kim, Yunseok

    2016-07-28

    Hysteresis loop analysis via piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is typically performed to probe the existence of ferroelectricity at the nanoscale. However, such an approach is rather complex in accurately determining the pure contribution of ferroelectricity to the PFM. Here, we suggest a facile method to discriminate the ferroelectric effect from the electromechanical (EM) response through the use of frequency dependent ac amplitude sweep with combination of hysteresis loops in PFM. Our combined study through experimental and theoretical approaches verifies that this method can be used as a new tool to differentiate the ferroelectric effect from the other factors that contribute to the EM response.

  13. Dynamic Electromechanical Coupling of Piezoelectric Bending Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa R. A. Nabawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromechanical coupling defines the ratio of electrical and mechanical energy exchanged during a flexure cycle of a piezoelectric actuator. This paper presents an analysis of the dynamic electromechanical coupling factor (dynamic EMCF for cantilever based piezoelectric actuators and provides for the first time explicit expressions for calculation of dynamic EMCF based on arrangement of passive and active layers, layer geometry, and active and passive materials selection. Three main cantilever layer configurations are considered: unimorph, dual layer bimorph and triple layer bimorph. The actuator is modeled using standard constitutive dynamic equations that relate deflection and charge to force and voltage. A mode shape formulation is used for the cantilever dynamics that allows the generalized mass to be the actual mass at the first resonant frequency, removing the need for numerical integration in the design process. Results are presented in the form of physical insight from the model structure and also numerical evaluations of the model to provide trends in dynamic EMCF with actuator design parameters. For given material properties of the active and passive layers and given system overall damping ratio, the triple layer bimorph topology is the best in terms of theoretically achievable dynamic EMCF, followed by the dual layer bimorph. For a damping ratio of 0.035, the dynamic EMCF for an example dual layer bimorph configuration is 9% better than for a unimorph configuration. For configurations with a passive layer, the ratio of thicknesses for the passive and active layers is the primary geometric design variable. Choice of passive layer stiffness (Young’s modulus relative to the stiffness of the material in the active layer is an important materials related design choice. For unimorph configurations, it is beneficial to use the highest stiffness possible passive material, whereas for triple layer bimorph configurations, the passive

  14. Electromechanical engineering aspects of irradiator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etienne, J.C.; Buyle, R.

    1984-01-01

    IRE, Institut National des Radioelements at Fleurus, has been irradiating foodstuffs since 1979. The steadily-increasing demands of the food industry led IRE to design and install a second, different type of irradiator. Selection criteria for choosing between the different alternatives or possibilities are given based on the primary consideration that a contract food irradiator must be able to provide a service in accordance with the requirements of his customers. The principal components - the radiation source geometry, the transport system and the control systems - are described. The choice of the major electromechanical components is discussed taking into account their susceptibility to radiation damage. (author)

  15. Electromechanical properties of polycrystalline cadmium pyroniobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isupov, V.A.; Tarasova, G.I.

    1983-01-01

    Temperature dependences of electromechanical properties (piezoelectric modulus, elastic pliability, mechanical high quality and dielectric permittivity) as well as thermal expansion of polycristalline samples of Cd 2 Nb 2 O 7 cadmium pyroniobate are investigated. On curves obtained a considerable number of maxima is observed which when electric field applied to samples shiff, αin in strength or weaken, appear or disappear. A part of these maxima undoubtedly is related to phase transitions. Some of them are manifested probably only when the electric field of sufficient value is applied. A part of maxima possibly is related to domain-relaxation processes

  16. Circuit For Control Of Electromechanical Prosthetic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed circuit for control of electromechanical prosthetic hand derives electrical control signals from shoulder movements. Updated, electronic version of prosthesis, that includes two hooklike fingers actuated via cables from shoulder harness. Circuit built around favored shoulder harness, provides more dexterous movement, without incurring complexity of computer-controlled "bionic" or hydraulically actuated devices. Additional harness and potentiometer connected to similar control circuit mounted on other shoulder. Used to control stepping motor rotating hand about prosthetic wrist to one of number of angles consistent with number of digital outputs. Finger-control signals developed by circuit connected to first shoulder harness transmitted to prosthetic hand via sliprings at prosthetic wrist joint.

  17. Electro-mechanical sine/cosine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagge, B. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    An electromechanical device for generating both sine and cosine functions is described. A motor rotates a cylinder about an axis parallel to and a slight distance from the central axis of the cylinder. Two noncontacting displacement sensing devices are placed ninety degrees apart, equal distances from the axis of rotation of the cylinder and short distances above the surface of cylinder. Each of these sensing devices produces an electrical signal proportional to the distance that it is away from the cylinder. Consequently, as the cylinder is rotated the outputs from the two sensing devices are the sine and cosine functions.

  18. Attenuation of spurious responses in electromechanical filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Roy H.; Hietala, Vincent M.

    2018-04-10

    A spur cancelling, electromechanical filter includes a first resonator having a first resonant frequency and one or more first spurious responses, and it also includes, electrically connected to the first resonator, a second resonator having a second resonant frequency and one or more second spurious responses. The first and second resonant frequencies are approximately identical, but the first resonator is physically non-identical to the second resonator. The difference between the resonators makes the respective spurious responses different. This allows for filters constructed from a cascade of these resonators to exhibit reduced spurious responses.

  19. Local Void Fractions and Bubble Velocity in Vertical Air-Water Two-Phase Flows Measured by Needle-Contact Capacitance Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanfang Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase flow measurements have become increasingly important in a wide range of industrial fields. In the present study, a dual needle-contact capacitance probe was newly designed to measure local void fractions and bubble velocity in a vertical channel, which was verified by digital high-speed camera system. The theoretical analyses and experiments show that the needle-contact capacitance probe can reliably measure void fractions with the readings almost independent of temperature and salinity for the experimental conditions. In addition, the trigger-level method was chosen as the signal processing method for the void fraction measurement, with a minimum relative error of −4.59%. The bubble velocity was accurately measured within a relative error of 10%. Meanwhile, dynamic response of the dual needle-contact capacitance probe was analyzed in detail. The probe was then used to obtain raw signals for vertical pipe flow regimes, including plug flow, slug flow, churn flow, and bubbly flow. Further experiments indicate that the time series of the output signals vary as the different flow regimes and are consistent with each flow structure.

  20. Development of augmented reality system for servicing electromechanical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovskiy, Y.; Koteleva, N.

    2018-05-01

    Electromechanical equipment is widely used. It is used in industrial enterprises, in the spheres of public services, in everyday life, etc. Maintenance servicing of electromechanical equipment is an important part of its life cycle. High-quality and timely service can extend the life of the electromechanical equipment. The creation of special systems that simplify the process of servicing electromechanical equipment is an urgent task. Such systems can shorten the time for maintenance of electrical equipment, and, therefore, reduce the cost of maintenance in general. This article presents an analysis of information on the operation of service services for maintenance and repair of electromechanical equipment, identifies the list of services, and estimates the time required to perform basic service operations. The structure of the augmented reality system is presented, the ways of interaction of the augmented reality system with the automated control systems working at the enterprise are presented.

  1. Electromechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nano-tubes; Proprietes electromecaniques des nanotubes de carbone multiparois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, R

    2005-12-15

    In this PhD thesis, we tackled theoretically and experimentally the problem of designing nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) based on multi-walled carbon nano-tubes (MWCNTs). Furthermore, we applied our know-how to perform components like switches. We developed a theoretical model to describe the deflection of a suspended MWCNT stressed by an attractive electrostatic force. Our model highlights a scaling law linking up the electrostatic deflection, geometrical, electrical and physical parameters of MWCNTs based NEMS. This result constitutes a practical designing tool because it predicts their electromechanical behaviour on a 'large' range of operational parameters. At the same time, we developed several processes to fabricate nano-structures incorporating a suspended MWCNT electrostatically actuated. Among these different structures, the simplest was used to develop a method for probing electromechanical properties of MWCNTs. Our method is based on atomic force microscopy measurements on a doubly clamped suspended MWCNT electrostatically deflected by a drive voltage. These measurements show clearly for different MWCNTs (different diameter and length) the existence of such scaling law in agreement with the continuum model prediction. From these results, we extracted the Young's modulus of MWCNTs. For diameters smaller than 30 nm it is constant and its average value equals 400 GPa. Above, we observed a strong decrease that could be explained by the entry in a non-linear regime of deformation. Finally, we show the realization of an electromechanical switch based on a suspended MWCNT which presents good switching behaviour. (author)

  2. Electromechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nano-tubes; Proprietes electromecaniques des nanotubes de carbone multiparois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, R.

    2005-12-15

    In this PhD thesis, we tackled theoretically and experimentally the problem of designing nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) based on multi-walled carbon nano-tubes (MWCNTs). Furthermore, we applied our know-how to perform components like switches. We developed a theoretical model to describe the deflection of a suspended MWCNT stressed by an attractive electrostatic force. Our model highlights a scaling law linking up the electrostatic deflection, geometrical, electrical and physical parameters of MWCNTs based NEMS. This result constitutes a practical designing tool because it predicts their electromechanical behaviour on a 'large' range of operational parameters. At the same time, we developed several processes to fabricate nano-structures incorporating a suspended MWCNT electrostatically actuated. Among these different structures, the simplest was used to develop a method for probing electromechanical properties of MWCNTs. Our method is based on atomic force microscopy measurements on a doubly clamped suspended MWCNT electrostatically deflected by a drive voltage. These measurements show clearly for different MWCNTs (different diameter and length) the existence of such scaling law in agreement with the continuum model prediction. From these results, we extracted the Young's modulus of MWCNTs. For diameters smaller than 30 nm it is constant and its average value equals 400 GPa. Above, we observed a strong decrease that could be explained by the entry in a non-linear regime of deformation. Finally, we show the realization of an electromechanical switch based on a suspended MWCNT which presents good switching behaviour. (author)

  3. Probing the local nature of excitons and plasmons in few-layer MoS2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerl, Hannah Catherine; Winther, Kirsten Trøstrup; Hage, Fredrik S.

    2017-01-01

    Excitons and plasmons are the two most fundamental types of collectiveelectronic excitations occurring in solids. Traditionally, they have beenstudied separately using bulk techniques that probe their average energeticstructure over large spatial regions. However, as the dimensions of materialsan...... excitations that open new possibilities for studyingphoto-absorption and energy transfer processes on a nanometer scale....

  4. Fast reciprocating probe system for local scrape-off layer measurements in front of the lower hybrid launcher on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, N.; Tsuji-Iio, S.; Ikeda, Y.; Neyatani, Y.; Seki, M.

    1995-01-01

    A fast reciprocating probe system with a long drive shaft was incorporated into a multi-junction lower hybrid (LH) wave launcher on JT-60U in order to investigate an improved coupling mechanism of the radio frequency wave to the core plasma. The system has been operated reliably over a horizontal scan of 25 cm in 1.5 s using a compact pneumatic cylinder drive and springs. A double probe measurement provided the scrape-off layer plasma profile between the last closed flux surface and the first wall with the spatial resolution of 1-2 mm measured with a laser displacement gauge. The profiles of the electron density n e and temperature T e were in good agreement with those obtained with a triple probe method. During the LH wave injection with good coupling to the core plasma, an increase in the local T e was observed in front of the LH launcher mouth. The local n e was (7-10)x10 16 m -3 , consistent values needed for the good coupling. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  5. Localized excitation of magnetostatic surface spin waves in yttrium iron garnet by shorted coaxial probe detected via spin pumping and rectification effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Peng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the localized excitation and dc electrical detection of magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs) in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) by a shorted coaxial probe. Thin films of NiFe and Pt are patterned at different regions onto a common bulk YIG substrate. A shorted coaxial probe is used to excite spin precession locally near various patterned regions. The dc voltages across the corresponding regions are recorded. For excitation of the Pt regions, the dc voltage spectra are dominated by the spin pumping of MSSWs from YIG, where various modes can be clearly distinguished. For the NiFe region, it is also found that spin pumping from MSSWs generated in YIG dominated the spectra, indicating that the spin pumped currents are dissipated into charge currents via the inverse Spin Hall effect (ISHE) in NiFe. For all regions, dc signals from YIG MSSWs are observed to be much stronger than the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) uniform mode, likely due to the nature of the microwave excitation. The results indicate the potential of this probe for microwave imaging via dc detection of spin dynamics in continuous and patterned films

  6. Study by Hall probe mapping of the trapped flux modification produced by local heating in YBCO HTS bulks for different surface/volume ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Ph; Mathieu, J-P; Mattivi, B; Fagnard, J-F; Meslin, S; Noudem, J G; Ausloos, M; Cloots, R; Vanderbemden, Ph

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this report is to compare the trapped field distribution under a local heating created at the sample edge for different sample morphologies. Hall probe mappings of the magnetic induction trapped in YBCO bulk samples maintained out of thermal equilibrium were performed on YBCO bulk single domains, YBCO single domains with regularly spaced hole arrays, and YBCO superconducting foams. The capability of heat draining was quantified by two criteria: the average induction decay and the size of the thermally affected zone caused by a local heating of the sample. Among the three investigated sample shapes, the drilled single domain displays a trapped induction which is weakly affected by the local heating while displaying a high trapped field. Finally, a simple numerical modelling of the heat flux spreading into a drilled sample is used to suggest some design rules about the hole configuration and their size

  7. Local secondary-electron emission spectra of graphite and gold surfaces obtained using the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer (SPELS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, J J; Pulisciano, A; Palmer, R E

    2009-01-01

    Secondary-electron emission (SEE) spectra have been obtained with the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer at a tip-sample distance of only 50 nm. Such short working distances are required for the best theoretical spatial resolution (<10 nm). The SEE spectra of graphite, obtained as a function of tip bias voltage, are shown to correspond to unoccupied states in the electronic band structure. The SEE spectra of thin gold films demonstrate the capability of identifying (carbonaceous) surface contamination with this technique.

  8. Local secondary-electron emission spectra of graphite and gold surfaces obtained using the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer (SPELS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, J J; Pulisciano, A; Palmer, R E, E-mail: R.E.Palmer@bham.ac.u [Nanoscale Physics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-25

    Secondary-electron emission (SEE) spectra have been obtained with the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer at a tip-sample distance of only 50 nm. Such short working distances are required for the best theoretical spatial resolution (<10 nm). The SEE spectra of graphite, obtained as a function of tip bias voltage, are shown to correspond to unoccupied states in the electronic band structure. The SEE spectra of thin gold films demonstrate the capability of identifying (carbonaceous) surface contamination with this technique.

  9. Electromechanical field effect transistors based on multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Z.T., E-mail: jiangzhaotan@hotmail.com; Lv, Z.T.; Zhang, X.D.

    2017-06-21

    Based on the tight-binding Hamiltonian approach, we demonstrate that the electromechanical field effect transistors (FETs) can be realized by using the multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs). The synergistic combination of the electric field and the external strains can establish the on–off switching since the electric field can shift or split the energy band, and the mechanical strains can widen or narrow the band widths. This kind of multilayer PNR FETs, much solider than the monolayer PNR one and more easily biased by different electric fields, has more transport channels consequently leading to the higher on–off current ratio or the higher sensitivity to the electric fields. Meanwhile, the strain-induced band-flattening will be beneficial for improving the flexibility in designing the electromechanical FETs. In addition, such electromechanical FETs can act as strain-controlled FETs or mechanical detectors for detecting the strains, indicating their potential applications in nano- and micro-electromechanical fields. - Highlights: • Electromechanical transistors are designed with multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons. • Electromechanical synergistic effect can establish the on–off switching more flexibly. • Multilayer transistors, solider and more easily biased, has more transport channels. • Electromechanical transistors can act as strain-controlled transistors or mechanical detectors.

  10. Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy

  11. Electromechanically active polymer transducers: research in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpi, Federico; Graz, Ingrid; Jager, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Smart materials and structures based on electromechanically active polymers (EAPs) represent a fast growing and stimulating field of research and development. EAPs are materials capable of changing dimensions and/or shape in response to suitable electrical stimuli. They are commonly classified...... usages from the micro- to the macro-scale, spanning several disciplines, such as mechatronics, robotics, automation, biotechnology and biomedical engineering, haptics, fluidics, optics and acoustics. Currently, the EAP field is just undergoing its initial transition from academic research...... worldwide. The rapid expansion of the EAP field in Europe, where it historically has strong roots, has stimulated the creation of the 'European Scientific Network for Artificial Muscles—ESNAM', entirely focused on EAPs and gathering the most active research institutes, as well as key industrial developers...

  12. Smooth driving of Moessbauer electromechanical transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, A., E-mail: veiga@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Mayosky, M. A. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Ingenieria (Argentina); Martinez, N.; Mendoza Zelis, P.; Pasquevich, G. A.; Sanchez, F. H. [Instituto de Fisica La Plata, CONICET (Argentina)

    2011-11-15

    Quality of Moessbauer spectra is strongly related to the performance of source velocity modulator. Traditional electromechanical driving techniques demand hard-edged square or triangular velocity waveforms that introduce long settling times and demand careful driver tuning. For this work, the behavior of commercial velocity transducers and drive units was studied under different working conditions. Different velocity reference waveforms in constant-acceleration, constant-velocity and programmable-velocity techniques were tested. Significant improvement in spectrometer efficiency and accuracy was achieved by replacing triangular and square hard edges with continuous smooth-shaped transitions. A criterion for best waveform selection and synchronization is presented and attainable enhancements are evaluated. In order to fully exploit this driving technique, a compact microprocessor-based architecture is proposed and a suitable data acquisition system implementation is presented. System linearity and efficiency characterization are also shown.

  13. Scalable BDDC Algorithms for Cardiac Electromechanical Coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Pavarino, L. F.; Scacchi, S.; Verdi, C.; Zampieri, E.; Zampini, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The spread of electrical excitation in the cardiac muscle and the subsequent contraction-relaxation process is quantitatively described by the cardiac electromechanical coupling model. The electrical model consists of the Bidomain system, which is a degenerate parabolic system of two nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) of reaction-diffusion type, describing the evolution in space and time of the intra- and extracellular electric potentials. The PDEs are coupled through the reaction term with a stiff system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), the membrane model, which describes the flow of the ionic currents through the cellular membrane and the dynamics of the associated gating variables. The mechanical model consists of the quasi-static finite elasticity system, modeling the cardiac tissue as a nearly-incompressible transversely isotropic hyperelastic material, and coupled with a system of ODEs accounting for the development of biochemically generated active force.

  14. Scalable BDDC Algorithms for Cardiac Electromechanical Coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Pavarino, L. F.

    2017-03-17

    The spread of electrical excitation in the cardiac muscle and the subsequent contraction-relaxation process is quantitatively described by the cardiac electromechanical coupling model. The electrical model consists of the Bidomain system, which is a degenerate parabolic system of two nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) of reaction-diffusion type, describing the evolution in space and time of the intra- and extracellular electric potentials. The PDEs are coupled through the reaction term with a stiff system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), the membrane model, which describes the flow of the ionic currents through the cellular membrane and the dynamics of the associated gating variables. The mechanical model consists of the quasi-static finite elasticity system, modeling the cardiac tissue as a nearly-incompressible transversely isotropic hyperelastic material, and coupled with a system of ODEs accounting for the development of biochemically generated active force.

  15. Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials discussed in this report is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy

  16. Tunable electromechanical actuation in silicone dielectric film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberti, Andrea; Di Donato, Marco; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Chiappone, Annalisa; Canavese, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuator films were fabricated on transparent conductive electrode using bi-component poly(dimethyl)siloxane (PDMS). PDMS is a well-known material in microfluidics and soft lithography for biomedical applications, being easy to process, low cost, biocompatible and transparent. Moreover its mechanical properties can be easily tuned by varying the mixing ratio between the oligomer base and the crosslinking agent. In this work we investigate the chemical composition and the electromechanical properties of PDMS thin film verifying for the first time the tuneable actuation response by simply modifying the amount of the curing agent. We demonstrate that, for a 20:1 ratio of base:crosslinker mixture, a striking 150% enhancement of Maxwell strain occurs at 1 Hz actuating frequency. (paper)

  17. Multimodal electromechanical model of piezoelectric transformers by Hamilton's principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Clement; Pigache, Francois

    2009-11-01

    This work deals with a general energetic approach to establish an accurate electromechanical model of a piezoelectric transformer (PT). Hamilton's principle is used to obtain the equations of motion for free vibrations. The modal characteristics (mass, stiffness, primary and secondary electromechanical conversion factors) are also deduced. Then, to illustrate this general electromechanical method, the variational principle is applied to both homogeneous and nonhomogeneous Rosen-type PT models. A comparison of modal parameters, mechanical displacements, and electrical potentials are presented for both models. Finally, the validity of the electrodynamical model of nonhomogeneous Rosen-type PT is confirmed by a numerical comparison based on a finite elements method and an experimental identification.

  18. Local measurements in two-phase flow using a double-sensor conductivity probes and laser doppler anemometry in a vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiva, S.; Julia, E.; Hernandez, L.; Mendez, S.; Munoz-Cobo, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    An upward isothermal co-current air-water flow in a vertical pipe (50.2 mm inner diameter) has been experimental investigated. Local measurements of void fraction, interfacial area concentration (IAC), and interfacial velocity and Sauter mean diameter were measured using a double sensor conductivity probe. Liquid velocity and turbulence intensity were measured using laser Doppler anemometry. Different air-water flow configurations was investigated for a liquid flow rate ranged from 0.29 m/s to 2 m/s and a void fraction up to 15%. For each two-phase flow configuration 15 radial position and three axial positions was measured by the conductivity probe methodology, and several radial profiles was measured with LDA at different axial positions. Two theoretical calibration factors have been defined to relate the mean measurable parameter to the interfacial area concentrations obtained and the measured bubbles, including the missed bubbles. Those factors include the effects of bubble motions, and probe spacing. These calibration factors were obtained through new analytical and numerical method, using a Monte Carlo approach. (author)

  19. Electrical resistivity probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  20. An electrical impedance tomography (EIT) multi-electrode needle-probe device for local assessment of heterogeneous tissue impeditivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, Davide; Maglioli, Camilla Carpano; Bovio, Dario; Greco, Francesco G; Aliverti, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is an image reconstruction technique applied in medicine for the electrical imaging of living tissues. In literature there is the evidence that a large resistivity variation related to the differences of the human tissues exists. As a result of this interest for the electrical characterization of the biological samples, recently the attention is also focused on the identification and characterization of the human tissue, by studying the homogeneity of its structure. An 8 electrodes needle-probe device has been developed with the intent of identifying the structural inhomogeneities under the surface layers. Ex-vivo impeditivity measurements, by placing the needle-probe in 5 different patterns of fat and lean porcine tissue, were performed, and impeditivity maps were obtained by EIDORS open source software for image reconstruction in electrical impedance. The values composing the maps have been analyzed, pointing out a good tissue discrimination, and the conformity with the real images. We conclude that this device is able to perform impeditivity maps matching to reality for position and orientation. In all the five patterns presented is possible to identify and replicate correctly the heterogeneous tissue under test. This new procedure can be helpful to the medical staff to completely characterize the biological sample, in different unclear situations.

  1. Study of the local induction in the superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ by Moessbauer spectroscopy using the probe 170Yb3+: methodology and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaast-Paci, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the measurement of the local induction in the anisotropic type II superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ in presence of an applied field. In this compound, the field penetrates in the form of vortices whose characteristics are governed by both intrinsic (critical fields, anisotropy, penetration lengths,...) and extrinsic parameters (such as pinning centers). We have developed a new microscopic technique to measure the local fields using Moessbauer probes 170 Yb 3+ dilutes for Y 3+ . The measurements are based on the field dependence (size and direction) of the Moessbauer transitions between the electronuclear levels of the probe. These probes are distributed randomly over the sample so the measurements provide both the size and the direction of the internal field distribution over the whole sample. The possible measurement range extends from below 50 Oe to about 4000 Oe, for temperatures up to 60 deg.K. Measurements were made at T4.2 deg. K, for sintered pellets with different oxygen amount and for optimally doped ci-axis oriented single crystals. The penetration length measurements showed that the density of the superconducting condensate increases progressively with carrier doping. Field penetration measurements furnished the microscopic lower penetration field H cl , and enabled us to propose a model describing the profile of the flux distribution which is controlled by the pinning centers. The measurements also evidenced an anomalous penetration in small sized single crystals. In additions, we obtained the average direction of the vortices when the applied field is titled from the c axis and we showed that the vortex direction depends on the way the field is applied (ZFC or FC configuration) and that there exists a competition between the pinning forces and the intrinsic anisotropy. (author)

  2. Sensitive electromechanical sensors using viscoelastic graphene-polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Conor S; Khan, Umar; Ryan, Gavin; Barwich, Sebastian; Charifou, Romina; Harvey, Andrew; Backes, Claudia; Li, Zheling; Ferreira, Mauro S; Möbius, Matthias E; Young, Robert J; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2016-12-09

    Despite its widespread use in nanocomposites, the effect of embedding graphene in highly viscoelastic polymer matrices is not well understood. We added graphene to a lightly cross-linked polysilicone, often encountered as Silly Putty, changing its electromechanical properties substantially. The resulting nanocomposites display unusual electromechanical behavior, such as postdeformation temporal relaxation of electrical resistance and nonmonotonic changes in resistivity with strain. These phenomena are associated with the mobility of the nanosheets in the low-viscosity polymer matrix. By considering both the connectivity and mobility of the nanosheets, we developed a quantitative model that completely describes the electromechanical properties. These nanocomposites are sensitive electromechanical sensors with gauge factors >500 that can measure pulse, blood pressure, and even the impact associated with the footsteps of a small spider. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. An electromechanical based deformable model for soft tissue simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yongmin; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2009-11-01

    Soft tissue deformation is of great importance to surgery simulation. Although a significant amount of research efforts have been dedicated to simulating the behaviours of soft tissues, modelling of soft tissue deformation is still a challenging problem. This paper presents a new deformable model for simulation of soft tissue deformation from the electromechanical viewpoint of soft tissues. Soft tissue deformation is formulated as a reaction-diffusion process coupled with a mechanical load. The mechanical load applied to a soft tissue to cause a deformation is incorporated into the reaction-diffusion system, and consequently distributed among mass points of the soft tissue. Reaction-diffusion of mechanical load and non-rigid mechanics of motion are combined to govern the simulation dynamics of soft tissue deformation. An improved reaction-diffusion model is developed to describe the distribution of the mechanical load in soft tissues. A three-layer artificial cellular neural network is constructed to solve the reaction-diffusion model for real-time simulation of soft tissue deformation. A gradient based method is established to derive internal forces from the distribution of the mechanical load. Integration with a haptic device has also been achieved to simulate soft tissue deformation with haptic feedback. The proposed methodology does not only predict the typical behaviours of living tissues, but it also accepts both local and large-range deformations. It also accommodates isotropic, anisotropic and inhomogeneous deformations by simple modification of diffusion coefficients.

  4. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff Mathiasen, Anne-Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space......). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings point...... to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  5. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff, Anne-Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  6. Local 3d Electronic Structures of Co-Based Complexes with Medicinal Molecules Probed by Soft X-ray Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Kohei; Fujiwara, Hidenori; Imada, Shin; Kadono, Toshiharu; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Muro, Takayuki; Tanaka, Arata; Itai, Takuma; Yoshinari, Nobuto; Konno, Takumi; Sekiyama, Akira

    2017-07-01

    We have examined the local 3d electronic structures of Co-Au multinuclear complexes with the medicinal molecules d-penicillaminate (d-pen) [Co{Au(PPh3)(d-pen)}2]ClO4 and [Co3{Au3(tdme)(d-pen)3}2] by Co L2,3-edge soft X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopy, where PPh3 denotes triphenylphosphine and tdme stands for 1,1,1-tris[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]ethane. The Co L2,3-edge XAS spectra indicate the localized ionic 3d electronic states in both materials. The experimental spectra are well explained by spectral simulation for a localized Co ion under ligand fields with the full multiplet theory, which verifies that the ions are in the low-spin Co3+ state in the former compound and in the high-spin Co2+ state in the latter.

  7. Electromechanical wave imaging and electromechanical wave velocity estimation in a large animal model of myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costet, Alexandre; Melki, Lea; Sayseng, Vincent; Hamid, Nadira; Nakanishi, Koki; Wan, Elaine; Hahn, Rebecca; Homma, Shunichi; Konofagou, Elisa

    2017-12-01

    Echocardiography is often used in the clinic for detection and characterization of myocardial infarction. Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) is a non-invasive ultrasound-based imaging technique based on time-domain incremental motion and strain estimation that can evaluate changes in contractility in the heart. In this study, electromechanical activation is assessed in infarcted heart to determine whether EWI is capable of detecting and monitoring infarct formation. Additionally, methods for estimating electromechanical wave (EW) velocity are presented, and changes in the EW propagation velocity after infarct formation are studied. Five (n  =  5) adult mongrels were used in this study. Successful infarct formation was achieved in three animals by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Dogs were survived for a few days after LAD ligation and monitored daily with EWI. At the end of the survival period, dogs were sacrificed and TTC (tetrazolium chloride) staining confirmed the formation and location of the infarct. In all three dogs, as soon as day 1 EWI was capable of detecting late-activated and non-activated regions, which grew over the next few days. On final day images, the extent of these regions corresponded to the location of infarct as confirmed by staining. EW velocities in border zones of infarct were significantly lower post-infarct formation when compared to baseline, whereas velocities in healthy tissues were not. These results indicate that EWI and EW velocity might help with the detection of infarcts and their border zones, which may be useful for characterizing arrhythmogenic substrate.

  8. Förster-type energy transfer as a probe for changes in local fluctuations of the protein matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, B; Matkó, J; Papp, S; Hevessy, J; Welch, G R; Damjanovich, S

    1984-07-17

    Much evidence, on both theoretical and experimental sides, indicates the importance of local fluctuations (in energy levels, conformational substates, etc.) of the macromolecular matrix in the biological activity of proteins. We describe here a novel application of the Förster-type energy-transfer process capable of monitoring changes both in local fluctuations and in conformational states of macromolecules. A new energy-transfer parameter, f, is defined as an average transfer efficiency, [E], normalized by the actual average quantum efficiency of the donor fluorescence, [phi D]. A simple oscillator model (for a one donor-one acceptor system) is presented to show the sensitivity of this parameter to changes in amplitudes of local fluctuations. The different modes of averaging (static, dynamic, and intermediate cases) occurring for a given value of the average transfer rate, [kt], and the experimental requirements as well as limitations of the method are also discussed. The experimental tests were performed on the ribonuclease T1-pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate conjugate (a one donor-one acceptor system) by studying the change of the f parameter with temperature, an environmental parameter expectedly perturbing local fluctuations of proteins. The parameter f increased with increasing temperature as expected on the basis of the oscillator model, suggesting that it really reflects changes of fluctuation amplitudes (significant changes in the orientation factor, k2, as well as in the spectral properties of the fluorophores can be excluded by anisotropy measurements and spectral investigations). Possibilities of the general applicability of the method are also discussed.

  9. A TECHNIQUE OF EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF LINEAR IMPULSE ELECTROMECHANICAL CONVERTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Bolyukh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of a technique of experimental studies linear pulse electromechanical converters parameters, which are used as shock-power devices and electromechanical accelerators, and comparing the experimental results with the calculated indices obtained using the mathematical model. Methodology. Method of experimental investigations of linear electromechanical converter is that the electrical parameters are recorded simultaneously (inductor winding current and mechanical parameters characterizing the power and speed indicators of the joke with actuator. Power indicators are primarily important for shock-power devices, and high velocity - for electromechanical accelerators. Power indices were investigated using piezoelectric sensors, a system of strain sensors, pressure pulsation sensor and high-speed videorecording. Velocity indicators were investigated using a resistive movement sensor which allows to record character of the armature movement with actuating element in each moment. Results. The technique of experimental research, which is the simultaneous recording of electrical and mechanical power and velocity parameters of the linear electromechanical converter pulse, is developed. In the converter as a shock-power device power indicators are recorded using a piezoelectric transducer, strain sensors system, pressure pulsation sensor and high-speed video. The parameters of the inductor winding current pulse, the time lag of mechanical processes in relation to the time of occurrence of the inductor winding current, the average speed of the joke, the magnitude and momentum of electrodynamics forces acting on the plate strikes are experimentally determined. In the converter as an electromechanical accelerator velocity performance recorded using resistive displacement sensors. It is shown that electromechanical converter processes have complex spatial-temporal character. The experimental results are in good agreement with the calculated

  10. A high-efficiency electromechanical battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.; Fowler, T. K.; Post, Stephen F.

    1993-03-01

    In our society there is a growing need for efficient cost-effective means for storing electrical energy. The electric auto is a prime example. Storage systems for the electric utilities, and for wind or solar power, are other examples. While electrochemical cells could in principle supply these needs, the existing E-C batteries have well-known limitations. This article addresses an alternative, the electromechanical battery (EMB). An EMB is a modular unit consisting of an evacuated housing containing a fiber-composite rotor. The rotor is supported by magnetic bearings and contains an integrally mounted permanent magnet array. This article addresses design issues for EMBs with rotors made up of nested cylinders. Issues addressed include rotational stability, stress distributions, generator/motor power and efficiency, power conversion, and cost. It is concluded that the use of EMBs in electric autos could result in a fivefold reduction (relative to the IC engine) in the primary energy input required for urban driving, with a concomitant major positive impact on our economy and on air pollution.

  11. Electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavietes, Anthony D.; Joseph Mauger, G.; Anderson, Eric H.

    1999-01-01

    We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of high energy resolution performance and exceptional detection efficiency. Logistical difficulties associated with providing the required liquid nitrogen (LN) for cooling is the primary reason that these systems are found mainly in laboratories. The EMC-HPGe detector system described in this paper successfully provides HPGe detector performance in a portable instrument that allows for isotopic analysis in the field. It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from microphonics. All standard isotopic analysis codes, including MGA and MGA++, GAMANL, GRPANL and MGAU, typically used with HPGe detectors can be used with this system with excellent results. Several national and international Safeguards organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have expressed interest in this system. The detector was combined with custom software and demonstrated as a rapid Field Radiometric Identification System (FRIS) for the U.S. Customs Service . The European Communities' Safeguards Directorate (EURATOM) is field-testing the first Safeguards prototype in their applications. The EMC-HPGe detector system design, recent applications, and results will be highlighted

  12. Electromechanical response of silicone dielectric elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cârlescu, V.; Prisăcaru, G.; Olaru, D.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental technique to investigate the electromechanical properties of silicone dielectric elastomers actuated with high DC electric fields. A non-contact measurement technique is used to capture and monitor the thickness strain (contraction) of a circular film placed between two metallic disks electrodes. Two active fillers such as silica (10, 15 and 30 wt%) and barium titanate (5 and 15 wt%) were incorporated in order to increase the actuation performance. Thickness strain was measured at HV stimuli up to 4.5 kV and showed a quadratic dependence against applied electric field indicating that the induced strain is triggered by the Maxwell effect and/or electrostriction phenomenon as reported in literature. The actuation process evidences a rapid contraction upon HV activation and a slowly relaxation when the electrodes are short-circuit due to visco-elastic nature of elastomers. A maximum of 1.22 % thickness strain was obtained at low actuating field intensity (1.5 V/pm) comparable with those reported in literature for similar dielectric elastomer materials.

  13. Electromechanical vortex filaments during cardiac fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, J.; Chebbok, M.; Richter, C.; Schröder-Schetelig, J.; Bittihn, P.; Stein, S.; Uzelac, I.; Fenton, F. H.; Hasenfuß, G.; Gilmour, R. F., Jr.; Luther, S.

    2018-03-01

    The self-organized dynamics of vortex-like rotating waves, which are also known as scroll waves, are the basis of the formation of complex spatiotemporal patterns in many excitable chemical and biological systems. In the heart, filament-like phase singularities that are associated with three-dimensional scroll waves are considered to be the organizing centres of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The mechanisms that underlie the onset, maintenance and control of electromechanical turbulence in the heart are inherently three-dimensional phenomena. However, it has not previously been possible to visualize the three-dimensional spatiotemporal dynamics of scroll waves inside cardiac tissues. Here we show that three-dimensional mechanical scroll waves and filament-like phase singularities can be observed deep inside the contracting heart wall using high-resolution four-dimensional ultrasound-based strain imaging. We found that mechanical phase singularities co-exist with electrical phase singularities during cardiac fibrillation. We investigated the dynamics of electrical and mechanical phase singularities by simultaneously measuring the membrane potential, intracellular calcium concentration and mechanical contractions of the heart. We show that cardiac fibrillation can be characterized using the three-dimensional spatiotemporal dynamics of mechanical phase singularities, which arise inside the fibrillating contracting ventricular wall. We demonstrate that electrical and mechanical phase singularities show complex interactions and we characterize their dynamics in terms of trajectories, topological charge and lifetime. We anticipate that our findings will provide novel perspectives for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications.

  14. Magnetic resonance as a local probe for linear bands in the Weyl semimetals NbP and TaP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baenitz, Michael; Yasuoka, Hiroshi; Majumder, Mayukh; Shekhar, Chandra; Yan, Binghai; Felser, Claudia; Schmidt, Marcus [MPI for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Some compensated d-electron semimetals, for example the monophosphites NbP and TaP, with non centrosymmetric structure and with sizable spin orbit coupling (SOC) form a new class of material: the Weyl semimetals (WSM). A unique linear crossing of valence- and conduction- band in a single point in reciprocal space defines the so called Weyl point where the fermion mass vanishes theoretically. In real materials the Fermi level E{sub F} does not exactly match the Weyl node and as a consequence residual very light fermions are found. Due to the SOC these Weyl fermions have a chirality (handedness) on their linear dispersive (E ∝k) bands and frequently a linear density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level E{sub F}. We use NMR as a probe for this linear d- electron bands. The shift provides the s- and d- electron contributions to the DOS at E{sub F}, whereas the spin lattice relaxation is governed by low energy excitations around E{sub F}. {sup 31}P (I = 1/2) - Fourier - transform - and {sup 95}Nb (I = 9/2) - broadline - sweep - NMR studies are performed. We investigated powder samples as well as single crystals on both systems. The angular dependence of the {sup 95}Nb- and {sup 31}P - NMR lines is discussed.

  15. Evidence of localized amorphous silicon clustering from Raman depth-probing of silicon nanocrystals in fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barba, D; Martin, F; Ross, G G

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) and amorphous silicon (α-Si) produced by silicon implantation in fused silica have been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Information regarding the Raman signature of the α-Si phonon excitation was extracted from Raman depth-probing measurements using the phenomenological phonon confinement model. The spectral deconvolution of the Raman measurements recorded at different laser focusing depths takes into account both the Si-nc size variation and the Si-nc spatial distribution within the sample. The phonon peak associated with α-Si around 470 cm -1 is greatest for in-sample laser focusing, indicating that the formation of amorphous silicon is more important in the region containing a high concentration of silicon excess, where large Si-nc are located. As also observed for Si-nc systems prepared by SiO x layer deposition, this result demonstrates the presence of α-Si in high excess Si implanted Si-nc systems

  16. Multi-material micro-electromechanical fibers with bendable functional domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Dang, Tung; Page, Alexis G.; Qu, Yunpeng; Volpi, Marco; Yan, Wei; Sorin, Fabien

    2017-04-01

    The integration of increasingly complex functionalities within thermally drawn multi-material fibers is heralding a novel path towards advanced soft electronics and smart fabrics. Fibers capable of electronic, optoelectronic, piezoelectric or energy harvesting functions are created by assembling new materials in intimate contact within increasingly complex architectures. Thus far, however, the opportunities associated with the integration of cantilever-like structures with freely moving functional domains within multi-material fibers have not been explored. Used extensively in the micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology, electro-mechanical transductance from moving and bendable domains is used in a myriad of applications. In this article we demonstrate the thermal drawing of micro-electromechanical fibers (MEMF) that can detect and localize pressure with high accuracy along their entire length. This ability results from an original cantilever-like design where a freestanding electrically conductive polymer composite film bends under an applied pressure. As it comes into contact with another conducting domain, placed at a prescribed position in the fiber cross-section, an electrical signal is generated. We show that by a judicious choice of materials and electrical connectivity, this signal can be uniquely related to a position along the fiber axis. We establish a model that predicts the position of a local touch from the measurement of currents generated in the 1D MEMF device, and demonstrate an excellent agreement with the experimental data. This ability to detect and localize touch over large areas, curved surfaces and textiles holds significant opportunities in robotics and prosthetics, flexible electronic interfaces, and medical textiles. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. D. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Fabien Sorin

  17. Application of Kelvin probe Force Microscopy (KFM) to evidence localized corrosion of over-aged aeronautical 2024 aluminum alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Radutoiu, Nicoleta; Alexis, Joël; Lacroix, Loïc; Abrudeanu, Marioara; Petit, Jacques-Alain

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The 2xxx serie aluminum alloys are characterized by good mechanical performances and low density, however they are susceptible to different forms of localized corrosion: pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The 2024-T351 aluminum alloy is used in the aircraft industry for numerous applications such as fuselage and door skin. Corrosion damage of the material is also very detrimental for the structural integrity of the aircraft. The p...

  18. Study of the localized corrosion of over-aged aeronautical 2024 aluminum alloy. Kelvin probe Force Microscopy (KFM) application

    OpenAIRE

    Radutoiu , Nicoleta; Lacroix , Loïc; Alexis , Joël; Abrudeanu , Marioara; Petit , Jacques-Alain

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The 2xxx serie aluminum alloys are characterized by good mechanical performances and low density, however they are susceptible to different forms of localized corrosion: pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The 2024-T351 aluminum alloy is used in the aircraft industry for numerous applications such as fuselage and door skin. Corrosion damage of the material is also very detrimental for the structural integrity of the aircraft. The p...

  19. Histopathological confirmation of similar intramucosal distribution of fluorescein in both intravenous administration and local mucosal application for probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy of the normal stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Kouichi; Ohata, Ken; Ban, Shinichi; Ichihara, Shin; Takasugi, Rumi; Minato, Yohei; Tashima, Tomoaki; Matsuyama, Yasushi; Takita, Maiko; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Neumann, Helmut

    2015-12-16

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is capable of acquiring in vivo magnified cross-section images of the gastric mucosa. Intravenous injection of fluorescein sodium is used for confocal imaging. However, it is still under debate if local administration of the dye to the mucosa is also effective for confocal imaging as it is not yet clear if topical application also reveals the intramucosal distribution of fluorescein. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intramucosal distribution of fluorescein sodium after topical application and to compare the distribution to the conventional intravenous injection used for confocal imaging. pCLE of the stomach uninfected with Helicobacter pylori was performed in a healthy male employing intravenous administration and local mucosal application of fluorescein. The mucosa of the lower gastric body was biopsied 1 min and 5 min after intravenous administration or local mucosal application of fluorescein, and the distribution of fluorescein in the biopsy samples was examined histologically. Green fluorescence was already observed in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells in the biopsied deep mucosa 1 min after local mucosal application of fluorescein. It was also observed in the foveolar lumen and inter-foveolar lamina propria, although it was noted at only a few sites. In the tissue biopsied 5 min after the local mucosal application of fluorescein, green fluorescence was more frequently noted in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells than in that 1 min after the local mucosal application of fluorescein, although obvious green fluorescence was not identified in the foveolar lumen or inter-foveolar lamina propria. The distribution of intravenously administered fluorescein in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells was also clearly observed similarly to that after local mucosal application of fluorescein. Green fluorescence in more cells was observed in many cells 5 min after intravenous administration compared

  20. Design of a highly selective quenched activity-based probe and its application in dual color imaging studies of cathepsin S activity localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oresic Bender, Kristina; Ofori, Leslie; van der Linden, Wouter A; Mock, Elliot D; Datta, Gopal K; Chowdhury, Somenath; Li, Hao; Segal, Ehud; Sanchez Lopez, Mateo; Ellman, Jonathan A; Figdor, Carl G; Bogyo, Matthew; Verdoes, Martijn

    2015-04-15

    The cysteine cathepsins are a group of 11 proteases whose function was originally believed to be the degradation of endocytosed material with a high degree of redundancy. However, it has become clear that these enzymes are also important regulators of both health and disease. Thus, selective tools that can discriminate between members of this highly related class of enzymes will be critical to further delineate the unique biological functions of individual cathepsins. Here we present the design and synthesis of a near-infrared quenched activity-based probe (qABP) that selectively targets cathepsin S which is highly expressed in immune cells. Importantly, this high degree of selectivity is retained both in vitro and in vivo. In combination with a new green-fluorescent pan-reactive cysteine cathepsin qABP we performed dual color labeling studies in bone marrow-derived immune cells and identified vesicles containing exclusively cathepsin S activity. This observation demonstrates the value of our complementary cathepsin probes and provides evidence for the existence of specific localization of cathepsin S activity in dendritic cells.

  1. Electromechanically active polymer transducers: research in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Federico; Graz, Ingrid; Jager, Edwin; Ladegaard Skov, Anne; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Smart materials and structures based on electromechanically active polymers (EAPs) represent a fast growing and stimulating field of research and development. EAPs are materials capable of changing dimensions and/or shape in response to suitable electrical stimuli. They are commonly classified in two major families: ionic EAPs (activated by an electrically induced transport of ions and/or solvent) and electronic EAPs (activated by electrostatic forces). These polymers show interesting properties, such as sizable active strains and/or stresses in response to electrical driving, high mechanical flexibility, low density, structural simplicity, ease of processing and scalability, no acoustic noise and, in most cases, low costs. Since many of these characteristics can also describe natural muscle tissues from an engineering standpoint, it is not surprising that EAP transducers are sometimes also referred to as 'muscle-like smart materials' or 'artificial muscles'. They are used not only to generate motion, but also to sense or harvest energy from it. In particular, EAP electromechanical transducers are studied for applications that can benefit from their 'biomimetic' characteristics, with possible usages from the micro- to the macro-scale, spanning several disciplines, such as mechatronics, robotics, automation, biotechnology and biomedical engineering, haptics, fluidics, optics and acoustics. Currently, the EAP field is just undergoing its initial transition from academic research into commercialization, with companies starting to invest in this technology and the first products appearing on the market. This focus issue is intentionally aimed at gathering contributions from the most influential European groups working in the EAP field. In fact, today Europe hosts the broadest EAP community worldwide. The rapid expansion of the EAP field in Europe, where it historically has strong roots, has stimulated the creation of the 'European Scientific Network for Artificial

  2. Cardiac Electromechanical Models: From Cell to Organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Trayanova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The heart is a multiphysics and multiscale system that has driven the development of the most sophisticated mathematical models at the frontiers of computation physiology and medicine. This review focuses on electromechanical (EM models of the heart from the molecular level of myofilaments to anatomical models of the organ. Because of the coupling in terms of function and emergent behaviors at each level of biological hierarchy, separation of behaviors at a given scale is difficult. Here, a separation is drawn at the cell level so that the first half addresses subcellular/single cell models and the second half addresses organ models. At the subcelluar level, myofilament models represent actin-myosin interaction and Ca-based activation. Myofilament models and their refinements represent an overview of the development in the field. The discussion of specific models emphasizes the roles of cooperative mechanisms and sarcomere length dependence of contraction force, considered the cellular basis of the Frank-Starling law. A model of electrophysiology and Ca handling can be coupled to a myofilament model to produce an EM cell model, and representative examples are summarized to provide an overview of the progression of field. The second half of the review covers organ-level models that require solution of the electrical component as a reaction-diffusion system and the mechanical component, in which active tension generated by the myocytes produces deformation of the organ as described by the equations of continuum mechanics. As outlined in the review, different organ-level models have chosen to use different ionic and myofilament models depending on the specific application; this choice has been largely dictated by compromises between model complexity and computational tractability. The review also addresses application areas of EM models such as cardiac resynchronization therapy and the role of mechano-electric coupling in arrhythmias and

  3. Development trends of combined inductance-capacitance electromechanical energy converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karayan Hamlet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the modern state of completely new direction of electromechanical science such as combined inductive-capacitive electromechanics is considered. The wide spectra of its possible practical applications and prospects for further development are analyzed. A new approach for mathematical description of transients in dualcon jugate dynamic systems is proposed. On the basis of the algorithm differential equations for inductive-capacitive compatible electromechanical energy converters are derived. The generalized Lagrangian theory of combined inductively-capacitive electric machines was developed as a union of generalized Lagrangian models of inductive and capacitive electro-mechanical energy converters developed on the basis of the basic principles of binary-conjugate electrophysics. The author gives equations of electrodynamics and electromechanics of combined inductive-capacitive electric machines in case there are active electrotechnical materials of dual purpose (ferroelectromagnets in the structure of their excitation system. At the same time, the necessary Lagrangian for combined inductive-capacitive forces was built using new technologies of interaction between inductive and capacitive subsystems. The joint solution of these equations completely determines the dynamic behavior and energy characteristics of the generalized model of combined machines of any design and in any modes of interaction of their functional elements

  4. Integrated Electromechanical Transduction Schemes for Polymer MEMS Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Thuau

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymer Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS have the potential to constitute a powerful alternative to silicon-based MEMS devices for sensing applications. Although the use of commercial photoresists as structural material in polymer MEMS has been widely reported, the integration of functional polymer materials as electromechanical transducers has not yet received the same amount of interest. In this context, we report on the design and fabrication of different electromechanical schemes based on polymeric materials ensuring different transduction functions. Piezoresistive transduction made of carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites with a gauge factor of 200 was embedded within U-shaped polymeric cantilevers operating either in static or dynamic modes. Flexible resonators with integrated piezoelectric transduction were also realized and used as efficient viscosity sensors. Finally, piezoelectric-based organic field effect transistor (OFET electromechanical transduction exhibiting a record sensitivity of over 600 was integrated into polymer cantilevers and used as highly sensitive strain and humidity sensors. Such advances in integrated electromechanical transduction schemes should favor the development of novel all-polymer MEMS devices for flexible and wearable applications in the future.

  5. System-on-Chip Integration of a New Electromechanical Impedance Calculation Method for Aircraft Structure Health Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Boukabache, Hamza; Escriba, Christophe; Zedek, Sabeha; Medale, Daniel; Rolet, Sebastien; Fourniols, Jean Yves

    2012-01-01

    The work reported on this paper describes a new methodology implementation for active structural health monitoring of recent aircraft parts made from carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer. This diagnosis is based on a new embedded method that is capable of measuring the local high frequency impedance spectrum of the structure through the calculation of the electro-mechanical impedance of a piezoelectric patch pasted non-permanently onto its surface. This paper involves both the laboratory based E/M...

  6. An evaluation of multi-probe locality sensitive hashing for computing similarities over web-scale query logs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Cormode

    Full Text Available Many modern applications of AI such as web search, mobile browsing, image processing, and natural language processing rely on finding similar items from a large database of complex objects. Due to the very large scale of data involved (e.g., users' queries from commercial search engines, computing such near or nearest neighbors is a non-trivial task, as the computational cost grows significantly with the number of items. To address this challenge, we adopt Locality Sensitive Hashing (a.k.a, LSH methods and evaluate four variants in a distributed computing environment (specifically, Hadoop. We identify several optimizations which improve performance, suitable for deployment in very large scale settings. The experimental results demonstrate our variants of LSH achieve the robust performance with better recall compared with "vanilla" LSH, even when using the same amount of space.

  7. Quantitative super-resolution localization microscopy of DNA in situ using Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet fluorescent probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Żurek-Biesiada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM is a recently emerged optical imaging method that was shown to achieve a resolution in the order of tens of nanometers in intact cells. Novel high resolution imaging methods might be crucial for understanding of how the chromatin, a complex of DNA and proteins, is arranged in the eukaryotic cell nucleus. Such an approach utilizing switching of a fluorescent, DNA-binding dye Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet has been previously demonstrated by us (Żurek-Biesiada et al., 2015 [1]. Here we provide quantitative information on the influence of the chemical environment on the behavior of the dye, discuss the variability in the DNA-associated signal density, and demonstrate direct proof of enhanced structural resolution. Furthermore, we compare different visualization approaches. Finally, we describe various opportunities of multicolor DNA/SMLM imaging in eukaryotic cell nuclei.

  8. Probing the structural and dynamical properties of liquid water with models including non-local electron correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Ben, Mauro; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Water is a ubiquitous liquid that displays a wide range of anomalous properties and has a delicate structure that challenges experiment and simulation alike. The various intermolecular interactions that play an important role, such as repulsion, polarization, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals interactions, are often difficult to reproduce faithfully in atomistic models. Here, electronic structure theories including all these interactions at equal footing, which requires the inclusion of non-local electron correlation, are used to describe structure and dynamics of bulk liquid water. Isobaric-isothermal (NpT) ensemble simulations based on the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) yield excellent density (0.994 g/ml) and fair radial distribution functions, while various other density functional approximations produce scattered results (0.8-1.2 g/ml). Molecular dynamics simulation in the microcanonical (NVE) ensemble based on Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) yields dynamical properties in the condensed phase, namely, the infrared spectrum and diffusion constant. At the MP2 and RPA levels of theory, ice is correctly predicted to float on water, resolving one of the anomalies as resulting from a delicate balance between van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions. For several properties, obtaining quantitative agreement with experiment requires correction for nuclear quantum effects (NQEs), highlighting their importance, for structure, dynamics, and electronic properties. A computed NQE shift of 0.6 eV for the band gap and absorption spectrum illustrates the latter. Giving access to both structure and dynamics of condensed phase systems, non-local electron correlation will increasingly be used to study systems where weak interactions are of paramount importance

  9. Enhancing local absorption within a gold nano-sphere on a dielectric surface under an AFM probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebi Moghaddam, Sina; Ertürk, Hakan; Mengüç, M. Pınar

    2016-01-01

    This study considers enhancing localized absorption by a gold nanoparticle (NP) placed over a substrate where an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip is in close proximity of the particle. The gold NP and AFM tip are interacting with a surface evanescent wave, resulting a near-field coupling between the tip and NP and consequently enhances the absorption. This concept can be used for selective heating of NPs placed over a surface that enables precise manufacturing at nanometer scales. Different tip positions are considered to identify the optimal tip location and the corresponding enhancement limits. The effects of these interactions on the absorption profiles of dielectric core/gold shell NPs are also studied. It is observed that using core–shell nanoparticles with a dielectric core leads to further enhancement of the absorption efficiency and a more uniform distribution of absorption over the shell. Discrete dipole approximation coupled with surface interactions (DDA-SI) is employed throughout the study, and it is vectorized to improve its computational efficiency. - Highlights: • Plasmonic coupling between solid or core-shell nanoparticles, dielectric surface and Si AFM tip is investigated for achieving localized heating for nano-manufacturing. • Absorption efficiency enhancement limits for core-shell and solid nanoparticles are identified using an AFM tip for surface evanescent wave heating. • The effect of tip location, relative to surface wave direction is outlined, identifying optimal locations, and heat absorption distribution over core-shell and solid nanoparticles. • While using a Si AFM tip enhances absorption, using a dielectric core result in further enhancement in absorption with a more uniform distribution. • DDA-SI-v developed by vectorizing the formulations of DDA-SI for improved computational efficiency.

  10. Electrostatic actuation and electromechanical switching behavior of one-dimensional nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Arunkumar; Alt, Andreas R; Dong, Lixin; Kratochvil, Bradley E; Bolognesi, Colombo R; Nelson, Bradley J

    2009-10-27

    We report on the electromechanical actuation and switching performance of nanoconstructs involving doubly clamped, individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Batch-fabricated, three-state switches with low ON-state voltages (6.7 V average) are demonstrated. A nanoassembly architecture that permits individual probing of one device at a time without crosstalk from other nanotubes, which are originally assembled in parallel, is presented. Experimental investigations into device performance metrics such as hysteresis, repeatability and failure modes are presented. Furthermore, current-driven shell etching is demonstrated as a tool to tune the nanomechanical clamping configuration, stiffness, and actuation voltage of fabricated devices. Computational models, which take into account the nonlinearities induced by stress-stiffening of 1-D nanowires at large deformations, are presented. Apart from providing accurate estimates of device performance, these models provide new insights into the extension of stable travel range in electrostatically actuated nanowire-based constructs as compared to their microscale counterparts.

  11. PARAMETER MATCHING OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND ELECTROMECHANICAL POWER TRAIN OF WHEEL TRACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kliuchnikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers stepless electromechanical power train of a wheel tractor. Methodology for parameter matching of electromechanical transmission and internal combustion engine for their optimum performance as part of a power wheel tractor unit. 

  12. Electromechanical characteristics of discal piezoelectric transducers with spiral interdigitated electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Chengliang; Xiao, Guangjun; Feng, Zhihua; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, piezoceramic thin disks with spiral interdigitated electrodes on their surfaces are proposed to generate in-plane torsional vibrations. Electromechanical characteristics of the discal piezoelectric transducers are investigated. Working principles of the transducers are explained while their static deformations are formulated. Dynamic models are derived to analyze the in-plane torsional vibrations of the disks together with the radial vibrations. The corresponding electromechanical equivalent circuits are also obtained. With different boundary conditions and structural parameters, frequency responses of their electric admittances are calculated numerically. Resonant frequencies, mode shapes, and electromechanical coupling coefficients of the vibration modes are also extracted. Prototype transducers are fabricated and tested to validate the theoretical results. (paper)

  13. Localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probes for determination of Isoniazid in pharmacological formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Behrooz; Hatamie, Amir

    2013-04-01

    Isoniazid is an important antibiotic, which is widely used to treat tuberculosis. This study presents a colorimetric method for the determination of Isoniazid based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) property of gold nanoparticles. An LSPR band is produced by reducing gold ions in solution using Isoniazid as the reducing agent. Influences of the following relevant variables were examined and optimized in the experiment, formation time of gold nanoparticles, pH, buffer and stabilizer. These tests demonstrated that under optimum conditions the absorbance of Au nanoparticles at 530 nm related linearly to the concentration of Isoniazid in the range of 1.0-8.0 μg mL-1 with a detection limit of 0.98 μg mL-1. This colorimetric method has been successfully applied to the determine Isoniazid in tablets and spiked serum samples. The proposed colorimetric assay exhibits good reproducibility and accuracy, providing a simple and rapid method for analysis of Isoniazid.

  14. Monitoring of atomic metastable state lifetimes by the laser-enhanced ionization technique--A new method for probing local stoichiometric combustive conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungberg, Peter; Malmsten, Yvonne; Axner, Ove

    1995-01-01

    The lifetimes of atomic metastable states in an acetylene/air flame have been investigated using the laser-enhanced ionization technique. The lifetimes were found to be several orders of magnitude less than the natural ones, which clearly shows that they are fully determined by the surrounding environment. The lifetime of a specific state has been investigated as a function of flame conditions. It was found that the lifetime is strongly dependent on the local flame composition, with a distinct maximum for stoichiometric conditions. For fuel-lean local conditions, the excess of O2 acts as an effective quencher of the metastable state, while for fuel-rich conditions the quenching is dominated by unburned fuel components. An acetylene/air flame has been probed both as a function of height in the flame, as well as a function of fuel/air composition fed to the burner. The experiments show clearly for which heights and fuel/air compositions that lean, stoichiometric or rich conditions prevail. This makes a monitoring of metastable state lifetimes a useful technique for combustion analysis

  15. Multi-Electrode Resistivity Probe for Investigation of Local Temperature Inside Metal Shell Battery Cells via Resistivity: Experiments and Evaluation of Electrical Resistance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Current (DC electrical resistivity is a material property that is sensitive to temperature changes. In this paper, the relationship between resistivity and local temperature inside steel shell battery cells (two commercial 10 Ah and 4.5 Ah lithium-ion cells is innovatively studied by Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT. The Schlumberger configuration in ERT is applied to divide the cell body into several blocks distributed in different levels, where the apparent resistivities are measured by multi-electrode surface probes. The investigated temperature ranges from −20 to 80 °C. Experimental results have shown that the resistivities mainly depend on temperature changes in each block of the two cells used and the function of the resistivity and temperature can be fitted to the ERT-measurement results in the logistical-plot. Subsequently, the dependence of resistivity on the state of charge (SOC is investigated, and the SOC range of 70%–100% has a remarkable impact on the resistivity at low temperatures. The proposed approach under a thermal cool down regime is demonstrated to monitor the local transient temperature.

  16. Electromechanical Storage Systems for Application to Isolated Wind Energy Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, F.; Cruz Cruz, I.

    1999-01-01

    Substantial technology advances have occurred during the last decade that have had and appreciated impact on performance and feasibility of the Electromechanical Storage Systems. Improvements in magnetic bearings, composite materials, power conversion systems, microelectronic control systems and computer simulation models have increased flywheel reliability, and energy storage capacity, while decreasing overall system size, weight and cost. These improvements have brought flywheels to the forefront in the quest for alternate systems. The result of the study carried out under the scope of the SEDUCTOR, about the state of art of the Electromechanical Storage Systems is presented in this report. (Author) 15 refs

  17. Design and development of multi-lane smart electromechanical actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Annaz, Fawaz Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Design and Development of Multi-Lane Smart Electromechanical Actuators presents the design of electromechanical actuators in two types of architectures, namely, Torque Summed Architecture (TSA) and Velocity Summed Architecture, (VSA). It examines them in: * Hardware redundancy, where the architecture is made up of 3 or 4 lanes. * Digital Math Model redundancy, where a more compact two lanes architectures will be presented. The book starts with the very basic concepts and introduces the design process logically so that an understanding of the smart multi-lane systems that drive an aileron

  18. Suppression of electromechanical instability in fiber-reinforced dielectric elastomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The electromechanical instability of dielectric elastomers has been a major challenge for the application of this class of active materials. In this work, we demonstrate that dielectric elastomers filled with soft fiber can suppress the electromechanical instability and achieve large deformation. Specifically, we developed a constitutive model to describe the dielectric and mechanical behaviors of fiber-reinforced elastomers. The model was applied to study the influence of stiffness, nonlinearity properties and the distribution of fiber on the instability of dielectric membrane under an electric field. The results show that there exists an optimal fiber distribution condition to achieve the maximum deformation before failure.

  19. In situ optical sequencing and structure analysis of a trinucleotide repeat genome region by localization microscopy after specific COMBO-FISH nano-probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhlmüller, M.; Schwarz-Finsterle, J.; Fey, E.; Lux, J.; Bach, M.; Cremer, C.; Hinderhofer, K.; Hausmann, M.; Hildenbrand, G.

    2015-10-01

    Trinucleotide repeat expansions (like (CGG)n) of chromatin in the genome of cell nuclei can cause neurological disorders such as for example the Fragile-X syndrome. Until now the mechanisms are not clearly understood as to how these expansions develop during cell proliferation. Therefore in situ investigations of chromatin structures on the nanoscale are required to better understand supra-molecular mechanisms on the single cell level. By super-resolution localization microscopy (Spectral Position Determination Microscopy; SPDM) in combination with nano-probing using COMBO-FISH (COMBinatorial Oligonucleotide FISH), novel insights into the nano-architecture of the genome will become possible. The native spatial structure of trinucleotide repeat expansion genome regions was analysed and optical sequencing of repetitive units was performed within 3D-conserved nuclei using SPDM after COMBO-FISH. We analysed a (CGG)n-expansion region inside the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. The number of CGG repeats for a full mutation causing the Fragile-X syndrome was found and also verified by Southern blot. The FMR1 promotor region was similarly condensed like a centromeric region whereas the arrangement of the probes labelling the expansion region seemed to indicate a loop-like nano-structure. These results for the first time demonstrate that in situ chromatin structure measurements on the nanoscale are feasible. Due to further methodological progress it will become possible to estimate the state of trinucleotide repeat mutations in detail and to determine the associated chromatin strand structural changes on the single cell level. In general, the application of the described approach to any genome region will lead to new insights into genome nano-architecture and open new avenues for understanding mechanisms and their relevance in the development of heredity diseases.

  20. Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of this initiative, an electromechanical actuation system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems used today. NASA-Lewis is developing and demonstrating an Induction Motor Controller Actuation System with a 40 hp peak rating. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technology and Pulse Population Modulation (PPM) techniques to implement Field Oriented Vector Control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. Through PPM, multiphase variable frequency, variable voltage waveforms can be synthesized from the 20 kHz source. FOVC shows that varying both the voltage and frequency and their ratio (V/F), permits independent control of both torque and speed while operating at maximum efficiency at any point on the torque-speed curve. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a Built-in Test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA TVC system. The design and fabrication of the motor controller is being done by General Dynamics Space Systems Division. The University of Wisconsin-Madison will assist in the design of the advanced induction motor and in the implementation of the FOVC theory. A 75 hp electronically controlled dynamometer will be used to test the motor controller in all four quadrants of operation using flight type

  1. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  2. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that mechanical... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking...

  3. Multi-level virtual prototyping of electromechanical actuation system for more electric aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian FU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electromechanical actuators (EMAs are becoming increasingly attractive in the field of more electric aircraft because of their outstanding benefits, which include reduced fuel burn and maintenance cost, enhanced system flexibility, and improved management of fault detection and isolation. However, electromechanical actuation raises specific issues when being used for safety-critical aerospace applications like flight controls: huge reflected inertia to load, jamming-type failure, and increase of backlash with service due to wear and local dissipation of heat losses for thermal balance. This study proposes an incremental approach for virtual prototyping of EMAs. It is driven by a model-based system engineering process in order to enable simulation-aided design. Best practices supported by Bond graph formalism are suggested to develop a model’s structure efficiently and to make the model ready for use (or extension by addressing the above mentioned issues. Physical effects are progressively introduced, and the realism of lumped-parameter models is increased step-by-step. In particular, multi-level component models are architected to ensure continuity between engineering activities. The models are implemented in the AMESim simulation environment, and simulation responses are given to illustrate how they can be used for preliminary sizing, control design, thermal balance verification, and faults to failure analysis. The proposed best practices intend to provide engineers with fast, reusable, and efficient means to assess performance virtually and enhance maturity, performance, and robustness. Keywords: Bond graph, Electromechanical actuator, Flight control, Model-based system engineering, More electric aircraft, Power-by-wire

  4. a comparison of performances of electronic and electromechanical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    The Ferraris (electromechanical) energy meter has had predominance in the metering of energy ... to frequency converter with frequency to voltage converter in the feedback loop ... period of the output wave form is then T=T+TM from which the ...

  5. A system look at electromechanical actuation for primary flight control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lomonova, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    An overview is presented of the emergence of the ALL Electric flight control system (FCS) or power-by-wire (PBW) concept. The concept of fly-by-power refers to the actuator using electrical rather than hydraulic power. The development of the primary flight control Electromechanical Actuators (EMAs)

  6. Contactless linear electromechanical actuator : experimental verification of the improved design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebedev, A.; Thakkar, D.; Laro, D.A.H.; Lomonova, E.A.; Vandenput, A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes ways to overcome the major applicability limitations of a novel linear electromechanical actuator. Guidelines for selecting a proper soft magnetic material for a magnetic system of the actuator are presented. Conventional laminated electric steel and a soft magnetic composite

  7. Space vehicle electromechanical system and helical antenna winding fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Guenther, David; Enemark, Donald; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven

    2017-12-26

    A space vehicle electromechanical system may employ an architecture that enables convenient and practical testing, reset, and retesting of solar panel and antenna deployment on the ground. A helical antenna winding fixture may facilitate winding and binding of the helical antenna.

  8. Multiscale and probabilistic modelling of micro electromechanical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoosel, C.V.

    2009-01-01

    Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) are nowadays used in many applications, such as airbag accelerometers and inkjet printer heads. With the number of applications growing, the need for advanced numerical tools to aid in the design of MEMS increases. The development of such tools is far from

  9. Failure mechanisms and electromechanical coupling in semiconducting nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One dimensional nanostructures, like nanowires and nanotubes, are increasingly being researched for the development of next generation devices like logic gates, transistors, and solar cells. In particular, semiconducting nanowires with a nonsymmetric wurtzitic crystal structure, such as zinc oxide (ZnO and gallium nitride (GaN, have drawn immense research interests due to their electromechanical coupling. The designing of the future nanowire-based devices requires component-level characterization of individual nanowires. In this paper, we present a unique experimental set-up to characterize the mechanical and electromechanical behaviour of individual nanowires. Using this set-up and complementary atomistic simulations, mechanical properties of ZnO nanowires and electromechanical properties of GaN nanowires were investigated. In ZnO nanowires, elastic modulus was found to depend on nanowire diameter decreasing from 190 GPa to 140 GPa as the wire diameter increased from 5 nm to 80 nm. Inconsistent failure mechanisms were observed in ZnO nanowires. Experiments revealed a brittle fracture, whereas simulations using a pairwise potential predicted a phase transformation prior to failure. This inconsistency is addressed in detail from an experimental as well as computational perspective. Lastly, in addition to mechanical properties, preliminary results on the electromechanical properties of gallium nitride nanowires are also reported. Initial investigations reveal that the piezoresistive and piezoelectric behaviour of nanowires is different from bulk gallium nitride.

  10. The French electromechanical industry in the nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrau, M. de.

    1981-02-01

    A brief paper recounting the extensive changes brought about in electromechanics further to the implementation of the large French nuclear programme and the experience that its implementation has given to this industry, in particular at ALSTHOM-ATLANTIQUE, the only French manufacturer of high power turbo-generating units rated among the big world manufacturers [fr

  11. A Comparison of Performances of Electronic and Electromechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ferraris (electromechanical) energy meter has had predominance in the metering of energy consumption using the alternating current supply system. Electronic energy meters are gaining popularity because of the possibility of remote reading and controllable non uniform rate of billing. In this work, an electronic energy ...

  12. To the Problem of Electromechanical Interaction in Elevators with Controlled Electric Drive and Fuzzy Speed Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Koval

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems concerning electromechanical interaction in elevators with an adjustable asynchronous electric drive equipped with the vector control systems under direct torque control and direct torque control with pulse-width modulator. A mathematical description of electromechanical elevator system with due account of nonlinearity of the worm gear is given in the paper. The paper presents a simplified circuit design of a control system with a fuzzy speed controller. It has been established that the factor of electromechanical interaction in electromechanical system with the adjustable asynchronous electric drive and an fuzzy speed controller is within the range which corresponds to existence of the essential electromechanical interaction.

  13. Develop of a quantum electromechanical hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yu; Rouxinol, Francisco; Brito, Frederico; Caldeira, Amir; Irish, Elinor; Lahaye, Matthew

    In this poster, we will show our results from measurements of a hybrid quantum system composed of a superconducting transmon qubit-coupled and ultra-high frequency nano-mechanical resonator, embedded in a superconducting cavity. The transmon is capacitively coupled to a 3.4GHz nanoresonator and a T-filter-biased high-Q transmission line cavity. Single-tone and two-tone transmission spectroscopy measurements are used to probe the interactions between the cavity, qubit and mechanical resonator. These measurements are in good agreement with numerical simulations based upon a master equation for the tripartite system including dissipation. The results indicate that this system may be developed to serve as a platform for more advanced measurements with nanoresonators, including quantum state measurement, the exploration of nanoresonator quantum noise, and reservoir engineering.

  14. Reproducibility and Angle Independence of Electromechanical Wave Imaging for the Measurement of Electromechanical Activation during Sinus Rhythm in Healthy Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Lea; Costet, Alexandre; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2017-10-01

    Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) is an ultrasound-based technique that can non-invasively map the transmural electromechanical activation in all four cardiac chambers in vivo. The objective of this study was to determine the reproducibility and angle independence of EWI for the assessment of electromechanical activation during normal sinus rhythm (NSR) in healthy humans. Acquisitions were performed transthoracically at 2000 frames/s on seven healthy human hearts in parasternal long-axis, apical four- and two-chamber views. EWI data was collected twice successively in each view in all subjects, while four successive acquisitions were obtained in one case. Activation maps were generated and compared (i) within the same acquisition across consecutive cardiac cycles; (ii) within same view across successive acquisitions; and (iii) within equivalent left-ventricular regions across different views. EWI was capable of characterizing electromechanical activation during NSR and of reliably obtaining similar patterns of activation. For consecutive heart cycles, the average 2-D correlation coefficient between the two isochrones across the seven subjects was 0.9893, with a mean average activation time fluctuation in LV wall segments across acquisitions of 6.19%. A mean activation time variability of 12% was obtained across different views with a measurement bias of only 3.2 ms. These findings indicate that EWI can map the electromechanical activation during NSR in human hearts in transthoracic echocardiography in vivo and results in reproducible and angle-independent activation maps. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Micro-Electromechanical Affinity Sensor for the Monitoring of Glucose in Bioprocess Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Theuer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An affinity-viscometry-based micro-sensor probe for continuous glucose monitoring was investigated with respect to its suitability for bioprocesses. The sensor operates with glucose and dextran competing as binding partner for concanavalin A, while the viscosity of the assay scales with glucose concentration. Changes in viscosity are determined with a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS in the measurement cavity of the sensor probe. The study aimed to elucidate the interactions between the assay and a typical phosphate buffered bacterial cultivation medium. It turned out that contact with the medium resulted in a significant long-lasting drift of the assay’s viscosity at zero glucose concentration. Adding glucose to the medium lowers the drift by a factor of eight. The cglc values measured off-line with the glucose sensor for monitoring of a bacterial cultivation were similar to the measurements with an enzymatic assay with a difference of less than ±0.15 g·L−1. We propose that lectin agglomeration, the electro-viscous effect, and constitutional changes of concanavalin A due to exchanges of the incorporated metal ions may account for the observed viscosity increase. The study has demonstrated the potential of the MEMS sensor to determine sensitive viscosity changes within very small sample volumes, which could be of interest for various biotechnological applications.

  16. Biomolecule recognition using piezoresistive nanomechanical force probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosolini, Giordano; Scarponi, Filippo; Cannistraro, Salvatore; Bausells, Joan

    2013-06-01

    Highly sensitive sensors are one of the enabling technologies for the biomarker detection in early stage diagnosis of pathologies. We have developed a self-sensing nanomechanical force probe able for detecting the unbinding of single couples of biomolecular partners in nearly physiological conditions. The embedding of a piezoresistive transducer into a nanomechanical cantilever enabled high force measurement capability with sub 10-pN resolution. Here, we present the design, microfabrication, optimization, and complete characterization of the sensor. The exceptional electromechanical performance obtained allowed us to detect biorecognition specific events underlying the biotin-avidin complex formation, by integrating the sensor in a commercial atomic force microscope.

  17. Temperature dependence of high field electromechanical coupling in ferroelectric ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, P M; Cain, M G; Stewart, M, E-mail: paul.weaver@npl.co.u [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-28

    A study of the temperature dependence of the electromechanical response of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics at high electric fields (up to 1.3 kV mm{sup -1}) is reported. Simultaneous measurements were performed of strain, electric field and polarization to form a complete response map from room temperature up to 200 {sup 0}C. An electrostrictive model is shown to provide an accurate description of the electromechanical response to high levels of induced polarization and electric field. This provides a method for decoupling strain contributions from thermal expansion and polarization changes. Direct measurements of electrostriction and thermal expansion, above and below the Curie temperature, are reported. Electrostriction coefficients are shown to be temperature dependent in these ceramic materials, with different values above and below the Curie temperature.

  18. Electromechanical actuation of buckypaper actuator: Material properties and performance relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottinet, P.-J.; Souders, C.; Tsai, S.-Y.; Liang, R.; Wang, B.; Zhang, C.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes can be assembled into macroscopic thin film materials called buckypapers. To incorporate buckypaper actuators into engineering systems, it is of high importance to understand their material property-actuation performance relationships in order to model and predict the behavior of these actuators. The electromechanical actuation of macroscopic buckypaper structures and their actuators, including single and multi-walled carbon nanotube buckypapers and aligned single-walled nanotube buckypapers, were analyzed and compared. From the experimental evidence, this Letter discusses the effects of the fundamental material properties, including Young modulus and electrical double layer properties, on actuation performance of the resultant actuators. -- Highlights: ► In this study we identified the figure of merit of the electromechanical conversion. ► Different type of buckypaper was realized and characterized for actuation properties. ► The results demonstrated the potential of Buckypapers/Nafion for actuation

  19. Electromechanical modelling of tapered ionic polymer metal composites transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesha Chandra Dash

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs are relatively new smart materials that exhibit a bidirectional electromechanical coupling. IPMCs have large number of important engineering applications such as micro robotics, biomedical devices, biomimetic robotics etc. This paper presents a comparison between tapered and uniform cantilevered Nafion based IPMCs transducer. Electromechanical modelling is done for the tapered beam. Thickness can be varied according to the requirement of force and deflection. Numerical results pertaining to the force and deflection characteristics of both type IPMCs transducer are obtained. It is shown that the desired amount of force and deflections for tapered IPMCs can be achieved for a given voltage. Different fixed end (t0 and free end (t1 thickness values have been taken to justify the results using MATLAB.

  20. Electromechanical coupling in electrostatic micro-power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M A E; El-Saadany, E F; Mansour, R R; Abdel-Rahman, E M

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic micro-power generators (MPGs) are modeled and analyzed with particular emphasis on electromechanical coupling and its impact on the system dynamics. We identify two qualitatively different regimes in the MPG response, dubbed slow and fast. A linearized electromechanically coupled model of an electrostatic MPG and two simplified linear models are used to study the response of the MPG. Linear models are found adequate to represent the dynamic response of fast MPGs but inadequate to represent the response of slow and mixed domain MPGs. A nonlinear model is developed and validated to describe the response of those MPGs under moderately large excitations. On the basis of this analysis, we describe a method and provide design rules for realizing wideband electrostatic MPGs, and develop closed-form formulae for the extracted power for MPGs under moderately large excitations

  1. Effects of springs on a pendulum electromechanical energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Notué Kadjie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a model of energy harvester that consists of an electromechanical pendulum system subjected to nonlinear springs. The output power is analyzed in terms of the intrinsic parameters of the device leading to optimal parameters for energy harvesting. It is found that in an appropriate range of the springs constant, the power attains higher values as compared to the case without springs. The dynamical behavior of the device shows transition to chaos.

  2. Effects of springs on a pendulum electromechanical energy harvester

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud Notué Kadjie; Paul Woafo

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies a model of energy harvester that consists of an electromechanical pendulum system subjected to nonlinear springs. The output power is analyzed in terms of the intrinsic parameters of the device leading to optimal parameters for energy harvesting. It is found that in an appropriate range of the springs constant, the power attains higher values as compared to the case without springs. The dynamical behavior of the device shows transition to chaos.

  3. Multi states electromechanical switch for energy efficient parallel data processing

    KAUST Repository

    Kloub, Hussam

    2011-04-01

    We present a design, simulation results and fabrication of electromechanical switches enabling parallel data processing and multi functionality. The device is applied in logic gates AND, NOR, XNOR, and Flip-Flops. The device footprint size is 2μm by 0.5μm, and has a pull-in voltage of 5.15V which is verified by FEM simulation. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Multi states electromechanical switch for energy efficient parallel data processing

    KAUST Repository

    Kloub, Hussam; Smith, Casey; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    We present a design, simulation results and fabrication of electromechanical switches enabling parallel data processing and multi functionality. The device is applied in logic gates AND, NOR, XNOR, and Flip-Flops. The device footprint size is 2μm by 0.5μm, and has a pull-in voltage of 5.15V which is verified by FEM simulation. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Electromechanical manipulator for the Hot-Cell Verification Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, G.B.; Brownstein, M.

    1982-01-01

    An electromechanical manipulator was deSigned and built to perform prototypic prequalification testing of FMEF equipment in the HCVF. Significant performance improvements were achieved; for example, 1360 kg (3000 lb) hoist capability and a 180 kg (400 lb) tool capacity anywhere within the manipulator reach and moving at full speed. New remote maintenance features were incorporated in the design including the ability to remove all active components on the bridge, which precludes the need to remove the bridge structure. 8 figures

  6. Some Considerations Regarding The Efficiency Of The Electromechanical Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric DESTOBBELEER

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Control techniques for servo drive which run at variable speed for prolonged time is developed on the base of minimum energy dissipation in a feed-forward structure. The optimal control laws are determinate using the estimated values of the main perturbation - the load torque. Different aspects of the electromechanical motion efficiency are presented regarding the influence of the desired time of execution, the shape of trajectory and the last torque.

  7. In situ TEM electromechanical testing of nanowires and nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Horacio D; Bernal, Rodrigo A; Filleter, Tobin

    2012-11-05

    The emergence of one-dimensional nanostructures as fundamental constituents of advanced materials and next-generation electronic and electromechanical devices has increased the need for their atomic-scale characterization. Given its spatial and temporal resolution, coupled with analytical capabilities, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been the technique of choice in performing atomic structure and defect characterization. A number of approaches have been recently developed to combine these capabilities with in-situ mechanical deformation and electrical characterization in the emerging field of in-situ TEM electromechanical testing. This has enabled researchers to establish unambiguous synthesis-structure-property relations for one-dimensional nanostructures. In this article, the development and latest advances of several in-situ TEM techniques to carry out mechanical and electromechanical testing of nanowires and nanotubes are reviewed. Through discussion of specific examples, it is shown how the merging of several microsystems and TEM has led to significant insights into the behavior of nanowires and nanotubes, underscoring the significant role in-situ techniques play in the development of novel nanoscale systems and materials. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Electromechanical properties of superconductors for DOE fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekin, J.W.; Bray, S.L.; Lutgen, C.L.; Bahn, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    The electrical performance of many superconducting materials is strongly dependent on mechanical load. This report presents electromechanical data on a broad range of high-magnetic-field superconductors. The conductors that were studied fall into three general categories: Candidate conductors, experimental conductors, and reference conductors. Research on candidate conductors for fusion applications provides screening data for superconductor selection as well as engineering data for magnet design and performance analysis. The effect of axial tensile strain on critical-current density was measured for several Nb 3 Sn candidate conductors including the US-DPC (United States Demonstration Poloidal Coil) cable strand and an ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) candidate conductor. Also, data are presented on promising experimental superconductors that have strong potential for fusion applications. Axial strain measurements were made on a V 3 Ga tape conductor that has good performance at magnetic fields up to 20 T. Axial strain data are also presented for three experimental Nb 3 Sn conductors that contain dispersion hardened copper reinforcement for increased tensile strength. Finally, electromechanical characteristics were measured for three different Nb 3 Sn reference conductors from the first and second VAMAS (Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) international Nb 3 Sn critical-current round robins. Published papers containing key results, including the first measurement of the transverse stress effect in Nb 3 Sn, the effect of stress concentration at cable-strand crossovers, and electromechanical characteristics of Nb 3 Al, are included throughout the report

  9. Driving electromechanically assisted Gait Trainer for people with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Morone, Giovanni; Bragoni, Maura; De Angelis, Domenico; Venturiero, Vincenzo; Coiro, Paola; Pratesi, Luca; Paolucci, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Electromechanically assisted gait training is a promising task-oriented approach for gait restoration, especially for people with subacute stroke. However, few guidelines are available for selecting the parameter values of the electromechanical Gait Trainer (GT) (Reha-Stim; Berlin, Germany) and none is tailored to a patient's motor capacity. We assessed 342 GT sessions performed by 20 people with stroke who were stratified by Functional Ambulatory Category. In the first GT session of all patients, the body-weight support (BWS) required was higher than that reported in the literature. In further sessions, we noted a slow reduction of BWS and a fast increment of walking speed for the most-affected patients. Inverse trends were observed for the less-affected patients. In all the patients, the heart rate increment was about 20 beats per minute, even for sessions in which the number of strides performed was up to 500. In addition, the effective BWS measured during GT sessions was different from that initially selected by the physiotherapist. This difference depended mainly on the position of the GT platforms during selection. Finally, harness acceleration in the anteroposterior direction proved to be higher in patients with stroke than in nondisabled subjects. Our findings are an initial step toward scientifically selecting parameters in electromechanically assisted gait training.

  10. Two-dimensional MoS2 electromechanical actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen T.; Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Saito, Riichiro

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the electromechanical properties of two-dimensional MoS2 monolayers with 1H, 1T, and 1T‧ structures as a function of charge doping by using density functional theory. We find isotropic elastic moduli in the 1H and 1T structures, while the 1T‧ structure exhibits an anisotropic elastic modulus. Moreover, the 1T structure is shown to have a negative Poisson’s ratio, while Poisson’s ratios of the 1H and 1T‧ are positive. By charge doping, the monolayer MoS2 shows a reversible strain and work density per cycle ranging from  -0.68% to 2.67% and from 4.4 to 36.9 MJ m-3, respectively, making them suitable for applications in electromechanical actuators. We also examine the stress generated in the MoS2 monolayers and we find that 1T and 1T‧ MoS2 monolayers have relatively better performance than 1H MoS2 monolayer. We argue that such excellent electromechanical performance originate from the electrical conductivity of the metallic 1T and semimetallic 1T‧ structures and also from their high Young’s modulus of about 150-200 GPa.

  11. Combined approach of perioperative 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging and intraoperative 18F-FDG handheld gamma probe detection for tumor localization and verification of complete tumor resection in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knopp Michael V

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT has become an established method for detecting hypermetabolic sites of known and occult disease and is widely used in oncology surgical planning. Intraoperatively, it is often difficult to localize tumors and verify complete resection of tumors that have been previously detected on diagnostic PET/CT at the time of the original evaluation of the cancer patient. Therefore, we propose an innovative approach for intraoperative tumor localization and verification of complete tumor resection utilizing 18F-FDG for perioperative PET/CT imaging and intraoperative gamma probe detection. Methods Two breast cancer patients were evaluated. 18F-FDG was administered and PET/CT was acquired immediately prior to surgery. Intraoperatively, tumors were localized and resected with the assistance of a handheld gamma probe. Resected tumors were scanned with specimen PET/CT prior to pathologic processing. Shortly after the surgical procedure, patients were re-imaged with PET/CT utilizing the same preoperatively administered 18F-FDG dose. Results One patient had primary carcinoma of breast and a metastatic axillary lymph node. The second patient had a solitary metastatic liver lesion. In both cases, preoperative PET/CT verified these findings and demonstrated no additional suspicious hypermetabolic lesions. Furthermore, intraoperative gamma probe detection, specimen PET/CT, and postoperative PET/CT verified complete resection of the hypermetabolic lesions. Conclusion Immediate preoperative and postoperative PET/CT imaging, utilizing the same 18F-FDG injection dose, is feasible and image quality is acceptable. Such perioperative PET/CT imaging, along with intraoperative gamma probe detection and specimen PET/CT, can be used to verify complete tumor resection. This innovative approach demonstrates promise for assisting the oncologic surgeon in localizing and

  12. A Systems Engineering Approach to Electro-Mechanical Actuator Diagnostic and Prognostic Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The authors have formulated a Comprehensive Systems Engineering approach to Electro-Mechanical Actuator (EMA) Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) system...

  13. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Khatib, M.G.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data

  14. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  15. Mechanism of electromechanical coupling in voltage-gated potassium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikard eBlunck

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated ion channels play a central role in the generation of action potentials in the nervous system. They are selective for one type of ion – sodium, calcium or potassium. Voltage-gated ion channels are composed of a central pore that allows ions to pass through the membrane and four peripheral voltage sensing domains that respond to changes in the membrane potential. Upon depolarization, voltage sensors in voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv undergo conformational changes driven by positive charges in the S4 segment and aided by pairwise electrostatic interactions with the surrounding voltage sensor. Structure-function relations of Kv channels have been investigated in detail, and the resulting models on the movement of the voltage sensors now converge to a consensus; the S4 segment undergoes a combined movement of rotation, tilt and vertical displacement in order to bring 3-4 e+ each through the electric field focused in this region. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the voltage sensor movement leads to pore opening, the electromechanical coupling, is still not fully understood. Thus, recently, electromechanical coupling in different Kv channels has been investigated with a multitude of techniques including electrophysiology, 3D crystal structures, fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Evidently, the S4-S5 linker, the covalent link between the voltage sensor and pore, plays a crucial role. The linker transfers the energy from the voltage sensor movement to the pore domain via an interaction with the S6 C-termini, which are pulled open during gating. In addition, other contact regions have been proposed. This review aims to provide (i an in-depth comparison of the molecular mechanisms of electromechanical coupling in different Kv channels; (ii insight as to how the voltage sensor and pore domain influence one another; and (iii theoretical predictions on the movement of the cytosolic face of the KV channels

  16. High Temperature Electro-Mechanical Devices For Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plants require a number of electro-mechanical devices, for example, Control Rod Drive Mechanisms (CRDM's) to control the raising and lowering of control rods and Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCP's) to circulate the primary coolant. There are potential benefits in locating electro-mechanical components in areas of the plant with high ambient temperatures. One such benefit is the reduced need to make penetrations in pressure vessels leading to simplified plant design and improved inherent safety. The feature that limits the ambient temperature at which most electrical machines may operate is the material used for the electrical insulation of the machine windings. Conventional electrical machines generally use polymer-based insulation that limits the ambient temperature they can operate in to below 200 degrees Celsius. This means that when a conventional electrical machine is required to operate in a hot area it must be actively cooled necessitating additional systems. This paper presents data gathered during investigations undertaken by Rolls-Royce into the design of high temperature electrical machines. The research was undertaken at Rolls-Royce's University Technology Centre in Advanced Electrical Machines and Drives at Sheffield University. Rolls- Royce has also been investigating high temperature wire and encapsulants and latterly techniques to provide high temperature insulation to terminations. Rolls-Royce used the experience gained from these tests to produce a high temperature electrical linear actuator at sizes representative of those used in reactor systems. This machine was tested successfully at temperatures equivalent to those found inside the reactor vessel of a pressurised water reactor through a full series of operations that replicated in service duty. The paper will conclude by discussing the impact of the findings and potential electro-mechanical designs that may utilise such high temperature technologies. (authors)

  17. Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) Pressure Sensor for Footwear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholwadwala, Deepesh K.; Rohrer, Brandon R.; Spletzer, Barry L.; Galambos, Paul C.; Wheeler, Jason W.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Givler, Richard C.

    2008-09-23

    Footwear comprises a sole and a plurality of sealed cavities contained within the sole. The sealed cavities can be incorporated as deformable containers within an elastic medium, comprising the sole. A plurality of micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) pressure sensors are respectively contained within the sealed cavity plurality, and can be adapted to measure static and dynamic pressure within each of the sealed cavities. The pressure measurements can provide information relating to the contact pressure distribution between the sole of the footwear and the wearer's environment.

  18. Studying Electromechanical Wave Propagation and Transport Delays in Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Kalyan; Kulkarni, A. M.; Soman, Shreevardhan

    2013-05-01

    Abstract: In this paper, we make an attempt to describe the phenomenon of wave propagation when a disturbance is introduced in an electromechanical system. The focus is mainly on generator trips in a power system. Ordering of the generators is first done using a sensitivity matrix. Thereafter, orthogonal decomposition of the ordered generators is done to group them based on their participation in different modes. Finally, we find the velocity of propagation of the wave and the transport delay associated with it using the ESPRIT method. The analysis done on generators from the eastern and western regions of India.1

  19. Electromechanical effects of bepridil on rabbit isolated hearts.

    OpenAIRE

    Anno, T.; Furuta, T.; Itoh, M.; Kodama, I.; Toyama, J.; Yamada, K.

    1984-01-01

    Electromechanical effects of a new antianginal agent, bepridil, on Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were compared with those of verapamil and lidocaine. Bepridil at concentrations above 2 X 10(-7)M caused a dose-related decrease in heart rate (HR), a prolongation of the atrio-His bundle conduction time (A-H interval) and a prolongation of the functional refractory period (FRP) of the atrioventricular (A-V) node. Similar changes in HR, A-H interval and the FRP of the A-V node were observed w...

  20. Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Micro-electromechanical Circular Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chia Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the hybrid differential transformation and finite difference method is applied to analyze the dynamic behavior of the nonlinear micro-electromechanical circular plate actuated by combined DC / AC loading schemes. The analysis takes account of the axial residual stress and hydrostatic pressure acting on micro circular plate upper surface. The dynamic response of the plate as a function of the magnitude of the AC driving voltage is explored. Moreover, the effect of the initial gap height on the pull-in voltage of the plate is systematically explored.

  1. Uncovering nanoscale electromechanical heterogeneity in the subfibrillar structure of collagen fibrils responsible for the piezoelectricity of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Yu, Min-Feng

    2009-07-28

    Understanding piezoelectricity, the linear electromechanical transduction, in bone and tendon and its potential role in mechanoelectric transduction leading to their growth and remodeling remains a challenging subject. With high-resolution piezoresponse force microscopy, we probed piezoelectric behavior in relevant biological samples at different scale levels: from the subfibrillar structures of single isolated collagen fibrils to bone. We revealed that, beyond the general understanding of collagen fibril being a piezoelectric material, there existed an intrinsic piezoelectric heterogeneity within a collagen fibril coinciding with the periodic variation of its gap and overlap regions. This piezoelectric heterogeneity persisted even for the collagen fibrils embedded in bone, bringing about new implications for its possible roles in structural formation and remodeling of bone.

  2. Optical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, J.; Decaudin, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The probe includes optical means of refractive index n, refracting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n1>n and reflecting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n2 [fr

  3. Nano-Electromechanical Systems: Displacement Detection and the Mechanical Single Electron Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blick, R. H.; Beil, F. W.; Höhberger, E.; Erbe, A.; Weiss, C.

    For an introduction to nano-electromechanical systems we present measurements on nanomechanical resonators operating in the radio frequency range. We discuss in detail two different schemes of displacement detection for mechanical resonators, namely conventional reflection measurements of a probing signal and direct detection by capacitive coupling via a gate electrode. For capacitive detection we employ an on-chip preamplifier, which enables direct measurements of the resonator's disp lacement. We observe that the mechanical quality factor of the resonator depends on the detection technique applied, which is verified in model calculations and report on the detection of sub-harmonics. In the second part we extend our investigations to include transport of single electrons through an electron island on the tip of a nanomachined mechanical pendulum. The pendulum is operated by applying a modulating electromagnetic field in the range of 1 - 200 MHz, leading to mechanical oscillations between two laterally integrated source and drain contacts. Forming tunneling barriers the metallic tip shuttles single electrons from source to drain. The resulting tunneling current shows distinct features corresponding to the discrete mechanical eigenfrequencies of the pendulum. We report on measurements covering the temperature range from 300 K down to 4.2 K. The transport properties of the device are compared in detail to model calculations based on a Master-equation approach.

  4. Mechanical characterization of 3D printed anisotropic cementitious material by the electromechanical transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guowei; Zhang, Junfei; Wang, Li; Li, Zhijian; Sun, Junbo

    2018-07-01

    3D concrete printing is an innovative and promising construction method that is rapidly gaining ground in recent years. This technique extrudes premixed concrete materials through a nozzle to build structural components layer upon layer without formworks. The build-up process of depositing filaments or layers intrinsically produce laminated structures and create weak joints between adjacent layers. It is of great significance to clearly elaborate the mechanical characteristics of 3D printed components response to various applied loads and the different performance from the mould-cast ones. In this study, a self-developed 3D printing system was invented and applied to fabricate concrete samples. Three points bending test and direct double shear test were carried out to investigate the mechanical properties of 3D printed prisms. The anisotropic behaviors were probed by loading in different directions. Meanwhile, piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers were implemented to monitor the damage evolution of the printed samples in the loading process based on the electromechanical impedance method. Test results demonstrate that the tensile stresses perpendicular to the weaken interfaces formed between filaments were prone to induce cracks than those parallel to the interfaces. The damages of concrete materials resulted in the decrease in the frequency and a change in the amplitude in the conductance spectrum acquired by mounted PZT patches. The admittance signatures showed a clear gradation of the examined damage levels of printed prisms exposed to applied loadings.

  5. Field tests for assessing electrical protection performance regarding electromechanical protection relays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfredo Esteves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes designing and using a series of field tests (such as pick-up test and operating characteristics aimed at ascertaining the correct operation of relays’ electromechanical protection. The characteristic elements involved in adjusting electromechanical protection relays are presented.

  6. Left Ventricular Electromechanical Mapping: A Case Study of Functional Assessment in Coronary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Perin, Emerson C.; Silva, Guilherme V.; Sarmento-Leite, Rogerio

    2000-01-01

    Electromechanical mapping is a new diagnostic tool that can be used to identify viable myocardium. In the case reported here, the technique was used before intervention to map areas of viable myocardium; post-intervention mapping showed improved mechanical function of the revascularized areas. Electromechanical mapping offers the potential of assessing left ventricular function in the cardiac catheterization laboratory before and after interventional procedures.

  7. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. High spatial resolution Kelvin probe force microscopy with coaxial probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Keith A; Westervelt, Robert M; Satzinger, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a widely used technique to measure the local contact potential difference (CPD) between an AFM probe and the sample surface via the electrostatic force. The spatial resolution of KPFM is intrinsically limited by the long range of the electrostatic interaction, which includes contributions from the macroscopic cantilever and the conical tip. Here, we present coaxial AFM probes in which the cantilever and cone are shielded by a conducting shell, confining the tip–sample electrostatic interaction to a small region near the end of the tip. We have developed a technique to measure the true CPD despite the presence of the shell electrode. We find that the behavior of these probes agrees with an electrostatic model of the force, and we observe a factor of five improvement in spatial resolution relative to unshielded probes. Our discussion centers on KPFM, but the field confinement offered by these probes may improve any variant of electrostatic force microscopy. (paper)

  9. An Electromechanical Pendulum Robot Arm in Action: Dynamics and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Notué Kadjie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors numerically investigate the dynamics and control of an electromechanical robot arm consisting of a pendulum coupled to an electrical circuit via an electromagnetic mechanism. The analysis of the dynamical behavior of the electromechanical device powered by a sinusoidal power source is carried out when the effects of the loads on the arm are neglected. It is found that the device exhibits period-n T oscillations and high amplitude oscillations when the electric current is at its smallest value. The specific case which considers the effects of the impulsive contact force caused by an external load mass pushed by the arm is also studied. It is found that the amplitude of the impulse force generates several behaviors such as jump of amplitude and distortions of the mechanical vibration and electrical signal. For more efficient functioning of the device, both piezoelectric and adaptive backstepping controls are applied on the system. It is found that the control strategies are able to mitigate the signal distortion and restore the dynamical behavior to its normal state or reduce the effects of perturbations such as a short time variation of one component or when the robot system is subject to noises.

  10. Electromechanical properties of nanotube-PVA composite actuator bimorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholome, Christele; Derre, Alain; Roubeau, Olivier; Zakri, Cecile; Poulin, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube (oxidized-MWNT)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite sheets have been prepared for electromechanical actuator applications. MWNT have been oxidized by nitric acid treatments. They were then dispersed in water and mixed with various amounts of PVA of high molecular weight (198 000 g mol -1 ). The composite sheets were then obtained through a membrane filtration process. The composition of the systems has been optimized to combine suitable mechanical and electrical properties. Thermogravimetric analysis, mechanical tensile tests and conductivity measurements show that the best compromise of mechanical and electrical properties was obtained for a PVA weight fraction of about 30 wt%. In addition, one face of the sheets was coated with gold to increase the conductivity of the sheets and promote uniform actuation. Pseudo-bimorph devices have been realized by subsequently coating the composite sheets with an inert layer of PVA. The devices have been tested electromechanically in a liquid electrolyte (tetrabutylammonium/tetrafluoroborate (TBA/TFB) in acetonitrile) at constant frequency and different applied voltages, from 2 to 10 V. Measurements of the bimorph deflections were used to determine the stress generated by the nanotube-PVA sheets. The results show that the stress generated increases with increasing amplitude of the applied voltage and can reach 1.8 MPa. This value compares well with and even exceeds the stress generated by recently obtained bimorphs made of gold nanoparticles

  11. New applications of a model of electromechanical impedance for SHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelko, Vitalijs

    2014-03-01

    The paper focuses on the further development of the model of the electromechanical impedance (EMI) of the piezoceramics transducer (PZT) and its application for aircraft structural health monitoring (SHM). There was obtained an expression of the electromechanical impedance common to any dimension of models (1D, 2D, 3D), and directly independent from imposed constraints. Determination of the dynamic response of the system "host structure - PZT", which is crucial for the practical application supposes the use of modal analysis. This allows to get a general tool to determine EMI regardless of the specific features of a particular application. Earlier there was considered the technology of separate determination of the dynamic response for the PZT and the structural element". Here another version that involves the joint modal analysis of the entire system "host structure - PZT" is presented. As a result, the dynamic response is obtained in the form of modal decomposition of transducer mechanical strains. The use of models for the free and constrained transducer, analysis of the impact of the adhesive layer to the EMI is demonstrated. In all cases there was analyzed the influence of the dimension of the model (2D and 3D). The validity of the model is confirmed by experimental studies. Correlation between the fatigue crack length in a thin-walled Al plate and EMI of embedded PZT was simulated and compared with test result.

  12. System-Level Design Considerations for Carbon Nanotube Electromechanical Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kauth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite an evermore complete plethora of complex domain-specific semiempirical models, no succinct recipe for large-scale carbon nanotube electromechanical systems design has been formulated. To combine the benefits of these highly sensitive miniaturized mechanical sensors with the vast functionalities available in electronics, we identify a reduced key parameter set of carbon nanotube properties, nanoelectromechanical system design, and operation that steers the sensor’s performance towards system applications, based on open- and closed-loop topologies. Suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes are reviewed in terms of their electromechanical properties with the objective of evaluating orders of magnitude of the electrical actuation and detection mechanisms. Open-loop time-averaging and 1ω or 2ω mixing methods are completed by a new 4ω actuation and detection technique. A discussion on their extension to closed-loop topologies and system applications concludes the analysis, covering signal-to-noise ratio, and the capability to spectrally isolate the motional information from parasitical feedthrough by contemporary electronic read-out techniques.

  13. (Electro)Mechanical Properties of Olefinic Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontak, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Conventional styrenic triblock copolymers (SBCs) swollen with a midblock-selective oil have been previously shown to exhibit excellent electromechanical properties as dielectric elastomers. In this class of electroactive polymers, compliant electrodes applied as active areas to opposing surfaces of an elastomer attract each other, and thus compress the elastomer due to the onset of a Maxwell stress, upon application of an external electric field. This isochoric process is accompanied by an increase in lateral area, which yields the electroactuation strain (measuring beyond 300% in SBC systems). Performance parameters such as the Maxwell stress, transverse strain, dielectric breakdown, energy density and electromechanical efficiency are determined directly from the applied electric field and resulting electroactuation strain. In this study, the same principle used to evaluate SBC systems is extended to olefinic block copolymers (OBCs), which can be described as randomly-coupled multiblock copolymers that consist of crystallizable polyethylene hard segments and rubbery poly(ethylene-co-octene) soft segments. Considerations governing the development of a methodology to fabricate electroresponsive OBC systems are first discussed for several OBCs differing in composition and bulk properties. Evidence of electroactuation in selectively-solvated OBC systems is presented and performance metrics measured therefrom are quantitatively compared with dielectric elastomers derived from SBC and related materials.

  14. Chaos in a new bistable rotating electromechanical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapla Fotsa, R.; Woafo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new electromechanical system with rotating arm and bistable potential energy is studied. • The bistability is generated by the interaction of three permanent magnets, one fixed at the end of the arm and two other fixed at equal distance relative to the central position of the arm. • It exhibits dissipative and Hamiltonian chaos. • Such a bistable electromechanical system can be used as the actuation part of chaotic sieves and mixers. - Abstract: A device consisting of an induction motor activating a rotating rigid arm is designed and comprises a bistable potential due to the presence of three permanent magnets. Its mathematical equations are established and the numerical results both in the absence and in the presence of magnets are compared. The generation of chaotic behavior is achieved using two different external excitations: sinewave and square wave. In the presence of magnets, the system presents periodic and dissipative chaotic dynamics. Approximating the global potential energy to a bistable quartic potential, the Melnikov method is used to derive the conditions for the appearance of Hamiltonian chaos. Such a device can be used for industrial and domestic applications for mixing and sieving activities.

  15. Three-Dimensionally Printed Micro-electromechanical Switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongwoo; Han, Jungmin; Choi, Bongsik; Yoon, Jinsu; Park, Jinhee; Kim, Yeamin; Lee, Jieun; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Dong Myong; Lim, Meehyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Kim, Sungho; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2018-05-09

    Three-dimensional (3D) printers have attracted considerable attention from both industry and academia and especially in recent years because of their ability to overcome the limitations of two-dimensional (2D) processes and to enable large-scale facile integration techniques. With 3D printing technologies, complex structures can be created using only a computer-aided design file as a reference; consequently, complex shapes can be manufactured in a single step with little dependence on manufacturer technologies. In this work, we provide a first demonstration of the facile and time-saving 3D printing of two-terminal micro-electromechanical (MEM) switches. Two widely used thermoplastic materials were used to form 3D-printed MEM switches; freely suspended and fixed electrodes were printed from conductive polylactic acid, and a water-soluble sacrificial layer for air-gap formation was printed from poly(vinyl alcohol). Our 3D-printed MEM switches exhibit excellent electromechanical properties, with abrupt switching characteristics and an excellent on/off current ratio value exceeding 10 6 . Therefore, we believe that our study makes an innovative contribution with implications for the development of a broader range of 3D printer applications (e.g., the manufacturing of various MEM devices and sensors), and the work highlights a uniquely attractive path toward the realization of 3D-printed electronics.

  16. Construction Management of Electromechanical Engineering Project in Petrochemical Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Tao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemical industry as a basic industry, occupies a pivotal position in the national economy, with the continuous development of science and technology, electromechanical automation in the petrochemical industry has been widely used to save a lot of labor but also greatly improve the oil Chemical industry production efficiency. Therefore, in the construction of petrochemical industry, mechanical and electrical engineering as part of it. It plays a vital role. Petrochemical industry with the production of high temperature and high pressure and flammable and explosive gas, can strengthen the construction of mechanical and electrical engineering specialization and construction management of scientific, has become the relationship between the smooth development of mechanical and electrical engineering and engineering quality of the key, A direct impact on the petrochemical construction of the overall construction quality. To this end, it is necessary for the construction of petrochemical construction of electromechanical engineering construction management to promote the construction of mechanical and electrical engineering management level gradually increased. This article on the machine Electric engineering project construction management were discussed with a view to the petrochemical construction in the relevant aspects of the need to provide reference for reference.

  17. Unimodal optimal passive electromechanical damping of elastic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Mekki, O; Bourquin, F; Merliot, E; Maceri, F

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new electromechanical damper is presented and used, made of a pendulum oscillating around an alternator axis and connected by a gear to the vibrating structure. In this way, the mechanical energy of the oscillating mass can be transformed into electrical energy to be dissipated when the alternator is branched on a resistor. This damping device is intrinsically non-linear, and the problem of the optimal parameters and of the best placement of this damper on the structure is studied. The optimality criterion chosen here is the maximum exponential time decay rate (ETDR) of the structural response. This criterion leads to new design formulas. The case of a bridge under construction is considered and the analytical results are compared with experimental ones, obtained on a mock-up made of a vertical tower connected to a free-end horizontal beam, to simulate the behavior of a cable-stayed bridge during the erection phase. Up to three electromechanical dampers are placed in order to study the multi-modal damping. The satisfactory agreement between the theoretical model and the experiments suggests that a multi-modal passive damping of electromagnetic type could be effective on lightweight flexible structures, when dampers are suitably placed. (paper)

  18. Electro-Mechanical Systems for Extreme Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Tyler, Tony R.; Abel, Phillip B.; Levanas, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Exploration beyond low earth orbit presents challenges for hardware that must operate in extreme environments. The current state of the art is to isolate and provide heating for sensitive hardware in order to survive. However, this protection results in penalties of weight and power for the spacecraft. This is particularly true for electro-mechanical based technology such as electronics, actuators and sensors. Especially when considering distributed electronics, many electro-mechanical systems need to be located in appendage type locations, making it much harder to protect from the extreme environments. The purpose of this paper to describe the advances made in the area of developing electro-mechanical technology to survive these environments with minimal protection. The Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL), the Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Aeroflex, Inc. over the last few years have worked to develop and test electro-mechanical hardware that will meet the stringent environmental demands of the moon, and which can also be leveraged for other challenging space exploration missions. Prototype actuators and electronics have been built and tested. Brushless DC actuators designed by Aeroflex, Inc have been tested with interface temperatures as low as 14 degrees Kelvin. Testing of the Aeroflex design has shown that a brushless DC motor with a single stage planetary gearbox can operate in low temperature environments for at least 120 million cycles (measured at motor) if long life is considered as part of the design. A motor control distributed electronics concept developed by JPL was built and operated at temperatures as low as -160 C, with many components still operational down to -245 C. Testing identified the components not capable of meeting the low temperature goal of -230 C. This distributed controller is universal in design with the ability to control different types of motors and read many different types of sensors. The controller

  19. DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, J.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with 32 P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism's genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens

  20. DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelino, J

    1993-12-31

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with {sup 32}P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism`s genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens 10 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. The importance of mechano-electrical feedback and inertia in cardiac electromechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabal, Francisco Sahli; Concha, Felipe A; Hurtado, Daniel E; Kuhl, Ellen

    2017-06-15

    In the past years, a number cardiac electromechanics models have been developed to better understand the excitation-contraction behavior of the heart. However, there is no agreement on whether inertial forces play a role in this system. In this study, we assess the influence of mass in electromechanical simulations, using a fully coupled finite element model. We include the effect of mechano-electrical feedback via stretch activated currents. We compare five different models: electrophysiology, electromechanics, electromechanics with mechano-electrical feedback, electromechanics with mass, and electromechanics with mass and mechano-electrical feedback. We simulate normal conduction to study conduction velocity and spiral waves to study fibrillation. During normal conduction, mass in conjunction with mechano-electrical feedback increased the conduction velocity by 8.12% in comparison to the plain electrophysiology case. During the generation of a spiral wave, mass and mechano-electrical feedback generated secondary wavefronts, which were not present in any other model. These secondary wavefronts were initiated in tensile stretch regions that induced electrical currents. We expect that this study will help the research community to better understand the importance of mechanoelectrical feedback and inertia in cardiac electromechanics.

  3. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  4. Enhancement of electromechanical manipulator performance by external sensory feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, Taejun; Yoon, Jisup; Jung, Wootae; Lee, Jaesol.

    1990-01-01

    The electromechanical manipulator (EMM) is widely used in nuclear facilities because of its strength and mechanical reliability. Nevertheless, the lack of internal position or force feedback makes it unsuitable for many tasks that require a high level of dexterity. At the remote handling department of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, a series of research and development (R and D) activities was conducted to provide a higher degree of intelligence to the EMM with the aid of external sensory devices. These R and D activities focus on remote viewing and remote measurement in radioactive environments. As a result, an improved EMM system was achieved that incorporates various sensory devices such as a motion tracking system and a laser vision system. This paper presents detailed technical descriptions of these sensors and test results

  5. High frequency electromechanical memory cells based on telescoping carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A M; Lozovik, Y E; Kulish, A S; Bichoutskaia, E

    2010-07-01

    A new method to increase the operational frequency of electromechanical memory cells based on the telescoping motion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes through the selection of the form of the switching voltage pulse is proposed. The relative motion of the walls of carbon nanotubes can be controlled through the shape of the interwall interaction energy surface. This allows the use of the memory cells in nonvolatile or volatile regime, depending on the structure of carbon nanotube. Simulations based on ab initio and semi-empirical calculations of the interwall interaction energies are used to estimate the switching voltage and the operational frequency of volatile cells with the electrodes made of carbon nanotubes. The lifetime of nonvolatile memory cells is also predicted.

  6. An electromechanical, patient positioning system for head and neck radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostyn, Mark; Dwyer, Thomas; Miller, Matthew; King, Paden; Sacks, Rachel; Cruikshank, Ross; Rosario, Melvin; Martinez, Daniel; Kim, Siyong; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2017-09-01

    In cancer treatment with radiation, accurate patient setup is critical for proper dose delivery. Improper arrangement can lead to disease recurrence, permanent organ damage, or lack of disease control. While current immobilization equipment often helps for patient positioning, manual adjustment is required, involving iterative, time-consuming steps. Here, we present an electromechanical robotic system for improving patient setup in radiotherapy, specifically targeting head and neck cancer. This positioning system offers six degrees of freedom for a variety of applications in radiation oncology. An analytical calculation of inverse kinematics serves as fundamental criteria to design the system. Computational mechanical modeling and experimental study of radiotherapy compatibility and x-ray-based imaging demonstrates the device feasibility and reliability to be used in radiotherapy. An absolute positioning accuracy test in a clinical treatment room supports the clinical feasibility of the system.

  7. A study on electromechanical carbon nanotube memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Hwang, Ho Jung

    2005-01-01

    Electromechanical operations of carbon-nanotube (CNT) bridge memory device were investigated by using atomistic simulations based on empirical potentials. The nanotube-bridge memory device was operated by the electrostatic and the van der Waals forces acting on the nanotube-bridge. For the CNT bridge memory device, the van der Waals interactions between the CNT bridge and the oxide were very important. As the distance between the CNT bridge and the oxide decreased and the van der Waals interaction energy increased, the pull-in bias of the CNT-bridge decreased and the nonvolatility of the nanotube-bridge memory device increased, while the pull-out voltages increased. When the materials composed of the oxide film are different, since the van der Waals interactions must be also different, the oxide materials must be carefully selected for the CNT-bridge memory device to work as a nonvolatile memory.

  8. Smooth driving of Mössbauer electromechanical transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, A.; Mayosky, M. A.; Martínez, N.; Mendoza Zélis, P.; Pasquevich, G. A.; Sánchez, F. H.

    2011-01-01

    Quality of Mössbauer spectra is strongly related to the performance of source velocity modulator. Traditional electromechanical driving techniques demand hard-edged square or triangular velocity waveforms that introduce long settling times and demand careful driver tuning. For this work, the behavior of commercial velocity transducers and drive units was studied under different working conditions. Different velocity reference waveforms in constant-acceleration, constant-velocity and programmable-velocity techniques were tested. Significant improvement in spectrometer efficiency and accuracy was achieved by replacing triangular and square hard edges with continuous smooth-shaped transitions. A criterion for best waveform selection and synchronization is presented and attainable enhancements are evaluated. In order to fully exploit this driving technique, a compact microprocessor-based architecture is proposed and a suitable data acquisition system implementation is presented. System linearity and efficiency characterization are also shown.

  9. Qubit Coupled Mechanical Resonator in an Electromechanical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yu

    This thesis describes the development of a hybrid quantum electromechanical system. In this system the mechanical resonator is capacitively coupled to a superconducting transmon which is embedded in a superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) cavity. The difficulty of achieving high quality of superconducting qubit in a high-quality voltage-biased cavity is overcome by integrating a superconducting reflective T-filter to the cavity. Further spectroscopic and pulsed measurements of the hybrid system demonstrate interactions between the ultra-high frequency mechanical resonator and transmon qubit. The noise of mechanical resonator close to ground state is measured by looking at the spectroscopy of the transmon. At last, fabrication and tests of membrane resonators are discussed.

  10. Electromechanics vs. Mechatronics –Points of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Andras

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Mechatronics–this emerging boundary subject is largely disputed among scientific, business, and engineering collectivities both in the plane of methods and applications, and in the plane of concepts and approaches. From ideas which consider it as a make-up form of electromechanics or deny its scientific emerging character, until apologizing concepts declaring it as a philosophy of intelligent machines engineering of 21st century, a few dozen of concepts and opinions exist in formal and no formal debates among interested collectivities. The paper deals with an overview of these ideas, with pro and contra augments emerged from a particular topic- equipment for mining industry, the latest beneficiary of the topic.

  11. Transversely Excited Multipass Photoacoustic Cell Using Electromechanical Film as Microphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko Saarela

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel multipass photoacoustic cell with five stacked electromechanical films as a microphone has been constructed, tested and characterized. The photoacoustic cell is an open rectangular structure with two steel plates facing each other. The longitudinal acoustic resonances are excited transversely in an optical multipass configuration. A detection limit of 22 ppb (10−9 was achieved for flowing NO2 in N2 at normal pressure by using the maximum of 70 laser beams between the resonator plates. The corresponding minimum detectable absorption and the normalized noise-equivalent absorption coefficients were 2:2 × 10−7 cm−1 and 3:2 × 10−9 cm−1WHz−1/2, respectively.

  12. [Electromechanical registration of the resting behavior of fattening pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, H; Plonait, H

    1977-10-05

    The resting behaviour of four weanling pigs has been continuously recorded by an electromechanical apparatus for 8 weeks. The duration of different postures: standing, ventral recumbency, lateral recumbency and frequency of standing periods were recorded as influenced by different environmental factors. 1. Floor with and without bedding at 21 degrees C. 2. Floor without bedding at 27 degrees C environmental temperature. 3. Feeding once daily versus twice. Duration of recumbency periods was increases at 21 degrees C if bedding was provided. This also improved daily gain. At elevated environmental temperatures the animals preferred the lying posture on concrete floor. Feeding twice increased the duration of recumbency. The same was the case as the animals grew older. Disturbance by caretaking activities in neighbouring dens increased the duration of standing.

  13. Adaptive integral robust control and application to electromechanical servo systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenxiang; Yao, Jianyong

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a continuous adaptive integral robust control with robust integral of the sign of the error (RISE) feedback for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems, in which the RISE feedback gain is adapted online to ensure the robustness against disturbances without the prior bound knowledge of the additive disturbances. In addition, an adaptive compensation integrated with the proposed adaptive RISE feedback term is also constructed to further reduce design conservatism when the system also exists parametric uncertainties. Lyapunov analysis reveals the proposed controllers could guarantee the tracking errors are asymptotically converging to zero with continuous control efforts. To illustrate the high performance nature of the developed controllers, numerical simulations are provided. At the end, an application case of an actual electromechanical servo system driven by motor is also studied, with some specific design consideration, and comparative experimental results are obtained to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controllers. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multi-functional quantum router using hybrid opto-electromechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Cheng; Yan, Lei-Lei; Chen, Gui-Bin; Li, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Jing; Zhan, You-Bang

    2018-03-01

    Quantum routers engineered with multiple frequency bands play a key role in quantum networks. We propose an experimentally accessible scheme for a multi-functional quantum router, using photon-phonon conversion in a hybrid opto-electromechanical system. Our proposed device functions as a bidirectional, tunable multi-channel quantum router, and demonstrates the possibility to route single optical photons bidirectionally and simultaneously to three different output ports, by adjusting the microwave power. Further, the device also behaves as an interswitching unit for microwave and optical photons, yielding probabilistic routing of microwave (optical) signals to optical (microwave) outports. With respect to potential application, we verify the insignificant influence from vacuum and thermal noises in the performance of the router under cryogenic conditions.

  15. Electromechanical response of (2–2) layered piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar-Gupta, Ronit; Venkatesh, T A

    2013-01-01

    Analytical and finite element models are developed to systematically characterize the effects of phase volume fraction and the relative orientations of the poling directions in two phases on the effective elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of layered piezoelectric composites. Four classes of layered piezoelectric composites are identified based on the relative orientation of the poling directions in the two piezoelectric phases. Upon verifying that the results of the finite model compare well with that of analytical models for select layered composite systems, the finite element model is extended to characterize the electromechanical response of all four classes of piezoelectric composites. It is generally observed that the electromechanical properties of the layered composite along a direction perpendicular to the layer interface is largely influenced by the properties of the ‘softer’ phase whereas the in-plane response is modulated more by the ‘rule-of-mixtures’ theory. It is also observed that variations in the poling directions of the constituents can significantly influence the symmetry of the composite with composites that belong to Classes II and III (where the poling directions of the two phases are orthogonal to each other) exhibiting a relatively lower degree of material symmetry while the composites that belong to Classes I and IV (where the poling directions of the two phases are parallel to each other) exhibit a higher order symmetry. Furthermore, the best combination of figures of merit, i.e., enhanced coupling constant and reduced acoustic impedance, in a direction parallel to the layer interface is exhibited by Class I and Class II types of composite (where the piezoelectrically stiffer phase is poled along the layer interface). (paper)

  16. Reliability assessment of complex electromechanical systems under epistemic uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, Jinhua; Li, Yan-Feng; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Peng, Weiwen; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The appearance of macro-engineering and mega-project have led to the increasing complexity of modern electromechanical systems (EMSs). The complexity of the system structure and failure mechanism makes it more difficult for reliability assessment of these systems. Uncertainty, dynamic and nonlinearity characteristics always exist in engineering systems due to the complexity introduced by the changing environments, lack of data and random interference. This paper presents a comprehensive study on the reliability assessment of complex systems. In view of the dynamic characteristics within the system, it makes use of the advantages of the dynamic fault tree (DFT) for characterizing system behaviors. The lifetime of system units can be expressed as bounded closed intervals by incorporating field failures, test data and design expertize. Then the coefficient of variation (COV) method is employed to estimate the parameters of life distributions. An extended probability-box (P-Box) is proposed to convey the present of epistemic uncertainty induced by the incomplete information about the data. By mapping the DFT into an equivalent Bayesian network (BN), relevant reliability parameters and indexes have been calculated. Furthermore, the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method is utilized to compute the DFT model with consideration of system replacement policy. The results show that this integrated approach is more flexible and effective for assessing the reliability of complex dynamic systems. - Highlights: • A comprehensive study on the reliability assessment of complex system is presented. • An extended probability-box is proposed to convey the present of epistemic uncertainty. • The dynamic fault tree model is built. • Bayesian network and Monte Carlo simulation methods are used. • The reliability assessment of a complex electromechanical system is performed.

  17. Probing the quantum correlation and Bell non-locality for Dirac particles with Hawking effect in the background of Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shuai; Song, Xue-ke; Shi, Jia-dong; Ye, Liu

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we analytically explore the effect of the Hawking radiation on the quantum correlation and Bell non-locality for Dirac particles in the background of Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that when the Hawking effect is almost nonexistent, corresponding to the case of an almost extreme black hole, the quantum properties of physically accessible state are the same for the initial situation. For finite Hawking temperature T, the accessible quantum correlation monotonously decreases along with increasing T owing to the thermal fields generated by the Hawking effect, and the accessible quantum non-locality will be disappeared when the Hawking temperature is more than a fixed value which increases with the parameter r of Werner state growing. Then we analyze the redistribution of quantum correlation, and find that for the case of the Hawking temperature being infinite, corresponding to the case of the black hole evaporating completely, the quantum correlation of physically accessible state is equal to the one of the inaccessible states. Moreover, due to the Pauli exclusion principle and the differences between Fermi–Dirac and Bose–Einstein statistics, for the Dirac fields the accessible classical correlation decreases with increase of the Hawking temperature, which is different for the scalar fields. For Bell non-locality, we also find that the quantum non-locality is always extinct for physically inaccessible states, and the strength of the non-locality decreases with enlarging intensity of Hawking effect when the non-locality is existent in physically accessible state.

  18. Three-State Ferroelastic Switching and Large Electromechanical Responses in PbTiO 3 Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damodaran, Anoop R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pandya, Shishir [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Agar, Josh C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cao, Ye [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Vasudevan, Rama K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Xu, Ruijuan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Saremi, Sahar [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Qian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, Jieun [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); McCarter, Margaret R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dedon, Liv R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Angsten, Tom [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Balke, Nina [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jesse, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Asta, Mark [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kalinin, Sergei V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martin, Lane W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Leveraging competition between energetically degenerate states to achieve large field-driven responses is a hallmark of functional materials, but routes to such competition are limited. Here, a new route to such effects involving domain-structure competition is demonstrated, which arises from straininduced spontaneous partitioning of PbTiO3 thin films into nearly energetically degenerate, hierarchical domain architectures of coexisting c/a and a1/a2 domain structures. Using band-excitation piezoresponse force microscopy, this study manipulates and acoustically detects a facile interconversion of different ferroelastic variants via a two-step, three-state ferroelastic switching process (out-of-plane polarized c+ → in-plane polarized a → out-of-plane polarized c- state), which is concomitant with large nonvolatile electromechanical strains (≈1.25%) and tunability of the local piezoresponse and elastic modulus (>23%). It is further demonstrated that deterministic, nonvolatile writing/erasure of large-area patterns of this electromechanical response is possible, thus showing a new pathway to improved function and properties.

  19. Estimation of the cost of electro-mechanical equipment for small hydropower plants – review and comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiński Seweryn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of the cost of electro-mechanical equipment for new small hydropower plants most often amounts to about 30-40% of the total budget. In case of modernization of existing installations, this estimation represents the main cost. This matter constitutes a research problem for at least few decades. Many models have been developed for that purpose. The aim of our work was to collect and analyse formulas that allow estimation of the cost of investment in electro-mechanical equipment for small hydropower plants. Over a dozen functions were analysed. To achieve the aim of our work, these functions were converted into the form allowing their comparison. Then the costs were simulated with respect to plants’ powers and net heads; such approach is novel and allows deeper discussion of the problem, as well as drawing broader conclusions. The following conclusions can be drawn: significant differences in results obtained by using various formulas were observed; there is a need for a wide study based on national investments in small hydropower plants that would allow to develop equations based on local data; the obtained formulas would let to determinate the costs of modernization or a new construction of small hydropower plant more precisely; special attention should be payed to formulas considering turbine type.

  20. Heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) diagnostics as a tool for investigations into the plasma turbulence and the local electric field of dense plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnik, L.I.; Chmyga, A.A.; Komarov, A.D.; Kozachok, A.S.; Zhezhera, A.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC KIPT, 310108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Melnikov, A.V.; Eliseev, L.G.; Lysenko, S.E.; Mavrin, V.A.; Perfilov, S.V. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Hidalgo, C.; Ascasibar, E.; Estrada, T.; Liniers, M.; Ochando, M.A.; Pablos, J.L. de; Pedrosa, M.A.; Tabares, F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion por Confinamiento Magnetico, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    One of essential achievements of the Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostics is the possibility to use it for investigation of plasma confinement by measuring the fluctuations of electric field and plasma density; the method is based on the important role of the plasma electric fields. Both edge and core transport barriers are related to a large increase in the E*B sheared flows in a fusion device. In the TJ-II stellarator the HIBP diagnostics has recently been upgraded for two-point measurements with a good spatial (1 cm) and temporal (10 {mu}s) resolution of the plasma electric potential and density, as well as their fluctuations and poloidal component of electric field, E{sub p} equals ({phi}1 - {phi}2)/{Delta}r [V/cm]; these data give chance to extract the radial turbulent particle flux: {Gamma}(r) equals {Gamma}(Epol*Btor) equals {Gamma}(E*B). (authors)

  1. Probing the localization of charge and the extent of disorder through electronic transport on Au nanoparticle–copper phthalocyanine multijunction networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balliou, A.; Kazim, Samrana; Pfleger, Jiří; Rakušan, J.; Skoulatakis, G.; Kennou, S.; Glezos, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 5 (2016), s. 1009-1019 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12GR022; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1143 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : Au nanoparticles * carrier localization * electrical transport Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.674, year: 2016

  2. Electromechanical dynamic analysis for the drum driving system of the long-wall shearer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhao Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The drum driving system is one of the weakest parts of the long-wall shearer, and some methods are also needed to monitor and control the long-wall shearer to adapt to the important trend of unmanned operation in future mining systems. Therefore, it is essential to conduct an electromechanical dynamic analysis for the drum driving system of the long-wall shearer. First, a torsional dynamic model of planetary gears is proposed which is convenient to be connected to the electric motor model for electromechanical dynamic analysis. Next, an electromechanical dynamic model for the drum driving system is constructed including the electric motor, the gear transmission system, and the drum. Then, the electromechanical dynamic characteristics are simulated when the shock loads are acted on the drum driving system. Finally, some advices are proposed for improving the reliability, monitoring the operating state, and choosing the control signals of the long-wall shearer based on the simulation.

  3. A feasibility study on embedded micro-electromechanical sensors and systems (MEMS) for monitoring highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) provide vast improvements over existing sensing methods in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM) of highway infrastructure systems, including improved system reliability, improved longevity and enhan...

  4. Electromechanical Coupling In Free-Standing AlGaN/GaN Planar Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jogai, B

    2003-01-01

    .... It is shown that in the absence of free charges, the calculated strain and electric fields are substantially different from those obtained using the standard model without electromechanical coupling...

  5. Piezoelectric Tailoring with Enhanced Electromechanical Coupling for Concurrent Vibration Control of Mistuned Periodic Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Kon-Well

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to advance the state of the art of vibration control of mistuned periodic structures utilizing the electromechanical coupling and damping characteristics of piezoelectric networking...

  6. Dynamic characteristic of electromechanical coupling effects in motor-gear system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wenyu; Qin, Datong; Wang, Yawen; Lim, Teik C.

    2018-06-01

    Dynamic characteristics of an electromechanical model which combines a nonlinear permeance network model (PNM) of a squirrel-cage induction motor and a coupled lateral-torsional dynamic model of a planetary geared rotor system is analyzed in this study. The simulations reveal the effects of internal excitations or parameters like machine slotting, magnetic saturation, time-varying mesh stiffness and shaft stiffness on the system dynamics. The responses of the electromechanical system with PNM motor model are compared with those responses of the system with dynamic motor model. The electromechanical coupling due to the interactions between the motor and gear system are studied. Furthermore, the frequency analysis of the electromechanical system dynamic characteristics predicts an efficient way to detect work condition of unsymmetrical voltage sag.

  7. Experimental Data Collection and Modeling for Nominal and Fault Conditions on Electro-Mechanical Actuators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Being relatively new to the field, electromechanical actuators in aerospace applications lack the knowledge base compared to ones accumulated for the other actuator...

  8. Electromechanical Assessment of Human Knee Articular Cartilage with Compression-Induced Streaming Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Christoph; Ricklefs, Marcel; Willbold, Elmar; Hurschler, Christof; Abedian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    To assess the electromechanical properties of human knee articular cartilage with compression-induced streaming potentials for reliability among users and correlation with macroscopic and histological evaluation tools and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content. Streaming potentials are induced in cartilage in response to loading when mobile positive ions in the interstitial fluid temporarily move away from negatively charged proteoglycans. Streaming potential integrals (SPIs) were measured with an indentation probe on femoral condyles of 10 human knee specimens according to a standardized location scheme. Interobserver reliability was measured using an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The learning curves of 3 observers were evaluated by regression analysis. At each SPI measurement location the degradation level of the tissue was determined by means of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) score, Mankin score, and sGAG content. The computed ICC was 0.77 (0.70-0.83) indicating good to excellent linear agreement of SPI values among the 3 users. A significant positive linear correlation of the learning index values was observed for 2 of the 3 users. Statistically significant negative correlations between SPI and both ICRS and Mankin scores were observed (r = 0.502, P < 0.001, and r = 0.255, P = 0.02, respectively). No correlation was observed between SPI and sGAG content (r = 0.004, P = 0.973). SPI values may be used as a quantitative means of cartilage evaluation with sufficient reliability among users. Due to the significant learning curve, adequate training should be absolved before routine use of the technique.

  9. Modification and Performance Evaluation of a Low Cost Electro-Mechanically Operated Creep Testing Machine

    OpenAIRE

    John J. MOMOH; Lanre Y. SHUAIB-BABATA; Gabriel O. ADELEGAN

    2010-01-01

    Existing mechanically operated tensile and creep testing machine was modified to a low cost, electro-mechanically operated creep testing machine capable of determining the creep properties of aluminum, lead and thermoplastic materials as a function of applied stress, time and temperature. The modification of the testing machine was necessitated by having an electro-mechanically operated creep testing machine as a demonstration model ideal for use and laboratory demonstrations, which will prov...

  10. Nonconformance in electromechanical output relays of microprocessor-based protection devices under actual operating conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gurevich, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Microprocessor-based protection relays are gradually driving out traditional electromechanical and even electronic protection devices from virtually all fields of power and electrical engineering. In this paper, one of many problems of microprocessor-based relays is discussed: nonconformance of miniature electromechanical output relays under actual operation conditions: switching inductive loads (with tripping CB coils or lockout relay coils) at 220 VDC, and "dry" switching of some control ci...

  11. Topological design of electromechanical actuators with robustness toward over- and under-etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, Xiaoping; Sigmund, Ole

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the recent findings in robust topology optimization formulations and Helmholtz partial differential equation based density filtering to improve the topological design of electromechanical actuators. For the electromechanical analysis, we adopt a monolithic formulation...... to model the coupled electrostatic and mechanical equations. For filtering, we extend the Helmholtz-based projection filter with Dirichlet boundary conditions to ensure appropriate design boundary conditions. For the optimization, we use the method of moving asymptotes, where the sensitivity is obtained...

  12. Global chaos synchronization of electro-mechanical gyrostat systems via variable substitution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yun; Wu Xiaofeng; Liu Zhong

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies global synchronization of non-autonomous chaotic electro-mechanical gyrostat systems via variable substitution control. A master-slave non-autonomous synchronization scheme with variable substitution control is mathematically presented. Based on the scheme, some sufficient algebraic criteria for global chaos synchronization of master and slave electro-mechanical gyrostat systems via various single-variable coupling are derived. The effectiveness of the obtained criteria is numerically illustrated by the examples.

  13. Advanced sensor fault detection and isolation for electro-mechanical flight actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Ossmann, Daniel; van der Linden, Franciscus

    2015-01-01

    Moving towards the more electric aircraft to be able to replace mechanic, hydraulic and pneumatic components of an aircraft, the aircraft industry calls for new technologies able to support this trend. One of these technologies is the development of advanced electro-mechanical actuators for aircraft control surfaces. Step by step hydraulic actuators are replaced by their electro-mechanical alternatives featuring weight and cost savings. As hydraulic actuators are used for decades by the air...

  14. Experimental StudyHigh Altitude Forced Convective Cooling of Electromechanical Actuation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    34 Massachusetts Institute of Technology , 1989. [3] FedBizOps.Gov, " Integrated Vehicle Energy Technology (INVENT) Development Program for the 6th...AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2016-0043 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY—HIGH ALTITUDE FORCED CONVECTIVE COOLING OF ELECTROMECHANICAL ACTUATION SYSTEMS Evan M. Racine...TITLE AND SUBTITLE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY—HIGH ALTITUDE FORCED CONVECTIVE COOLING OF ELECTROMECHANICAL ACTUATION SYSTEMS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house

  15. An electro-mechanical impedance model of a cracked composite beam with adhesively bonded piezoelectric patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Cai, J. B.; Chen, W. Q.

    2011-01-01

    A model of a laminated composite beam including multiple non-propagating part-through surface cracks as well as installed PZT transducers is presented based on the method of reverberation-ray matrix (MRRM) in this paper. Toward determining the local flexibility characteristics induced by the individual cracks, the concept of the massless rotational spring is applied. A Timoshenko beam theory is then used to simulate the behavior of the composite beam with open cracks. As a result, transverse shear and rotatory inertia effects are included in the model. Only one-dimensional axial vibration of the PZT wafer is considered and the imperfect interfacial bonding between PZT patches and the host beam is further investigated based on a Kelvin-type viscoelastic model. Then, an accurate electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) model can be established for crack detection in laminated beams. In this model, the effects of various parameters such as the ply-angle, fibre volume fraction, crack depth and position on the EMI signatures are highlighted. Furthermore, comparison with existent numerical results is presented to validate the present analysis.

  16. The electro-mechanical effect from charge dynamics on polymeric insulation lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, H.; Chen, G.; Vaughan, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    For polymeric material used as electrical insulation, the presence of space charges could be the consequence of material degradations that are thermally activated but increased by the application of an electric field. The dynamics of space charge, therefore, can be potentially used to characterize the material. In this direction, a new aging model in which parameters have clear physical meanings has been developed and applied to the material to extrapolate the lifetime. The kinetic equation has been established based on charge trapping and detrapping of the injected charge from the electrodes. The local electromechanical energy stored in the region surrounding the trap is able to reduce the trap-depth with a value related to the electric field. At a level where the internal electric field exceeds the detrapping field in the material, an electron can be efficiently detrapped and the released energy from detrapping process can cause a weak bond or chain scission i.e. material degradation. The model has been applied to the electro-thermally aged low density polyethylene film samples, showing well fitted result, as well as interesting relationships between parameter estimates and insulation morphology.

  17. Effect of the Matching Circuit on the Electromechanical Characteristics of Sandwiched Piezoelectric Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Lin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The input electrical impedance behaves as a capacitive when a piezoelectric transducer is excited near its resonance frequency. In order to increase the energy transmission efficiency, a series or parallel inductor should be used to compensate the capacitive impedance of the piezoelectric transducer. In this paper, the effect of the series matching inductor on the electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer is analyzed. The dependency of the resonance/anti-resonance frequency, the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient, the electrical quality factor and the electro-acoustical efficiency on the matching inductor is obtained. It is shown that apart from compensating the capacitive impedance of the piezoelectric transducer, the series matching inductor can also change the electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer. When series matching inductor is increased, the resonance frequency is decreased and the anti-resonance unchanged; the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient is increased. For the electrical quality factor and the electroacoustic efficiency, the dependency on the matching inductor is different when the transducer is operated at the resonance and the anti-resonance frequency. The electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer with series matching inductor are measured. It is shown that the theoretically predicted relationship between the electromechanical characteristics and the series matching inductor is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  18. Effect of the Matching Circuit on the Electromechanical Characteristics of Sandwiched Piezoelectric Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuyu; Xu, Jie

    2017-02-10

    The input electrical impedance behaves as a capacitive when a piezoelectric transducer is excited near its resonance frequency. In order to increase the energy transmission efficiency, a series or parallel inductor should be used to compensate the capacitive impedance of the piezoelectric transducer. In this paper, the effect of the series matching inductor on the electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer is analyzed. The dependency of the resonance/anti-resonance frequency, the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient, the electrical quality factor and the electro-acoustical efficiency on the matching inductor is obtained. It is shown that apart from compensating the capacitive impedance of the piezoelectric transducer, the series matching inductor can also change the electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer. When series matching inductor is increased, the resonance frequency is decreased and the anti-resonance unchanged; the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient is increased. For the electrical quality factor and the electroacoustic efficiency, the dependency on the matching inductor is different when the transducer is operated at the resonance and the anti-resonance frequency. The electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transducer with series matching inductor are measured. It is shown that the theoretically predicted relationship between the electromechanical characteristics and the series matching inductor is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Metabolic and improved organ scan studies. II. Nitrogen-13 labeled compounds used as in-vivo probes for enzyme therapy and as tumor localizing and organ imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A number of 13 N-labeled compounds have been enzymatically synthesized and are being evaluated as tumor and/or organ localizing agents. 13 N-Ammonia, produced after cyclotron generation of 13 N-nitrate and subsequent reduction was used to enzymatically aminate the appropriate substrate to yield 13 N-L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine, L-asparagine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-alanine. The use of 13 N-asparagine as a myocardial scanning agent and as a tumor localizing agent in asparaginase-sensitive tumors is discussed. Two imaging devices were used to study the effectiveness of the compounds as localizing agents. For static whole body distribution studies, a dual-detector high energy gamma ray (HEG) rectilinear scanner, equipped with constant response collimators was employed. The uniformity of response of this system permits quantitative determination of the amount of 13 N activity present in the organ or tumor of interest. The total organ kinetic imaging monitor (TOKIM) gamma camera system was used for dynamic studies covering smaller areas of the subject's body

  20. As-Grown Gallium Nitride Nanowire Electromechanical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Joshua R.

    Technological development in recent years has led to a ubiquity of micro- and nano-scale electromechanical devices. Sensors for monitoring temperature, pressure, mass, etc., are now found in nearly all electronic devices at both the industrial and consumer levels. As has been true for integrated circuit electronics, these electromechanical devices have continued to be scaled down in size. For many nanometer-scale structures with large surface-to-volume ratio, dissipation (energy loss) becomes prohibitively large causing a decreasing sensitivity with decreasing sensor size. In this work, gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires are investigated as singly-clamped (cantilever) mechanical resonators with typical mechanical quality factors, Q (equal to the ratio of resonance frequency to peak full-width-at-half-maximum-power) and resonance frequencies, respectively, at or above 30,000, and near 1 MHz. These Q values---in vacuum at room temperature---indicate very low levels of dissipation; they are essentially the same as those for bulk quartz crystal resonators that form the basis of simple clocks and mass sensors. The GaN nanowires have lengths and diameters, respectively, of approximately 15 micrometers and hundreds of nanometers. As-grown GaN nanowire Q values are larger than other similarly-sized, bottom-up, cantilever resonators and this property makes them very attractive for use as resonant sensors. We demonstrate the capability of detecting sub-monolayer levels of atomic layer deposited (ALD) films, and the robust nature of the GaN nanowires structure that allows for their 'reuse' after removal of such layers. In addition to electron microscope-based measurement techniques, we demonstrate the successful capacitive detection of a single nanowire using microwave homodyne reflectometry. This technique is then extended to allow for simultaneous measurements of large ensembles of GaN nanowires on a single sample, providing statistical information about the distribution of

  1. The time domain triple probe method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, M.A.; Hallock, G.A.; Tsui, H.Y.W.; Bengtson, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    A new Langmuir probe technique based on the triple probe method is being developed to provide simultaneous measurement of plasma temperature, potential, and density with the temporal and spatial resolution required to accurately characterize plasma turbulence. When the conventional triple probe method is used in an inhomogeneous plasma, local differences in the plasma measured at each probe introduce significant error in the estimation of turbulence parameters. The Time Domain Triple Probe method (TDTP) uses high speed switching of Langmuir probe potential, rather than spatially separated probes, to gather the triple probe information thus avoiding these errors. Analysis indicates that plasma response times and recent electronics technology meet the requirements to implement the TDTP method. Data reduction techniques of TDTP data are to include linear and higher order correlation analysis to estimate fluctuation induced particle and thermal transport, as well as energy relationships between temperature, density, and potential fluctuations

  2. Localization microscopy of DNA in situ using Vybrant{sup ®} DyeCycle™ Violet fluorescent probe: A new approach to study nuclear nanostructure at single molecule resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Żurek-Biesiada, Dominika [Laboratory of Cell Biophysics, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Kraków (Poland); Szczurek, Aleksander T. [Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB), Ackermannweg 4, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Prakash, Kirti [Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB), Ackermannweg 4, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Institute for Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology (IPMB), University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Mohana, Giriram K. [Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB), Ackermannweg 4, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Lee, Hyun-Keun [Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB), Ackermannweg 4, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Mainz (JGU), Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Roignant, Jean-Yves [Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB), Ackermannweg 4, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Birk, Udo J. [Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB), Ackermannweg 4, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Mainz (JGU), Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Dobrucki, Jurek W., E-mail: jerzy.dobrucki@uj.edu.pl [Laboratory of Cell Biophysics, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Kraków (Poland); Cremer, Christoph, E-mail: c.cremer@imb-mainz.de [Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB), Ackermannweg 4, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Institute for Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology (IPMB), University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Mainz (JGU), Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Higher order chromatin structure is not only required to compact and spatially arrange long chromatids within a nucleus, but have also important functional roles, including control of gene expression and DNA processing. However, studies of chromatin nanostructures cannot be performed using conventional widefield and confocal microscopy because of the limited optical resolution. Various methods of superresolution microscopy have been described to overcome this difficulty, like structured illumination and single molecule localization microscopy. We report here that the standard DNA dye Vybrant{sup ®} DyeCycle™ Violet can be used to provide single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) images of DNA in nuclei of fixed mammalian cells. This SMLM method enabled optical isolation and localization of large numbers of DNA-bound molecules, usually in excess of 10{sup 6} signals in one cell nucleus. The technique yielded high-quality images of nuclear DNA density, revealing subdiffraction chromatin structures of the size in the order of 100 nm; the interchromatin compartment was visualized at unprecedented optical resolution. The approach offers several advantages over previously described high resolution DNA imaging methods, including high specificity, an ability to record images using a single wavelength excitation, and a higher density of single molecule signals than reported in previous SMLM studies. The method is compatible with DNA/multicolor SMLM imaging which employs simple staining methods suited also for conventional optical microscopy. - Highlights: • Super-resolution imaging of nuclear DNA with Vybrant Violet and blue excitation. • 90nm resolution images of DNA structures in optically thick eukaryotic nuclei. • Enhanced resolution confirms the existence of DNA-free regions inside the nucleus. • Optimized imaging conditions enable multicolor super-resolution imaging.

  3. Local vs Nonlocal States in FeTiO3 Probed with 1s2pRIXS: Implications for Photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunault, Myrtille O J Y; Khan, Wilayat; Minár, Jan; Kroll, Thomas; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Zimmermann, Patric; Delgado-Jaime, Mario U; de Groot, Frank M F

    2017-09-18

    Metal-metal charge transfer (MMCT) is expected to be the main mechanism that enables the harvesting of solar light by iron-titanium oxides for photocatalysis. We have studied FeTiO 3 as a model compound for MMCT with 1s2pRIXS at the Fe K-edge. The high-energy resolution XANES enables distinguishing five pre-edge features. The three first well distinct RIXS features are assigned to electric quadrupole transitions to the localized Fe* 3d states, shifted to lower energy by the 1s core-hole. Crystal field multiplet calculations confirm the speciation of divalent iron. The contribution of electric dipole absorption due to local p-d mixing allowed by the trigonal distortion of the cation site is supported by DFT and CFM calculations. The two other nonlocal features are assigned to electric dipole transitions to excited Fe* 4p states mixed with the neighboring Ti 3d states. The comparison with DFT calculations demonstrates that MMCT in ilmenite is favored by the hybridization between the Fe 4p and delocalized Ti 3d orbitals via the O 2p orbitals.

  4. Acoustic energy harvesting using an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Phipps, Alex; Horowitz, Stephen; Ngo, Khai; Cattafesta, Louis; Nishida, Toshikazu; Sheplak, Mark

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents the development of an acoustic energy harvester using an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR). The EMHR consists of an orifice, cavity, and a piezoelectric diaphragm. Acoustic energy is converted to mechanical energy when sound incident on the orifice generates an oscillatory pressure in the cavity, which in turns causes the vibration of the diaphragm. The conversion of acoustic energy to electrical energy is achieved via piezoelectric transduction in the diaphragm of the EMHR. Moreover, the diaphragm is coupled with energy reclamation circuitry to increase the efficiency of the energy conversion. Lumped element modeling of the EMHR is used to provide physical insight into the coupled energy domain dynamics governing the energy reclamation process. The feasibility of acoustic energy reclamation using an EMHR is demonstrated in a plane wave tube for two power converter topologies. The first is comprised of only a rectifier, and the second uses a rectifier connected to a flyback converter to improve load matching. Experimental results indicate that approximately 30 mW of output power is harvested for an incident sound pressure level of 160 dB with a flyback converter. Such power level is sufficient to power a variety of low power electronic devices.

  5. Electromechanical displacement of piezoelectric-electrostrictive monolithic bilayer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngernchuklin, P.; Akdoǧan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Jadidian, B.

    2009-02-01

    We examine the electromechanical displacement of piezoelectric-electrostrictive monolithic bilayer composites with various piezoelectric volume percentage obtained by cosintering piezoelectric 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 and electrostrictive 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/.3)O3-0.1PbTiO3 under unipolar and bipolar electric field excitation up to 10 kV/cm experimentally. It is shown that the effective d33 of the composites is limited by the electrostrictive layer, which acts as a capacitor in series to the piezoelectric layer, causing incomplete poling. We show that by controlling the volume content of the piezoelectric layer and constraining it with an electrostrictor, substantial strain amplification (15 μm for bipolar excitation) can be achieved while inducing asymmetry to the displacement with respect to the polarity of the applied field, which we discuss in the context of symmetry superposition.

  6. Estimation of fatigue life using electromechanical impedance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yee Yan; Soh, Chee Kiong

    2010-04-01

    Fatigue induced damage is often progressive and gradual in nature. Structures subjected to large number of fatigue load cycles will encounter the process of progressive crack initiation, propagation and finally fracture. Monitoring of structural health, especially for the critical components, is therefore essential for early detection of potential harmful crack. Recent advent of smart materials such as piezo-impedance transducer adopting the electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique and wave propagation technique are well proven to be effective in incipient damage detection and characterization. Exceptional advantages such as autonomous, real-time and online, remote monitoring may provide a cost-effective alternative to the conventional structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques. In this study, the main focus is to investigate the feasibility of characterizing a propagating fatigue crack in a structure using the EMI technique as well as estimating its remaining fatigue life using the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) approach. Uniaxial cyclic tensile load is applied on a lab-sized aluminum beam up to failure. Progressive shift in admittance signatures measured by the piezo-impedance transducer (PZT patch) corresponding to increase of loading cycles reflects effectiveness of the EMI technique in tracing the process of fatigue damage progression. With the use of LEFM, prediction of the remaining life of the structure at different cycles of loading is possible.

  7. Large scale electromechanical transistor with application in mass sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Leisheng; Li, Lijie, E-mail: L.Li@swansea.ac.uk [Multidisciplinary Nanotechnology Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-07

    Nanomechanical transistor (NMT) has evolved from the single electron transistor, a device that operates by shuttling electrons with a self-excited central conductor. The unfavoured aspects of the NMT are the complexity of the fabrication process and its signal processing unit, which could potentially be overcome by designing much larger devices. This paper reports a new design of large scale electromechanical transistor (LSEMT), still taking advantage of the principle of shuttling electrons. However, because of the large size, nonlinear electrostatic forces induced by the transistor itself are not sufficient to drive the mechanical member into vibration—an external force has to be used. In this paper, a LSEMT device is modelled, and its new application in mass sensing is postulated using two coupled mechanical cantilevers, with one of them being embedded in the transistor. The sensor is capable of detecting added mass using the eigenstate shifts method by reading the change of electrical current from the transistor, which has much higher sensitivity than conventional eigenfrequency shift approach used in classical cantilever based mass sensors. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the performance of the mass sensor.

  8. Development of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) cochlear biomodel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngelayang, Thailis Bounya Anak; Latif, Rhonira [Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Human cochlear is undeniably one of the most amazing organs in human body. The functional mechanism is very unique in terms of its ability to convert the sound waves in the form of mechanical vibrations into the electrical nerve impulses. It is known that the normal human auditory system can perceive the audible frequency range between 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Scientists have conducted several researches trying to build the artificial basilar membrane in the human cochlea (cochlear biomodel). Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) is one of the potential inventions that have the ability to mimic the active behavior of the basilar membrane. In this paper, an array of MEMS bridge beams that are mechanically sensitive to the perceived audible frequency has been proposed. An array of bridge bridge beams with 0.5 µm thickness and length varying from 200 µm to 2000 µm have been designed operate within the audible frequency range. In the bridge beams design, aluminium (Al), copper (Cu), tantalum (Ta) and platinum (Pt) have considered as the material for the bridge beam structure. From the finite element (FE) and lumped element (LE) models of the MEMS bridge beams, platinum has been found to be the best material for the cochlear biomodel design, closely mimicking the basilar membrane.

  9. Electromechanical impedance method to assess dental implant stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabrizi, Aydin; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Ochs, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    The stability of a dental implant is a prerequisite for supporting a load-bearing prosthesis and establishment of a functional bone–implant system. Reliable and noninvasive methods able to assess the bone interface of dental and orthopedic implants (osseointegration) are increasingly demanded for clinical diagnosis and direct prognosis. In this paper, we propose the electromechanical impedance method as a novel approach for the assessment of dental implant stability. Nobel Biocare ® implants with a size of 4.3 mm diameter ×13 mm length were placed inside bovine bones that were then immersed in a solution of nitric acid to allow material degradation. The degradation simulated the inverse process of bone healing. The implant–bone systems were monitored by bonding a piezoceramic transducer (PZT) to the implants’ abutment and measuring the admittance of the PZT over time. It was found that the PZT’s admittance and the statistical features associated with its analysis are sensitive to the degradation of the bones and can be correlated to the loss of calcium measured by means of the atomic absorption spectroscopy method. The present study shows promising results and may pave the road towards an innovative approach for the noninvasive monitoring of dental implant stability and integrity. (paper)

  10. Heart rate variability alters cardiac repolarization and electromechanical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadumdeo, Vrishti M; Weinberg, Seth H

    2018-04-07

    Heart rate continuously varies due to autonomic regulation, stochasticity in pacemaking, and circadian rhythm, collectively termed heart rate variability (HRV), during normal physiological conditions. Low HRV is clinically associated with an elevated risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential duration (APD) and/or intracellular calcium (Ca) transient, is a well-known risk factor associated with cardiac arrhythmias that is typically studied under conditions of a constant pacing rate, i.e., the absence of HRV. In this study, we investigate the effects of HRV on the interplay between APD, Ca, and electromechanical properties, employing a nonlinear discrete-time map model that governs APD and intracellular Ca cycling with a stochastic pacing period. We find that HRV can decrease variation in APD and peak Ca at fast pacing rates for which alternans is present. Further, increased HRV typically disrupts the alternating pattern for both APD and peak Ca and weakens the correlation between APD and peak Ca, thus decoupling Ca-mediated instabilities from repolarization alternation. We find that the efficacy of these effects is regulated by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca uptake rate. Overall, these results demonstrate that HRV disrupts arrhythmogenic alternans and suggests that HRV may be a significant factor in preventing life-threatening arrhythmias. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) cochlear biomodel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngelayang, Thailis Bounya Anak; Latif, Rhonira

    2015-01-01

    Human cochlear is undeniably one of the most amazing organs in human body. The functional mechanism is very unique in terms of its ability to convert the sound waves in the form of mechanical vibrations into the electrical nerve impulses. It is known that the normal human auditory system can perceive the audible frequency range between 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Scientists have conducted several researches trying to build the artificial basilar membrane in the human cochlea (cochlear biomodel). Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) is one of the potential inventions that have the ability to mimic the active behavior of the basilar membrane. In this paper, an array of MEMS bridge beams that are mechanically sensitive to the perceived audible frequency has been proposed. An array of bridge bridge beams with 0.5 µm thickness and length varying from 200 µm to 2000 µm have been designed operate within the audible frequency range. In the bridge beams design, aluminium (Al), copper (Cu), tantalum (Ta) and platinum (Pt) have considered as the material for the bridge beam structure. From the finite element (FE) and lumped element (LE) models of the MEMS bridge beams, platinum has been found to be the best material for the cochlear biomodel design, closely mimicking the basilar membrane

  12. Computer-aided Teaching of Math in Electromechanics Vocational Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Shigueo Hoji

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the experience of teaching mathematics in the electromechanics vocational course with aid of the computer. Instead of giving a bunch of equations and a calculator to the students, as it is usual in vocational courses, we offer them Octave, which is a numerical computational tool. Furthermore, the mathematical concepts involved in the solution of applied problems are provided within a multidisciplinary framework. The proposed approach helped to reduce the abstraction of mathematics for the students. Despite the deficiencies the students in vocational courses have in their formation, we could notice that their perception regarding mathematics has changed after figuring out that “a bunch of numbers” can be useful in the solution of problems they shall face in their professional life. The approach was applied to three groups already. All of them are composed of mature students, who passed by a flawed basic educational system and stayed away from school for a long time.

  13. In-vitro experiments to characterize ventricular electromechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Robert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulation turns out to be beneficial when clinical data lack spatio-temporal resolution or parameters cannot be measured at all. To derive trustworthy results, these in-silico models have to thoroughly parameterized and validated. In this work we present data from a simplified in-vitro setup for characterizing ventricular electromechanics. Right ventricular papillary muscles from New Zealand rabbits were isolated and stretched from slack length to lmax, i.e. the muscle length at maximum active force development. Active stress development showed an almost linear increase for moderate strain (90–100% of lmax and a significant decrease for larger strain (100–105% of lmax. Passive strain development showed a nonlinear increase. Conduction velocity CV showed an increase of ≈10% between low and moderate strain and no significant decrease beyond. Fitting active active stress-strain relationship using a 5th-order polynomial yielded adequate results for moderate and high strain values, whereas fitting using a logistic function yielded more reasonable results for low strain values. Passive stress-strain relationship was satisfactorily fitted using an exponential function.

  14. Electro-mechanical coupling of rotating 3D beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoykov S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rotating thin-walled beam with piezoelectric element is analysed. The beam is considered to vibrate in space, hence the longitudinal, transverse and torsional deformations are taken into account. The bending deformations of the beam are modelled by assuming Timoshenko's theory. Torsion is included by considering that the cross section rotates as a rigid body but can deform in longitudinal direction due to warping. The warping function is computed preliminary by the finite element method. The equation of motion is derived by the principle of virtual work and discretized in space by the Ritz method. Electro-mechanical coupling is included in the model by considering the internal electrical energy and the electric charge output. The piezo-electric constitutive relations are used in reduced form. The beam is assumed to rotate about a fixed axis with constant speed. The equation of motion is derived in rotating coordinate system, but the influence of the rotation of the coordinate system is taken into account through the inertia forces. Results in time domain are presented for different speeds of rotation and frequencies of vibration. The influence of the speed of rotation and of the frequency of vibration on the electrical output is presented and analysed.

  15. Characterization of the electromechanical properties of EAP materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrita, Stewart; Bhattachary, Kaushik; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2001-01-01

    Electroactive polymers (EAP) are an emerging class of actuation materials. Their large electrically induced strains (longitudinal or bending), low density, mechanical flexibility, and ease of processing offer advantages over traditional electroactive materials. However, before the capability of these materials can be exploited, their electrical and mechanical behavior must be properly quantified. Two general types of EAP can be identified. The first type is ionic EAP, which requires relatively low voltages (EAP and it involves electrostrictive and/or Maxwell stresses. This type of materials requires large electric fields (>100MV/m) to achieve longitudinal deformations at the range from 4 - 360%. Some of the difficulties in characterizing EAP include: nonlinear properties, large compliance (large mismatch with metal electrodes), nonhomogeneity resulting from processing, etc. To support the need for reliable data, the authors are developing characterization techniques to quantify the electroactive responses and material properties of EAP materials. The emphasis of the current study is on addressing electromechanical issues related to the ion-exchange type EAP also known as IPMC. The analysis, experiments and test results are discussed in this paper.

  16. VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, R.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Mair, C.; Pescoller, D.; Lazzarini, P.; Anaclerio, E.; Mantegazza, M.; Gallieni, D.; Vernet, E.; Arsenault, R.; Madec, P.-Y.; Duhoux, P.; Riccardi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.; Manetti, M.; Morandini, M.

    2012-07-01

    The VLT Deformable secondary is planned to be installed on the VLT UT#4 as part of the telescope conversion into the Adaptive Optics test Facility (AOF). The adaptive unit is based on the well proven contactless, voice coil motor technology that has been already successfully implemented in the MMT, LBT and Magellan adaptive secondaries, and is considered a promising technical choice for the forthcoming ELT-generation adaptive correctors, like the E-ELT M4 and the GMT ASM. The VLT adaptive unit has been recently assembled after the completion of the manufacturing and modular test phases. In this paper, we present the most relevant aspects of the system integration and report the preliminary results of the electromechanical tests performed on the unit. This test campaign is a typical major step foreseen in all similar systems built so far: thanks to the metrology embedded in the system, that allows generating time-dependent stimuli and recording in real time the position of the controlled mirror on all actuators, typical dynamic response quality parameters like modal settling time, overshoot and following error can be acquired without employing optical measurements. In this way the system dynamic and some aspect of its thermal and long term stability can be fully characterized before starting the optical tests and calibrations.

  17. Atom-probe tomography the local electrode atom probe

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    In this comprehensive introduction to the use of APT in nanocharacterization, readers will find everything they need to get up to speed on the technique, from the core physics to state-of-the-art instrumentation and revised methods of data analysis.

  18. Micro and Nano Electromechanical Systems for Near-Zero Power Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhenyun

    Light is one of the most important tools for human beings to probe and sense the physical world. Infrared (IR) radiation located in longer wavelengths than those of visible light carries rich information of an environment as it reveals the temperature distribution and chemical composition of objects. In addition, it has been utilized for communication and distance measurement owing to the atmospheric window and insensitiveness of human eyes to the IR radiation. As a result, IR detectors nowadays can be found in a wide variety of applications, including thermal imaging, automotive night vision, standoff chemical detection, remote control and laser ranging, just to mention a few. On the other hand, due to the recent fast development of the Internet of Things (IoT), there is a growing demand for miniaturized and power efficient unattended sensors that can be widely distributed in large volumes to form a wireless sensor networks capable of monitoring the environment with high accuracy and long lifetime. In this context, micro and nano electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) may provide a huge impact, since they can be used for the implementation of miniaturized, low power, high-performance sensors and wireless communication devices fully compatible with standard integrated circuitry. This dissertation presents the design and the experimental verification of high performance uncooled IR detectors based on Aluminum Nitride (AlN) nano electromechanical resonators, and a first-of-its-kind near-zero power IR digitizer based on plasmonically-enhanced micromechanical photoswitches. The unique advantages of the piezoelectric AlN thin film in terms of scaling in thickness and transduction efficiency are exploited by the first experimental demonstration of ultra-fast (thermal time constant, tau ˜ 80 mus) and high resolution (noise equivalent power, NEP ˜ 656 pW/Hz1/2) AlN NEMS resonant IR detectors with reduced pixel size comparable to the state-of-the-art microbolometers

  19. The Model Analysis of a Complex Tuning Fork Probe and Its Application in Bimodal Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new electromechanical coupling model was built to quantitatively analyze the tuning fork probes, especially the complex ones. A special feature of a novel, soft tuning fork probe, that the second eigenfrequency of the probe was insensitive to the effective force gradient, was found and used in a homemade bimodal atomic force microscopy to measure power dissipation quantitatively. By transforming the mechanical parameters to the electrical parameters, a monotonous and concise method without using phase to calculate the power dissipation was proposed.

  20. NASA's interstellar probe mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liewer, P.C.; Ayon, J.A.; Wallace, R.A.; Mewaldt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Interstellar Probe will be the first spacecraft designed to explore the nearby interstellar medium and its interaction with our solar system. As envisioned by NASA's Interstellar Probe Science and Technology Definition Team, the spacecraft will be propelled by a solar sail to reach >200 AU in 15 years. Interstellar Probe will investigate how the Sun interacts with its environment and will directly measure the properties and composition of the dust, neutrals and plasma of the local interstellar material which surrounds the solar system. In the mission concept developed in the spring of 1999, a 400-m diameter solar sail accelerates the spacecraft to ∼15 AU/year, roughly 5 times the speed of Voyager 1 and 2. The sail is used to first bring the spacecraft to ∼0.25 AU to increase the radiation pressure before heading out in the interstellar upwind direction. After jettisoning the sail at ∼5 AU, the spacecraft coasts to 200-400 AU, exploring the Kuiper Belt, the boundaries of the heliosphere, and the nearby interstellar medium

  1. Maintenance of electromechanical equipment in quality organization under operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The paper outlines the principles adopted by the Thermal Production Service of Electricite de France on the basis of the experience of the first years of operation of its 900 MW(e)PWR units for the purpose of improving quality organization in operating conditions in respect of the maintenance of electromechanical safety equipment. This organization is based on application of the usual principles for quality assurance, adapted in accordance with current French regulations. The paper first recalls the now traditional methods of applying the principles of quality organization in the area of equipment maintenance. It then defines particular so-called ''delicate'' activities which, in accordance with the above regulations, are subjected to additional quality organizational procedures; this applies in particular to the area of pre-maintenance preparation and studies and to the control exercised by the French safety authorities over the execution of those activities. The paper explains how the application of the regulations improves maintenance practices compared with standard quality organization. It describes how the attempt to establish a frontier between these two types of activity (current and ''delicate'') has led to the definition of a classification criterion which is technically correct and simple to use and is based on the professional skills of those performing each activity. The paper then describes in greater detail the principal rules for the performance of those tasks which come under the standard organization and those to which more stringent criteria apply. Lastly, it explains the thinking behind equipment surveillance programmes and the analysis of anomalies discovered through surveillance measures or brought to light by operating incidents, the aim of these being to benefit from the experience gained

  2. A web-based, collaborative modeling, simulation, and parallel computing environment for electromechanical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Yin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex electromechanical system is usually composed of multiple components from different domains, including mechanical, electronic, hydraulic, control, and so on. Modeling and simulation for electromechanical system on a unified platform is one of the research hotspots in system engineering at present. It is also the development trend of the design for complex electromechanical system. The unified modeling techniques and tools based on Modelica language provide a satisfactory solution. To meet with the requirements of collaborative modeling, simulation, and parallel computing for complex electromechanical systems based on Modelica, a general web-based modeling and simulation prototype environment, namely, WebMWorks, is designed and implemented. Based on the rich Internet application technologies, an interactive graphic user interface for modeling and post-processing on web browser was implemented; with the collaborative design module, the environment supports top-down, concurrent modeling and team cooperation; additionally, service-oriented architecture–based architecture was applied to supply compiling and solving services which run on cloud-like servers, so the environment can manage and dispatch large-scale simulation tasks in parallel on multiple computing servers simultaneously. An engineering application about pure electric vehicle is tested on WebMWorks. The results of simulation and parametric experiment demonstrate that the tested web-based environment can effectively shorten the design cycle of the complex electromechanical system.

  3. Theoretical and Experimental Study on Electromechanical Coupling Properties of Multihammer Synchronous Vibration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial simulation of real external load using multiple exciting points or increasing exciting force by synchronizing multiple exciting forces requires multiple vibration hammers to be coordinated and work together. Multihammer vibration system which consists of several hammers is a complex electromechanical system with complex electromechanical coupling. In this paper, electromechanical coupling properties of such a multihammer vibration system were studied in detail using theoretical derivation, numerical simulation, and experiment. A kinetic model of multihammer synchronous vibration system was established, and approximate expressions for electromechanical coupling strength were solved using a small parameter periodic averaging method. Basic coupling rules and reasons were obtained. Self-synchronization and frequency hopping phenomenon were also analyzed. Subsequently, numerical simulations were carried out and electromechanical coupling process was obtained for different parameters. Simulation results verify correctness of the proposed model and results. Finally, experiments were carried out, self-synchronization and frequency hopping phenomenon were both observed, and results agree well with theoretical deduction and simulation results. These results provide theoretical foundations for multihammer synchronous vibration system and its synchronous control.

  4. Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts Management and Control Requirements for Space Flight Hardware and Critical Ground Support Equipment...aka... The NASA EEE Parts Standard, NASA-STD 8739.10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewicz, Peter; Sampson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Describes development and content of a new NASA Standard for Electrical Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) parts. This Standard reflects current practices, instead of changing them. Most NASA Centers utilize local documents, but there is minimal consistency across the Agency. A gap analysis clearly shows the differences that exist among the different centers and with respect to the NASA Parts Policy. Once approved, the new standard can be referenced in contracts and agreements with organizations outside of NASA.

  5. DESIGN OF THE CONTACT POTENTIALS DIFFERENCE PROBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. U. Pantsialeyeu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contact potential difference probes distinguished by great variety and produced mostly in the laboratory for specific experimental applications. As a rule, they consist of commercially available instrumentation, and have a number of disadvantages: large dimensions, complexity and high cost, small sensitivity, operating speed, noiseproof, etc. The purpose of this paper is to describe the basic approaches to design of the small dimension, complete contact potential difference probes, providing high sensitivity, operating speed, and noise immunity. In this paper the contact potential difference probe, which is a electrometer with dynamic capacitor plate at about 0.1–5 mm2 . These probes are could be used in scanning systems, such as a Scanning Kelvin Probe, as well as for controlling system of manufacturing processes, e.g. under friction. The design of such contact potential difference probes conducted using modern electronic components, unique circuitry and design solutions described in detail at paper. The electromechanical modulator applied for mechanical vibrations of the reference sample. To provide a high amplitude and phase stability the upgraded generator with Wien bridge was used instead traditional oscillation sensor. The preamplifier made on the base of modern operational amplifiers with femtoampere current input. The power of the preamplifier designed with «floating ground». It allows keeping the relation constant potential to the probe components when changing over a wide range the compensation voltage. The phase detector-integrator based on the electronic antiphase switches with the modulation frequency of the contact potential difference and the integrator. Fullwave phase detection would greatly increase the sensitivity of the probe. In addition, the application of the phase detection allows suppressing noise and crosstalk at frequencies different from the modulation frequency. The preamplifier and the reference sample

  6. Nonlinear electromechanical modelling and dynamical behavior analysis of a satellite reaction wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghalari, Alireza; Shahravi, Morteza

    2017-12-01

    The present research addresses the satellite reaction wheel (RW) nonlinear electromechanical coupling dynamics including dynamic eccentricity of brushless dc (BLDC) motor and gyroscopic effects, as well as dry friction of shaft-bearing joints (relative small slip) and bearing friction. In contrast to other studies, the rotational velocity of the flywheel is considered to be controllable, so it is possible to study the reaction wheel dynamical behavior in acceleration stages. The RW is modeled as a three-phases BLDC motor as well as flywheel with unbalances on a rigid shaft and flexible bearings. Improved Lagrangian dynamics for electromechanical systems is used to obtain the mathematical model of the system. The developed model can properly describe electromechanical nonlinear coupled dynamical behavior of the satellite RW. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the presented approach.

  7. On non-linear dynamics of a coupled electro-mechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Electro-mechanical devices are an example of coupled multi-disciplinary weakly non-linear systems. Dynamics of such systems is described in this paper by means of two mutually coupled differential equations. The first one, describing an electrical system, is of the first order and the second one...... excitation. The results are verified using a numerical model created in MATLAB Simulink environment. Effect of non-linear terms on dynamical response of the coupled system is investigated; the backbone and envelope curves are analyzed. The two phenomena, which exist in the electro-mechanical system: (a......, for mechanical system, is of the second order. The governing equations are coupled via linear and weakly non-linear terms. A classical perturbation method, a method of multiple scales, is used to find a steadystate response of the electro-mechanical system exposed to a harmonic close-resonance mechanical...

  8. Piezoelectric and electromechanical properties of ultrahigh temperature CaBi2Nb2O9 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Shujun; Shrout, Thomas R.; Wang, Chun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The piezoelectric, dielectric, and electromechanical properties of the (KCe) co-substituted calcium bismuth niobate (CaBi 2 Nb 2 O 9 , CBN) were investigated. The piezoelectric activities of CBN ceramics were significantly enhanced and the dielectric loss tan δ decreased by (KCe) substitution. The Ca 0.9 (KCe) 0.05 Bi 2 Nb 2 O 9 ceramics possess the optimal piezoelectric properties, and the piezoelectric coefficient (d 33 ), Curie temperature (T C ), and electromechanical coupling factors (k p and k t ) were found to be 16 pC/N, 868 C, 8.6%, and 23.8%, respectively. The excellent dielectric and electromechanical spectra, together with the high piezoelectric activities and ultrahigh Curie temperature, make CBN ceramics promising candidates for high temperature piezoelectric applications. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Dynamic simulation of electromechanical systems: from Maxwell's theory to common-rail diesel injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, S; Becker, U; Maisch, H

    2001-05-01

    This paper describes the state-of-the-art of dynamic simulation of electromechanical systems. Electromechanical systems can be split into electromagnetic and mechanical subsystems, which are described by Maxwell's equations and by Newton's law, respectively. Since such systems contain moving parts, the concepts of Lorentz and Galilean relativity are briefly addressed. The laws of physics are formulated in terms of (partial) differential equations. Numerical methods ultimately aim at linear systems of equations, which can be solved efficiently on digital computers. The various discretization methods for performing this task are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on domain decomposition as a framework for the coupling of different numerical methods such as the finite element method and the boundary element method. The paper concludes with descriptions of some applications of industrial relevance: a high performance injection valve and an electromechanical relay.

  10. Electromechanical phase transition of a dielectric elastomer tube under internal pressure of constant mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Che

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The electromechanical phase transition for a dielectric elastomer (DE tube has been demonstrated in recent experiments, where it is found that the unbulged phase gradually changed into bulged phase. Previous theoretical works only studied the transition process under pressure control condition, which is not consistent with the real experimental condition. This paper focuses on more complex features of the electromechanical phase transition under internal pressure of constant mass. We derive the equilibrium equations and the condition for coexistent states for a DE tube under an internal pressure, a voltage through the thickness and an axial force. We find that under mass control condition the voltage needed to maintain the phase transition increases as the process proceeds. We analyze the entire process of electromechanical phase transition and find that the evolution of configurations is also different from that for pressure control condition.

  11. Dynamic Modeling and Control of Electromechanical Coupling for Mechanical Elastic Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural scheme of mechanical elastic energy storage (MEES system served by permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM and bidirectional converters is designed. The aim of the research is to model and control the complex electromechanical system. The mechanical device of the complex system is considered as a node in generalized coordinate system, the terse nonlinear dynamic model of electromechanical coupling for the electromechanical system is constructed through Lagrange-Maxwell energy method, and the detailed deduction of the mathematical model is presented in the paper. The theory of direct feedback linearization (DFL is applied to decouple the nonlinear dynamic model and convert the developed model from nonlinear to linear. The optimal control theory is utilized to accomplish speed tracking control for the linearized system. The simulation results in three different cases show that the proposed nonlinear dynamic model of MEES system is correct; the designed algorithm has a better control performance in contrast with the conventional PI control.

  12. Theoretical study of the electromechanical efficiency of a loaded tubular dielectric elastomer actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rechenbach, Björn; Willatzen, Morten; Lassen, Benny

    2016-01-01

    The electromechanical efficiency of a loaded tubular dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) is investigated theoretically. In previous studies, the external system, on which the DEA performs mechanical work, is implemented implicitly by prescribing the stroke of the DEA in a closed operation cycle....... Here, a more generic approach, modelling the external system by a frequency-dependent mechanical impedance which exerts a certain force on the DEA depending on its deformation, is chosen. It admits studying the dependence of the electromechanical efficiency of the DEA on the external system. A closed...... operation cycle is realized by exciting the DEA electrically by a sinusoidal voltage around a bias voltage. A detailed parametric study shows that the electromechanical efficiency is highly dependent on the frequency, amplitude, and bias of the excitation voltage and the mechanical impedance of the external...

  13. Bending-induced electromechanical coupling and large piezoelectric response in a micromachined diaphragm

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhihong

    2013-11-04

    We investigated the dependence of electromechanical coupling and the piezoelectric response of a micromachined Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48)O 3 (PZT) diaphragm on its curvature by observing the impedance spectrum and central deflection responses to a small AC voltage. The curvature of the diaphragm was controlled by applying air pressure to its back. We found that a depolarized flat diaphragm does not initially exhibit electromechanical coupling or the piezoelectric response. However, upon the application of static air pressure to the diaphragm, both electromechanical coupling and the piezoelectric response can be induced in the originally depolarized diaphragm. The piezoelectric response increases as the curvature increases and a giant piezoelectric response can be obtained from a bent diaphragm. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that a high strain gradient in a diaphragm can polarize a PZT film through a flexoelectric effect, and that the induced piezoelectric response of the diaphragm can be controlled by adjusting its curvature.

  14. Design and control of the precise tracking bed based on complex electromechanical design theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Changzhi; Liu, Zhao; Wu, Liao; Chen, Ken

    2010-05-01

    The precise tracking technology is wide used in astronomical instruments, satellite tracking and aeronautic test bed. However, the precise ultra low speed tracking drive system is one high integrated electromechanical system, which one complexly electromechanical design method is adopted to improve the efficiency, reliability and quality of the system during the design and manufacture circle. The precise Tracking Bed is one ultra-exact, ultra-low speed, high precision and huge inertial instrument, which some kind of mechanism and environment of the ultra low speed is different from general technology. This paper explores the design process based on complex electromechanical optimizing design theory, one non-PID with a CMAC forward feedback control method is used in the servo system of the precise tracking bed and some simulation results are discussed.

  15. Quantitative electromechanical impedance method for nondestructive testing based on a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Ji; Tan, Chi; Li, Faxin

    2015-01-01

    The electromechanical impedance (EMI) method, which holds great promise in structural health monitoring (SHM), is usually treated as a qualitative method. In this work, we proposed a quantitative EMI method based on a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever using the sample’s local contact stiffness (LCS) as the identification parameter for nondestructive testing (NDT). Firstly, the equivalent circuit of the contact vibration system was established and the analytical relationship between the cantilever’s contact resonance frequency and the LCS was obtained. As the LCS is sensitive to typical defects such as voids and delamination, the proposed EMI method can then be used for NDT. To verify the equivalent circuit model, two piezoelectric bimorph cantilevers were fabricated and their free resonance frequencies were measured and compared with theoretical predictions. It was found that the stiff cantilever’s EMI can be well predicted by the equivalent circuit model while the soft cantilever’s cannot. Then, both cantilevers were assembled into a homemade NDT system using a three-axis motorized stage for LCS scanning. Testing results on a specimen with a prefabricated defect showed that the defect could be clearly reproduced in the LCS image, indicating the validity of the quantitative EMI method for NDT. It was found that the single-frequency mode of the EMI method can also be used for NDT, which is faster but not quantitative. Finally, several issues relating to the practical application of the NDT method were discussed. The proposed EMI-based NDT method offers a simple and rapid solution for damage evaluation in engineering structures and may also shed some light on EMI-based SHM. (paper)

  16. A high performance data parallel tensor contraction framework: Application to coupled electro-mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poya, Roman; Gil, Antonio J.; Ortigosa, Rogelio

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents aspects of implementation of a new high performance tensor contraction framework for the numerical analysis of coupled and multi-physics problems on streaming architectures. In addition to explicit SIMD instructions and smart expression templates, the framework introduces domain specific constructs for the tensor cross product and its associated algebra recently rediscovered by Bonet et al. (2015, 2016) in the context of solid mechanics. The two key ingredients of the presented expression template engine are as follows. First, the capability to mathematically transform complex chains of operations to simpler equivalent expressions, while potentially avoiding routes with higher levels of computational complexity and, second, to perform a compile time depth-first or breadth-first search to find the optimal contraction indices of a large tensor network in order to minimise the number of floating point operations. For optimisations of tensor contraction such as loop transformation, loop fusion and data locality optimisations, the framework relies heavily on compile time technologies rather than source-to-source translation or JIT techniques. Every aspect of the framework is examined through relevant performance benchmarks, including the impact of data parallelism on the performance of isomorphic and nonisomorphic tensor products, the FLOP and memory I/O optimality in the evaluation of tensor networks, the compilation cost and memory footprint of the framework and the performance of tensor cross product kernels. The framework is then applied to finite element analysis of coupled electro-mechanical problems to assess the speed-ups achieved in kernel-based numerical integration of complex electroelastic energy functionals. In this context, domain-aware expression templates combined with SIMD instructions are shown to provide a significant speed-up over the classical low-level style programming techniques.

  17. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  18. Probe Techniques. Introductory Remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emeleus, K. G. [School of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Queen' s University, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    1968-04-15

    In this brief introduction to the session on probes, the history of theii development is first touched on briefly. Reference is then made to the significance of the work to be described by Medicus, for conductivity and recombination calculations, and by Lam and Su, for a wide range of medium and higher pressure plasmas. Finally, a number of other probe topics are mentioned, including multiple probes; probes in electronegative plasmas; resonance probes; probes in noisy discharges; probes as oscillation detectors; use of probes where space-charge is not negligible. (author)

  19. Electromechanical properties of superconductors for DOE/OFE applications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekin, J.W.; Bray, S.L.

    1998-01-01

    In many superconductor applications, especially large magnets, the superconductor is required to perform while under the influence of strong mechanical forces. These forces are commonly due to residual fabrication stress, differential thermal contraction of dissimilar materials, and electromagnetic forces generated within an energized magnet coil. Thorough knowledge of a superconductor's electrical performance under the influence of these forces (electromechanical properties) is required for successful magnet engineering. This report presents results of research conducted during the period from august 1993 through March 1997 on the electromechanical properties of superconductors for DOE/OFE fusion applications

  20. Thermoelastic Damping in FGM Nano-Electromechanical System in Axial Vibration Based on Eringen Nonlocal Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Z.; Rashahmadi, S.

    2017-11-01

    The thermo-elastic damping is a dominant source of internal damping in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS). The internal damping cannot neither be controlled nor minimized unless either mechanical or geometrical properties are changed. Therefore, a novel FGMNEM system with a controllable thermo-elastic damping of axial vibration based on Eringen nonlocal theory is considered. The effects of different parameter like the gradient index, nonlocal parameter, length of nanobeam and ambient temperature on the thermo-elastic damping quality factor are presented. It is shown that the thermo-elastic damping can be controlled by changing different parameter.

  1. The principles of electronic and electromechanic power conversion a systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Braham

    2013-01-01

    Teaching the principles of power electronics and electromechanical power conversion through a unique top down systems approach, The Principles of Electromechanical Power Conversion takes the role and system context of power conversion functions as the starting point. Following this approach, the text defines the building blocks of the system and describes the theory of how they exchange power with each other. The authors introduce a modern, simple approach to machines, which makes the principles of field oriented control and space vector theory approachable to undergraduate students as well as

  2. Probing plasmonic nanostructures by photons and electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneipp, Katrin; Kneipp, Harald; Kneipp, Janina

    2015-01-01

    We discuss recent developments for studying plasmonic metal nanostructures. Exploiting photons and electrons opens up new capabilities to probe the complete plasmon spectrum including bright and dark modes and related local optical fields at subnanometer spatial resolution. This comprehensive cha...

  3. The Possible Role of Dentin as a Piezoelectric Signal Generator by Determining the Elec-tromechanical Coupling Factor of Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atabak Shahidi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article aimed at calculation of the electromechanical coupling factor of dentin which is an indicator of the effectiveness with which a piezoelectric material converts electrical en-ergy into mechanical energy, or vice versa. The hypothesis: The electro-mechanical coupling factor of dentin was determined in mode 11 and 33 by calculating the ratio of the produced electrical energy to the stored elastic energy in dentin under applied pressure. This study showed that the electromechanical coupling factor of dentin was affected by the direction of the applied force and the moisture content of dentin. Also dentin was a weak electromechanical energy converter which might be categorized as a piezoelectric pressure sensor.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Determination of the electrome-chanical coupling factor of dentin and its other piezoelectric constants is essential to investigate the biologic role of piezoelectricity in tooth.

  4. Accuracy of micro four-point probe measurements on inhomogeneous samples: A probe spacing dependence study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a probe spacing dependence study in order to estimate the accuracy of micro four-point probe measurements on inhomogeneous samples. Based on sensitivity calculations, both sheet resistance and Hall effect measurements are studied for samples (e.g. laser annealed samples...... the probe spacing is smaller than 1/40 of the variation wavelength, micro four-point probes can provide an accurate record of local properties with less than 1% measurement error. All the calculations agree well with previous experimental results.......) with periodic variations of sheet resistance, sheet carrier density, and carrier mobility. With a variation wavelength of ¿, probe spacings from 0.0012 to 1002 have been applied to characterize the local variations. The calculations show that the measurement error is highly dependent on the probe spacing. When...

  5. Results of an investigation to determine local flow characteristics at the air data probe locations using an 0.030-scale model (45-0) of the space shuttle vehicle orbiter configuration 140A/B (modified) in the NASA Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel (OA161, A, B, C), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of wind tunnel test 0A161 of a 0.030-scale model 45-0 of the configuration 140A/B (modified) space shuttle vehicle orbiter in the NASA Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel facilities. The purpose of this test was to determine local total and static pressure environments for the air data probe locations and relative effectiveness of alternate flight-test probe configurations. Testing was done in the Mach number range from 0.30 to 3.5. Angle of attack was varied from -8 to 25 degrees while sideslip varied between -8 and 8 degrees.

  6. Bending-induced electromechanical coupling and large piezoelectric response in a micromachined diaphragm

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhihong; Yao, Yingbang; Wang, Xianbin; Yue, Weisheng; Chen, Longqing; Zhang, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the dependence of electromechanical coupling and the piezoelectric response of a micromachined Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48)O 3 (PZT) diaphragm on its curvature by observing the impedance spectrum and central deflection responses to a small AC

  7. Preparation of electromechanically active silicone composites and some evaluations of their suitability for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacob, Mihail; Bele, Adrian [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Gr. Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Patras, Xenia [“Apollonia” University, 2 Muzicii Street, 700511 Iasi (Romania); Pasca, Sorin [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi, Aleea Mihail Sadoveanu nr. 3, Iasi 700490 (Romania); Butnaru, Maria [“Gr. T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical Bioengineering, 16 University Street, 700115 Iasi (Romania); Alexandru, Mihaela [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Gr. Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Ovezea, Dragos [National Institute for Research and Development in Electrical Engineering ICPE-CA, 313 Splaiul Unirii, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); Cazacu, Maria, E-mail: mcazacu@icmpp.ro [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Gr. Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania)

    2014-10-01

    Some films based on electromechanically active polymer composites have been prepared. Polydimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diols (PDMSs) having different molecular masses (Mv = 60 700 and Mv = 44 200) were used as matrix in which two different active fillers were incorporated: titanium dioxide in situ generated from its titanium isopropoxide precursor and silica particles functionalized with polar aminopropyl groups on surface. A reference sample based on simple crosslinked PDMS was also prepared. The composites processed as films were investigated to evaluate their ability to act as efficient electromechanical actuators for potential biomedical application. Thus, the surface morphology of interest for electrodes compliance was analysed by atomic force microscopy. Mechanical and dielectric characteristics were evaluated by tensile tests and dielectric spectroscopy, respectively. Electromechanical actuation responses were measured by interferometry. The biocompatibility of the obtained materials has been verified through tests in vitro and, for valuable films, in vivo. The experimental, clinical and anatomopathological evaluation of the in vivo tested samples did not reveal significant pathological modifications. - Highlights: • Silicone composites differing by the filler and matrix characteristics were prepared. • Stress–strain curves were registered in normal and cyclic modes for composite films. • The dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, and conductivity were determined. • Electromechanical response of the films was measured at an applied voltage. • Some biocompatibility tests, both in vitro and in vivo, were performed.

  8. Modelling the electromechanical interactions in a null-flux EDS Maglev system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeij, de J.; Steinbuch, M.; Gutierrez, H.M.; Fair, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    The fundamental electromechanical interactionsin a passive null-ux EDS maglev system aremediated by the voltages induced in the levita-tion coils by the sled magnets, and by the forcesexerted on the sled as a result of the inducedcurrents. This paper presents a reliable andcompact method to

  9. Modeling the electromechanical interactions in a null-flux electrodynamic maglev system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeij, de J.; Steinbuch, M.; Gutierrez, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental electromechanical interactions in a passive -flux electrodynamic maglev system (EDS) are mediated by the voltages induced in the levitation coils by the sled magnets, and by the forces exerted on the sled as a result of the induced currents. This work presents a reliable and compact

  10. Immediate effects of different treatments for the wrist joints of subdominant hands, using electromechanical reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Rui; Cui, Yao; Ge, Meng; Xu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the immediate effects of muscle strength training and neuromuscular joint facilitation distal resistance training on wrist joints by using electromechanical reaction time. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 12 healthy young people (24.2 ± 3.1 years, 169.7 ± 6.5 cm, 65.3 ± 12.6 kg). Two kinds of isotonic contraction techniques were applied on the wrist joint: the wrist joint extension muscle strength training and the wrist joint extension pattern of neuromuscular joint facilitation. The electromechanical reaction time, premotor time, and motor time of the left upper limb were measured before and after each intervention session of muscle strength training and neuromuscular joint facilitation. [Results] The neuromuscular joint facilitation group showed significant shortening of the electromechanical reaction time and motor time after the intervention. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the electromechanical reaction time and motor time of the wrist joint can be improved by neuromuscular joint facilitation together with proximal resistance training, which can be used as a new form of exercise for improving the functions of subdominant hand wrist joints.

  11. Improved walking ability and reduced therapeutic stress with an electromechanical gait device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freivogel, Susanna; Schmalohr, Dieter; Mehrholz, Jan

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of repetitive locomotor training using a newly developed electromechanical gait device compared with treadmill training/gait training with respect to patient's ambulatory motor outcome, necessary personnel resources, and discomfort experienced by therapists and patients. Randomized, controlled, cross-over trial. Sixteen non-ambulatory patients after stroke, severe brain or spinal cord injury sequentially received 2 kinds of gait training. Study intervention A: 20 treatments of locomotor training with an electromechanical gait device; control intervention B: 20 treatments of locomotor training with treadmill or task-oriented gait training. The primary variable was walking ability (Functional Ambulation Category). Secondary variables included gait velocity, Motricity-Index, Rivermead-Mobility-Index, number of therapists needed, and discomfort and effort of patients and therapists during training. Gait ability and the other motor outcome related parameters improved for all patients, but without significant difference between intervention types. However, during intervention A, significantly fewer therapists were needed, and they reported less discomfort and a lower level of effort during training sessions. Locomotor training with or without an electromechanical gait trainer leads to improved gait ability; however, using the electromechanical gait trainer requires less therapeutic assistance, and therapist discomfort is reduced.

  12. A methodology for identification and control of electro-mechanical actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutunji, Tarek A; Saleem, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Mechatronic systems are fully-integrated engineering systems that are composed of mechanical, electronic, and computer control sub-systems. These integrated systems use electro-mechanical actuators to cause the required motion. Therefore, the design of appropriate controllers for these actuators are an essential step in mechatronic system design. In this paper, a three-stage methodology for real-time identification and control of electro-mechanical actuator plants is presented, tested, and validated. First, identification models are constructed from experimental data to approximate the plants' response. Second, the identified model is used in a simulation environment for the purpose of designing a suitable controller. Finally, the designed controller is applied and tested on the real plant through Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) environment. The described three-stage methodology provides the following practical contributions: •Establishes an easy-to-follow methodology for controller design of electro-mechanical actuators.•Combines off-line and on-line controller design for practical performance.•Modifies the HIL concept by using physical plants with computer control (rather than virtual plants with physical controllers). Simulated and experimental results for two case studies, induction motor and vehicle drive system, are presented in order to validate the proposed methodology. These results showed that electromechanical actuators can be identified and controlled using an easy-to-duplicate and flexible procedure.

  13. Embedded 3D electromechanical impedance model for strength monitoring of concrete using a PZT transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dansheng; Song, Hongyuan; Zhu, Hongping

    2014-01-01

    The electromechanical (EM) impedance approach in which piezoelectric ceramics (PZT) simultaneously act as both a sensor and an actuator due to their direct and inverse piezoelectric effects has emerged as a powerful tool for structural health monitoring in recent years. This paper formulates a new 3D electromechanical impedance model that characterizes the interaction between an embedded square PZT transducer and the host structure based on the effective impedance. The proposed formulations can be conveniently used to extract the mechanical impedance of the host structure from the electromechanical admittance measurements of an embedded PZT patch. The proposed model is verified by experimental and numerical results from a smart concrete cube in which a square PZT transducer is embedded. Subsequently, this paper also presents a new methodology to monitor the compressive strength of concrete based on the effective mechanical impedance. By extracting the effective mechanical impedances from the electromechanical admittance signatures, measuring the compressive strength of the concrete cubes at different ages and combining these measurements with the index of the correlation coefficient (CC), a linear correlation between the concrete strength gain and the CC of the real mechanical admittances was found. The proposed approach is found to be feasible to monitor the compressive strength of concrete by age. (paper)

  14. Modeling and Investigation of Electromechanical Valve Train Actuator at simulated Pressure conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Tufail

    2012-01-01

    In an electromechanical valve actuated engine, the valves are driven by solenoid-type actuators and cam-shaft is eliminated. Control of each valve provides flexibility in valve timings over all engine conditions and achieves the benefits of variable valve timing(VVT). This paper is about investig...

  15. Preparation of electromechanically active silicone composites and some evaluations of their suitability for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, Mihail; Bele, Adrian; Patras, Xenia; Pasca, Sorin; Butnaru, Maria; Alexandru, Mihaela; Ovezea, Dragos; Cazacu, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Some films based on electromechanically active polymer composites have been prepared. Polydimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diols (PDMSs) having different molecular masses (Mv = 60 700 and Mv = 44 200) were used as matrix in which two different active fillers were incorporated: titanium dioxide in situ generated from its titanium isopropoxide precursor and silica particles functionalized with polar aminopropyl groups on surface. A reference sample based on simple crosslinked PDMS was also prepared. The composites processed as films were investigated to evaluate their ability to act as efficient electromechanical actuators for potential biomedical application. Thus, the surface morphology of interest for electrodes compliance was analysed by atomic force microscopy. Mechanical and dielectric characteristics were evaluated by tensile tests and dielectric spectroscopy, respectively. Electromechanical actuation responses were measured by interferometry. The biocompatibility of the obtained materials has been verified through tests in vitro and, for valuable films, in vivo. The experimental, clinical and anatomopathological evaluation of the in vivo tested samples did not reveal significant pathological modifications. - Highlights: • Silicone composites differing by the filler and matrix characteristics were prepared. • Stress–strain curves were registered in normal and cyclic modes for composite films. • The dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, and conductivity were determined. • Electromechanical response of the films was measured at an applied voltage. • Some biocompatibility tests, both in vitro and in vivo, were performed

  16. Electromechanical properties of electrostrictive CeO2:Gd membranes: Effects of frequency and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, A. D.; Mishuk, E.; Makagon, E.; Alikin, D. O.; Esin, A. A.; Baturin, I. S.; Tselev, A.; Shur, V. Ya.; Lubomirsky, I.; Kholkin, A. L.

    2017-04-01

    Doped ceria is known for decades as an excellent ionic conductor used ubiquitously in fuel cells and other devices. Recent discovery of a giant electrostriction effect has brought world-wide interest to this class of materials for actuation applications in micromechanical systems. From this aspect, the electromechanical response has to be studied as a function of external parameters, such as frequency, temperature, and electrode material. In this work, we fabricated circular membranes based on Gd-doped ceria (CGO) with Ti electrodes and studied their electromechanical response using a sensitive interferometric technique. The self-supported membranes are flat at room temperature and reversibly buckle upon heating, indicating that the membranes are under in-plane tensile strain. We have found that the electromechanical response is strongly frequency dependent. Significant hysteresis is observed in the displacement-vs.-voltage curves, which is deleterious for micromechanical applications but can be eliminated by tuning the phase of the excitation voltage. The electromechanical response of the system increases with temperature. Finite Element Modeling is applied to evaluate the electrostriction coefficient of the CGO material. At low frequencies, the M12 electrostriction coefficient is about 5 × 10-18 m2/V2, which is in line with the previous reports.

  17. Exploiting H infinity sampled-data control theory for high-precision electromechanical servo control design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, T.A.E.; Wal, van de M.M.J.; Bosgra, O.H.

    2006-01-01

    Optimal design of digital controllers for industrial electromechanical servo systems using an Hinf-criterion is considered. Present industrial practice is to perform the control design in the continuous time domain and to discretize the controller a posteriori. This procedure involves unnecessary

  18. A novel implantable electromechanical ventricular assist device - First acute animal testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, R; Rakhorst, G; Mihaylov, D; Elstrodt, J; Nix, C; Reul, H; Rau, G

    1997-01-01

    A novel ventricular assist device (HIA-EMLVAD-AT1, Helmholtz Institute Aachen-electromechanical Left Ventricular Assist Device-Animal Test Version 1), driven by a uniformly and unidirectionally rotating actuator and a patented hypocycloidic pusherplate displacement gear unit, was developed and

  19. Electro-mechanical impact system excited by a source of limited power

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2008), s. 1-10 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/06/0063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : mechanical oscillations * impacts * limited power of exciter * electro-mechanical interaction Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  20. Simultaneous recording of brain extracellular glucose, spike and local field potential in real time using an implantable microelectrode array with nano-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenjing; Song, Yilin; Fan, Xinyi; Zhang, Song; Wang, Li; Xu, Shengwei; Wang, Mixia; Cai, Xinxia

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is the main substrate for neurons in the central nervous system. In order to efficiently characterize the brain glucose mechanism, it is desirable to determine the extracellular glucose dynamics as well as the corresponding neuroelectrical activity in vivo. In the present study, we fabricated an implantable microelectrode array (MEA) probe composed of platinum electrochemical and electrophysiology microelectrodes by standard micro electromechanical system (MEMS) processes. The MEA probe was modified with nano-materials and implanted in a urethane-anesthetized rat for simultaneous recording of striatal extracellular glucose, local field potential (LFP) and spike on the same spatiotemporal scale when the rat was in normoglycemia, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. During these dual-mode recordings, we observed that increase of extracellular glucose enhanced the LFP power and spike firing rate, while decrease of glucose had an opposite effect. This dual mode MEA probe is capable of examining specific spatiotemporal relationships between electrical and chemical signaling in the brain, which will contribute significantly to improve our understanding of the neuron physiology.

  1. Simultaneous recording of brain extracellular glucose, spike and local field potential in real time using an implantable microelectrode array with nano-materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Wenjing; Song, Yilin; Fan, Xinyi; Zhang, Song; Wang, Li; Xu, Shengwei; Wang, Mixia; Cai, Xinxia

    2016-01-01

    Glucose is the main substrate for neurons in the central nervous system. In order to efficiently characterize the brain glucose mechanism, it is desirable to determine the extracellular glucose dynamics as well as the corresponding neuroelectrical activity in vivo. In the present study, we fabricated an implantable microelectrode array (MEA) probe composed of platinum electrochemical and electrophysiology microelectrodes by standard micro electromechanical system (MEMS) processes. The MEA probe was modified with nano-materials and implanted in a urethane-anesthetized rat for simultaneous recording of striatal extracellular glucose, local field potential (LFP) and spike on the same spatiotemporal scale when the rat was in normoglycemia, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. During these dual-mode recordings, we observed that increase of extracellular glucose enhanced the LFP power and spike firing rate, while decrease of glucose had an opposite effect. This dual mode MEA probe is capable of examining specific spatiotemporal relationships between electrical and chemical signaling in the brain, which will contribute significantly to improve our understanding of the neuron physiology. (paper)

  2. Building versatile bipartite probes for quantum metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Alessandro; De Pasquale, Antonella; Adesso, Gerardo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    We consider bipartite systems as versatile probes for the estimation of transformations acting locally on one of the subsystems. We investigate what resources are required for the probes to offer a guaranteed level of metrological performance, when the latter is averaged over specific sets of local transformations. We quantify such a performance via the average skew information (AvSk), a convex quantity which we compute in closed form for bipartite states of arbitrary dimensions, and which is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of local purity of the probes. Our analysis contrasts and complements the recent series of studies focused on the minimum, rather than the average, performance of bipartite probes in local estimation tasks, which was instead determined by quantum correlations other than entanglement. We provide explicit prescriptions to characterize the most reliable states maximizing the AvSk, and elucidate the role of state purity, separability and correlations in the classification of optimal probes. Our results can help in the identification of useful resources for sensing, estimation and discrimination applications when complete knowledge of the interaction mechanism realizing the local transformation is unavailable, and access to pure entangled probes is technologically limited.

  3. Building versatile bipartite probes for quantum metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farace, Alessandro; Pasquale, Antonella De; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We consider bipartite systems as versatile probes for the estimation of transformations acting locally on one of the subsystems. We investigate what resources are required for the probes to offer a guaranteed level of metrological performance, when the latter is averaged over specific sets of local transformations. We quantify such a performance via the average skew information (AvSk), a convex quantity which we compute in closed form for bipartite states of arbitrary dimensions, and which is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of local purity of the probes. Our analysis contrasts and complements the recent series of studies focused on the minimum, rather than the average, performance of bipartite probes in local estimation tasks, which was instead determined by quantum correlations other than entanglement. We provide explicit prescriptions to characterize the most reliable states maximizing the AvSk, and elucidate the role of state purity, separability and correlations in the classification of optimal probes. Our results can help in the identification of useful resources for sensing, estimation and discrimination applications when complete knowledge of the interaction mechanism realizing the local transformation is unavailable, and access to pure entangled probes is technologically limited. (paper)

  4. Heat transfer probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jeffrey I.; Rosengart, Axel J.; Kasza, Ken; Yu, Wenhua; Chien, Tai-Hsin; Franklin, Jeff

    2006-10-10

    Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.

  5. System-on-Chip Integration of a New Electromechanical Impedance Calculation Method for Aircraft Structure Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Medale

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The work reported on this paper describes a new methodology implementation for active structural health monitoring of recent aircraft parts made from carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer. This diagnosis is based on a new embedded method that is capable of measuring the local high frequency impedance spectrum of the structure through the calculation of the electro-mechanical impedance of a piezoelectric patch pasted non-permanently onto its surface. This paper involves both the laboratory based E/M impedance method development, its implementation into a CPU with limited resources as well as a comparison with experimental testing data needed to demonstrate the feasibility of flaw detection on composite materials and answer the question of the method reliability. The different development steps are presented and the integration issues are discussed. Furthermore, we present the unique advantages that the reconfigurable electronics through System-on-Chip (SoC technology brings to the system scaling and flexibility. At the end of this article, we demonstrate the capability of a basic network of sensors mounted onto a real composite aircraft part specimen to capture its local impedance spectrum signature and to diagnosis different delamination sizes using a comparison with a baseline.

  6. System-on-chip integration of a new electromechanical impedance calculation method for aircraft structure health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukabache, Hamza; Escriba, Christophe; Zedek, Sabeha; Medale, Daniel; Rolet, Sebastien; Fourniols, Jean Yves

    2012-10-11

    The work reported on this paper describes a new methodology implementation for active structural health monitoring of recent aircraft parts made from carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer. This diagnosis is based on a new embedded method that is capable of measuring the local high frequency impedance spectrum of the structure through the calculation of the electro-mechanical impedance of a piezoelectric patch pasted non-permanently onto its surface. This paper involves both the laboratory based E/M impedance method development, its implementation into a CPU with limited resources as well as a comparison with experimental testing data needed to demonstrate the feasibility of flaw detection on composite materials and answer the question of the method reliability. The different development steps are presented and the integration issues are discussed. Furthermore, we present the unique advantages that the reconfigurable electronics through System-on-Chip (SoC) technology brings to the system scaling and flexibility. At the end of this article, we demonstrate the capability of a basic network of sensors mounted onto a real composite aircraft part specimen to capture its local impedance spectrum signature and to diagnosis different delamination sizes using a comparison with a baseline.

  7. Piezoelectricity above the Curie temperature? Combining flexoelectricity and functional grading to enable high-temperature electromechanical coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarki, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Baccam, N. [Department of Mathematics, Southwestern University, Georgetown, Texas 78626 (United States); Dayal, Kaushik [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Sharma, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    Most technologically relevant ferroelectrics typically lose piezoelectricity above the Curie temperature. This limits their use to relatively low temperatures. In this Letter, exploiting a combination of flexoelectricity and simple functional grading, we propose a strategy for high-temperature electromechanical coupling in a standard thin film configuration. We use continuum modeling to quantitatively demonstrate the possibility of achieving apparent piezoelectric materials with large and temperature-stable electromechanical coupling across a wide temperature range that extends significantly above the Curie temperature. With Barium and Strontium Titanate, as example materials, a significant electromechanical coupling that is potentially temperature-stable up to 900 °C is possible.

  8. Phase-chronometric measuring systems for the provision of technological processes and diagnostics of the production of electromechanical engineering systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumakova Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper the main problems and objectives assessment of the current technical condition of the machine-building equipment are considered. Modern measuring systems used in engineering analysis. The paper considers a phase-chronometric information technology-metrological support for the evaluation of the technical condition of the synchronous electromechanical systems on the example of turbine CHP. Analysis of the main problems in the diagnosis of electromechanical systems is given. Phase-chronometric method as a basis for building a new system of diagnosis of electromechanical systems reviewed. The paper describes the main elements of technology, assessment of the economic effects of its introduction in the industry.

  9. Mobile Game Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2006-01-01

    This paper will examine how probes can be useful for game designers in the preliminary phases of a design process. The work is based upon a case study concerning pervasive mobile phone games where Mobile Game Probes have emerged from the project. The new probes are aimed towards a specific target...... group and the goal is to specify the probes so they will cover the most relevant areas for our project. The Mobile Game Probes generated many interesting results and new issues occurred, since the probes came to be dynamic and favorable for the process in new ways....

  10. Localized superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, M.; Lee, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    We study the effects of Anderson localization on superconductivity by using a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type trial wave function which pairs electrons in exact time-reversed eigenstates of the single-particle Hamiltonian. Within this approximation, and neglecting localization effects on the effective Coulomb repulsion and the electron-phonon coupling, we find that superconductivity persists below the mobility edge. In fact, Anderson's theorem is valid in the localized phase as long as rhoΔ 0 L/sup d/ > 1 (rho is the density of states averaged over +- Δ 0 of the Fermi energy, Δ 0 the BCS gap parameter, and L the localization length). Hence the gap order parameter Δ(r) remains uniform in space at the BCS value Δ 0 . The superfluid density and response to electromagnetic perturbations, however, show marked differences from the ''dirty superconductor'' regime. For rhoΔ 0 L/sup d/ < 1, Δ(r) fluctuates spatially and eventually drops to zero. In the limit when states are site localized, the system crosses over into the ''Anderson negative-U glass.'' Considerations beyond the trial wave-function approximation will speed up the destruction of superconductivity. The superconductor formed from localized states has the property that its quasiparticle excitations are also localized. Such excitations can be probed by observing the normal current in a tunneling junction

  11. A new method for intraoperative localization of epilepsy focus by means of a gamma probe; Um novo metodo para a localizacao intraoperatoria de foco de epilepsia mediante utilizacao de gamaprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro Filho, Omar, E-mail: dromarcarneiro@gmail.com [Centro Brasileiro de Medicina Nuclear e Imagem Molecular (CEBRAMEN), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Instituto de Medicina Nuclear, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Vilela Filho, Osvaldo [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Neurocirurgia; Ragazzo, Paulo Cesar [Instituto de Neurologia de Goiania, GO (Brazil). Servico de Eplepsia e Neurofisiologia; Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2014-01-15

    Objective: to evaluate the utility of a new multimodal image-guided intervention technique to detect epileptogenic areas with a gamma probe as compared with intraoperative electrocorticography. Materials and methods: two symptomatic patients with refractory epilepsy underwent magnetic resonance imaging, videoelectroencephalography, brain SPECT scan, neuropsychological evaluation and were submitted to gamma probe-assisted surgery. Results: in patient 1, maximum radioactive count was initially observed on the temporal gyrus at about 3.5 cm posteriorly to the tip of the left temporal lobe. After corticotomy, the gamma probe indicated maximum count at the head of the hippocampus, in agreement with the findings of intraoperative electrocorticography. In patient 2, maximum count was observed in the occipital region at the transition between the temporal and parietal lobes (right hemisphere). During the surgery, the area of epileptogenic activity mapped at electrocorticography was also delimited, demarcated, and compared with the gamma probe findings. After lesionectomy, new radioactive counts were performed both in the patients and on the surgical specimens (ex-vivo). Conclusion: the comparison between intraoperative electrocorticography and gamma probe-assisted surgery showed similarity of both methods. The advantages of gamma probe include: noninvasiveness, low cost and capacity to demonstrate decrease in the radioactive activity at the site of excision after lesionectomy. (author)

  12. Development experience and development prospect оf electromechanical technological complexes of movement and positioning of technic shelf development equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Е. Козярук

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available From the example of active semisubmersible drilling rigs it is shown characteristics of electromechanical complexes of drill rigs and anchor position control systems on the base of controlled electric drive with directcurrent motors. It is presented suggestions which allow increasing electric power and service reliability criteria through the use of semiconductor converters supplied from power semiconductor converter with active front end in technological drilling systems, propulsion and position control systems of electromechanical systems on the base of noncontact asynchronous motors. It is outlined information about experience of using such kind of electromechanical complexes at the objects of mining industry working in difficult operating conditions. It is presented information about developing of electromechanical complexes of displacement systems, position control systems, technological and technical shelf development equipment and their characteristics. Also it is outlined structures and examples of designing modern high efficiency systems with contactless actuating motors.

  13. Nanolithography and nanochemistry utilizing scanning probe techniques: directed self-assembly of sub-micrometer-sized structures by scanning probe lithography defined templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, D.; Sturms, J.P.E.; Schubert, U.S.

    2004-01-01

    The octadecyl trichlorosilane (OTS) monolayer was formed on Si carrier, and the template regulated by a local probe oxidation method from this was produced using a scanning probe lithography. The local probe oxidation was done by moving an AFM tip along an axle line. When the chip contacts a OTS

  14. High efficiency β radioisotope energy conversion using reciprocating electromechanical converters with integrated betavoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggirala, Rajesh; Li, Hui; Lal, Amit

    2008-04-01

    We demonstrate a 5.1% energy conversion efficiency Ni63 radioisotope power generator by integrating silicon betavoltaic converters with radioisotope actuated reciprocating piezoelectric unimorph cantilever converters. The electromechanical energy converter efficiently utilizes both the kinetic energy and the electrical charge of the 0.94μW β radiation from a 9mCi Ni63 thin film source to generate maximum (1) continuous betavoltaic electrical power output of 22nW and (2) pulsed piezoelectric electrical power output of 750μW at 0.07% duty cycle. The electromechanical converters can be potentially used to realize 100year lifetime power sources for powering periodic sampling remote wireless sensor microsystems.

  15. Research on the use of data fusion technology to evaluate the state of electromechanical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin

    2018-04-01

    Aiming at the problems of different testing information modes and the coexistence of quantitative and qualitative information in the state evaluation of electromechanical equipment, the paper proposes the use of data fusion technology to evaluate the state of electromechanical equipment. This paper introduces the state evaluation process of mechanical and electrical equipment in detail, uses the D-S evidence theory to fuse the decision-making layers of mechanical and electrical equipment state evaluation and carries out simulation tests. The simulation results show that it is feasible and effective to apply the data fusion technology to the state evaluation of the mechatronic equipment. After the multiple decision-making information provided by different evaluation methods are fused repeatedly and the useful information is extracted repeatedly, the fuzziness of judgment can be reduced and the state evaluation Credibility.

  16. Evaluation of atrial electromechanical delay and diastolic functions in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokmen, Abdullah; Acar, Gurkan; Sokmen, Gulizar; Akcay, Ahmet; Akkoyun, Murat; Koroglu, Sedat; Nacar, Alper Bugra; Ozkaya, Mesut

    2013-11-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a well-known cause of atrial fibrillation (AF) which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Atrial electromechanical delay (EMD) is a significant predictor of AF. The aim of this study was to assess the atrial EMD and diastolic functions in subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism by using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). The study population consisted of 3 groups: group I (30 healthy subjects), group II (38 patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism), and group III (25 patients with overt hyperthyroidism). Atrial electromechanical coupling was measured with TDI. Standard echocardiographic measurements and parameters of diastolic function were obtained by conventional echocardiography and TDI. Intra- and inter-atrial EMD were significantly prolonged in subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism compared with control group (P = 0.03 and P hyperthyroidism. TSH level and mitral Em /Am ratio were found as independent predictors of atrial EMD. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Immediate Effect of Neuromuscular Joint Facilitation (NJF) Treatment on Electromechanical Reaction Times of Hip Flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ming; Wang, Hongzhao; Ge, Meng; Huang, Qiuchen; Li, Desheng; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in electromechanical reaction times (EMG-RT) of hip flexion of younger persons after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 39 healthy young people, who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) group. The NJF group consisted of 16 subjects (7 males, 9 females), and the PNF group consisted of 23 subjects (10 males, 13 females). [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received NJF treatment. We measured the EMG-RT, the premotor time (PMT) and the motor time (MT) during hip flexion movement before and after the intervention in both groups. [Results] There were no significant differences among the results of the PNF group. For the NJF group, there were significant differences in PMT and EMG-RT after NJF treatment. [Conclusion] These results suggest that there is an immediate effect of NJF intervention on electromechanical reaction times of hip flexion.

  18. Electromechanical responses of a long piezoelectric tube subjected to dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jin H; Shiah, Y C; Lee, Bing Jean

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the fully coupled electromechanical response of a long piezoelectric tube subjected to periodic excitation loads. By adopting the variation approach for generalized loading conditions and utilizing Hamilton's principle, the governing differential equations are described in this paper. For studying the direct and converse effect of the piezoelectric tube, the equations of motion are then solved to give exact solutions corresponding to different boundary conditions prescribed for the tube functioning as sensors or actuators. For numerical illustrations of our analysis, a long tube made of polyvinylidene difluoride is investigated for its dynamic responses under different harmonic excitation loads. Contributing to the development of novel acousto-optic, actuator and sensor devices, this work may be extended to investigating the electromechanical responses of piezoelectric coatings on optical fibres

  19. Design and finite element method analysis of laterally actuated multi-value nano electromechanical switches

    KAUST Repository

    Kloub, Hussam; Smith, Casey; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    We report on the design and modeling of novel nano electromechanical switches suitable for implementing reset/set flip-flops, AND, NOR, and XNOR Boolean functions. Multiple logic operations can be implemented using only one switching action enabling parallel data processing; a feature that renders this design competitive with complementary metal oxide semiconductor and superior to conventional nano-electromechanical switches in terms of functionality per device footprint. The structural architecture of the newly designed switch consists of a pinned flexural beam structure which allows low strain lateral actuation for enhanced mechanical integrity. Reliable control of on-state electrical current density is achieved through the use of metal-metal contacts, true parallel beam deflection, and lithographically defined contact area to prevent possible device welding. Dynamic response as a function of device dimensions numerically investigated using ANSYS and MatLab Simulink. © 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  20. Single-walled carbon nanotube electromechanical switching behavior with shoulder slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter; Wu, Yu-Chiao; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Adams, George; McGruer, Nicol

    2011-04-01

    Several electromechanical devices, each consisting of a small bundle of single-walled carbon nanotubes suspended over an actuation electrode, have been fabricated and operated electrically. The nanotubes are assembled on the electrodes using dielectrophoresis, a potential high-rate nanomanufacturing process. A large decrease in the threshold voltage was seen after the first actuation. This is a result of the nanotubes sliding inward on their supports as they are pulled down toward the actuation electrode, leaving slack in the nanotube bundle for subsequent actuations. The electrical measurements agree well with an electromechanical model that uses a literature-reported value of the shear stress between the nanotubes and the SiO2 shoulders. Electrical measurements were performed in dry nitrogen as a large build-up of contamination was seen when the measurements were performed in lab air. We present measurements as well as a detailed mechanics model that support the interpretation of the data.

  1. Single-walled carbon nanotube electromechanical switching behavior with shoulder slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Peter; Wu, Yu-Chiao; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Adams, George; McGruer, Nicol

    2011-01-01

    Several electromechanical devices, each consisting of a small bundle of single-walled carbon nanotubes suspended over an actuation electrode, have been fabricated and operated electrically. The nanotubes are assembled on the electrodes using dielectrophoresis, a potential high-rate nanomanufacturing process. A large decrease in the threshold voltage was seen after the first actuation. This is a result of the nanotubes sliding inward on their supports as they are pulled down toward the actuation electrode, leaving slack in the nanotube bundle for subsequent actuations. The electrical measurements agree well with an electromechanical model that uses a literature-reported value of the shear stress between the nanotubes and the SiO 2 shoulders. Electrical measurements were performed in dry nitrogen as a large build-up of contamination was seen when the measurements were performed in lab air. We present measurements as well as a detailed mechanics model that support the interpretation of the data.

  2. Modeling of capacitor charging dynamics in an energy harvesting system considering accurate electromechanical coupling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Shahriar; Wu, Nan; Filizadeh, Shaahin

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents an iterative numerical method that accurately models an energy harvesting system charging a capacitor with piezoelectric patches. The constitutive relations of piezoelectric materials connected with an external charging circuit with a diode bridge and capacitors lead to the electromechanical coupling effect and the difficulty of deriving accurate transient mechanical response, as well as the charging progress. The proposed model is built upon the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and takes into account the electromechanical coupling effects as well as the dynamic process of charging an external storage capacitor. The model is validated through experimental tests on a cantilever beam coated with piezoelectric patches. Several parametric studies are performed and the functionality of the model is verified. The efficiency of power harvesting system can be predicted and tuned considering variations in different design parameters. Such a model can be utilized to design robust and optimal energy harvesting system.

  3. Design and finite element method analysis of laterally actuated multi-value nano electromechanical switches

    KAUST Repository

    Kloub, Hussam

    2011-09-01

    We report on the design and modeling of novel nano electromechanical switches suitable for implementing reset/set flip-flops, AND, NOR, and XNOR Boolean functions. Multiple logic operations can be implemented using only one switching action enabling parallel data processing; a feature that renders this design competitive with complementary metal oxide semiconductor and superior to conventional nano-electromechanical switches in terms of functionality per device footprint. The structural architecture of the newly designed switch consists of a pinned flexural beam structure which allows low strain lateral actuation for enhanced mechanical integrity. Reliable control of on-state electrical current density is achieved through the use of metal-metal contacts, true parallel beam deflection, and lithographically defined contact area to prevent possible device welding. Dynamic response as a function of device dimensions numerically investigated using ANSYS and MatLab Simulink. © 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  4. Hypersonic Poration: A New Versatile Cell Poration Method to Enhance Cellular Uptake Using a Piezoelectric Nano-Electromechanical Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhixin; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Hongxiang; Tang, Zifan; Liu, Wenpeng; Lu, Yao; Wang, Zefang; Yang, Haitao; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Daihua; Duan, Xuexin

    2017-05-01

    Efficient delivery of genes and therapeutic agents to the interior of the cell is critical for modern biotechnology. Herein, a new type of chemical-free cell poration method-hypersonic poration-is developed to improve the cellular uptake, especially the nucleus uptake. The hypersound (≈GHz) is generated by a designed piezoelectric nano-electromechanical resonator, which directly induces normal/shear stress and "molecular bombardment" effects on the bilayer membranes, and creates reversible temporal nanopores improving the membrane permeability. Both theory analysis and cellular uptake experiments of exogenous compounds prove the high delivery efficiency of hypersonic poration. Since target molecules in cells are accumulated with the treatment, the delivered amount can be controlled by tuning the treatment time. Furthermore, owing to the intrinsic miniature of the resonator, localized drug delivery at a confined spatial location and tunable arrays of the resonators that are compatible with multiwell plate can be achieved. The hypersonic poration method shows great delivery efficacy combined with advantage of scalability, tunable throughput, and simplification in operation and provides a potentially powerful strategy in the field of molecule delivery, cell transfection, and gene therapy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Method of Data storing, collection and aggregation for definition of life-cycle resources of electromechanical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovskiy, Y.; Koteleva, N.

    2017-10-01

    Analysis of technical and technological conditions for the emergence of emergency situations during the operation of electromechanical equipment of enterprises of the mineral and raw materials complex shows that when developing the basis for ensuring safe operation, it is necessary to take into account not only the technical condition, but also the non-stationary operation of the operating conditions of equipment, and the nonstationarity of operational operating parameters of technological processes. Violations of the operation of individual parts of the machine, not detected in time, can lead to severe accidents at work, as well as to unplanned downtime and loss of profits. That is why, the issues of obtaining and processing Big data obtained during the life cycle of electromechanical equipment, for assessing the current state of the electromechanical equipment used, timely diagnostics of emergency and pre-emergency modes of its operation, estimating the residual resource, as well as prediction the technical state on the basis of machine learning are very important. This article is dedicated to developing the special method of data storing, collection and aggregation for definition of life-cycle resources of electromechanical equipment. This method can be used in working with big data and can allow extracting the knowledge from different data types: the plants’ historical data and the factory historical data. The data of the plants contains the information about electromechanical equipment operation and the data of the factory contains the information about a production of electromechanical equipment.

  6. Nanoscale Electromechanics To Measure Thermal Conductivity, Expansion, and Interfacial Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, John P; Patel, Raj; Borah, Abhinandan; Maliakkal, Carina B; Abhilash, T S; Deshmukh, Mandar M

    2015-11-11

    We study the effect of localized Joule heating on the mechanical properties of doubly clamped nanowires under tensile stress. Local heating results in systematic variation of the resonant frequency; these frequency changes result from thermal stresses that depend on temperature dependent thermal conductivity and expansion coefficient. The change in sign of the linear expansion coefficient of InAs is reflected in the resonant response of the system near a bath temperature of 20 K. Using finite element simulations to model the experimentally observed frequency shifts, we show that the thermal conductivity of a nanowire can be approximated in the 10-60 K temperature range by the empirical form κ = bT W/mK, where the value of b for a nanowire was found to be b = 0.035 W/mK(2), significantly lower than bulk values. Also, local heating allows us to independently vary the temperature of the nanowire relative to the clamping points pinned to the bath temperature. We suggest a loss mechanism (dissipation ~10(-4)-10(-5)) originating from the interfacial clamping losses between the metal and the semiconductor nanostructure.

  7. Morphological, Thermal, Electrical and Electromechanical Properties of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)-Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Composites (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    several times with deionized water and ethanol to remove undissolved chemicals. Finally the solution was filtered through 0.2 µm cellulose nitrate...was recorded for 3 times and average was used. To observe the morphology of the synthesized samples, FESEM (Quanta 3D ) was performed. Powder was...linear within elastic region and start going to plastic region with further increment in load. For testing electromechanical properties of these f-CNT

  8. Research on Braking Stability of Electro-mechanical Hybrid Braking System in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Fenzhu; Tian, Mi

    2010-01-01

    For the electro-mechanical hybrid braking system, which is composed of electric brake and general friction brake, the models of electric braking force, total braking force and the utilization adhesion coefficient for front and rear axles were established based on the analysis of braking torque distribution. The variation relationship between electric braking force and friction braking force in different braking intensity was calculated and analyzed with the paralleled-hybridized braking contr...

  9. Electro-mechanical coupling of semiconductor film grown on stainless steel by oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M. C.; Wang, G.; Guo, L. Q.; Qiao, L. J.; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2013-09-01

    Electro-mechanical coupling phenomenon in oxidation film on stainless steel has been discovered by using current-sensing atomic force microscopy, along with the I-V curves measurements. The oxidation films exhibit either ohmic, n-type, or p-type semiconductor properties, according to the obtained I-V curves. This technique allows characterizing oxidation films with high spatial resolution. Semiconductor properties of oxidation films must be considered as additional stress corrosion cracking mechanisms.

  10. The electromechanical converter in the systems of desulfurisation of crude oil

    OpenAIRE

    Kuimov Denis; Minkin Maxim

    2017-01-01

    In article authors have investigated a question of a possibility of application of hydrodynamic cavitation processing of crude oil for the purpose of decrease in content of sulphurous compounds. The electromechanical converter with a secondary discrete part, the being device exciting in the processed material the cavitation and shock field by means of heavy traffic of big set of ferromagnetic elements under the influence of external magnetic field is presented. Features of initiation of hydro...

  11. Electromechanical characterization of piezoelectric actuators subjected to a variable pre-loading force at cryogenic temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouaidy, M.; Saki, M.; Hammoudi, N.; Simonet, L.

    2007-01-01

    A dedicated apparatus was designed and constructed for studying the electromechanical behavior of prototype piezoelectric actuators subjected to a variable pre-loading force at cryogenic temperatures. This device was successfully used for testing a piezoelectric actuator of PICMA type from PI TM , for T in the range 2 K-300 K. The dielectric properties as well as dynamic properties were measured including the actuator characteristics when used as force sensor. The corresponding data are reported and discussed. (authors)

  12. Effects of neuromuscular training on the reaction time and electromechanical delay of the peroneus longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Christena W; Hopkins, J Ty; Schulthies, Shane S; Freland, Brent; Draper, David O; Hunter, Iain

    2006-03-01

    To examine the influence of a 6-week neuromuscular training program on the electromechanical delay and reaction time of the peroneus longus muscle. A 2 x 2 pre-post factorial design. Human performance research center biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-six healthy, physically active, college-age subjects were recruited for this study and 26 completed it. There were 5 men and 8 women in the treatment group (mean age +/- standard deviation, 21.9+/-2.1 y; height, 173.7+/-11.1cm; weight, 67.4+/-17.8 kg) and 6 men and 7 women in the control group (age, 21.8+/-2.3 y; height, 173.7+/-11.9 cm; weight, 70.8+/-19.4 kg). Subjects were not currently experiencing any lower-extremity pathology and had no history of injuries requiring treatment to either lower extremity. Subjects in the treatment group completed a 6-week neuromuscular training program involving various therapeutic exercises. Subjects in the control group were asked to continue their normal physical activity during the 6-week period. The electromechanical delay of the peroneus longus was determined by the onset of force contribution after artificial activation, as measured by electromyographic and forceplate data. Reaction time was measured after a perturbation during walking. Data were analyzed using two 2 x 2 analyses of covariance (covariate pretest score). Group (treatment, control) and sex (male, female) were between-subject factors. Neuromuscular training caused a decrease in reaction time to perturbation during walking compared with controls (F=4.030, P=.029), while there was a trend toward an increase in electromechanical delay (F=4.227, P=.052). There was no significant difference between sexes or the interaction of sex and treatment in either reaction time or electromechanical delay. The 6-week training program significantly reduced reaction time of the peroneus longus muscle in healthy subjects. Neuromuscular training may have a beneficial effect on improving dynamic restraint during activity.

  13. In silico investigation of the short QT syndrome, using human ventricle models incorporating electromechanical coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail eAdeniran

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Genetic forms of the Short QT Syndrome (SQTS arise due to cardiac ion channel mutations leading to accelerated ventricular repolarisation, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Results from experimental and simulation studies suggest that changes to refractoriness and tissue vulnerability produce a substrate favourable to re-entry. Potential electromechanical consequences of the SQTS are less well understood. The aim of this study was to utilize electromechanically coupled human ventricle models to explore electromechanical consequences of the SQTS. Methods and results: The Rice et al. mechanical model was coupled to the ten Tusscher et al. ventricular cell model. Previously validated K+ channel formulations for SQT variants 1 and 3 were incorporated. Functional effects of the SQTS mutations on transients, sarcomere length shortening and contractile force at the single cell level were evaluated with and without the consideration of stretch activated channel current (Isac. Without Isac, the SQTS mutations produced dramatic reductions in the amplitude of transients, sarcomere length shortening and contractile force. When Isac was incorporated, there was a considerable attenuation of the effects of SQTS-associated action potential shortening on Ca2+ transients, sarcomere shortening and contractile force. Single cell models were then incorporated into 3D human ventricular tissue models. The timing of maximum deformation was delayed in the SQTS setting compared to control. Conclusion: The incorporation of Isac appears to be an important consideration in modelling functional effects of SQT 1 and 3 mutations on cardiac electro-mechanical coupling. Whilst there is little evidence of profoundly impaired cardiac contractile function in SQTS patients, our 3D simulations correlate qualitatively with reported evidence for dissociation between ventricular repolarization and the end of mechanical systole.

  14. Implementation of a Modelica library for simulation of electromechanical actuators for aircraft and helicopters

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, Franciscus van der; Schlegel, Clemens; Christmann, Markus; Regula, Gergely; Hill, Christopher Ian; Giangrande, Paolo; Maré, Jean-Charles; Egaña, Imanol

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the A2015 library presented in this paper is to develop a Modelica based, tool-independent standard for electromechanical actuators (EMA). This will contribute to the establishment of a "common language" throughout the development of EMAs for aircraft and helicopters and through the supply chain. All stages of the design and validation process (conceptual design, specification, development and validation) are covered. The modeling ap-proach addresses specific aspects of the EMA de...

  15. Out-of-Plane Electromechanical Response of Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide Measured by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Christopher J; Ghosh, Rudresh; Koul, Kalhan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Lu, Nanshu; Yu, Edward T

    2017-09-13

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have recently been theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed to exhibit electromechanical coupling. Specifically, monolayer and few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) have been measured to be piezoelectric within the plane of their atoms. This work demonstrates and quantifies a nonzero out-of-plane electromechanical response of monolayer MoS 2 and discusses its possible origins. A piezoresponse force microscope was used to measure the out-of-plane deformation of monolayer MoS 2 on Au/Si and Al 2 O 3 /Si substrates. Using a vectorial background subtraction technique, we estimate the effective out-of-plane piezoelectric coefficient, d 33 eff , for monolayer MoS 2 to be 1.03 ± 0.22 pm/V when measured on the Au/Si substrate and 1.35 ± 0.24 pm/V when measured on Al 2 O 3 /Si. This is on the same order as the in-plane coefficient d 11 reported for monolayer MoS 2 . Interpreting the out-of-plane response as a flexoelectric response, the effective flexoelectric coefficient, μ eff * , is estimated to be 0.10 nC/m. Analysis has ruled out the possibility of elastic and electrostatic forces contributing to the measured electromechanical response. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy detected some contaminants on both MoS 2 and its substrate, but the background subtraction technique is expected to remove major contributions from the unwanted contaminants. These measurements provide evidence that monolayer MoS 2 exhibits an out-of-plane electromechanical response and our analysis offers estimates of the effective piezoelectric and flexoelectric coefficients.

  16. The Effect of Residual Stress on the Electromechanical Behavior of Electrostatic Microactuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Hsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work simulates the nonlinear electromechanical behavior of different electrostatic microactuators. It applies the differential quadrature method, Hamilton's principle, and Wilson-θ integration method to derive the equations of motion of electrostatic microactuators and find a solution to these equations. Nonlinear equation difficulties are overcome by using the differential quadrature method. The stresses of electrostatic actuators are determined, and the residual stress effects of electrostatic microactuators are simulated.

  17. Mathematical modeling and calculation of forced resonant vibrations of composite electromechanical system

    OpenAIRE

    Ластівка, Іван Олексійович

    2014-01-01

    Resonant vibrations of composite electromechanical symmetric three-element system “metal plate - piezoceramic cylindrical panels” are considered. Forced vibrations are made under the influence of external alternating electric field, supplied to the electrodes of piezoceramic segments of cylindrical panels, previously polarized in the tangential direction.Based on the improved theory, such as the S.P. Timoshenko’s, the system of differential equations of forced vibrations of the system, taking...

  18. Probe-diverse ptychography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, I., E-mail: isaac.russellpeterson@rmit.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, the University of Melbourne, School of Physics, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Harder, R. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Robinson, I.K. [Research Complex at Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    We propose an extension of ptychography where the target sample is scanned separately through several probes with distinct amplitude and phase profiles and a diffraction image is recorded for each probe and each sample translation. The resulting probe-diverse dataset is used to iteratively retrieve high-resolution images of the sample and all probes simultaneously. The method is shown to yield significant improvement in the reconstructed sample image compared to the image obtained using the standard single-probe ptychographic phase-retrieval scheme.

  19. Traversing probe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashburn, D.N.; Stevens, R.H.; Woodall, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride. 10 claims, 6 figures

  20. Traversing probe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Douglas N.; Stevens, Richard H.; Woodall, Harold C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride.

  1. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Electro-Mechanical Characterization of Conductive Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Bera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When we use a conductive fabric as a pressure sensor, it is necessary to quantitatively understand its electromechanical property related with the applied pressure. We investigated electromechanical properties of three different conductive fabrics using the electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. We found that their electrical impedance spectra depend not only on the electrical properties of the conductive yarns, but also on their weaving structures. When we apply a mechanical tension or compression, there occur structural deformations in the conductive fabrics altering their apparent electrical impedance spectra. For a stretchable conductive fabric, the impedance magnitude increased or decreased under tension or compression, respectively. For an almost non-stretchable conductive fabric, both tension and compression resulted in decreased impedance values since the applied tension failed to elongate the fabric. To measure both tension and compression separately, it is desirable to use a stretchable conductive fabric. For any conductive fabric chosen as a pressure-sensing material, its resistivity under no loading conditions must be carefully chosen since it determines a measurable range of the impedance values subject to different amounts of loadings. We suggest the EIS method to characterize the electromechanical property of a conductive fabric in designing a thin and flexible fabric pressure sensor.

  2. A Numerical Study of Scalable Cardiac Electro-Mechanical Solvers on HPC Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Colli Franzone

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and study some scalable domain decomposition preconditioners for cardiac electro-mechanical 3D simulations on parallel HPC (High Performance Computing architectures. The electro-mechanical model of the cardiac tissue is composed of four coupled sub-models: (1 the static finite elasticity equations for the transversely isotropic deformation of the cardiac tissue; (2 the active tension model describing the dynamics of the intracellular calcium, cross-bridge binding and myofilament tension; (3 the anisotropic Bidomain model describing the evolution of the intra- and extra-cellular potentials in the deforming cardiac tissue; and (4 the ionic membrane model describing the dynamics of ionic currents, gating variables, ionic concentrations and stretch-activated channels. This strongly coupled electro-mechanical model is discretized in time with a splitting semi-implicit technique and in space with isoparametric finite elements. The resulting scalable parallel solver is based on Multilevel Additive Schwarz preconditioners for the solution of the Bidomain system and on BDDC preconditioned Newton-Krylov solvers for the non-linear finite elasticity system. The results of several 3D parallel simulations show the scalability of both linear and non-linear solvers and their application to the study of both physiological excitation-contraction cardiac dynamics and re-entrant waves in the presence of different mechano-electrical feedbacks.

  3. Impaired atrial electromechanical function and atrial fibrillation promotion in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huaying; Liu, Changle; Li, Jian; Zhou, Changyu; Cheng, Lijun; Liu, Tong; Li, Guangping

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the underlying mechanisms are still not clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the atrial electromechanical function, atrial electrophysiological changes and AF inducibility in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. In 8 alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits and 8 controls, we evaluated atrial electromechanical function by tissue Doppler imaging. Isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were prepared to measure atrial refractory effective period (AERP) and its dispersion (AERPD), interatrial conduction time (IACT) and vulnerability to AF. Atrial interstitial fibrosis was evaluated by Sirius-Red staining. Compared with controls, left atrial lateral wall Pa'-start interval (Pastart) and right atrial wall Pastart were increased in diabetic rabbits. AERPD was increased and IACT was prolonged in diabetic rabbits. Inducibility of AF in diabetic group was significant higher than controls (6/8 vs. 1/8, p TEMA); left atrial lateral wall Papeak and TEMA, left atrial posterior wall TEMA, and IACT were correlated with atrial areas of fibrosis. Atrial electromechanical function is impaired in diabetic rabbits, and is associated with atrial fibrosis and interatrial electrical conduction delay.

  4. Electromechanical-Traffic Model of Compression-Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok B.C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric energy harvesting has advantages over other alternative sources due to its large power density, ease of applications, and capability to be fabricated at different scales: macro, micro, and nano. This paper presents an electromechanical-traffic model for roadway compression-based piezoelectric energy harvesting system. A two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF electromechanical model has been developed for the piezoelectric energy harvesting unit to define its performance in power generation under a number of external excitations on road surface. Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT-5H is selected as the piezoelectric material to be used in this paper due to its high Piezoelectric Charge Constant (d and Piezoelectric Voltage Constant (g values. The main source of vibration energy that has been considered in this paper is the moving vehicle on the road. The effect of various frequencies on possible generated power caused by different vibration characteristics of moving vehicle has been studied. A single unit of circle-shape Piezoelectric Cymbal Transducer (PCT with diameter of 32 mm and thickness of 0.3 mm be able to generate about 0.12 mW and 13 mW of electric power under 4 Hz and 20 Hz of excitation, respectively. The estimated power to be generated for multiple arrays of PCT is approximately 150 kW/ km. Thus, the developed electromechanical-traffic model has enormous potential to be used in estimating the macro scale of roadway power generation system.

  5. The deformable secondary mirror of VLT: final electro-mechanical and optical acceptance test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Runa; Biasi, Roberto; Xompero, Marco; Riccardi, Armando; Andrighettoni, Mario; Pescoller, Dietrich; Angerer, Gerald; Gallieni, Daniele; Vernet, Elise; Kolb, Johann; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves

    2014-07-01

    The Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) for the VLT ended the stand-alone electro-mechanical and optical acceptance process, entering the test phase as part of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) at the ESO Headquarter (Garching). The VLT-DSM currently represents the most advanced already-built large-format deformable mirror with its 1170 voice-coil actuators and its internal metrology based on co-located capacitive sensors to control the shape of the 1.12m-diameter 2mm-thick convex shell. The present paper reports the final results of the electro-mechanical and optical characterization of the DSM executed in a collaborative effort by the DSM manufacturing companies (Microgate s.r.l. and A.D.S. International s.r.l.), INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and ESO. The electro-mechanical acceptance tests have been performed in the company premises and their main purpose was the dynamical characterization of the internal control loop response and the calibration of the system data that are needed for its optimization. The optical acceptance tests have been performed at ESO (Garching) using the ASSIST optical test facility. The main purpose of the tests are the characterization of the optical shell flattening residuals, the corresponding calibration of flattening commands, the optical calibration of the capacitive sensors and the optical calibration of the mirror influence functions.

  6. Electromechanical performance analysis of inflated dielectric elastomer membrane for micro pump applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Abhishek; Ahmad, Dilshad; Patra, Karali

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers have received a great deal of attention recently as potential materials for many new types of sensors, actuators and future energy generators. When subjected to high electric field, dielectric elastomer membrane sandwiched between compliant electrodes undergoes large deformation with a fast response speed. Moreover, dielectric elastomers have high specific energy density, toughness, flexibility and shape processability. Therefore, dielectric elastomer membranes have gained importance to be applied as micro pumps for microfluidics and biomedical applications. This work intends to extend the electromechanical performance analysis of inflated dielectric elastomer membranes to be applied as micro pumps. Mechanical burst test and cyclic tests were performed to investigate the mechanical breakdown and hysteresis loss of the dielectric membrane, respectively. Varying high electric field was applied on the inflated membrane under different static pressure to determine the electromechanical behavior and nonplanar actuation of the membrane. These tests were repeated for membranes with different pre-stretch values. Results show that pre-stretching improves the electromechanical performance of the inflated membrane. The present work will help to select suitable parameters for designing micro pumps using dielectric elastomer membrane. However this material lacks durability in operation.This issue also needs to be investigated further for realizing practical micro pumps.

  7. Electromechanical response and failure modes of a dielectric elastomer tube actuator with boundary constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jianyou; Jiang, Liying; Khayat, Roger E

    2014-01-01

    As a widely used configuration for dielectric elastomer (DE) actuators, DE tube actuators (or cylindrical actuators) are also found to be susceptible to electromechanical instability (EMI), which may lead to a premature electrical breakdown (EB), and inhibit the potential actuation of DE actuators. This work investigates the electromechanical response of a DE tube actuator with and without boundary constraints to demonstrate an alternative to avoid EMI while achieving large actuation. Our simulation results based on the Gent strain energy model show that the EMI of a DE tube actuator can be eliminated, and larger actuation deformation can be achieved by applying boundary constraints. As a result of these constraints, consideration is also given to the possible mechanical buckling failure that may occur. Mechanisms of possible failure modes of constrained and unconstrained DE tube actuators, such as electromechanical instability, electrical breakdown and mechanical buckling, are elucidated. This paper should provide better theoretical guidance on how to improve the actuation performance of DE actuators, thus leading to the optimal design of DE-based devices. (paper)

  8. The effect of carbon nanofillers on the performance of electromechanical polyaniline-based composite actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Gallegos, J C; Martín-Gullón, I; Conesa, J A; Vega-Cantú, Y I; Rodríguez-Macías, F J

    2016-01-01

    Different types of crystalline carbon nanomaterials were used to reinforce polyaniline for use in electromechanical bilayer bending actuators. The objective is to analyze how the different graphitic structures of the nanocarbons affect and improve the in situ polymerized polyaniline composites and their subsequent actuator behavior. The nanocarbons investigated were multiwalled carbon nanotubes, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, helical-ribbon carbon nanofibers and graphene oxide, each one presenting different shape and structural characteristics. Films of nanocarbon-PAni composite were tested in a liquid electrolyte cell system. Experimental design was used to select the type of nanocarbon filler and composite loadings, and yielded a good balance of electromechanical properties. Raman spectroscopy suggests good interaction between PAni and the nanocarbon fillers. Electron microscopy showed that graphene oxide dispersed the best, followed by multiwall carbon nanotubes, while nitrogen-doped nanotube composites showed dispersion problems and thus poor performance. Multiwall carbon nanotube composite actuators showed the best performance based on the combination of bending angle, bending velocity and maximum working cycles, while graphene oxide attained similarly good performance due to its best dispersion. This parallel testing of a broad set of nanocarbon fillers on PAni-composite actuators is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge and shows that the type and properties of the carbon nanomaterial are critical to the performance of electromechanical devices with other conditions remaining equal. (paper)

  9. A 2D Electromechanical Model of Human Atrial Tissue Using the Discrete Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brocklehurst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tissue is a syncytium of coupled cells with pronounced intrinsic discrete nature. Previous models of cardiac electromechanics often ignore such discrete properties and treat cardiac tissue as a continuous medium, which has fundamental limitations. In the present study, we introduce a 2D electromechanical model for human atrial tissue based on the discrete element method (DEM. In the model, single-cell dynamics are governed by strongly coupling the electrophysiological model of Courtemanche et al. to the myofilament model of Rice et al. with two-way feedbacks. Each cell is treated as a viscoelastic body, which is physically represented by a clump of nine particles. Cell aggregations are arranged so that the anisotropic nature of cardiac tissue due to fibre orientations can be modelled. Each cell is electrically coupled to neighbouring cells, allowing excitation waves to propagate through the tissue. Cell-to-cell mechanical interactions are modelled using a linear contact bond model in DEM. By coupling cardiac electrophysiology with mechanics via the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the DEM model successfully simulates the conduction of cardiac electrical waves and the tissue’s corresponding mechanical contractions. The developed DEM model is numerically stable and provides a powerful method for studying the electromechanical coupling problem in the heart.

  10. Preparation of electromechanically active silicone composites and some evaluations of their suitability for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Mihail; Bele, Adrian; Patras, Xenia; Pasca, Sorin; Butnaru, Maria; Alexandru, Mihaela; Ovezea, Dragos; Cazacu, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Some films based on electromechanically active polymer composites have been prepared. Polydimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diols (PDMSs) having different molecular masses (Mv=60 700 and Mv=44 200) were used as matrix in which two different active fillers were incorporated: titanium dioxide in situ generated from its titanium isopropoxide precursor and silica particles functionalized with polar aminopropyl groups on surface. A reference sample based on simple crosslinked PDMS was also prepared. The composites processed as films were investigated to evaluate their ability to act as efficient electromechanical actuators for potential biomedical application. Thus, the surface morphology of interest for electrodes compliance was analysed by atomic force microscopy. Mechanical and dielectric characteristics were evaluated by tensile tests and dielectric spectroscopy, respectively. Electromechanical actuation responses were measured by interferometry. The biocompatibility of the obtained materials has been verified through tests in vitro and, for valuable films, in vivo. The experimental, clinical and anatomopathological evaluation of the in vivo tested samples did not reveal significant pathological modifications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of electro-mechanical impedance based SHM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiek, M; Martowicz, A; Uhl, T

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis performed for FE simulations for electro-mechanical impedance based SHM system. The measurement of electro-mechanical impedance allows to follow changes of mechanical properties of monitored construction. Therefore it can be effectively applied to conclude about presence of damage. Coupled FE simulations have been carried out for simultaneous consideration of both structural dynamics and piezoelectric properties of a simple beam with bonded transducer. Several indexes have been used to assess the damage growth. In the paper the results obtained with both deterministic and stochastic simulations are shown and discussed. First, the relationship between size of introduced damage and its indexes has been studied. Second, ranges of variation of selected model properties have been assumed to find relationships between them and damage indexes. The most influential parameters have been found. Finally, the overall propagation of considered uncertainty has been assessed and related histograms plotted to discuss effectiveness and robustness of tested damage indexes based on the measurement of electro-mechanical impedance.

  12. Temporal change in the electromechanical properties of dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchberger, G.; Hauser, B.; Jakoby, B.; Hilber, W.; Schoeftner, J.; Bauer, S.

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures (DEMES) are soft electronic transducers and energy harvesters with potential for consumer goods. The temporal change in their electromechanical properties is of major importance for engineering tasks. Therefore, we study acrylic DEMES by impedance spectroscopy and by optical methods for a total time period of approx. 4.5 months. We apply either compliant electrodes from carbon black particles only or fluid electrodes from a mixture of carbon black particles and silicone oil. From the measurement data, the equivalent series capacitances and resistances as well as the bending angles of the transducers are obtained. We find that the equivalent series capacitances change in average between −12 %/1000 h and −4.0 %/1000 h, while the bending angles decrease linearly with slopes ranging from −15 %/1000 h to −7 %/1000 h. Transducers with high initial bending angles and electrodes from carbon black particles show the smallest changes of the electromechanical characteristics. The capacitances decrease faster for DEMES with fluid electrodes. Some DEMES of this type reveal huge and unpredictable fluctuations of the resistances over time due to the ageing of the contacts. Design guidelines for DEMES follow directly from the observed transient changes of their electromechanical performance.

  13. INFLUENCE OF ARMATURE PARAMETERS OF A LINEAR PULSE ELECTROMECHANICAL CONVERTER ON ITS EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Bolyukh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The evaluation of the effect of armature parameters on the efficiency of a linear pulsed electromechanical converter, taking into account the power, speed, constructive and environmental parameters. Methodology. First, the height of the electrically conductive, coil and ferromagnetic armature of a linear pulse electromechanical converter is determined, at which the highest velocity develops. An integral efficiency index is introduced, which takes into account, in a relative way, the power, speed, energy, electrical and field characteristics of the converter. Variants of the efficiency evaluation strategy are used that take into account the priority of each indicator of a linear pulse electromechanical converter using the appropriate weighting factor in the integral efficiency index. Results. A mathematical model of a linear pulsed electromechanical converter is developed. It is established that as the height of the electroconductive, coil and ferromagnetic armature increases, the force pulse increases. The greatest speed develops with the use of a coil armature, and the smallest with an electroconductive armature. In the converter with coil and ferromagnetic armature, practically the same values of the electrodynamic and electromagnetic force pulse are realized, while in the converter the electrodynamic force is 1.52 times smaller in the converter by the electrically conductive armature. It is established that with all efficiency evaluation strategies, the converter with a coil armature is the most effective, even in spite of its constructive complexity, and the converter with a ferromagnetic armature is the least effective, although it is constructively the simplest. Originality. For the first time, using the integral efficiency index, which takes into account the power, speed, energy, electrical and field indices in a relative way, it is established that with all efficiency evaluation strategies, the converter with a coil armature is

  14. Scanning probe microscopy competency development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, M.E.; Reagor, D.W.; Jia, Quan Xi [and others

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project collaborators developed an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (UHV-STM) capability, integrated it with existing scanning probe microscopes, and developed new, advanced air-based scanning force techniques (SPMs). Programmatic, basic, and industrially related laboratory research requires the existence of SPMs, as well as expertise capable of providing local nano-scale information. The UHV-STM capability, equipped with load-lock system and several surface science techniques, will allow introduction, examination, and reaction of surfaces prepared under well-controlled vacuum conditions, including the examination of morphology and local bonding associated with the initial stages of film growth under controlled growth conditions. The resulting capabilities will enable the authors to respond to a variety of problems requiring local characterization of conducting and nonconducting surfaces in liquids, air, and UHV.

  15. Artificial fish skin of self-powered micro-electromechanical systems hair cells for sensing hydrodynamic flow phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadnia, Mohsen; Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Miao, Jianmin; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Triantafyllou, Michael S

    2015-10-06

    Using biological sensors, aquatic animals like fishes are capable of performing impressive behaviours such as super-manoeuvrability, hydrodynamic flow 'vision' and object localization with a success unmatched by human-engineered technologies. Inspired by the multiple functionalities of the ubiquitous lateral-line sensors of fishes, we developed flexible and surface-mountable arrays of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) artificial hair cell flow sensors. This paper reports the development of the MEMS artificial versions of superficial and canal neuromasts and experimental characterization of their unique flow-sensing roles. Our MEMS flow sensors feature a stereolithographically fabricated polymer hair cell mounted on Pb(Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))O3 micro-diaphragm with floating bottom electrode. Canal-inspired versions are developed by mounting a polymer canal with pores that guide external flows to the hair cells embedded in the canal. Experimental results conducted employing our MEMS artificial superficial neuromasts (SNs) demonstrated a high sensitivity and very low threshold detection limit of 22 mV/(mm s(-1)) and 8.2 µm s(-1), respectively, for an oscillating dipole stimulus vibrating at 35 Hz. Flexible arrays of such superficial sensors were demonstrated to localize an underwater dipole stimulus. Comparative experimental studies revealed a high-pass filtering nature of the canal encapsulated sensors with a cut-off frequency of 10 Hz and a flat frequency response of artificial SNs. Flexible arrays of self-powered, miniaturized, light-weight, low-cost and robust artificial lateral-line systems could enhance the capabilities of underwater vehicles. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Innovative SPM Probes for Energy-Storage Science: MWCNT-Nanopipettes to Nanobattery Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jonathan; Talin, Alec; Pearse, Alexander; Kozen, Alexander; Reutt-Robey, Janice

    As energy-storage materials and designs continue to advance, new tools are needed to direct and explore ion insertion/de-insertion at well-defined battery materials interfaces. Scanned probe tips, assembled from actual energy-storage materials, permit SPM measures of local cathode-anode (tip-sample) interactions, including ion transfer. We present examples of ``cathode'' MWCNT-terminated STM probe tips interacting with Li(s)/Si(111) anode substrates. The MWCNT tip functions as both SPM probe and Li-nanopipette,[1] for controlled transport and manipulation of Li. Local field conditions for lithium ionization and transfer are determined and compared to electrostatic models. Additional lithium metallic and oxide tips have been prepared by thin film deposition on conventional W tips, the latter of which effectively functions as a nanobattery. We demonstrate use of these novel probe materials in the local lithiation of low-index Si anode interfaces, probing local barriers for lithium insertion. Prospects and limitations of these novel SPM probes will be discussed. U.S. Department of Energy Award Number DESC0001160.

  17. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  18. Study of the local induction in the superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} by Moessbauer spectroscopy using the probe {sup 170}Yb{sup 3+}: methodology and results; Etude de l`induction locale dans le compose supraconducteur YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} par spectroscopie mossbauer sur la sonde {sup 170}Yb{sup 3+}: methodologie et resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaast-Paci, Ch

    1997-12-09

    This thesis is concerned with the measurement of the local induction in the anisotropic type II superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} in presence of an applied field. In this compound, the field penetrates in the form of vortices whose characteristics are governed by both intrinsic (critical fields, anisotropy, penetration lengths,...) and extrinsic parameters (such as pinning centers). We have developed a new microscopic technique to measure the local fields using Moessbauer probes {sup 170}Yb{sup 3+} dilutes for Y{sup 3+}. The measurements are based on the field dependence (size and direction) of the Moessbauer transitions between the electronuclear levels of the probe. These probes are distributed randomly over the sample so the measurements provide both the size and the direction of the internal field distribution over the whole sample. The possible measurement range extends from below 50 Oe to about 4000 Oe, for temperatures up to 60 deg.K. Measurements were made at T4.2 deg. K, for sintered pellets with different oxygen amount and for optimally doped ci-axis oriented single crystals. The penetration length measurements showed that the density of the superconducting condensate increases progressively with carrier doping. Field penetration measurements furnished the microscopic lower penetration field H{sub cl}, and enabled us to propose a model describing the profile of the flux distribution which is controlled by the pinning centers. The measurements also evidenced an anomalous penetration in small sized single crystals. In additions, we obtained the average direction of the vortices when the applied field is titled from the c axis and we showed that the vortex direction depends on the way the field is applied (ZFC or FC configuration) and that there exists a competition between the pinning forces and the intrinsic anisotropy. (author) 94 refs.

  19. Reducing Plasma Perturbations with Segmented Metal Shielding on Electrostatic Probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staack, D.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2002-01-01

    Electrostatic probes are widely used to measure spatial plasma parameters in the quasi-neutral plasma created in Hall thrusters and similar E x B electric discharge devices. Significant perturbations of the plasma, induced by such probes, can mask the actual physics involved in operation of these devices. In an attempt to reduce these perturbations in Hall thrusters, the perturbations were examined by varying the component material, penetration distance, and residence time of various probe designs. This study leads us to a conclusion that secondary electron emission from insulator ceramic tubes of the probe can affect local changes of the plasma parameters causing plasma perturbations. A probe design, which consists of a segmented metal shielding of the probe insulator, is suggested to reduce these perturbations. This new probe design can be useful for plasma applications in which the electron temperature is sufficient to produce secondary electron emission by interaction of plasma electrons with dielectric materials

  20. Analytic approximations to nonlinear boundary value problems modeling beam-type nano-electromechanical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Li [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian City (China). State Key Lab. of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment; Liang, Songxin; Li, Yawei [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian City (China). School of Mathematical Sciences; Jeffrey, David J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada). Dept. of Applied Mathematics

    2017-06-01

    Nonlinear boundary value problems arise frequently in physical and mechanical sciences. An effective analytic approach with two parameters is first proposed for solving nonlinear boundary value problems. It is demonstrated that solutions given by the two-parameter method are more accurate than solutions given by the Adomian decomposition method (ADM). It is further demonstrated that solutions given by the ADM can also be recovered from the solutions given by the two-parameter method. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by solving some nonlinear boundary value problems modeling beam-type nano-electromechanical systems.

  1. Assessment of the Possibility to Use Hybrid Electromechanical Transmission in Combat Tracked Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glebov V.V.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an estimation of possible using the hybrid electromechanical transmission performed as a series circuit in tracked vehicle of 50-tonnes weight category using the series-manufactured components of hybrid electric drive system. As components of electric drive (motor-generators and traction electric motors it is invited to use AC induction motors with squirrel-cage rotor, that has no moving contacts and can work both in motor and generator modes, and energy storage buffer is made on the basis of consecutively connected Lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Electromechanical engineering in SnO2 nanoparticle tethered hybrid ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Debalina; Bhattacharya, Subhratanu

    2017-05-01

    Challenge of developing electrolytes comprising synergic properties of high mechanical strength with superior electrical and electrochemical properties has so far been unmet towards the application of secondary storage devices. In this research, we have engineered the electromechanical properties of 2-(trimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [TMEM]TFSI ionic liquid by tethering silane modified SnO2 nanoparticles within it. Different percentages of tethering are employed to achieve improved ionic conductivity, better discharge/ charging ratio (40%) along with gel like mechanical properties. Our findings appear to provide an optimal solution towards the future prospects in application in a number of areas, notably in energy-related technologies.

  3. A Combined Structural and Electromechanical FE Approach for Industrial Ultrasonic Devices Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorderet, Alain; Prenleloup, Alain; Colla, Enrico

    2011-05-01

    Ultrasonic assistance is widely used in manufacturing, both for conventional (e.g. grinding, drilling) and non-conventional (e.g. EDM) processes. Ultrasonic machining is also used as a stand alone process for instance for micro-drilling. Industrial application of these processes requires increasingly efficient and accurate development tools to predict the performance of the ultrasonic device: the so-called sonotrode and the piezo-transducer. This electromechanical system consists of a structural part and of a piezo-electrical part (actuator). In this paper, we show how to combine two simulation softwares—for stuctures and electromechanical devices—to perform a complete design analysis and optimization of a sonotrode for ultrasonic drilling applications. The usual design criteria are the eigenfrequencies of the desired vibrational modes. In addition, during the optimization phase, one also needs to consider the maximum achievable displacement for a given applied voltage. Therefore, one must be able to predict the electromechanical behavior of the integrated piezo-structure system, in order to define, adapt and optimize the electric power supply as well as the control strategy (search, tracking of the eigenfrequency). In this procedure, numerical modelling follows a two-step approach, by means of a solid mechanics FE code (ABAQUS) and of an electromechanical simulation software (ATILA). The example presented illustrates the approach and describes the obtained results for the development of an industrial sonotrode system dedicated to ultrasonic micro-drilling of ceramics. The 3D model of the sonotrode serves as input for generating the FE mesh in ABAQUS and this mesh is then translated into an input file for ATILA. ABAQUS results are used to perform the first optimization step in order to obtain a sonotrode design leading to the requested modal behaviour—eigen-frequency and corresponding dynamic amplification. The second step aims at evaluating the dynamic

  4. Immediate effects of different treatments for the wrist joints of subdominant hands, using electromechanical reaction time

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Rui; Cui, Yao; Ge, Meng; Xu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the immediate effects of muscle strength training and neuromuscular joint facilitation distal resistance training on wrist joints by using electromechanical reaction time. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 12 healthy young people (24.2 ? 3.1?years, 169.7 ? 6.5?cm, 65.3 ? 12.6?kg). Two kinds of isotonic contraction techniques were applied on the wrist joint: the wrist joint extension muscle strength training and the wrist joint extension pa...

  5. Vibrations analysis and bifurcations in the self-sustained electromechanical system with multiple functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamapi, R.; Moukam Kakmeni, F.M.; Aziz-Alaoui, M.A.

    2005-07-01

    We consider in this paper the dynamics of the self-sustained electromechanical system with multiple functions, consisting of an electrical Rayleigh-Duffing oscillator, magnetically coupled with linear mechanical oscillators. The averaging and the balance harmonic method are used to and the amplitudes of the oscillatory states respectively in the autonomous and non-autonomous cases, and analyze the condition in which the quenching of self-sustained oscillations appears. The effects of the number of linear mechanical oscillators on the behavior of the model are discussed. Various bifurcation structures, the stability chart and the variation of the Lyapunov exponent are obtained, using numerical simulations of the equations of motion. (author)

  6. Measuring Electromechanical Coupling in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Ji

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is the most common cause of death globally. To detect CAD noninvasively at an early stage before clinical symptoms occur is still nowadays challenging. Analysis of the variation of heartbeat interval (RRI opens a new avenue for evaluating the functional change of cardiovascular system which is accepted to occur at the subclinical stage of CAD. In addition, systolic time interval (STI and diastolic time interval (DTI also show potential. There may be coupling in these electromechanical time series due to their physiological connection. However, to the best of our knowledge no publication has systematically investigated how can the coupling be measured and how it changes in CAD patients. In this study, we enrolled 39 CAD patients and 36 healthy subjects and for each subject the electrocardiogram (ECG and photoplethysmography (PPG signals were recorded simultaneously for 5 min. The RRI series, STI series, and DTI series were constructed, respectively. We used linear cross correlation (CC, coherence function (CF, as well as nonlinear mutual information (MI, cross conditional entropy (XCE, cross sample entropy (XSampEn, and cross fuzzy entropy (XFuzzyEn to analyse the bivariate RRI-DTI coupling, RRI-STI coupling, and STI-DTI coupling, respectively. Our results suggest that the linear CC and CF generally have no significant difference between the two groups for all three types of bivariate coupling. The MI only shows weak change in RRI-DTI coupling. By comparison, the three entropy-based coupling measurements show significantly decreased coupling in CAD patients except XSampEn for RRI-DTI coupling (less significant and XCE for STI-DTI and RRI-STI coupling (not significant. Additionally, the XFuzzyEn performs best as it was still significant if we further applied the Bonferroni correction in our statistical analysis. Our study indicates that the intrinsic electromechanical coupling is most probably nonlinear and can better

  7. Electromechanical characteristics of piezoelectric ceramic transformers in radial vibration composed of concentric piezoelectric ceramic disk and ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shuyu; Hu, Jing; Fu, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    A new type of piezoelectric ceramic transformer in radial vibration is presented. The piezoelectric transformer consists of a pairing of a concentric piezoelectric ceramic circular disk and ring. The inner piezoelectric ceramic disk is axially polarized and the outer piezoelectric ring is radially polarized. Based on the plane stress theory, the exact analytical theory for the piezoelectric transformer is developed and its electromechanical equivalent circuit is introduced. The resonance/anti-resonance frequency equations of the transformer are obtained and the relationship between the resonance/anti-resonance frequency, the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient and the geometrical dimensions of the piezoelectric transformer is analyzed. The dependency of the voltage transformation ratio on the frequency is obtained. To verify the analytical theory, a numerical method is used to simulate the electromechanical characteristics of the piezoelectric transformer. It is shown that the analytical resonance/anti-resonance frequencies are in good agreement with the numerical results. (paper)

  8. Maximising electro-mechanical response by minimising grain-scale strain heterogeneity in phase-change actuator ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Hossain, Mohammad Jahangir; Daniels, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Phase-change actuator ceramics directly couple electrical and mechanical energies through an electric-field-induced phase transformation. These materials are promising for the replacement of the most common electro-mechanical ceramic, lead zirconate titanate, which has environmental concerns. Here......, we show that by compositional modification, we reduce the grain-scale heterogeneity of the electro-mechanical response by 40%. In the materials investigated, this leads to an increase in the achievable electric-field-induced strain of the bulk ceramic of 45%. Compositions of (100-x)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-(x...... heterogeneity can be achieved by precise control of the lattice distortions and orientation distributions of the induced phases. The current results can be used to guide the design of next generation high-strain electro-mechanical ceramic actuator materials....

  9. An Evanescent Field Optical Microscope. Scanning probe Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, N.F.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.; Wickramasinghe, H. Kumar

    1991-01-01

    An Evanescent Field Optical Microscope (EFOM) is presented, which employs frustrated total internal reflection on a highly localized scale by means of a sharp dielectric tip. The coupling of the evanescent field to the sub-micrometer probe as a function of probe-sample distance, angle of incidence

  10. Electro-mechanical control of an on-chip optical beam splitter containing an embedded quantum emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Z. K.; Foster, A. P.; Royall, B.; Bentham, C.; Clarke, E.; Skolnick, M. S.; Wilson, L. R.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate electro-mechanical control of an on-chip GaAs optical beam splitter containing a quantum dot single-photon source. The beam splitter consists of two nanobeam waveguides, which form a directional coupler (DC). The splitting ratio of the DC is controlled by varying the out-of-plane separation of the two waveguides using electro-mechanical actuation. We reversibly tune the beam splitter between an initial state, with emission into both output arms, and a final state with photons emitted into a single output arm. The device represents a compact and scalable tuning approach for use in III-V semiconductor integrated quantum optical circuits.

  11. Electro-mechanical control of an on-chip optical beam splitter containing an embedded quantum emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Z K; Foster, A P; Royall, B; Bentham, C; Clarke, E; Skolnick, M S; Wilson, L R

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate electro-mechanical control of an on-chip GaAs optical beam splitter containing a quantum dot single-photon source. The beam splitter consists of two nanobeam waveguides, which form a directional coupler (DC). The splitting ratio of the DC is controlled by varying the out-of-plane separation of the two waveguides using electromechanical actuation. We reversibly tune the beam splitter between an initial state, with emission into both output arms, and a final state with photons emitted into a single output arm. The device represents a compact and scalable tuning approach for use in III-V semiconductor integrated quantum optical circuits.

  12. Electromechanical modeling and experimental analysis of a compression-based piezoelectric vibration energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.Z. Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, wireless sensor networks have been widely used in the field of structure health monitoring of civil, mechanical, and aerospace systems. Currently, most wireless sensor networks are battery-powered and it is costly and unsustainable for maintenance because of the requirement for frequent battery replacements. As an attempt to address such issue, this article theoretically and experimentally studies a compression-based piezoelectric energy harvester using a multilayer stack configuration, which is suitable for civil infrastructure system applications where large compressive loads occur, such as heavily vehicular loading acting on pavements. In this article, we firstly present analytical and numerical modeling of the piezoelectric multilayer stack under axial compressive loading, which is based on the linear theory of piezoelectricity. A two-degree-of-freedom electromechanical model, considering both the mechanical and electrical aspects of the proposed harvester, was developed to characterize the harvested electrical power under the external electrical load. Exact closed-form expressions of the electromechanical models have been derived to analyze the mechanical and electrical properties of the proposed harvester. The theoretical analyses are validated through several experiments for a test prototype under harmonic excitations. The test results exhibit very good agreement with the analytical analyses and numerical simulations for a range of resistive loads and input excitation levels.

  13. Influence of bress laminate volume fraction on electromechanical properties of externally laminated coated conductor tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista, Zhierwinjay M.; Shin, Hyung Seop [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hun; Lee, Hun Ju; Moon, Seung Hyun [SuNAM Co Ltd., Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The enhancement of mechanical properties of coated conductor (CC) tapes in practical application are usually achieved by reinforcing through lamination or electroplating metal layers on either sides of the CC tape. Mechanical or electromechanical properties of the CC tapes have been largely affected by the lamination structure under various loading modes such as tension, bending or even cyclic. In this study, the influence of brass laminate volume fraction on electromechanical properties of RCE-DR processed Gadolinium-barium-copper-oxide (GdBCO) CC tapes was investigated. The samples used were composed of single-side and both-side laminate of brass layer to the Cu-stabilized CC tape and their Ic behaviors were compared to those of the Cu-stabilized CC tape without external lamination. The stress/strain dependences of Ic in laminated CC tapes under uniaxial tension were analyzed and the irreversible stress/strain limits were determined. As a result, the increase of brass laminate volume fraction initially increased the irreversible strain limit and became gradual. The corresponding irreversible stress limit, however, showed no difference even though the brass laminate volume fraction increased to 3.4. But the irreversible load limit linearly increased with the brass laminate volume fraction.

  14. The Electromechanical Behavior of a Micro-Ring Driven by Traveling Electrostatic Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiuqian; Chen, Yibao; Chen, Da-Chih; Huang, Kuo-Yi; Hu, Yuh-Chung

    2012-01-01

    There is no literature mentioning the electromechanical behavior of micro structures driven by traveling electrostatic forces. This article is thus the first to present the dynamics and stabilities of a micro-ring subjected to a traveling electrostatic force. The traveling electrostatic force may be induced by sequentially actuated electrodes which are arranged around the flexible micro-ring. The analysis is based on a linearized distributed model considering the electromechanical coupling effects between electrostatic force and structure. The micro-ring will resonate when the traveling speeds of the electrostatic force approach some critical speeds. The critical speeds are equal to the ratio of the natural frequencies to the wave number of the correlative natural mode of the ring. Apart from resonance, the ring may be unstable at some unstable traveling speeds. The unstable regions appear not only near the critical speeds, but also near some fractions of some critical speeds differences. Furthermore the unstable regions expand with increasing driving voltage. This article may lead to a new research branch on electrostatic-driven micro devices. PMID:22438705

  15. Brake force estimation for electromechanical vehicle brakes; Bremskraft-Rekonstruktion fuer elektromechanische Fahrzeugbremsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, R. [Continental Teves (Germany)

    1999-06-01

    Due to the increasing safety and comfort demands of the customer, the functionality of modern brake systems has grown continuously in the last years. However, implementation of the extended functionality in conventional brake hydraulics makes active electronic intervention necessary and therefore requires a lot of technical effort. In recent years the automotive supplier industry has started to develop brake systems which have electromechanical brake actuators generating the brake forces at the individual wheels. Electromechanically actuated wheel brakes need to be operated in a closed control loop. This paper introduces a new method to reconstruct the needed feedback value brake force from easy to measure signals. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgrund des gestiegenen Sicherheits- und Komfortbewusstseins der Fahrzeugkaeufer ist die Funktionsvielfalt moderner Bremssysteme in den letzten Jahren staendig gewachsen. Die Umsetzung der erweiterten Funktionalitaet mittels konventioneller Bremsenhydraulik ist jedoch durch den elektronischen, aktiven Eingriff sehr aufwendig. In den letzten Jahren hat daher die Automobilzulieferindustrie begonnen, Bremssysteme zu entwickeln, bei denen die Bremskraft an den einzelnen Raedern von elektromechanischen Bremsaktuatoren aufgebracht wird. Elektromechanisch betaetigte Radbremsen muessen im geschlossenen Regelkreis betrieben werden. Der vorliegende Beitrag, der im Rahmen einer Forschungskooperation zwischen Continental Teves und dem Institut fuer Automatisierungstechnik der TU Darmstadt entstand stellt ein Verfahren vor, mit dem die dafuer benoetigte Rueckfuehrungsgroesse `Bremskraft` aus einfach messbaren Signalen rekonstruiert werden kann. (orig.)

  16. Wireless power transmission to an electromechanical receiver using low-frequency magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challa, Vinod R; Arnold, David P; Mur-Miranda, Jose Oscar

    2012-01-01

    A near-field, electrodynamically coupled wireless power transmission system is presented that delivers electrical power from a transmitter coil to a compact electromechanical receiver. The system integrates electromechanical energy conversion and mechanical resonance to deliver power over a range of distances using low-amplitude, low-frequency magnetic fields. Two different receiver orientations are investigated that rely on either the force or the torque induced on the receiver magnet at separation distances ranging from 2.2 to 10.2 cm. Theoretical models for each mode compare the predicted performance with the experimental results. For a 7.1 mA pk sinusoidal current supplied to a transmitter coil with a 100 cm diameter, the torque mode receiver orientation has a maximum power transfer of 150 μW (efficiency of 12%) at 2.2 cm at its resonance frequency of 38.4 Hz. For the same input current to the transmitter, the force mode receiver orientation has a maximum power transfer of 37 μW (efficiency of 4.1%) at 3.1 cm at its resonance frequency of 38.9 Hz. (paper)

  17. FEM Analysis of a New Electromechanical Converter with Rolling Rotor and Axial Air-Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UNGUREANU, C.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the modeling of a new type of electromechanical converter with rolling rotor (ECRR in order to obtain an optimisation at functional level. The ECRR prototype comprises a stator composed of twelve magnetic poles and a disk-shaped rolling rotor made of ferromagnetic material, without windings. Each magnetic pole is made of an E-shaped magnetic system and a winding placed on its central column. The electromechanical converter with rolling rotor is analyzed through a magnetic field study with Flux2D software in magnetostatic application. The field study examines the influence of the rotor thickness, axial air-gap size and current density on the magnetic attraction force that changes the position of the disk-shaped rolling rotor. Also, it is analyzed the variation of the magnetic attraction force for different inclination angles of the rolling rotor. The main advantage of the ECRR is represented by a low rotational speed without using mechanical gearboxes. The ECRR prototype can be used in photovoltaic panels tracking systems.

  18. Electromechanical conversion efficiency for dielectric elastomer generator in different energy harvesting cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian-Bo; E, Shi-Ju; Guo, Zhuang; Gao, Zhao; Luo, Han-Pin

    2017-11-01

    In order to improve electromechanical conversion efficiency for dielectric elastomer generators (DEG), on the base of studying DEG energy harvesting cycles of constant voltage, constant charge and constant electric field intensity, a new combined cycle mode and optimization theory in terms of the generating mechanism and electromechanical coupling process have been built. By controlling the switching point to achieve the best energy conversion cycle, the energy loss in the energy conversion process is reduced. DEG generating test bench which was used to carry out comparative experiments has been established. Experimental results show that the collected energy in constant voltage cycle, constant charge cycle and constant electric field intensity energy harvesting cycle decreases in turn. Due to the factors such as internal resistance losses, electrical losses and so on, actual energy values are less than the theoretical values. The electric energy conversion efficiency by combining constant electric field intensity cycle with constant charge cycle is larger than that of constant electric field intensity cycle. The relevant conclusions provide a basis for the further applications of DEG.

  19. Quadrature squeezing of a mechanical resonator generated by the electromechanical coupling with two coupled quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yan [Department of Physics, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou (China); Zhu, Jia-pei [Department of Physics, Honghe University, Mengzi (China); Zhao, Shao-ming; Li, Gao-xiang [Department of Physics, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan (China)

    2015-01-01

    The quadrature squeezing of a mechanical resonator (MR) coupled with two quantum dots (QDs) through the electromechanical coupling, where the QDs are driven by a strong and two weak laser fields is investigated. By tuning the gate voltage, the electron can be trapped in a quantum pure state. Under certain conditions, the discrepancies between the transition frequency and that of two weak fields are compensated by the phonons induced by the electromechanical coupling of the MR with QDs. In this case, some dissipative processes occur resonantly. The phonons created and (or) annihilated in these dissipative processes are correlated thus leading to the quadrature squeezing of the MR. A squeezed vacuum reservoir for the MR is built up. By tuning the gate voltage to control the energy structure of the QDs, the present squeezing scheme has strong resistance against the dephasing processes of the QDs in low temperature limit. The role of the temperature of the phonon reservoir is to damage squeezing of the MR. (copyright 2014 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Cost determination of the electro-mechanical equipment of a small hydro-power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogayar, B.; Vidal, P.G. [Grupo de Investigacion IDEA, Escuela Politecnica Superior, University of Jaen, Campus de Las Lagunillas, s/n. 23071-Jaen (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    One of the most important elements on the recovery of a small hydro-power plant is the electro-mechanical equipment (turbine-alternator), since the cost of the equipment means a high percentage of the total budget of the plant. The present paper intends to develop a series of equations which determine its cost from basic parameters such as power and net head. These calculations are focused at a level of previous study, so it will be necessary to carry out the engineering project and request a budget to companies specialized on the construction of electro-mechanical equipment to know its cost more accurately. Although there is a great diversity in the typology of turbines and alternators, data from manufacturers which cover all the considered range have been used. The above equations have been developed for the most common of turbines: Pelton, Francis, Kaplan and semiKaplan for a power range below 2 MW. The obtained equations have been validated with data from real installations which have been subject to analysis by engineering companies working on the assembly and design of small plants. (author)

  1. Modification and Performance Evaluation of a Low Cost Electro-Mechanically Operated Creep Testing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. MOMOH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing mechanically operated tensile and creep testing machine was modified to a low cost, electro-mechanically operated creep testing machine capable of determining the creep properties of aluminum, lead and thermoplastic materials as a function of applied stress, time and temperature. The modification of the testing machine was necessitated by having an electro-mechanically operated creep testing machine as a demonstration model ideal for use and laboratory demonstrations, which will provide an economical means of performing standard creep experiments. The experimental result is a more comprehensive understanding of the laboratory experience, as the technology behind the creep testing machine, the test methodology and the response of materials loaded during experiment are explored. The machine provides a low cost solution for Mechanics of Materials laboratories interested in creep testing experiment and demonstration but not capable of funding the acquisition of commercially available creep testing machines. Creep curves of strain versus time on a thermoplastic material were plotted at a stress level of 1.95MPa, 3.25MPa and 4.55MPa and temperature of 20oC, 40oC and 60oC respectively. The machine is satisfactory since it is always ready for operation at any given time.

  2. Electromechanical delay components during skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Fabio; Cè, Emiliano; Rampichini, Susanna; Limonta, Eloisa; Venturelli, Massimo; Monti, Elena; Bet, Luciano; Fossati, Barbara; Meola, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The electromechanical delay during muscle contraction and relaxation can be partitioned into mainly electrochemical and mainly mechanical components by an EMG, mechanomyographic, and force combined approach. Component duration and measurement reliability were investigated during contraction and relaxation in a group of patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1, n = 13) and in healthy controls (n = 13). EMG, mechanomyogram, and force were recorded in DM1 and in age- and body-matched controls from tibialis anterior (distal muscle) and vastus lateralis (proximal muscle) muscles during maximum voluntary and electrically-evoked isometric contractions. The electrochemical and mechanical components of the electromechanical delay during muscle contraction and relaxation were calculated off-line. Maximum strength was significantly lower in DM1 than in controls under both experimental conditions. All electrochemical and mechanical components were significantly longer in DM1 in both muscles. Measurement reliability was very high in both DM1 and controls. The high reliability of the measurements and the differences between DM1 patients and controls suggest that the EMG, mechanomyographic, and force combined approach could be utilized as a valid tool to assess the level of neuromuscular dysfunction in this pathology, and to follow the efficacy of pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electromechanical model to predict the movability of liquids in an electrowetting-on-dielectric microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabinia, Matin; Farzbod, Ali; Moon, Hyejin

    2018-04-01

    In electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) microfluidics, a motion of a fluid is created by a voltage applied to the fluid/surface interface. Water and aqueous solutions are the most frequently used fluids in EWOD devices. In order for EWOD microfluidics to be a versatile platform for various applications, however, movability of different types of fluids other than aqueous solutions should be understood. An electromechanical model using a simple RC circuit has been used to predict the mechanical force exerted on a liquid droplet upon voltage application. In this present study, two important features missed in previous works are addressed. Energy dissipation by contact line friction is considered in the new model as the form of resistor. The phase angle is taken into account in the analysis of the AC circuit. The new electromechanical model and computation results are validated with experimental measurements of forces on two different liquids. The model is then used to explain influences of contact angle hysteresis, surface tension, conductivity, and dielectric constant of fluids to the mechanical force on a liquid droplet.

  4. A distributed parameter electromechanical model for bimorph piezoelectric energy harvesters based on the refined zigzag theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-De

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a distributed parameter electromechanical model for bimorph piezoelectric energy harvesters based on the refined zigzag theory (RZT) is developed. In this model, the zigzag function is incorporated into the axial displacement, and the zigzag distribution of the displacement between the adjacent layers of the bimorph structure can be considered. The governing equations, including three equations of motions and one equation of circuit, are derived using Hamilton’s principle. The natural frequency, its corresponding modal function and the steady state response of the base excitation motion are given in exact forms. The presented results are benchmarked with the finite element method and two beam theories, the first-order shear deformation theory and the classical beam theory. Comparing examples shows that the RZT provides predictions of output voltage and generated power at high accuracy, especially for the case of a soft middle layer. Variation of the parameters, such as the beam thickness, excitation frequencies and the external electrical loads, is investigated and its effects on the performance of the energy harvesters are studied by using the RZT developed in this paper. Based on this refined theory, analysts and engineers can capture more details on the electromechanical behavior of piezoelectric harvesters.

  5. The Effect of Electrical Impedance Matching on the Electromechanical Characteristics of Sandwiched Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For achieving the power maximum transmission, the electrical impedance matching (EIM for piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers is highly required. In this paper, the effect of EIM networks on the electromechanical characteristics of sandwiched piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers is investigated in time and frequency domains, based on the PSpice model of single sandwiched piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer. The above-mentioned EIM networks include, series capacitance and parallel inductance (I type and series inductance and parallel capacitance (II type. It is shown that when I and II type EIM networks are used, the resonance and anti-resonance frequencies and the received signal tailing are decreased; II type makes the electro-acoustic power ratio and the signal tailing smaller whereas it makes the electro-acoustic gain ratio larger at resonance frequency. In addition, I type makes the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient increase and II type makes it decrease; II type make the power spectral density at resonance frequency more dramatically increased. Specially, the electro-acoustic power ratio has maximum value near anti-resonance frequency, while the electro-acoustic gain ratio has maximum value near resonance frequency. It can be found that the theoretically analyzed results have good consistency with the measured ones.

  6. Unified model for the electromechanical coupling factor of orthorhombic piezoelectric rectangular bar with arbitrary aspect ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rouffaud

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric Single Crystals (PSC are increasingly used in the manufacture of ultrasonic transducers and in particular for linear arrays or single element transducers. Among these PSCs, according to their microstructure and poled direction, some exhibit a mm2 symmetry. The analytical expression of the electromechanical coupling coefficient for a vibration mode along the poling direction for piezoelectric rectangular bar resonator is established. It is based on the mode coupling theory and fundamental energy ratio definition of electromechanical coupling coefficients. This unified formula for mm2 symmetry class material is obtained as a function of an aspect ratio (G where the two extreme cases correspond to a thin plate (with a vibration mode characterized by the thickness coupling factor, kt and a thin bar (characterized by k33′. To optimize the k33′ value related to the thin bar design, a rotation of the crystallogaphic axis in the plane orthogonal to the poling direction is done to choose the highest value for PIN-PMN-PT single crystal. Finally, finite element calculations are performed to deduce resonance frequencies and coupling coefficients in a large range of G value to confirm developed analytical relations.

  7. Electro-mechanical properties of hydrogel composites with micro- and nano-cellulose fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid U N, Mohamed; Deshpande, Abhijit P; Rao, C Lakshmana

    2015-01-01

    Stimuli responsive cross-linked hydrogels are of great interest for applications in diverse fields such as sensors and biomaterials. In this study, we investigate polymer composites filled with cellulose fillers. The celluloses used in making the composites were a microcrystalline cellulose of commercial grade and cellulose nano-whiskers obtained through acid hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose. The filler concentration was varied and corresponding physical, mechanical and electro-mechanical characterization was carried out. The electro-mechanical properties were determined using a quasi-static method. The fillers not only enhance the mechanical properties of the composite by providing better reinforcement but also provide a quantitative electric potential in the composite. The measurements reveal that the polymer composites prepared from two different cellulose fillers possess a quantitative electric potential which can be utilized in biomedical applications. It is argued that the mechanism behind the quantitative electric potential in the composites is due to streaming potentials arising due to electrical double layer formation. (paper)

  8. Softened and flexible biodegradable poly(lactic acid) and its electromechanical properties for actuator application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummarungsan, Natlita; Pattavarakorn, Datchanee; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2016-12-01

    Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer with high stiffness presenting a limitation for using in actuator applications. Adding a plasticizer is one way to solve this problem to enhance flexibility and improve electromechanical properties of pristine PLA. In this work, the PLA films were prepared via a simple solvent casting method. The influences of plasticizer type and electric field strength on electromechanical behavior of PLA films were investigated by the melt rheometer and bending measurement. For the PLA films filled with dibutyl phthalate (DBP), the storage modulus, G', immediately increased towards its steady state and rapidly recovered to its original value with and without electric field, respectively, which can be referred to a reversible system. On the other hand, the PLA film with Tween 20 processed the highest ∆G׳/G׳0 of 1.34 due to the available amount of polarized groups. In the bending measurement, the dielectrophoresis forces of plasticized PLA films were found to increase with increasing electric field where the deflections occurred towards anode side as the polarized groups generated negative charges. The DBP_PLA1.5D film exhibited the greatest bending and dielectrophoresis force. Thus, the biodegradable PLA along with DBP combine to have a great potential towards actuator application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Electromechanical Behavior of REBCO Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, N. C.; Chiesa, L.; Takayasu, M.

    2015-12-01

    To fully characterize the electromechanical behavior of a Twisted Stacked-Tape Cable (TSTC) it is important to understand the performance of the individual REBCO tapes under various loading conditions. Numerical modeling and experimentation have been used to investigate the electromechanical characteristics of two commercially available REBCO tapes (SuperPower and SuNAM). Tension and combined tension-torsion experiments on single tapes have been continued, from prior preliminary studies, to characterize their critical current behavior and mechanical strength. Additionally, structural finite element analysis was performed on single tapes under tension and combined tension-torsion to investigate the strain dependence of the critical current. The numerical results were compared to the experimental findings for validation. The SuNAM experimental data matched the numerical model very well while the SuperPower tape experienced degradation at lower stress and strain than predicted in the model. The Superpower tape also displayed greater variability in critical current between different samples as compared with the SuNAM tape.

  10. NUMERICAL WITHOUT ITERATION METHOD OF MODELING OF ELECTROMECHANICAL PROCESSES IN ASYNCHRONOUS ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Patalakh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of calculation of electromagnetic and electromechanic transients is in asynchronous engines without iterations. Methodology. Numeral methods of integration of usual differential equations, programming. Findings. As the system of equations, describing the dynamics of asynchronous engine, contents the products of rotor and stator currents and product of rotation frequency of rotor and currents, so this system is nonlinear one. The numeral solution of nonlinear differential equations supposes an iteration process on every step of integration. Time-continuing and badly converging iteration process may be the reason of calculation slowing. The improvement of numeral method by the way of an iteration process removing is offered. As result the modeling time is reduced. The improved numeral method is applied for integration of differential equations, describing the dynamics of asynchronous engine. Originality. The improvement of numeral method allowing to execute numeral integrations of differential equations containing product of functions is offered, that allows to avoid an iteration process on every step of integration and shorten modeling time. Practical value. On the basis of the offered methodology the universal program of modeling of electromechanics processes in asynchronous engines could be developed as taking advantage on fast-acting.

  11. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  12. Neutrons as a probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizumi, Masashi

    1993-01-01

    As an introduction to the symposium a brief overview will be given about the features of neutrons as a probe. First it will be pointed out that the utilization of neutrons as a probe for investigating the structural and dynamical properties of condensed matters is a benign gift eventuated from the release of atomic energy initiated by Enrico Fermi exactly half century ago. Features of neutrons as a probe are discussed in accordance with the four basic physical properties of neutrons as an elementary particle; (1) no electric charge (the interaction with matter is nuclear), (2) the mass of neutron is 1 amu, (3) spin is 1/2 and (4) neutrons have magnetic dipole moment. Overview will be given on the uniqueness of neutrons as a probe and on the variety in the way they are used in the wide research area from the pure science to the industrial applications. (author)

  13. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  14. Electromechanical millimotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, E.J.; Christenson, T.R.; Polosky, M.A.

    1999-06-29

    A millimeter-sized machine, including electromagnetic circuits adapted to convert electromagnetic energy to mechanical energy, for engaging and operating external mechanical loads. A plurality of millimeter-sized magnetic actuators operate out of phase with each other to control a plurality of millimeter-sized structural elements to drive an external mechanical load. Each actuator is connected to a link. Each link, in turn, is connected to a drive pinion at another similar pivoting joint. When the magnetic actuators are energized, each drive pinion is then capable of driving a larger output gear in gear-like fashion to produce positive torque about the drive pinion center at all angular positions of the output gear. 29 figs.

  15. Electromechanical millimotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Christenson, Todd R.; Polosky, Marc A.

    1999-01-01

    A millimeter-sized machine, including electromagnetic circuits adapted to convert electromagnetic energy to mechanical energy, for engaging and operating external mechanical loads. A plurality of millimeter-sized magnetic actuators operate out of phase with each other to control a plurality of millimeter-sized structural elements to drive an external mechanical load. Each actuator is connected to a link. Each link, in turn, is connected to a drive pinion at another similar pivoting joint. When the magnetic actuators are energized, each drive pinion is then capable of driving a larger output gear in gear-like fashion to produce positive torque about the drive pinion center at all angular positions of the output gear.

  16. ECR plasma diagnostics with Langmuir probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenez, L.; Biri, S.; Valek, A.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source is a tool to generate highly charged ions. The ion beam is extracted from the plasma chamber of the ECRIS. Higher charge states and beam intensities are the main objectives of ECR research. The heart of an ion source is the confined plasma which should be well known to reach those objectives. Information about the plasma can be obtained by plasma diagnostics methods. Langmuir probes were successfully used in case of other plasmas, e.g. TOKAMAK. Until last year plasma diagnostics at the ATOMKI ECRIS was performed by X-ray and visible light measurements. While X-ray measurements give global information, the Langmuir probe method can give information on the local plasma parameters. This is an advantage because the local parameters are not known in detail. By Langmuir probe measurements it is possible to get information on plasma density, plasma potential and partly on the electron temperature. From the experimental point of view a Langmuir probe is very simple. However, the precise positioning of the probe in the plasma chamber (HV platform, strong magnetic field, RF waves) is a difficult task. Also the theory of probes is complicated: the ECR plasma is a special one because the confining magnetic field is inhomogeneous, beside hot electrons it contains cold ions with different charge states and it is heated with high frequency EM waves. What can be measured with a probe is a voltage-current (U-I) characteristics. Figure 1 shows a typical U-I curve measured in our lab. As it can be seen in the figure the diagram has three main parts. An ion saturation current region (I.), an electron saturation current region (III.) and a transition region (II.) between them. These measurements were performed using two different power supplies to bias the probe to positive and negative voltage. To perform more precise U-I measurements we need a special power supply which is presently being built in

  17. Lymph scintigraphy and pre- and intraoperative gamma probe measurements for localization of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) in breast cancer; Lymphszintigraphie sowie prae- und intraoperative Sondenmessung zur Darstellung des Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) beim Mammakarzinom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, W.; Czech, N.; Felde, U. zum; Kampen, W.U.; Henze, E. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Ostertag, H. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Gynaekologie und Geburtshilfe; Klutmann, S.; Bohuslavizki, K.H. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Luettges, J.; Sprenger, A. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine und Pathologische Anatomie

    2000-05-01

    Aim of this study was to prove the clinical value of nuclear medicine procedures to detect the sentinel lymph node (SLN) for SLN biopsy. Methods: In 132 patients with breast cancer we performed lymph scintigraphy of the breast as well as both pre- and intraoperative gamma probe measurements correlating the results with the findings of histopathology. Results: SLN were detectable in 62 of 110 patients according to a sensitivity of 56% when scanning was performed only at 1-2 h p.i. while the sensitivity increased to 86% (19 of 22 pts.) if sequential images were acquired up to 2 h p.i. One or more SLN were identified by a handheld gamma probe transcutaneously prior to surgery in 96% (113 of 118 pts.) of the patients who showed up with no clinically suspected lymph node metastases. Intraoperatively, in additionally 2 patients the SLN could be found resulting in a sensitivity of 97% (115 of 118 pts.). In only 3 patients with clinically no tumor spread to axillary lymph nodes no SLN could be identified by the probe. Skip lesions, i.e. lymph node metastases in patients with tumorfree SLN, occurred in 2 cases: Due to SLN biopsy in these patients lymph node staging was false negative compared to conventional staging by means of axillary lymph node dissection. Conclusion: The results demonstrate a high preoperative detection rate of SLN in patients with breast cancer using lymph scintigraphy and gamma probe measurements. Thus, nuclear medicine is capable of providing the basic requirements for SLN biopsy in the daily routine. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit im Vorfeld einer geplanten Multicenterstudie zur Wertigkeit der Sentinel-Lymphknoten (SLN) Biopsie war, die Zuverlaessigkeit der SLN-Detektion mit nuklearmedizinischen Methoden im klinischen Routinebetrieb zu ueberpruefen. Methoden: Bei 132 Patientinnen mit stanzbioptisch gesichertem Mammakarzinom fuehrten wir eine Lymphszintigraphie der Brust sowie eine prae- und intraoperative Gammasondenmessung durch und

  18. Magnetic nanostructures: radioactive probes and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prandolini, M J

    2006-01-01

    The miniaturization of magnetic sensors and storage devices down to the nano-scale leads to drastic changes in magnetic phenomena compared with the same devices with a larger size. Excited-nuclear-probe (radioactive probe) techniques are ideal for investigating these new magnetic nanostructures. By observing the magnetic hyperfine fields (and in some cases the electric-field-gradients (EFGs)) at the nuclei of radioactive probes, microscopic information about the magnetic environment of the probes is acquired. The magnetic hyperfine field is particularly sensitive to the s-spin polarization of the conduction electrons and to the orbital magnetic moment of the probe atom. Three methods of inserting radioactive probes into magnetic nanostructures are presented; neutron activation, recoil implantation and 'soft-landing', followed by descriptions of their application to selected examples. In some cases, these methods offer the simultaneous creation and observation of new magnetic materials at the atomic scale. This review focuses firstly on the induced magnetism in noble-metal spacer layers between either ferromagnetic (FM) or FM/antiferromagnetic (AFM) layers in a trilayer structure. Using the method of low-temperature nuclear orientation, the s-spin polarization of noble-metal probes was measured and was found to be very sensitive to the magnetic properties at both the FM and AFM interfaces. Secondly, the recoil implantation of radioactive Fe probes into rare-earth hosts and d-band alloys and subsequent measurement using time-differential perturbed angular distribution offer the possibility of controlling the chemical composition and number of nearest-neighbours. This method was used to prepare local 3d-magnetic clusters in a non-magnetic matrix and to observe their magnetic behaviour. Finally, non-magnetic radioactive probes were 'soft-landed' onto Ni surfaces and extremely lattice-expanded ultrathin Ni films. By measuring the magnetic hyperfine fields and EFGs at

  19. Modelling, Simulation, Animation, and Real-Time Control (Mosart) for a Class of Electromechanical Systems: A System-Theoretic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Armando A.; Metzger, Richard P.; Cifdaloz, Oguzhan; Dhirasakdanon, Thanate; Welfert, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive modelling, simulation, animation, and real-time control (MoSART) environment for a class of 'cart-pendulum' electromechanical systems that may be used to enhance learning within differential equations and linear algebra classes. The environment is useful for conveying fundamental mathematical/systems concepts…

  20. Multi-mode electro-mechanical vibrations of a microtubule: In silico demonstration of electric pulse moving along a microtubule

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelka, Daniel; Cifra, Michal; Kučera, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 24 (2014), s. 243702 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0649 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Biophysical mechanism * Collective vibration mode * Electro-mechanical Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014

  1. Mechanical and electro-mechanical properties of three-dimensional nanoporous graphene-poly(vinylidene fluoride composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional nanoporous graphene monoliths are utilized to prepare graphene-poly(vinylidene fluoride nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical and electro-mechanical properties. Pre-treatment of the polymer (poly(vinylidene fluoride, PVDF with graphene oxides (GOs facilitates the formation of uniform and thin PVDF films with a typical thickness below 100 nm well coated at the graphene nano-sheets. Besides their excellent compressibility, ductility and mechanical strength, the nanoporous graphene-PVDF nanocomposites are found to possess high sensitivity in strain-dependent electrical conductivity. The improved mechanical and electro-mechanical properties are ascribed to the enhanced crystalline β phase in PVDF which possesses piezoelectricity. The mechanical relaxation analyses on the interfaces between graphene and PVDF reveal that the improved mechanical and electro-mechanical properties could result from the interaction between the –C=O groups in the nanoporous graphene and the –CF2 groups in PVDF, which also explains the important role of GOs in the preparation of the graphene-polymer nanocomposites with superior combined mechanical and electro-mechanical properties.

  2. Investigation on electromechanical properties of a muscle-like linear actuator fabricated by bi-film ionic polymer metal composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuangzhi; Zhao, Gang; Qiao, Dongpan; Song, Wenlong

    2017-12-01

    Artificial muscles have attracted great attention for their potentials in intelligent robots, biomimetic devices, and micro-electromechanical system. However, there are many performance bottlenecks restricting the development of artificial muscles in engineering applications, e.g., the little blocking force and short working life. Focused on the larger requirements of the output force and the lack characteristics of the linear motion, an innovative muscle-like linear actuator based on two segmented IPMC strips was developed to imitate linear motion of artificial muscles. The structures of the segmented IPMC strip of muscle-like linear actuator were developed and the established mathematical model was to determine the appropriate segmented proportion as 1:2:1. The muscle-like linear actuator with two segmented IPMC strips assemble by two supporting link blocks was manufactured for the study of electromechanical properties. Electromechanical properties of muscle-like linear actuator under the different technological factors were obtained to experiment, and the corresponding changing rules of muscle-like linear actuators were presented to research. Results showed that factors of redistributed resistance and surface strain on both end-sides were two main reasons affecting the emergence of different electromechanical properties of muscle-like linear actuators.

  3. Electromechanical behavior of polyaniline/poly (vinyl alcohol) blend films under static, dynamic and time-dependent strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhilesan, S; Lakshmana Rao, C; Varughese, S

    2014-01-01

    We report on the experimentally observed electrical conductivity enhancement in polyaniline/poly (vinyl alcohol) blend films under uniaxial tensile loading. Polyaniline (PANI) is an intrinsically conducting polymer, which does not form stretchable free-standing films easily and hence its electromechanical characterization is a challenge. Blending of PANI with other insulating polymers is a good choice to overcome the processability problem. We report the electromechanical response of solution blended and HCl doped PANI/PVA blends subjected to uniaxial, static, dynamic and time-dependent tensile loading. The demonstrated viscoelastic and morphological contributions of the component polymers to the electrical conductivity behavior in these blends could lead to interesting applications in strain sensors and flexible electronics. The reversibility of the electromechanical response under dynamic strain is found to increase in blends with higher PANI content. Time-dependent conductivity studies during mechanical stress relaxation reveal that variations in the micro-domain ordering and the relative relaxation rate of the individual polymer phases can give rise to interesting electrical conductivity changes in PANI blends. From morphological and electrical conductivity studies, we show that PANI undergoes primary and secondary agglomeration behavior in these blends that contributes to the changes in conductivity behavior during the deformation. A 3D variable range hopping (VRH) process, which uses a deformable core and shell concept based on blend morphology analysis, is used to explain the experimentally observed electromechanical behavior. (papers)

  4. Long-Term Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Use Is Associated with Increased Atrial Electromechanical Delay in Male Bodybuilders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akçakoyun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of long-term supraphysiologic doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS on atrial electromechanical delay (AEMD in male bodybuilders. We clearly demonstrated that long-term consumption of supraphysiologic doses of AAS is associated with higher values of inter- and intra-AEMD in healthy young bodybuilders.

  5. Electromechanical model of a resonating nano-cantilever-based sensor for high-resolution and high-sensitivity mass detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abadal, G.; Davis, Zachary James; Helbo, Bjarne

    2001-01-01

    A simple linear electromechanical model for an electrostatically driven resonating cantilever is derived. The model has been developed in order to determine dynamic quantities such as the capacitive current flowing through the cantilever-driver system at the resonance frequency, and it allows us ...

  6. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  7. Convective heat flow probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  8. An information transfer based novel framework for fault root cause tracing of complex electromechanical systems in the processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongxi; Gao, Xu; Gao, Jianmin; Gao, Zhiyong; Kang, Jiani

    2018-02-01

    As one of the most important approaches for analyzing the mechanism of fault pervasion, fault root cause tracing is a powerful and useful tool for detecting the fundamental causes of faults so as to prevent any further propagation and amplification. Focused on the problems arising from the lack of systematic and comprehensive integration, an information transfer-based novel data-driven framework for fault root cause tracing of complex electromechanical systems in the processing industry was proposed, taking into consideration the experience and qualitative analysis of conventional fault root cause tracing methods. Firstly, an improved symbolic transfer entropy method was presented to construct a directed-weighted information model for a specific complex electromechanical system based on the information flow. Secondly, considering the feedback mechanisms in the complex electromechanical systems, a method for determining the threshold values of weights was developed to explore the disciplines of fault propagation. Lastly, an iterative method was introduced to identify the fault development process. The fault root cause was traced by analyzing the changes in information transfer between the nodes along with the fault propagation pathway. An actual fault root cause tracing application of a complex electromechanical system is used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework. A unique fault root cause is obtained regardless of the choice of the initial variable. Thus, the proposed framework can be flexibly and effectively used in fault root cause tracing for complex electromechanical systems in the processing industry, and formulate the foundation of system vulnerability analysis and condition prediction, as well as other engineering applications.

  9. Development of transient internal probe (TIP) magnetic field diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) is designed to permit measurement of internal magnetic fields, in hot, high density plasmas. The concept consists of accelerating a probe to high velocities (2.2 Km/s) in order to minimize probe exposure time to plasma. Faraday rotation within the probe is used to measure the local magnetic field. An Argon laser illuminates the probe consisting of a Faraday-rotator material with a retro-reflector that returns the incident light to the detection system. Performance results of the light gas gun and optical detection system will be shown. To date, the gas gun has been extensively tested consistently achieving velocities between 2 and 3 km/s. The probe and detection scheme have been tested by dropping the probe through a static magnetic field. Magnetic field resolution of 20 gauss and spatial resolution of 5 mm has been achieved. System frequency response is 10Mhz. Work is currently being conducted to integrate the diagnostic system with laboratory plasma experiments. Specifically a gas interfaced system has been developed to prevent helium muzzle gas from entering the plasma chamber with the probe. Additionally the probe must be separated from the sabot which protects the probe during acceleration in the gas gun. Data will be presented showing the results of various separation techniques

  10. Theory of NMR probe design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnall, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The NMR probe is the intrinsic part of the NMR system which allows transmission of a stimulus to a sample and the reception of a resulting signal from a sample. NMR probes are used in both imaging and spectroscopy. Optimal probe design is important to the production of adequate signal/moise. It is important for anyone using NMR techniques to understand how NMR probes work and how to optimize probe design

  11. Reliability Analysis of Sealing Structure of Electromechanical System Based on Kriging Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Wang, Y. M.; Chen, R. W.; Deng, W. W.; Gao, Y.

    2018-05-01

    The sealing performance of aircraft electromechanical system has a great influence on flight safety, and the reliability of its typical seal structure is analyzed by researcher. In this paper, we regard reciprocating seal structure as a research object to study structural reliability. Having been based on the finite element numerical simulation method, the contact stress between the rubber sealing ring and the cylinder wall is calculated, and the relationship between the contact stress and the pressure of the hydraulic medium is built, and the friction force on different working conditions are compared. Through the co-simulation, the adaptive Kriging model obtained by EFF learning mechanism is used to describe the failure probability of the seal ring, so as to evaluate the reliability of the sealing structure. This article proposes a new idea of numerical evaluation for the reliability analysis of sealing structure, and also provides a theoretical basis for the optimal design of sealing structure.

  12. ToF-SIMS Characterization of Biocompatible Silk/Polypyrrole Electromechanical Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Nathan; Severt, Sean; Wang, Zhaoying; Klemke, Carly; Larson, Jesse; Zhu, Zihua; Murphy, Amanda; Leger, Janelle

    2015-03-01

    Materials capable of controlled movements that can also interface with biological environments are highly sought after for biomedical devices such as valves, blood vessel sutures, cochlear implants and controlled drug release devices. Recently we have reported the synthesis of films composed of a conductive interpenetrating network of the biopolymer silk fibroin and poly(pyrrole). These silk-PPy composites function as bilayer electromechanical actuators in a biologically-relevant environment, can be actuated repeatedly, and are able to generate forces comparable with natural muscle (>0.1 MPa), making them an ideal candidate for interfacing with biological tissues. Here, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to investigate the migration of ions in the devices during actuation. These findings will be discussed in the context of the actuation mechanism and opportunities for further improvements in device stability and performance.

  13. Design and fabrication of a unique electromechanical machine for long-term fatigue testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boling, K.W.

    1984-12-01

    An electromechanical machine has been designed and fabricated for performing long-term fatigue tests under conditions that simulate those in modern plants. The machine is now commercially available. Its advantages over current electrohydraulic machines are lower initial cost, minimum maintenance requirements, and greater reliability especially when performing long tests. The machine operates in closed-loop fashion by utilizing continuous feedback signals from the specimen extensometer or load cell, it is programmable for testing in strain or load control. The maximum ram rate is 0.056 mm/s (0.134 in./min), maximum ram travel is 102 mm (4 in.) and load capacity is +-44 (+-10 kips). Induction heating controls speciment temperatures to 1000 0 C

  14. Towards electromechanical computation: An alternative approach to realize complex logic circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Kosuru, Lakshmoji; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    Electromechanical computing based on micro/nano resonators has recently attracted significant attention. However, full implementation of this technology has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex logic circuits. We report here an alternative approach to realize complex logic circuits based on multiple MEMS resonators. As case studies, we report the construction of a single-bit binary comparator, a single-bit 4-to-2 encoder, and parallel XOR/XNOR and AND/NOT logic gates. Toward this, several microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned through an electrothermal modulation scheme. The microresonators operating in the linear regime do not require large excitation forces, and work at room temperature and at modest air pressure. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, tunable resonator, several essential complex logic functions can be achieved.

  15. Towards electromechanical computation: An alternative approach to realize complex logic circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, M. A. A.

    2016-08-18

    Electromechanical computing based on micro/nano resonators has recently attracted significant attention. However, full implementation of this technology has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex logic circuits. We report here an alternative approach to realize complex logic circuits based on multiple MEMS resonators. As case studies, we report the construction of a single-bit binary comparator, a single-bit 4-to-2 encoder, and parallel XOR/XNOR and AND/NOT logic gates. Toward this, several microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned through an electrothermal modulation scheme. The microresonators operating in the linear regime do not require large excitation forces, and work at room temperature and at modest air pressure. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, tunable resonator, several essential complex logic functions can be achieved.

  16. A superconductor electromechanical oscillator and its potential application in energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, Osvaldo F

    2004-01-01

    We discuss theoretically the properties of an electromechanical oscillating system whose operation is based upon the cyclic conservative conversion between gravitational potential, kinetic and magnetic energies. The system consists of a superconducting coil subjected to a constant external force and to magnetic fields. The coil oscillates and has induced in it a rectified electrical current whose magnitude may reach hundreds of amperes. The design differs from that of most conventional superconductor machines since the motion is linear (and practically unnoticeable depending on frequency) rather than rotatory and it does not involve high speeds. Furthermore, there is no need for an external electrical power source to start up the system. We also show that the losses for such a system can be made extremely small for certain operational conditions, so that by reaching and keeping resonance the system's main application should be in the generation and storage of electromagnetic energy. (rapid communication)

  17. An experimental evaluation of the fully coupled hysteretic electro-mechanical behaviour of piezoelectric actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Mark [Department of Engineering, CERN, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Davino, Daniele, E-mail: davino@unisannio.it [Department of Engineering, University of Sannio, Benevento (Italy); Giustiniani, Alessandro; Masi, Alessandro [Department of Engineering, CERN, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-04-01

    Piezoelectrics are the most commonly used of the multifunctional smart materials in industrial applications, because of their relatively low cost and ease of use in electric and electronic oriented applications. Nevertheless, while datasheets usually give just small signal quasi-static parameters, their full potential can only be exploited only if a full characterization is available because the maximum stroke or the higher piezo coupling coefficients are available at different electro-mechanical biases, where often small signal analysis is not valid. In this paper a method to get the quasi-static fully coupled characterization is presented. The method is tested on a commercial piezo actuator but can be extended to similar devices.

  18. A Review of the Piezoelectric Electromechanical Impedance Based Structural Health Monitoring Technique for Engineering Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongi S. Na

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The birth of smart materials such as piezoelectric (PZT transducers has aided in revolutionizing the field of structural health monitoring (SHM based on non-destructive testing (NDT methods. While a relatively new NDT method known as the electromechanical (EMI technique has been investigated for more than two decades, there are still various problems that must be solved before it is applied to real structures. The technique, which has a significant potential to contribute to the creation of one of the most effective SHM systems, involves the use of a single PZT for exciting and sensing of the host structure. In this paper, studies applied for the past decade related to the EMI technique have been reviewed to understand its trend. In addition, new concepts and ideas proposed by various authors are also surveyed, and the paper concludes with a discussion of the potential directions for future works.

  19. Quantitative measurements of electromechanical response with a combined optical beam and interferometric atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuda, Aleksander; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research an Oxford Instruments Company, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States)

    2015-06-22

    An ongoing challenge in atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments is the quantitative measurement of cantilever motion. The vast majority of AFMs use the optical beam deflection (OBD) method to infer the deflection of the cantilever. The OBD method is easy to implement, has impressive noise performance, and tends to be mechanically robust. However, it represents an indirect measurement of the cantilever displacement, since it is fundamentally an angular rather than a displacement measurement. Here, we demonstrate a metrological AFM that combines an OBD sensor with a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) to enable accurate measurements of the cantilever velocity and displacement. The OBD/LDV AFM allows a host of quantitative measurements to be performed, including in-situ measurements of cantilever oscillation modes in piezoresponse force microscopy. As an example application, we demonstrate how this instrument can be used for accurate quantification of piezoelectric sensitivity—a longstanding goal in the electromechanical community.

  20. submitter An experimental evaluation of the fully coupled hysteretic electro-mechanical behaviour of piezoelectric actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Butcher, Mark; Giustiniani, Alessandro; Masi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectrics are the most commonly used of the multifunctional smart materials in industrial applications, because of their relatively low cost and ease of use in electric and electronic oriented applications. Nevertheless, while datasheets usually give just small signal quasi-static parameters, their full potential can only be exploited only if a full characterization is available because the maximum stroke or the higher piezo coupling coefficients are available at different electro-mechanical biases, where often small signal analysis is not valid. In this paper a method to get the quasi-static fully coupled characterization is presented. The method is tested on a commercial piezo actuator but can be extended to similar devices.