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Sample records for local decisions based

  1. A Cross-Layer User Centric Vertical Handover Decision Approach Based on MIH Local Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, Maaz; Yousaf, Muhammad; Qayyum, Amir; Malik, Shahzad

    Vertical handover decision algorithm that is based on user preferences and coupled with Media Independent Handover (MIH) local triggers have not been explored much in the literature. We have developed a comprehensive cross-layer solution, called Vertical Handover Decision (VHOD) approach, which consists of three parts viz. mechanism for collecting and storing user preferences, Vertical Handover Decision (VHOD) algorithm and the MIH Function (MIHF). MIHF triggers the VHOD algorithm which operates on user preferences to issue handover commands to mobility management protocol. VHOD algorithm is an MIH User and therefore needs to subscribe events and configure thresholds for receiving triggers from MIHF. In this regard, we have performed experiments in WLAN to suggest thresholds for Link Going Down trigger. We have also critically evaluated the handover decision process, proposed Just-in-time interface activation technique, compared our proposed approach with prominent user centric approaches and analyzed our approach from different aspects.

  2. The Influence Of Planning Decisions Regarding Land Evaluation Based On A Selected Local Real Estate Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foryś Iwona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the influence of planning decisions on changes taking place on the local real estate market. Three stages of the planning process are studied in particular, i.e.: the passing of the study of conditions and directions of spatial development, the Commune Council Resolution on initiating the formulation of a local spatial development plan, and finally the Resolution on accepting the local plan, as well as the effects of these activities on the land value in a given real estate market in Stargard Szczeciński, in the West-Pomeranian (Zachodniopomorskie Province of Poland. The object of the research is to identify the indicated relationships on a given real estate market, on which respective spatial planning stages can be distinguished, as well as the strength and course of the analyzed relationships. The study will verify the research hypothesis regarding the strength and directions of the effects of planning decisions as the direct and indirect reasons behind price changes on the real estate market. The analysis uses data from the Price Register and the District Starosty Values, along with statistical and public information data and the authors' own studies.

  3. Enhancing guideline-based decision support with distributed computation through local mobile application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shalom, Erez; Shahar, Yuval; Goldstein, Ayelet; Ariel, Elior; Quaglini, Silvana; Sacchi, Lucia; Fung, L.S.N.; Jones, Valerie M.; Broens, T.H.F.; García-Sáez, Gema; Hernando, Elena

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the need for a distributed guideline-based decision support (DSS) process, describe its characteristics, and explain how we implemented this process within the European Union’s MobiGuide project. In particular, we have developed a mechanism of sequential, piecemeal projection, i.e.,

  4. Drug-related webpages classification based on multi-modal local decision fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruiguang; Su, Xiaojing; Liu, Yanxin

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, multi-modal local decision fusion is used for drug-related webpages classification. First, meaningful text are extracted through HTML parsing, and effective images are chosen by the FOCARSS algorithm. Second, six SVM classifiers are trained for six kinds of drug-taking instruments, which are represented by PHOG. One SVM classifier is trained for the cannabis, which is represented by the mid-feature of BOW model. For each instance in a webpage, seven SVMs give seven labels for its image, and other seven labels are given by searching the names of drug-taking instruments and cannabis in its related text. Concatenating seven labels of image and seven labels of text, the representation of those instances in webpages are generated. Last, Multi-Instance Learning is used to classify those drugrelated webpages. Experimental results demonstrate that the classification accuracy of multi-instance learning with multi-modal local decision fusion is much higher than those of single-modal classification.

  5. ICT-based reforms in local government decision-making in the gram panchayats of Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex K Thottunkel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial impact of computerisation can be felt in all elements that contribute to decision-making in panchayats in the state of Kerala. However, even though computerisation is bringing about immense improvements compared to traditional administrative practices, but scope still remains for further improvement. Instead of the 'as it is' computerisation that is mostly carried out a process based approach is needed.

  6. [Boundaries of the autonomy of local health administration: innovation, creativity and evidence-based decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Silvio Fernandes da; Souza, Nathan Mendes; Barreto, Jorge Otávio Maia

    2014-11-01

    The scope of this article was to identify the boundaries of the autonomy of local administration in the context of the federal pact in the Brazilian Unified Health System and the importance and potential for promoting innovation, creativity and evidence-based decision-making by local governments. The methodology used was to ask questions that favored dialogue with the specific literature to identify the influence of centrally-formulated policies in spaces of local autonomy and then to identify strategies to foster innovation, creativity and the systematic use of evidence-based research in health policy implementation. A gradual reduction in municipal decision-making autonomy was detected due to increased financial commitment of the municipalities resulting from responsibilities assumed, albeit with the possibility of reverting this trend in the more recent context. Some determinants and challenges for the dissemination of innovative practices were analyzed and some relevant national and international experiences in this respect were presented. The conclusion drawn is that it is possible to make local decision-making more effective provided that initiatives are consolidated to promote this culture and the formulation and implementation of evidence-based health policies.

  7. How do patients between the age of 65 and 75 use a web-based decision aid for treatment choice in localized prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijvers, Jessie; Vanderhaegen, Joke; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Haustermans, Karin; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the use of a web-based decision aid by a 65plus patient group in their decision-making process for treatment of localized prostate cancer. Of particular interest was the use of technology features such as patients' statements, comparative tables, and a values clarification tool. One hundred men from the University Hospital of Leuven campus, Gasthuisberg, were invited to use the web-based decision aid in their decision-making process. Twenty-six men were excluded based on non- or limited use of the decision aid. Of the remaining 74 men, user specifications, decision aid surfing characteristics by means of web-log data, and especially the use of technology features were analyzed. Men spent on average 30 minutes on the web-based decision aid. Most time was spent on the pages with information on treatment options. These pages were also most frequently accessed. The use of the feature 'comparative tables' was the highest, followed by the 'values clarification tool'. According to age (70 years) differences were observed for the time spent on the decision aid, the pages accessed, and the use of the technology features. Despite concerns about the usability of a web-based decision aid for elderly patients, these results indicated that the majority of 65plus persons with good internet skills use a web-based decision aid as well as its incorporated technology features. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  8. Local Decisions and Global Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David C.; Long, Cathryn J.

    1976-01-01

    Impact of economic and urban planning on the natural environment can be studied through local situations: California conservation students realized the detrimental effects of a seemingly beneficial dam project. Students were inspired to initiate community-state action to correct damage to wildlife, sanitation, and farming. (AV)

  9. mPLR-Loc: an adaptive decision multi-label classifier based on penalized logistic regression for protein subcellular localization prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shibiao; Mak, Man-Wai; Kung, Sun-Yuan

    2015-03-15

    Proteins located in appropriate cellular compartments are of paramount importance to exert their biological functions. Prediction of protein subcellular localization by computational methods is required in the post-genomic era. Recent studies have been focusing on predicting not only single-location proteins but also multi-location proteins. However, most of the existing predictors are far from effective for tackling the challenges of multi-label proteins. This article proposes an efficient multi-label predictor, namely mPLR-Loc, based on penalized logistic regression and adaptive decisions for predicting both single- and multi-location proteins. Specifically, for each query protein, mPLR-Loc exploits the information from the Gene Ontology (GO) database by using its accession number (AC) or the ACs of its homologs obtained via BLAST. The frequencies of GO occurrences are used to construct feature vectors, which are then classified by an adaptive decision-based multi-label penalized logistic regression classifier. Experimental results based on two recent stringent benchmark datasets (virus and plant) show that mPLR-Loc remarkably outperforms existing state-of-the-art multi-label predictors. In addition to being able to rapidly and accurately predict subcellular localization of single- and multi-label proteins, mPLR-Loc can also provide probabilistic confidence scores for the prediction decisions. For readers' convenience, the mPLR-Loc server is available online (http://bioinfo.eie.polyu.edu.hk/mPLRLocServer). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A decision support system for on-line leakage localization

    OpenAIRE

    Meseguer, Jordi; Mirats-Tur, Josep M.; Cembrano, Gabriela; Puig, Vicenç; Quevedo, Joseba; Pérez, Ramon; Sanz, Gerard; Ibarra, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a model-driven decision-support system (software tool) implementing a model-based methodology for on-line leakage detection and localization which is useful for a large class of water distribution networks. Since these methods present a certain degree of complexity which limits their use to experts, the proposed software tool focuses on the integration of a method emphasizing its use by water network managers as a decision support system. The proposed software tool integr...

  11. [Local health systems. Moral rationality of community decisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tealdi, J C

    1990-01-01

    The author examines the points of convergence between local health systems and bioethics in three basic areas: structural or institutional, methodological or justificatory, and regulatory or normative. Comparisons are drawn between the decentralization of the health system posed by local health systems and deconcentration of the power vested in multidisciplinary ethics committees; the strategy of social participation and the movement in the United States of community decision-making in the area of health; and the basic concepts of primary health care and the principle of justice. The theories of Pellegrino and Thomasma on the philosophic bases for medical practice provide the framework of this comparative analysis. The article concludes with a call for a local health systems-bioethical nexus in which this discipline can provide the basis for infusing an ethical component into participatory planning and community decision-making.

  12. Radiological emergency assessment of local decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breznik, B.; Kusar, A.; Boznar, M.Z.; Mlakar, P.

    2003-01-01

    Local decision support system has been developed based on the needs of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant for quick dose projection and it is one of important features required for proposal of intervention before actual release may occur. Radiological emergency assessment in the case of nuclear accident is based on plant status analysis, radiation monitoring data and on prediction of release of radioactive sources to the environment. There are possibilities to use automatic features to predict release source term and manual options for selection of release parameters. Advanced environmental modelling is used for assessment of atmospheric dispersion of radioactive contamination in the environment. (author)

  13. Measuring local autonomy: A decision-making approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleurke, F.; Willemse, R.

    2006-01-01

    In studies on central-local relations it is common to assess local autonomy in a deductive way. The extent of local autonomy is determined by measuring the central legal and financial competence, after which the remaining room for local decision-making is determined. The outcome of this indirect

  14. Locally adaptive decision in detection of clustered microcalcifications in mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz de Cea, María V.; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Yang, Yongyi

    2018-02-01

    In computer-aided detection or diagnosis of clustered microcalcifications (MCs) in mammograms, the performance often suffers from not only the presence of false positives (FPs) among the detected individual MCs but also large variability in detection accuracy among different cases. To address this issue, we investigate a locally adaptive decision scheme in MC detection by exploiting the noise characteristics in a lesion area. Instead of developing a new MC detector, we propose a decision scheme on how to best decide whether a detected object is an MC or not in the detector output. We formulate the individual MCs as statistical outliers compared to the many noisy detections in a lesion area so as to account for the local image characteristics. To identify the MCs, we first consider a parametric method for outlier detection, the Mahalanobis distance detector, which is based on a multi-dimensional Gaussian distribution on the noisy detections. We also consider a non-parametric method which is based on a stochastic neighbor graph model of the detected objects. We demonstrated the proposed decision approach with two existing MC detectors on a set of 188 full-field digital mammograms (95 cases). The results, evaluated using free response operating characteristic (FROC) analysis, showed a significant improvement in detection accuracy by the proposed outlier decision approach over traditional thresholding (the partial area under the FROC curve increased from 3.95 to 4.25, p-value  FPs at a given sensitivity level. The proposed adaptive decision approach could not only reduce the number of FPs in detected MCs but also improve case-to-case consistency in detection.

  15. Mapping social-ecological vulnerability to inform local decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiault, Lauric; Marshall, Paul; Gelcich, Stefan; Collin, Antoine; Chlous, Frédérique; Claudet, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    An overarching challenge of natural resource management and biodiversity conservation is that relationships between people and nature are difficult to integrate into tools that can effectively guide decision making. Social-ecological vulnerability offers a valuable framework for identifying and understanding important social-ecological linkages, and the implications of dependencies and other feedback loops in the system. Unfortunately, its implementation at local scales has hitherto been limited due at least in part to the lack of operational tools for spatial representation of social-ecological vulnerability. We developed a method to map social-ecological vulnerability based on information on human-nature dependencies and ecosystem services at local scales. We applied our method to the small-scale fishery of Moorea, French Polynesia, by combining spatially explicit indicators of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of both the resource (i.e., vulnerability of reef fish assemblages to fishing) and resource users (i.e., vulnerability of fishing households to the loss of fishing opportunity). Our results revealed that both social and ecological vulnerabilities varied considerably through space and highlighted areas where sources of vulnerability were high for both social and ecological subsystems (i.e., social-ecological vulnerability hotspots) and thus of high priority for management intervention. Our approach can be used to inform decisions about where biodiversity conservation strategies are likely to be more effective and how social impacts from policy decisions can be minimized. It provides a new perspective on human-nature linkages that can help guide sustainability management at local scales; delivers insights distinct from those provided by emphasis on a single vulnerability component (e.g., exposure); and demonstrates the feasibility and value of operationalizing the social-ecological vulnerability framework for policy, planning, and participatory

  16. Applications of decision theory to test-based decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1987-01-01

    The use of Bayesian decision theory to solve problems in test-based decision making is discussed. Four basic decision problems are distinguished: (1) selection; (2) mastery; (3) placement; and (4) classification, the situation where each treatment has its own criterion. Each type of decision can be

  17. Mathematical programming solver based on local search

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, Frédéric; Darlay, Julien; Estellon, Bertrand; Megel, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This book covers local search for combinatorial optimization and its extension to mixed-variable optimization. Although not yet understood from the theoretical point of view, local search is the paradigm of choice for tackling large-scale real-life optimization problems. Today's end-users demand interactivity with decision support systems. For optimization software, this means obtaining good-quality solutions quickly. Fast iterative improvement methods, like local search, are suited to satisfying such needs. Here the authors show local search in a new light, in particular presenting a new kind of mathematical programming solver, namely LocalSolver, based on neighborhood search. First, an iconoclast methodology is presented to design and engineer local search algorithms. The authors' concern about industrializing local search approaches is of particular interest for practitioners. This methodology is applied to solve two industrial problems with high economic stakes. Software based on local search induces ex...

  18. Local decision making as a design opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the history and declining participation in Danish residents’ democracy, and we discuss the possibilities for ICT based solutions exemplified in three design interventions in a housing organization. In particular we discuss the relation between computerized democracy, ICT...

  19. IT portfolio decision-making in local governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Pedersen, Keld

    2014-01-01

    by the IT PPM literature) plays a minor role. Our account also reveals how the decision-making practices create IT portfolio problems and in some aspects is considered to have a negative impact on the outcome of e-government investments. Our analysis and previous research into decision-making allows us to argue......IT project portfolio management (IT PPM) has evolved into a significant area of research interest, but we know little about IT PPM practices in public sector organizations. Therefore this article investigates decision-making processes in the IT PPM practices of local governments, and discusses how...... these practices match the normative advice proposed by the IT PPMliterature.We rely on decision-making theories togetherwith case-studies of four Danish local governments.We find that politics, intuition and coincidence play a crucial role in IT PPM decisionmaking, while technical rationality (as proposed...

  20. Decision-making processes and voter behavior in local elections in Bogotá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Eugenia Toca Torres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This research studies citizen decisions in a local election, grouping voters according to vote motivations, candidate attributes and decision inputs. We suggest that voter motivation may be more determined by external and marketing influences than internal motivations. In addition, we believe that voters consider candidate attributes more than his or her political proposal. Since the voters’ decision is based on very little information about all possible alternatives, it is biased in favor of the strongest campaign.

  1. Rule-based decision making model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirola, Miki

    1998-01-01

    A rule-based decision making model is designed in G2 environment. A theoretical and methodological frame for the model is composed and motivated. The rule-based decision making model is based on object-oriented modelling, knowledge engineering and decision theory. The idea of safety objective tree is utilized. Advanced rule-based methodologies are applied. A general decision making model 'decision element' is constructed. The strategy planning of the decision element is based on e.g. value theory and utility theory. A hypothetical process model is built to give input data for the decision element. The basic principle of the object model in decision making is division in tasks. Probability models are used in characterizing component availabilities. Bayes' theorem is used to recalculate the probability figures when new information is got. The model includes simple learning features to save the solution path. A decision analytic interpretation is given to the decision making process. (author)

  2. Predictors of Local Recurrence After Rituximab-Based Chemotherapy Alone in Stage III and IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Guiding Decisions for Consolidative Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegadeesh, Naresh; Rajpara, Raj; Esiashvili, Natia; Shi, Zheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Liu, Yuan [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Shared Resource, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Okwan-Duodu, Derrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Flowers, Christopher R. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Medical Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Khan, Mohammad K., E-mail: drkhurram2000@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The role of consolidative radiation therapy (RT) for stage III and IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the era of rituximab is not well defined. There is evidence that some patients with bulky disease may benefit, but patient selection criteria are not well established. We sought to identify a subset of patients who experienced a high local failure rate after receiving rituximab-based chemotherapy alone and hence may benefit from the addition of consolidative RT. Methods and Materials: Two hundred eleven patients with stage III and IV DLBCL treated between August 1999 and January 2012 were reviewed. Of these, 89 had a complete response to systemic therapy including rituximab and received no initial RT. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed, with local recurrence (LR) as the primary outcome. Results: The median follow-up time was 43.9 months. Fifty percent of patients experienced LR at 5 years. In multivariate analysis, tumor ≥5 cm and stage III disease were associated with increased risk of LR. The 5-year LR-free survival was 47.4% for patients with ≥5-cm lesions versus 74.7% for patients with <5-cm lesions (P=.01). In patients with <5-cm tumors, the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was ≥15 in all patients with LR. The 5-year LR-free survival was 100% in SUV<15 versus 68.8% in SUV≥15 (P=.10). Conclusions: Advanced-stage DLBCL patients with stage III disease or with disease ≥5 cm appear to be at an increased risk for LR. Patients with <5-cm disease and SUVmax ≥15 may be at higher risk for LR. These patients may benefit from consolidative RT after chemoimmunotherapy.

  3. Predictors of Local Recurrence After Rituximab-Based Chemotherapy Alone in Stage III and IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Guiding Decisions for Consolidative Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegadeesh, Naresh; Rajpara, Raj; Esiashvili, Natia; Shi, Zheng; Liu, Yuan; Okwan-Duodu, Derrick; Flowers, Christopher R.; Khan, Mohammad K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The role of consolidative radiation therapy (RT) for stage III and IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the era of rituximab is not well defined. There is evidence that some patients with bulky disease may benefit, but patient selection criteria are not well established. We sought to identify a subset of patients who experienced a high local failure rate after receiving rituximab-based chemotherapy alone and hence may benefit from the addition of consolidative RT. Methods and Materials: Two hundred eleven patients with stage III and IV DLBCL treated between August 1999 and January 2012 were reviewed. Of these, 89 had a complete response to systemic therapy including rituximab and received no initial RT. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed, with local recurrence (LR) as the primary outcome. Results: The median follow-up time was 43.9 months. Fifty percent of patients experienced LR at 5 years. In multivariate analysis, tumor ≥5 cm and stage III disease were associated with increased risk of LR. The 5-year LR-free survival was 47.4% for patients with ≥5-cm lesions versus 74.7% for patients with <5-cm lesions (P=.01). In patients with <5-cm tumors, the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was ≥15 in all patients with LR. The 5-year LR-free survival was 100% in SUV<15 versus 68.8% in SUV≥15 (P=.10). Conclusions: Advanced-stage DLBCL patients with stage III disease or with disease ≥5 cm appear to be at an increased risk for LR. Patients with <5-cm disease and SUVmax ≥15 may be at higher risk for LR. These patients may benefit from consolidative RT after chemoimmunotherapy

  4. New Methods for Crafting Locally Decision-Relevant Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Scenarios can play an important role in helping decision makers to imagine future worlds, both good and bad, different than the one with which we are familiar and to take concrete steps now to address the risks generated by climate change. At their best, scenarios can effectively represent deep uncertainty; integrate over multiple domains; and enable parties with different expectation and values to expand the range of futures they consider, to see the world from different points of view, and to grapple seriously with the potential implications of surprising or inconvenient futures. These attributes of scenario processes can prove crucial in helping craft effective responses to climate change. But traditional scenario methods can also fail to overcome difficulties related to choosing, communicating, and using scenarios to identify, evaluate, and reach consensus on appropriate policies. Such challenges can limit scenario's impact in broad public discourse. This talk will demonstrate how new decision support approaches can employ new quantitative tools that allow scenarios to emerge from a process of deliberation with analysis among stakeholders, rather than serve as inputs to it, thereby increasing the impacts of scenarios on decision making. This talk will demonstrate these methods in the design of a decision support tool to help residents of low lying coastal cities grapple with the long-term risks of sea level rise. In particular, this talk will show how information from the IPCC SSP's can be combined with local information to provide a rich set of locally decision-relevant information.

  5. Decision-Making Based on Emotional Images

    OpenAIRE

    Katahira, Kentaro; Fujimura, Tomomi; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2011-01-01

    The emotional outcome of a choice affects subsequent decision making. While the relationship between decision making and emotion has attracted attention, studies on emotion and decision making have been independently developed. In this study, we investigated how the emotional valence of pictures, which was stochastically contingent on participants’ choices, influenced subsequent decision making. In contrast to traditional value-based decision-making studies that used money or food as a reward...

  6. Decision making based on emotional images

    OpenAIRE

    Kentaro eKatahira; Kentaro eKatahira; Kentaro eKatahira; Tomomi eFujimura; Tomomi eFujimura; Kazuo eOkanoya; Kazuo eOkanoya; Kazuo eOkanoya; Masato eOkada; Masato eOkada; Masato eOkada

    2011-01-01

    The emotional outcome of a choice affects subsequent decision making. While the relationship between decision making and emotion has attracted attention, studies on emotion and decision making have been independently developed. In this study, we investigated how the emotional valence of pictures, which was stochastically contingent on participants’ choices, influenced subsequent decision making. In contrast to traditional value-based decision-making studies that used money or food as a reward...

  7. Local scale decision support systems - actual situation and trends for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govaerts, P.

    1993-01-01

    Based on the communications presented in the session on local scale decision support systems, some common trends for those models have been identified. During the last decade the evolutionary change of those models is related with the better insight in decisions to be taken with respect to interventions, the acceptance of large uncertainties, the perceived importance of social and economic factors and shift of the identity of the user. A more revolutionary change is predicted for the near future, putting most emphasis on the predictive mode, extending the integration of monitoring data in the decision support system, and the use of pre-established scenarios. The local scale decision support system will become the key module of the off-site emergency control room. (author)

  8. Measuring agreement between decision support reminders: the cloud vs. the local expert

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Brian Edward; Simonaitis, Linas; Perkins, Susan M; Wright, Adam; Middleton, Blackford

    2014-01-01

    Background: A cloud-based clinical decision support system (CDSS) was implemented to remotely provide evidence-based guideline reminders in support of preventative health. Following implementation, we measured the agreement between preventive care reminders generated by an existing, local CDSS and the new, cloud-based CDSS operating on the same patient visit data. Methods: Electronic health record data for the same set of patients seen in primary care were sent to both the cloud-based web ser...

  9. Risk-based emergency decision support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerte, Jens

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper we discuss how to assist critical decisions taken under complex, contingent circumstances, with a high degree of uncertainty and short time frames. In such sharp-end decision regimes, standard rule-based decision support systems do not capture the complexity of the situation. At the same time, traditional risk analysis is of little use due to variability in the specific circumstances. How then, can an organisation provide assistance to, e.g. pilots in dealing with such emergencies? A method called 'contingent risk and decision analysis' is presented, to provide decision support for decisions under variable circumstances and short available time scales. The method consists of nine steps of definition, modelling, analysis and criteria definition to be performed 'off-line' by analysts, and procedure generation to transform the analysis result into an operational decision aid. Examples of pilots' decisions in response to sudden vibration in offshore helicopter transport method are used to illustrate the approach

  10. Treatment decision-making by men with localized prostate cancer: the influence of personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Donna L; Ellis, William J; Woods, Nancy Fugate; Schwien, Christina; Mullen, Kristin H; Yang, Claire

    2003-01-01

    For many men with localized prostate cancer, there is no definite answer or unequivocal choice regarding treatment modality. This high-stakes treatment decision is made in the context of great uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to systematically document meaningful and relevant aspects of treatment decision-making reported by men with localized prostate cancer. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 44 men who were within 6 months of a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer. Using content analysis and grounded theory analytic techniques, major aspects and processes of men's treatment decision making are identified and described. The participants reported their experiences beginning with influential personal history factors, followed by detailed descriptions of information gathering and the important influence of expected treatment outcomes and other individuals' cancer histories and/or shared opinions. Twenty of the 44 (45%) participants relied heavily on the influence of another's opinion or history to finalize a decision, yet only 10 of the 44 (22.7%) reported this individual to be their physician. A common process, "making the best choice for me" was explicated. Clinicians assume that men are making rational treatment decisions based on reliable information, yet this study documents a different reality. Patient education about medical therapies and the patients' own medical factors is not enough. A clinic visit dialogue that brings personal factors to the conversation along with medical factors can guide a man to making his "best choice" for localized prostate cancer.

  11. Introduction of new technologies and decision making processes: a framework to adapt a Local Health Technology Decision Support Program for other local settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulin P

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Paule Poulin,1 Lea Austen,1 Catherine M Scott,2 Michelle Poulin,1 Nadine Gall,2 Judy Seidel,3 René Lafrenière1 1Department of Surgery, 2Knowledge Management, 3Public Health Innovation and Decision Support, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: Introducing new health technologies, including medical devices, into a local setting in a safe, effective, and transparent manner is a complex process, involving many disciplines and players within an organization. Decision making should be systematic, consistent, and transparent. It should involve translating and integrating scientific evidence, such as health technology assessment (HTA reports, with context-sensitive evidence to develop recommendations on whether and under what conditions a new technology will be introduced. However, the development of a program to support such decision making can require considerable time and resources. An alternative is to adapt a preexisting program to the new setting. Materials and methods: We describe a framework for adapting the Local HTA Decision Support Program, originally developed by the Department of Surgery and Surgical Services (Calgary, AB, Canada, for use by other departments. The framework consists of six steps: 1 development of a program review and adaptation manual, 2 education and readiness assessment of interested departments, 3 evaluation of the program by individual departments, 4 joint evaluation via retreats, 5 synthesis of feedback and program revision, and 6 evaluation of the adaptation process. Results: Nine departments revised the Local HTA Decision Support Program and expressed strong satisfaction with the adaptation process. Key elements for success were identified. Conclusion: Adaptation of a preexisting program may reduce duplication of effort, save resources, raise the health care providers' awareness of HTA, and foster constructive stakeholder engagement, which enhances the legitimacy of evidence

  12. Local Choices: Rationality and the Contextuality of Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaev, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Rational explanation is ubiquitous in psychology and social sciences, ranging from rational analysis, expectancy-value theories, ideal observer models, mental logic to probabilistic frameworks, rational choice theory, and informal “folk psychological” explanation. However, rational explanation appears to be challenged by apparently systematic irrationality observed in psychological experiments, especially in the field of judgement and decision-making (JDM). Here, it is proposed that the experimental results require not that rational explanation should be rejected, but that rational explanation is local, i.e., within a context. Thus, rational models need to be supplemented with a theory of contextual shifts. We review evidence in JDM that patterns of choices are often consistent within contexts, but unstable between contexts. We also demonstrate that for a limited, though reasonably broad, class of decision-making domains, recent theoretical models can be viewed as providing theories of contextual shifts. It is argued that one particular significant source of global inconsistency arises from a cognitive inability to represent absolute magnitudes, whether for perceptual variables, utilities, payoffs, or probabilities. This overall argument provides a fresh perspective on the scope and limits of human rationality. PMID:29301289

  13. Local Choices: Rationality and the Contextuality of Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaev, Ivo

    2018-01-02

    Rational explanation is ubiquitous in psychology and social sciences, ranging from rational analysis, expectancy-value theories, ideal observer models, mental logic to probabilistic frameworks, rational choice theory, and informal "folk psychological" explanation. However, rational explanation appears to be challenged by apparently systematic irrationality observed in psychological experiments, especially in the field of judgement and decision-making (JDM). Here, it is proposed that the experimental results require not that rational explanation should be rejected, but that rational explanation is local , i.e., within a context. Thus, rational models need to be supplemented with a theory of contextual shifts. We review evidence in JDM that patterns of choices are often consistent within contexts, but unstable between contexts. We also demonstrate that for a limited, though reasonably broad, class of decision-making domains, recent theoretical models can be viewed as providing theories of contextual shifts. It is argued that one particular significant source of global inconsistency arises from a cognitive inability to represent absolute magnitudes, whether for perceptual variables, utilities, payoffs, or probabilities. This overall argument provides a fresh perspective on the scope and limits of human rationality.

  14. Staged decision making based on probabilistic forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booister, Nikéh; Verkade, Jan; Werner, Micha; Cranston, Michael; Cumiskey, Lydia; Zevenbergen, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Flood forecasting systems reduce, but cannot eliminate uncertainty about the future. Probabilistic forecasts explicitly show that uncertainty remains. However, as - compared to deterministic forecasts - a dimension is added ('probability' or 'likelihood'), with this added dimension decision making is made slightly more complicated. A technique of decision support is the cost-loss approach, which defines whether or not to issue a warning or implement mitigation measures (risk-based method). With the cost-loss method a warning will be issued when the ratio of the response costs to the damage reduction is less than or equal to the probability of the possible flood event. This cost-loss method is not widely used, because it motivates based on only economic values and is a technique that is relatively static (no reasoning, yes/no decision). Nevertheless it has high potential to improve risk-based decision making based on probabilistic flood forecasting because there are no other methods known that deal with probabilities in decision making. The main aim of this research was to explore the ways of making decision making based on probabilities with the cost-loss method better applicable in practice. The exploration began by identifying other situations in which decisions were taken based on uncertain forecasts or predictions. These cases spanned a range of degrees of uncertainty: from known uncertainty to deep uncertainty. Based on the types of uncertainties, concepts of dealing with situations and responses were analysed and possible applicable concepts where chosen. Out of this analysis the concepts of flexibility and robustness appeared to be fitting to the existing method. Instead of taking big decisions with bigger consequences at once, the idea is that actions and decisions are cut-up into smaller pieces and finally the decision to implement is made based on economic costs of decisions and measures and the reduced effect of flooding. The more lead-time there is in

  15. Decision-making based on emotional images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahira, Kentaro; Fujimura, Tomomi; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2011-01-01

    The emotional outcome of a choice affects subsequent decision making. While the relationship between decision making and emotion has attracted attention, studies on emotion and decision making have been independently developed. In this study, we investigated how the emotional valence of pictures, which was stochastically contingent on participants' choices, influenced subsequent decision making. In contrast to traditional value-based decision-making studies that used money or food as a reward, the "reward value" of the decision outcome, which guided the update of value for each choice, is unknown beforehand. To estimate the reward value of emotional pictures from participants' choice data, we used reinforcement learning models that have successfully been used in previous studies for modeling value-based decision making. Consequently, we found that the estimated reward value was asymmetric between positive and negative pictures. The negative reward value of negative pictures (relative to neutral pictures) was larger in magnitude than the positive reward value of positive pictures. This asymmetry was not observed in valence for an individual picture, which was rated by the participants regarding the emotion experienced upon viewing it. These results suggest that there may be a difference between experienced emotion and the effect of the experienced emotion on subsequent behavior. Our experimental and computational paradigm provides a novel way for quantifying how and what aspects of emotional events affect human behavior. The present study is a first step toward relating a large amount of knowledge in emotion science and in taking computational approaches to value-based decision making.

  16. Localization Decisions of Entrepreneurs: The Role of Path Dependency and Market Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylak, Korneliusz; Majerek, Dariusz

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the role of path dependency and market forces in the localization decisions of entrepreneurs from different industries. We hypothesize that most industries develop new entities based on the number of companies from the same industry that already exist in a region. We also hypothesize that entrepreneurs create new entities based on related industries operating within the same knowledge pool. To test these hypotheses, we used the machine learning decision tree method. The input variables are the number of companies from 86 industries located in 2,531 communities in Poland in 2009. The target values are the number of new companies from these industries created in the years 2009-2015. The principal results show that localization decisions are mostly based on demand and supply industries, in which manufacturing industries play crucial role. Path dependency appears in less than half of the industries’ models and thus is not the main factor influencing decisions regarding the creation of new companies. The highest share of path-dependent industries is in manufacturing sector, but the degree of the dependence is lower than in the service sector. The service sector seems to be the least path-dependent, as services usually serve other industries. Competition in industries is a rare factor in new company creation; however, if it appears, it usually shrinks the industry.

  17. Reasoning in explanation-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, N; Hastie, R

    1993-01-01

    A general theory of explanation-based decision making is outlined and the multiple roles of inference processes in the theory are indicated. A typology of formal and informal inference forms, originally proposed by Collins (1978a, 1978b), is introduced as an appropriate framework to represent inferences that occur in the overarching explanation-based process. Results from the analysis of verbal reports of decision processes are presented to demonstrate the centrality and systematic character of reasoning in a representative legal decision-making task.

  18. More than just consumers: Integrating local observations into drought monitoring to better support decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Masayesva, A.; Meadow, A. M.; Crimmins, M.

    2016-12-01

    Drought monitoring and drought planning are complex endeavors. Measures of precipitation or streamflow provide little context for understanding how social and environmental systems impacted by drought are responding. In arid and semi-arid regions of the world, this challenge is particularly acute since social-ecological systems are already well-adapted to dry conditions. Understanding what drought means in these regions is an important first step in developing a decision-relevant monitoring system. Traditional drought indices may be of some use, but local observations may ultimately be more relevant for informing difficult decisions in response to unusually dry conditions. This presentation will focus on insights gained from a collaborative project between the University of Arizona and the Hopi Tribe-a Native American community in the U.S. Southwest-to develop a drought information system that is responsive to local needs. The primary goal of the project was to develop a system that: is based on how drought is experienced by Hopi citizens and resource managers, can incorporate local observations of drought impacts as well as conventional indicators, and brings together local expertise with conventional science-based observations. This kind of drought monitoring system can harnesses as much available information as possible to inform resource managers, political leaders, and citizens about drought conditions, but such a system can also engage these local drought stakeholders in observing, thinking about, and helping guide planning for drought.

  19. An exploratory study identifying where local government public health decision makers source their evidence for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Melissa; Dodds, James

    2014-08-01

    The Western Australian (WA) Public Health Bill will replace the antiquated Health Act 1911. One of the proposed clauses of the Bill requires all WA local governments to develop a Public Health Plan. The Bill states that Public Health Plans should be based on evidence from all levels, including national and statewide priorities, community needs, local statistical evidence, and stakeholder data. This exploratory study, which targeted 533 WA local government officers, aimed to identify the sources of evidence used to generate the list of public health risks to be included in local government Public Health Plans. The top four sources identified for informing local policy were: observation of the consequences of the risks in the local community (24.5%), statewide evidence (17.6%), local evidence (17.6%) and coverage in local media (16.2%). This study confirms that both hard and soft data are used to inform policy decisions at the local level. Therefore, the challenge that this study has highlighted is in the definition or constitution of evidence. SO WHAT? Evidence is critical to the process of sound policy development. This study highlights issues associated with what actually constitutes evidence in the policy development process at the local government level. With the exception of those who work in an extremely narrow field, it is difficult for local government officers, whose role includes policymaking, to read the vast amount of information that has been published in their area of expertise. For those who are committed to the notion of evidence-based policymaking, as advocated within the WA Public Health Bill, this presents a considerable challenge.

  20. Decision making based on emotional images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro eKatahira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The emotional outcome of a choice affects subsequent decision making. While the relationship between decision making and emotion has attracted attention, studies on emotion and decision making have been independently developed. In this study, we investigated how the emotional valence of pictures, which was stochastically contingent on participants’ choices, influenced subsequent decision making. In contrast to traditional value-based decision-making studies that used money or food as a reward, the reward value of the decision outcome, which guided the update of value for each choice, is unknown beforehand. To estimate the reward value of emotional pictures from participants’ choice data, we used reinforcement learning models that have success- fully been used in previous studies for modeling value-based decision making. Consequently, we found that the estimated reward value was asymmetric between positive and negative pictures. The negative reward value of negative pictures (relative to neutral pictures was larger in magnitude than the positive reward value of positive pictures. This asymmetry was not observed in valence for an individual picture, which was rated by the participants regarding the emotion experienced upon viewing it. These results suggest that there may be a difference between experienced emotion and the effect of the experienced emotion on subsequent behavior. Our experimental and computational paradigm provides a novel way for quantifying how and what aspects of emotional events affect human behavior. The present study is a first step toward relating a large amount of knowledge in emotion science and in taking computational approaches to value-based decision making.

  1. Stakeholder management in the local government decision-making area: evidences from a triangulation study with the English local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Corrêa Gomes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The stakeholder theory has been in the management agenda for about thirty years and reservations about its acceptance as a comprehensive theory still remains. It was introduced as a managerial issue by the Labour Party in 1997 aiming to make public management more inclusive. This article aims to contribute to the stakeholder theory adding descriptive issues to its theoretical basis. The findings are derived from an inductive investigationcarried out with English Local Authorities, which will most likely be reproduced in other contexts. Data collection and analysis is based on a data triangulation method that involves case-studies, interviews of validation and analysis of documents. The investigation proposes a model for representing the nature of therelationships between stakeholders and the decision-making process of such organizations. The decision-making of local government organizations is in fact a stakeholder-based process in which stakeholders are empowered to exert influences due to power over and interest in the organization’s operations and outcomes.

  2. Study on Data Clustering and Intelligent Decision Algorithm of Indoor Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zexi

    2018-01-01

    Indoor positioning technology enables the human beings to have the ability of positional perception in architectural space, and there is a shortage of single network coverage and the problem of location data redundancy. So this article puts forward the indoor positioning data clustering algorithm and intelligent decision-making research, design the basic ideas of multi-source indoor positioning technology, analyzes the fingerprint localization algorithm based on distance measurement, position and orientation of inertial device integration. By optimizing the clustering processing of massive indoor location data, the data normalization pretreatment, multi-dimensional controllable clustering center and multi-factor clustering are realized, and the redundancy of locating data is reduced. In addition, the path is proposed based on neural network inference and decision, design the sparse data input layer, the dynamic feedback hidden layer and output layer, low dimensional results improve the intelligent navigation path planning.

  3. Women Participation In Agricutural Decision-Making In Aguata Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    formulation and decision-making process, even in the issues that affect them ... information, workshop/conferences attendance and rate/level of participation in .... Appropriate Technology in “Women in Nigeria Economy”, ACENA Publishers,.

  4. Does consideration of GHG reductions change local decision making? A Case Study in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, L. A.; Blumel, G.

    2003-12-01

    While local air pollution has been a public concern in developing countries for some time, climate change is looked upon as a non-urgent, developed world problem. In this work we present a case study of the interaction of measures to abate air pollution and measures to mitigate GHG emissions in Santiago, Chile, with the purpose of determining if the consideration of reductions in GHG affects the decisions taken to mitigate local air pollution. The emissions reductions of both GHG and local air pollutants were estimated from emission factors (some derived locally) and changes in activity levels. Health benefits due to air pollution abatement were computed using figures derived previously for the cost benefit analysis of Santiago's Decontamination Plan, transferred to the different cities taking into consideration local demographic and income data. The Santiago estimates were obtained using the damage function approach, based on some local epidemiological studies, and on local health and demographic data. Unit social values for the effects were estimated locally (for cost of treatment and lost productivity values) or extrapolated from US values (mainly for WTP values) using the ratio of per-capita income and an income elasticity of 1. The average benefits of emission abatement (in 1997 US\\ per ton) are 1,800 (1,200-2300) for NOx, 3,000 (2,100-3900) for SO2, 31,900 (21,900 - 41,900) for PM, and 630 (430 - 830) for resuspended dust. Economic benefits due to carbon reduction were considered at 3.5, 10 and 20 UStCO2. Marginal abatement cost curves were constructed considering private and net costs (private less the potential sales of carbon credits) Due to the bottom-up approach to constructing the marginal cost curve, many abatement measures (like congestion tolls and CNG instead of diesel buses) amounting to 8% reduction of PM2.5 concentration, exhibit a negative private cost. If the health benefits are considered for the decision, a maximum reduction of 22% in PM2

  5. Influence of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on salvage treatment decision making for locally persistent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xiaojang; Chen Longhua; Wang Quanshi; Wu Fubing

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of [ 18 F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in influencing salvage treatment decision making for locally persistent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: A total of 33 NPC patients with histologic persistence at nasopharynx 1 to 6 weeks after a full course of radiotherapy underwent both computed tomography (CT) and FDG-PET/CT simulation at the same treatment position. The salvage treatment decisions, with regard to the decision to offer salvage treatment and the definition of gross tumor volume (GTV), were made before knowledge of the FDG-PET findings. Subsequently the salvage treatment decisions were made again based on the FDG-PET findings and compared with the pre-FDG-PET decisions. Results: All 33 patients were referred for salvage treatment in the pre-FDG-PET decision. After knowledge of the FDG-PET results, the decision to offer salvage treatment was withdrawn in 4 of 33 patients (12.1%), as no abnormal uptake of FDG was found at nasopharynx. Spontaneous remission was observed in repeat biopsies and no local recurrence was found in these 4 cases. For the remaining 29 patients, GTV based on FDG-PET was smaller than GTV based on CT in 24 (82.8%) cases and was greater in 5 (17.2%) cases, respectively. The target volume had to be significantly modified in 9 of 29 patients (31%), as GTV based on FDG-PET images failed to be enclosed by the treated volume in the salvage treatment plan performed based on GTV based on CT simulation images. Conclusion: Use of FDG-PET was found to influence the salvage treatment decision making for locally persistent NPC by identifying patients who were not likely to benefit from additional treatment and by improving accuracy of GTV definition in salvage treatment planning

  6. FlooDSuM - a decision support methodology for assisting local authorities in flood situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanbeck, Jan; Weingartner, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    Decision making in flood situations is a difficult task, especially in small to medium-sized mountain catchments (30 - 500 km2) which are usually characterized by complex topography, high drainage density and quick runoff response to rainfall events. Operating hydrological models driven by numerical weather prediction systems, which have a lead-time of several hours up to few even days, would be beneficial in this case as time for prevention could be gained. However, the spatial and quantitative accuracy of such meteorological forecasts usually decrease with increasing lead-time. In addition, the sensitivity of rainfall-runoff models to inaccuracies in estimations of areal rainfall increases with decreasing catchment size. Accordingly, decisions on flood alerts should ideally be based on areal rainfall from high resolution and short-term numerical weather prediction, nowcasts or even real-time measurements, which is transformed into runoff by a hydrological model. In order to benefit from the best possible rainfall data while retaining enough time for alerting and for prevention, the hydrological model should be fast and easily applicable by decision makers within local authorities themselves. The proposed decision support methodology FlooDSuM (Flood Decision Support Methodology) aims to meet those requirements. Applying FlooDSuM, a few successive binary decisions of increasing complexity have to be processed following a flow-chart-like structure. Prepared data and straightforwardly applicable tools are provided for each of these decisions. Maps showing the current flood disposition are used for the first step. While danger of flooding cannot be excluded more and more complex and time consuming methods will be applied. For the final decision, a set of scatter-plots relating areal precipitation to peak flow is provided. These plots take also further decisive parameters into account such as storm duration, distribution of rainfall intensity in time as well as the

  7. Toolkit for local decision makers aims to strengthen environmental sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Members of the South African Risk and Vulnerability Atlas were involved in a meeting aimed at the development of a toolkit towards improved integration of climate change into local government's integrated development planning (IDP) process....

  8. Assessing the acceptability and usability of an interactive serious game in aiding treatment decisions for patients with localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichlin, Lindsey; Mani, Nithya; McArthur, Kara; Harris, Amy M; Rajan, Nithin; Dacso, Clifford C

    2011-01-12

    Men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer face a potentially life-altering treatment decision that can be overwhelming. Enhancing patient knowledge through education can significantly reduce feelings of uncertainty while simultaneously increasing confidence in decision making. Serious games have been shown in other populations to increase health knowledge and assist with the health decision-making process. We developed an interactive serious game, Time After Time, which translates evidence-based treatment outcome data into an accessible and understandable format that men can utilize in their prostate cancer treatment decision-making process. The game specifically aims to raise men's awareness and understanding of the impact of health-related quality of life issues associated with the major treatment options and to enrich their conversations with their health care providers. This study determined the acceptability and usability of the alpha version of Time After Time, an interactive decision aid for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer, in order to inform future iterations of the serious game. The study employed a mixed methods approach to assess the acceptability and usability of the Time After Time serious game using qualitative focus groups and a quantitative Likert scale survey. A total of 13 men who had already completed treatment for localized prostate cancer completed the survey and participated in focus group meetings. The majority of the study participants rated Time After Time as an appropriate decision tool for localized prostate cancer and verified that it meets its goals of increasing focus on side effects and generating questions for the patient's health care team. However, participants also expressed concerns about game usability and the diversity of information covered regarding treatment options and potential treatment outcomes. Serious games are a promising approach to health education and decision support for older men. Participants

  9. Magnetoencephalography of frontotemporal dementia: spatiotemporally localized changes during semantic decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Peter J.; Hodges, John R.; Rowe, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder with dysfunction and atrophy of the frontal lobes leading to changes in personality, behaviour, empathy, social conduct and insight, with relative preservation of language and memory. As novel treatments begin to emerge, biomarkers of frontotemporal dementia will become increasingly important, including functionally relevant neuroimaging indices of the neurophysiological basis of cognition. We used magnetoencephalography to examine behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia using a semantic decision task that elicits both frontal and temporal activity in healthy people. Twelve patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (age 50–75) and 16 matched controls made categorical semantic judgements about 400 pictures during continuous magnetoencephalography. Distributed source analysis was used to compare patients and controls. The patients had normal early responses to picture confrontation, indicating intact visual processing. However, a predominantly posterior set of regions including temporoparietal cortex showed reduced source activity 250–310 ms after stimulus onset, in proportion to behavioural measures of semantic association. In contrast, a left frontoparietal network showed reduced source activity at 550–650 ms, proportional to patients’ deficits in attention and orientation. This late deficit probably reflects impairment in the neural substrate of goal-oriented decision making. The results demonstrate behaviourally relevant neural correlates of semantic processing and decision making in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, and show for the first time that magnetoencephalography can be used to study cognitive systems in the context of frontotemporal dementia. PMID:21840892

  10. Automated Vectorization of Decision-Based Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Virtually all existing vectorization algorithms are designed to only analyze the numeric properties of an algorithm and distribute those elements across multiple processors. This advances the state of the practice because it is the only known system, at the time of this reporting, that takes high-level statements and analyzes them for their decision properties and converts them to a form that allows them to automatically be executed in parallel. The software takes a high-level source program that describes a complex decision- based condition and rewrites it as a disjunctive set of component Boolean relations that can then be executed in parallel. This is important because parallel architectures are becoming more commonplace in conventional systems and they have always been present in NASA flight systems. This technology allows one to take existing condition-based code and automatically vectorize it so it naturally decomposes across parallel architectures.

  11. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Triasih Kurniawan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA towards overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal’s motivation towards effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia (BG and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

  12. Economic Learning Media Development Based on Local Locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Rizali; Supriyanto; Hasanah, Mahmudah

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe the learning medium of economic education at senior High School in Banjarmasin with media based on local wisdom. This research uses qualitative method as developed by Miles & Huberman, starting from data collection, data reduction data display, and then made conclusion. Data were collected in the order of Basic…

  13. Learning environment simulator: a tool for local decision makers and first responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclaire, Rene J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hirsch, Gary B [CLE, INCORPORATED

    2009-01-01

    The National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) has developed a prototype learning environment simulator (LES) based on the Critical Infrastructure Protection Decision Support System (CIPDSS) infrastructure and scenario models. The LES is designed to engage decision makers at the grass-roots level (local/city/state) to deepen their understanding of an evolving crisis, enhance their intuition and allow them to test their own strategies for events before they occur. An initial version is being developed, centered on a pandemic influenza outbreak and has been successfully tested with a group of hospital administrators and first responders. LES is not a predictive tool but rather a simulated environment allowing the user to experience the complexities of a crisis before it happens. Users can contrast various approaches to the crisis, competing with alternative strategies of their own or other participants. LES is designed to assist decision makers in making informed choices by functionally representing relevant scenarios before they occur, including impacts to critical infrastructures with their interdependencies, and estimating human health & safety and economic impacts. In this paper a brief overview of the underlying models are given followed by a description of the LES, its interface and usage and an overview of the experience testing LES with a group of hospital administrators and first responders. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the work remaining to make LES operational.

  14. Advances in the application of decision theory to test-based decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    This paper reviews recent research in the Netherlands on the application of decision theory to test-based decision making about personnel selection and student placement. The review is based on an earlier model proposed for the classification of decision problems, and emphasizes an empirical

  15. Networking CD-ROMs: The Decision Maker's Guide to Local Area Network Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshami, Ahmed M.

    In an era when patrons want access to CD-ROM resources but few libraries can afford to buy multiple copies, CD-ROM local area networks (LANs) are emerging as a cost-effective way to provide shared access. To help librarians make informed decisions, this manual offers information on: (1) the basics of LANs, a "local area network primer";…

  16. Classifiers based on optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2013-11-25

    Based on dynamic programming approach we design algorithms for sequential optimization of exact and approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage [3, 4]. In this paper, we use optimal rules to construct classifiers, and study two questions: (i) which rules are better from the point of view of classification-exact or approximate; and (ii) which order of optimization gives better results of classifier work: length, length+coverage, coverage, or coverage+length. Experimental results show that, on average, classifiers based on exact rules are better than classifiers based on approximate rules, and sequential optimization (length+coverage or coverage+length) is better than the ordinary optimization (length or coverage).

  17. Classifiers based on optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail; Zielosko, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Based on dynamic programming approach we design algorithms for sequential optimization of exact and approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage [3, 4]. In this paper, we use optimal rules to construct classifiers, and study two questions: (i) which rules are better from the point of view of classification-exact or approximate; and (ii) which order of optimization gives better results of classifier work: length, length+coverage, coverage, or coverage+length. Experimental results show that, on average, classifiers based on exact rules are better than classifiers based on approximate rules, and sequential optimization (length+coverage or coverage+length) is better than the ordinary optimization (length or coverage).

  18. Managing costs, managing benefits: employer decisions in local health care markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Jon B; Trude, Sally

    2003-02-01

    To better understand employer health benefit decision making, how employer health benefits strategies evolve over time, and the impact of employer decisions on local health care systems. Data were collected as part of the Community Tracking Study (CTS), a longitudinal analysis of health system change in 12 randomly selected communities. This is an observational study with data collection over a six-year period. The study used semistructured interviews with local respondents, combined with monitoring of local media, to track changes in health care systems over time and their impact on community residents. Interviewing began in 1996 and was carried out at two-year intervals, with a total of approximately 2,200 interviews. The interviews provided a variety of perspectives on employer decision making concerning health benefits; these perspectives were triangulated to reach conclusions. The tight labor market during the study period was the dominant consideration in employer decision making regarding health benefits. Employers, in managing employee compensation, made independent decisions in pursuit of individual goals, but these decisions were shaped by similar labor market conditions. As a result, within and across our study sites, employer decisions in aggregate had an important impact on local health care systems, although employers' more highly visible public efforts to bring about health system change often met with disappointing results. General economic conditions in the 1990s had an important impact on the configuration of local health systems through their effect on employer decision making regarding health benefits offered to employees, and the responses of health plans and providers to those decisions.

  19. The construction of a decision tool to analyse local demand and local supply for GP care using a synthetic estimation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf-Ruizendaal, Willemijn A; de Bakker, Dinny H

    2013-10-27

    This study addresses the growing academic and policy interest in the appropriate provision of local healthcare services to the healthcare needs of local populations to increase health status and decrease healthcare costs. However, for most local areas information on the demand for primary care and supply is missing. The research goal is to examine the construction of a decision tool which enables healthcare planners to analyse local supply and demand in order to arrive at a better match. National sample-based medical record data of general practitioners (GPs) were used to predict the local demand for GP care based on local populations using a synthetic estimation technique. Next, the surplus or deficit in local GP supply were calculated using the national GP registry. Subsequently, a dynamic internet tool was built to present demand, supply and the confrontation between supply and demand regarding GP care for local areas and their surroundings in the Netherlands. Regression analysis showed a significant relationship between sociodemographic predictors of postcode areas and GP consultation time (F [14, 269,467] = 2,852.24; P 1,000 inhabitants in the Netherlands covering 97% of the total population. Confronting these estimated demand figures with the actual GP supply resulted in the average GP workload and the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) GP too much/too few for local areas to cover the demand for GP care. An estimated shortage of one FTE GP or more was prevalent in about 19% of the postcode areas with >1,000 inhabitants if the surrounding postcode areas were taken into consideration. Underserved areas were mainly found in rural regions. The constructed decision tool is freely accessible on the Internet and can be used as a starting point in the discussion on primary care service provision in local communities and it can make a considerable contribution to a primary care system which provides care when and where people need it.

  20. Measuring agreement between decision support reminders: the cloud vs. the local expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brian Edward; Simonaitis, Linas; Perkins, Susan M; Wright, Adam; Middleton, Blackford

    2014-04-10

    A cloud-based clinical decision support system (CDSS) was implemented to remotely provide evidence-based guideline reminders in support of preventative health. Following implementation, we measured the agreement between preventive care reminders generated by an existing, local CDSS and the new, cloud-based CDSS operating on the same patient visit data. Electronic health record data for the same set of patients seen in primary care were sent to both the cloud-based web service and local CDSS. The clinical reminders returned by both services were captured for analysis. Cohen's Kappa coefficient was calculated to compare the two sets of reminders. Kappa statistics were further adjusted for prevalence and bias due to the potential effects of bias in the CDS logic and prevalence in the relative small sample of patients. The cloud-based CDSS generated 965 clinical reminders for 405 patient visits over 3 months. The local CDSS returned 889 reminders for the same patient visit data. When adjusted for prevalence and bias, observed agreement varied by reminder from 0.33 (95% CI 0.24 - 0.42) to 0.99 (95% CI 0.97 - 1.00) and demonstrated almost perfect agreement for 7 of the 11 reminders. Preventive care reminders delivered by two disparate CDS systems show substantial agreement. Subtle differences in rule logic and terminology mapping appear to account for much of the discordance. Cloud-based CDSS therefore show promise, opening the door for future development and implementation in support of health care providers with limited resources for knowledge management of complex logic and rules.

  1. Proposal optimization in nuclear accident emergency decision based on IAHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Jing

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of establishing the multi-layer structure of nuclear accident emergency decision, several decision objectives are synthetically analyzed, and an optimization model of decision proposals for nuclear accident emergency based on interval analytic hierarchy process is proposed in the paper. The model makes comparisons among several emergency decision proposals quantified, and the optimum proposal is selected out, which solved the uncertain and fuzzy decision problem of judgments by experts' experiences in nuclear accidents emergency decision. Case study shows that the optimization result is much more reasonable, objective and reliable than subjective judgments, and it could be decision references for nuclear accident emergency. (authors)

  2. Optimization of decision rules based on dynamic programming approach

    KAUST Repository

    Zielosko, Beata

    2014-01-14

    This chapter is devoted to the study of an extension of dynamic programming approach which allows optimization of approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage. We introduce an uncertainty measure that is the difference between number of rows in a given decision table and the number of rows labeled with the most common decision for this table divided by the number of rows in the decision table. We fix a threshold γ, such that 0 ≤ γ < 1, and study so-called γ-decision rules (approximate decision rules) that localize rows in subtables which uncertainty is at most γ. Presented algorithm constructs a directed acyclic graph Δ γ T which nodes are subtables of the decision table T given by pairs "attribute = value". The algorithm finishes the partitioning of a subtable when its uncertainty is at most γ. The chapter contains also results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  3. Exchanging environmental information and decision making: developing the local Pilot Environmental Virtual Observatory with stakeholder communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, E.; Beven, K.; Brewer, P.; M, Haygarth, P.; Macklin, M.; Marshall, K.; Quinn, P.; Stutter, M.; Thomas, N.; Wilkinson, M.

    2012-04-01

    Public participation in the development of flood risk management and river basin management plans are explicit components of both the Water Framework and Floods Directives. At the local level, involving communities in land and water management has been found to (i) aid better environmental decision making, (ii) enhance social, economic and environmental benefits, and (iii) increase a sense of ownership. Facilitating the access and exchange of information on the local environment is an important part of this new approach to the land and water management process, which also includes local community stakeholders in decisions about the design and content of the information provided. As part of the Natural Environment Research Council's pilot Environment Virtual Observatory (EVO), the Local Level group are engaging with local community stakeholders in three different catchments in the UK (the rivers Eden, Tarland and Dyfi) to start the process of developing prototype visualisation tools to address the specific land and water management issues identified in each area. Through this local collaboration, we will provide novel visualisation tools through which to communicate complex catchment science outcomes and bring together different sources of environmental data in ways that better meet end-user needs as well as facilitate a far broader participatory approach in environmental decision making. The Local Landscape Visualisation Tools are being evolved iteratively during the project to reflect the needs, interests and capabilities of a wide range of stakeholders. The tools will use the latest concepts and technologies to communicate with and provide opportunities for the provision and exchange of information between the public, government agencies and scientists. This local toolkit will reside within a wider EVO platform that will include national datasets, models and state of the art cloud computer systems. As such, local stakeholder groups are assisting the EVO

  4. Influence of Men’s Personality and Social Support on Treatment Decision-Making for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyse Reamer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Optimal treatment for localized prostate cancer (LPC is controversial. We assessed the effects of personality, specialists seen, and involvement of spouse, family, or friends on treatment decision/decision-making qualities. Methods. We surveyed a population-based sample of men ≤ 75 years with newly diagnosed LPC about treatment choice, reasons for the choice, decision-making difficulty, satisfaction, and regret. Results. Of 160 men (71 black, 89 white, with a mean age of 61 (±7.3 years, 59% chose surgery, 31% chose radiation, and 10% chose active surveillance (AS/watchful waiting (WW. Adjusting for age, race, comorbidity, tumor risk level, and treatment status, men who consulted friends during decision-making were more likely to choose curative treatment (radiation or surgery than WW/AS (OR = 11.1, p<0.01; 8.7, p<0.01. Men who saw a radiation oncologist in addition to a urologist were more likely to choose radiation than surgery (OR = 6.0, p=0.04. Men who consulted family or friends (OR = 2.6, p<0.01; 3.7, p<0.01 experienced greater decision-making difficulty. No personality traits (pessimism, optimism, or faith were associated with treatment choice/decision-making quality measures. Conclusions. In addition to specialist seen, consulting friends increased men’s likelihood of choosing curative treatment. Consulting family or friends increased decision-making difficulty.

  5. Risk-Based Decision Making for Deterioration Processes Using POMDP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for risk-based decision making for maintenance of deteriorating components, based on the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). Unlike most methods, the decision polices do not need to be stationary and can vary according to seasons and near the end...

  6. Introduction of new technologies and decision making processes: a framework to adapt a Local Health Technology Decision Support Program for other local settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Paule; Austen, Lea; Scott, Catherine M; Poulin, Michelle; Gall, Nadine; Seidel, Judy; Lafrenière, René

    2013-01-01

    Introducing new health technologies, including medical devices, into a local setting in a safe, effective, and transparent manner is a complex process, involving many disciplines and players within an organization. Decision making should be systematic, consistent, and transparent. It should involve translating and integrating scientific evidence, such as health technology assessment (HTA) reports, with context-sensitive evidence to develop recommendations on whether and under what conditions a new technology will be introduced. However, the development of a program to support such decision making can require considerable time and resources. An alternative is to adapt a preexisting program to the new setting. We describe a framework for adapting the Local HTA Decision Support Program, originally developed by the Department of Surgery and Surgical Services (Calgary, AB, Canada), for use by other departments. The framework consists of six steps: 1) development of a program review and adaptation manual, 2) education and readiness assessment of interested departments, 3) evaluation of the program by individual departments, 4) joint evaluation via retreats, 5) synthesis of feedback and program revision, and 6) evaluation of the adaptation process. Nine departments revised the Local HTA Decision Support Program and expressed strong satisfaction with the adaptation process. Key elements for success were identified. Adaptation of a preexisting program may reduce duplication of effort, save resources, raise the health care providers' awareness of HTA, and foster constructive stakeholder engagement, which enhances the legitimacy of evidence-informed recommendations for introducing new health technologies. We encourage others to use this framework for program adaptation and to report their experiences.

  7. Rough set and rule-based multicriteria decision aiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Slowinski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of multicriteria decision aiding is to give the decision maker a recommendation concerning a set of objects evaluated from multiple points of view called criteria. Since a rational decision maker acts with respect to his/her value system, in order to recommend the most-preferred decision, one must identify decision maker's preferences. In this paper, we focus on preference discovery from data concerning some past decisions of the decision maker. We consider the preference model in the form of a set of "if..., then..." decision rules discovered from the data by inductive learning. To structure the data prior to induction of rules, we use the Dominance-based Rough Set Approach (DRSA. DRSA is a methodology for reasoning about data, which handles ordinal evaluations of objects on considered criteria and monotonic relationships between these evaluations and the decision. We review applications of DRSA to a large variety of multicriteria decision problems.

  8. Probabilistic Decision Based Block Partitioning for Future Video Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhao; Wang, Shiqi; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Shanshe; Ma, Siwei

    2017-01-01

    , the mode decision problem is casted into a probabilistic framework to select the final partition based on the confidence interval decision strategy. Experimental results show that the proposed CIET algorithm can speed up QTBT block partitioning structure

  9. Applying the balanced scorecard to local public health performance measurement: deliberations and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Erica; d'Entremont, Nadine; Stalker, Shelley; Kurji, Karim; Robinson, Victoria

    2009-05-08

    All aspects of the heath care sector are being asked to account for their performance. This poses unique challenges for local public health units with their traditional focus on population health and their emphasis on disease prevention, health promotion and protection. Reliance on measures of health status provides an imprecise and partial picture of the performance of a health unit. In 2004 the provincial Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences based in Ontario, Canada introduced a public-health specific balanced scorecard framework. We present the conceptual deliberations and decisions undertaken by a health unit while adopting the framework. Posing, pondering and answering key questions assisted in applying the framework and developing indicators. Questions such as: Who should be involved in developing performance indicators? What level of performance should be measured? Who is the primary intended audience? Where and how do we begin? What types of indicators should populate the health status and determinants quadrant? What types of indicators should populate the resources and services quadrant? What type of indicators should populate the community engagement quadrant? What types of indicators should populate the integration and responsiveness quadrants? Should we try to link the quadrants? What comparators do we use? How do we move from a baseline report card to a continuous quality improvement management tool? An inclusive, participatory process was chosen for defining and creating indicators to populate the four quadrants. Examples of indicators that populate the four quadrants of the scorecard are presented and key decisions are highlighted that facilitated the process.

  10. An Intelligent Fleet Condition-Based Maintenance Decision Making Method Based on Multi-Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the demand for condition-based maintenance online decision making among a mission oriented fleet, an intelligent maintenance decision making method based on Multi-agent and heuristic rules is proposed. The process of condition-based maintenance within an aircraft fleet (each containing one or more Line Replaceable Modules based on multiple maintenance thresholds is analyzed. Then the process is abstracted into a Multi-Agent Model, a 2-layer model structure containing host negotiation and independent negotiation is established, and the heuristic rules applied to global and local maintenance decision making is proposed. Based on Contract Net Protocol and the heuristic rules, the maintenance decision making algorithm is put forward. Finally, a fleet consisting of 10 aircrafts on a 3-wave continuous mission is illustrated to verify this method. Simulation results indicate that this method can improve the availability of the fleet, meet mission demands, rationalize the utilization of support resources and provide support for online maintenance decision making among a mission oriented fleet.

  11. Optimal policy for value-based decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Satohiro; Drugowitsch, Jan; Pouget, Alexandre

    2016-08-18

    For decades now, normative theories of perceptual decisions, and their implementation as drift diffusion models, have driven and significantly improved our understanding of human and animal behaviour and the underlying neural processes. While similar processes seem to govern value-based decisions, we still lack the theoretical understanding of why this ought to be the case. Here, we show that, similar to perceptual decisions, drift diffusion models implement the optimal strategy for value-based decisions. Such optimal decisions require the models' decision boundaries to collapse over time, and to depend on the a priori knowledge about reward contingencies. Diffusion models only implement the optimal strategy under specific task assumptions, and cease to be optimal once we start relaxing these assumptions, by, for example, using non-linear utility functions. Our findings thus provide the much-needed theory for value-based decisions, explain the apparent similarity to perceptual decisions, and predict conditions under which this similarity should break down.

  12. Practical risk-based decision making: Good decisions made efficiently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Guthrie, V.; Walker, D.; Singer, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Robotics and Process Systems Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company have teamed with JBF Associates, Inc. to address risk-based robotic planning. The objective of the project is to provide systematic, risk-based relative comparisons of competing alternatives for solving clean-up problems at DOE facilities. This paper presents the methodology developed, describes the software developed to efficiently apply the methodology, and discusses the results of initial applications for DOE. The paper also addresses current work in applying the approach to problems in other industries (including an example from the hydrocarbon processing industry)

  13. San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential" explains how the City of San Jose used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  14. Navigating the boundary of science for decision making at the state and local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Wood, C.; Boland, M. A.; Rose, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific information should play a vital role in many decision making processes, yet issues incorporating geoscience information often arise due to inherent differences between how scientists and decision makers operate. Decision makers and scientists have different priorities, produce work at different rates, and often lack an understanding of each others' institutional constraints. Boundary organizations, entities that facilitate collaboration and information flow across traditional boundaries such as that between scientists and decision makers, are in a unique position to improve the dialogue between disparate groups. The American Geosciences Institute (AGI), a nonprofit federation of 50 geoscience societies and organizations, is linking the geoscience and decision-making communities through its Critical Issues Program. AGI's Critical Issues program has first-hand experience in improving the transfer of information across the science-decision making boundary, particularly in areas pertaining to water resources and hazards. This presentation will focus on how, by collaborating with organizations representing the decision making and geoscience communities to inform our program development, we have created our three main content types - website, webinar series, and research database - to better meet the needs of the decision-making process. The program presents existing geoscience information in a way that makes the interconnected nature of geoscience topics more easily understood, encourages discussion between the scientific and decision-making communities, and has established a trusted source of impartial geoscience information. These efforts have focused on state and local decision makers—groups that increasingly influence climate and risk-related decisions, yet often lack the resources to access and understand geoscience information.

  15. Coevolution Based Adaptive Monte Carlo Localization (CEAMCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Ronghua

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive Monte Carlo localization algorithm based on coevolution mechanism of ecological species is proposed. Samples are clustered into species, each of which represents a hypothesis of the robot's pose. Since the coevolution between the species ensures that the multiple distinct hypotheses can be tracked stably, the problem of premature convergence when using MCL in highly symmetric environments can be solved. And the sample size can be adjusted adaptively over time according to the uncertainty of the robot's pose by using the population growth model. In addition, by using the crossover and mutation operators in evolutionary computation, intra-species evolution can drive the samples move towards the regions where the desired posterior density is large. So a small size of samples can represent the desired density well enough to make precise localization. The new algorithm is termed coevolution based adaptive Monte Carlo localization (CEAMCL. Experiments have been carried out to prove the efficiency of the new localization algorithm.

  16. Modalities of self-managing teams - The "must", "may", "can" and "will" of local decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, E

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the leeway organizations have to develop and design self-managing teams by using a model containing four model verbs: must, may, can and will. ''Must'' refers to the need for local decision making and is considered to be the result of diversity in enviromental demand and

  17. Effect of Wind Farm Noise on Local Residents' Decision to Adopt Mitigation Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Anabela; Arezes, Pedro; Bernardo, Carlos; Dias, Hernâni; Pinto, Lígia M Costa

    2017-07-11

    Wind turbines' noise is frequently pointed out as the reason for local communities' objection to the installation of wind farms. The literature suggests that local residents feel annoyed by such noise and that, in many instances, this is significant enough to make them adopt noise-abatement interventions on their homes. Aiming at characterizing the relationship between wind turbine noise, annoyance, and mitigating actions, we propose a novel conceptual framework. The proposed framework posits that actual sound pressure levels of wind turbines determine individual homes' noise-abatement decisions; in addition, the framework analyzes the role that self-reported annoyance, and perception of noise levels, plays on the relationship between actual noise pressure levels and those decisions. The application of this framework to a particular case study shows that noise perception and annoyance constitutes a link between the two. Importantly, however, noise also directly affects people's decision to adopt mitigating measures, independently of the reported annoyance.

  18. Effect of Wind Farm Noise on Local Residents’ Decision to Adopt Mitigation Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Anabela; Bernardo, Carlos; Dias, Hernâni; Pinto, Lígia M. Costa

    2017-01-01

    Wind turbines’ noise is frequently pointed out as the reason for local communities’ objection to the installation of wind farms. The literature suggests that local residents feel annoyed by such noise and that, in many instances, this is significant enough to make them adopt noise-abatement interventions on their homes. Aiming at characterizing the relationship between wind turbine noise, annoyance, and mitigating actions, we propose a novel conceptual framework. The proposed framework posits that actual sound pressure levels of wind turbines determine individual homes’ noise-abatement decisions; in addition, the framework analyzes the role that self-reported annoyance, and perception of noise levels, plays on the relationship between actual noise pressure levels and those decisions. The application of this framework to a particular case study shows that noise perception and annoyance constitutes a link between the two. Importantly, however, noise also directly affects people’s decision to adopt mitigating measures, independently of the reported annoyance. PMID:28696404

  19. LOCAL BINARIZATION FOR DOCUMENT IMAGES CAPTURED BY CAMERAS WITH DECISION TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Jawas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Character recognition in a document image captured by a digital camera requires a good binary image as the input for the separation the text from the background. Global binarization method does not provide such good separation because of the problem of uneven levels of lighting in images captured by cameras. Local binarization method overcomes the problem but requires a method to partition the large image into local windows properly. In this paper, we propose a local binariation method with dynamic image partitioning using integral image and decision tree for the binarization decision. The integral image is used to estimate the number of line in the document image. The number of line in the document image is used to devide the document into local windows. The decision tree makes a decision for threshold in every local window. The result shows that the proposed method can separate the text from the background better than using global thresholding with the best OCR result of the binarized image is 99.4%. Pengenalan karakter pada sebuah dokumen citra yang diambil menggunakan kamera digital membutuhkan citra yang terbinerisasi dengan baik untuk memisahkan antara teks dengan background. Metode binarisasi global tidak memberikan hasil pemisahan yang bagus karena permasalahan tingkat pencahayaan yang tidak seimbang pada citra hasil kamera digital. Metode binarisasi lokal dapat mengatasi permasalahan tersebut namun metode tersebut membutuhkan metode untuk membagi citra ke dalam bagian-bagian window lokal. Pada paper ini diusulkan sebuah metode binarisasi lokal dengan pembagian citra secara dinamis menggunakan integral image dan decision tree untuk keputusan binarisasi lokalnya. Integral image digunakan untuk mengestimasi jumlah baris teks dalam dokumen citra. Jumlah baris tersebut kemudian digunakan untuk membagi citra dokumen ke dalam window lokal. Keputusan nilai threshold untuk setiap window lokal ditentukan dengan decisiontree. Hasilnya menunjukkan

  20. Choosing to Work? Mothers Return-to-Work Decisions, Social Class, and the Local Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Sihto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the ways in which social class shapes the return-to-work decisions of Finnish working-class and middle-class mothers, and how these decisions are structured by the constraints and opportunities mothers face in the local labor market. The focus of the study is in the local labor market of the city of Jyväskylä. The data consist of two semi-structured focus group interviews of 14 employed mothers of below school-age children. Using the framework of “gendered moral rationalities,” the study shows that there are similarities in mothers’ experiences, while the structural constraints mothers faced when deciding about the timing of returning back to work differ. The analysis highlights that the differences were not only dependent on social class but also on the situation in the local labor market. For working-class mothers, the most crucial issue was the financial strain that their staying at home caused to their families. For middle-class mothers, finding employment opportunities that would match their educational qualifications in the local labor market had been challenging, which affected their timing of returning back to work. The paper concludes that local labor market plays an important role in mother’s return-to-work decisions and should be explored further in differing geographical contexts.

  1. What is a “good” treatment decision?: Decisional control, knowledge, treatment decision-making, and quality of life in men with clinically localized prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orom, Heather; Biddle, Caitlin; Underwood, Willie; Nelson, Christian J.; Homish, D. Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Objective We explored whether active patient involvement in decision making and greater patient knowledge are associated with better treatment decision making experiences and better quality of life (QOL) among men with clinically localized prostate cancer. Localized prostate cancer treatment decision-making is an advantageous model for studying patient treatment decision-making dynamics as there are multiple treatment options and a lack of empirical evidence to recommend one over the other; consequently, it is recommended that patients be fully involved in making the decision. Methods Men with newly diagnosed clinically localized prostate cancer (N=1529) completed measures of decisional control, prostate cancer knowledge, and their decision-making experience (decisional conflict, and decision-making satisfaction and difficulty) shortly after they made their treatment decision. Prostate cancer-specific QOL was assessed 6-months after treatment. Results More active involvement in decision making and greater knowledge were associated with lower decisional conflict and higher decision-making satisfaction, but greater decision-making difficulty. An interaction between decisional control and knowledge revealed that greater knowledge was only associated with greater difficulty for men actively involved in making the decision (67% of sample). Greater knowledge, but not decisional control predicted better QOL 6-months post-treatment. Conclusion Although men who are actively involved in decision making and more knowledgeable may make more informed decisions, they could benefit from decisional support (e.g., decision-making aids, emotional support from providers, strategies for reducing emotional distress) to make the process easier. Men who were more knowledgeable about prostate cancer and treatment side effects at the time they made their treatment decision may have appraised their QOL as higher because they had realistic expectations about side effects. PMID:26957566

  2. Bringing the Consumer Back in—The Motives, Perceptions, and Values behind Consumers and Rural Tourists’ Decision to Buy Local and Localized Artisan Food—A Swedish Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Rytkönen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the motivational factors behind consumers’ and tourists’ decisions to buy local artisan cheese in Jämtland (Sweden. Empirically, the case itself diverts from the typical Franco-Mediterranean case in which both the actions of producers and consumers are embedded in historical, long-term culinary traditions and territorial features, nor is it the typical farmers’ market or another market-driven direct produce system. The main purpose is to shed light on the motivational factors behind the purchasing decision of consumers and tourists by studying the attributes that consumers embody in the products. The article is based on two consumer surveys/short interviews, the first conducted in June 2012 and the second in February 2017. The results were tested against/related to the wider local food discussion conceptualized through four types of attributes. Namely, intrinsic and extrinsic attributes; post-modernity and environmental attributes; geographical and territorial attributes; and local and rural development attributes. The results in this article clearly show that consumers value a combination of different attributes from both market-driven direct produce systems and close typicity systems. Therefore, the construction of proximity from the point of view of the consumer can be derived from a complex set of attributes and motivational factors not normally highlighted in the localized food discussion.

  3. Modeling Based Decision Support Environment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phoenix Integration's vision is the creation of an intuitive human-in-the-loop engineering environment called Decision Navigator that leverages recent advances in...

  4. Anytime decision making based on unconstrained influence diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luque, Manuel; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2016-01-01

    . This paper addresses this problem by proposing an anytime algorithm that at any time provides a qualified recommendation for the first decisions of the problem. The algorithm performs a heuristic-based search in a decision tree representation of the problem. We provide a framework for analyzing......Unconstrained influence diagrams extend the language of influence diagrams to cope with decision problems in which the order of the decisions is unspecified. Thus, when solving an unconstrained influence diagram we not only look for an optimal policy for each decision, but also for a so-called step......-policy specifying the next decision given the observations made so far. However, due to the complexity of the problem, temporal constraints can force the decision maker to act before the solution algorithm has finished, and, in particular, before an optimal policy for the first decision has been computed...

  5. Landmark based localization in urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaozhi; Soheilian, Bahman; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2018-06-01

    A landmark based localization with uncertainty analysis based on cameras and geo-referenced landmarks is presented in this paper. The system is developed to adapt different camera configurations for six degree-of-freedom pose estimation. Local bundle adjustment is applied for optimization and the geo-referenced landmarks are integrated to reduce the drift. In particular, the uncertainty analysis is taken into account. On the one hand, we estimate the uncertainties of poses to predict the precision of localization. On the other hand, uncertainty propagation is considered for matching, tracking and landmark registering. The proposed method is evaluated on both KITTI benchmark and the data acquired by a mobile mapping system. In our experiments, decimeter level accuracy can be reached.

  6. Strategy community development based on local resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirinawati; Prabawati, I.; Pradana, G. W.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of progressing regions is not far from economic problems and is often caused by the inability of the regions in response to changes in economic conditions that occur, so the need for community development programs implemented to solve various problems. Improved community effort required with the real conditions and needs of each region. Community development based on local resources process is very important, because it is an increase in human resource capability in the optimal utilization of local resource potential. In this case a strategy is needed in community development based on local resources. The community development strategy are as follows:(1) “Eight Line Equalization Plus” which explains the urgency of rural industrialization, (2) the construction of the village will be more successful when combining strategies are tailored to regional conditions, (3) the escort are positioning themselves as the Planner, supervisor, information giver, motivator, facilitator, connecting at once evaluators.

  7. Treatment decision-making strategies and influences in patients with localized prostate carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, Clement K; Pow-Sang, Julio; Seigne, John; Heysek, Randy; Helal, Mohamed; Shade, Kristin; Cantor, Alan; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2005-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with localized prostate carcinoma need to interpret complicated medical information to make an informed treatment selection from among treatments that have comparable efficacy but differing side effects. The authors reported initial results for treatment decision-making strategies among men receiving definitive treatment for localized prostate carcinoma. One hundred nineteen men treated with radical prostatectomy (44%) or brachytherapy (56%) consented to participate. Guided by a cognitive-affective theoretic framework, the authors assessed differences in decision-making strategies, and treatment and disease-relevant beliefs and affects, in addition to demographic and clinical variables. Approximately half of patients reported difficulty (49%) and distress (45%) while making treatment decisions, but no regrets (74%) regarding the treatment choice they made. Patients who underwent prostatectomy were younger, were more likely to be employed, had worse tumor grade, and had a shorter time since diagnosis (P Decision-making aids or other interventions to reduce decisional difficulty and emotional distress during decision making were indicated.

  8. Global analysis of dynamical decision-making models through local computation around the hidden saddle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Trotta

    Full Text Available Bistable dynamical switches are frequently encountered in mathematical modeling of biological systems because binary decisions are at the core of many cellular processes. Bistable switches present two stable steady-states, each of them corresponding to a distinct decision. In response to a transient signal, the system can flip back and forth between these two stable steady-states, switching between both decisions. Understanding which parameters and states affect this switch between stable states may shed light on the mechanisms underlying the decision-making process. Yet, answering such a question involves analyzing the global dynamical (i.e., transient behavior of a nonlinear, possibly high dimensional model. In this paper, we show how a local analysis at a particular equilibrium point of bistable systems is highly relevant to understand the global properties of the switching system. The local analysis is performed at the saddle point, an often disregarded equilibrium point of bistable models but which is shown to be a key ruler of the decision-making process. Results are illustrated on three previously published models of biological switches: two models of apoptosis, the programmed cell death and one model of long-term potentiation, a phenomenon underlying synaptic plasticity.

  9. Health decision making: lynchpin of evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    Health decision making is both the lynchpin and the least developed aspect of evidence-based practice. The evidence-based practice process requires integrating the evidence with consideration of practical resources and patient preferences and doing so via a process that is genuinely collaborative. Yet, the literature is largely silent about how to accomplish integrative, shared decision making. for evidence-based practice are discussed for 2 theories of clinician decision making (expected utility and fuzzy trace) and 2 theories of patient health decision making (transtheoretical model and reasoned action). Three suggestions are offered. First, it would be advantageous to have theory-based algorithms that weight and integrate the 3 data strands (evidence, resources, preferences) in different decisional contexts. Second, patients, not providers, make the decisions of greatest impact on public health, and those decisions are behavioral. Consequently, theory explicating how provider-patient collaboration can influence patient lifestyle decisions made miles from the provider's office is greatly needed. Third, although the preponderance of data on complex decisions supports a computational approach, such an approach to evidence-based practice is too impractical to be widely applied at present. More troublesomely, until patients come to trust decisions made computationally more than they trust their providers' intuitions, patient adherence will remain problematic. A good theory of integrative, collaborative health decision making remains needed.

  10. Applying the balanced scorecard to local public health performance measurement: deliberations and decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurji Karim

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All aspects of the heath care sector are being asked to account for their performance. This poses unique challenges for local public health units with their traditional focus on population health and their emphasis on disease prevention, health promotion and protection. Reliance on measures of health status provides an imprecise and partial picture of the performance of a health unit. In 2004 the provincial Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences based in Ontario, Canada introduced a public-health specific balanced scorecard framework. We present the conceptual deliberations and decisions undertaken by a health unit while adopting the framework. Discussion Posing, pondering and answering key questions assisted in applying the framework and developing indicators. Questions such as: Who should be involved in developing performance indicators? What level of performance should be measured? Who is the primary intended audience? Where and how do we begin? What types of indicators should populate the health status and determinants quadrant? What types of indicators should populate the resources and services quadrant? What type of indicators should populate the community engagement quadrant? What types of indicators should populate the integration and responsiveness quadrants? Should we try to link the quadrants? What comparators do we use? How do we move from a baseline report card to a continuous quality improvement management tool? Summary An inclusive, participatory process was chosen for defining and creating indicators to populate the four quadrants. Examples of indicators that populate the four quadrants of the scorecard are presented and key decisions are highlighted that facilitated the process.

  11. Risk-based decision analysis for groundwater operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document proposes a streamlined approach and methodology for performing risk assessment in support of interim remedial measure (IRM) decisions involving the remediation of contaminated groundwater on the Hanford Site. This methodology, referred to as ''risk-based decision analysis,'' also supports the specification of target cleanup volumes and provides a basis for design and operation of the groundwater remedies. The risk-based decision analysis can be completed within a short time frame and concisely documented. The risk-based decision analysis is more versatile than the qualitative risk assessment (QRA), because it not only supports the need for IRMs, but also provides criteria for defining the success of the IRMs and provides the risk-basis for decisions on final remedies. For these reasons, it is proposed that, for groundwater operable units, the risk-based decision analysis should replace the more elaborate, costly, and time-consuming QRA

  12. Entropy based fingerprint for local crystalline order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggi, Pablo M.; Parrinello, Michele

    2017-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprint that allows distinguishing between liquid-like and solid-like atomic environments. This fingerprint is based on an approximate expression for the entropy projected on individual atoms. When combined with local enthalpy, this fingerprint acquires an even finer resolution and it is capable of discriminating between different crystal structures.

  13. Information integration in perceptual and value-based decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Tsetsos, K.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the psychology and neuroscience of simple, evidence-based choices has led to an impressive progress in capturing the underlying mental processes as optimal mechanisms that make the fastest decision for a specified accuracy. The idea that decision-making is an optimal process stands in contrast with findings in more complex, motivation-based decisions, focussed on multiple goals with trade-offs. Here, a number of paradoxical and puzzling choice behaviours have been r...

  14. Reconciliation of Decision-Making Heuristics Based on Decision Trees Topologies and Incomplete Fuzzy Probabilities Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubravsky, Karel; Dohnal, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Complex decision making tasks of different natures, e.g. economics, safety engineering, ecology and biology, are based on vague, sparse, partially inconsistent and subjective knowledge. Moreover, decision making economists / engineers are usually not willing to invest too much time into study of complex formal theories. They require such decisions which can be (re)checked by human like common sense reasoning. One important problem related to realistic decision making tasks are incomplete data sets required by the chosen decision making algorithm. This paper presents a relatively simple algorithm how some missing III (input information items) can be generated using mainly decision tree topologies and integrated into incomplete data sets. The algorithm is based on an easy to understand heuristics, e.g. a longer decision tree sub-path is less probable. This heuristic can solve decision problems under total ignorance, i.e. the decision tree topology is the only information available. But in a practice, isolated information items e.g. some vaguely known probabilities (e.g. fuzzy probabilities) are usually available. It means that a realistic problem is analysed under partial ignorance. The proposed algorithm reconciles topology related heuristics and additional fuzzy sets using fuzzy linear programming. The case study, represented by a tree with six lotteries and one fuzzy probability, is presented in details.

  15. Reconciliation of Decision-Making Heuristics Based on Decision Trees Topologies and Incomplete Fuzzy Probabilities Sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Doubravsky

    Full Text Available Complex decision making tasks of different natures, e.g. economics, safety engineering, ecology and biology, are based on vague, sparse, partially inconsistent and subjective knowledge. Moreover, decision making economists / engineers are usually not willing to invest too much time into study of complex formal theories. They require such decisions which can be (rechecked by human like common sense reasoning. One important problem related to realistic decision making tasks are incomplete data sets required by the chosen decision making algorithm. This paper presents a relatively simple algorithm how some missing III (input information items can be generated using mainly decision tree topologies and integrated into incomplete data sets. The algorithm is based on an easy to understand heuristics, e.g. a longer decision tree sub-path is less probable. This heuristic can solve decision problems under total ignorance, i.e. the decision tree topology is the only information available. But in a practice, isolated information items e.g. some vaguely known probabilities (e.g. fuzzy probabilities are usually available. It means that a realistic problem is analysed under partial ignorance. The proposed algorithm reconciles topology related heuristics and additional fuzzy sets using fuzzy linear programming. The case study, represented by a tree with six lotteries and one fuzzy probability, is presented in details.

  16. eHealth Literacy and Partner Involvement in Treatment Decision Making for Men With Newly Diagnosed Localized Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lixin; Tatum, Kimberly; Greene, Giselle; Chen, Ronald C

    2017-03-01

    To examine how the eHealth literacy of partners of patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer affects their involvement in decision making, and to identify the factors that influence their eHealth literacy.
. Cross-sectional exploratory study.
. North Carolina.
. 142 partners of men with newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer. 
. A telephone survey and descriptive and multiple linear regression analyses were used.
. The partners' eHealth literacy, involvement in treatment decision making, and demographics, and the health statuses of the patients and their partners. 
. Higher levels of eHealth literacy among partners were significantly associated with their involvement in getting a second opinion, their awareness of treatment options, and the size of the social network they relied on for additional information and support for treatment decision making for prostate cancer. The factor influencing eHealth literacy was the partners' access to the Internet for personal use, which explained some of the variance in eHealth literacy.
. This study described how partners' eHealth literacy influenced their involvement in treatment decision making for prostate cancer and highlighted the influencing factors (i.e., partners' access to the Internet for personal use).
. When helping men with prostate cancer and their partners with treatment decision making, nurses need to assess eHealth literacy levels to determine whether nonelectronically based education materials are needed and to provide clear instructions on how to use eHealth resources.

  17. Fiber Bragg grating based arterial localization device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Li, Weijie; Razavi, Mehdi; Song, Gangbing

    2017-06-01

    A critical first step to many surgical procedures is locating and gaining access to a patients vascular system. Vascular access allows the deployment of other surgical instruments and also the monitoring of many physiological parameters. Current methods to locate blood vessels are predominantly based on the landmark technique coupled with ultrasound, fluoroscopy, or Doppler. However, even with experience and technological assistance, locating the required blood vessel is not always an easy task, especially with patients that present atypical anatomy or suffer from conditions such as weak pulsation or obesity that make vascular localization difficult. With recent advances in fiber optic sensors, there is an opportunity to develop a new tool that can make vascular localization safer and easier. In this work, the authors present a new fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based vascular access device that specializes in arterial localization. The device estimates the location towards a local artery based on the bending of a needle inserted near the tissue surrounding the artery. Experimental results obtained from an artificial circulatory loop and a mock artery show the device works best for lower angles of needle insertion and can provide an approximately 40° range of estimation towards the location of a pulsating source (e.g. an artery).

  18. Evidence-based surgery: Dissemination, communication, decision aids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Surgeons are expected to make treatment decisions that are based on the best available evidence. Moreover, they are called to recognise that important decisions should also be shared with patients. While dissemination of evidence-based surgery and communication of evidence to patients have been

  19. Local Orientation and the Evolution of Foraging: Changes in Decision Making Can Eliminate Evolutionary Trade-offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Post, Daniel J.; Semmann, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Information processing is a major aspect of the evolution of animal behavior. In foraging, responsiveness to local feeding opportunities can generate patterns of behavior which reflect or “recognize patterns” in the environment beyond the perception of individuals. Theory on the evolution of behavior generally neglects such opportunity-based adaptation. Using a spatial individual-based model we study the role of opportunity-based adaptation in the evolution of foraging, and how it depends on local decision making. We compare two model variants which differ in the individual decision making that can evolve (restricted and extended model), and study the evolution of simple foraging behavior in environments where food is distributed either uniformly or in patches. We find that opportunity-based adaptation and the pattern recognition it generates, plays an important role in foraging success, particularly in patchy environments where one of the main challenges is “staying in patches”. In the restricted model this is achieved by genetic adaptation of move and search behavior, in light of a trade-off on within- and between-patch behavior. In the extended model this trade-off does not arise because decision making capabilities allow for differentiated behavioral patterns. As a consequence, it becomes possible for properties of movement to be specialized for detection of patches with more food, a larger scale information processing not present in the restricted model. Our results show that changes in decision making abilities can alter what kinds of pattern recognition are possible, eliminate an evolutionary trade-off and change the adaptive landscape. PMID:21998571

  20. Science-based natural resource management decisions: what are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.J. Mills; T.M. Quigley; F.J. Everest

    2001-01-01

    While many people interested in natural resources management propose science-based decisions, it is not clear what “science-based” means. Science-based decisions are those that result from the full and complete consideration of the relevant science information. We offer five guidelines to focus the scientist’s contributions to science-based decisionmaking and use the...

  1. Parallel constraint satisfaction in memory-based decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöckner, Andreas; Hodges, Sara D

    2011-01-01

    Three studies sought to investigate decision strategies in memory-based decisions and to test the predictions of the parallel constraint satisfaction (PCS) model for decision making (Glöckner & Betsch, 2008). Time pressure was manipulated and the model was compared against simple heuristics (take the best and equal weight) and a weighted additive strategy. From PCS we predicted that fast intuitive decision making is based on compensatory information integration and that decision time increases and confidence decreases with increasing inconsistency in the decision task. In line with these predictions we observed a predominant usage of compensatory strategies under all time-pressure conditions and even with decision times as short as 1.7 s. For a substantial number of participants, choices and decision times were best explained by PCS, but there was also evidence for use of simple heuristics. The time-pressure manipulation did not significantly affect decision strategies. Overall, the results highlight intuitive, automatic processes in decision making and support the idea that human information-processing capabilities are less severely bounded than often assumed.

  2. A Game-Chain-Based Approach for Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    An, Tingyu; Watanabe, tsunami

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, with the rapid development of information society, decision-making problems become more and more complicated especially in large scale systems such as infrastructure, environmental and industrial fields, which are usually accompanied by psychological competition between involved parties in a complicated, uncertain and dynamic situation. From a holistic perspective of system, a specific decision-making method which is described as game-chain-based decision making has been proposed in...

  3. Validating the predictions of case-based decision theory

    OpenAIRE

    Radoc, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Real-life decision-makers typically do not know all possible outcomes arising from alternative courses of action. Instead, when people face a problem, they may rely on the recollection of their past personal experience: the situation, the action taken, and the accompanying consequence. In addition, the applicability of a past experience in decision-making may depend on how similar the current problem is to situations encountered previously. Case-based decision theory (CBDT), proposed by Itzha...

  4. CUDT: A CUDA Based Decision Tree Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win-Tsung Lo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision tree is one of the famous classification methods in data mining. Many researches have been proposed, which were focusing on improving the performance of decision tree. However, those algorithms are developed and run on traditional distributed systems. Obviously the latency could not be improved while processing huge data generated by ubiquitous sensing node in the era without new technology help. In order to improve data processing latency in huge data mining, in this paper, we design and implement a new parallelized decision tree algorithm on a CUDA (compute unified device architecture, which is a GPGPU solution provided by NVIDIA. In the proposed system, CPU is responsible for flow control while the GPU is responsible for computation. We have conducted many experiments to evaluate system performance of CUDT and made a comparison with traditional CPU version. The results show that CUDT is 5∼55 times faster than Weka-j48 and is 18 times speedup than SPRINT for large data set.

  5. Feasibility of web-based decision aids in neurological patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Til, Janine Astrid; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Renzenbrink, Gerbert J.; Snoek, Govert J.; Dijkstra, Evelien; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2010-01-01

    Decision aids (DAs) may be helpful in improving patients' participation in medical decision-making. We investigated the potential for web-based DAs in a rehabilitation population. Two self-administered DAs focused on the treatment of acquired ankle-foot impairment in stroke and the treatment of

  6. School-Based Decision-Making: The Canadian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Frank

    1997-01-01

    In Canada, school-based decision making is a political expedient to co-opt public support for public education at the same time as financial resources to schools are being curtailed. School councils are advisory in nature and have no statutory position in either school or school-system decisions. (17 references) (MLF)

  7. Accrual based accounting implementation: An approach for modelling major decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Ratno Agriyanto; Abdul Rohman; Dwi Ratmono; Imam Ghozali

    2016-01-01

    Over the last three decades the main issues of implementation of accrual based accounting government institutions in Indonesia. Implementation of accrual based accounting in government institutions amid debate about the usefulness of accounting information for decision-making. Empirical study shows that the accrual based of accounting information on a government institution is not used for decision making. The research objective was to determine the impact of the implementation of the accrual...

  8. Protocol-based care: the standardisation of decision-making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Fontenla, Marina; Seers, Kate; Bick, Debra

    2009-05-01

    To explore how protocol-based care affects clinical decision-making. In the context of evidence-based practice, protocol-based care is a mechanism for facilitating the standardisation of care and streamlining decision-making through rationalising the information with which to make judgements and ultimately decisions. However, whether protocol-based care does, in the reality of practice, standardise decision-making is unknown. This paper reports on a study that explored the impact of protocol-based care on nurses' decision-making. Theoretically informed by realistic evaluation and the promoting action on research implementation in health services framework, a case study design using ethnographic methods was used. Two sites were purposively sampled; a diabetic and endocrine unit and a cardiac medical unit. Within each site, data collection included observation, postobservation semi-structured interviews with staff and patients, field notes, feedback sessions and document review. Data were inductively and thematically analysed. Decisions made by nurses in both sites were varied according to many different and interacting factors. While several standardised care approaches were available for use, in reality, a variety of information sources informed decision-making. The primary approach to knowledge exchange and acquisition was person-to-person; decision-making was a social activity. Rarely were standardised care approaches obviously referred to; nurses described following a mental flowchart, not necessarily linked to a particular guideline or protocol. When standardised care approaches were used, it was reported that they were used flexibly and particularised. While the logic of protocol-based care is algorithmic, in the reality of clinical practice, other sources of information supported nurses' decision-making process. This has significant implications for the political goal of standardisation. The successful implementation and judicious use of tools such as

  9. The administrative protection of local planning authorities against decisions on a higher level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, R.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses governmental planning that influences local planning's scope of organization and limits local sovereinty which is established as a guarantee for local self-government. Those conflicts occurr in the case of country planning, various specific plans (such as road construction an tower and country planning, nature conservation and landscape planning), and planning permits (decisions to establish new plans according to civil air regulations and permits according to atomic law). Then the author describes the possibilities of legal protection in the case of an action for avoidance which he illustrates with some conflicting cases, laying special emphasis on the right of action of a community, and on the justification of the action for avoidance. (HSCH) [de

  10. Local School Board Members Need Quality Public Information That Informs Decisions, Empowers Action. Don't Make Decisions in the Dark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Local school board members need to be able to access and use high-quality data to make good decisions. Often this data is collected and stored locally, but information that is publicly reported by the state can provide additional value. Most state public reporting is designed to serve information needs, and are geared toward compliance with state…

  11. A local authority view of the Sizewell B decision and the role of the public enquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayre, D.

    1987-01-01

    The background to the Sizewell-B public inquiry is presented. The local authorities are important in this as it was they who first received the Central Electricity Generating Board's request to build Sizewell-B and who triggered the need for a Public Inquiry. The local authorities did not object in principle to the use of the Sizewell site for additional nuclear power generation provided the Government was satisfied that there was a national need for the extra capacity. In future inquiries there might not be acceptance in principle which would change the nature of the Inquiry. The local authority involvement in the public inquiry is discussed under the headings: need and economics, safety and local environment issues. The relevant parts of the Sizewell-B report are considered. The Secretary of State's decision, which follows the Inspector's report, justifies the confidence put in the inquiry process by the local authorities. Concern is expressed, however, that extra financial help is needed to pay for the local authorities expenditure on the Inquiry and also for the consequences of the Sizewell-B project itself. (U.K.)

  12. Decision-Based Design Integrating Consumer Preferences into Engineering Design

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Wassenaar, Henk Jan

    2013-01-01

    Building upon the fundamental principles of decision theory, Decision-Based Design: Integrating Consumer Preferences into Engineering Design presents an analytical approach to enterprise-driven Decision-Based Design (DBD) as a rigorous framework for decision making in engineering design.  Once the related fundamentals of decision theory, economic analysis, and econometrics modelling are established, the remaining chapters describe the entire process, the associated analytical techniques, and the design case studies for integrating consumer preference modeling into the enterprise-driven DBD framework. Methods for identifying key attributes, optimal design of human appraisal experiments, data collection, data analysis, and demand model estimation are presented and illustrated using engineering design case studies. The scope of the chapters also provides: •A rigorous framework of integrating the interests from both producer and consumers in engineering design, •Analytical techniques of consumer choice model...

  13. Barcode based localization system in indoor environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Ilkovičová

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in the era of intelligent buildings, there is a need to create indoornavigation systems, what is steadily a challenge. QR (Quick Response codesprovide accurate localization also in indoor environment, where other navigationtechniques (e.g. GPS are not available. The paper deals with the issues of posi-tioning using QR codes, solved at the Department of Surveying, Faculty of CivilEngineering SUT in Bratislava. Operating principle of QR codes, description ofthe application for positioning in indoor environment based on OS Android forsmartphones are described.

  14. A decision support system-based procedure for evaluation and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with an overview of the web-based Decision Support System (DSS) developed to facilitate its wide adop- tion. .... contributes significant catchment management and water supply functions .... experience in engagement and facilitation methods.

  15. Multi-robot Cooperation Behavior Decision Based on Psychological Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian JIANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The method based on psychology concept has been proved to be a successful tool used for human-robot interaction. But its related research in multi-robot cooperation has remained scarce until recent studies. To solve the problem, a decision-making mechanism based on psychological values is presented to be regarded as the basis of the multi-robot cooperation. Robots give birth to psychological values based on the estimations of environment, teammates and themselves. The mapping relationship between psychological values and cooperation tendency threshold values is set up with artificial neural network. Robots can make decision on the bases of these threshold values in cooperation scenes. Experiments show that the multi-robot cooperation method presented in the paper not only can ensure the rationality of robots’ decision-making, but also can ensure the speediness of robots’ decision-making.

  16. SADA: Ecological Risk Based Decision Support System for Selective Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is freeware that implements terrestrial ecological risk assessment and yields a selective remediation design using its integral geographical information system, based on ecological and risk assessment inputs. Selective remediation ...

  17. Permutation based decision making under fuzzy environment using Tabu search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bashiri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the techniques, which are used for Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM is the permutation. In the classical form of permutation, it is assumed that weights and decision matrix components are crisp. However, when group decision making is under consideration and decision makers could not agree on a crisp value for weights and decision matrix components, fuzzy numbers should be used. In this article, the fuzzy permutation technique for MCDM problems has been explained. The main deficiency of permutation is its big computational time, so a Tabu Search (TS based algorithm has been proposed to reduce the computational time. A numerical example has illustrated the proposed approach clearly. Then, some benchmark instances extracted from literature are solved by proposed TS. The analyses of the results show the proper performance of the proposed method.

  18. Validating evidence based decision making in health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nüssler, Emil Karl; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak

    Surgeons who perform prolapse surgeries face the dilemma of choosing to use mesh, with its assumed benefits, and the risks associated with mesh. In this paper, we examine whether decisions to use mesh is evidence based. Based on data of 30,398 patients from the Swedish National Quality Register o...... are highly influenced by the geographical placement of surgeons. Therfore, decisions to use mesh are boundedly rationality, rather than rational.......Surgeons who perform prolapse surgeries face the dilemma of choosing to use mesh, with its assumed benefits, and the risks associated with mesh. In this paper, we examine whether decisions to use mesh is evidence based. Based on data of 30,398 patients from the Swedish National Quality Register...... of Gynecological Surgery we examine factors related to decisions to use mesh. Our results indicate that decisions to use mesh are not evidence based, and cannot be explained neither by FDA safety communications, nor by medical conditions usually assumed to predict its usage. Instead, decisions to use mesh...

  19. Financial Management and Control for Decision Making in Urban Local Bodies in India Using Statistical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sidhakam; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam

    2010-10-01

    The council of most of the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) has a limited scope for decision making in the absence of appropriate financial control mechanism. The information about expected amount of own fund during a particular period is of great importance for decision making. Therefore, in this paper, efforts are being made to present set of findings and to establish a model of estimating receipts of own sources and payments thereof using multiple regression analysis. Data for sixty months from a reputed ULB in West Bengal have been considered for ascertaining the regression models. This can be used as a part of financial management and control procedure by the council to estimate the effect on own fund. In our study we have considered two models using multiple regression analysis. "Model I" comprises of total adjusted receipt as the dependent variable and selected individual receipts as the independent variables. Similarly "Model II" consists of total adjusted payments as the dependent variable and selected individual payments as independent variables. The resultant of Model I and Model II is the surplus or deficit effecting own fund. This may be applied for decision making purpose by the council.

  20. Decision support based on process mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Burstein, F.; Holsapple, C.W.

    2008-01-01

    Process mining techniques allow for the analysis of business processes based on event logs. For example, the audit trails of a workflow management system, the transaction logs of an enterprise resource planning system, and the electronic patient records in a hospital can be used to discover models

  1. Bases for Decisions on Final Disposal in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avolahti, Jaana

    2001-01-01

    The disposal of the spent nuclear fuel is approaching one of the significant milestones in Finland. Social debate on the nuclear waste management is going on aiming at a decision of principle on future directions of spent fuel management. The research so far has required no political decision. This current situation is preceded by preparations for two decades carried out by Posiva Oy who took over the programme managed earlier by Teollisuuden Voinia Oy, one of the country's nuclear power companies. The preparations comprise site investigations, technical concept development, research into long-term safety and an environmental impact assessment. The work carried out by Posiva is under regular assessment by the authorities. Research programmes are drawn up every year and reports are published for open review. The preparations in the next years to come aim at starting the construction of the repository in 2010 and the disposal operations are planned to be started in 2020. Various stakeholders in Finland are involved in the decision-making process on the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The process started when Posiva as an implementer applied for the Government's Decision in Principle in 1999. The Government made a favourable decision in December 2000 on the basis of different considerations. Among the important bases were the preceding favourable decisions made by the proposed siting municipality and the regulatory authority for radiation safety. At the moment the members of the Parliament are discussing the principles of the disposal in order to be able to vote on the Government's decision in the springtime. This paper discusses similarities and differences between the decisions made so far as regards the deep repository. The objective is to present the significance of the decisions from the point of view of an implementer of the repository. The Decision in Principle does not give any consent to start constructing the repository. Licenses for construction and

  2. Accrual based accounting implementation: An approach for modelling major decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratno Agriyanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades the main issues of implementation of accrual based accounting government institutions in Indonesia. Implementation of accrual based accounting in government institutions amid debate about the usefulness of accounting information for decision-making. Empirical study shows that the accrual based of accounting information on a government institution is not used for decision making. The research objective was to determine the impact of the implementation of the accrual based accounting to the accrual basis of accounting information use for decision-making basis. We used the survey questionnaires. The data were processed by SEM using statistical software WarpPLS. The results showed that the implementation of the accrual based accounting in City Government Semarang has significantly positively associated with decision-making. Another important finding is the City Government officials of Semarang have personality, low tolerance of ambiguity is a negative effect on the relationship between the implementation of the accrual based accounting for decision making

  3. Tactical decision games - developing scenario-based training for decision-making in distributed teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauche, K.; Crichton, M.; Bayerl, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Team training should reflect the increasing complexity of decision-making environments. Guidelines for scenario-based training were adopted for a distributed setting and tested in a pilot training session with a distributed team in the offshore oil industry. Participants valued the scenario as

  4. Improvements to Air Force Strategic Basing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    24th Air Force need to have locations in Silicon 36 Valley or Northern Virginia to draw on the existing cyber industrial bases. Similarly, an issue...cross valuation . Cross valuation results in a simpler model than if GBM were allowed to run until it achieved a perfect fit. In ten-fold cross... valuation , the dataset is randomly split into ten mutually exclusive subsets. The model is fit on nine-tenths of the data, and that model is used to 62

  5. Decision Making under Uncertainty: A Neural Model based on Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh P N Rao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem faced by animals is learning to select actions based on noisy sensory information and incomplete knowledge of the world. It has been suggested that the brain engages in Bayesian inference during perception but how such probabilistic representations are used to select actions has remained unclear. Here we propose a neural model of action selection and decision making based on the theory of partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs. Actions are selected based not on a single optimal estimate of state but on the posterior distribution over states (the belief state. We show how such a model provides a unified framework for explaining experimental results in decision making that involve both information gathering and overt actions. The model utilizes temporal difference (TD learning for maximizing expected reward. The resulting neural architecture posits an active role for the neocortex in belief computation while ascribing a role to the basal ganglia in belief representation, value computation, and action selection. When applied to the random dots motion discrimination task, model neurons representing belief exhibit responses similar to those of LIP neurons in primate neocortex. The appropriate threshold for switching from information gathering to overt actions emerges naturally during reward maximization. Additionally, the time course of reward prediction error in the model shares similarities with dopaminergic responses in the basal ganglia during the random dots task. For tasks with a deadline, the model learns a decision making strategy that changes with elapsed time, predicting a collapsing decision threshold consistent with some experimental studies. The model provides a new framework for understanding neural decision making and suggests an important role for interactions between the neocortex and the basal ganglia in learning the mapping between probabilistic sensory representations and actions that maximize

  6. EEG feature selection method based on decision tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lijuan; Ge, Hui; Ma, Wei; Miao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to solve automated feature selection problem in brain computer interface (BCI). In order to automate feature selection process, we proposed a novel EEG feature selection method based on decision tree (DT). During the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal processing, a feature extraction method based on principle component analysis (PCA) was used, and the selection process based on decision tree was performed by searching the feature space and automatically selecting optimal features. Considering that EEG signals are a series of non-linear signals, a generalized linear classifier named support vector machine (SVM) was chosen. In order to test the validity of the proposed method, we applied the EEG feature selection method based on decision tree to BCI Competition II datasets Ia, and the experiment showed encouraging results.

  7. Episodic memories predict adaptive value-based decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu; FeldmanHall, Oriel; Hunter, Lindsay E.; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Davachi, Lila

    2016-01-01

    Prior research illustrates that memory can guide value-based decision-making. For example, previous work has implicated both working memory and procedural memory (i.e., reinforcement learning) in guiding choice. However, other types of memories, such as episodic memory, may also influence decision-making. Here we test the role for episodic memory—specifically item versus associative memory—in supporting value-based choice. Participants completed a task where they first learned the value associated with trial unique lotteries. After a short delay, they completed a decision-making task where they could choose to re-engage with previously encountered lotteries, or new never before seen lotteries. Finally, participants completed a surprise memory test for the lotteries and their associated values. Results indicate that participants chose to re-engage more often with lotteries that resulted in high versus low rewards. Critically, participants not only formed detailed, associative memories for the reward values coupled with individual lotteries, but also exhibited adaptive decision-making only when they had intact associative memory. We further found that the relationship between adaptive choice and associative memory generalized to more complex, ecologically valid choice behavior, such as social decision-making. However, individuals more strongly encode experiences of social violations—such as being treated unfairly, suggesting a bias for how individuals form associative memories within social contexts. Together, these findings provide an important integration of episodic memory and decision-making literatures to better understand key mechanisms supporting adaptive behavior. PMID:26999046

  8. Integrating Design Decision Management with Model-based Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    Design decisions are continuously made during the development of software systems and are important artifacts for design documentation. Dedicated decision management systems are often used to capture such design knowledge. Most such systems are, however, separated from the design artifacts...... of the system. In model-based software development, where design models are used to develop a software system, outcomes of many design decisions have big impact on design models. The realization of design decisions is often manual and tedious work on design models. Moreover, keeping design models consistent......, or by ignoring the causes. This substitutes manual reviews to some extent. The concepts, implemented in a tool, have been validated with design patterns, refactorings, and domain level tests that comprise a replay of a real project. This proves the applicability of the solution to realistic examples...

  9. Modular Architecture for Integrated Model-Based Decision Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebel, Jan; Schreiber, Erik; Oeser, Alexander; Oeltze-Jafra, Steffen

    2018-01-01

    Model-based decision support systems promise to be a valuable addition to oncological treatments and the implementation of personalized therapies. For the integration and sharing of decision models, the involved systems must be able to communicate with each other. In this paper, we propose a modularized architecture of dedicated systems for the integration of probabilistic decision models into existing hospital environments. These systems interconnect via web services and provide model sharing and processing capabilities for clinical information systems. Along the lines of IHE integration profiles from other disciplines and the meaningful reuse of routinely recorded patient data, our approach aims for the seamless integration of decision models into hospital infrastructure and the physicians' daily work.

  10. Effort-Based Decision-Making in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbreth, Adam J; Moran, Erin K; Barch, Deanna M

    2018-08-01

    Motivational impairment has long been associated with schizophrenia but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Recently, a small but growing literature has suggested that aberrant effort-based decision-making may be a potential contributory mechanism for motivational impairments in psychosis. Specifically, multiple reports have consistently demonstrated that individuals with schizophrenia are less willing than healthy controls to expend effort to obtain rewards. Further, this effort-based decision-making deficit has been shown to correlate with severity of negative symptoms and level of functioning, in many but not all studies. In the current review, we summarize this literature and discuss several factors that may underlie aberrant effort-based decision-making in schizophrenia.

  11. Securing Localization With Hidden and Mobile Base Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Srivastava, Mani; Cagalj, Mario

    2006-01-01

    localization based on hidden and mobile base stations. Our approach enables secure localization with a broad spectrum of localization techniques: ultrasonic or radio, based on received signal strength or signal time of flight. Through several examples we show how this approach can be used to secure nodecentric...

  12. Modelling and simulation-based acquisition decision support: present & future

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Naidoo1_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 24551 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Naidoo1_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Modelling & Simulation...-Based Acquisition Decision Support: Present & Future Shahen Naidoo Abstract The Ground Based Air Defence System (GBADS) Programme, of the South African Army has been applying modelling and simulation (M&S) to provide acquisition decision and doctrine...

  13. Promotion of technical harmonisation on risk-based decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchsteiger, Christian; Cojazzi, Giacomo

    2000-01-01

    The EC-JRC International Workshop on Promotion of Technical Harmonisation on Risk-Based Decision Making, held at Stresa and Ispra, Italy, 22-25 May 2000, was an experts meeting to discuss the possible need of developing an internationally accepted generic 'standard' for risk-based decision making.This paper briefly describes the workshop background, its organisation and summarises its main results and conclusions; it reflects the personal opinions of the authors and in no way commits the European Commission. (author)

  14. Iris Template Protection Based on Local Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics have been widely studied in recent years, and they are increasingly employed in real-world applications. Meanwhile, a number of potential threats to the privacy of biometric data arise. Iris template protection demands that the privacy of iris data should be protected when performing iris recognition. According to the international standard ISO/IEC 24745, iris template protection should satisfy the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. However, existing works about iris template protection demonstrate that it is difficult to satisfy the three privacy requirements simultaneously while supporting effective iris recognition. In this paper, we propose an iris template protection method based on local ranking. Specifically, the iris data are first XORed (Exclusive OR operation with an application-specific string; next, we divide the results into blocks and then partition the blocks into groups. The blocks in each group are ranked according to their decimal values, and original blocks are transformed to their rank values for storage. We also extend the basic method to support the shifting strategy and masking strategy, which are two important strategies for iris recognition. We demonstrate that the proposed method satisfies the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. Experimental results on typical iris datasets (i.e., CASIA-IrisV3-Interval, CASIA-IrisV4-Lamp, UBIRIS-V1-S1, and MMU-V1 show that the proposed method could maintain the recognition performance while protecting the privacy of iris data.

  15. Seminal Quality Prediction Using Clustering-Based Decision Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of seminal quality with statistical learning tools is an emerging methodology in decision support systems in biomedical engineering and is very useful in early diagnosis of seminal patients and selection of semen donors candidates. However, as is common in medical diagnosis, seminal quality prediction faces the class imbalance problem. In this paper, we propose a novel supervised ensemble learning approach, namely Clustering-Based Decision Forests, to tackle unbalanced class learning problem in seminal quality prediction. Experiment results on real fertility diagnosis dataset have shown that Clustering-Based Decision Forests outperforms decision tree, Support Vector Machines, random forests, multilayer perceptron neural networks and logistic regression by a noticeable margin. Clustering-Based Decision Forests can also be used to evaluate variables’ importance and the top five important factors that may affect semen concentration obtained in this study are age, serious trauma, sitting time, the season when the semen sample is produced, and high fevers in the last year. The findings could be helpful in explaining seminal concentration problems in infertile males or pre-screening semen donor candidates.

  16. Decision aid use during post-biopsy consultations for localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Srikanth, Akshay; Henry, Stephen G; Langford, Aisha; Rovner, David R; Fagerlin, Angela

    2018-02-01

    Decision Aids (DAs) effectively translate medical evidence for patients but are not routinely used in clinical practice. Little is known about how DAs are used during patient-clinician encounters. To characterize the content and communicative function of high-quality DAs during diagnostic clinic visits for prostate cancer. 252 men newly diagnosed with localized prostate cancer who had received a DA, 45 treating physicians at 4 US Veterans Administration urology clinics. Qualitative analysis of transcribed audio recordings was used to inductively develop categories capturing content and function of all direct references to DAs (booklet talk). The presence or absence of any booklet talk per transcript was also calculated. Booklet talk occurred in 55% of transcripts. Content focused on surgical procedures (36%); treatment choice (22%); and clarifying risk classification (17%). The most common function of booklet talk was patient corroboration of physicians' explanations (42%), followed by either physician or patient acknowledgement that the patient had the booklet. Codes reflected the absence of DA use for shared decision-making. In regression analysis, predictors of booklet talk were fewer years of patient education (P = .027) and more time in the encounter (P = .027). Patient race, DA type, time reading the DA, physician informing quality and physician age did not predict booklet talk. Results show that good decision aids, systematically provided to patients, appeared to function not to open up deliberations about how to balance benefits and harms of competing treatments, but rather to allow patients to ask narrow technical questions about recommended treatments. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Research-based-decision-making in Canadian health organizations: a behavioural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jbilou, Jalila; Amara, Nabil; Landry, Réjean

    2007-06-01

    Decision making in Health sector is affected by a several elements such as economic constraints, political agendas, epidemiologic events, managers' values and environment... These competing elements create a complex environment for decision making. Research-Based-Decision-Making (RBDM) offers an opportunity to reduce the generated uncertainty and to ensure efficacy and efficiency in health administrations. We assume that RBDM is dependant on decision makers' behaviour and the identification of the determinants of this behaviour can help to enhance research results utilization in health sector decision making. This paper explores the determinants of RBDM as a personal behaviour among managers and professionals in health administrations in Canada. From the behavioural theories and the existing literature, we build a model measuring "RBDM" as an index based on five items. These items refer to the steps accomplished by a decision maker while developing a decision which is based on evidence. The determinants of RBDM behaviour are identified using data collected from 942 health care decision makers in Canadian health organizations. Linear regression is used to model the behaviour RBDM. Determinants of this behaviour are derived from Triandis Theory and Bandura's construct "self-efficacy." The results suggest that to improve research use among managers in Canadian governmental health organizations, strategies should focus on enhancing exposition to evidence through facilitating communication networks, partnerships and links between researchers and decision makers, with the key long-term objective of developing a culture that supports and values the contribution that research can make to decision making in governmental health organizations. Nevertheless, depending on the organizational level, determinants of RBDM are different. This difference has to be taken into account if RBDM adoption is desired. Decision makers in Canadian health organizations (CHO) can help to build

  18. Influence of branding on preference-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philiastides, Marios G; Ratcliff, Roger

    2013-07-01

    Branding has become one of the most important determinants of consumer choices. Intriguingly, the psychological mechanisms of how branding influences decision making remain elusive. In the research reported here, we used a preference-based decision-making task and computational modeling to identify which internal components of processing are affected by branding. We found that a process of noisy temporal integration of subjective value information can model preference-based choices reliably and that branding biases are explained by changes in the rate of the integration process itself. This result suggests that branding information and subjective preference are integrated into a single source of evidence in the decision-making process, thereby altering choice behavior.

  19. Launching a virtual decision lab: development and field-testing of a web-based patient decision support research platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Aubri S; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary A; Tosteson, Anna N A; O'Connor, Annette M; Volk, Robert J; Tomek, Ivan M; Andrews, Steven B; Bartels, Stephen J

    2014-12-12

    Over 100 trials show that patient decision aids effectively improve patients' information comprehension and values-based decision making. However, gaps remain in our understanding of several fundamental and applied questions, particularly related to the design of interactive, personalized decision aids. This paper describes an interdisciplinary development process for, and early field testing of, a web-based patient decision support research platform, or virtual decision lab, to address these questions. An interdisciplinary stakeholder panel designed the web-based research platform with three components: a) an introduction to shared decision making, b) a web-based patient decision aid, and c) interactive data collection items. Iterative focus groups provided feedback on paper drafts and online prototypes. A field test assessed a) feasibility for using the research platform, in terms of recruitment, usage, and acceptability; and b) feasibility of using the web-based decision aid component, compared to performance of a videobooklet decision aid in clinical care. This interdisciplinary, theory-based, patient-centered design approach produced a prototype for field-testing in six months. Participants (n = 126) reported that: the decision aid component was easy to use (98%), information was clear (90%), the length was appropriate (100%), it was appropriately detailed (90%), and it held their interest (97%). They spent a mean of 36 minutes using the decision aid and 100% preferred using their home/library computer. Participants scored a mean of 75% correct on the Decision Quality, Knowledge Subscale, and 74 out of 100 on the Preparation for Decision Making Scale. Completing the web-based decision aid reduced mean Decisional Conflict scores from 31.1 to 19.5 (p development of a web-based patient decision support research platform that was feasible for use in research studies in terms of recruitment, acceptability, and usage. Within this platform, the web-based

  20. Ignorance- versus evidence-based decision making: a decision time analysis of the recognition heuristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Pohl, Rüdiger F

    2009-09-01

    According to part of the adaptive toolbox notion of decision making known as the recognition heuristic (RH), the decision process in comparative judgments-and its duration-is determined by whether recognition discriminates between objects. By contrast, some recently proposed alternative models predict that choices largely depend on the amount of evidence speaking for each of the objects and that decision times thus depend on the evidential difference between objects, or the degree of conflict between options. This article presents 3 experiments that tested predictions derived from the RH against those from alternative models. All experiments used naturally recognized objects without teaching participants any information and thus provided optimal conditions for application of the RH. However, results supported the alternative, evidence-based models and often conflicted with the RH. Recognition was not the key determinant of decision times, whereas differences between objects with respect to (both positive and negative) evidence predicted effects well. In sum, alternative models that allow for the integration of different pieces of information may well provide a better account of comparative judgments. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Tactical decision games - developing scenario-based training for decision-making in distributed teams

    OpenAIRE

    Lauche, K.; Crichton, M.; Bayerl, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Team training should reflect the increasing complexity of decision-making environments. Guidelines for scenario-based training were adopted for a distributed setting and tested in a pilot training session with a distributed team in the offshore oil industry. Participants valued the scenario as challenging and useful, but also highlighted problems of distributed communication. The findings were used to improve the training as well as current use of the technology in the organisation. Research ...

  2. Barriers to and Facilitators of Evidence-Based Decision Making at the Point of Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann S. O’Malley MD, MPH

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physicians vary widely in how they treat some health conditions, despite strong evidence favoring certain treatments over others. We examined physicians’ perspectives on factors that support or hinder evidence-based decisions and the implications for delivery systems, payers, and policymakers. Methods: We used Choosing Wisely ® recommendations to create four clinical vignettes for common types of decisions. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 specialists to identify factors that support or hinder evidence-based decisions. We examined these factors using a conceptual framework that includes six levels: patients, physicians, practice sites, organizations, networks and hospital affiliations, and the local market. In this model, population characteristics and payer and regulatory factors interact to influence decisions. Results: Patient openness to behavior modification and expectations, facilitated and hindered physicians in making evidence-based recommendations. Physicians’ communication skills were the most commonly mentioned facilitator. Practice site, organization, and hospital system barriers included measures of emergency department throughput, the order in which test options are listed in electronic health records (EHR, lack of relevant decision support in EHRs, and payment incentives that maximize billing and encourage procedures rather than medical management or counseling patients on behavior change. Factors from different levels interacted to undermine evidence-based care. Most physicians received billing feedback, but quality metrics on evidence-based service use were nonexistent for the four decisions in this study. Conclusions and Implications: Additional research and quality improvement may help to modify delivery systems to overcome barriers at multiple levels. Enhancing provider communication skills, improving decision support in EHRs, modifying workflows, and refining the design and interpretation of

  3. Perceptual decision neurosciences: a model-based review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.J.; van Maanen, L.; Forstmann, B.U.

    2014-01-01

    In this review we summarize findings published over the past 10 years focusing on the neural correlates of perceptual decision-making. Importantly, this review highlights only studies that employ a model-based approach, i.e., they use quantitative cognitive models in combination with neuroscientific

  4. Technical Note: Application of Decision Theory Based Criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical Note: Application of Decision Theory Based Criteria for Structural Appraisal of a Building during Construction. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... reliability of concrete in a structure during construction, a case study of laboratory block for College of Continuing Education, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

  5. Data-Based Decision Making in Teams: Enablers and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Erik; Schildkamp, Kim; Voogt, Joke

    2016-01-01

    Data use is becoming more important in higher education. In this case study, a team of teachers from a teacher education college was supported in data-based decision making by means of the data team procedure. This data team studied the reasons why students drop out. A team's success depends in part on whether the team is able to develop and apply…

  6. Ethical Decisions in Experience-Based Training and Development Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Michael A.; Wurdinger, Scott

    1993-01-01

    Illustrates how principle and virtue ethics can be applied to decision-making processes in experience-based training and development programs. Principle ethics is guided by predetermined rules and assumes that issues being examined are somewhat similar in context, whereas virtue ethics assumes that "correct behavior" is determined from…

  7. Multicriteria decision-making method based on a cosine similarity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the cosine similarity measure is often used in information retrieval, citation analysis, and automatic classification. However, it scarcely deals with trapezoidal fuzzy information and multicriteria decision-making problems. For this purpose, a cosine similarity measure between trapezoidal fuzzy numbers is proposed based on ...

  8. ADDIS: A decision support system for evidence-based medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Valkenhoef (Gert); T. Tervonen (Tommi); T. Zwinkels (Tijs); B. de Brock (Bert); H.L. Hillege (Hans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractClinical trials are the main source of information for the efficacy and safety evaluation of medical treatments. Although they are of pivotal importance in evidence-based medicine, there is a lack of usable information systems providing data-analysis and decision support capabilities for

  9. Model based decision support for planning of road maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, Aart; Worm, J.M.; Worm, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this article we describe a Decision Support Model, based on Operational Research methods, for the multi-period planning of maintenance of bituminous pavements. This model is a tool for the road manager to assist in generating an optimal maintenance plan for a road. Optimal means: minimising the

  10. Risk Decision Making Based on Decision-theoretic Rough Set: A Three-way View Decision Model

    OpenAIRE

    Huaxiong Li; Xianzhong Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Rough set theory has witnessed great success in data mining and knowledge discovery, which provides a good support for decision making on a certain data. However, a practical decision problem always shows diversity under the same circumstance according to different personality of the decision makers. A simplex decision model can not provide a full description on such diverse decisions. In this article, a review of Pawlak rough set models and probabilistic rough set models is presented, and a ...

  11. An Isometric Mapping Based Co-Location Decision Tree Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Wei, J.; Zhou, X.; Zhang, R.; Huang, W.; Sha, H.; Chen, J.

    2018-05-01

    Decision tree (DT) induction has been widely used in different pattern classification. However, most traditional DTs have the disadvantage that they consider only non-spatial attributes (ie, spectral information) as a result of classifying pixels, which can result in objects being misclassified. Therefore, some researchers have proposed a co-location decision tree (Cl-DT) method, which combines co-location and decision tree to solve the above the above-mentioned traditional decision tree problems. Cl-DT overcomes the shortcomings of the existing DT algorithms, which create a node for each value of a given attribute, which has a higher accuracy than the existing decision tree approach. However, for non-linearly distributed data instances, the euclidean distance between instances does not reflect the true positional relationship between them. In order to overcome these shortcomings, this paper proposes an isometric mapping method based on Cl-DT (called, (Isomap-based Cl-DT), which is a method that combines heterogeneous and Cl-DT together. Because isometric mapping methods use geodetic distances instead of Euclidean distances between non-linearly distributed instances, the true distance between instances can be reflected. The experimental results and several comparative analyzes show that: (1) The extraction method of exposed carbonate rocks is of high accuracy. (2) The proposed method has many advantages, because the total number of nodes, the number of leaf nodes and the number of nodes are greatly reduced compared to Cl-DT. Therefore, the Isomap -based Cl-DT algorithm can construct a more accurate and faster decision tree.

  12. AN ISOMETRIC MAPPING BASED CO-LOCATION DECISION TREE ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Decision tree (DT induction has been widely used in different pattern classification. However, most traditional DTs have the disadvantage that they consider only non-spatial attributes (ie, spectral information as a result of classifying pixels, which can result in objects being misclassified. Therefore, some researchers have proposed a co-location decision tree (Cl-DT method, which combines co-location and decision tree to solve the above the above-mentioned traditional decision tree problems. Cl-DT overcomes the shortcomings of the existing DT algorithms, which create a node for each value of a given attribute, which has a higher accuracy than the existing decision tree approach. However, for non-linearly distributed data instances, the euclidean distance between instances does not reflect the true positional relationship between them. In order to overcome these shortcomings, this paper proposes an isometric mapping method based on Cl-DT (called, (Isomap-based Cl-DT, which is a method that combines heterogeneous and Cl-DT together. Because isometric mapping methods use geodetic distances instead of Euclidean distances between non-linearly distributed instances, the true distance between instances can be reflected. The experimental results and several comparative analyzes show that: (1 The extraction method of exposed carbonate rocks is of high accuracy. (2 The proposed method has many advantages, because the total number of nodes, the number of leaf nodes and the number of nodes are greatly reduced compared to Cl-DT. Therefore, the Isomap -based Cl-DT algorithm can construct a more accurate and faster decision tree.

  13. Simulation-based decision support for evaluating operational plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe simulation-based decision support techniques for evaluation of operational plans within effects-based planning. Using a decision support tool, developers of operational plans are able to evaluate thousands of alternative plans against possible courses of events and decide which of these plans are capable of achieving a desired end state. The objective of this study is to examine the potential of a decision support system that helps operational analysts understand the consequences of numerous alternative plans through simulation and evaluation. Operational plans are described in the effects-based approach to operations concept as a set of actions and effects. For each action, we examine several different alternative ways to perform the action. We use a representation where a plan consists of several actions that should be performed. Each action may be performed in one of several different alternative ways. Together these action alternatives make up all possible plan instances, which are represented as a tree of action alternatives that may be searched for the most effective sequence of alternative actions. As a test case, we use an expeditionary operation with a plan of 43 actions and several alternatives for these actions, as well as a scenario of 40 group actors. Decision support for planners is provided by several methods that analyze the impact of a plan on the 40 actors, e.g., by visualizing time series of plan performance. Detailed decision support for finding the most influential actions of a plan is presented by using sensitivity analysis and regression tree analysis. Finally, a decision maker may use the tool to determine the boundaries of an operation that it must not move beyond without risk of drastic failure. The significant contribution of this study is the presentation of an integrated approach for evaluation of operational plans.

  14. Local and global trust based on the concept of promises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.; Burgess, M.

    2009-01-01

    We use the notion of a promise to define local trust between agents possessing autonomous decision-making. An agent is trustworthy if it is expected that it will keep a promise. This definition satisfies most commonplace meanings of trust. Reputation is then an estimation of this expectation value

  15. How normative interpretations of climate risk assessment affect local decision-making: an exploratory study at the city scale in Cork, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, T. K. J.; Surminski, S.

    2018-06-01

    Urban areas already suffer substantial losses in both economic and human terms from climate-related disasters. These losses are anticipated to grow substantially, in part as a result of the impacts of climate change. In this paper, we investigate the process of translating climate risk data into action for the city level. We apply a commonly used decision-framework as our backdrop and explore where in this process climate risk assessment and normative political judgements intersect. We use the case of flood risk management in Cork city in Ireland to investigate what is needed for translating risk assessment into action at the local city level. Evidence presented is based on focus group discussions at two stakeholder workshops, and a series of individual meetings and phone-discussions with stakeholders involved in local decision-making related to flood risk management and adaptation to climate change, in Ireland. Respondents were chosen on the basis of their expertise or involvement in the decision-making processes locally and nationally. Representatives of groups affected by flood risk and flood risk management and climate adaptation efforts were also included. The Cork example highlights that, despite ever more accurate data and an increasing range of theoretical approaches available to local decision-makers, it is the normative interpretation of this information that determines what action is taken. The use of risk assessments for decision-making is a process that requires normative decisions, such as setting `acceptable risk levels' and identifying `adequate' protection levels, which will not succeed without broader buy-in and stakeholder participation. Identifying and embracing those normative views up-front could strengthen the urban adaptation process-this may, in fact, turn out to be the biggest advantage of climate risk assessment: it offers an opportunity to create a shared understanding of the problem and enables an informed evaluation and discussion of

  16. Analytical evaluation of computer-based decision aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for evaluating decision aids for nuclear power plant operators. The method involves a two-stage process of classification and analytical evaluation of display form and content. The classification scheme relates each specific aid to one or more general decision-making tasks. Evaluation then proceeds using a normative top-down design process based on the classification scheme by determining or deducing how various design issues associated with this process were resolved by the designer. The result is an assessment of the ''understandability'' of the aid as well as identification of the training and display features necessary to ensure understandability. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Data warehouse based decision support system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadinic, B.

    2004-01-01

    Safety is an important element in business decision making processes in nuclear power plants. Information about component reliability, structures and systems, data recorded during the nuclear power plant's operation and outage periods, as well as experiences from other power plants are located in different database systems throughout the power plant. It would be possible to create a decision support system which would collect data, transform it into a standardized form and store it in a single location in a format more suitable for analyses and knowledge discovery. This single location where the data would be stored would be a data warehouse. Such data warehouse based decision support system could help make decision making processes more efficient by providing more information about business processes and predicting possible consequences of different decisions. Two main functionalities in this decision support system would be an OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing) and a data mining system. An OLAP system would enable the users to perform fast, simple and efficient multidimensional analysis of existing data and identify trends. Data mining techniques and algorithms would help discover new, previously unknown information from the data as well as hidden dependencies between various parameters. Data mining would also enable analysts to create relevant prediction models that could predict behaviour of different systems during operation and inspection results during outages. The basic characteristics and theoretical foundations of such decision support system are described and the reasons for choosing a data warehouse as the underlying structure are explained. The article analyzes obvious business benefits of such system as well as potential uses of OLAP and data mining technologies. Possible implementation methodologies and problems that may arise, especially in the field of data integration, are discussed and analyzed.(author)

  18. Uncertainty Analysis of Coupled Socioeconomic-Cropping Models: Building Confidence in Climate Change Decision-Support Tools for Local Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, J. J.; Rojas, M.; Adamowski, J. F.; Gálvez, J.; Tuy, H. A.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.

    2015-12-01

    While cropping models represent the biophysical aspects of agricultural systems, system dynamics modelling offers the possibility of representing the socioeconomic (including social and cultural) aspects of these systems. The two types of models can then be coupled in order to include the socioeconomic dimensions of climate change adaptation in the predictions of cropping models.We develop a dynamically coupled socioeconomic-biophysical model of agricultural production and its repercussions on food security in two case studies from Guatemala (a market-based, intensive agricultural system and a low-input, subsistence crop-based system). Through the specification of the climate inputs to the cropping model, the impacts of climate change on the entire system can be analysed, and the participatory nature of the system dynamics model-building process, in which stakeholders from NGOs to local governmental extension workers were included, helps ensure local trust in and use of the model.However, the analysis of climate variability's impacts on agroecosystems includes uncertainty, especially in the case of joint physical-socioeconomic modelling, and the explicit representation of this uncertainty in the participatory development of the models is important to ensure appropriate use of the models by the end users. In addition, standard model calibration, validation, and uncertainty interval estimation techniques used for physically-based models are impractical in the case of socioeconomic modelling. We present a methodology for the calibration and uncertainty analysis of coupled biophysical (cropping) and system dynamics (socioeconomic) agricultural models, using survey data and expert input to calibrate and evaluate the uncertainty of the system dynamics as well as of the overall coupled model. This approach offers an important tool for local decision makers to evaluate the potential impacts of climate change and their feedbacks through the associated socioeconomic system.

  19. H.264 SVC Complexity Reduction Based on Likelihood Mode Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC was prolonged to Scalable Video Coding (SVC. SVC executes in different electronics gadgets such as personal computer, HDTV, SDTV, IPTV, and full-HDTV in which user demands various scaling of the same content. The various scaling is resolution, frame rate, quality, heterogeneous networks, bandwidth, and so forth. Scaling consumes more encoding time and computational complexity during mode selection. In this paper, to reduce encoding time and computational complexity, a fast mode decision algorithm based on likelihood mode decision (LMD is proposed. LMD is evaluated in both temporal and spatial scaling. From the results, we conclude that LMD performs well, when compared to the previous fast mode decision algorithms. The comparison parameters are time, PSNR, and bit rate. LMD achieve time saving of 66.65% with 0.05% detriment in PSNR and 0.17% increment in bit rate compared with the full search method.

  20. H.264 SVC Complexity Reduction Based on Likelihood Mode Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, L; Thyagharajan, K K

    2015-01-01

    H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC) was prolonged to Scalable Video Coding (SVC). SVC executes in different electronics gadgets such as personal computer, HDTV, SDTV, IPTV, and full-HDTV in which user demands various scaling of the same content. The various scaling is resolution, frame rate, quality, heterogeneous networks, bandwidth, and so forth. Scaling consumes more encoding time and computational complexity during mode selection. In this paper, to reduce encoding time and computational complexity, a fast mode decision algorithm based on likelihood mode decision (LMD) is proposed. LMD is evaluated in both temporal and spatial scaling. From the results, we conclude that LMD performs well, when compared to the previous fast mode decision algorithms. The comparison parameters are time, PSNR, and bit rate. LMD achieve time saving of 66.65% with 0.05% detriment in PSNR and 0.17% increment in bit rate compared with the full search method.

  1. Health technology assessment, value-based decision making, and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshall, Chris; Schuller, Tara

    2013-10-01

    Identifying treatments that offer value and value for money is becoming increasingly important, with interest in how health technology assessment (HTA) and decision makers can take appropriate account of what is of value to patients and to society, and in the relationship between innovation and assessments of value. This study summarizes points from an Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) Policy Forum discussion, drawing on presentations, discussions among attendees, and background papers. Various perspectives on value were considered; most place patient health at the core of value. Wider elements of value comprise other benefits for: patients; caregivers; the health and social care systems; and society. Most decision-making systems seek to take account of similar elements of value, although they are assessed and combined in different ways. Judgment in decisions remains important and cannot be replaced by mathematical approaches. There was discussion of the value of innovation and of the effects of value assessments on innovation. Discussion also included moving toward "progressive health system decision making," an ongoing process whereby evidence-based decisions on use would be made at various stages in the technology lifecycle. Five actions are identified: (i) development of a general framework for the definition and assessment of value; development by HTA/coverage bodies and regulators of (ii) disease-specific guidance and (iii) further joint scientific advice for industry on demonstrating value; (iv) development of a framework for progressive licensing, usage, and reimbursement; and (v) promoting work to better adapt HTA, coverage, and procurement approaches to medical devices.

  2. Proposal of a Holistic Model to Support Local-Level Evidence-Based Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Shahtahmasebi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to a central drive for evidence-based practice, there have been many research support schemes, setups, and other practices concentrating on facilitating access to external research, such as the Centre for Evidence Based Healthcare Aotearoa, the Cochrane Collaboration, and the York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Very little attention has been paid to supporting internal research in terms of local evidence and internal research capabilities. The whole evidence-based practice movement has alienated internal decision makers and, thus, very little progress has been made in the context of evidence informing local policy formation. Health and social policies are made centrally based on dubious claims and often evidence is sought after implementation. For example, on record, most health care practitioners appear to agree with the causal link between depression and mental illness (sometimes qualified with other social factors with suicide; off the record, even some psychiatrists doubt that such a link is applicable to the population as a whole. Therefore, be it through misplaced loyalty or a lack of support for internal researchers/decision makers, local evidence informing local decision making may have been ignored in favour of external evidence. In this paper, we present a practical holistic model to support local evidence-based decision making. This approach is more relevant in light of a new approach to primary health care of “local knowledge” complementing external evidence. One possible outcome would be to network with other regional programmes around the world to share information and identify “best” practices, such as the “Stop Youth Suicide Campaign”(www.stopyouthsuicide.com.

  3. Integrated Case Based and Rule Based Reasoning for Decision Support

    OpenAIRE

    Eshete, Azeb Bekele

    2009-01-01

    This project is a continuation of my specialization project which was focused on studying theoretical concepts related to case based reasoning method, rule based reasoning method and integration of them. The integration of rule-based and case-based reasoning methods has shown a substantial improvement with regards to performance over the individual methods. Verdande Technology As wants to try integrating the rule based reasoning method with an existing case based system. This project focu...

  4. Infrared Beacons based Localization of Mobile Robot

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejsa, Jiří; Věchet, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 1 (2012), s. 17-22 ISSN 1392-1215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : mobile robot localization * extended Kalman filter * autonomous mobile robot Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.411, year: 2012 http://www.eejournal.ktu.lt/index.php/elt/article/view/1046

  5. The Environmental Advisory Service (EASe): a decision support system for comprehensive screening of local land-use development proposals and comparative evaluation of proposed land-use plans

    OpenAIRE

    K P White; A P Sage; F A Rodammer; C T Peters

    1985-01-01

    The Environmental Advisory Service (EASe) is a decision support system which can provide assistance to local planning agencies in selecting land-development alternatives or in formulating land-use plans. EASe offers a comprehensive and consistent procedure for rating either a development proposal or a proposed plan. This procedure is based upon qualitative assessments of the impact of developments or plans on the natural environment, zoning and land use. public and private services, transport...

  6. Agent-Based Modeling of Consumer Decision making Process Based on Power Distance and Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozmand, O.; Ghasem-Aghaee, N.; Hofstede, G.J.; Nematbakhsh, M.A.; Baraani, A.; Verwaart, T.

    2011-01-01

    Simulating consumer decision making processes involves different disciplines such as: sociology, social psychology, marketing, and computer science. In this paper, we propose an agent-based conceptual and computational model of consumer decision-making based on culture, personality and human needs.

  7. Multiple Attribute Decision Making Based on Cross-Evaluation with Uncertain Decision Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple attribute decision making (MADM problem is one of the most common and popular research fields in the theory of decision science. A variety of methods have been proposed to deal with such problems. Nevertheless, many of them assumed that attribute weights are determined by different types of additional preference information which will result in subjective decision making. In order to solve such problems, in this paper, we propose a novel MADM approach based on cross-evaluation with uncertain parameters. Specifically, the proposed approach assumes that all attribute weights are uncertain. It can overcome the drawback in prior research that the alternatives’ ranking may be determined by a single attribute with an overestimated weight. In addition, the proposed method can also balance the mean and deviation of each alternative’s cross-evaluation score to guarantee the stability of evaluation. Then, this method is extended to a more generalized situation where the attribute values are also uncertain. Finally, we illustrate the applicability of the proposed method by revisiting two reported studies and by a case study on the selection of community service companies in the city of Hefei in China.

  8. To Share or Not to Share: Malaysian Healthcare Professionals' Views on Localized Prostate Cancer Treatment Decision Making Roles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Kong Lee

    Full Text Available To explore the views of Malaysian healthcare professionals (HCPs on stakeholders' decision making roles in localized prostate cancer (PCa treatment.Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted with HCPs treating PCa. Data was analysed using a thematic approach. Four in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted between December 2012 and March 2013 using a topic guide. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically.The participants comprised private urologists (n = 4, government urologists (n = 6, urology trainees (n = 6, government policy maker (n = 1 and oncologists (n = 3. HCP perceptions of the roles of the three parties involved (HCPs, patients, family included: HCP as the main decision maker, HCP as a guide to patients' decision making, HCP as a facilitator to family involvement, patients as main decision maker and patient prefers HCP to decide. HCPs preferred to share the decision with patients due to equipoise between prostate treatment options. Family culture was important as family members often decided on the patient's treatment due to Malaysia's close-knit family culture.A range of decision making roles were reported by HCPs. It is thus important that stakeholder roles are clarified during PCa treatment decisions. HCPs need to cultivate an awareness of sociocultural norms and family dynamics when supporting non-Western patients in making decisions about PCa.

  9. To Share or Not to Share: Malaysian Healthcare Professionals' Views on Localized Prostate Cancer Treatment Decision Making Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yew Kong; Lee, Ping Yein; Cheong, Ai Theng; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Ong, Teng Aik; Razack, Azad Hassan Abdul

    2015-01-01

    To explore the views of Malaysian healthcare professionals (HCPs) on stakeholders' decision making roles in localized prostate cancer (PCa) treatment. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted with HCPs treating PCa. Data was analysed using a thematic approach. Four in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted between December 2012 and March 2013 using a topic guide. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically. The participants comprised private urologists (n = 4), government urologists (n = 6), urology trainees (n = 6), government policy maker (n = 1) and oncologists (n = 3). HCP perceptions of the roles of the three parties involved (HCPs, patients, family) included: HCP as the main decision maker, HCP as a guide to patients' decision making, HCP as a facilitator to family involvement, patients as main decision maker and patient prefers HCP to decide. HCPs preferred to share the decision with patients due to equipoise between prostate treatment options. Family culture was important as family members often decided on the patient's treatment due to Malaysia's close-knit family culture. A range of decision making roles were reported by HCPs. It is thus important that stakeholder roles are clarified during PCa treatment decisions. HCPs need to cultivate an awareness of sociocultural norms and family dynamics when supporting non-Western patients in making decisions about PCa.

  10. Derivative pricing based on local utility maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kallsen

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach to contingent claim valuation in general incomplete market models. We determine the neutral derivative price which occurs if investors maximize their local utility and if derivative demand and supply are balanced. We also introduce the sensitivity process of a contingent claim. This process quantifies the reliability of the neutral derivative price and it can be used to construct price bounds. Moreover, it allows to calibrate market models in order to be co...

  11. Local Management of Schools: Rationality and Decision-Making in the Employment of Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckman, Lynda; Hill, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Examines the use of rational planning techniques in five English elementary schools. Discusses the decision-making processes used to determine the employment and remuneration of teachers. Finds that the decree of control over decision making was related closely to the extent to which decisions would contribute to solutions of other school…

  12. Implementation of a Mobile Clinical Decision Support Application to Augment Local Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian M; Ford, Diana C; Ince, Dilek; Ernst, Erika J; Livorsi, Daniel J; Heintz, Brett H; Masse, Vincent; Brownlee, Michael J; Ford, Bradley A

    2018-01-01

    Medical applications for mobile devices allow clinicians to leverage microbiological data and standardized guidelines to treat patients with infectious diseases. We report the implementation of a mobile clinical decision support (CDS) application to augment local antimicrobial stewardship. We detail the implementation of our mobile CDS application over 20 months. Application utilization data were collected and evaluated using descriptive statistics to quantify the impact of our implementation. Project initiation focused on engaging key stakeholders, developing a business case, and selecting a mobile platform. The preimplementation phase included content development, creation of a pathway for content approval within the hospital committee structure, engaging clinical leaders, and formatting the first version of the guide. Implementation involved a media campaign, staff education, and integration within the electronic medical record and hospital mobile devices. The postimplementation phase required ongoing quality improvement, revision of outdated content, and repeated staff education. The evaluation phase included a guide utilization analysis, reporting to hospital leadership, and sustainability and innovation planning. The mobile application was downloaded 3056 times and accessed 9259 times during the study period. The companion web viewer was accessed 8214 times. Successful implementation of a customizable mobile CDS tool enabled our team to expand beyond microbiological data to clinical diagnosis, treatment, and antimicrobial stewardship, broadening our influence on antimicrobial prescribing and incorporating utilization data to inspire new quality and safety initiatives. Further studies are needed to assess the impact on antimicrobial utilization, infection control measures, and patient care outcomes.

  13. Nuclear emergency response planning based on participatory decision analytic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    2004-10-01

    This work was undertaken in order to develop methods and techniques for evaluating systematically and comprehensively protective action strategies in the case of a nuclear or radiation emergency. This was done in a way that the concerns and issues of all key players related to decisions on protective actions could be aggregated into decision- making transparently and in an equal manner. An approach called facilitated workshop, based on the theory of Decision Analysis, was tailored and tested in the planning of actions to be taken. The work builds on case studies in which it was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore different types of protective actions should be considered. Altogether six workshops were organised in which all key players were represented, i.e., the authorities, expert organisations, industry and agricultural producers. The participants were those responsible for preparing advice or presenting matters for those responsible for the formal decision-making. Many preparatory meetings were held with various experts to prepare information for the workshops. It was considered essential that the set-up strictly follow the decision- making process to which the key players are accustomed. Key players or stakeholders comprise responsible administrators and organisations, politicians as well as representatives of the citizens affected and other persons who will and are likely to take part in decision-making in nuclear emergencies. The realistic nature and the disciplined process of a facilitated workshop and commitment to decision-making yielded up insight in many radiation protection issues. The objectives and attributes which are considered in a decision on protective actions were discussed in many occasions and were defined for different accident scenario to come. In the workshops intervention levels were derived according justification and optimisation

  14. Ambient Sound-Based Collaborative Localization of Indeterministic Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Jacob Wilhelm; Le Viet Duc, L Duc; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Localization is essential in wireless sensor networks. To our knowledge, no prior work has utilized low-cost devices for collaborative localization based on only ambient sound, without the support of local infrastructure. The reason may be the fact that most low-cost devices are indeterministic and

  15. Risk-based decision making for terrorism applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Robin L; Liebe, Robert M; Bestafka, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the anti-terrorism risk-based decision aid (ARDA), a risk-based decision-making approach for prioritizing anti-terrorism measures. The ARDA model was developed as part of a larger effort to assess investments for protecting U.S. Navy assets at risk and determine whether the most effective anti-terrorism alternatives are being used to reduce the risk to the facilities and war-fighting assets. With ARDA and some support from subject matter experts, we examine thousands of scenarios composed of 15 attack modes against 160 facility types on two installations and hundreds of portfolios of 22 mitigation alternatives. ARDA uses multiattribute utility theory to solve some of the commonly identified challenges in security risk analysis. This article describes the process and documents lessons learned from applying the ARDA model for this application.

  16. Ontology based decision system for breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi Ben Ameur, Soumaya; Cloppet, Florence; Wendling, Laurent; Sellami, Dorra

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we focus on analysis and diagnosis of breast masses inspired by expert concepts and rules. Accordingly, a Bag of Words is built based on the ontology of breast cancer diagnosis, accurately described in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. To fill the gap between low level knowledge and expert concepts, a semantic annotation is developed using a machine learning tool. Then, breast masses are classified into benign or malignant according to expert rules implicitly modeled with a set of classifiers (KNN, ANN, SVM and Decision Tree). This semantic context of analysis offers a frame where we can include external factors and other meta-knowledge such as patient risk factors as well as exploiting more than one modality. Based on MRI and DECEDM modalities, our developed system leads a recognition rate of 99.7% with Decision Tree where an improvement of 24.7 % is obtained owing to semantic analysis.

  17. Finger Vein Recognition Based on Local Directional Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianjing; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein patterns are considered as one of the most promising biometric authentication methods for its security and convenience. Most of the current available finger vein recognition methods utilize features from a segmented blood vessel network. As an improperly segmented network may degrade the recognition accuracy, binary pattern based methods are proposed, such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Local Derivative Pattern (LDP) and Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP). However, the rich directional information hidden in the finger vein pattern has not been fully exploited by the existing local patterns. Inspired by the Webber Local Descriptor (WLD), this paper represents a new direction based local descriptor called Local Directional Code (LDC) and applies it to finger vein recognition. In LDC, the local gradient orientation information is coded as an octonary decimal number. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LDC achieves better performance than methods using LLBP. PMID:23202194

  18. Finger Vein Recognition Based on Local Directional Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongyang Xiao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Finger vein patterns are considered as one of the most promising biometric authentication methods for its security and convenience. Most of the current available finger vein recognition methods utilize features from a segmented blood vessel network. As an improperly segmented network may degrade the recognition accuracy, binary pattern based methods are proposed, such as Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Derivative Pattern (LDP and Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP. However, the rich directional information hidden in the finger vein pattern has not been fully exploited by the existing local patterns. Inspired by the Webber Local Descriptor (WLD, this paper represents a new direction based local descriptor called Local Directional Code (LDC and applies it to finger vein recognition. In LDC, the local gradient orientation information is coded as an octonary decimal number. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LDC achieves better performance than methods using LLBP.

  19. Energy-Based Acoustic Source Localization Methods: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Meng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy-based source localization is an important problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, which has been studied actively in the literature. Numerous localization algorithms, e.g., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE and nonlinear-least-squares (NLS methods, have been reported. In the literature, there are relevant review papers for localization in WSNs, e.g., for distance-based localization. However, not much work related to energy-based source localization is covered in the existing review papers. Energy-based methods are proposed and specially designed for a WSN due to its limited sensor capabilities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of these different algorithms for energy-based single and multiple source localization problems, their merits and demerits and to point out possible future research directions.

  20. Clinical data warehousing for evidence based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narra, Lekha; Sahama, Tony; Stapleton, Peta

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of heterogeneous health data silos pose a big challenge when exploring for information to allow for evidence based decision making and ensuring quality outcomes. In this paper, we present a proof of concept for adopting data warehousing technology to aggregate and analyse disparate health data in order to understand the impact various lifestyle factors on obesity. We present a practical model for data warehousing with detailed explanation which can be adopted similarly for studying various other health issues.

  1. The NATO SOF Air Wing: A Basing Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    11 Susan Hesse Owen & Mark S. Daskin , “Strategic Facility Location: A Review,” European Journal of Operational Research 111, (1998), 423. 6 the...Journal of Travel Research 45, (2006):167–174. Owen, Susan Hesse and Daskin , Mark S. “Strategic Facility Location: A Review.” European Journal of...WING: A BASING DECISION by James M. Cox December 2012 Thesis Advisor: William Fox Second Reader: Brian Greenshields THIS PAGE

  2. Knowledge based decision making: perspective on natural gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ydstie, B. Erik; Stuland, Kjetil M.

    2009-07-01

    Conclusions (drawn by the author): Decarbonization of energy sources - From coal to renewable. Natural Gas Abundantly available - Norway is no. 3 exporter. Natural gas important as - Hydrogen source for chemicals; - Electricity; - End consumer usage (heating etc). Large potential for application of model based decision making; - Where and when to install platforms and drill wells - How to operate platforms and pipeline systems; - How to operate and optimize chemical production; - Optimization of electricity generation systems. (author)

  3. Development of hybrid artificial intelligent based handover decision algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Aibinu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of seamless handover remains a mirage despite the plethora of existing handover algorithms. The underlying factor responsible for this has been traced to the Handover decision module in the Handover process. Hence, in this paper, the development of novel hybrid artificial intelligent handover decision algorithm has been developed. The developed model is made up of hybrid of Artificial Neural Network (ANN based prediction model and Fuzzy Logic. On accessing the network, the Received Signal Strength (RSS was acquired over a period of time to form a time series data. The data was then fed to the newly proposed k-step ahead ANN-based RSS prediction system for estimation of prediction model coefficients. The synaptic weights and adaptive coefficients of the trained ANN was then used to compute the k-step ahead ANN based RSS prediction model coefficients. The predicted RSS value was later codified as Fuzzy sets and in conjunction with other measured network parameters were fed into the Fuzzy logic controller in order to finalize handover decision process. The performance of the newly developed k-step ahead ANN based RSS prediction algorithm was evaluated using simulated and real data acquired from available mobile communication networks. Results obtained in both cases shows that the proposed algorithm is capable of predicting ahead the RSS value to about ±0.0002 dB. Also, the cascaded effect of the complete handover decision module was also evaluated. Results obtained show that the newly proposed hybrid approach was able to reduce ping-pong effect associated with other handover techniques.

  4. A Model of Decision-Making Based on Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Uluçınar, Ufuk; Aypay, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the causal relationships between high school students' inquisitiveness, open-mindedness, causal thinking, and rational and intuitive decision-making dispositions through an assumed model based on research data. This study was designed in correlational model. Confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis, which are structural equation modelling applications, were used to explain these relationships. The participants were 404 students studying in five high s...

  5. An Intelligent Fleet Condition-Based Maintenance Decision Making Method Based on Multi-Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Sun; Qiang Feng; Songjie Li

    2012-01-01

    According to the demand for condition-based maintenance online decision making among a mission oriented fleet, an intelligent maintenance decision making method based on Multi-agent and heuristic rules is proposed. The process of condition-based maintenance within an aircraft fleet (each containing one or more Line Replaceable Modules) based on multiple maintenance thresholds is analyzed. Then the process is abstracted into a Multi-Agent Model, a 2-layer model structure containing host negoti...

  6. Analysis of Local Financial Management Transparency Based on Websites on Local Government in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Adriana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze financial management transparency of local governments in Java using scoring and rating. The financial management transparency of the local governments is scored based on presentation of local financial information uploaded on each local government’s official website in Jawa in the fiscal years 2016.This research is a qualitative research with the object of research is all local government in Java. Data analysis in two levels, namely the transparency of local government financial management and identification of local government characteristics based on transparency of financial management. Data analysis in two levels, namely the transparency of local government financial management and identification of local government characteristics based on transparency of financial management. The results show that the Special Capital Region of Jakarta obtained the highest transparency index, at 58, 02% whereas Madiun Regency received the lowest transparency index, at 3, 40%. The average transparency index in Jawa for the fiscal years 2016 was still low, at only 19, 59%.The conclusion of this research is that Java regional governments consider the transparency of local financial management using less important websites because it is considered as a better thing not delivered to the public.

  7. An Automated System for Generating Situation-Specific Decision Support in Clinical Order Entry from Local Empirical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Jeffrey G.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical Decision Support is one of the only aspects of health information technology that has demonstrated decreased costs and increased quality in healthcare delivery, yet it is extremely expensive and time-consuming to create, maintain, and localize. Consequently, a majority of health care systems do not utilize it, and even when it is…

  8. Overview of EPA tools for supporting local- and regional-scale decision makers addressing energy and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) has been developing tools and illustrative case studies for decision makers in local and regional authorities who are facing challenges of establishing resilience to extreme weather events, aging built environment and infrastru...

  9. Jet-Based Local Image Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Darkner, Sune; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg

    2012-01-01

    We present a general novel image descriptor based on higherorder differential geometry and investigate the effect of common descriptor choices. Our investigation is twofold in that we develop a jet-based descriptor and perform a comparative evaluation with current state-of-the-art descriptors on ...

  10. The image recognition based on neural network and Bayesian decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chugege

    2018-04-01

    The artificial neural network began in 1940, which is an important part of artificial intelligence. At present, it has become a hot topic in the fields of neuroscience, computer science, brain science, mathematics, and psychology. Thomas Bayes firstly reported the Bayesian theory in 1763. After the development in the twentieth century, it has been widespread in all areas of statistics. In recent years, due to the solution of the problem of high-dimensional integral calculation, Bayesian Statistics has been improved theoretically, which solved many problems that cannot be solved by classical statistics and is also applied to the interdisciplinary fields. In this paper, the related concepts and principles of the artificial neural network are introduced. It also summarizes the basic content and principle of Bayesian Statistics, and combines the artificial neural network technology and Bayesian decision theory and implement them in all aspects of image recognition, such as enhanced face detection method based on neural network and Bayesian decision, as well as the image classification based on the Bayesian decision. It can be seen that the combination of artificial intelligence and statistical algorithms has always been the hot research topic.

  11. Experiential Knowledge Complements an LCA-Based Decision Support Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Yi Teah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A shrimp farmer in Taiwan practices innovation through trial-and-error for better income and a better environment, but such farmer-based innovation sometimes fails because the biological mechanism is unclear. Systematic field experimentation and laboratory research are often too costly, and simulating ground conditions is often too challenging. To solve this dilemma, we propose a decision support framework that explicitly utilizes farmer experiential knowledge through a participatory approach to alternatively estimate prospective change in shrimp farming productivity, and to co-design options for improvement. Data obtained from the farmer enable us to quantitatively analyze the production cost and greenhouse gas (GHG emission with a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. We used semi-quantitative graphical representations of indifference curves and mixing triangles to compare and show better options for the farmer. Our results empower the farmer to make decisions more systematically and reliably based on the frequency of heterotrophic bacteria application and the revision of feed input. We argue that experiential knowledge may be less accurate due to its dependence on varying levels of farmer experience, but this knowledge is a reasonable alternative for immediate decision-making. More importantly, our developed framework advances the scope of LCA application to support practically important yet scientifically uncertain cases.

  12. Range-Based Localization in Mobile Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dil, B.J.; Dil, B.; Dulman, S.O.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Romer, K.; Karl, H.; Mattern, F.

    2006-01-01

    Localization schemes for wireless sensor networks can be classified as range-based or range-free. They differ in the information used for localization. Range-based methods use range measurements, while range-free techniques only use the content of the messages. None of the existing algorithms

  13. Probabilistic confidence for decisions based on uncertain reliability estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Stuart G.

    2013-05-01

    Reliability assessments are commonly carried out to provide a rational basis for risk-informed decisions concerning the design or maintenance of engineering systems and structures. However, calculated reliabilities and associated probabilities of failure often have significant uncertainties associated with the possible estimation errors relative to the 'true' failure probabilities. For uncertain probabilities of failure, a measure of 'probabilistic confidence' has been proposed to reflect the concern that uncertainty about the true probability of failure could result in a system or structure that is unsafe and could subsequently fail. The paper describes how the concept of probabilistic confidence can be applied to evaluate and appropriately limit the probabilities of failure attributable to particular uncertainties such as design errors that may critically affect the dependability of risk-acceptance decisions. This approach is illustrated with regard to the dependability of structural design processes based on prototype testing with uncertainties attributable to sampling variability.

  14. Reliability-Based Decision Fusion in Multimodal Biometric Verification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryszczuk Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology of reliability estimation in the multimodal biometric verification scenario. Reliability estimation has shown to be an efficient and accurate way of predicting and correcting erroneous classification decisions in both unimodal (speech, face, online signature and multimodal (speech and face systems. While the initial research results indicate the high potential of the proposed methodology, the performance of the reliability estimation in a multimodal setting has not been sufficiently studied or evaluated. In this paper, we demonstrate the advantages of using the unimodal reliability information in order to perform an efficient biometric fusion of two modalities. We further show the presented method to be superior to state-of-the-art multimodal decision-level fusion schemes. The experimental evaluation presented in this paper is based on the popular benchmarking bimodal BANCA database.

  15. Simulation-based algorithms for Markov decision processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Hyeong Soo; Fu, Michael C; Marcus, Steven I

    2013-01-01

    Markov decision process (MDP) models are widely used for modeling sequential decision-making problems that arise in engineering, economics, computer science, and the social sciences.  Many real-world problems modeled by MDPs have huge state and/or action spaces, giving an opening to the curse of dimensionality and so making practical solution of the resulting models intractable.  In other cases, the system of interest is too complex to allow explicit specification of some of the MDP model parameters, but simulation samples are readily available (e.g., for random transitions and costs). For these settings, various sampling and population-based algorithms have been developed to overcome the difficulties of computing an optimal solution in terms of a policy and/or value function.  Specific approaches include adaptive sampling, evolutionary policy iteration, evolutionary random policy search, and model reference adaptive search. This substantially enlarged new edition reflects the latest developments in novel ...

  16. Opportunity costs and local health service spending decisions: a qualitative study from Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsberg Schaffer, Sarah; Sussex, Jon; Hughes, Dyfrig; Devlin, Nancy

    2016-03-25

    All health care systems face the need to find the resources to meet new demands such as a new, cost-increasing health technology. In England and Wales, when a health technology is recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), the National Health Service (NHS) is mandated to provide the funding to accommodate it within three months of publication of the recommendation. Identifying what, in practice, is foregone when new cost-increasing technologies are introduced is important for understanding the effects of health technology assessment (HTA) decisions on the NHS or any other health care system. Our objective was to investigate how in practice local NHS commissioners in Wales accommodated financial "shocks" arising from technology appraisals (TAs) issued by NICE and from other cost pressures. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Finance Directors and Medical Directors from all seven Local Health Boards (LHBs) in NHS Wales. These interviews covered prioritisation processes, as well as methods of financing NICE TAs and other financial shocks at each LHB. We then undertook a systematic identification of themes and topics from the information recorded. The study relates to the period October 2010 to March 2013. The financial impact of NICE TAs is generally anticipated and planned for in advance and the majority of LHBs have contingency funds available to cope with these and other financial shocks within-period. Efficiency savings (defined as reductions in costs with no assumed reductions in quality) were a source of funds for cost pressures of all kinds. Service displacements were not linkable to particular NICE TAs and there appears to be a general lack of explicit prioritisation activities. The Welsh Government has, on occasion, explicitly or implicitly acted as the funder of last resort. Services may be displaced as part of a response to the cumulative impact of all types of cost pressures, including cost-increasing health

  17. Evidence-based decision-making 7: Knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, Braden J

    2015-01-01

    There is a significant gap between what is known and what is implemented by key stakeholders in practice (the evidence to practice gap). The primary purpose of knowledge translation is to address this gap, bridging evidence to clinical practice. The knowledge to action cycle is one framework for knowledge translation that integrates policy-makers throughout the research cycle. The knowledge to action cycle begins with the identification of a problem (usually a gap in care provision). After identification of the problem, knowledge creation is undertaken, depicted at the center of the cycle as a funnel. Knowledge inquiry is at the wide end of the funnel, and moving down the funnel, the primary data is synthesized into knowledge products in the form of educational materials, guidelines, decision aids, or clinical pathways. The remaining components of the knowledge to action cycle refer to the action of applying the knowledge that has been created. This includes adapting knowledge to local context, assessing barriers to knowledge use, selecting, tailoring implementing interventions, monitoring knowledge use, evaluating outcomes, and sustaining knowledge use. Each of these steps is connected by bidirectional arrows and ideally involves healthcare decision-makers and key stakeholders at each transition.

  18. Cluster-based global firms' use of local capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Bøllingtoft, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Despite growing interest in clusters role for the global competitiveness of firms, there has been little research into how globalization affects cluster-based firms’ (CBFs) use of local knowledge resources and the combination of local and global knowledge used. Using the cluster......’s knowledge base as a mediating variable, the purpose of this paper is to examine how globalization affected the studied firms’ use of local cluster-based knowledge, integration of local and global knowledge, and networking capabilities. Design/methodology/approach – Qualitative case studies of nine firms...... in three clusters strongly affected by increasing global division of labour. Findings – The paper suggests that globalization has affected how firms use local resources and combine local and global knowledge. Unexpectedly, clustered firms with explicit procedures and established global fora for exchanging...

  19. Approach of simultaneous localization and mapping based on local maps for robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bai-fan; CAI Zi-xing; HU De-wen

    2006-01-01

    An extended Kalman filter approach of simultaneous localization and mapping(SLAM) was proposed based on local maps.A local frame of reference was established periodically at the position of the robot, and then the observations of the robot and landmarks were fused into the global frame of reference. Because of the independence of the local map, the approach does not cumulate the estimate and calculation errors which are produced by SLAM using Kalman filter directly. At the same time, it reduces the computational complexity. This method is proven correct and feasible in simulation experiments.

  20. Treatment Decision Regret Among Long-Term Survivors of Localized Prostate Cancer: Results From the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard M; Lo, Mary; Clark, Jack A; Albertsen, Peter C; Barry, Michael J; Goodman, Michael; Penson, David F; Stanford, Janet L; Stroup, Antoinette M; Hamilton, Ann S

    2017-07-10

    Purpose To determine the demographic, clinical, decision-making, and quality-of-life factors that are associated with treatment decision regret among long-term survivors of localized prostate cancer. Patients and Methods We evaluated men who were age ≤ 75 years when diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between October 1994 and October 1995 in one of six SEER tumor registries and who completed a 15-year follow-up survey. The survey obtained demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical data and measured treatment decision regret, informed decision making, general- and disease-specific quality of life, health worry, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concern, and outlook on life. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify factors associated with regret. Results We surveyed 934 participants, 69.3% of known survivors. Among the cohort, 59.1% had low-risk tumor characteristics (PSA decision regret: 8.2% of those whose disease was managed conservatively, 15.0% of those who received surgery, and 16.6% of those who underwent radiotherapy. Factors associated with regret on multivariable analysis included reporting moderate or big sexual function bother (reported by 39.0%; OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.51 to 5.0), moderate or big bowel function bother (reported by 7.7%; OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.15), and PSA concern (mean score 52.8; OR, 1.01 per point change; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.02). Increasing age at diagnosis and report of having made an informed treatment decision were inversely associated with regret. Conclusion Regret was a relatively infrequently reported outcome among long-term survivors of localized prostate cancer; however, our results suggest that better informing men about treatment options, in particular, conservative treatment, might help mitigate long-term regret. These findings are timely for men with low-risk cancers who are being encouraged to consider active surveillance.

  1. Impact of MAC Delay on AUV Localization: Underwater Localization Based on Hyperbolic Frequency Modulation Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungryul; Yoo, Younghwan

    2018-01-26

    Medium Access Control (MAC) delay which occurs between the anchor node's transmissions is one of the error sources in underwater localization. In particular, in AUV localization, the MAC delay significantly degrades the ranging accuracy. The Cramer-Rao Low Bound (CRLB) definition theoretically proves that the MAC delay significantly degrades the localization performance. This paper proposes underwater localization combined with multiple access technology to decouple the localization performance from the MAC delay. Towards this goal, we adopt hyperbolic frequency modulation (HFM) signal that provides multiplexing based on its good property, high-temporal correlation. Owing to the multiplexing ability of the HFM signal, the anchor nodes can transmit packets without MAC delay, i.e., simultaneous transmission is possible. In addition, the simulation results show that the simultaneous transmission is not an optional communication scheme, but essential for the localization of mobile object in underwater.

  2. Dutch gas distribution grid goes green: decision support tool for local biogas utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidenaar, Teade; Hoekstra, Sipke; Wolters, Mannes

    2011-01-01

    A Decision Support Tool (DST) has been developed that will aid Distribution Service Operators (DSOs) in their decision making process on which investments to make in the gas distribution grid in order to facilitate the use of biogas. The DST considers both the conversion of biogas to electricity as

  3. Students' Reasoning Processes in Making Decisions about an Authentic, Local Socio-Scientific Issue: Bat Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Chung; Grace, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Education for scientific literacy entails the development of scientific knowledge and the ability to apply this knowledge and value judgments to decisions about real-life issues. This paper reports an attempt to involve secondary level biology students in making decisions about an authentic socio-scientific issue--that of bat conservation--through…

  4. Single event upset threshold estimation based on local laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumakov, A.I.; Egorov, A.N.; Mavritsky, O.B.; Yanenko, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    An approach for estimation of ion-induced SEU threshold based on local laser irradiation is presented. Comparative experiment and software simulation research were performed at various pulse duration and spot size. Correlation of single event threshold LET to upset threshold laser energy under local irradiation was found. The computer analysis of local laser irradiation of IC structures was developed for SEU threshold LET estimation. The correlation of local laser threshold energy with SEU threshold LET was shown. Two estimation techniques were suggested. The first one is based on the determination of local laser threshold dose taking into account the relation of sensitive area to local irradiated area. The second technique uses the photocurrent peak value instead of this relation. The agreement between the predicted and experimental results demonstrates the applicability of this approach. (authors)

  5. Biometric image enhancement using decision rule based image fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagayee, G. Mary Amirtha; Arumugam, S.

    2010-02-01

    Introducing biometrics into information systems may result in considerable benefits. Most of the researchers confirmed that the finger print is widely used than the iris or face and more over it is the primary choice for most privacy concerned applications. For finger prints applications, choosing proper sensor is at risk. The proposed work deals about, how the image quality can be improved by introducing image fusion technique at sensor levels. The results of the images after introducing the decision rule based image fusion technique are evaluated and analyzed with its entropy levels and root mean square error.

  6. Knowledge-based dialogue in Intelligent Decision Support Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, E.

    1987-01-01

    The overall goal for the design of Intelligent Decision Support Systems (IDSS) is to enhance understanding of the process under all operating conditions. For an IDSS to be effective, it must: select or generate the right information; produce reliable and consistent information; allow flexible and effective operator interaction; relate information presentation to current plant status and problems; and make the presentation at the right time. Several ongoing R and D programs try to design and build IDSSs. A particular example is the ESPRIT project Graphics and Knowledge Based Diaglogue for Dynamic Systems (GRADIENT). This project, the problems it addresses, and its uses, are discussed here

  7. Science-based decision making in a high-risk energy production environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Energy production practices that may induce earthquakes require decisions about acceptable risk before projects begin. How much ground shaking, structural damage, infrastructure damage, or delay of geothermal power and other operations is tolerable? I review a few mitigation strategies as well as existing protocol in several U.S. states. Timely and accurate scientific information can assist in determining the costs and benefits of altering production parameters. These issues can also be addressed with probability estimates of adverse effects ("costs"), frequency of earthquakes of different sizes, and associated impacts of different magnitude earthquakes. When risk management decisions based on robust science are well-communicated to stakeholders, mitigation efforts benefit. Effective communications elements include a) the risks and benefits of different actions (e.g. using a traffic light protocol); b) the factors to consider when determining acceptable risk; and c) the probability of different magnitude events. I present a case example for The Geysers geothermal field in California, to discuss locally "acceptable" and "unacceptable" earthquakes and share nearby communities' responses to smaller and larger magnitude earthquakes. I use the USGS's "Did You Feel It?" data archive to sample how often felt events occur, and how many of those are above acceptable magnitudes (to both local residents and operators). Using this information, I develop a science-based decision-making framework, in the case of potentially risky earthquakes, for lessening seismic risk and other negative consequences. This includes assessing future earthquake probabilities based on past earthquake records. One of my goals is to help characterize uncertainties in a way that they can be managed; to this end, I present simple and accessible approaches that can be used in the decision making process.

  8. Therapy Decision Support Based on Recommender System Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräßer, Felix; Beckert, Stefanie; Küster, Denise; Schmitt, Jochen; Abraham, Susanne; Malberg, Hagen; Zaunseder, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We present a system for data-driven therapy decision support based on techniques from the field of recommender systems. Two methods for therapy recommendation, namely, Collaborative Recommender and Demographic-based Recommender , are proposed. Both algorithms aim to predict the individual response to different therapy options using diverse patient data and recommend the therapy which is assumed to provide the best outcome for a specific patient and time, that is, consultation. The proposed methods are evaluated using a clinical database incorporating patients suffering from the autoimmune skin disease psoriasis. The Collaborative Recommender proves to generate both better outcome predictions and recommendation quality. However, due to sparsity in the data, this approach cannot provide recommendations for the entire database. In contrast, the Demographic-based Recommender performs worse on average but covers more consultations. Consequently, both methods profit from a combination into an overall recommender system.

  9. Therapy Decision Support Based on Recommender System Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Gräßer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a system for data-driven therapy decision support based on techniques from the field of recommender systems. Two methods for therapy recommendation, namely, Collaborative Recommender and Demographic-based Recommender, are proposed. Both algorithms aim to predict the individual response to different therapy options using diverse patient data and recommend the therapy which is assumed to provide the best outcome for a specific patient and time, that is, consultation. The proposed methods are evaluated using a clinical database incorporating patients suffering from the autoimmune skin disease psoriasis. The Collaborative Recommender proves to generate both better outcome predictions and recommendation quality. However, due to sparsity in the data, this approach cannot provide recommendations for the entire database. In contrast, the Demographic-based Recommender performs worse on average but covers more consultations. Consequently, both methods profit from a combination into an overall recommender system.

  10. Agent-based Decision Support System for the Third Generation Distributed Dynamic Decision-making (DDD-III) Simulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meirina, Candra; Ruan, Sui; Yu, Feili; Zhu, Liang; Pattipati, Krishna R; Kleinman, David L

    2004-01-01

    ...) based on the third-generation distributed dynamic decision-making (DDD-III) simulator and contingency theory to increase the organizational cognitive capacity and to facilitate the processes of adaptation...

  11. Stakeholder Attitudes, Knowledge and Engagement in Local Road Systems Planning and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Political and policy dynamics associated with local road systems planning, management, and financing merit special attention. This study: 1) analyzes stakeholder attitudes, knowledge, and engagement about financing for local road system management, t...

  12. Combined Influence of Selective Focus and Decision Involvement on Attitude-Decision Consistency in a Memory-based Decision Context

    OpenAIRE

    A. VAN KERCKHOVE; I. VERMEIR; M. GEUENS

    2009-01-01

    Marketers often use salient stimuli to draw consumers’ attention to a specific brand in the hope that a selective focus on the own brand increases the sales of this brand. However, previous studies are inconsistent concerning the impact that selectively focusing on a specific brand has on final brand choice. To offer an explanation for these inconsistent results, this paper introduces decision involvement as a moderator of the relation between selective focus and attitude-decision consistency...

  13. Artificial intelligence based decision support for trumpeter swan management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojda, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    The number of trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) breeding in the Tri-State area where Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming come together has declined to just a few hundred pairs. However, these birds are part of the Rocky Mountain Population which additionally has over 3,500 birds breeding in Alberta, British Columbia, Northwest Territories, and Yukon Territory. To a large degree, these birds seem to have abandoned traditional migratory pathways in the flyway. Waterfowl managers have been interested in decision support tools that would help them explore simulated management scenarios in their quest towards reaching population recovery and the reestablishment of traditional migratory pathways. I have developed a decision support system to assist biologists with such management, especially related to wetland ecology. Decision support systems use a combination of models, analytical techniques, and information retrieval to help develop and evaluate appropriate alternatives. Swan management is a domain that is ecologically complex, and this complexity is compounded by spatial and temporal issues. As such, swan management is an inherently distributed problem. Therefore, the ecological context for modeling swan movements in response to management actions was built as a multiagent system of interacting intelligent agents that implements a queuing model representing swan migration. These agents accessed ecological knowledge about swans, their habitats, and flyway management principles from three independent expert systems. The agents were autonomous, had some sensory capability, and could respond to changing conditions. A key problem when developing ecological decision support systems is empirically determining that the recommendations provided are valid. Because Rocky Mountain trumpeter swans have been surveyed for a long period of time, I was able to compare simulated distributions provided by the system with actual field observations across 20 areas for the period 1988

  14. Memory-Based Decision-Making with Heuristics: Evidence for a Controlled Activation of Memory Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Patrick H.; Pachur, Thorsten; Meier, Stefanie; Bien, Siegfried; Jost, Kerstin; Rosler, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Many of our daily decisions are memory based, that is, the attribute information about the decision alternatives has to be recalled. Behavioral studies suggest that for such decisions we often use simple strategies (heuristics) that rely on controlled and limited information search. It is assumed that these heuristics simplify decision-making by…

  15. An ultrasonic-based localization system for underground mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jordaan, JP

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available -based localization system for underground mines 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 24-26 July 2017, Emden, Germany JP Jordaan, CP Kruger, BJ Silva and GP Hancke Abstract: Localization is important for a wide range...

  16. All hazardous waste politics is local: Grass-roots advocacy and public participation in siting and cleanup decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, R.C.

    1998-12-31

    The combined effects of federalism and interest group pluralism pose particularly difficult problems for hazardous waste siting and cleanup decisions. Most national environmental groups have only limited involvement in local hazardous waste politics, while local grass-roots advocates have very different interests and sometimes are pitted against one another. Both the Environmental protection Agency and the Department of energy recently have begun to use site-specific citizen advisory boards at cleanup sites. This approach appears to improve communications at some sites, but does not address the issues of ``not in my back yard`` politics and alleged inequitable exposure to hazardous wastes.

  17. Decision Making Based On Management Information System and Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Ada

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Information hasbecome an essentialresource for managing modern organizations. This is so because today’sbusiness environment is volatile, dynamic, turbulent and necessitates the burgeoning demand for accurate, relevant, complete,timely and economical information needed to drive the decision-making process in order to accentuate organizational abilities to manage opportunities and threat. MIS work on online mode with an average processing speed. Generally, it is used by low level management. Decision support system are powerful tool that assist corporate executives, administrators and other senior officials in making decision regarding the problem. Management Information Systems is a useful tool that provided organized and summarized information in a proper time to decision makers and enable making accurate decision for managers in organizations. This paper will discuss the concept, characteristics, types of MIS, the MIS model, and in particular it will highlight the impact and role of MIS on decision making.

  18. Non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making: a major challenge to evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjaj, F M; Salek, M S; Basra, M K A; Finlay, A Y

    2010-05-01

    This article reviews an aspect of daily clinical practice which is of critical importance in virtually every clinical consultation, but which is seldom formally considered. Non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making profoundly affect medical decisions. These influences include patient-related factors such as socioeconomic status, quality of life and patient's expectations and wishes, physician-related factors such as personal characteristics and interaction with their professional community, and features of clinical practice such as private versus public practice as well as local management policies. This review brings together the different strands of knowledge concerning non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making. This aspect of decision-making may be the biggest obstacle to the reality of practising evidence-based medicine. It needs to be understood in order to develop clinical strategies that will facilitate the practice of evidence-based medicine.

  19. Promoting women’s participation in decision-making at the local level.

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Ibrahim A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out in the context of participation in decision-making in the Barzan sub-district in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. It focused on women’s participation in decision-making from the perspective of gender and development. Democratic governance and decentralisation served as the main theoretical framework and pre-condition for analyzing participation. Though the Kurdistan region has been moving towards democracy, decentralisation and participatory governance since 1992, ther...

  20. Probabilistic Decision Based Block Partitioning for Future Video Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhao

    2017-11-29

    In the latest Joint Video Exploration Team development, the quadtree plus binary tree (QTBT) block partitioning structure has been proposed for future video coding. Compared to the traditional quadtree structure of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, QTBT provides more flexible patterns for splitting the blocks, which results in dramatically increased combinations of block partitions and high computational complexity. In view of this, a confidence interval based early termination (CIET) scheme is proposed for QTBT to identify the unnecessary partition modes in the sense of rate-distortion (RD) optimization. In particular, a RD model is established to predict the RD cost of each partition pattern without the full encoding process. Subsequently, the mode decision problem is casted into a probabilistic framework to select the final partition based on the confidence interval decision strategy. Experimental results show that the proposed CIET algorithm can speed up QTBT block partitioning structure by reducing 54.7% encoding time with only 1.12% increase in terms of bit rate. Moreover, the proposed scheme performs consistently well for the high resolution sequences, of which the video coding efficiency is crucial in real applications.

  1. Maintenance Decision Based on Data Fusion of Aero Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance has gained a great importance as a support function for ensuring aero engine reliability and availability. Cost-effectiveness and risk control are two basic criteria for accurate maintenance. Given that aero engines have much condition monitoring data, this paper presents a new condition-based maintenance decision system that employs data fusion for improving accuracy of reliability evaluation. Bayesian linear model has been applied, so that the performance degradation evaluation of aero engines could be realized. A reliability evaluation model has been presented based on gamma process, which achieves the accurate evaluation by information fusion. In reliability evaluation model, the shape parameter is estimated by the performance degradation evaluation result, and the scale parameter is estimated by failure, inspection, and repair information. What is more, with such reliability evaluation as input variables and by using particle swarm optimization (PSO, a stochastic optimization of maintenance decision for aircraft engines has been presented, in which the effectiveness and the accuracy are demonstrated by a numerical example.

  2. Stochastic Watershed Models for Risk Based Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Over half a century ago, the Harvard Water Program introduced the field of operational or synthetic hydrology providing stochastic streamflow models (SSMs), which could generate ensembles of synthetic streamflow traces useful for hydrologic risk management. The application of SSMs, based on streamflow observations alone, revolutionized water resources planning activities, yet has fallen out of favor due, in part, to their inability to account for the now nearly ubiquitous anthropogenic influences on streamflow. This commentary advances the modern equivalent of SSMs, termed `stochastic watershed models' (SWMs) useful as input to nearly all modern risk based water resource decision making approaches. SWMs are deterministic watershed models implemented using stochastic meteorological series, model parameters and model errors, to generate ensembles of streamflow traces that represent the variability in possible future streamflows. SWMs combine deterministic watershed models, which are ideally suited to accounting for anthropogenic influences, with recent developments in uncertainty analysis and principles of stochastic simulation

  3. Locally processed roasted-maize-based weaning foods fortified with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locally processed roasted-maize-based weaning foods fortified with legumes: factors ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Tom Brown (roasted-maize porridge) is one of the traditional weaning foods in Ghana.

  4. How normative interpretations of climate risk assessment affect local decision-making: an exploratory study at the city scale in Cork, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, T K J; Surminski, S

    2018-06-13

    Urban areas already suffer substantial losses in both economic and human terms from climate-related disasters. These losses are anticipated to grow substantially, in part as a result of the impacts of climate change. In this paper, we investigate the process of translating climate risk data into action for the city level. We apply a commonly used decision-framework as our backdrop and explore where in this process climate risk assessment and normative political judgements intersect. We use the case of flood risk management in Cork city in Ireland to investigate what is needed for translating risk assessment into action at the local city level. Evidence presented is based on focus group discussions at two stakeholder workshops, and a series of individual meetings and phone-discussions with stakeholders involved in local decision-making related to flood risk management and adaptation to climate change, in Ireland. Respondents were chosen on the basis of their expertise or involvement in the decision-making processes locally and nationally. Representatives of groups affected by flood risk and flood risk management and climate adaptation efforts were also included. The Cork example highlights that, despite ever more accurate data and an increasing range of theoretical approaches available to local decision-makers, it is the normative interpretation of this information that determines what action is taken. The use of risk assessments for decision-making is a process that requires normative decisions, such as setting 'acceptable risk levels' and identifying 'adequate' protection levels, which will not succeed without broader buy-in and stakeholder participation. Identifying and embracing those normative views up-front could strengthen the urban adaptation process-this may, in fact, turn out to be the biggest advantage of climate risk assessment: it offers an opportunity to create a shared understanding of the problem and enables an informed evaluation and discussion of

  5. EVALUATION OF SIFT AND SURF FOR VISION BASED LOCALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vision based localization is widely investigated for the autonomous navigation and robotics. One of the basic steps of vision based localization is the extraction of interest points in images that are captured by the embedded camera. In this paper, SIFT and SURF extractors were chosen to evaluate their performance in localization. Four street view image sequences captured by a mobile mapping system, were used for the evaluation and both SIFT and SURF were tested on different image scales. Besides, the impact of the interest point distribution was also studied. We evaluated the performances from for aspects: repeatability, precision, accuracy and runtime. The local bundle adjustment method was applied to refine the pose parameters and the 3D coordinates of tie points. According to the results of our experiments, SIFT was more reliable than SURF. Apart from this, both the accuracy and the efficiency of localization can be improved if the distribution of feature points are well constrained for SIFT.

  6. Integrating Indigenous Traditional, Local and Scientific Knowledge for Improved Management, Policy and Decision-Making in Reindeer Husbandry in the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathiesen, Svein D.; Aissi-Wespi, Rita L.

    2004-01-01

    As scientists and policy-makers from both indigenous and non-indigenous communities begin to build closer partnerships to address common sustainability issues such as the health impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities, it becomes increasingly important to create shared information management systems which integrate all relevant factors for optimal information sharing and decision-making. This paper describes a new GIs-based system being designed to bring local and indigenous traditional knowledge together with scientific data and information, remote sensing, and information technologies to address health-related environment, weather, climate, pollution and land use change issues for improved decision/policy-making for reindeer husbandry. The system is building an easily-accessible archive of relevant current and historical, traditional, local and remotely-sensed and other data and observations for shared analysis, measuring, and monitoring parameters of interest. Protection of indigenous culturally sensitive information will be respected through appropriate data protocols. A mechanism which enables easy information sharing among all participants, which is real time and geo-referenced and which allows interconnectivity with remote sites is also being designed into the system for maximum communication among partners. A preliminary version of our system will be described for a Russian reindeer test site, which will include a combination of indigenous knowledge about local conditions and issues, remote sensing and ground-based data on such parameters as the vegetation state and distribution, snow cover, temperature, ice condition, and infrastructure.

  7. Application of a web-based Decision Support System in risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Zar Chi; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2013-04-01

    Increasingly, risk information is widely available with the help of advanced technologies such as earth observation satellites, global positioning technologies, coupled with hazard modeling and analysis, and geographical information systems (GIS). Even though it exists, no effort will be put into action if it is not properly presented to the decision makers. These information need to be communicated clearly and show its usefulness so that people can make better informed decision. Therefore, communicating available risk information has become an important challenge and decision support systems have been one of the significant approaches which can help not only in presenting risk information to the decision makers but also in making efficient decisions while reducing human resources and time needed. In this study, the conceptual framework of an internet-based decision support system is presented to highlight its importance role in risk management framework and how it can be applied in case study areas chosen. The main purpose of the proposed system is to facilitate the available risk information in risk reduction by taking into account of the changes in climate, land use and socio-economic along with the risk scenarios. It allows the users to formulate, compare and select risk reduction scenarios (mainly for floods and landslides) through an enhanced participatory platform with diverse stakeholders' involvement in the decision making process. It is based on the three-tier (client-server) architecture which integrates web-GIS plus DSS functionalities together with cost benefit analysis and other supporting tools. Embedding web-GIS provides its end users to make better planning and informed decisions referenced to a geographical location, which is the one of the essential factors in disaster risk reduction programs. Different risk reduction measures of a specific area (local scale) will be evaluated using this web-GIS tool, available risk scenarios obtained from

  8. Enabling Participatory Decision Making Through Web-Based GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Grant; Yam, Kevin; Hassas, Aranak

    2001-01-01

    obligations to fellow human beings, animals, and the environment. People perceive that information travels essentially one way in the processes and the voices of the community and its members are not heard. Subsequently, they feel excluded from the actual decision making process and even from being able to participate meaningfully in the process. Recent advances in informatics and geomatics technology, such as the Internet, web-based software and geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to address these issues more effectively. We believe that the combined features of two software developed at the York Centre for Applied Sustainability can facilitate access to information, provide a virtual forum for discussion and debate, and it possible for individuals to participate in decision making process, and to infer peoples' values from their choice criteria selection

  9. ENERGY AWARE NETWORK: BAYESIAN BELIEF NETWORKS BASED DECISION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Chaudhari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Network Management System (NMS plays a very important role in managing an ever-evolving telecommunication network. Generally an NMS monitors & maintains the health of network elements. The growing size of the network warrants extra functionalities from the NMS. An NMS provides all kinds of information about networks which can be used for other purposes apart from monitoring & maintaining networks like improving QoS & saving energy in the network. In this paper, we add another dimension to NMS services, namely, making an NMS energy aware. We propose a Decision Management System (DMS framework which uses a machine learning technique called Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN, to make the NMS energy aware. The DMS is capable of analysing and making control decisions based on network traffic. We factor in the cost of rerouting and power saving per port. Simulations are performed on standard network topologies, namely, ARPANet and IndiaNet. It is found that ~2.5-6.5% power can be saved.

  10. Integrated environmental decision support tool based on GIS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, P.G.; O'Neil, T.K.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Becker, J.M.; Rykiel, E.J.; Walters, T.B.; Brandt, C.A.; Hall, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental restoration and management decisions facing the US Department of Energy require balancing trade-offs between diverse land uses and impacts over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Many types of environmental data have been collected for the Hanford Site and the Columbia River in Washington State over the past fifty years. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is integrating these data into a Geographic Information System (GIS) based computer decision support tool. This tool provides a comprehensive and concise description of the current environmental landscape that can be used to evaluate the ecological and monetary trade-offs between future land use, restoration and remediation options before action is taken. Ecological impacts evaluated include effects to individual species of concern and habitat loss and fragmentation. Monetary impacts include those associated with habitat mitigation. The tool is organized as both a browsing tool for educational purposes, and as a framework that leads a project manager through the steps needed to be in compliance with environmental requirements

  11. Using a NIATx based local learning collaborative for performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mathew; Scripa, Joseph S; Zastowny, Thomas R; Ford, James H

    2011-11-01

    Local governments play an important role in improving substance abuse and mental health services. The structure of the local learning collaborative requires careful attention to old relationships and challenges local governmental leaders to help move participants from a competitive to collaborative environment. This study describes one county's experience applying the NIATx process improvement model via a local learning collaborative. Local substance abuse and mental health agencies participated in two local learning collaboratives designed to improve client retention in substance abuse treatment and client access to mental health services. Results of changes implemented at the provider level on access and retention are outlined. The process of implementing evidence-based practices by using the Plan-Do-Study-Act rapid-cycle change is a powerful combination for change at the local level. Key lessons include: creating a clear plan and shared vision, recognizing that one size does not fit all, using data can help fuel participant engagement, a long collaborative may benefit from breaking it into smaller segments, and paying providers to offset costs of participation enhances their engagement. The experience gained in Onondaga County, New York, offers insights that serve as a foundation for using the local learning collaborative in other community-based organizations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Consumer Decision-Making Styles and Local Brand Biasness: Exploration in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanninayake W.M.C.Bandara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern marketer shows a growing interest in the research of consumer decision-making styles to understand how an individual makes his/her buying decisions in the competitive environment. This concept is important because it determines the behavioral patterns of consumers and is relevant for market segmentation. Most of the previous researchers have adapted to Consumer Style Inventory (CSI introduced by Sproles and Kendall in 1986 as a common tool for assessing the decision-making styles of customers. Though researchers have validated CSI in different cultural and social contexts, very limited studies were carried out to explore the relationship between consumer decision-making styles and their domestic brand biasness. Therefore, the present study mainly focuses on exploring the impact of consumer decision-making styles on their preference towards domestic brands in the context of the Czech Republic. The sample for this study was drawn from adult customers who live in the Brno, Zlín, and Olomouc regions in the Czech Republic. A group of students from the Bachelor’s degree programme in Management and Economics, Tomas Bata University in Zlín were selected as enumerators for data collection. Altogether 200 questionnaires were distributed and 123 completed questionnaires were taken in for final analysis. The decision- making styles were measured using Sproles and Kendall’s (1986 CSI instrument. Cronbach’s Alpha values of each construct confirmed that there is a good interring reliability associated with the data. Principle Component Analysis was employed to determine the decision-making styles of Czech customers and the one-way ANOVA was used for testing hypotheses. The findings revealed that seven decision-making styles are appeared among Czech customers and fashion consciousness, recreational orientation, impulsiveness, and price consciousness of customers show a direct relationship with the domestic brand biasness. Other styles did not

  13. The role local initiatives in community based disaster risk management in Kemijen, Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzie, W. Z.; Sariffudin, S.

    2017-06-01

    Community-based disaster risk reduction is one of the homegrown initiatives efforts and community empowerment oriented in disaster management. This approach is very important because no one can understand the conditions in a region better than the local communities. Therefore, the implementation of CBDRM always emphasize local initiatives in decision making. The existence of local initiative is necessary specially to anticipate the impact of climate change which is increasingly affecting towns in coastal areas, including settlements in Semarang. Kemijen Urban Village is one of the informal settlements in Semarang, which has the highest intensity of flood that is 12 times during 5 years (2011-2015). The research question is how the level of local initiatives in flood disaster management in Kemijen, Semarang? This study aims to assess the level of local initiatives in Kemijen as the community adaptive capacity of flood prevention in pre-disaster, emergency response, and post-disaster. Local initiatives assessed on water supply, sanitation, food, shelter, health, drainage maintenance and waste management. This study shows the level of local initiatives in pre-disaster and post-disaster is almost same and bigger than the response phase. Scoring results showed that pre-disaster is 35.002, 27.9577 for emergency response, and post-disaster is 34.9862 with each category that is independent, empowered, and independent. This study also shows that local initiatives in Kemijen largely formed by individual initiative and only a few were formed by a collective initiative.

  14. Dual entanglement measures based on no local cloning and no local deleting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horodecki, Michal; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2004-01-01

    The impossibility of cloning and deleting of unknown states constitute important restrictions on processing of information in the quantum world. On the other hand, a known quantum state can always be cloned or deleted. However, if we restrict the class of allowed operations, there will arise restrictions on the ability of cloning and deleting machines. We have shown that cloning and deleting of known states is in general not possible by local operations. This impossibility hints at quantum correlation in the state. We propose dual measures of quantum correlation based on the dual restrictions of no local cloning and no local deleting. The measures are relative entropy distances of the desired states in a (generally impossible) perfect local cloning or local deleting process from the best approximate state that is actually obtained by imperfect local cloning or deleting machines. Just like the dual measures of entanglement cost and distillable entanglement, the proposed measures are based on important processes in quantum information. We discuss their properties. For the case of pure states, estimations of these two measures are also provided. Interestingly, the entanglement of cloning for a maximally entangled state of two two-level systems is not unity

  15. Reputation-based secure sensor localization in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingsha; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Xingye; Zhang, Yuqiang; Zhang, Ting; Fu, Wanqing

    2014-01-01

    Location information of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is very important, for it makes information that is collected and reported by the sensor nodes spatially meaningful for applications. Since most current sensor localization schemes rely on location information that is provided by beacon nodes for the regular sensor nodes to locate themselves, the accuracy of localization depends on the accuracy of location information from the beacon nodes. Therefore, the security and reliability of the beacon nodes become critical in the localization of regular sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose a reputation-based security scheme for sensor localization to improve the security and the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments. In our proposed scheme, the reputation of each beacon node is evaluated based on a reputation evaluation model so that regular sensor nodes can get credible location information from highly reputable beacon nodes to accomplish localization. We also perform a set of simulation experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed reputation-based security scheme. And our simulation results show that the proposed security scheme can enhance the security and, hence, improve the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments.

  16. Using interactive modeling tools to engage with, inform and empower decision making in local communities of landscape managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    During the last decade digital modelling tools for environmental impact assessment have become increasingly interactive, agile and user-oriented. This has made it possible to implement models in situ, using them in live scenario situations with local stakeholders. As a result modelling tools......- and long term environmental impact of landscape management. This opens up a number of questions regarding the status and consequence of scientific data and modelled impact estimates as compared to locally held knowledge and expertise. It also opens up questions regarding how the injection of modelling...... for modelling the effect of agricultural land use decisions on nitrogen emission to the environment at landscape scales. Recently Danish authorities proposed to shift the scale of regulation from national regulatory instruments to a more local level to better fit relevant socio-political and agro-environmental...

  17. Decisions by regulatory agencies: are they evidence-based?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furberg Curt D

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Contradictory statements about the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs from the European Medicines Agency and the United States Food and Drug Administration have raised questions about whether regulatory decisions are evidence-based. For the selective COX-2 inhibitors, there are clear contraindications and warnings in Europe, but only a vaguely worded Black Box warning in the United States. All the non-selective agents are given an almost "clean bill of health" in Europe, while all of them are judged to have a similar risk-benefit ratio as celecoxib in the United States. The regulatory agencies have failed to recognize the clinical trial evidence that the risk of cardiovascular events varies substantially among the non-selective agents, with diclofenac carrying the highest risk of harm.

  18. Managing wildfire events: risk-based decision making among a group of federal fire managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn S. Wilson; Patricia L. Winter; Lynn A. Maguire; Timothy. Ascher

    2011-01-01

    Managing wildfire events to achieve multiple management objectives involves a high degree of decision complexity and uncertainty, increasing the likelihood that decisions will be informed by experience-based heuristics triggered by available cues at the time of the decision. The research reported here tests the prevalence of three risk-based biases among 206...

  19. Data-Based Decision-Making: Developing a Method for Capturing Teachers' Understanding of CBM Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espin, Christine A.; Wayman, Miya Miura; Deno, Stanley L.; McMaster, Kristen L.; de Rooij, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In this special issue, we explore the decision-making aspect of "data-based decision-making". The articles in the issue address a wide range of research questions, designs, methods, and analyses, but all focus on data-based decision-making for students with learning difficulties. In this first article, we introduce the topic of…

  20. Examining Preservice Teachers' Decision Behaviors and Individual Differences in Three Online Case-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Yasemin Demiraslan; Andre, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the impact of three types of case-based methods (case-based reasoning, worked example, and faded worked example) on preservice teachers' (n = 71) interaction with decision tasks and whether decision related measures (task difficulty, mental effort, decision making performance) were associated with the differences in student…

  1. A Decision Analytic Approach to Exposure-Based Chemical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manufacture of novel synthetic chemicals has increased in volume and variety, but often the environmental and health risks are not fully understood in terms of toxicity and, in particular, exposure. While efforts to assess risks have generally been effective when sufficient data are available, the hazard and exposure data necessary to assess risks adequately are unavailable for the vast majority of chemicals in commerce. The US Environmental Protection Agency has initiated the ExpoCast Program to develop tools for rapid chemical evaluation based on potential for exposure. In this context, a model is presented in which chemicals are evaluated based on inherent chemical properties and behaviorally-based usage characteristics over the chemical’s life cycle. These criteria are assessed and integrated within a decision analytic framework, facilitating rapid assessment and prioritization for future targeted testing and systems modeling. A case study outlines the prioritization process using 51 chemicals. The results show a preliminary relative ranking of chemicals based on exposure potential. The strength of this approach is the ability to integrate relevant statistical and mechanistic data with expert judgment, allowing for an initial tier assessment that can further inform targeted testing and risk management strategies. The National Exposure Research Laboratory′s (NERL′s) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in suppor

  2. Local Community Detection Algorithm Based on Minimal Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover the structure of local community more effectively, this paper puts forward a new local community detection algorithm based on minimal cluster. Most of the local community detection algorithms begin from one node. The agglomeration ability of a single node must be less than multiple nodes, so the beginning of the community extension of the algorithm in this paper is no longer from the initial node only but from a node cluster containing this initial node and nodes in the cluster are relatively densely connected with each other. The algorithm mainly includes two phases. First it detects the minimal cluster and then finds the local community extended from the minimal cluster. Experimental results show that the quality of the local community detected by our algorithm is much better than other algorithms no matter in real networks or in simulated networks.

  3. Grey situation group decision-making method based on prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Fang, Zhigeng; Liu, Xiaqing

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward a grey situation group decision-making method on the basis of prospect theory, in view of the grey situation group decision-making problems that decisions are often made by multiple decision experts and those experts have risk preferences. The method takes the positive and negative ideal situation distance as reference points, defines positive and negative prospect value function, and introduces decision experts' risk preference into grey situation decision-making to make the final decision be more in line with decision experts' psychological behavior. Based on TOPSIS method, this paper determines the weight of each decision expert, sets up comprehensive prospect value matrix for decision experts' evaluation, and finally determines the optimal situation. At last, this paper verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the method by means of a specific example.

  4. Comparison of some classification algorithms based on deterministic and nondeterministic decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Delimata, Paweł; Marszał-Paszek, Barbara; Moshkov, Mikhail; Paszek, Piotr; Skowron, Andrzej; Suraj, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    the considered algorithms extract from a given decision table efficiently some information about the set of rules. Next, this information is used by a decision-making procedure. The reported results of experiments show that the algorithms based on inhibitory

  5. Value-based reimbursement decisions for orphan drugs: a scoping review and decision framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulden, Mike; Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The rate of development of new orphan drugs continues to grow. As a result, reimbursing orphan drugs on an exceptional basis is increasingly difficult to sustain from a health system perspective. An understanding of the value that societies attach to providing orphan drugs at the expense of other health technologies is now recognised as an important input to policy debates. The aim of this work was to scope the social value arguments that have been advanced relating to the reimbursement of orphan drugs, and to locate these within a coherent decision-making framework to aid reimbursement decisions in the presence of limited healthcare resources. A scoping review of the peer reviewed and grey literature was undertaken, consisting of seven phases: (1) identifying the research question; (2) searching for relevant studies; (3) selecting studies; (4) charting, extracting and tabulating data; (5) analyzing data; (6) consulting relevant experts; and (7) presenting results. The points within decision processes where the identified value arguments would be incorporated were then located. This mapping was used to construct a framework characterising the distinct role of each value in informing decision making. The scoping review identified 19 candidate decision factors, most of which can be characterised as either value-bearing or 'opportunity cost'-determining, and also a number of value propositions and pertinent sources of preference information. We were able to synthesize these into a coherent decision-making framework. Our framework may be used to structure policy discussions and to aid transparency about the values underlying reimbursement decisions for orphan drugs. These values ought to be consistently applied to all technologies and populations affected by the decision.

  6. Evidence-based decision making in health care settings: from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Melanie Kazman; Berta, Whitney; Langley, Ann; Davis, David

    2011-01-01

    The relatively recent attention that evidence-based decision making has received in health care management has been at least in part due to the profound influence of evidence-based medicine. The result has been several comparisons in the literature between the use of evidence in health care management decisions and the use of evidence in medical decision making. Direct comparison, however, may be problematic, given the differences between medicine and management as they relate to (1) the nature of evidence that is brought to bear on decision making; (2) the maturity of empirical research in each field (in particular, studies that have substantiated whether or not and how evidence-based decision making is enacted); and (3) the context within which evidence-based decisions are made. By simultaneously reviewing evidence-based medicine and management, this chapter aims to inform future theorizing and empirical research on evidence-based decision making in health care settings.

  7. LOCAL TEXTURE DESCRIPTION FRAMEWORK FOR TEXTURE BASED FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Reena Rose

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture descriptors have an important role in recognizing face images. However, almost all the existing local texture descriptors use nearest neighbors to encode a texture pattern around a pixel. But in face images, most of the pixels have similar characteristics with that of its nearest neighbors because the skin covers large area in a face and the skin tone at neighboring regions are same. Therefore this paper presents a general framework called Local Texture Description Framework that uses only eight pixels which are at certain distance apart either circular or elliptical from the referenced pixel. Local texture description can be done using the foundation of any existing local texture descriptors. In this paper, the performance of the proposed framework is verified with three existing local texture descriptors Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Texture Pattern (LTP and Local Tetra Patterns (LTrPs for the five issues viz. facial expression, partial occlusion, illumination variation, pose variation and general recognition. Five benchmark databases JAFFE, Essex, Indian faces, AT&T and Georgia Tech are used for the experiments. Experimental results demonstrate that even with less number of patterns, the proposed framework could achieve higher recognition accuracy than that of their base models.

  8. Active Surveillance Versus Watchful Waiting for Localized Prostate Cancer: A Model to Inform Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Zhou, Qinlian; Siebert, Uwe; Rochau, Ursula; Jahn, Beate; Mühlberger, Nikolai; Carter, H Ballentine; Lepor, Herbert; Braithwaite, R Scott

    2017-12-01

    An increasing proportion of prostate cancer is being managed conservatively. However, there are no randomized trials or consensus regarding the optimal follow-up strategy. To compare life expectancy and quality of life between watchful waiting (WW) versus different strategies of active surveillance (AS). A Markov model was created for US men starting at age 50, diagnosed with localized prostate cancer who chose conservative management by WW or AS using different testing protocols (prostate-specific antigen every 3-6 mo, biopsy every 1-5 yr, or magnetic resonance imaging based). Transition probabilities and utilities were obtained from the literature. Primary outcomes were life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Secondary outcomes include radical treatment, metastasis, and prostate cancer death. All AS strategies yielded more life years compared with WW. Lifetime risks of prostate cancer death and metastasis were, respectively, 5.42% and 6.40% with AS versus 8.72% and 10.30% with WW. AS yielded more QALYs than WW except in cohorts age >65 yr at diagnosis, or when treatment-related complications were long term. The preferred follow-up strategy was also sensitive to whether people value short-term over long-term benefits (time preference). Depending on the AS protocol, 30-41% underwent radical treatment within 10 yr. Extending the surveillance biopsy interval from 1 to 5 yr reduced life years slightly, with a 0.26 difference in QALYs. AS extends life more than WW, particularly for men with higher-risk features, but this is partly offset by the decrement in quality of life since many men eventually receive treatment. More intensive active surveillance protocols extend life more than watchful waiting, but this is partly offset by decrements in quality of life from subsequent treatment. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cluster-based localization and tracking in ubiquitous computing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Torres-González, Arturo; Ollero, Anibal

    2017-01-01

    Localization and tracking are key functionalities in ubiquitous computing systems and techniques. In recent years a very high variety of approaches, sensors and techniques for indoor and GPS-denied environments have been developed. This book briefly summarizes the current state of the art in localization and tracking in ubiquitous computing systems focusing on cluster-based schemes. Additionally, existing techniques for measurement integration, node inclusion/exclusion and cluster head selection are also described in this book.

  10. A cloud based tool for knowledge exchange on local scale flood risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M E; Mackay, E; Quinn, P F; Stutter, M; Beven, K J; MacLeod, C J A; Macklin, M G; Elkhatib, Y; Percy, B; Vitolo, C; Haygarth, P M

    2015-09-15

    There is an emerging and urgent need for new approaches for the management of environmental challenges such as flood hazard in the broad context of sustainability. This requires a new way of working which bridges disciplines and organisations, and that breaks down science-culture boundaries. With this, there is growing recognition that the appropriate involvement of local communities in catchment management decisions can result in multiple benefits. However, new tools are required to connect organisations and communities. The growth of cloud based technologies offers a novel way to facilitate this process of exchange of information in environmental science and management; however, stakeholders need to be engaged with as part of the development process from the beginning rather than being presented with a final product at the end. Here we present the development of a pilot Local Environmental Virtual Observatory Flooding Tool. The aim was to develop a cloud based learning platform for stakeholders, bringing together fragmented data, models and visualisation tools that will enable these stakeholders to make scientifically informed environmental management decisions at the local scale. It has been developed by engaging with different stakeholder groups in three catchment case studies in the UK and a panel of national experts in relevant topic areas. However, these case study catchments are typical of many northern latitude catchments. The tool was designed to communicate flood risk in locally impacted communities whilst engaging with landowners/farmers about the risk of runoff from the farmed landscape. It has been developed iteratively to reflect the needs, interests and capabilities of a wide range of stakeholders. The pilot tool combines cloud based services, local catchment datasets, a hydrological model and bespoke visualisation tools to explore real time hydrometric data and the impact of flood risk caused by future land use changes. The novel aspects of the

  11. Information needs to support state and local transportation decision making into the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established new requirements for data development and dissemination that have had an impact on federal, state, and local transportation planning processes across the United States. ...

  12. Explanatory factors for the use of the financial report in decision-making: Evidence from Local Government in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Paula S. Nogueira

    2016-07-01

    Two important implications of this study are the following: first, professional bodies and the financial situation in the country; while stimulating informational needs by internal users in the public sector they determine the usefulness they offer to financial reporting for decision-making. Second, the lack of knowledge of the accounting information system, especially by local politicians, is a hindering factor of the usefulness given to financial reporting for internal decision-making. Nowadays, when many countries are considering reforms of public sector accounting in line with the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS, supposedly increasing the sophistication, the level of information and usefulness of financial reporting, such factors must be taken into account.

  13. CLIPS based decision support system for water distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sandeep

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty in knowledge representation of a water distribution network (WDN problem has contributed to the limited use of artificial intelligence (AI based expert systems (ES in the management of these networks. This paper presents a design of a Decision Support System (DSS that facilitates "on-demand'' knowledge generation by utilizing results of simulation runs of a suitably calibrated and validated hydraulic model of an existing aged WDN corresponding to emergent or even hypothetical but likely scenarios. The DSS augments the capability of a conventional expert system by integrating together the hydraulic modelling features with heuristics based knowledge of experts under a common, rules based, expert shell named CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System. In contrast to previous ES, the knowledge base of the DSS has been designed to be dynamic by superimposing CLIPS on Structured Query Language (SQL. The proposed ES has an inbuilt calibration module that enables calibration of an existing (aged WDN for the unknown, and unobservable, Hazen-Williams C-values. In addition, the daily run and simulation modules of the proposed ES further enable the CLIPS inference engine to evaluate the network performance for any emergent or suggested test scenarios. An additional feature of the proposed design is that the DSS integrates computational platforms such as MATLAB, open source Geographical Information System (GIS, and a relational database management system (RDBMS working under the umbrella of the Microsoft Visual Studio based common user interface. The paper also discusses implementation of the proposed framework on a case study and clearly demonstrates the utility of the application as an able aide for effective management of the study network.

  14. Understanding evidence: a statewide survey to explore evidence-informed public health decision-making in a local government setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Rebecca; Waters, Elizabeth; Moore, Laurence; Dobbins, Maureen; Pettman, Tahna; Burns, Cate; Swinburn, Boyd; Anderson, Laurie; Petticrew, Mark

    2014-12-14

    The value placed on types of evidence within decision-making contexts is highly dependent on individuals, the organizations in which the work and the systems and sectors they operate in. Decision-making processes too are highly contextual. Understanding the values placed on evidence and processes guiding decision-making is crucial to designing strategies to support evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM). This paper describes how evidence is used to inform local government (LG) public health decisions. The study used mixed methods including a cross-sectional survey and interviews. The Evidence-Informed Decision-Making Tool (EvIDenT) survey was designed to assess three key domains likely to impact on EIDM: access, confidence, and organizational culture. Other elements included the usefulness and influence of sources of evidence (people/groups and resources), skills and barriers, and facilitators to EIDM. Forty-five LGs from Victoria, Australia agreed to participate in the survey and up to four people from each organization were invited to complete the survey (n = 175). To further explore definitions of evidence and generate experiential data on EIDM practice, key informant interviews were conducted with a range of LG employees working in areas relevant to public health. In total, 135 responses were received (75% response rate) and 13 interviews were conducted. Analysis revealed varying levels of access, confidence and organizational culture to support EIDM. Significant relationships were found between domains: confidence, culture and access to research evidence. Some forms of evidence (e.g. community views) appeared to be used more commonly and at the expense of others (e.g. research evidence). Overall, a mixture of evidence (but more internal than external evidence) was influential in public health decision-making in councils. By comparison, a mixture of evidence (but more external than internal evidence) was deemed to be useful in public health decision

  15. Decision Making Analysis: Critical Factors-Based Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    the pitfalls associated with current wargaming methods such as assuming a western view of rational values in decision - making regardless of the cultures...Utilization theory slightly expands the rational decision making model as it states that “actors try to maximize their expected utility by weighing the...items to categorize the decision - making behavior of political leaders which tend to demonstrate either a rational or cognitive leaning. Leaders

  16. Local coding based matching kernel method for image classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Song

    Full Text Available This paper mainly focuses on how to effectively and efficiently measure visual similarity for local feature based representation. Among existing methods, metrics based on Bag of Visual Word (BoV techniques are efficient and conceptually simple, at the expense of effectiveness. By contrast, kernel based metrics are more effective, but at the cost of greater computational complexity and increased storage requirements. We show that a unified visual matching framework can be developed to encompass both BoV and kernel based metrics, in which local kernel plays an important role between feature pairs or between features and their reconstruction. Generally, local kernels are defined using Euclidean distance or its derivatives, based either explicitly or implicitly on an assumption of Gaussian noise. However, local features such as SIFT and HoG often follow a heavy-tailed distribution which tends to undermine the motivation behind Euclidean metrics. Motivated by recent advances in feature coding techniques, a novel efficient local coding based matching kernel (LCMK method is proposed. This exploits the manifold structures in Hilbert space derived from local kernels. The proposed method combines advantages of both BoV and kernel based metrics, and achieves a linear computational complexity. This enables efficient and scalable visual matching to be performed on large scale image sets. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed LCMK method, we conduct extensive experiments with widely used benchmark datasets, including 15-Scenes, Caltech101/256, PASCAL VOC 2007 and 2011 datasets. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the relatively efficient LCMK method.

  17. System and method for integrating hazard-based decision making tools and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgin, C Reed [Westminster, CO

    2012-03-20

    A system and method for inputting, analyzing, and disseminating information necessary for identified decision-makers to respond to emergency situations. This system and method provides consistency and integration among multiple groups, and may be used for both initial consequence-based decisions and follow-on consequence-based decisions. The system and method in a preferred embodiment also provides tools for accessing and manipulating information that are appropriate for each decision-maker, in order to achieve more reasoned and timely consequence-based decisions. The invention includes processes for designing and implementing a system or method for responding to emergency situations.

  18. A range-based predictive localization algorithm for WSID networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Chen, Junjie; Li, Gang

    2017-11-01

    Most studies on localization algorithms are conducted on the sensor networks with densely distributed nodes. However, the non-localizable problems are prone to occur in the network with sparsely distributed sensor nodes. To solve this problem, a range-based predictive localization algorithm (RPLA) is proposed in this paper for the wireless sensor networks syncretizing the RFID (WSID) networks. The Gaussian mixture model is established to predict the trajectory of a mobile target. Then, the received signal strength indication is used to reduce the residence area of the target location based on the approximate point-in-triangulation test algorithm. In addition, collaborative localization schemes are introduced to locate the target in the non-localizable situations. Simulation results verify that the RPLA achieves accurate localization for the network with sparsely distributed sensor nodes. The localization accuracy of the RPLA is 48.7% higher than that of the APIT algorithm, 16.8% higher than that of the single Gaussian model-based algorithm and 10.5% higher than that of the Kalman filtering-based algorithm.

  19. Locality constrained joint dynamic sparse representation for local matching based face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianzhong; Yi, Yugen; Zhou, Wei; Shi, Yanjiao; Qi, Miao; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Baoxue; Kong, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Sparse Representation-based Classification (SRC) has attracted a lot of attention for its applications to various tasks, especially in biometric techniques such as face recognition. However, factors such as lighting, expression, pose and disguise variations in face images will decrease the performances of SRC and most other face recognition techniques. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose a robust face recognition method named Locality Constrained Joint Dynamic Sparse Representation-based Classification (LCJDSRC) in this paper. In our method, a face image is first partitioned into several smaller sub-images. Then, these sub-images are sparsely represented using the proposed locality constrained joint dynamic sparse representation algorithm. Finally, the representation results for all sub-images are aggregated to obtain the final recognition result. Compared with other algorithms which process each sub-image of a face image independently, the proposed algorithm regards the local matching-based face recognition as a multi-task learning problem. Thus, the latent relationships among the sub-images from the same face image are taken into account. Meanwhile, the locality information of the data is also considered in our algorithm. We evaluate our algorithm by comparing it with other state-of-the-art approaches. Extensive experiments on four benchmark face databases (ORL, Extended YaleB, AR and LFW) demonstrate the effectiveness of LCJDSRC.

  20. Locality constrained joint dynamic sparse representation for local matching based face recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Wang

    Full Text Available Recently, Sparse Representation-based Classification (SRC has attracted a lot of attention for its applications to various tasks, especially in biometric techniques such as face recognition. However, factors such as lighting, expression, pose and disguise variations in face images will decrease the performances of SRC and most other face recognition techniques. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose a robust face recognition method named Locality Constrained Joint Dynamic Sparse Representation-based Classification (LCJDSRC in this paper. In our method, a face image is first partitioned into several smaller sub-images. Then, these sub-images are sparsely represented using the proposed locality constrained joint dynamic sparse representation algorithm. Finally, the representation results for all sub-images are aggregated to obtain the final recognition result. Compared with other algorithms which process each sub-image of a face image independently, the proposed algorithm regards the local matching-based face recognition as a multi-task learning problem. Thus, the latent relationships among the sub-images from the same face image are taken into account. Meanwhile, the locality information of the data is also considered in our algorithm. We evaluate our algorithm by comparing it with other state-of-the-art approaches. Extensive experiments on four benchmark face databases (ORL, Extended YaleB, AR and LFW demonstrate the effectiveness of LCJDSRC.

  1. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Deirdre; Bruning, Nealia S

    2010-05-26

    Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the EBDM/EBPM process can be

  2. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruning Nealia S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM and evidence-based policy making (EBPM because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial

  3. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the

  4. Demonstration of optical computing logics based on binary decision diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiyun; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Wada, Kazumi

    2012-01-16

    Optical circuits are low power consumption and fast speed alternatives for the current information processing based on transistor circuits. However, because of no transistor function available in optics, the architecture for optical computing should be chosen that optics prefers. One of which is Binary Decision Diagram (BDD), where signal is processed by sending an optical signal from the root through a serial of switching nodes to the leaf (terminal). Speed of optical computing is limited by either transmission time of optical signals from the root to the leaf or switching time of a node. We have designed and experimentally demonstrated 1-bit and 2-bit adders based on the BDD architecture. The switching nodes are silicon ring resonators with a modulation depth of 10 dB and the states are changed by the plasma dispersion effect. The quality, Q of the rings designed is 1500, which allows fast transmission of signal, e.g., 1.3 ps calculated by a photon escaping time. A total processing time is thus analyzed to be ~9 ps for a 2-bit adder and would scales linearly with the number of bit. It is two orders of magnitude faster than the conventional CMOS circuitry, ~ns scale of delay. The presented results show the potential of fast speed optical computing circuits.

  5. Iowa pavement asset management decision-making framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Most local agencies in Iowa currently make their pavement treatment decisions based on their limited experience due primarily to : lack of a systematic decision-making framework and a decision-aid tool. The lack of objective condition assessment data...

  6. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for locally advanced paranasal sinus tumors: incorporating clinical decisions in the optimization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsien, Christina; Eisbruch, Avraham; McShan, Daniel; Kessler, Marc; Marsh, Robin C.; Fraass, Benedick

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans require decisions about priorities and tradeoffs among competing goals. This study evaluates the incorporation of various clinical decisions into the optimization system, using locally advanced paranasal sinus tumors as a model. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with locally advanced paranasal sinus tumors were retrospectively replanned using inverse planning. Two clinical decisions were assumed: (1) Spare both optic pathways (OP), or (2) Spare only the contralateral OP. In each case, adequate tumor coverage (treated to 70 Gy in 35 fractions) was required. Two beamlet IMRT plans were thus developed for each patient using a class solution cost function. By altering one key variable at a time, different levels of risk of OP toxicity and planning target volume (PTV) compromise were compared in a systematic manner. The resulting clinical tradeoffs were analyzed using dosimetric criteria, tumor control probability (TCP), equivalent uniform dose (EUD), and normal tissue complication probability. Results: Plan comparisons representing the two clinical decisions (sparing both OP and sparing only the contralateral OP), with respect to minimum dose, TCP, V 95 , and EUD, demonstrated small, yet statistically significant, differences. However, when individual cases were analyzed further, significant PTV underdosage (>5%) was present in most cases for plans sparing both OP. In 6/13 cases (46%), PTV underdosage was between 5% and 15%, and in 3 cases (23%) was greater than 15%. By comparison, adequate PTV coverage was present in 8/13 cases (62%) for plans sparing only the contralateral OP. Mean target EUD comparisons between the two plans (including 9 cases where a clinical tradeoff between PTV coverage and OP sparing was required) were similar: 68.6 Gy and 69.1 Gy, respectively (p=0.02). Mean TCP values for those 9 cases were 56.5 vs. 61.7, respectively (p=0.006). Conclusions: In IMRT plans for paranasal sinus tumors

  7. Enabling Participatory Decision Making Through Web-Based GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Grant; Yam, Kevin; Hassas, Aranak [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Studies

    2001-07-01

    , morals, ethical behaviour, our relationship with, and obligations to fellow human beings, animals, and the environment. People perceive that information travels essentially one way in the processes and the voices of the community and its members are not heard. Subsequently, they feel excluded from the actual decision making process and even from being able to participate meaningfully in the process. Recent advances in informatics and geomatics technology, such as the Internet, web-based software and geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to address these issues more effectively. We believe that the combined features of two software developed at the York Centre for Applied Sustainability can facilitate access to information, provide a virtual forum for discussion and debate, and it possible for individuals to participate in decision making process, and to infer peoples' values from their choice criteria selection.

  8. Coastal Adaptation Planning for Sea Level Rise and Extremes: A Global Model for Adaptation Decision-making at the Local Level Given Uncertain Climate Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the potential economic and physical impacts of climate change on coastal resources involves evaluating a number of distinct adaptive responses. This paper presents a tool for such analysis, a spatially-disaggregated optimization model for adaptation to sea level rise (SLR) and storm surge, the Coastal Impact and Adaptation Model (CIAM). This decision-making framework fills a gap between very detailed studies of specific locations and overly aggregate global analyses. While CIAM is global in scope, the optimal adaptation strategy is determined at the local level, evaluating over 12,000 coastal segments as described in the DIVA database (Vafeidis et al. 2006). The decision to pursue a given adaptation measure depends on local socioeconomic factors like income, population, and land values and how they develop over time, relative to the magnitude of potential coastal impacts, based on geophysical attributes like inundation zones and storm surge. For example, the model's decision to protect or retreat considers the costs of constructing and maintaining coastal defenses versus those of relocating people and capital to minimize damages from land inundation and coastal storms. Uncertain storm surge events are modeled with a generalized extreme value distribution calibrated to data on local surge extremes. Adaptation is optimized for the near-term outlook, in an "act then learn then act" framework that is repeated over the model time horizon. This framework allows the adaptation strategy to be flexibly updated, reflecting the process of iterative risk management. CIAM provides new estimates of the economic costs of SLR; moreover, these detailed results can be compactly represented in a set of adaptation and damage functions for use in integrated assessment models. Alongside the optimal result, CIAM evaluates suboptimal cases and finds that global costs could increase by an order of magnitude, illustrating the importance of adaptive capacity and coastal policy.

  9. Multi-criteria weighted order based maintenance decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhanisetty, V.S.V.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    Decision making in daily maintenance requires consideration of multiple factors. The importance of each of the factors fluctuates depending on the repair scenario and the needs of the maintainer. In order to include the prioritisation of multiple criteria, a weighted decision making model is

  10. Fair processes and fair outcomes: involving local stakeholders in RWM decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, A.

    2004-01-01

    There is a general agreement on the requirements to be met by radioactive waste management strategies. One of the requirements is that both the outcomes of any decisions and the decision-making processes must be seen to be fair. However, there exist multiple legitimate views on fairness and there is no meta-theory that could help decide which of the competing views should be considered valid in a concrete case. Referring to the plurality of views on fairness, Linnerooth-Bayer (forthcoming) argues that the impasse in facility siting processes can be attributed to the failure to take adequate account of the diverse views held by the various stakeholders on fair processes and outcomes. Three fundamental ethical principles have been derived from three basic ethical theories: well-being which is the central concept of utilitarian ethics, justice which is a key notion in egalitarian ethics, and dignity which is central to deontology (Bay and Oughton, 2003). According to utilitarian ethics fairness means that public welfare is maximized even at the cost of stakeholders' individual rights. Costs and benefits can be legitimately distributed in any way; only their overall balance has to be enhanced. In contrary, egalitarian ethics aims for a fair distribution of benefits and costs among stakeholders, while deontology acknowledges universal values of actions, e.g. the respect for individual rights, apart from their consequences. According to the latter ethics, fairness means that stakeholders themselves have the opportunity to learn about the benefits and costs of various options, and having considered them, decide on their position to accept them. How do diverse views on fair decisions materialize in RWM debates? (author)

  11. Comparison of some classification algorithms based on deterministic and nondeterministic decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Delimata, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    We discuss two, in a sense extreme, kinds of nondeterministic rules in decision tables. The first kind of rules, called as inhibitory rules, are blocking only one decision value (i.e., they have all but one decisions from all possible decisions on their right hand sides). Contrary to this, any rule of the second kind, called as a bounded nondeterministic rule, can have on the right hand side only a few decisions. We show that both kinds of rules can be used for improving the quality of classification. In the paper, two lazy classification algorithms of polynomial time complexity are considered. These algorithms are based on deterministic and inhibitory decision rules, but the direct generation of rules is not required. Instead of this, for any new object the considered algorithms extract from a given decision table efficiently some information about the set of rules. Next, this information is used by a decision-making procedure. The reported results of experiments show that the algorithms based on inhibitory decision rules are often better than those based on deterministic decision rules. We also present an application of bounded nondeterministic rules in construction of rule based classifiers. We include the results of experiments showing that by combining rule based classifiers based on minimal decision rules with bounded nondeterministic rules having confidence close to 1 and sufficiently large support, it is possible to improve the classification quality. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multicriteria Group Decision Making Based on VIKOR and Choquet Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunqiao Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective decision making approach based on VIKOR and Choquet integral is developed to solve multicriteria group decision making problem with conflicting criteria and interdependent subjective preference of decision makers in a fuzzy environment where preferences of decision makers with respect to criteria are represented by interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets. First, an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy Choquet integral operator is given. Some of its properties are investigated in detail. The extended VIKOR decision procedure based on the proposed operator is developed for solving the multicriteria group decision making problem where the interactive criteria weight is measured by Shapley value. An illustrative example is given for demonstrating the applicability of the proposed decision procedure for solving the multi-criteria group decision making problem in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environment.

  13. Maintenance planning support method for nuclear power plants based on collective decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shunichi; Sakurai, Shoji; Takaoka, Kazushi; Kanemoto, Shigeru; Fukutomi, Shigeki

    1992-01-01

    Inspection and maintenance planning in nuclear power plants is conducted by decision making based on experts' collective consensus. However, since a great deal of time and effort is required to reach a consensus among expert judgments, the establishment of effective decision making methods is necessary. Therefore, the authors developed a method for supporting collective decision making, based on a combination of three types of decision making methods; the Characteristic Diagram method, Interpretative Structural Modeling method, and the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. The proposed method enables us to determine the evaluation criteria systematically for collective decision making, and also allows extracting collective decisions using simplified questionnaires. The proposed method can support reaching a consensus of groups effectively through the evaluation of collective decision structural models and their characteristics. In this paper, the effectiveness of the proposed method was demonstrated through its application to the decision making problem concerning whether or not the improved ultrasonic testing equipment should be adopted at nuclear power plants. (author)

  14. Tunnel Vision: Local Behavioral Influences on Consumer Decisions in Product Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Häubl (Gerald); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce and test a behavioral model of consumer product search that extends a baseline normative model of sequential search by incorporating nonnormative influences that are local in the sense that they reflect consumers' undue sensitivity to recently encountered alternatives. We

  15. MFAM: Multiple Frequency Adaptive Model-Based Indoor Localization Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuta, Jure; Juric, Matjaz B

    2018-03-24

    This paper presents MFAM (Multiple Frequency Adaptive Model-based localization method), a novel model-based indoor localization method that is capable of using multiple wireless signal frequencies simultaneously. It utilizes indoor architectural model and physical properties of wireless signal propagation through objects and space. The motivation for developing multiple frequency localization method lies in the future Wi-Fi standards (e.g., 802.11ah) and the growing number of various wireless signals present in the buildings (e.g., Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, etc.). Current indoor localization methods mostly rely on a single wireless signal type and often require many devices to achieve the necessary accuracy. MFAM utilizes multiple wireless signal types and improves the localization accuracy over the usage of a single frequency. It continuously monitors signal propagation through space and adapts the model according to the changes indoors. Using multiple signal sources lowers the required number of access points for a specific signal type while utilizing signals, already present in the indoors. Due to the unavailability of the 802.11ah hardware, we have evaluated proposed method with similar signals; we have used 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi and 868 MHz HomeMatic home automation signals. We have performed the evaluation in a modern two-bedroom apartment and measured mean localization error 2.0 to 2.3 m and median error of 2.0 to 2.2 m. Based on our evaluation results, using two different signals improves the localization accuracy by 18% in comparison to 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi-only approach. Additional signals would improve the accuracy even further. We have shown that MFAM provides better accuracy than competing methods, while having several advantages for real-world usage.

  16. MFAM: Multiple Frequency Adaptive Model-Based Indoor Localization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Tuta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents MFAM (Multiple Frequency Adaptive Model-based localization method, a novel model-based indoor localization method that is capable of using multiple wireless signal frequencies simultaneously. It utilizes indoor architectural model and physical properties of wireless signal propagation through objects and space. The motivation for developing multiple frequency localization method lies in the future Wi-Fi standards (e.g., 802.11ah and the growing number of various wireless signals present in the buildings (e.g., Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, etc.. Current indoor localization methods mostly rely on a single wireless signal type and often require many devices to achieve the necessary accuracy. MFAM utilizes multiple wireless signal types and improves the localization accuracy over the usage of a single frequency. It continuously monitors signal propagation through space and adapts the model according to the changes indoors. Using multiple signal sources lowers the required number of access points for a specific signal type while utilizing signals, already present in the indoors. Due to the unavailability of the 802.11ah hardware, we have evaluated proposed method with similar signals; we have used 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi and 868 MHz HomeMatic home automation signals. We have performed the evaluation in a modern two-bedroom apartment and measured mean localization error 2.0 to 2.3 m and median error of 2.0 to 2.2 m. Based on our evaluation results, using two different signals improves the localization accuracy by 18% in comparison to 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi-only approach. Additional signals would improve the accuracy even further. We have shown that MFAM provides better accuracy than competing methods, while having several advantages for real-world usage.

  17. Robust 3D face landmark localization based on local coordinate coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Sun, Shengpeng; Chen, Chun; Maybank, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    In the 3D facial animation and synthesis community, input faces are usually required to be labeled by a set of landmarks for parameterization. Because of the variations in pose, expression and resolution, automatic 3D face landmark localization remains a challenge. In this paper, a novel landmark localization approach is presented. The approach is based on local coordinate coding (LCC) and consists of two stages. In the first stage, we perform nose detection, relying on the fact that the nose shape is usually invariant under the variations in the pose, expression, and resolution. Then, we use the iterative closest points algorithm to find a 3D affine transformation that aligns the input face to a reference face. In the second stage, we perform resampling to build correspondences between the input 3D face and the training faces. Then, an LCC-based localization algorithm is proposed to obtain the positions of the landmarks in the input face. Experimental results show that the proposed method is comparable to state of the art methods in terms of its robustness, flexibility, and accuracy.

  18. Use of GIS-Based Sampling to Inform Food Security Assessments and Decision Making in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahome, A.; Ndubi, A. O.; Ndungu, L. W.; Mugo, R. M.; Flores Cordova, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Kenya relies on agricultural production for supporting local consumption and other processing value chains. With changing climate in a rain-fed dependent agricultural production system, cropping zones are shifting and proper decision making will require updated data. Where up-to-date data is not available it is important that it is generated and passed over to relevant stakeholders to inform their decision making. The process of generating this data should be cost effective and less time consuming. The Kenyan State Department of Agriculture (SDA) runs an insurance programme for maize farmers in a number of counties in Kenya. Previously, SDA was using a list of farmers to identify the crop fields for this insurance programme. However, the process of listing of all farmers in each Unit Area of Insurance (UAI) proved to be tedious and very costly, hence need for an alternative approach, but acceptable sampling methodology. Building on the existing cropland maps, SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID initiative that brings Earth observations (EO) for improved environmental decision making in developing countries, specifically its hub in Eastern and Soutehrn Africa developed a High Resolution Map based on 10m Sentinel satellite images from which a GIS based sampling frame for identifying maize fields was developed. Sampling points were randomly generated in each UAI and navigated to using hand-held GPS units for identification of maize farmers. In the GIS-based identification of farmers SDA uses 1 day to cover an area covered in 1 week by list identification of farmers. Similarly, SDA spends approximately 3,000 USD per sub-county to locate maize fields using GIS-based sampling as compared 10,000 USD they used to spend before. This has resulted in 70% cost reduction.

  19. Monocular Vision-Based Robot Localization and Target Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Fei Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vision-based technology for localizing targets in 3D environment. It is achieved by the combination of different types of sensors including optical wheel encoders, an electrical compass, and visual observations with a single camera. Based on the robot motion model and image sequences, extended Kalman filter is applied to estimate target locations and the robot pose simultaneously. The proposed localization system is applicable in practice because it is not necessary to have the initializing setting regarding starting the system from artificial landmarks of known size. The technique is especially suitable for navigation and target tracing for an indoor robot and has a high potential extension to surveillance and monitoring for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with aerial odometry sensors. The experimental results present “cm” level accuracy of the localization of the targets in indoor environment under a high-speed robot movement.

  20. Decision boxes for clinicians to support evidence-based practice and shared decision making: the user experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giguere Anik

    2012-08-01

    -making process were added with the intent of clarifying the tool’s purpose. Information about the risks and benefits according to risk levels was added to the Decision Boxes, to try to ease the adaptation of the information to individual patients. Conclusion Results will guide the development of the eight remaining Decision Boxes. A future study will evaluate the effect of Decision Boxes on the integration of evidence-based and shared decision making principles in clinical practice.

  1. A Bayesian decision approach to rainfall thresholds based flood warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. V. Martina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational real time flood forecasting systems generally require a hydrological model to run in real time as well as a series of hydro-informatics tools to transform the flood forecast into relatively simple and clear messages to the decision makers involved in flood defense. The scope of this paper is to set forth the possibility of providing flood warnings at given river sections based on the direct comparison of the quantitative precipitation forecast with critical rainfall threshold values, without the need of an on-line real time forecasting system. This approach leads to an extremely simplified alert system to be used by non technical stakeholders and could also be used to supplement the traditional flood forecasting systems in case of system failures. The critical rainfall threshold values, incorporating the soil moisture initial conditions, result from statistical analyses using long hydrological time series combined with a Bayesian utility function minimization. In the paper, results of an application of the proposed methodology to the Sieve river, a tributary of the Arno river in Italy, are given to exemplify its practical applicability.

  2. Adaptive local backlight dimming algorithm based on local histogram and image characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Burini, Nino; Korhonen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    -off between power consumption and image quality preservation than the other algorithms representing the state of the art among feature based backlight algorithms. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.......Liquid Crystal Display (LCDs) with Light Emitting Diode (LED) backlight is a very popular display technology, used for instance in television sets, monitors and mobile phones. This paper presents a new backlight dimming algorithm that exploits the characteristics of the target image......, such as the local histograms and the average pixel intensity of each backlight segment, to reduce the power consumption of the backlight and enhance image quality. The local histogram of the pixels within each backlight segment is calculated and, based on this average, an adaptive quantile value is extracted...

  3. Asymmetric Localization of Cdx2 mRNA during the First Cell-Fate Decision in Early Mouse Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skamagki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A longstanding question in mammalian development is whether the divisions that segregate pluripotent progenitor cells for the future embryo from cells that differentiate into extraembryonic structures are asymmetric in cell-fate instructions. The transcription factor Cdx2 plays a key role in the first cell-fate decision. Here, using live-embryo imaging, we show that localization of Cdx2 transcripts becomes asymmetric during development, preceding cell lineage segregation. Cdx2 transcripts preferentially localize apically at the late eight-cell stage and become inherited asymmetrically during divisions that set apart pluripotent and differentiating cells. Asymmetric localization depends on a cis element within the coding region of Cdx2 and requires cell polarization as well as intact microtubule and actin cytoskeletons. Failure to enrich Cdx2 transcripts apically results in a significant decrease in the number of pluripotent cells. We discuss how the asymmetric localization and segregation of Cdx2 transcripts could contribute to multiple mechanisms that establish different cell fates in the mouse embryo.

  4. Chemical analysis and base-promoted hydrolysis of locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The study was on the chemical analysis and base- promoted hydrolysis of extracted shea nut fat. The local method of extraction of the shea nut oil was employed in comparison with literature report. A simple cold-process alkali hydrolysis of the shea nut oil was used in producing the soap. The chemical analysis of ...

  5. Novel Ethernet Based Optical Local Area Networks for Computer Interconnection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radovanovic, Igor; van Etten, Wim; Taniman, R.O.; Kleinkiskamp, Ronny

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present new optical local area networks for fiber-to-the-desk application. Presented networks are expected to bring a solution for having optical fibers all the way to computers. To bring the overall implementation costs down we have based our networks on short-wavelength optical

  6. Constraint-based local search for container stowage slot planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacino, Dario; Jensen, Rune Møller; Bebbington, Tom

    2012-01-01

    -sea vessels. This paper describes the constrained-based local search algorithm used in the second phase of this approach where individual containers are assigned to slots in each bay section. The algorithm can solve this problem in an average of 0.18 seconds per bay, corresponding to a 20 seconds runtime...

  7. An Intuitionistic Fuzzy Stochastic Decision-Making Method Based on Case-Based Reasoning and Prospect Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the case-based reasoning method and prospect theory, this paper mainly focuses on finding a way to obtain decision-makers’ preferences and the criterion weights for stochastic multicriteria decision-making problems and classify alternatives. Firstly, we construct a new score function for an intuitionistic fuzzy number (IFN considering the decision-making environment. Then, we aggregate the decision-making information in different natural states according to the prospect theory and test decision-making matrices. A mathematical programming model based on a case-based reasoning method is presented to obtain the criterion weights. Moreover, in the original decision-making problem, we integrate all the intuitionistic fuzzy decision-making matrices into an expectation matrix using the expected utility theory and classify or rank the alternatives by the case-based reasoning method. Finally, two illustrative examples are provided to illustrate the implementation process and applicability of the developed method.

  8. GUIDED TOUR OF A WEB-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION TOOLKIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decision-making regarding the targeting of vulnerable resources and prioritization of actions requires synthesis of data on condition, vulnerability, and feasibility of risk management alternatives. EP A's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReV A) Program has evaluated existing a...

  9. Risk-Based Decision Support of Water Resource Management Alternatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    West, Paul D; Trainor, Timothy E

    2006-01-01

    .... A model is presented that combines a new risk assessment methodology with traditional decision-making tools to enable systems engineers to capture the full spectrum of operational risks during the design process...

  10. Decision Level Fusion of Fingerprint Minutiae Based Pseudonymous Identifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph; de Groot, Koen; Xu, H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2011-01-01

    In a biometric template protected authentication system, a pseudonymous identifier is the part of a protected biometric template that can be compared directly against other pseudonymous identifiers. Each compared pair of pseudonymous identifiers results in a verification decision testing whether

  11. Knowledge-Based Decision Model Construction for Dynamic Interpretation Tasks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wellman, Michael

    1997-01-01

    ...) is highly variable, precluding specification of a fixed model in advance. The project yielded technical results in four areas of reasoning and decision making under uncertainty involving model construction: (1...

  12. Web-Based Group Decision Support System: an Economic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion ISTUDOR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision Support Systems (DSS form a specific class of computerized information systems that support business and managerial decision-making activities. Making the right decision in business primarily depends on the quality of data. It also depends on the ability to analyze the data with a view to identifying trends that can suggest solutions and strategies. A “cooperative” decision support system means the data are collected, analyzed and then provided to a human agent who can help the system to revise or refine the data. It means that both a human component and computer component work together to come up with the best solution. This paper describes the usage of a software product (Vanguard System to a specific economic application (evaluating the financial risk assuming that the rate of the economic profitability can be under the value of the interest rate.

  13. Lung Nodule Image Classification Based on Local Difference Pattern and Combined Classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Keming; Deng, Zhuofu

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel lung nodule classification method for low-dose CT images. The method includes two stages. First, Local Difference Pattern (LDP) is proposed to encode the feature representation, which is extracted by comparing intensity difference along circular regions centered at the lung nodule. Then, the single-center classifier is trained based on LDP. Due to the diversity of feature distribution for different class, the training images are further clustered into multiple cores and the multicenter classifier is constructed. The two classifiers are combined to make the final decision. Experimental results on public dataset show the superior performance of LDP and the combined classifier.

  14. Lung Nodule Image Classification Based on Local Difference Pattern and Combined Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel lung nodule classification method for low-dose CT images. The method includes two stages. First, Local Difference Pattern (LDP is proposed to encode the feature representation, which is extracted by comparing intensity difference along circular regions centered at the lung nodule. Then, the single-center classifier is trained based on LDP. Due to the diversity of feature distribution for different class, the training images are further clustered into multiple cores and the multicenter classifier is constructed. The two classifiers are combined to make the final decision. Experimental results on public dataset show the superior performance of LDP and the combined classifier.

  15. Justifying Design Decisions with Theory-based Design Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Schermann, Michael;Gehlert, Andreas;Pohl, Klaus;Krcmar, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Although the role of theories in design research is recognized, we show that little attention has been paid on how to use theories when designing new artifacts. We introduce design principles as a new methodological approach to address this problem. Design principles extend the notion of design rationales that document how a design decision emerged. We extend the concept of design rationales by using theoretical hypotheses to support or object to design decisions. At the example of developing...

  16. Self-disclosure decision making based on intimacy and privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Such, Jose M.; Espinosa, Agustin; Garcia-Fornes, Ana; Sierra, Caries

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous agents may encapsulate their principals¿ personal data attributes. These attributes may be disclosed to other agents during agent interactions, producing a loss of privacy. Thus, agents need self-disclosure decision-making mechanisms to autonomously decide whether disclosing personal data attributes to other agents is acceptable or not. Current self-disclosure decision-making mechanisms consider the direct benefit and the privacy loss of disclosing an attribute. Howe...

  17. Neuro-Based Artificial Intelligence Model for Loan Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Shorouq F. Eletter; Saad G. Yaseen; Ghaleb A. Elrefae

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Despite the increase in consumer loans defaults and competition in the banking market, most of the Jordanian commercial banks are reluctant to use artificial intelligence software systems for supporting loan decisions. Approach: This study developed a proposed model that identifies artificial neural network as an enabling tool for evaluating credit applications to support loan decisions in the Jordanian Commercial banks. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network with backpr...

  18. A user-friendly mathematical modelling web interface to assist local decision making in the fight against drug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragonnet, Romain; Trauer, James M; Denholm, Justin T; Marais, Ben J; McBryde, Emma S

    2017-05-30

    Multidrug-resistant and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) represent an important challenge for global tuberculosis (TB) control. The high rates of MDR/RR-TB observed among re-treatment cases can arise from diverse pathways: de novo amplification during initial treatment, inappropriate treatment of undiagnosed MDR/RR-TB, relapse despite appropriate treatment, or reinfection with MDR/RR-TB. Mathematical modelling allows quantification of the contribution made by these pathways in different settings. This information provides valuable insights for TB policy-makers, allowing better contextualised solutions. However, mathematical modelling outputs need to consider local data and be easily accessible to decision makers in order to improve their usefulness. We present a user-friendly web-based modelling interface, which can be used by people without technical knowledge. Users can input their own parameter values and produce estimates for their specific setting. This innovative tool provides easy access to mathematical modelling outputs that are highly relevant to national TB control programs. In future, the same approach could be applied to a variety of modelling applications, enhancing local decision making.

  19. Trust Index Based Fault Tolerant Multiple Event Localization Algorithm for WSNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Gao, Xueyong; Wan, Jian; Xiong, Naixue

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of wireless sensor networks for multiple event source localization using binary information from the sensor nodes. The events could continually emit signals whose strength is attenuated inversely proportional to the distance from the source. In this context, faults occur due to various reasons and are manifested when a node reports a wrong decision. In order to reduce the impact of node faults on the accuracy of multiple event localization, we introduce a trust index model to evaluate the fidelity of information which the nodes report and use in the event detection process, and propose the Trust Index based Subtract on Negative Add on Positive (TISNAP) localization algorithm, which reduces the impact of faulty nodes on the event localization by decreasing their trust index, to improve the accuracy of event localization and performance of fault tolerance for multiple event source localization. The algorithm includes three phases: first, the sink identifies the cluster nodes to determine the number of events occurred in the entire region by analyzing the binary data reported by all nodes; then, it constructs the likelihood matrix related to the cluster nodes and estimates the location of all events according to the alarmed status and trust index of the nodes around the cluster nodes. Finally, the sink updates the trust index of all nodes according to the fidelity of their information in the previous reporting cycle. The algorithm improves the accuracy of localization and performance of fault tolerance in multiple event source localization. The experiment results show that when the probability of node fault is close to 50%, the algorithm can still accurately determine the number of the events and have better accuracy of localization compared with other algorithms. PMID:22163972

  20. Trust Index Based Fault Tolerant Multiple Event Localization Algorithm for WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of wireless sensor networks for multiple event source localization using binary information from the sensor nodes. The events could continually emit signals whose strength is attenuated inversely proportional to the distance from the source. In this context, faults occur due to various reasons and are manifested when a node reports a wrong decision. In order to reduce the impact of node faults on the accuracy of multiple event localization, we introduce a trust index model to evaluate the fidelity of information which the nodes report and use in the event detection process, and propose the Trust Index based Subtract on Negative Add on Positive (TISNAP localization algorithm, which reduces the impact of faulty nodes on the event localization by decreasing their trust index, to improve the accuracy of event localization and performance of fault tolerance for multiple event source localization. The algorithm includes three phases: first, the sink identifies the cluster nodes to determine the number of events occurred in the entire region by analyzing the binary data reported by all nodes; then, it constructs the likelihood matrix related to the cluster nodes and estimates the location of all events according to the alarmed status and trust index of the nodes around the cluster nodes. Finally, the sink updates the trust index of all nodes according to the fidelity of their information in the previous reporting cycle. The algorithm improves the accuracy of localization and performance of fault tolerance in multiple event source localization. The experiment results show that when the probability of node fault is close to 50%, the algorithm can still accurately determine the number of the events and have better accuracy of localization compared with other algorithms.

  1. Visual Appearance-Based Unmanned Vehicle Sequential Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Localizationis of vital importance for an unmanned vehicle to drive on the road. Most of the existing algorithms are based on laser range finders, inertial equipment, artificial landmarks, distributing sensors or global positioning system(GPS information. Currently, the problem of localization with vision information is most concerned. However, vision-based localization techniquesare still unavailable for practical applications. In this paper, we present a vision-based sequential probability localization method. This method uses the surface information of the roadside to locate the vehicle, especially in the situation where GPS information is unavailable. It is composed of two step, first, in a recording stage, we construct a ground truthmap with the appearance of the roadside environment. Then in an on-line stage, we use a sequential matching approach to localize the vehicle. In the experiment, we use two independent cameras to observe the environment, one is left-orientated and the other is right. SIFT features and Daisy features are used to represent for the visual appearance of the environment. The experiment results show that the proposed method could locate the vehicle in a complicated, large environment with high reliability.

  2. Bayesian-based localization in inhomogeneous transmission media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadimi, E. S.; Blanes-Vidal, V.; Johansen, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel robust probabilistic approach based on the Bayesian inference using received-signal-strength (RSS) measurements with varying path-loss exponent. We derived the probability density function (pdf) of the distance between any two sensors in the network with heteroge......In this paper, we propose a novel robust probabilistic approach based on the Bayesian inference using received-signal-strength (RSS) measurements with varying path-loss exponent. We derived the probability density function (pdf) of the distance between any two sensors in the network...... with heterogeneous transmission medium as a function of the given RSS measurements and the characteristics of the heterogeneous medium. The results of this study show that the localization mean square error (MSE) of the Bayesian-based method outperformed all other existing localization approaches. © 2013 ACM....

  3. MMPI-based employment decisions for high-risk positions in nuclear power settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilikofsky, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    To asses the feasibility of using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) as a personnel screening device for high-risk occupations, the test protocols of 735 applicants to and employees of the nuclear facilities owned by a southeastern utility were obtained. Institutional information on initial screening, hiring, and follow-up status was provided. MMPI data were processed to yield pass-and-fail screening decisions using a commercially available computer-based test interpretation system and a locally developed (NC) clerical interpretive system. The latter method was applied both with and without K corrections to component scores. The clerical system using K-corrected scores produced the largest number of true and false positives. The same rules, using uncorrected scores, produced the greatest number of false negatives. The computer-based system produced the most-acceptable set of decisions overall, striking a balance between these two kinds of errors. It was concluded that, when assessed against the available criterion information, the MMPI could not be recommended as a screening device. However, due to serious limitations inherent in these data, further study is needed.

  4. MMPI-based employment decisions for high-risk positions in nuclear power settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilikofsky, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    To asses the feasibility of using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) as a personnel screening device for high-risk occupations, the test protocols of 735 applicants to and employees of the nuclear facilities owned by a southeastern utility were obtained. Institutional information on initial screening, hiring, and follow-up status was provided. MMPI data were processed to yield pass-and-fail screening decisions using a commercially available computer-based test interpretation system and a locally developed (NC) clerical interpretive system. The latter method was applied both with and without K corrections to component scores. The clerical system using K-corrected scores produced the largest number of true and false positives. The same rules, using uncorrected scores, produced the greatest number of false negatives. The computer-based system produced the most-acceptable set of decisions overall, striking a balance between these two kinds of errors. It was concluded that, when assessed against the available criterion information, the MMPI could not be recommended as a screening device. However, due to serious limitations inherent in these data, further study is needed

  5. Frame-based safety analysis approach for decision-based errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Chin-Feng; Yihb, Swu

    1997-01-01

    A frame-based approach is proposed to analyze decision-based errors made by automatic controllers or human operators due to erroneous reference frames. An integrated framework, Two Frame Model (TFM), is first proposed to model the dynamic interaction between the physical process and the decision-making process. Two important issues, consistency and competing processes, are raised. Consistency between the physical and logic frames makes a TFM-based system work properly. Loss of consistency refers to the failure mode that the logic frame does not accurately reflect the state of the controlled processes. Once such failure occurs, hazards may arise. Among potential hazards, the competing effect between the controller and the controlled process is the most severe one, which may jeopardize a defense-in-depth design. When the logic and physical frames are inconsistent, conventional safety analysis techniques are inadequate. We propose Frame-based Fault Tree; Analysis (FFTA) and Frame-based Event Tree Analysis (FETA) under TFM to deduce the context for decision errors and to separately generate the evolution of the logical frame as opposed to that of the physical frame. This multi-dimensional analysis approach, different from the conventional correctness-centred approach, provides a panoramic view in scenario generation. Case studies using the proposed techniques are also given to demonstrate their usage and feasibility

  6. Informing Evidence Based Decisions: Usage Statistics for Online Journal Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Botchkarev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – The primary objective was to examine online journal database usage statistics for a provincial ministry of health in the context of evidence based decision-making. In addition, the study highlights implementation of the Journal Access Centre (JAC that is housed and powered by the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC to inform health systems policy-making. Methods – This was a prospective case study using descriptive analysis of the JAC usage statistics of journal articles from January 2009 to September 2013. Results – JAC enables ministry employees to access approximately 12,000 journals with full-text articles. JAC usage statistics for the 2011-2012 calendar years demonstrate a steady level of activity in terms of searches, with monthly averages of 5,129. In 2009-2013, a total of 4,759 journal titles were accessed including 1,675 journals with full-text. Usage statistics demonstrate that the actual consumption was over 12,790 full-text downloaded articles or approximately 2,700 articles annually. Conclusion – JAC’s steady level of activities, revealed by the study, reflects continuous demand for JAC services and products. It testifies that access to online journal databases has become part of routine government knowledge management processes. MOHLTC’s broad area of responsibilities with dynamically changing priorities translates into the diverse information needs of its employees and a large set of required journals. Usage statistics indicate that MOHLTC information needs cannot be mapped to a reasonably compact set of “core” journals with a subsequent subscription to those.

  7. Fundamentals of the fuzzy logic-based generalized theory of decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aliev, Rafik Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Every day decision making and decision making in complex human-centric systems are characterized by imperfect decision-relevant information. Main drawback of the existing decision theories is namely incapability to deal with imperfect information and modeling vague preferences. Actually, a paradigm of non-numerical probabilities in decision making has a long history and arose also in Keynes’s analysis of uncertainty. There is a need for further generalization – a move to decision theories with perception-based imperfect information described in NL. The languages of new decision models for human-centric systems should be not languages based on binary logic but human-centric computational schemes able to operate on NL-described information. Development of new theories is now possible due to an increased computational power of information processing systems which allows for computations with imperfect information, particularly, imprecise and partially true information, which are much more complex than comput...

  8. Search-free license plate localization based on saliency and local variance estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Amin; Tang, H. L.; Sanei, S.

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the performance and accuracy of automatic license plate number recognition (ALPR) systems have greatly improved, however the increasing number of applications for such systems have made ALPR research more challenging than ever. The inherent computational complexity of search dependent algorithms remains a major problem for current ALPR systems. This paper proposes a novel search-free method of localization based on the estimation of saliency and local variance. Gabor functions are then used to validate the choice of candidate license plate. The algorithm was applied to three image datasets with different levels of complexity and the results compared with a number of benchmark methods, particularly in terms of speed. The proposed method outperforms the state of the art methods and can be used for real time applications.

  9. The Toggle Local Planner for sampling-based motion planning

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2012-05-01

    Sampling-based solutions to the motion planning problem, such as the probabilistic roadmap method (PRM), have become commonplace in robotics applications. These solutions are the norm as the dimensionality of the planning space grows, i.e., d > 5. An important primitive of these methods is the local planner, which is used for validation of simple paths between two configurations. The most common is the straight-line local planner which interpolates along the straight line between the two configurations. In this paper, we introduce a new local planner, Toggle Local Planner (Toggle LP), which extends local planning to a two-dimensional subspace of the overall planning space. If no path exists between the two configurations in the subspace, then Toggle LP is guaranteed to correctly return false. Intuitively, more connections could be found by Toggle LP than by the straight-line planner, resulting in better connected roadmaps. As shown in our results, this is the case, and additionally, the extra cost, in terms of time or storage, for Toggle LP is minimal. Additionally, our experimental analysis of the planner shows the benefit for a wide array of robots, with DOF as high as 70. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Face detection and facial feature localization using notch based templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qayyum, U.

    2007-01-01

    We present a real time detection off aces from the video with facial feature localization as well as the algorithm capable of differentiating between the face/non-face patterns. The need of face detection and facial feature localization arises in various application of computer vision, so a lot of research is dedicated to come up with a real time solution. The algorithm should remain simple to perform real time whereas it should not compromise on the challenges encountered during the detection and localization phase, keeping simplicity and all challenges i.e. algorithm invariant to scale, translation, and (+-45) rotation transformations. The proposed system contains two parts. Visual guidance and face/non-face classification. The visual guidance phase uses the fusion of motion and color cues to classify skin color. Morphological operation with union-structure component labeling algorithm extracts contiguous regions. Scale normalization is applied by nearest neighbor interpolation method to avoid the effect of different scales. Using the aspect ratio of width and height size. Region of Interest (ROI) is obtained and then passed to face/non-face classifier. Notch (Gaussian) based templates/ filters are used to find circular darker regions in ROI. The classified face region is handed over to facial feature localization phase, which uses YCbCr eyes/lips mask for face feature localization. The empirical results show an accuracy of 90% for five different videos with 1000 face/non-face patterns and processing rate of proposed algorithm is 15 frames/sec. (author)

  11. A block matching-based registration algorithm for localization of locally advanced lung tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Scott P.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Hugo, Geoffrey D., E-mail: gdhugo@vcu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, 23298 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To implement and evaluate a block matching-based registration (BMR) algorithm for locally advanced lung tumor localization during image-guided radiotherapy. Methods: Small (1 cm{sup 3}), nonoverlapping image subvolumes (“blocks”) were automatically identified on the planning image to cover the tumor surface using a measure of the local intensity gradient. Blocks were independently and automatically registered to the on-treatment image using a rigid transform. To improve speed and robustness, registrations were performed iteratively from coarse to fine image resolution. At each resolution, all block displacements having a near-maximum similarity score were stored. From this list, a single displacement vector for each block was iteratively selected which maximized the consistency of displacement vectors across immediately neighboring blocks. These selected displacements were regularized using a median filter before proceeding to registrations at finer image resolutions. After evaluating all image resolutions, the global rigid transform of the on-treatment image was computed using a Procrustes analysis, providing the couch shift for patient setup correction. This algorithm was evaluated for 18 locally advanced lung cancer patients, each with 4–7 weekly on-treatment computed tomography scans having physician-delineated gross tumor volumes. Volume overlap (VO) and border displacement errors (BDE) were calculated relative to the nominal physician-identified targets to establish residual error after registration. Results: Implementation of multiresolution registration improved block matching accuracy by 39% compared to registration using only the full resolution images. By also considering multiple potential displacements per block, initial errors were reduced by 65%. Using the final implementation of the BMR algorithm, VO was significantly improved from 77% ± 21% (range: 0%–100%) in the initial bony alignment to 91% ± 8% (range: 56%–100%;p < 0

  12. A block matching-based registration algorithm for localization of locally advanced lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Scott P.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To implement and evaluate a block matching-based registration (BMR) algorithm for locally advanced lung tumor localization during image-guided radiotherapy. Methods: Small (1 cm 3 ), nonoverlapping image subvolumes (“blocks”) were automatically identified on the planning image to cover the tumor surface using a measure of the local intensity gradient. Blocks were independently and automatically registered to the on-treatment image using a rigid transform. To improve speed and robustness, registrations were performed iteratively from coarse to fine image resolution. At each resolution, all block displacements having a near-maximum similarity score were stored. From this list, a single displacement vector for each block was iteratively selected which maximized the consistency of displacement vectors across immediately neighboring blocks. These selected displacements were regularized using a median filter before proceeding to registrations at finer image resolutions. After evaluating all image resolutions, the global rigid transform of the on-treatment image was computed using a Procrustes analysis, providing the couch shift for patient setup correction. This algorithm was evaluated for 18 locally advanced lung cancer patients, each with 4–7 weekly on-treatment computed tomography scans having physician-delineated gross tumor volumes. Volume overlap (VO) and border displacement errors (BDE) were calculated relative to the nominal physician-identified targets to establish residual error after registration. Results: Implementation of multiresolution registration improved block matching accuracy by 39% compared to registration using only the full resolution images. By also considering multiple potential displacements per block, initial errors were reduced by 65%. Using the final implementation of the BMR algorithm, VO was significantly improved from 77% ± 21% (range: 0%–100%) in the initial bony alignment to 91% ± 8% (range: 56%–100%;p < 0.001). Left

  13. The role and interest of local actors in HLW management decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farin, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the mid-1990's, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra) has been present on a site in Eastern France, which straddles two districts, the Meuse and the Haute-Marne, and two regions, the Lorraine and the Champagne-Ardenne. In that sector of the Paris Basin, the Agency is also conducting various studies on the geological and reversible disposal of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived waste resulting mainly from nuclear power plants. In the pursuit of its activities, Andra has already excavated and fitted an underground laboratory at a depth of 490 m in a clay formation at Bure, and built a public exhibition space at nearby Saudron to display its demonstrators and prototypes. Geological disposal forms an integral part of the French national management policy for all radioactive waste generated in France. It constitutes a broad national project, including legislation, national debates, etc. On the other hand, local actors, such as elected officials, consular chambers, etc., are also involved in the evolution of the project, as demonstrated by their participation in the debate on the reversibility of waste repositories. In general, all scientific, technical, environmental or socio-economic issues concern them very directly. At this stage in time, the project is entering into a more concrete phase, and local actors are likely to get involved even more, especially with regard to the location of surface installations or to potential land development incentives in relation to the implementation of the waste repository. The proposal for a more restricted zone in late 2009 in preparation for the implementation of the facility and of the public debate to be held in 2013, but before which Andra is required to propose an implementation site, should emphasise the implication of all stakeholders. Due to the fact that the project would be straddling the Meuse and Haute-Marne Districts, each pertaining to two different regions (Lorraine

  14. Microprocessor-based, on-line decision aid for resolving conflicting nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    We describe one design for a microprocessor-based, on-line decision aid for identifying and resolving false, conflicting, or misleading instrument indications resulting from certain systems interactions for a pressurized water reactor. The system processes sensor signals from groups of instruments that track together under nominal transient and certain accident conditions, and alarms when they do not track together. We examine multiple-casualty systems interaction and formulate a trial grouping of variables that track together under specified conditions. A two-of-three type redundancy check of key variables provides alarm and indication of conflicting information when one signal suddenly tracks in opposition due to multiple casualty, instrument failure, and/or locally abnormal conditions. Since a vote count of two of three variables in conflict as inconclusive evidence, the system is not designed to provide tripping or corrective action, but improves the operator/instrument interface by providing additional and partially digested information

  15. Research on AHP decision algorithms based on BP algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Guan, Jianhe

    2017-10-01

    Decision making is the thinking activity that people choose or judge, and scientific decision-making has always been a hot issue in the field of research. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a simple and practical multi-criteria and multi-objective decision-making method that combines quantitative and qualitative and can show and calculate the subjective judgment in digital form. In the process of decision analysis using AHP method, the rationality of the two-dimensional judgment matrix has a great influence on the decision result. However, in dealing with the real problem, the judgment matrix produced by the two-dimensional comparison is often inconsistent, that is, it does not meet the consistency requirements. BP neural network algorithm is an adaptive nonlinear dynamic system. It has powerful collective computing ability and learning ability. It can perfect the data by constantly modifying the weights and thresholds of the network to achieve the goal of minimizing the mean square error. In this paper, the BP algorithm is used to deal with the consistency of the two-dimensional judgment matrix of the AHP.

  16. An agent-based model for integrated emotion regulation and contagion in socially affected decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoor, A.; Treur, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses an agent-based computational social agent model for the integration of emotion regulation, emotion contagion and decision making in a social context. The model integrates emotion-related valuing, in order to analyse the role of emotions in socially affected decision making. The agent-based model is illustrated for the interaction between two persons. Simulation experiments for different kinds of scenarios help to understand how decisions can be affected by regulating the ...

  17. Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) 2005: Congressional Dialogue and Decision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powers, Robert

    2003-01-01

    .... After painstaking compromise and a national security crisis, reformed BRAC legislation was passed, balancing political leadership and national strategy with job loss and disruption to local communities...

  18. Multiattribute Grey Target Decision Method Based on Soft Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the Multiattribute decision-making problems in which the evaluation attribute sets are different and the evaluating values of alternatives are interval grey numbers, a multiattribute grey target decision-making method in which the attribute sets are different was proposed. The concept of grey soft set was defined, and its “AND” operation was assigned by combining the intersection operation of grey number. The expression approach of new grey soft set of attribute sets considering by all decision makers were gained by applying the “AND” operation of grey soft set, and the weights of synthesis attribute were proved. The alternatives were ranked according to the size of distance of bull’s eyes of each alternative under synthetic attribute sets. The green supplier selection was illustrated to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed model.

  19. Use of decision criteria based on expected values to support decision-making in a production assurance and safety setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, T.; Flage, R.

    2009-01-01

    We consider decision problems related to production assurance and safety. The issue is to what extent we should use decision criteria based on expected values, such as the expected net present value (E[NPV]) and the expected cost per expected number of saved lives (ICAF), to guide the decision. Such criteria are recognised as practical tools for supporting decision-making under uncertainty, but is uncertainty adequately taken into account by these criteria? Based on the prevailing practice and the existing literature, we conclude that there is a need for a clarification of the rationale of these criteria. Adjustments of the standard approaches have been suggested to reflect risks and uncertainties, but can cautionary and precautionary concerns be replaced by formulae and mechanical procedures? These issues are discussed in the present paper, particularly addressing the company level. We argue that the search for such formulae and procedures should be replaced by a more balanced perspective acknowledging that there will always be a need for management review and judgment beyond the realm of the analyses. Most of the suggested adjustments of the E[NPV] and ICAF approaches should be avoided. They add more confusion than value.

  20. Exploring the science–policy interface on climate change: The role of the IPCC in informing local decision-making in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Candice Howarth; James Painter

    2016-01-01

    Building on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) review of\\ud how to make its Assessment Reports (ARs) more accessible in the future, the research\\ud reported here assesses the extent to which the ARs are a useful tool through which scientific\\ud advice informs local decision-making on climate change in the United Kingdom. Results from\\ud interviews with local policy representatives and three workshops with UK academics, practitioners\\ud and local decision makers are present...

  1. Integrating Globality and Locality for Robust Representation Based Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The representation based classification method (RBCM has shown huge potential for face recognition since it first emerged. Linear regression classification (LRC method and collaborative representation classification (CRC method are two well-known RBCMs. LRC and CRC exploit training samples of each class and all the training samples to represent the testing sample, respectively, and subsequently conduct classification on the basis of the representation residual. LRC method can be viewed as a “locality representation” method because it just uses the training samples of each class to represent the testing sample and it cannot embody the effectiveness of the “globality representation.” On the contrary, it seems that CRC method cannot own the benefit of locality of the general RBCM. Thus we propose to integrate CRC and LRC to perform more robust representation based classification. The experimental results on benchmark face databases substantially demonstrate that the proposed method achieves high classification accuracy.

  2. Free locally convex spaces with a small base

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gabriyelyan, S.; Kąkol, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 2 (2017), s. 575-585 ISSN 1578-7303 R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compact resolution * free locally convex space * G-base Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.690, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13398-016-0315-1

  3. Biogas Filter Based on Local Natural Zeolite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Krido Wahono, Satriyo; Anggo Rizal, Wahyu

    2014-01-01

    UPT BPPTK LIPI has created a biogas filter tool to improve the purity of methane in the biogas. The device shaped cylindrical tube containing absorbent materials which based on local natural zeolite of Indonesia. The absorbent has been activated and modified with other materials. This absorbtion material has multi-adsorption capacity for almost impurities gas of biogas. The biogas  filter increase methane content of biogas for 5-20%. The biogas filter improve the biogas’s performance such as ...

  4. A basic design of microcontroller based data processor and local display for digital logarithmic power channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Khasan; Syahrudin Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    A data processor and its local display for a digital logarithmic power channel, which will be used as a complement and diversification of nuclear reactor instrument, has been designed using micro controller base circuit. This power channel has been designed using TTL device and microcontroller. The roll of the microcontroller will be as data acquisition, data processing for the measurement of percentage reactor power, period and the trip decision. In this design has beer; created display of numerical value will be display on the local display in on-line mode for 1 nV to 10 10 nV neutron flux measurement range. This logarithmic power channel is expected to support the existing instrument which uses analog system in Instrumentation and Control System of nuclear reactor. (author)

  5. Smartphone-Based Cooperative Indoor Localization with RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Seco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In GPS-denied indoor environments, localization and tracking of people can be achieved with a mobile device such as a smartphone by processing the received signal strength (RSS of RF signals emitted from known location beacons (anchor nodes, combined with Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR estimates of the user motion. An enhacement of this localization technique is feasible if the users themselves carry additional RF emitters (mobile nodes, and the cooperative position estimates of a group of persons incorporate the RSS measurements exchanged between users. We propose a centralized cooperative particle filter (PF formulation over the joint state of all users that permits to process RSS measurements from both anchor and mobile emitters, as well as PDR motion estimates and map information (if available to increase the overall positioning accuracy, particularly in regions with low density of anchor nodes. Smartphones are used as a convenient mobile platform for sensor measurements acquisition, low-level processing, and data transmission to a central unit, where cooperative localization processing takes place. The cooperative method is experimentally demonstrated with four users moving in an area of 1600 m 2 , with 7 anchor nodes comprised of active RFID (radio frequency identification tags, and additional mobile tags carried by each user. Due to the limited coverage provided by the anchor beacons, RSS-based individual localization is inaccurate (6.1 m median error, but this improves to 4.9 m median error with the cooperative PF. Further gains are produced if the PDR information is added to the filter: median error of 3.1 m (individual and 2.6 m (cooperative; and if map information is also considered, the results are 1.8 m (individual and 1.6 m (cooperative. Thus, for each version of the particle filter, cooperative localization outperforms individual localization in terms of positioning accuracy.

  6. Model-based synthesis of locally contingent responses to global market signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Rural livelihoods and the land systems on which they depend are increasingly influenced by distant markets through economic globalization. Place-based analyses of land and livelihood system sustainability must then consider both proximate and distant influences on local decision-making. Thus, advancing land change theory in the context of economic globalization calls for a systematic understanding of the general processes as well as local contingencies shaping local responses to global signals. Synthesis of insights from place-based case studies of land and livelihood change is a path forward for developing such systematic knowledge. This paper introduces a model-based synthesis approach to investigating the influence of local socio-environmental and agent-level factors in mediating land-use and livelihood responses to changing global market signals. A generalized agent-based modeling framework is applied to six case-study sites that differ in environmental conditions, market access and influence, and livelihood settings. The largest modeled land conversions and livelihood transitions to market-oriented production occurred in sties with relatively productive agricultural land and/or with limited livelihood options. Experimental shifts in the distributions of agents' risk tolerances generally acted to attenuate or amplify responses to changes in global market signals. Importantly, however, responses of agents at different points in the risk tolerance distribution varied widely, with the wealth gap growing wider between agents with higher or lower risk tolerance. These results demonstrate model-based synthesis is a promising approach to overcome many of the challenges of current synthesis methods in land change science, and to identify generalized as well as locally contingent responses to global market signals.

  7. Seeing white elephants? The production and communication of information in a locally-based monitoring system in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reinhardt Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature on locally-based monitoring in the context of conservation displays a great deal of optimism about the prospects of involving local people in the systematic gathering of information about the condition and use of natural resources and conservation areas to inform management decisions from local to national levels. This study challenges this notion based on a case study of a collaborative forest management and locally-based monitoring project that has been considered a successful showcase example in Tanzania. It does so by comparing information from locally-based monitoring of forest condition and financial transactions, as presented by community management institutions to higher authorities, with forest transect surveys and an audit of financial accounts. The results reveal that the information produced and communicated under the locally-based monitoring system contradicts trends in wildlife densities and human disturbance observed in the forest and under-represents actual financial flows. Interviews and observations further indicate that communication of this information takes place under conditions of ongoing power struggles over access to benefits of collaborative forest management. This study serves to caution that the information produced and communicated under the locally-based monitoring system may be shaped by the incentives and power struggles surrounding the particular context within which the system is based and therefore cannot be taken at face value.

  8. The Relative Success of Recognition-Based Inference in Multichoice Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloy, Rachel; Beaman, C. Philip; Smith, Philip T.

    2008-01-01

    The utility of an "ecologically rational" recognition-based decision rule in multichoice decision problems is analyzed, varying the type of judgment required (greater or lesser). The maximum size and range of a counterintuitive advantage associated with recognition-based judgment (the "less-is-more effect") is identified for a range of cue…

  9. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Client-Oriented Volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to

  10. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Executive Leaflet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to

  11. Prerequisites for data-based decision making in the classroom: Research evidence and practical illustrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, Inge; Schildkamp, Kim; van der Kleij, Fabienne; Heitink, Maaike Christine; Kippers, Wilma Berdien; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Dijkstra, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Data-based decision making can lead to increased student learning. The desired effects of increased student learning can only be realized if data-based decision making is implemented successfully. Therefore, a systematic literature review was conducted to identify prerequisites of such successful

  12. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration... Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling. (a) For...

  13. ComTrustO: Composite Trust-Based Ontology Framework for Information and Decision Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    11] presents a methodological approach for ontology management allowing development of extensible ontologies and the mapping from ontologies to...ComTrustO: Composite Trust-based Ontology Framework for Information and Decision Fusion Alessandro Oltramari Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh... ontology -based framework for information fusion, as a support system for human decision makers. In particular, we build upon the concept of composite

  14. Decision makers, scientists and the public as stakeholders: the connection between traffic intervention policy and air quality in a local context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiand, L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Schmitz, S.; Niehoff, N.

    2017-12-01

    Urban mobility is a key issue to make cities more inclusive, safer, and more environmentally friendly. To ensure a sustainable future, local policy should, among other actions, aim to improve access to sustainable transport systems and enhance mobility opportunities, while at the same time addressing critical environmental and health targets. In order to assess whether these objectives are met, measures should be informed and evaluated from a social and environmental perspective. Citizens' opinions and the acceptance of environmental policies are crucial to successful implementation of urban mobility measures. The complexity of urban air quality issues require transparent decision-making processes that are grounded in evidence-based research and embrace local knowledge. From this basis, our research group and the city council collaborated to assess a new policy action intended to address environmental and health targets. This talk will present the results from the assessment of this new policy, that was implemented in large part to alleviate air quality exceedances, from the perspective of public acceptability of the measure and the approach taken by the city council to implement the measure. Parallel to assessing the effect of this policy on the recorded levels of air pollution and traffic counts, we conducted a social survey to examine public opinions of this measure, as well as the link between air quality awareness and mobility decisions. 4661 responses were collected over a one month period. Survey participants were those most affected by the traffic measure, including commuters and local residents. The results show that there is an overall low acceptance rate of the measure (8%) as well as low concern for air quality (2,90 - where 1 = not concerned and 6 = very concerned). We also found that there is a negative relationship between air quality rating and air quality concern. A similar approach was taken to understand climate change concern, which will be

  15. Genes on the menu: facts for knowledge-based decisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pechan, Paul; Vries, Gert E. de

    2005-01-01

    ... our fundamental knowledge of plants. The knowledge allowed us, in turn, to make much better decisions about which plants to choose and cross with each other in order to introduce useful agronomic traits into new plant varieties. At first, we were just glad to have these useful techniques: suddenly new and elegant possibilities appeared ma...

  16. Strategy selection in cue-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, David J

    2014-06-01

    People can make use of a range of heuristic and rational, compensatory strategies to perform a multiple-cue judgment task. It has been proposed that people are sensitive to the amount of cognitive effort required to employ decision strategies. Experiment 1 employed a dual-task methodology to investigate whether participants' preference for heuristic versus compensatory decision strategies can be altered by increasing the cognitive demands of the task. As indicated by participants' decision times, a secondary task interfered more with the performance of a heuristic than compensatory decision strategy but did not affect the proportions of participants using either type of strategy. A stimulus set effect suggested that the conjunction of cue salience and cue validity might play a determining role in strategy selection. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that when a perceptually salient cue was also the most valid, the majority of participants preferred a single-cue heuristic strategy. Overall, the results contradict the view that heuristics are more likely to be adopted when a task is made more cognitively demanding. It is argued that people employ 2 learning processes during training, one an associative learning process in which cue-outcome associations are developed by sampling multiple cues, and another that involves the sequential examination of single cues to serve as a basis for a single-cue heuristic.

  17. Facial expression recognition under partial occlusion based on fusion of global and local features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Xia, Chen; Hu, Min; Ren, Fuji

    2018-04-01

    Facial expression recognition under partial occlusion is a challenging research. This paper proposes a novel framework for facial expression recognition under occlusion by fusing the global and local features. In global aspect, first, information entropy are employed to locate the occluded region. Second, principal Component Analysis (PCA) method is adopted to reconstruct the occlusion region of image. After that, a replace strategy is applied to reconstruct image by replacing the occluded region with the corresponding region of the best matched image in training set, Pyramid Weber Local Descriptor (PWLD) feature is then extracted. At last, the outputs of SVM are fitted to the probabilities of the target class by using sigmoid function. For the local aspect, an overlapping block-based method is adopted to extract WLD features, and each block is weighted adaptively by information entropy, Chi-square distance and similar block summation methods are then applied to obtain the probabilities which emotion belongs to. Finally, fusion at the decision level is employed for the data fusion of the global and local features based on Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. Experimental results on the Cohn-Kanade and JAFFE databases demonstrate the effectiveness and fault tolerance of this method.

  18. Science communication and vernal pool conservation: a study of local decision maker attitudes in a knowledge-action system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreavy, Bridie; Webler, Thomas; Calhoun, Aram J K

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we describe local decision maker attitudes towards vernal pools to inform science communication and enhance vernal pool conservation efforts. We conducted interviews with town planning board and conservation commission members (n = 9) from two towns in the State of Maine in the northeastern United States. We then mailed a questionnaire to a stratified random sample of planning board members in August and September 2007 with a response rate of 48.4% (n = 320). The majority of survey respondents favored the protection and conservation of vernal pools in their towns. Decision makers were familiar with the term "vernal pool" and demonstrated positive attitudes to vernal pools in general. General appreciation and willingness to conserve vernal pools predicted support for the 2006 revisions to the Natural Resource Protection Act regulating Significant Vernal Pools. However, 48% of respondents were unaware of this law and neither prior knowledge of the law nor workshop attendance predicted support for the vernal pool law. Further, concerns about private property rights and development restrictions predicted disagreement with the vernal pool law. We conclude that science communication must rely on specific frames of reference, be sensitive to cultural values, and occur in an iterative system to link knowledge and action in support of vernal pool conservation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A local-area-network based radiation oncology microcomputer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, W.K.; Taylor, T.K.; Kumar, P.P.; Imray, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The application of computerized technology in the medical specialty of radiation oncology has gained wide acceptance in the past decade. Recognizing that most radiation oncology department personnel are familiar with computer operations and terminology, it appears reasonable to attempt to expand the computer's applications to other departmental activities, such as scheduling, record keeping, billing, treatment regimen and status, etc. Instead of sharing the processing capability available on the existent treatment minicomputer, the radiation oncology computer system is based upon a microcomputer local area network (LAN). The system was conceptualized in 1984 and completed in March 1985. This article outlines the LAN-based radiation oncology computer system

  20. Local field effects and metamaterials based on colloidal quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porvatkina, O V; Tishchenko, A A; Strikhanov, M N

    2015-01-01

    Metamaterials are composite structures that exhibit interesting and unusual properties, e.g. negative refractive index. In this article we consider metamaterials based on colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). We investigate these structures taking into account the local field effects and theoretically analyze expressions for permittivity and permeability of metamaterials based on CdSe CQDs. We obtain inequality describing the conditions when material with definite concentration of CQDs is metamaterial. Also we investigate how the values of dielectric polarizability and magnetic polarizability of CQDs depend on the dots radius and properties the material the quantum dots are made of. (paper)

  1. Nanobiosensors Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance for Biomarker Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoochan Hong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR is induced by incident light when it interacts with noble metal nanoparticles that have smaller sizes than the wavelength of the incident light. Recently, LSPR-based nanobiosensors were developed as tools for highly sensitive, label-free, and flexible sensing techniques for the detection of biomolecular interactions. In this paper, we describe the basic principles of LSPR-based nanobiosensing techniques and LSPR sensor system for biomolecule sensing. We also discuss the challenges using LSPR nanobiosensors for detection of biomolecules as a biomarker.

  2. Value-based benefit-cost of local DSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, V.

    1995-01-01

    Value-based benefits and costs of demand-side management (DSM) were discussed in the context of local electricity resource planning in downtown Toronto. The analysis considered the effects on local customer interruption as a result of DSM, and the deferment in need for local transmission and distribution upgrades. The life cycle and cash flow benefits and costs of DSM were discussed from the perspectives of the electric utility, the DSM-participating and non-participating customers, and society as a whole. Cashflow and lifecycle analyses results were reconciled. The Toronto Integrated Electrical Service (TIES) study, the basis for this paper, was described. Two main conclusions were reached, i.e. since the savings in the generationg system as a whole were far greater than the local savings,the value of a specific DSM program would be similar across a utility's service area, and (2) while cashflow analysis illustrated the short and medium term benefits and costs in a way most people intuitively understand, in effect,the lifecycle-cost estimates produce a clearer indicator of long-run economics

  3. Stochastic Wheel-Slip Compensation Based Robot Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIDHARTHAN, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wheel slip compensation is vital for building accurate and reliable dead reckoning based robot localization and mapping algorithms. This investigation presents stochastic slip compensation scheme for robot localization and mapping. Main idea of the slip compensation technique is to use wheel-slip data obtained from experiments to model the variations in slip velocity as Gaussian distributions. This leads to a family of models that are switched depending on the input command. To obtain the wheel-slip measurements, experiments are conducted on a wheeled mobile robot and the measurements thus obtained are used to build the Gaussian models. Then the localization and mapping algorithm is tested on an experimental terrain and a new metric called the map spread factor is used to evaluate the ability of the slip compensation technique. Our results clearly indicate that the proposed methodology improves the accuracy by 72.55% for rotation and 66.67% for translation motion as against an uncompensated mapping system. The proposed compensation technique eliminates the need for extro receptive sensors for slip compensation, complex feature extraction and association algorithms. As a result, we obtain a simple slip compensation scheme for localization and mapping.

  4. Community-Based Ecotourism: The Transformation of Local Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookhao Nantira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-based ecotourism (CBET is considered a sustainable form of tourism that improves the quality of life of hosts at the tourist destination. Scholars have yet to explore the long-term operation of CBET in relation to its effects on the local way of life. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to examine the transformation of a local community due to the operation of CBET in relation to sociocultural, economic and environmental aspects. The findings reveal that the community encounters both positive and negative impacts of transformation. However, unintended impacts of the CBET operation lay embedded in the transformation of relationships among the community members. The study identifies that close relationships among the villagers has been initially transformed to loose relationships due to forgotten communal goals; CBET has transformed from being a conservation tool to being a business-oriented goal which causes conflicts of interest among local people and alters traditional social structure. The study also agrees with the notion of social exchange theory for villagers to enhance environmental sustainability, and proposes that slight inequalities of benefits received from CBET causes social transformation at the local level.

  5. Multi-criteria clinical decision support: A primer on the use of multiple criteria decision making methods to promote evidence-based, patient-centered healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, James G

    2010-01-01

    Current models of healthcare quality recommend that patient management decisions be evidence-based and patient-centered. Evidence-based decisions require a thorough understanding of current information regarding the natural history of disease and the anticipated outcomes of different management options. Patient-centered decisions incorporate patient preferences, values, and unique personal circumstances into the decision making process and actively involve both patients along with health care providers as much as possible. Fundamentally, therefore, evidence-based, patient-centered decisions are multi-dimensional and typically involve multiple decision makers.Advances in the decision sciences have led to the development of a number of multiple criteria decision making methods. These multi-criteria methods are designed to help people make better choices when faced with complex decisions involving several dimensions. They are especially helpful when there is a need to combine "hard data" with subjective preferences, to make trade-offs between desired outcomes, and to involve multiple decision makers. Evidence-based, patient-centered clinical decision making has all of these characteristics. This close match suggests that clinical decision support systems based on multi-criteria decision making techniques have the potential to enable patients and providers to carry out the tasks required to implement evidence-based, patient-centered care effectively and efficiently in clinical settings.The goal of this paper is to give readers a general introduction to the range of multi-criteria methods available and show how they could be used to support clinical decision-making. Methods discussed include the balance sheet, the even swap method, ordinal ranking methods, direct weighting methods, multi-attribute decision analysis, and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP).

  6. Integration of Local Ecological Knowledge and Conventional Science: a Study of Seven Community-Based Forestry Organizations in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Ballard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource management decisions can be based on incomplete knowledge when they lack scientific research, monitoring, and assessment and/or simultaneously fail to draw on local ecological knowledge. Many community-based forestry organizations in the United States attempt to address these knowledge gaps with an integrated ecological stewardship approach that balances ecological, social, and economic goals. This paper examines the use and integration of local knowledge and conventional science in ecological stewardship and monitoring by seven community-based forestry demonstration projects. Through document reviews and interviews with both participants and partners of all of these community-based organizations, we found that all the community-based forestry groups incorporated local ecological knowledge into many aspects of their management or monitoring activities, such as collaboratively designing monitoring programs with local ranchers, forest workers, and residents; involving local people in collecting data and interpreting results; and documenting the local ecological knowledge of private forest landowners, long-time residents, and harvesters of nontimber forest products. We found that all the groups also used conventional science to design or conduct ecological assessments, monitoring, or research. We also found evidence, in the form of changes in attitudes on the part of local people and conventional scientists and jointly produced reports, that the two types of knowledge were integrated by all groups. These findings imply that community-based forestry groups are redistributing the power of conventional science through the use of diverse knowledge sources. Still, several obstacles prevented some local, traditionally under-represented groups from being significantly involved in monitoring and management decisions, and their knowledge has not yet been consistently incorporated.

  7. Decision optimization of case-based computer-aided decision systems using genetic algorithms with application to mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, Maciej A; Habas, Piotr A; Zurada, Jacek M; Tourassi, Georgia D

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization framework for improving case-based computer-aided decision (CB-CAD) systems. The underlying hypothesis of the study is that each example in the knowledge database of a medical decision support system has different importance in the decision making process. A new decision algorithm incorporating an importance weight for each example is proposed to account for these differences. The search for the best set of importance weights is defined as an optimization problem and a genetic algorithm is employed to solve it. The optimization process is tailored to maximize the system's performance according to clinically relevant evaluation criteria. The study was performed using a CAD system developed for the classification of regions of interests (ROIs) in mammograms as depicting masses or normal tissue. The system was constructed and evaluated using a dataset of ROIs extracted from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Experimental results show that, according to receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, the proposed method significantly improves the overall performance of the CAD system as well as its average specificity for high breast mass detection rates

  8. Data Clustering and Evolving Fuzzy Decision Tree for Data Base Classification Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Chann; Fan, Chin-Yuan; Wang, Yen-Wen

    Data base classification suffers from two well known difficulties, i.e., the high dimensionality and non-stationary variations within the large historic data. This paper presents a hybrid classification model by integrating a case based reasoning technique, a Fuzzy Decision Tree (FDT), and Genetic Algorithms (GA) to construct a decision-making system for data classification in various data base applications. The model is major based on the idea that the historic data base can be transformed into a smaller case-base together with a group of fuzzy decision rules. As a result, the model can be more accurately respond to the current data under classifying from the inductions by these smaller cases based fuzzy decision trees. Hit rate is applied as a performance measure and the effectiveness of our proposed model is demonstrated by experimentally compared with other approaches on different data base classification applications. The average hit rate of our proposed model is the highest among others.

  9. Implementation of a web-based national child health-care programme in a local context: A complex facilitator role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Johanna; Olander, Ewy; Anderberg, Peter; Berglund, Johan Sanmartin

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate child health-care coordinators' experiences of being a facilitator for the implementation of a new national child health-care programme in the form of a web-based national guide. The study was based on eight remote, online focus groups, using Skype for Business. A qualitative content analysis was performed. The analysis generated three categories: adapt to a local context, transition challenges and led by strong incentives. There were eight subcategories. In the latent analysis, the theme 'Being a facilitator: a complex role' was formed to express the child health-care coordinators' experiences. Facilitating a national guideline or decision support in a local context is a complex task that requires an advocating and mediating role. For successful implementation, guidelines and decision support, such as a web-based guide and the new child health-care programme, must match professional consensus and needs and be seen as relevant by all. Participation in the development and a strong bottom-up approach was important, making the web-based guide and the programme relevant to whom it is intended to serve, and for successful implementation. The study contributes valuable knowledge when planning to implement a national web-based decision support and policy programme in a local health-care context.

  10. Randomness in the network inhibits cooperation based on the bounded rational collective altruistic decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohdaira, Tetsushi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies discussing cooperation employ the best decision that every player knows all information regarding the payoff matrix and selects the strategy of the highest payoff. Therefore, they do not discuss cooperation based on the altruistic decision with limited information (bounded rational altruistic decision). In addition, they do not cover the case where every player can submit his/her strategy several times in a match of the game. This paper is based on Ohdaira's reconsideration of the bounded rational altruistic decision, and also employs the framework of the prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) with sequential strategy. The distinction between this study and the Ohdaira's reconsideration is that the former covers the model of multiple groups, but the latter deals with the model of only two groups. Ohdaira's reconsideration shows that the bounded rational altruistic decision facilitates much more cooperation in the PDG with sequential strategy than Ohdaira and Terano's bounded rational second-best decision does. However, the detail of cooperation of multiple groups based on the bounded rational altruistic decision has not been resolved yet. This study, therefore, shows how randomness in the network composed of multiple groups affects the increase of the average frequency of mutual cooperation (cooperation between groups) based on the bounded rational altruistic decision of multiple groups. We also discuss the results of the model in comparison with related studies which employ the best decision. (paper)

  11. Randomness in the network inhibits cooperation based on the bounded rational collective altruistic decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohdaira, Tetsushi

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies discussing cooperation employ the best decision that every player knows all information regarding the payoff matrix and selects the strategy of the highest payoff. Therefore, they do not discuss cooperation based on the altruistic decision with limited information (bounded rational altruistic decision). In addition, they do not cover the case where every player can submit his/her strategy several times in a match of the game. This paper is based on Ohdaira's reconsideration of the bounded rational altruistic decision, and also employs the framework of the prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) with sequential strategy. The distinction between this study and the Ohdaira's reconsideration is that the former covers the model of multiple groups, but the latter deals with the model of only two groups. Ohdaira's reconsideration shows that the bounded rational altruistic decision facilitates much more cooperation in the PDG with sequential strategy than Ohdaira and Terano's bounded rational second-best decision does. However, the detail of cooperation of multiple groups based on the bounded rational altruistic decision has not been resolved yet. This study, therefore, shows how randomness in the network composed of multiple groups affects the increase of the average frequency of mutual cooperation (cooperation between groups) based on the bounded rational altruistic decision of multiple groups. We also discuss the results of the model in comparison with related studies which employ the best decision.

  12. Mild cognitive impairment is associated with poorer decision-making in community-based older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; James, Bryan D; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A

    2015-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with poorer financial and healthcare decision-making. Community-based epidemiological cohort study. Communities throughout northeastern Illinois. Older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project (N = 730). All participants underwent a detailed clinical evaluation and decision-making assessment using a measure that closely approximates materials used in real-world financial and healthcare settings. This allowed for measurement of total decision-making and financial and healthcare decision-making. Regression models were used to examine whether MCI was associated with a lower level of decision-making. In subsequent analyses, the relationship between specific cognitive systems (episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, perceptual speed, visuospatial ability) and decision-making was explored in participants with MCI. MCI was associated with lower total, financial, and healthcare decision-making scores after accounting for the effects of age, education, and sex. The effect of MCI on total decision-making was equivalent to the effect of more than 10 additional years of age. Additional models showed that, when considering multiple cognitive systems, perceptual speed accounted for the most variance in decision-making in participants with MCI. Persons with MCI may have poorer financial and healthcare decision-making in real-world situations, and perceptual speed may be an important contributor to poorer decision-making in persons with MCI. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Cognitive schema and naturalistic decision making in evidence-based practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzer, Paul R

    2004-04-01

    A recent article in this journal proposed a naturalistic approach to decision making that overcomes problems intrinsic to classical decision theory. The approach emphasizes cognitive and multi-level processes, the development of expert reasoning, and the role of decision support in individual and organizational decision making. The current paper builds on this effort by suggesting a naturalistic, multi-level, theory that can facilitate the dissemination of evidence-based practices (EBPs). The paper presents "Image Theory," a theory that has been extensively investigated in other disciplines, but has yet to be utilized in medical decision research. It is suggested that its rich, empirically tested, distinctions among kinds of cognitive and organizational processes and types of decisions and tasks make Image Theory especially valuable in describing impediments to implementing EBPs. The paper discusses how naturalistic theory can assist clinicians, administrators, researchers, and policy makers in achieving a balance between evidence-based medicine and patient-centered practice.

  14. Decision - making of Direct Customers Based on Available Transfer Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Tang; Zhaohang, Lin; Huaqiang, Li

    2017-05-01

    Large customer direct-power-purchasing is a hot spot in the electricity market reform. In this paper, the author established an Available Transfer Capability (ATC) model which takes uncertain factors into account, applied the model into large customer direct-power-purchasing transactions and improved the reliability of power supply during direct-power-purchasing by introducing insurance theory. The author also considered the customers loss suffered from power interruption when building ATC model, established large customer decision model, took purchasing quantity of power from different power plants and reserved capacity insurance as variables, targeted minimum power interruption loss as optimization goal and best solution by means of particle swarm algorithm to produce optimal power purchasing decision of large consumers. Simulation was made through IEEE57 system finally and proved that such method is effective.

  15. The neural bases underlying social risk perception in purchase decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Shibuya, Satoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-05-01

    Social considerations significantly influence daily purchase decisions, and the perception of social risk (i.e., the anticipated disapproval of others) is crucial in dissuading consumers from making purchases. However, the neural basis for consumers' perception of social risk remains undiscovered, and this novel study clarifies the relevant neural processes. A total of 26 volunteers were scanned while they evaluated purchase intention of products (purchase intention task) and their anticipation of others' disapproval for possessing a product (social risk task), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI data from the purchase intention task was used to identify the brain region associated with perception of social risk during purchase decision making by using subjective social risk ratings for a parametric modulation analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to explore if there was a difference between participants' purchase decisions and their explicit evaluations of social risk, with reference to the neural activity associated with social risk perception. For this, subjective social risk ratings were used for a parametric modulation analysis on fMRI data from the social risk task. Analysis of the purchase intention task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the anterior insula, an area of the brain that is known as part of the emotion-related network. Analysis of the social risk task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the temporal parietal junction and the medial prefrontal cortex, which are known as theory-of-mind regions. Our results suggest that the anterior insula processes consumers' social risk implicitly to prompt consumers not to buy socially unacceptable products, whereas ToM-related regions process such risk explicitly in considering the anticipated disapproval of others. These findings may prove helpful in understanding the mental

  16. Ontology-based clinical decision support system applied on diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Mukabunani, Alphonsine

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis Information- and communication technology IKT590 - University of Agder 2017 Medical diagnosis is a multi-step process which is complex as it requires the consideration of many factors. Additionally, the accuracy of diagnosis varies depending on the skill and knowledge a physician has in the medical field. Using ICT solution, the physicians can be assisted so that they can make an accurate decision. Many applications have been developed to enhance physician performance and i...

  17. Applying Case-Based Reasoning in Supporting Strategy Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Seyedhosseini; A. Makui; M. Ghadami

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and therefore increasing tight competition among companies, have resulted to increase the importance of making well-timed decision. Devising and employing effective strategies, that are flexible and adaptive to changing market, stand a greater chance of being effective in the long-term. In other side, a clear focus on managing the entire product lifecycle has emerged as critical areas for investment. Therefore, applying wellorganized tools to employ past experience in new case, ...

  18. Optimization-based decision support systems for planning problems in processing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Claassen, G.D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Optimization-based decision support systems for planning problems in processing industries Nowadays, efficient planning of material flows within and between supply chains is of vital importance and has become one of the most challenging problems for decision support in practice. The tremendous progress in hard- and software of the past decades was an important gateway for developing computerized systems that are able to support decision making on different levels within enterprises. T...

  19. Local Competition-Based Superpixel Segmentation Algorithm in Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayin Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing technologies have been widely applied in urban environments’ monitoring, synthesis and modeling. Incorporating spatial information in perceptually coherent regions, superpixel-based approaches can effectively eliminate the “salt and pepper” phenomenon which is common in pixel-wise approaches. Compared with fixed-size windows, superpixels have adaptive sizes and shapes for different spatial structures. Moreover, superpixel-based algorithms can significantly improve computational efficiency owing to the greatly reduced number of image primitives. Hence, the superpixel algorithm, as a preprocessing technique, is more and more popularly used in remote sensing and many other fields. In this paper, we propose a superpixel segmentation algorithm called Superpixel Segmentation with Local Competition (SSLC, which utilizes a local competition mechanism to construct energy terms and label pixels. The local competition mechanism leads to energy terms locality and relativity, and thus, the proposed algorithm is less sensitive to the diversity of image content and scene layout. Consequently, SSLC could achieve consistent performance in different image regions. In addition, the Probability Density Function (PDF, which is estimated by Kernel Density Estimation (KDE with the Gaussian kernel, is introduced to describe the color distribution of superpixels as a more sophisticated and accurate measure. To reduce computational complexity, a boundary optimization framework is introduced to only handle boundary pixels instead of the whole image. We conduct experiments to benchmark the proposed algorithm with the other state-of-the-art ones on the Berkeley Segmentation Dataset (BSD and remote sensing images. Results demonstrate that the SSLC algorithm yields the best overall performance, while the computation time-efficiency is still competitive.

  20. Local Competition-Based Superpixel Segmentation Algorithm in Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayin; Tang, Zhenmin; Cui, Ying; Wu, Guoxing

    2017-06-12

    Remote sensing technologies have been widely applied in urban environments' monitoring, synthesis and modeling. Incorporating spatial information in perceptually coherent regions, superpixel-based approaches can effectively eliminate the "salt and pepper" phenomenon which is common in pixel-wise approaches. Compared with fixed-size windows, superpixels have adaptive sizes and shapes for different spatial structures. Moreover, superpixel-based algorithms can significantly improve computational efficiency owing to the greatly reduced number of image primitives. Hence, the superpixel algorithm, as a preprocessing technique, is more and more popularly used in remote sensing and many other fields. In this paper, we propose a superpixel segmentation algorithm called Superpixel Segmentation with Local Competition (SSLC), which utilizes a local competition mechanism to construct energy terms and label pixels. The local competition mechanism leads to energy terms locality and relativity, and thus, the proposed algorithm is less sensitive to the diversity of image content and scene layout. Consequently, SSLC could achieve consistent performance in different image regions. In addition, the Probability Density Function (PDF), which is estimated by Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) with the Gaussian kernel, is introduced to describe the color distribution of superpixels as a more sophisticated and accurate measure. To reduce computational complexity, a boundary optimization framework is introduced to only handle boundary pixels instead of the whole image. We conduct experiments to benchmark the proposed algorithm with the other state-of-the-art ones on the Berkeley Segmentation Dataset (BSD) and remote sensing images. Results demonstrate that the SSLC algorithm yields the best overall performance, while the computation time-efficiency is still competitive.

  1. A GIS Based 3D Online Decision Assistance System for Underground Energy Storage in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, M.; Schwanebeck, M.; Biniyaz, E.; Duttmann, R.

    2014-12-01

    We would like to present a GIS-based 3D online decision assistance system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local land use planning authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The assistance system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt caverns and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, power line arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the decision finding process. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. The decision process is carried out via the 'Analytic Hierarchy Process' (AHP) methodology of the 'Multi Object Decision Making' (MODM) approach. While the process itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, with no software needed to be installed on the user side. The results are visualized as interactive 3d graphics. The implementation of the assistance system is based exclusively on free and open source software, and utilizes the 'Python' programming language in combination with current web technologies, such as 'HTML5', 'CSS3' and 'JavaScript'. It is

  2. Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendure, A.O.

    1995-03-01

    Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making is as much of a challenge as properly using the tool once it has been selected. Failure to consider customer and stakeholder requirements and the technical bases and differences in risk-based decision making tools will produce confounding and/or politically unacceptable results when the tool is used. Selecting a risk-based decisionmaking tool must therefore be undertaken with the same, if not greater, rigor than the use of the tool once it is selected. This paper presents a process for selecting a risk-based tool appropriate to a set of prioritization or resource allocation tasks, discusses the results of applying the process to four risk-based decision-making tools, and identifies the ``musts`` for successful selection and implementation of a risk-based tool to aid in decision making.

  3. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  4. Multiobjective Memetic Estimation of Distribution Algorithm Based on an Incremental Tournament Local Searcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaifeng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid multiobjective algorithm is presented in this paper, which combines a new multiobjective estimation of distribution algorithm, an efficient local searcher and ε-dominance. Besides, two multiobjective problems with variable linkages strictly based on manifold distribution are proposed. The Pareto set to the continuous multiobjective optimization problems, in the decision space, is a piecewise low-dimensional continuous manifold. The regularity by the manifold features just build probability distribution model by globally statistical information from the population, yet, the efficiency of promising individuals is not well exploited, which is not beneficial to search and optimization process. Hereby, an incremental tournament local searcher is designed to exploit local information efficiently and accelerate convergence to the true Pareto-optimal front. Besides, since ε-dominance is a strategy that can make multiobjective algorithm gain well distributed solutions and has low computational complexity, ε-dominance and the incremental tournament local searcher are combined here. The novel memetic multiobjective estimation of distribution algorithm, MMEDA, was proposed accordingly. The algorithm is validated by experiment on twenty-two test problems with and without variable linkages of diverse complexities. Compared with three state-of-the-art multiobjective optimization algorithms, our algorithm achieves comparable results in terms of convergence and diversity metrics.

  5. Multiobjective memetic estimation of distribution algorithm based on an incremental tournament local searcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kaifeng; Mu, Li; Yang, Dongdong; Zou, Feng; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Qiaoyong

    2014-01-01

    A novel hybrid multiobjective algorithm is presented in this paper, which combines a new multiobjective estimation of distribution algorithm, an efficient local searcher and ε-dominance. Besides, two multiobjective problems with variable linkages strictly based on manifold distribution are proposed. The Pareto set to the continuous multiobjective optimization problems, in the decision space, is a piecewise low-dimensional continuous manifold. The regularity by the manifold features just build probability distribution model by globally statistical information from the population, yet, the efficiency of promising individuals is not well exploited, which is not beneficial to search and optimization process. Hereby, an incremental tournament local searcher is designed to exploit local information efficiently and accelerate convergence to the true Pareto-optimal front. Besides, since ε-dominance is a strategy that can make multiobjective algorithm gain well distributed solutions and has low computational complexity, ε-dominance and the incremental tournament local searcher are combined here. The novel memetic multiobjective estimation of distribution algorithm, MMEDA, was proposed accordingly. The algorithm is validated by experiment on twenty-two test problems with and without variable linkages of diverse complexities. Compared with three state-of-the-art multiobjective optimization algorithms, our algorithm achieves comparable results in terms of convergence and diversity metrics.

  6. Monitoring, accounting and automated decision support for the ALICE experiment based on the MonALISA framework

    CERN Document Server

    Cirstoiu, C; Betev, L; Saiz, P; Peters, A J; Muraru, A; Voicu, R; Legrand, I

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a general purpose monitoring system for the ALICE experiment, based on the MonALISA framework. MonALISA (Monitoring Agents using a Large Integrated Services Architecture) is a fully distributed system with no single point of failure that is able to collect, store monitoring information and present it as significant perspectives and synthetic views on the status and the trends of the entire system. Furthermore, agents can use it for taking automated operational decisions. Monitoring information is gathered locally from all the components running in each site. The entire flow of information is aggregated on site level by a MonALISA service and then collected and presented in various forms by a central MonALISA Repository. Based on this information, other services take operational decisions such as alerts, triggers, service restarts and automatic production job or transfer submissions. The system monitors all the components: computer clusters (all major parameters of each computing node), jobs ...

  7. Smartphone-Based Indoor Localization with Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Yang, Jun; Li, You; Qi, Longning; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-04-26

    Indoor wireless localization using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons has attracted considerable attention after the release of the BLE protocol. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that uses the combination of channel-separate polynomial regression model (PRM), channel-separate fingerprinting (FP), outlier detection and extended Kalman filtering (EKF) for smartphone-based indoor localization with BLE beacons. The proposed algorithm uses FP and PRM to estimate the target's location and the distances between the target and BLE beacons respectively. We compare the performance of distance estimation that uses separate PRM for three advertisement channels (i.e., the separate strategy) with that use an aggregate PRM generated through the combination of information from all channels (i.e., the aggregate strategy). The performance of FP-based location estimation results of the separate strategy and the aggregate strategy are also compared. It was found that the separate strategy can provide higher accuracy; thus, it is preferred to adopt PRM and FP for each BLE advertisement channel separately. Furthermore, to enhance the robustness of the algorithm, a two-level outlier detection mechanism is designed. Distance and location estimates obtained from PRM and FP are passed to the first outlier detection to generate improved distance estimates for the EKF. After the EKF process, the second outlier detection algorithm based on statistical testing is further performed to remove the outliers. The proposed algorithm was evaluated by various field experiments. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieved the accuracy of EKF algorithm and 15.77% more accurate than EKF algorithm. With sparse deployment (1 beacon per 18 m), the proposed algorithm achieves the accuracies of EKF algorithm and 21.41% better than EKF algorithm. Therefore, the proposed algorithm is especially useful to improve the localization accuracy in environments with sparse beacon deployment.

  8. Assessment of Constraint Effects based on Local Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Rin; Chang, Yoon Suk; Choi, Jae Boong; Seok, Chang Sung; Kim, Young Jin

    2005-01-01

    Traditional fracture mechanics has been used to ensure a structural integrity, in which the geometry independence is assumed in crack tip deformation and fracture toughness. However, the assumption is applicable only within limited conditions. To address fracture covering a broad range of loading and crack geometries, two-parameter global approach and local approach have been proposed. The two-parameter global approach can quantify the load and crack geometry effects by adopting T-stress or Q-parameter but time-consuming and expensive since lots of experiments and finite element (FE) analyses are necessary. On the other hand, the local approach evaluates the load and crack geometry effects based on damage model. Once material specific fitting constants are determined from a few experiments and FE analyses, the fracture resistance characteristics can be obtained by numerical simulation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate constraint effects for compact tension (CT) specimens with different in-plane or out-of-plane size using local approach. Both modified GTN model and Rousselier model are adopted to examine the ductile fracture behavior of SA515 Gr.60 carbon steel at high temperature. The fracture resistance (J-R) curves are estimated through numerical analysis, compared with corresponding experimental results and, then, crack length, thickness and side-groove effects are evaluated

  9. Statistical lamb wave localization based on extreme value theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Joel B.

    2018-04-01

    Guided wave localization methods based on delay-and-sum imaging, matched field processing, and other techniques have been designed and researched to create images that locate and describe structural damage. The maximum value of these images typically represent an estimated damage location. Yet, it is often unclear if this maximum value, or any other value in the image, is a statistically significant indicator of damage. Furthermore, there are currently few, if any, approaches to assess the statistical significance of guided wave localization images. As a result, we present statistical delay-and-sum and statistical matched field processing localization methods to create statistically significant images of damage. Our framework uses constant rate of false alarm statistics and extreme value theory to detect damage with little prior information. We demonstrate our methods with in situ guided wave data from an aluminum plate to detect two 0.75 cm diameter holes. Our results show an expected improvement in statistical significance as the number of sensors increase. With seventeen sensors, both methods successfully detect damage with statistical significance.

  10. A comparison of web-based versus print-based decision AIDS for prostate cancer screening: participants' evaluation and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Catherine; Davis, Kimberly M; Luta, George; Krist, Alexander H; Woolf, Steven H; Taylor, Kathryn L

    2015-01-01

    Patient decision aids facilitate informed decision making for medical tests and procedures that have uncertain benefits. To describe participants' evaluation and utilization of print-based and web-based prostate cancer screening decision aids that were found to improve decisional outcomes in a prior randomized controlled trial. Men completed brief telephone interviews at baseline, one month, and 13 months post-randomization. Participants were primary care patients, 45-70 years old, who received the print-based (N = 628) or web-based decision aid (N = 625) and completed the follow-up assessments. We assessed men's baseline preference for web-based or print-based materials, time spent using the decision aids, comprehension of the overall message, and ratings of the content. Decision aid use was self-reported by 64.3 % (web) and 81.8 % (print) of participants. Significant predictors of decision aid use were race (white vs. non-white, OR = 2.43, 95 % CI: 1.77, 3.35), higher education (OR = 1.68, 95 % CI: 1.06, 2.70) and trial arm (print vs. web, OR = 2.78, 95 % CI: 2.03, 3.83). Multivariable analyses indicated that web-arm participants were more likely to use the website when they preferred web-based materials (OR: 1.91, CI: 1.17, 3.12), whereas use of the print materials was not significantly impacted by a preference for print-based materials (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.38, 1.25). Comprehension of the decision aid message (i.e., screening is an individual decision) did not significantly differ between arms in adjusted analyses (print: 61.9 % and web: 68.2 %, p = 0.42). Decision aid use was independently influenced by race, education, and the decision aid medium, findings consistent with the 'digital divide.' These results suggest that when it is not possible to provide this age cohort with their preferred decision aid medium, print materials will be more highly used than web-based materials. Although there are many advantages to web-based decision aids, providing an option for

  11. Teaching advance care planning to medical students with a computer-based decision aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael J; Levi, Benjamin H

    2011-03-01

    Discussing end-of-life decisions with cancer patients is a crucial skill for physicians. This article reports findings from a pilot study evaluating the effectiveness of a computer-based decision aid for teaching medical students about advance care planning. Second-year medical students at a single medical school were randomized to use a standard advance directive or a computer-based decision aid to help patients with advance care planning. Students' knowledge, skills, and satisfaction were measured by self-report; their performance was rated by patients. 121/133 (91%) of students participated. The Decision-Aid Group (n = 60) outperformed the Standard Group (n = 61) in terms of students' knowledge (p satisfaction with their learning experience (p student performance. Use of a computer-based decision aid may be an effective way to teach medical students how to discuss advance care planning with cancer patients.

  12. Finger image quality based on singular point localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinghua; Olsen, Martin A.; Busch, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Singular points are important global features of fingerprints and singular point localization is a crucial step in biometric recognition. Moreover the presence and position of the core point in a captured fingerprint sample can reflect whether the finger is placed properly on the sensor. Therefore...... and analyze the importance of singular points on biometric accuracy. The experiment is based on large scale databases and conducted by relating the measured quality of a fingerprint sample, given by the positions of core points, to the biometric performance. The experimental results show the positions of core...

  13. Biogas Filter Based on Local Natural Zeolite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satriyo Krido Wahono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available UPT BPPTK LIPI has created a biogas filter tool to improve the purity of methane in the biogas. The device shaped cylindrical tube containing absorbent materials which based on local natural zeolite of Indonesia. The absorbent has been activated and modified with other materials. This absorbtion material has multi-adsorption capacity for almost impurities gas of biogas. The biogas  filter increase methane content of biogas for 5-20%. The biogas filter improve the biogas’s performance such as increasing methane contents, increasing heating value, reduction of odors, reduction of corrosion potential, increasing the efficiency and stability of the generator.

  14. Localization-based super-resolution imaging of cellular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanawong, Pakorn; Waterman, Clare M

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy allows direct visualization of fluorescently tagged proteins within cells. However, the spatial resolution of conventional fluorescence microscopes is limited by diffraction to ~250 nm, prompting the development of super-resolution microscopy which offers resolution approaching the scale of single proteins, i.e., ~20 nm. Here, we describe protocols for single molecule localization-based super-resolution imaging, using focal adhesion proteins as an example and employing either photoswitchable fluorophores or photoactivatable fluorescent proteins. These protocols should also be easily adaptable to imaging a broad array of macromolecular assemblies in cells whose components can be fluorescently tagged and assemble into high density structures.

  15. Infrared target recognition based on improved joint local ternary pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junding; Wu, Xiaosheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a simple, efficient, yet robust approach, named joint orthogonal combination of local ternary pattern, for automatic forward-looking infrared target recognition. It gives more advantages to describe the macroscopic textures and microscopic textures by fusing variety of scales than the traditional LBP-based methods. In addition, it can effectively reduce the feature dimensionality. Further, the rotation invariant and uniform scheme, the robust LTP, and soft concave-convex partition are introduced to enhance its discriminative power. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve competitive results compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  16. CorRECTreatment: a web-based decision support tool for rectal cancer treatment that uses the analytic hierarchy process and decision tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suner, A; Karakülah, G; Dicle, O; Sökmen, S; Çelikoğlu, C C

    2015-01-01

    The selection of appropriate rectal cancer treatment is a complex multi-criteria decision making process, in which clinical decision support systems might be used to assist and enrich physicians' decision making. The objective of the study was to develop a web-based clinical decision support tool for physicians in the selection of potentially beneficial treatment options for patients with rectal cancer. The updated decision model contained 8 and 10 criteria in the first and second steps respectively. The decision support model, developed in our previous study by combining the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method which determines the priority of criteria and decision tree that formed using these priorities, was updated and applied to 388 patients data collected retrospectively. Later, a web-based decision support tool named corRECTreatment was developed. The compatibility of the treatment recommendations by the expert opinion and the decision support tool was examined for its consistency. Two surgeons were requested to recommend a treatment and an overall survival value for the treatment among 20 different cases that we selected and turned into a scenario among the most common and rare treatment options in the patient data set. In the AHP analyses of the criteria, it was found that the matrices, generated for both decision steps, were consistent (consistency ratiodecisions of experts, the consistency value for the most frequent cases was found to be 80% for the first decision step and 100% for the second decision step. Similarly, for rare cases consistency was 50% for the first decision step and 80% for the second decision step. The decision model and corRECTreatment, developed by applying these on real patient data, are expected to provide potential users with decision support in rectal cancer treatment processes and facilitate them in making projections about treatment options.

  17. A Multiple Criteria Decision Making Method Based on Relative Value Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyur Huan-jyh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new multiple criteria decision-making method called ERVD (election based on relative value distances. The s-shape value function is adopted to replace the expected utility function to describe the risk-averse and risk-seeking behavior of decision makers. Comparisons and experiments contrasting with the TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution method are carried out to verify the feasibility of using the proposed method to represent the decision makers’ preference in the decision making process. Our experimental results show that the proposed approach is an appropriate and effective MCDM method.

  18. Applications of decision theory to computer-based adaptive instructional systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Hendrik J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers applications of decision theory to the problem of instructional decision-making in computer-based adaptive instructional systems, using the Minnesota Adaptive Instructional System (MAIS) as an example. The first section indicates how the problem of selecting the appropriate

  19. A Web-Based Model for Diabetes Education and Decision Support for the Home Care Nurse

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Michelle; Kirby, Judy

    1998-01-01

    Diabetes education for the home care population requires expert knowledge to be available at the point-of-care, the patient's home. This poster displays a model for Web-based diabetes education and decision support for the home care nurse. The system utilizes the line of reasoning (LOR) model to organize and represent expert decision-making thought processes.

  20. Knowledge-Based Information Management in Decision Support for Ecosystem Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reynolds; Micahel Saunders; Richard Olson; Daniel Schmoldt; Michael Foster; Donald Latham; Bruce Miller; John Steffenson; Lawrence Bednar; Patrick Cunningham

    1995-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Research Station (USDA Forest Service) is developing a knowledge-based information management system to provide decision support for watershed analysis in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. The decision support system includes: (1) a GIS interface that allows users to graphically navigate to specific provinces and watersheds and display a...

  1. School characteristics influencing the implementation of a data-based decision making intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geel, Marieke Johanna Maria; Visscher, Arend J.; Teunis, B.

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing global emphasis on using data for decision making, with a growing body of research on interventions aimed at implementing and sustaining data-based decision making (DBDM) in schools. Yet, little is known about the school features that facilitate or hinder the implementation of

  2. Health economics and outcomes methods in risk-based decision-making for blood safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custer, Brian; Janssen, Mart P.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical methods appropriate for health economic assessments of transfusion safety interventions have not previously been described in ways that facilitate their use. Within the context of risk-based decision-making (RBDM), health economics can be important for optimizing decisions among competing

  3. Optimization-based decision support systems for planning problems in processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, G.D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary

    Optimization-based decision support systems for planning problems in processing industries

    Nowadays, efficient planning of material flows within and between supply chains is of vital importance and has become one of the most challenging problems for decision support in

  4. An agent-based model for integrated emotion regulation and contagion in socially affected decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzoor, A.; Treur, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses an agent-based computational social agent model for the integration of emotion regulation, emotion contagion and decision making in a social context. The model integrates emotion-related valuing, in order to analyse the role of emotions in socially affected decision making. The

  5. EMDS users guide (version 2.0): knowledge-based decision support for ecological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith M. Reynolds

    1999-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station in Corvallis, Oregon, has developed the ecosystem management decision support (EMDS) system. The system integrates the logical formalism of knowledge-based reasoning into a geographic information system (GIS) environment to provide decision support for ecological landscape assessment and evaluation. The...

  6. More Heads Are Better than One: School-Based Decision-Making in Varied School Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokoena, Sello; Machaisa, Rebotile

    2018-01-01

    In this multi-case qualitative study the degree to which school-based decision-making (SBDM) is understood and conceptualised by the members of school governing bodies (SGBs)--educators, chairpersons of SGBs, principals, and learner representative councils-as well the extent to which decisions were shared among the various groups represented on…

  7. A Costing Analysis for Decision Making Grid Model in Failure-Based Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhanuddin M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In current economic downturn, industries have to set good control on production cost, to maintain their profit margin. Maintenance department as an imperative unit in industries should attain all maintenance data, process information instantaneously, and subsequently transform it into a useful decision. Then act on the alternative to reduce production cost. Decision Making Grid model is used to identify strategies for maintenance decision. However, the model has limitation as it consider two factors only, that is, downtime and frequency of failures. We consider third factor, cost, in this study for failure-based maintenance. The objective of this paper is to introduce the formulae to estimate maintenance cost. Methods. Fish bone analysis conducted with Ishikawa model and Decision Making Grid methods are used in this study to reveal some underlying risk factors that delay failure-based maintenance. The goal of the study is to estimate the risk factor that is, repair cost to fit in the Decision Making Grid model. Decision Making grid model consider two variables, frequency of failure and downtime in the analysis. This paper introduces third variable, repair cost for Decision Making Grid model. This approaches give better result to categorize the machines, reduce cost, and boost the earning for the manufacturing plant. Results. We collected data from one of the food processing factories in Malaysia. From our empirical result, Machine C, Machine D, Machine F, and Machine I must be in the Decision Making Grid model even though their frequency of failures and downtime are less than Machine B and Machine N, based on the costing analysis. The case study and experimental results show that the cost analysis in Decision Making Grid model gives more promising strategies in failure-based maintenance. Conclusions. The improvement of Decision Making Grid model for decision analysis with costing analysis is our contribution in this paper for

  8. A new web-based framework development for fuzzy multi-criteria group decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanine, Mohamed; Boutkhoum, Omar; Tikniouine, Abdessadek; Agouti, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    Fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making (FMCGDM) process is usually used when a group of decision-makers faces imprecise data or linguistic variables to solve the problems. However, this process contains many methods that require many time-consuming calculations depending on the number of criteria, alternatives and decision-makers in order to reach the optimal solution. In this study, a web-based FMCGDM framework that offers decision-makers a fast and reliable response service is proposed. The proposed framework includes commonly used tools for multi-criteria decision-making problems such as fuzzy Delphi, fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS methods. The integration of these methods enables taking advantages of the strengths and complements each method's weakness. Finally, a case study of location selection for landfill waste in Morocco is performed to demonstrate how this framework can facilitate decision-making process. The results demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully accomplish the goal of this study.

  9. Beyond Bioethics: A Child Rights-Based Approach to Complex Medical Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Katherine; Melamed, Irene; Goldhagen, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    This analysis adopts a child rights approach-based on the principles, standards, and norms of child rights and the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)-to explore how decisions could be made with regard to treatment of a severely impaired infant (Baby G). While a child rights approach does not provide neat answers to ethically complex issues, it does provide a framework for decision-making in which the infant is viewed as an independent rights-holder. The state has obligations to develop the capacity of those who make decisions for infants in such situations to meet their obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill their rights as delineated in the CRC. Furthermore, a child rights approach requires procedural clarity and transparency in decision-making processes. As all rights in the CRC are interdependent and indivisible, all must be considered in the process of ethical decision-making, and the reasons for decisions must be delineated by reference to how these rights were considered. It is also important that decisions that are made in this context be monitored and reviewed to ensure consistency. A rights-based framework ensures decision-making is child-centered and that there are transparent criteria and legitimate procedures for making decisions regarding the child's most basic human right: the right to life, survival, and development.

  10. Integrated Multimedia Based Intelligent Group Decision Support System for Electrical Power Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Saxena

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Power Network in recent time requires an intelligent, virtual environment based decision process for the coordination of all its individual elements and the interrelated tasks. Its ultimate goal is to achieve maximum productivity and efficiency through the efficient and effective application of generation, transmission, distribution, pricing and regulatory systems. However, the complexity of electrical power network and the presence of conflicting multiple goals and objectives postulated by various groups emphasized the need of an intelligent group decision support system approach in this field. In this paper, an Integrated Multimedia based Intelligent Group Decision Support System (IM1GDSS is presented, and its main components are analyzed and discussed. In particular attention is focused on the Data Base, Model Base, Central Black Board (CBB and Multicriteria Futuristic Decision Process (MFDP module. The model base interacts with Electrical Power Network Load Forecasting and Planning (EPNLFP Module; Resource Optimization, Modeling and Simulation (ROMAS Module; Electrical Power Network Control and Evaluation Process (EPNCAEP Module, and MFDP Module through CBB for strategic planning, management control, operational planning and transaction processing. The richness of multimedia channels adds a totally new dimension in a group decision making for Electrical Power Network. The proposed IMIGDSS is a user friendly, highly interactive group decision making system, based on efficient intelligent and multimedia communication support for group discussions, retrieval of content and multi criteria decision analysis.

  11. Cost-Based Vertical Handover Decision Algorithm for WWAN/WLAN Integrated Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim LaeYoung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Next generation wireless communications are expected to rely on integrated networks consisting of multiple wireless technologies. Heterogeneous networks based on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs and Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs can combine their respective advantages on coverage and data rates, offering a high Quality of Service (QoS to mobile users. In such environment, multi-interface terminals should seamlessly switch from one network to another in order to obtain improved performance or at least to maintain a continuous wireless connection. Therefore, network selection algorithm is important in providing better performance to the multi-interface terminals in the integrated networks. In this paper, we propose a cost-based vertical handover decision algorithm that triggers the Vertical Handover (VHO based on a cost function for WWAN/WLAN integrated networks. For the cost function, we focus on developing an analytical model of the expected cost of WLAN for the mobile users that enter the double-coverage area while having a connection in the WWAN. Our simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves better performance in terms of power consumption and throughput than typical approach where WLANs are always preferred whenever the WLAN access is available.

  12. DXplain: a Web-based diagnostic decision support system for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, S

    1998-01-01

    DXplain is a diagnostic decision support program, with a new World Wide Web interface, designed to help medical students and physicians formulate differential diagnoses based on clinical findings. It covers over 2000 diseases and 5000 clinical manifestations. DXplain suggests possible diagnoses, and provides brief descriptions of every disease in the database. Not all diseases are included, nor does DXplain take into account preexisting conditions or the chronological sequence of clinical manifestations. Despite these limitations, it is a useful educational tool, particularly for problem-based learning (PBL) cases and for students in clinical rotations, as it fills a niche not adequately covered by MEDLINE or medical texts. The system is relatively self-explanatory, requiring little or no end-user training. Medical libraries offering, or planning to offer, their users access to Web-based materials and resources may find this system a valuable addition to their electronic collections. Should it prove popular with the local users, provision of access may also establish or enhance the library's image as a partner in medical education.

  13. Features of Computer-Based Decision Aids: Systematic Review, Thematic Synthesis, and Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrowatka, Ania; Krömker, Dörthe; Meguerditchian, Ari N; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2016-01-26

    Patient information and education, such as decision aids, are gradually moving toward online, computer-based environments. Considerable research has been conducted to guide content and presentation of decision aids. However, given the relatively new shift to computer-based support, little attention has been given to how multimedia and interactivity can improve upon paper-based decision aids. The first objective of this review was to summarize published literature into a proposed classification of features that have been integrated into computer-based decision aids. Building on this classification, the second objective was to assess whether integration of specific features was associated with higher-quality decision making. Relevant studies were located by searching MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. The review identified studies that evaluated computer-based decision aids for adults faced with preference-sensitive medical decisions and reported quality of decision-making outcomes. A thematic synthesis was conducted to develop the classification of features. Subsequently, meta-analyses were conducted based on standardized mean differences (SMD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported knowledge or decisional conflict. Further subgroup analyses compared pooled SMDs for decision aids that incorporated a specific feature to other computer-based decision aids that did not incorporate the feature, to assess whether specific features improved quality of decision making. Of 3541 unique publications, 58 studies met the target criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. The synthesis identified six features: content control, tailoring, patient narratives, explicit values clarification, feedback, and social support. A subset of 26 RCTs from the thematic synthesis was used to conduct the meta-analyses. As expected, computer-based decision aids performed better than usual care or alternative aids; however, some features performed better than

  14. Features of Computer-Based Decision Aids: Systematic Review, Thematic Synthesis, and Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krömker, Dörthe; Meguerditchian, Ari N; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient information and education, such as decision aids, are gradually moving toward online, computer-based environments. Considerable research has been conducted to guide content and presentation of decision aids. However, given the relatively new shift to computer-based support, little attention has been given to how multimedia and interactivity can improve upon paper-based decision aids. Objective The first objective of this review was to summarize published literature into a proposed classification of features that have been integrated into computer-based decision aids. Building on this classification, the second objective was to assess whether integration of specific features was associated with higher-quality decision making. Methods Relevant studies were located by searching MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. The review identified studies that evaluated computer-based decision aids for adults faced with preference-sensitive medical decisions and reported quality of decision-making outcomes. A thematic synthesis was conducted to develop the classification of features. Subsequently, meta-analyses were conducted based on standardized mean differences (SMD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported knowledge or decisional conflict. Further subgroup analyses compared pooled SMDs for decision aids that incorporated a specific feature to other computer-based decision aids that did not incorporate the feature, to assess whether specific features improved quality of decision making. Results Of 3541 unique publications, 58 studies met the target criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. The synthesis identified six features: content control, tailoring, patient narratives, explicit values clarification, feedback, and social support. A subset of 26 RCTs from the thematic synthesis was used to conduct the meta-analyses. As expected, computer-based decision aids performed better than usual care or alternative aids; however

  15. Gene ontology based transfer learning for protein subcellular localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Shuigeng

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of protein subcellular localization generally involves many complex factors, and using only one or two aspects of data information may not tell the true story. For this reason, some recent predictive models are deliberately designed to integrate multiple heterogeneous data sources for exploiting multi-aspect protein feature information. Gene ontology, hereinafter referred to as GO, uses a controlled vocabulary to depict biological molecules or gene products in terms of biological process, molecular function and cellular component. With the rapid expansion of annotated protein sequences, gene ontology has become a general protein feature that can be used to construct predictive models in computational biology. Existing models generally either concatenated the GO terms into a flat binary vector or applied majority-vote based ensemble learning for protein subcellular localization, both of which can not estimate the individual discriminative abilities of the three aspects of gene ontology. Results In this paper, we propose a Gene Ontology Based Transfer Learning Model (GO-TLM for large-scale protein subcellular localization. The model transfers the signature-based homologous GO terms to the target proteins, and further constructs a reliable learning system to reduce the adverse affect of the potential false GO terms that are resulted from evolutionary divergence. We derive three GO kernels from the three aspects of gene ontology to measure the GO similarity of two proteins, and derive two other spectrum kernels to measure the similarity of two protein sequences. We use simple non-parametric cross validation to explicitly weigh the discriminative abilities of the five kernels, such that the time & space computational complexities are greatly reduced when compared to the complicated semi-definite programming and semi-indefinite linear programming. The five kernels are then linearly merged into one single kernel for

  16. Utility systems operation: Optimisation-based decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco-Garcia, Patricia; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Arellano-Garcia, Harvey; Wozny, Guenter

    2011-01-01

    Utility systems provide heat and power to industrial sites. The importance of operating these systems in an optimal way has increased significantly due to the unstable and in the long term rising prices of fossil fuels as well as the need for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents an analysis of the problem for supporting operator decision making under conditions of variable steam demands from the production processes on an industrial site. An optimisation model has been developed, where besides for running the utility system, also the costs associated with starting-up the operating units have been modelled. The illustrative case study shows that accounting for the shut-downs and start-ups of utility operating units can bring significant cost savings. - Highlights: → Optimisation methodology for decision making on running utility systems. → Accounting for varying steam demands. → Optimal operating specifications when a demand change occurs. → Operating costs include start-up costs of boilers and other units. → Validated on a real-life case study. Up to 20% cost savings are possible.

  17. Cross-site comparison of land-use decision-making and its consequences across land systems with a generalized agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R; Brown, Daniel G; Ellis, Erle C

    2014-01-01

    Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions of land-users within land systems, which are structured by local and global environmental, economic, political, and cultural contexts. Such cross-scale causation presents a major challenge for developing a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper implements a generalized agent-based model (ABM) as a virtual laboratory to explore how global and local processes influence the land-use and livelihood decisions of local land-users, operationalized as settlement-level agents, across the landscapes of six real-world test sites. Test sites were chosen in USA, Laos, and China to capture globally-significant variation in population density, market influence, and environmental conditions, with land systems ranging from swidden to commercial agriculture. Publicly available global data were integrated into the ABM to model cross-scale effects of economic globalization on local land-use decisions. A suite of statistics was developed to assess the accuracy of model-predicted land-use outcomes relative to observed and random (i.e. null model) landscapes. At four of six sites, where environmental and demographic forces were important constraints on land-use choices, modeled land-use outcomes were more similar to those observed across sites than the null model. At the two sites in which market forces significantly influenced land-use and livelihood decisions, the model was a poorer predictor of land-use outcomes than the null model. Model successes and failures in simulating real-world land-use patterns enabled the testing of hypotheses on land-use decision-making and yielded insights on the importance of missing mechanisms. The virtual laboratory approach provides a practical framework for systematic improvement of both theory and predictive skill in land change science based on a continual process of experimentation and model enhancement.

  18. Cross-site comparison of land-use decision-making and its consequences across land systems with a generalized agent-based model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Magliocca

    Full Text Available Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions of land-users within land systems, which are structured by local and global environmental, economic, political, and cultural contexts. Such cross-scale causation presents a major challenge for developing a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper implements a generalized agent-based model (ABM as a virtual laboratory to explore how global and local processes influence the land-use and livelihood decisions of local land-users, operationalized as settlement-level agents, across the landscapes of six real-world test sites. Test sites were chosen in USA, Laos, and China to capture globally-significant variation in population density, market influence, and environmental conditions, with land systems ranging from swidden to commercial agriculture. Publicly available global data were integrated into the ABM to model cross-scale effects of economic globalization on local land-use decisions. A suite of statistics was developed to assess the accuracy of model-predicted land-use outcomes relative to observed and random (i.e. null model landscapes. At four of six sites, where environmental and demographic forces were important constraints on land-use choices, modeled land-use outcomes were more similar to those observed across sites than the null model. At the two sites in which market forces significantly influenced land-use and livelihood decisions, the model was a poorer predictor of land-use outcomes than the null model. Model successes and failures in simulating real-world land-use patterns enabled the testing of hypotheses on land-use decision-making and yielded insights on the importance of missing mechanisms. The virtual laboratory approach provides a practical framework for systematic improvement of both theory and predictive skill in land change science based on a continual process of experimentation and model

  19. Clustering of 18 Local Black Rice Base on Total Anthocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristamtini Kristamtini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Black rice has a high anthocyanin content in the pericarp layer, which provides a dark purple color. Anthocyanin serve as an antioxidant that control cholesterol level in the blood, prevent anemia, potentially improve the body's resistance to disease, improve damage to liver cells (hepatitis and chirrosis, prevent impaired kidney function, prevent cancer/tumors, slows down antiaging, and prevent atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Exploration results at AIAT Yogyakarta, Indonesia from 2011 to 2014 obtained 18 cultivar of local black rice Indonesia. The names of the rice are related to the color (black, red or purple formed by anthocyanin deposits in the pericarp layer, seed coat or aleuron. The objective of the study was to classify several types of local black rice from explorations based on the total anthocyanin content. The study was conducted by clustering analyzing the total anthocyanin content of 18 local black rice cultivars in Indonesia. Cluster analysis of total anthocyanin content were done using SAS ver. 9.2. Clustering dendogram shows that there were 4 groups of black rice cultivars based on the total anthocyanin content. Group I consists of Melik black rice, Patalan black rice, Yunianto black rice, Muharjo black rice, Ngatijo black rice, short life of Tugiyo black rice, Andel hitam 1, Jlitheng, and Sragen black rice. Group II consists of Pari ireng, Magelang black hairy rice, Banjarnegara-Wonosobo black rice, and Banjarnegara black rice. Group III consists of NTT black rice, Magelang non hairy black rice, Sembada hitam, and longevity Tugiyo black rice. Group IV consist only one type of black rice namely Cempo ireng. The grouping result indicate the existence of duplicate names among the black rice namely Patalan with Yunianto black rice, and short life Tugiyo with Andel hitam 1 black rice.

  20. Bringing the ecosystem services concept into marine management decisions, supporting ecosystems-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweddle, J. F.; Byg, A.; Davies, I.; Gubbins, M.; Irvine, K.; Kafas, A.; Kenter, J.; MacDonald, A.; Murray, R. B. O.; Potts, T.; Slater, A. M.; Wright, K.; Scott, B. E.

    2016-12-01

    The marine environment is under increasing use, putting pressure on marine ecosystems and increasing competition for space. New activities (e.g. renewable energy developments), evolving marine policies (e.g. implementation of marine protected areas), and climate change may drive changes in biodiversity and resulting ecosystem services (ES) that society and business utilise from coastal and marine systems. A process is needed that integrates ecological assessment of changes with stakeholder perceptions and valuation of ES, whilst balancing ease of application with the ability to deal with complex social-economic-ecological issues. The project "Cooperative participatory assessment of the impact of renewable technology on ecosystem services: CORPORATES" involved natural and social scientists, law and policy experts, and marine managers, with the aim of promoting more integrated decision making using ES concepts in marine management. CORPORATES developed a process to bring ES concepts into stakeholders' awareness. The interactive process, involving 2 workshops, employs interludes of knowledge exchange by experts on ecological processes underpinning ES and on law and policy. These enable mapping of benefits linked to activities, participatory system modelling, and deliberation of policy impacts on different sectors. The workshops were attended by industry representatives, regulatory/advisory partners, and other stakeholders (NGOs, SMEs, recreationalists, local government). Mixed sector groups produced new insights into links between activities and ES, and highlighted cross-sector concerns. Here we present the aspects of the process that successfully built shared understanding between industry and stakeholders of inter-linkages and interactions between ES, benefits, activities, and economic and cultural values. These methods provide an ES-based decision-support model for exchanging societal-ecological knowledge and providing stakeholder interaction in marine planning

  1. A Web-based spatial decision supporting system for land management and soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terribile, F.; Agrillo, A.; Bonfante, A.; Buscemi, G.; Colandrea, M.; D'Antonio, A.; De Mascellis, R.; De Michele, C.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Marotta, L.; Mileti, F. A.; Minieri, L.; Orefice, N.; Valentini, S.; Vingiani, S.; Basile, A.

    2015-07-01

    Today it is evident that there are many contrasting demands on our landscape (e.g. food security, more sustainable agriculture, higher income in rural areas, etc.) as well as many land degradation problems. It has been proved that providing operational answers to these demands and problems is extremely difficult. Here we aim to demonstrate that a spatial decision support system based on geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI) can address all of the above, so producing a smart system for supporting decision making for agriculture, forestry, and urban planning with respect to the landscape. In this paper, we discuss methods and results of a special kind of GCI architecture, one that is highly focused on land management and soil conservation. The system allows us to obtain dynamic, multidisciplinary, multiscale, and multifunctional answers to agriculture, forestry, and urban planning issues through the Web. The system has been applied to and tested in an area of about 20 000 ha in the south of Italy, within the framework of a European LIFE+ project (SOILCONSWEB). The paper reports - as a case study - results from two different applications dealing with agriculture (olive growth tool) and environmental protection (soil capability to protect groundwater). Developed with the help of end users, the system is starting to be adopted by local communities. The system indirectly explores a change of paradigm for soil and landscape scientists. Indeed, the potential benefit is shown of overcoming current disciplinary fragmentation over landscape issues by offering - through a smart Web-based system - truly integrated geospatial knowledge that may be directly and freely used by any end user (www.landconsultingweb.eu). This may help bridge the last very important divide between scientists working on the landscape and end users.

  2. A web based spatial decision supporting system for land management and soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terribile, F.; Agrillo, A.; Bonfante, A.; Buscemi, G.; Colandrea, M.; D'Antonio, A.; De Mascellis, R.; De Michele, C.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Marotta, L.; Mileti, F. A.; Minieri, L.; Orefice, N.; Valentini, S.; Vingiani, S.; Basile, A.

    2015-02-01

    Today it is evident that there are many contrasting demands on our landscape (e.g. food security, more sustainable agriculture, higher income in rural areas, etc.) but also many land degradation problems. It has been proved that providing operational answers to these demands and problems is extremely difficult. Here we aim to demonstrate that a Spatial Decision Support System based on geospatial cyber-infrastructure (GCI) can embody all of the above, so producing a smart system for supporting decision making for agriculture, forestry and urban planning with respect to the landscape. In this paper, we discuss methods and results of a special kind of GCI architecture, one that is highly focused on soil and land conservation (SOILCONSWEB-LIFE+ project). The system allows us to obtain dynamic, multidisciplinary, multiscale, and multifunctional answers to agriculture, forestry and urban planning issues through the web. The system has been applied to and tested in an area of about 20 000 ha in the South of Italy, within the framework of a European LIFE+ project. The paper reports - as a case study - results from two different applications dealing with agriculture (olive growth tool) and environmental protection (soil capability to protect groundwater). Developed with the help of end users, the system is starting to be adopted by local communities. The system indirectly explores a change of paradigm for soil and landscape scientists. Indeed, the potential benefit is shown of overcoming current disciplinary fragmentation over landscape issues by offering - through a smart web based system - truly integrated geospatial knowledge that may be directly and freely used by any end user (http://www.landconsultingweb.eu). This may help bridge the last much important divide between scientists working on the landscape and end users.

  3. The Interplay of Hippocampus and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Memory-Based Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina A. Weilbächer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory and value-based decision making are two central and intensively studied research domains in cognitive neuroscience, but we are just beginning to understand how they interact to enable memory-based decisions. The two brain regions that have been associated with episodic memory and value-based decision making are the hippocampus and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, respectively. In this review article, we first give an overview of these brain–behavior associations and then focus on the mechanisms of potential interactions between the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex that have been proposed and tested in recent neuroimaging studies. Based on those possible interactions, we discuss several directions for future research on the neural and cognitive foundations of memory-based decision making.

  4. Improving mobile robot localization: grid-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junchi

    2012-02-01

    Autonomous mobile robots have been widely studied not only as advanced facilities for industrial and daily life automation, but also as a testbed in robotics competitions for extending the frontier of current artificial intelligence. In many of such contests, the robot is supposed to navigate on the ground with a grid layout. Based on this observation, we present a localization error correction method by exploring the geometric feature of the tile patterns. On top of the classical inertia-based positioning, our approach employs three fiber-optic sensors that are assembled under the bottom of the robot, presenting an equilateral triangle layout. The sensor apparatus, together with the proposed supporting algorithm, are designed to detect a line's direction (vertical or horizontal) by monitoring the grid crossing events. As a result, the line coordinate information can be fused to rectify the cumulative localization deviation from inertia positioning. The proposed method is analyzed theoretically in terms of its error bound and also has been implemented and tested on a customary developed two-wheel autonomous mobile robot.

  5. The Research of Clinical Decision Support System Based on Three-Layer Knowledge Base Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many clinical decision support systems, a two-layer knowledge base model (disease-symptom of rule reasoning is used. This model often does not express knowledge very well since it simply infers disease from the presence of certain symptoms. In this study, we propose a three-layer knowledge base model (disease-symptom-property to utilize more useful information in inference. The system iteratively calculates the probability of patients who may suffer from diseases based on a multisymptom naive Bayes algorithm, in which the specificity of these disease symptoms is weighted by the estimation of the degree of contribution to diagnose the disease. It significantly reduces the dependencies between attributes to apply the naive Bayes algorithm more properly. Then, the online learning process for parameter optimization of the inference engine was completed. At last, our decision support system utilizing the three-layer model was formally evaluated by two experienced doctors. By comparisons between prediction results and clinical results, our system can provide effective clinical recommendations to doctors. Moreover, we found that the three-layer model can improve the accuracy of predictions compared with the two-layer model. In light of some of the limitations of this study, we also identify and discuss several areas that need continued improvement.

  6. Constraint-Based Local Search for Constrained Optimum Paths Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quang Dung; Deville, Yves; van Hentenryck, Pascal

    Constrained Optimum Path (COP) problems arise in many real-life applications and are ubiquitous in communication networks. They have been traditionally approached by dedicated algorithms, which are often hard to extend with side constraints and to apply widely. This paper proposes a constraint-based local search (CBLS) framework for COP applications, bringing the compositionality, reuse, and extensibility at the core of CBLS and CP systems. The modeling contribution is the ability to express compositional models for various COP applications at a high level of abstraction, while cleanly separating the model and the search procedure. The main technical contribution is a connected neighborhood based on rooted spanning trees to find high-quality solutions to COP problems. The framework, implemented in COMET, is applied to Resource Constrained Shortest Path (RCSP) problems (with and without side constraints) and to the edge-disjoint paths problem (EDP). Computational results show the potential significance of the approach.

  7. Evidence-Based Medicine in judicial decisions concerning right to healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Eduardo Rocha; da Silva, Geraldo Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze, from the examination of decisions issued by Brazilian courts, how Evidence-Based Medicine was applied and if it led to well-founded decisions, searching the best scientific knowledge. Methods The decisions made by the Federal Courts were searched, with no time limits, at the website of the Federal Court Council, using the expression “Evidence-Based Medicine”. With regard to decisions issued by the court of the State of São Paulo, the search was done at the webpage and applying the same terms and criterion as to time. Next, a qualitative analysis of the decisions was conducted for each action, to verify if the patient/plaintiff’s situation, as well as the efficacy or inefficacy of treatments or drugs addressed in existing protocols were considered before the court granted the provision claimed by the plaintiff. Results In less than one-third of the decisions there was an appropriate discussion about efficacy of the procedure sought in court, in comparison to other procedures available in clinical guidelines adopted by the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) or by private health insurance plans, considering the individual situation. The majority of the decisions involved private health insurance plans (n=13, 68%). Conclusion The number of decisions that did consider scientific evidence and the peculiarities of each patient was a concern. Further discussion on Evidence-Based Medicine in judgments involving public healthcare are required. PMID:27074226

  8. Non-localization and localization ROC analyses using clinically based scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquerault, Sophie; Samuelson, Frank W.; Myers, Kyle J.; Smith, Robert C.

    2009-02-01

    We are investigating the potential for differences in study conclusions when assessing the estimated impact of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system on readers' performance. The data utilized in this investigation were derived from a multi-reader multi-case observer study involving one hundred mammographic background images to which fixed-size and fixed-intensity Gaussian signals were added, generating a low- and high-intensity signal sets. The study setting allowed CAD assessment in two situations: when CAD sensitivity was 1) superior or 2) lower than the average reader. Seven readers were asked to review each set in the unaided and CAD-aided reading modes, mark and rate their findings. Using this data, we studied the effect on study conclusion of three clinically-based receiver operating characteristic (ROC) scoring definitions. These scoring definitions included both location-specific and non-location-specific rules. The results showed agreement in the estimated impact of CAD on the overall reader performance. In the study setting where CAD sensitivity is superior to the average reader, the mean difference in AUC between the CAD-aided read and unaided read was 0.049 (95%CIs: -0.027; 0.130) for the image scoring definition that is based on non-location-specific rules, and 0.104 (95%CIs: 0.036; 0.174) and 0.090 (95%CIs: 0.031; 0.155) for image scoring definitions that are based on location-specific rules. The increases in AUC were statistically significant for the location-specific scoring definitions. It was further observed that the variance on these estimates was reduced when using the location-specific scoring definitions compared to that using a non-location-specific scoring definition. In the study setting where CAD sensitivity is equivalent or lower than the average reader, the mean differences in AUC are slightly above 0.01 for all image scoring definitions. These increases in AUC were not statistical significant for any of the image scoring definitions

  9. Grey Language Hesitant Fuzzy Group Decision Making Method Based on Kernel and Grey Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingsheng; Diao, Yuzhu; Gong, Zaiwu; Hu, Aqin

    2018-03-02

    Based on grey language multi-attribute group decision making, a kernel and grey scale scoring function is put forward according to the definition of grey language and the meaning of the kernel and grey scale. The function introduces grey scale into the decision-making method to avoid information distortion. This method is applied to the grey language hesitant fuzzy group decision making, and the grey correlation degree is used to sort the schemes. The effectiveness and practicability of the decision-making method are further verified by the industry chain sustainable development ability evaluation example of a circular economy. Moreover, its simplicity and feasibility are verified by comparing it with the traditional grey language decision-making method and the grey language hesitant fuzzy weighted arithmetic averaging (GLHWAA) operator integration method after determining the index weight based on the grey correlation.

  10. Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Wachtel, Ruth E; Epstein, Richard H

    2011-01-07

    No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR) management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities, whether scenarios can be adapted automatically from information systems data, and the usefulness of the approach. A process of event-based knowledge elicitation was developed to assess OR management decision-making that may reduce the efficiency of use of OR time. Hypothetical scenarios addressing every OR management decision influencing OR efficiency were created from published examples. Scenarios are adapted, so that cues about conditions are accurate and appropriate for each facility (e.g., if OR 1 is used as an example in a scenario, the listed procedure is a type of procedure performed at the facility in OR 1). Adaptation is performed automatically using the facility's OR information system or anesthesia information management system (AIMS) data for most scenarios (43 of 45). Performing the needs assessment takes approximately 1 hour of local managers' time while they decide if their decisions are consistent with the described scenarios. A table of contents of the indexed scenarios is created automatically, providing a simple version of problem solving using case-based reasoning. For example, a new OR manager wanting to know the best way to decide whether to move a case can look in the chapter on "Moving Cases on the Day of Surgery" to find a scenario that describes the situation being encountered. Scenarios have been adapted and used at 22 hospitals. Few changes in decisions were needed to increase the efficiency of use of OR time. The few changes were heterogeneous among hospitals, showing the usefulness of individualized assessments. Our technical advance is the

  11. Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epstein Richard H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities, whether scenarios can be adapted automatically from information systems data, and the usefulness of the approach. Methods A process of event-based knowledge elicitation was developed to assess OR management decision-making that may reduce the efficiency of use of OR time. Hypothetical scenarios addressing every OR management decision influencing OR efficiency were created from published examples. Scenarios are adapted, so that cues about conditions are accurate and appropriate for each facility (e.g., if OR 1 is used as an example in a scenario, the listed procedure is a type of procedure performed at the facility in OR 1. Adaptation is performed automatically using the facility's OR information system or anesthesia information management system (AIMS data for most scenarios (43 of 45. Performing the needs assessment takes approximately 1 hour of local managers' time while they decide if their decisions are consistent with the described scenarios. A table of contents of the indexed scenarios is created automatically, providing a simple version of problem solving using case-based reasoning. For example, a new OR manager wanting to know the best way to decide whether to move a case can look in the chapter on "Moving Cases on the Day of Surgery" to find a scenario that describes the situation being encountered. Results Scenarios have been adapted and used at 22 hospitals. Few changes in decisions were needed to increase the efficiency of use of OR time. The few changes were heterogeneous among hospitals, showing the usefulness of

  12. Long-term health outcomes of a decision aid: data from a randomized trial of adjuvant! In women with localized breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Elkin, Elena B; Peele, Pamela B; Dickler, Maura; Siminoff, Laura A

    2009-01-01

    Women with localized breast cancer face difficult decisions about adjuvant therapy. Several decision aids are available to help women choose between treatment options. Decision aids are known to affect treatment choices and may therefore affect patient survival. The authors aimed to model the effects of the Adjuvant! decision aid on expected survival in women with early stage breast cancer. Data were obtained from a randomized trial of Adjuvant! (n = 395). To calculate the effects of the decision aid on survival, the authors used the Adjuvant! survival predictions as a surrogate endpoint. Data from each arm were entered separately into statistical models to estimate change in survival associated with receiving the Adjuvant! decision aid. Most women (approximately 85%) chose a treatment option that maximized predicted survival. The effects of the decision aid on outcome could not be modeled because a small number of women (n = 12, 3%) chose treatment options associated with a large (5%-14%) loss in survival. These women-most typically estrogen receptor positive but refusing hormonal therapy-were equally divided between Adjuvant! and control groups and were not distinguished by medical or demographic factors. Expected benefit from treatment is a key variable in understanding patient behavior. A small number of women refuse adjuvant treatment associated with large increases in predicted survival, even when they are explicitly informed about the degree of benefit they would forgo. Investigation of the effects of decision aids on cancer survival is unlikely to be fruitful due to power considerations.

  13. Retail service quality as a base in purchasing decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov-Mladenović Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retail is a service activity, and services are something that makes the retail companies differ from production companies. Retailers are trying to differentiate the 'package' offer, build customer loyalty and make their position through the provision of high service quality. In addition, the services provided can be varied, such as exterior and interior design of retail stores, preparation of goods for sale, appearance and behavior of sales personnel, culture of communication with customers, and services provided after the sales process. Consumers require the service quality when making purchasing decision. For retail companies and retail stores it is important to continuously monitor the level of service quality. In order to measure the service quality, the method that found its application in the theory and practice is SERVQUAL. This model was created as a combination of theoretical and practical research and it looks at the quality of service as the content of the following dimensions: tangibles, reliability, sensitivity, security and empathy. As such, it is a function of the difference between perceptions and expectations (Q = P-E and is widely accepted to measure the service quality in traditional retail stores, public sector, higher education, real estate, hospitals, courts and so on. In addition, this model is widely used to measure service quality in e-retailing, e-banking, e-selling of travel packages and other services provided by electronic means. The main assumption is that services are a key factor in making purchasing decision. The aim of this paper is to, through theoretical and practical research with special emphasis on SERVQUAL method, test the initial hypothesis and recognize the level of service quality in retail chains in Southeast Serbia.

  14. onlineDeCISion.org: a web-based decision aid for DCIS treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozanne, Elissa M; Schneider, Katharine H; Soeteman, Djøra; Stout, Natasha; Schrag, Deborah; Fordis, Michael; Punglia, Rinaa S

    2015-11-01

    Women diagnosed with DCIS face complex treatment decisions and often do so with inaccurate and incomplete understanding of the risks and benefits involved. Our objective was to create a tool to guide these decisions for both providers and patients. We developed a web-based decision aid designed to provide clinicians with tailored information about a patient’s recurrence risks and survival outcomes following different treatment strategies for DCIS. A theoretical framework, microsimulation model (Soeteman et al., J Natl Cancer 105:774–781, 2013) and best practices for web-based decision tools guided the development of the decision aid. The development process used semi-structured interviews and usability testing with key stakeholders, including a diverse group of multidisciplinary clinicians and a patient advocate. We developed onlineDeCISion.​org to include the following features that were rated as important by the stakeholders: (1) descriptions of each of the standard treatment options available; (2) visual projections of the likelihood of time-specific (10-year and lifetime) breast-preservation, recurrence, and survival outcomes; and (3) side-by-side comparisons of down-stream effects of each treatment choice. All clinicians reviewing the decision aid in usability testing were interested in using it in their clinical practice. The decision aid is available in a web-based format and is planned to be publicly available. To improve treatment decision making in patients with DCIS, we have developed a web-based decision aid onlineDeCISion.​org that conforms to best practices and that clinicians are interested in using in their clinics with patients to better inform treatment decisions.

  15. Hesitant Fuzzy Thermodynamic Method for Emergency Decision Making Based on Prospect Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Peijia; Xu, Zeshui; Hao, Zhinan

    2017-09-01

    Due to the timeliness of emergency response and much unknown information in emergency situations, this paper proposes a method to deal with the emergency decision making, which can comprehensively reflect the emergency decision making process. By utilizing the hesitant fuzzy elements to represent the fuzziness of the objects and the hesitant thought of the experts, this paper introduces the negative exponential function into the prospect theory so as to portray the psychological behaviors of the experts, which transforms the hesitant fuzzy decision matrix into the hesitant fuzzy prospect decision matrix (HFPDM) according to the expectation-levels. Then, this paper applies the energy and the entropy in thermodynamics to take the quantity and the quality of the decision values into account, and defines the thermodynamic decision making parameters based on the HFPDM. Accordingly, a whole procedure for emergency decision making is conducted. What is more, some experiments are designed to demonstrate and improve the validation of the emergency decision making procedure. Last but not the least, this paper makes a case study about the emergency decision making in the firing and exploding at Port Group in Tianjin Binhai New Area, which manifests the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method.

  16. MODIS-Based Products for Operational Decision Support Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SMH Consulting proposes to develop a web-based decision support system to assist in Rapid Assessment, Monitoring, and Management (RAMM-DSS) on a regional scale. SMH...

  17. A Decision Support Framework For Science-Based, Multi-Stakeholder Deliberation: A Coral Reef Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a decision support framework for science-based assessment and multi-stakeholder deliberation. The framework consists of two parts: a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses) analysis to identify the important causal relationships among anthropogenic environ...

  18. Detecting Structural Metadata with Decision Trees and Transformation-Based Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Joungbum; Schwarm, Sarah E; Ostendorf, Mari

    2004-01-01

    .... Specifically, combinations of decision trees and language models are used to predict sentence ends and interruption points and given these events transformation based learning is used to detect edit...

  19. Cannabinoids and value-based decision making: Implications for neurodegenerative disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, AM; Oleson, E.B.; Diergaarde, L.; Cheer, J.F.; Pattij, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, disturbances in cognitive function have been increasingly recognized as important symptomatic phenomena in neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Value-based decision making in particular is an important executive cognitive function that is not only impaired

  20. An open-loop, physiologic model-based decision support system can provide appropriate ventilator settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karbing, Dan Stieper; Spadaro, Savino; Dey, Nilanjan

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the physiologic effects of applying advice on mechanical ventilation by an open-loop, physiologic model-based clinical decision support system. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: University and Regional Hospitals' ICUs. PATIENTS: Varied adult ICU population...

  1. Example-Based Image Colorization Using Locality Consistent Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo Li; Fuchen Zhao; Zhuo Su; Xiangguo Liang; Yu-Kun Lai; Rosin, Paul L

    2017-11-01

    Image colorization aims to produce a natural looking color image from a given gray-scale image, which remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a novel example-based image colorization method exploiting a new locality consistent sparse representation. Given a single reference color image, our method automatically colorizes the target gray-scale image by sparse pursuit. For efficiency and robustness, our method operates at the superpixel level. We extract low-level intensity features, mid-level texture features, and high-level semantic features for each superpixel, which are then concatenated to form its descriptor. The collection of feature vectors for all the superpixels from the reference image composes the dictionary. We formulate colorization of target superpixels as a dictionary-based sparse reconstruction problem. Inspired by the observation that superpixels with similar spatial location and/or feature representation are likely to match spatially close regions from the reference image, we further introduce a locality promoting regularization term into the energy formulation, which substantially improves the matching consistency and subsequent colorization results. Target superpixels are colorized based on the chrominance information from the dominant reference superpixels. Finally, to further improve coherence while preserving sharpness, we develop a new edge-preserving filter for chrominance channels with the guidance from the target gray-scale image. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work on sparse pursuit image colorization from single reference images. Experimental results demonstrate that our colorization method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, both visually and quantitatively using a user study.

  2. Decision support system for exploiting local renewable energy sources: A case study of the Chigu area of southwestern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, C.-D.; Yang, G.G.-L.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of climate and energy policy has drawn new attention since the Kyoto Protocol has now come into force. It is hoped that strengthened use of renewable energy sources can meet new international environmental requirements and provide self-sufficient domestic energy supplies. The decision support system established in this study integrates potential evaluations, cost analyses, legal incentives, and analysis of returns on investments with the aid of a geographic information system (GIS). This system can provide insights for policymakers into where and the extent of the potentials, for lawmakers into whether the current legal incentives are sufficient to encourage private investment, and for investors into whether investments in exploiting local renewable energy sources are economically feasible. Under the current incentive framework in Taiwan, the amortization periods of investment on renewable energy are generally longer than the period over which the investment is to be recovered. This presents an unfavorable condition for attracting investments to and for developing renewable energy. An increase in remuneration through legal revisions is needed before domestic investment in renewable energy will actively expand

  3. Learning to maximize reward rate: a model based on semi-Markov decision processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Arash; Fakhari, Pegah; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2014-01-01

    WHEN ANIMALS HAVE TO MAKE A NUMBER OF DECISIONS DURING A LIMITED TIME INTERVAL, THEY FACE A FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM: how much time they should spend on each decision in order to achieve the maximum possible total outcome. Deliberating more on one decision usually leads to more outcome but less time will remain for other decisions. In the framework of sequential sampling models, the question is how animals learn to set their decision threshold such that the total expected outcome achieved during a limited time is maximized. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework for answering this question. To this end, we consider an experimental design in which each trial can come from one of the several possible "conditions." A condition specifies the difficulty of the trial, the reward, the penalty and so on. We show that to maximize the expected reward during a limited time, the subject should set a separate value of decision threshold for each condition. We propose a model of learning the optimal value of decision thresholds based on the theory of semi-Markov decision processes (SMDP). In our model, the experimental environment is modeled as an SMDP with each "condition" being a "state" and the value of decision thresholds being the "actions" taken in those states. The problem of finding the optimal decision thresholds then is cast as the stochastic optimal control problem of taking actions in each state in the corresponding SMDP such that the average reward rate is maximized. Our model utilizes a biologically plausible learning algorithm to solve this problem. The simulation results show that at the beginning of learning the model choses high values of decision threshold which lead to sub-optimal performance. With experience, however, the model learns to lower the value of decision thresholds till finally it finds the optimal values.

  4. Mild Cognitive Impairment is Associated with PoorerDecision Making in Community-Based Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke Han, S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; James, Bryan D.; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Financial and healthcare decision making are important for maintaining wellbeing and independence in old age. We tested the hypothesis that Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is associated with poorer decision making in financial and healthcare matters. Design Community-based epidemiologic cohort study. Setting Communities throughout Northeastern Illinois. Participants Participants were 730 older nondemented persons from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Measurements All participants underwent a detailed clinical evaluation and decision making assessment using a measure that closely approximates materials utilized in real world financial and healthcare settings. This allowed for measurement of total decision making, as well as financial and healthcare decision making. Regression models were used to examine whether the presence of MCI was associated with a lower level of decision making. In subsequent analyses, we explored the relation of specific cognitive systems (i.e., episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial ability) with decision making in those with MCI. Results Results showed that MCI was associated with lower decision making total scores as well as financial and healthcare scores, respectively, after accounting for the effects of age, education, and sex. The effect of MCI on total decision making was equivalent to the effect of more than 10 additional years of age. Additional models showed that when considering multiple cognitive systems, perceptual speed accounted for the most variance in decision making among participants with MCI. Conclusion Results suggest that persons with MCI may exhibit poorer financial and healthcare decision making in real world situations, and that perceptual speed may be an important contributor to poorer decision making among persons with MCI. PMID:25850350

  5. A Decision Support Framework for Science-Based, Multi-Stakeholder Deliberation: A Coral Reef Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehr, Amanda P.; Small, Mitchell J.; Bradley, Patricia; Fisher, William S.; Vega, Ann; Black, Kelly; Stockton, Tom

    2012-12-01

    We present a decision support framework for science-based assessment and multi-stakeholder deliberation. The framework consists of two parts: a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses) analysis to identify the important causal relationships among anthropogenic environmental stressors, processes, and outcomes; and a Decision Landscape analysis to depict the legal, social, and institutional dimensions of environmental decisions. The Decision Landscape incorporates interactions among government agencies, regulated businesses, non-government organizations, and other stakeholders. It also identifies where scientific information regarding environmental processes is collected and transmitted to improve knowledge about elements of the DPSIR and to improve the scientific basis for decisions. Our application of the decision support framework to coral reef protection and restoration in the Florida Keys focusing on anthropogenic stressors, such as wastewater, proved to be successful and offered several insights. Using information from a management plan, it was possible to capture the current state of the science with a DPSIR analysis as well as important decision options, decision makers and applicable laws with a the Decision Landscape analysis. A structured elicitation of values and beliefs conducted at a coral reef management workshop held in Key West, Florida provided a diversity of opinion and also indicated a prioritization of several environmental stressors affecting coral reef health. The integrated DPSIR/Decision landscape framework for the Florida Keys developed based on the elicited opinion and the DPSIR analysis can be used to inform management decisions, to reveal the role that further scientific information and research might play to populate the framework, and to facilitate better-informed agreement among participants.

  6. Application of Bayesian Decision Theory Based on Prior Information in the Multi-Objective Optimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Lei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available General multi-objective optimization methods are hard to obtain prior information, how to utilize prior information has been a challenge. This paper analyzes the characteristics of Bayesian decision-making based on maximum entropy principle and prior information, especially in case that how to effectively improve decision-making reliability in deficiency of reference samples. The paper exhibits effectiveness of the proposed method using the real application of multi-frequency offset estimation in distributed multiple-input multiple-output system. The simulation results demonstrate Bayesian decision-making based on prior information has better global searching capability when sampling data is deficient.

  7. Apathy and Emotion-Based Decision-Making in Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bayard, Sophie; Jacus, Jean-Pierre; Raffard, Stéphane; Gely-Nargeot, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background. Apathy and reduced emotion-based decision-making are two behavioral modifications independently described in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Objectives. The aims of this study were to investigate decision-making based on emotional feedback processing in AD and aMCI and to study the impact of reduced decision-making performances on apathy. Methods. We recruited 20 patients with AD, 20 participants with aMCI, and 20 healthy controls. All parti...

  8. Smartphone-Based Indoor Localization with Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhuang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor wireless localization using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE beacons has attracted considerable attention after the release of the BLE protocol. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that uses the combination of channel-separate polynomial regression model (PRM, channel-separate fingerprinting (FP, outlier detection and extended Kalman filtering (EKF for smartphone-based indoor localization with BLE beacons. The proposed algorithm uses FP and PRM to estimate the target’s location and the distances between the target and BLE beacons respectively. We compare the performance of distance estimation that uses separate PRM for three advertisement channels (i.e., the separate strategy with that use an aggregate PRM generated through the combination of information from all channels (i.e., the aggregate strategy. The performance of FP-based location estimation results of the separate strategy and the aggregate strategy are also compared. It was found that the separate strategy can provide higher accuracy; thus, it is preferred to adopt PRM and FP for each BLE advertisement channel separately. Furthermore, to enhance the robustness of the algorithm, a two-level outlier detection mechanism is designed. Distance and location estimates obtained from PRM and FP are passed to the first outlier detection to generate improved distance estimates for the EKF. After the EKF process, the second outlier detection algorithm based on statistical testing is further performed to remove the outliers. The proposed algorithm was evaluated by various field experiments. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieved the accuracy of <2.56 m at 90% of the time with dense deployment of BLE beacons (1 beacon per 9 m, which performs 35.82% better than <3.99 m from the Propagation Model (PM + EKF algorithm and 15.77% more accurate than <3.04 m from the FP + EKF algorithm. With sparse deployment (1 beacon per 18 m, the proposed algorithm achieves the accuracies of <3.88 m at

  9. Improving societal acceptance of rad waste management policy decisions: an approach based on complex intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Suman

    2008-01-01

    In today's context elaborate public participation exercises are conducted around the world to elicit and incorporate societal risk perceptions into nuclear policy Decision-Making. However, on many occasions, such as in the case of rad waste management, the society remains unconvinced about these decisions. This naturally leads to the questions: are techniques for incorporating societal risk perceptions into the rad waste policy decision making processes sufficiently mature? How could societal risk perceptions and legal normative principles be better integrated in order to render the decisions more equitable and convincing to society? Based on guidance from socio-psychological research this paper postulates that a critical factor for gaining/improving societal acceptance is the quality and adequacy of criteria for option evaluation that are used in the policy decision making. After surveying three rad waste public participation cases, the paper identifies key lacunae in criteria abstraction processes as currently practiced. A new policy decision support model CIRDA: Complex Intelligent Risk Discourse Abstraction model that is based on the heuristic of Risk-Risk Analysis is proposed to overcome these lacunae. CIRDA's functionality of rad waste policy decision making is modelled as a policy decision-making Abstract Intelligent Agent and the agent program/abstraction mappings are presented. CIRDA is then applied to a live (U.K.) rad waste management case and the advantages of this method as compared to the Value Tree Method as practiced in the GB case are demonstrated. (author)

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF GIS-BASED MULTICRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS WITH VB IN ArcGIS

    OpenAIRE

    DERYA OZTURK; FATMAGUL BATUK

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the integration of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and geographical information systems (GIS) and introduces a tool, GIS–MCDA, written in visual basic in ArcGIS for GIS-based MCDA. The GIS–MCDA deals with raster-based data sets and includes standardization, weighting and decision analysis methods, and sensitivity analysis. Simple additive weighting, weighted product method, technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution, compromise programming, a...

  11. Building organizational knowledge and value: informed decision making in Kansas children's community-based mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipp, Karen Flint; Kapp, Stephen A

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge is managers' principal asset and knowledge building is managers' primary work. This qualitative study explores knowledge building by directors of children's community-based mental health services in Kansas. Of the state's 27 directors, 25 completed a survey about knowledge building, in their preference of online or telephone format. Fourteen participants took part either in preliminary interviews for study development, or in follow-up interviews for further detail and member checking. Study findings indicate that with requisite resources, directors inform their decision making with streams of information, which they manage and generate to build organizational knowledge and value for local practice effectiveness.

  12. Decoding of Human Movements Based on Deep Brain Local Field Potentials Using Ensemble Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decoding neural activities related to voluntary and involuntary movements is fundamental to understanding human brain motor circuits and neuromotor disorders and can lead to the development of neuromotor prosthetic devices for neurorehabilitation. This study explores using recorded deep brain local field potentials (LFPs for robust movement decoding of Parkinson’s disease (PD and Dystonia patients. The LFP data from voluntary movement activities such as left and right hand index finger clicking were recorded from patients who underwent surgeries for implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes. Movement-related LFP signal features were extracted by computing instantaneous power related to motor response in different neural frequency bands. An innovative neural network ensemble classifier has been proposed and developed for accurate prediction of finger movement and its forthcoming laterality. The ensemble classifier contains three base neural network classifiers, namely, feedforward, radial basis, and probabilistic neural networks. The majority voting rule is used to fuse the decisions of the three base classifiers to generate the final decision of the ensemble classifier. The overall decoding performance reaches a level of agreement (kappa value at about 0.729±0.16 for decoding movement from the resting state and about 0.671±0.14 for decoding left and right visually cued movements.

  13. Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong

    1996-01-01

    The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt's Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm

  14. Character Education Based On Local Wisdom For the Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh Sukemi Buchory

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at revealing the existence of character education based on the local wisdom for the prisoners. The subject of this research is the prisoner inhabitant in Wirogunan Prison and Narcotics pakem in Sleman Yogyakarta. The data were gained by interviewing, documenting and demonstrating. The data were analyzed qualitative and quantitative descriptively. The results of this research are: (1 The training of Tembang Maca Pat and Javanese MC are equivalently adapted, (2 The character values being shaped: believe in God, responsibility, respect, fairness, confidence, faithfulness, discipline, careness, spirituality, manners, intelligence, emotion control, character building, the increase of social participants; (3 The competence on Tembang Maca Pat and MC of Javanese can be used as professional earning in society and also can be used as educational model for the prisoners.

  15. Machine Learning Based Localization and Classification with Atomic Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Cameron; Griffin, Lewis D.; Marmugi, Luca; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate identification of position, material, orientation, and shape of objects imaged by a Rb 85 atomic magnetometer performing electromagnetic induction imaging supported by machine learning. Machine learning maximizes the information extracted from the images created by the magnetometer, demonstrating the use of hidden data. Localization 2.6 times better than the spatial resolution of the imaging system and successful classification up to 97% are obtained. This circumvents the need of solving the inverse problem and demonstrates the extension of machine learning to diffusive systems, such as low-frequency electrodynamics in media. Automated collection of task-relevant information from quantum-based electromagnetic imaging will have a relevant impact from biomedicine to security.

  16. Hyperspectral image classification based on local binary patterns and PCANet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huizhen; Gao, Feng; Dong, Junyu; Yang, Yang

    2018-04-01

    Hyperspectral image classification has been well acknowledged as one of the challenging tasks of hyperspectral data processing. In this paper, we propose a novel hyperspectral image classification framework based on local binary pattern (LBP) features and PCANet. In the proposed method, linear prediction error (LPE) is first employed to select a subset of informative bands, and LBP is utilized to extract texture features. Then, spectral and texture features are stacked into a high dimensional vectors. Next, the extracted features of a specified position are transformed to a 2-D image. The obtained images of all pixels are fed into PCANet for classification. Experimental results on real hyperspectral dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Maintenance Decision Making based on different types of data fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Galar, D.; Gustafson, A.; Tormos Martínez, Bernardo Vicente; Berges, Luis

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Over the last decade, system integration is applied more as it allows organizations to streamline business processes. A recent development in the asset engineering management is to leverage the investment already made in process control systems. This allows the operations, maintenance, and process control teams to monitor and determine new alarm level based on the physical condition data of the critical machines. Condition-based maintenance (CBM) is a maintenance philosophy base...

  18. Exemplar-based inference in multi-attribute decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Karlsson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies propose that exemplar retrieval contributes to multi-attribute decisions. The authors have proposed a process theory enabling a priori predictions of what cognitive representations people use as input to their judgment process (extit{Sigma}, for ``summation''; P. Juslin, L. Karlsson, and H. Olsson, 2008. According to Sigma, exemplar retrieval is a back-up system when the task does not allow for additive and linear abstraction and integration of cue-criterion knowledge (e.g., when the task is non-additive. An important question is to what extent such shifts occur spontaneously as part of automatic procedures, such as error-minimization with the Delta rule, or if they are controlled extit{strategy} shifts contingent on the ability to identify a sufficiently successful judgment strategy. In this article data are reviewed that demonstrate a shift between exemplar memory and cue abstraction, as well as data where the expected shift does extit{not} occur. In contrast to a common assumption of previous models, these results suggest a controlled and contingent strategy shift.

  19. Microseismic Monitoring Design Optimization Based on Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Y.; Tamimi, N.; Ostadhassan, M.

    2017-12-01

    Borehole microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracture treatments of unconventional reservoirs is a widely used method in the oil and gas industry. Sometimes, the quality of the acquired microseismic data is poor. One of the reasons for poor data quality is poor survey design. We attempt to provide a comprehensive and thorough workflow, using multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA), to optimize planning micriseismic monitoring. So far, microseismic monitoring has been used extensively as a powerful tool for determining fracture parameters that affect the influx of formation fluids into the wellbore. The factors that affect the quality of microseismic data and their final results include average distance between microseismic events and receivers, complexity of the recorded wavefield, signal-to-noise ratio, data aperture, etc. These criteria often conflict with each other. In a typical microseismic monitoring, those factors should be considered to choose the best monitoring well(s), optimum number of required geophones, and their depth. We use MDCA to address these design challenges and develop a method that offers an optimized design out of all possible combinations to produce the best data acquisition results. We believe that this will be the first research to include the above-mentioned factors in a 3D model. Such a tool would assist companies and practicing engineers in choosing the best design parameters for future microseismic projects.

  20. Big-Data Based Decision-Support Systems to Improve Clinicians’ Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosan, Don; Samore, Matthew; Jones, Makoto; Livnat, Yarden; Clutter, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Complex clinical decision-making could be facilitated by using population health data to inform clinicians. In two previous studies, we interviewed 16 infectious disease experts to understand complex clinical reasoning. For this study, we focused on answers from the experts on how clinical reasoning can be supported by population-based Big-Data. We found cognitive strategies such as trajectory tracking, perspective taking, and metacognition has the potential to improve clinicians’ cognition to deal with complex problems. These cognitive strategies could be supported by population health data, and all have important implications for the design of Big-Data based decision-support tools that could be embedded in electronic health records. Our findings provide directions for task allocation and design of decision-support applications for health care industry development of Big data based decision-support systems. PMID:27990498

  1. Big-Data Based Decision-Support Systems to Improve Clinicians' Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosan, Don; Samore, Matthew; Jones, Makoto; Livnat, Yarden; Clutter, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Complex clinical decision-making could be facilitated by using population health data to inform clinicians. In two previous studies, we interviewed 16 infectious disease experts to understand complex clinical reasoning. For this study, we focused on answers from the experts on how clinical reasoning can be supported by population-based Big-Data. We found cognitive strategies such as trajectory tracking, perspective taking, and metacognition has the potential to improve clinicians' cognition to deal with complex problems. These cognitive strategies could be supported by population health data, and all have important implications for the design of Big-Data based decision-support tools that could be embedded in electronic health records. Our findings provide directions for task allocation and design of decision-support applications for health care industry development of Big data based decision-support systems.

  2. NASA Wrangler: Automated Cloud-Based Data Assembly in the RECOVER Wildfire Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John; Carroll, Mark; Gill, Roger; Wooten, Margaret; Weber, Keith; Blair, Kindra; May, Jeffrey; Toombs, William

    2017-01-01

    NASA Wrangler is a loosely-coupled, event driven, highly parallel data aggregation service designed to take advantageof the elastic resource capabilities of cloud computing. Wrangler automatically collects Earth observational data, climate model outputs, derived remote sensing data products, and historic biophysical data for pre-, active-, and post-wildfire decision making. It is a core service of the RECOVER decision support system, which is providing rapid-response GIS analytic capabilities to state and local government agencies. Wrangler reduces to minutes the time needed to assemble and deliver crucial wildfire-related data.

  3. Water distribution network segmentation based on group multi-criteria decision approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcele Elisa Fontana

    Full Text Available Abstract A correct Network Segmentation (NS is necessary to perform proper maintenance activities in water distribution networks (WDN. For this, usually, isolation valves are allocating near the ends of pipes, blocking the flow of water. However, the allocation of valves increases costs substantially for the water supply companies. Additionally, other criteria should be taking account to analyze the benefits of the valves allocation. Thus, the problem is to define an alternative of NS which shows a good compromise in these different criteria. Moreover, usually, in this type of decision, there is more than one decision-maker involved, who can have different viewpoints. Therefore, this paper presents a model to support group decision-making, based on a multi-criteria method, in order to support the decision making procedure in the NS problem. As result, the model is able to find a solution that shows the best compromise regarding the benefits, costs, and the decision makers' preferences.

  4. Modeling bidding decision in engineering field with incomplete information: A static game–based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-xing Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate investment decision about engineering projects is a key issue for project management. This article aims to study the process of bidding decision-making in engineering field under the condition of incomplete information and investigating the influence of bidders’ game behaviors on investment decision. With reasonable assumed scenes, this article uses an approach to describe the decision process for bidding. The approach is based on the static game theory. With the proposed model, the effectiveness of game participants and the objective function are put forward, and the characteristics of price quotation and the best strategies of bidders under the equilibrium condition are discussed. The results can give a better understanding of investment decision in engineering management and are helpful for tenderees to avoid excessive competition among bidders.

  5. A model of reward- and effort-based optimal decision making and motor control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Rigoux

    Full Text Available Costs (e.g. energetic expenditure and benefits (e.g. food are central determinants of behavior. In ecology and economics, they are combined to form a utility function which is maximized to guide choices. This principle is widely used in neuroscience as a normative model of decision and action, but current versions of this model fail to consider how decisions are actually converted into actions (i.e. the formation of trajectories. Here, we describe an approach where decision making and motor control are optimal, iterative processes derived from the maximization of the discounted, weighted difference between expected rewards and foreseeable motor efforts. The model accounts for decision making in cost/benefit situations, and detailed characteristics of control and goal tracking in realistic motor tasks. As a normative construction, the model is relevant to address the neural bases and pathological aspects of decision making and motor control.

  6. The value of precision for image-based decision support in weed management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Papaharalampos, Haris

    2017-01-01

    Decision support methodologies in precision agriculture should integrate the different dimensions composing the added complexity of operational decision problems. Special attention has to be given to the adequate knowledge extraction techniques for making sense of the collected data, processing...... the information for assessing decision makers and farmers in the efficient and sustainable management of the field. Focusing on weed management, the integration of operational aspects for weed spraying is an open challenge for modeling the farmers’ decision problem, identifying satisfactory solutions...... for the implementation of automatic weed recognition procedures. The objective of this paper is to develop a decision support methodology for detecting the undesired weed from aerial images, building an image-based viewpoint consisting in relevant operational knowledge for applying precision spraying. In this way...

  7. Evidence-Based Practice: A Framework for Making Effective Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Trina D.; Detrich, Ronnie; Slocum, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    The research to practice gap in education has been a long-standing concern. The enactment of No Child Left Behind brought increased emphasis on the value of using scientifically based instructional practices to improve educational outcomes. It also brought education into the broader evidence-based practice movement that started in medicine and has…

  8. Site-Based Management: Avoiding Disaster While Sharing Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Larry Dean

    This paper argues that many site-based management practices do not represent true empowerment and are not founded on a consensual framework of values, goals, and priorities developed by educational stakeholders. In addition, they often lack clearly stated operating principles. The paper distinguishes between site-based management (SBM) and…

  9. The construction of a decision tool to analyse local demand and local supply for GP care using a synthetic estimation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf-Ruizendaal, Willemijn A.; de Bakker, Dinny H.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study addresses the growing academic and policy interest in the appropriate provision of local healthcare services to the healthcare needs of local populations to increase health status and decrease healthcare costs. However, for most local areas information on the demand for primary

  10. From Family Based to Industrial Based Production: Local Economic Development Initiatives and the HELIX Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartjan W Pennink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To build a strong local economy, good practice tells us that each community should undertake a collaborative, strategically planned process to understand and then act upon its own strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. From this perspective we start with the local communities but how is this related to the perspective from the Helix model in which three actors are explicitly introduced: the Government, the Industry and the Universities? The purpose of local economic development (LED is to build up the economic capacity of a local area to improve its economic future and the quality of life for all. To support  the Local Economic Development in remote areas,   a program  has been developed based on the LED frame work of the world bank. This approach and  the experiences over  the past years with this program are  described in the first part.  In the second part of the paper, We analyse work done with that program with the help of the social capital concept and the triple helix model.  In all cases it is important to pay attention to who is taken the initiative after the first move (and it is not always the governance as actor and for the triple helix we suggest  that the concepts of (national Government, Industry and University need a translation to Local Governance Agency, Cooperation or other ways of cooperation of local communities and Local Universities. Although a push from outside might help  a local region in development the endogenous factors are  also needed. Keywords: Triple Helix model, Local Economic Development, Local Actors, Double Triangle within the Helix Model

  11. Cortical and hippocampal correlates of deliberation during model-based decisions for rewards in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M Bornstein

    Full Text Available How do we use our memories of the past to guide decisions we've never had to make before? Although extensive work describes how the brain learns to repeat rewarded actions, decisions can also be influenced by associations between stimuli or events not directly involving reward - such as when planning routes using a cognitive map or chess moves using predicted countermoves - and these sorts of associations are critical when deciding among novel options. This process is known as model-based decision making. While the learning of environmental relations that might support model-based decisions is well studied, and separately this sort of information has been inferred to impact decisions, there is little evidence concerning the full cycle by which such associations are acquired and drive choices. Of particular interest is whether decisions are directly supported by the same mnemonic systems characterized for relational learning more generally, or instead rely on other, specialized representations. Here, building on our previous work, which isolated dual representations underlying sequential predictive learning, we directly demonstrate that one such representation, encoded by the hippocampal memory system and adjacent cortical structures, supports goal-directed decisions. Using interleaved learning and decision tasks, we monitor predictive learning directly and also trace its influence on decisions for reward. We quantitatively compare the learning processes underlying multiple behavioral and fMRI observables using computational model fits. Across both tasks, a quantitatively consistent learning process explains reaction times, choices, and both expectation- and surprise-related neural activity. The same hippocampal and ventral stream regions engaged in anticipating stimuli during learning are also engaged in proportion to the difficulty of decisions. These results support a role for predictive associations learned by the hippocampal memory system to

  12. Suitability of Local Resource Management Practices Based on Supernatural Enforcement Mechanisms in the Local Social-cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Sasaoka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental anthropological studies on natural resource management have widely demonstrated and thematized local resource management practices based on the interactions between local people and supernatural agencies and their role in maintaining natural resources. In Indonesia, even though the legal status of local people's right to the forest and forest resources is still weak, the recent transition toward decentralization presents a growing opportunity for local people to collaborate with outsiders such as governmental agencies and environmental nongovernmental organizations in natural resource management. In such situations, in-depth understanding of the value of local resource management practices is needed to promote self-directed and effective resource management. Here, we focus on local forest resource management and its suitability in the local social-cultural context in central Seram, east Indonesia. Local resource management appears to be embedded in the wider social-cultural context of the local communities. However, few intensive case studies in Indonesia have addressed the relationship between the Indigenous resource management practices closely related to a people's belief in supernatural agents and the social-cultural context. We illustrate how the well-structured use of forest resources is established and maintained through these interactions. We then investigate how local resource management practices relate to the social-cultural and natural resources context of an upland community in central Seram and discuss the possible future applications for achieving conservation.

  13. RATING DECISION ANALYSIS BASED ON IOS APP STORE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Erić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to describe the specific aspects of the e-commerce model business-to-consumer as a constantly developing field of an economic life in the Central European countries according to their customers. The current state of e-business and business-to-consumer e-commerce issue was identified by the research in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia.Methodology/Approach: For the purposes of collecting primary data the crucial factor for the selection of e-shops was identification of the suitable  online portals focused on post-purchase evaluation of e-shops in Visegrad group countries. Automatic data collection method was used for the observed variables (evaluations within selected online portals of the identified e-shops. The total of 5,228,127 evaluations of 9,260 e-shops were analysed. The main focus was given to customer overall satisfaction with an e-shop in relation to communication with a customer or overall satisfaction with an e-shop and delivery quality.Findings: The results of the research showed that there exists a direct relation between overall satisfaction with an e-shop and communication with customers or overall satisfaction with an e-shop and delivery quality.Originality/Value of paper: The ambition of this paper through the findings is to help subjects of e-commerce in their marketing decisions in order to even better understand the factors that influence customers’ satisfaction. 

  14. An Efficient Local Correlation Matrix Decomposition Approach for the Localization Implementation of Ensemble-Based Assimilation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongqin; Tian, Xiangjun

    2018-04-01

    Ensemble-based data assimilation methods often use the so-called localization scheme to improve the representation of the ensemble background error covariance (Be). Extensive research has been undertaken to reduce the computational cost of these methods by using the localized ensemble samples to localize Be by means of a direct decomposition of the local correlation matrix C. However, the computational costs of the direct decomposition of the local correlation matrix C are still extremely high due to its high dimension. In this paper, we propose an efficient local correlation matrix decomposition approach based on the concept of alternating directions. This approach is intended to avoid direct decomposition of the correlation matrix. Instead, we first decompose the correlation matrix into 1-D correlation matrices in the three coordinate directions, then construct their empirical orthogonal function decomposition at low resolution. This procedure is followed by the 1-D spline interpolation process to transform the above decompositions to the high-resolution grid. Finally, an efficient correlation matrix decomposition is achieved by computing the very similar Kronecker product. We conducted a series of comparison experiments to illustrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed local correlation matrix decomposition approach. The effectiveness of the proposed correlation matrix decomposition approach and its efficient localization implementation of the nonlinear least-squares four-dimensional variational assimilation are further demonstrated by several groups of numerical experiments based on the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting model.

  15. A decision support system for mission-based ship routing considering multiple performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, You; Frangopol, Dan M.; Sabatino, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to evaluate the risk associated with marine vessels subjected to inclement weather and sea conditions when developing a decision support system for ship routing. The generalized decision making framework developed in this paper performs a variety of tasks, including, but not limited to quantifying the flexural and fatigue performance of ship structures and employing multi-attribute utility theory to evaluate ship mission performance. A structural reliability approach is utilized to compute the probability of failure considering the uncertainties in structural capacity and load effects; specifically, effects of flexural and fatigue damage are investigated. The expected repair cost, cumulative fatigue damage, total travel time, and carbon dioxide emissions associated with ship routing are considered as consequences within the risk assessment procedure adopted in this paper. Additionally, the decision maker’s risk attitude is integrated into the presented approach by employing utility theory. The presented methodology can assist decision makers in making informed decisions concerning ship routing. In order to illustrate its capabilities the approach is applied to the Joint High-speed Sealift Ship. - Highlights: • Multi-attribute utility theory is proposed for the ship routing decision making. • Spectral-based fatigue damage and repair loss are computed. • Travel time and CO_2 emissions are incorporated within the decision making process. • The attitude of the decision maker has significant effects on the utility value.

  16. A Large Group Decision Making Approach Based on TOPSIS Framework with Unknown Weights Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yupeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large group decision making considering multiple attributes is imperative in many decision areas. The weights of the decision makers (DMs is difficult to obtain for the large number of DMs. To cope with this issue, an integrated multiple-attributes large group decision making framework is proposed in this article. The fuzziness and hesitation of the linguistic decision variables are described by interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The weights of the DMs are optimized by constructing a non-linear programming model, in which the original decision matrices are aggregated by using the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy weighted average operator. By solving the non-linear programming model with MATLAB®, the weights of the DMs and the fuzzy comprehensive decision matrix are determined. Then the weights of the criteria are calculated based on the information entropy theory. At last, the TOPSIS framework is employed to establish the decision process. The divergence between interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers is calculated by interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy cross entropy. A real-world case study is constructed to elaborate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  17. Web-Based Analysis for Decision Support Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, SA ... impact of web-based analysis on DSSs and how it affects ... Internal users. ... and control of models, especially accounting, financial,.

  18. An intelligent, knowledge-based multiple criteria decision making advisor for systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchang

    of an appropriate decision making method. Furthermore, some DMs may be exclusively using one or two specific methods which they are familiar with or trust and not realizing that they may be inappropriate to handle certain classes of the problems, thus yielding erroneous results. These issues reveal that in order to ensure a good decision a suitable decision method should be chosen before the decision making process proceeds. The first part of this dissertation proposes an MCDM process supported by an intelligent, knowledge-based advisor system referred to as Multi-Criteria Interactive Decision-Making Advisor and Synthesis process (MIDAS), which is able to facilitate the selection of the most appropriate decision making method and which provides insight to the user for fulfilling different preferences. The second part of this dissertation presents an autonomous decision making advisor which is capable of dealing with ever-evolving real time information and making autonomous decisions under uncertain conditions. The advisor encompasses a Markov Decision Process (MDP) formulation which takes uncertainty into account when determines the best action for each system state. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  19. Trajectory-Based Visual Localization in Underwater Surveying Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Burguera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new vision-based localization system applied to an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV with limited sensing and computation capabilities. The traditional EKF-SLAM approaches are usually expensive in terms of execution time; the approach presented in this paper strengthens this method by adopting a trajectory-based schema that reduces the computational requirements. The pose of the vehicle is estimated using an extended Kalman filter (EKF, which predicts the vehicle motion by means of a visual odometer and corrects these predictions using the data associations (loop closures between the current frame and the previous ones. One of the most important steps in this procedure is the image registration method, as it reinforces the data association and, thus, makes it possible to close loops reliably. Since the use of standard EKFs entail linearization errors that can distort the vehicle pose estimations, the approach has also been tested using an iterated Kalman filter (IEKF. Experiments have been conducted using a real underwater vehicle in controlled scenarios and in shallow sea waters, showing an excellent performance with very small errors, both in the vehicle pose and in the overall trajectory estimates.

  20. Trajectory-Based Visual Localization in Underwater Surveying Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguera, Antoni; Bonin-Font, Francisco; Oliver, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    We present a new vision-based localization system applied to an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) with limited sensing and computation capabilities. The traditional EKF-SLAM approaches are usually expensive in terms of execution time; the approach presented in this paper strengthens this method by adopting a trajectory-based schema that reduces the computational requirements. The pose of the vehicle is estimated using an extended Kalman filter (EKF), which predicts the vehicle motion by means of a visual odometer and corrects these predictions using the data associations (loop closures) between the current frame and the previous ones. One of the most important steps in this procedure is the image registration method, as it reinforces the data association and, thus, makes it possible to close loops reliably. Since the use of standard EKFs entail linearization errors that can distort the vehicle pose estimations, the approach has also been tested using an iterated Kalman filter (IEKF). Experiments have been conducted using a real underwater vehicle in controlled scenarios and in shallow sea waters, showing an excellent performance with very small errors, both in the vehicle pose and in the overall trajectory estimates. PMID:25594602

  1. The boundaries of instance-based learning theory for explaining decisions from experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2013-01-01

    Most demonstrations of how people make decisions in risky situations rely on decisions from description, where outcomes and their probabilities are explicitly stated. But recently, more attention has been given to decisions from experience where people discover these outcomes and probabilities through exploration. More importantly, risky behavior depends on how decisions are made (from description or experience), and although prospect theory explains decisions from description, a comprehensive model of decisions from experience is yet to be found. Instance-based learning theory (IBLT) explains how decisions are made from experience through interactions with dynamic environments (Gonzalez et al., 2003). The theory has shown robust explanations of behavior across multiple tasks and contexts, but it is becoming unclear what the theory is able to explain and what it does not. The goal of this chapter is to start addressing this problem. I will introduce IBLT and a recent cognitive model based on this theory: the IBL model of repeated binary choice; then I will discuss the phenomena that the IBL model explains and those that the model does not. The argument is for the theory's robustness but also for clarity in terms of concrete effects that the theory can or cannot account for. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. BIM-Based Decision Support System for Material Selection Based on Supplier Rating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Akanmu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Material selection is a delicate process, typically hinged on a number of factors which can be either cost or environmental related. This process becomes more complicated when designers are faced with several material options of building elements and each option can be supplied by different suppliers whose selection criteria may affect the budgetary and environmental requirements of the project. This paper presents the development of a decision support system based on the integration of building information models, a modified harmony search algorithm and supplier performance rating. The system is capable of producing the cost and environmental implications of different material combinations or building designs. A case study is presented to illustrate the functionality of the developed system.

  3. Ant-based extraction of rules in simple decision systems over ontological graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pancerz Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the problem of extraction of complex decision rules in simple decision systems over ontological graphs is considered. The extracted rules are consistent with the dominance principle similar to that applied in the dominancebased rough set approach (DRSA. In our study, we propose to use a heuristic algorithm, utilizing the ant-based clustering approach, searching the semantic spaces of concepts presented by means of ontological graphs. Concepts included in the semantic spaces are values of attributes describing objects in simple decision systems

  4. Robust Inventory System Optimization Based on Simulation and Multiple Criteria Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mortazavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventory management in retailers is difficult and complex decision making process which is related to the conflict criteria, also existence of cyclic changes and trend in demand is inevitable in many industries. In this paper, simulation modeling is considered as efficient tool for modeling of retailer multiproduct inventory system. For simulation model optimization, a novel multicriteria and robust surrogate model is designed based on multiple attribute decision making (MADM method, design of experiments (DOE, and principal component analysis (PCA. This approach as a main contribution of this paper, provides a framework for robust multiple criteria decision making under uncertainty.

  5. Design and realization of tourism spatial decision support system based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhangbao; Qi, Qingwen; Xu, Li

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, the existing problems of current tourism management information system are analyzed. GIS, tourism as well as spatial decision support system are introduced, and the application of geographic information system technology and spatial decision support system to tourism management and the establishment of tourism spatial decision support system based on GIS are proposed. System total structure, system hardware and software environment, database design and structure module design of this system are introduced. Finally, realization methods of this systemic core functions are elaborated.

  6. Improved Frame Mode Selection for AMR-WB+ Based on Decision Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Kyu; Kim, Nam Soo

    In this letter, we propose a coding mode selection method for the AMR-WB+ audio coder based on a decision tree. In order to reduce computation while maintaining good performance, decision tree classifier is adopted with the closed loop mode selection results as the target classification labels. The size of the decision tree is controlled by pruning, so the proposed method does not increase the memory requirement significantly. Through an evaluation test on a database covering both speech and music materials, the proposed method is found to achieve a much better mode selection accuracy compared with the open loop mode selection module in the AMR-WB+.

  7. Towards Strengths-Based Planning Strategies for Rural Localities in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rönkkö Emilia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will introduce the topic of strengths-based planning strategies for rural localities in Finland. The strengths-based approach focuses on capacity building and competence enhancement with the local people, encouraging communities to valorise, identify and mobilise existing but often unrecognised assets. Setting focus only on the deficiencies and problems easily inflicts a ‘surrender mentality‘ in places outside of the urbanisation impact, creating a narrative that both decision-makers and community members start to believe. Hence, the role and potential of smaller rural localities is easily forgotten by planners, politicians and the public at large. Addressing the scale of rural localities in spatial planning, we will first reflect upon the main findings from our earlier research project “Finnish rural localities in the 2010`s” conducted by Lahti University of Applied Sciences, the University of Oulu and Aalto University in 2013-2015. Findings from the research project affirmed the unfortunate consequences of rapid urbanisation, rational blueprint planning and overoptimistic expectations of growth in the 1960s and 70s, which have resulted in the state of permanent incompleteness in rural localities today. However, these localities possess many under-utilised strengths, and we consider it essential for the future development of rural localities to make the most of this potential, and not only tackle the downwards spiral. This requires the ability to engage local stakeholders around a common vision for the future, and strategic approach based on endogenous strengths. We will discuss these possibilities via two theoretically informed case studies. The first one, Vieremä, is situated in the region of Northern Savo, and the other one, Vääksy, is the main centre in the municipality of Asikkala, situated in the region of Päijät-Häme in Southern Finland. Our study design can be characterised as qualitative research

  8. A decision model for cost effective design of biomass based green energy supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Balaman, Şebnem; Selim, Hasan

    2015-09-01

    The core driver of this study is to deal with the design of anaerobic digestion based biomass to energy supply chains in a cost effective manner. In this concern, a decision model is developed. The model is based on fuzzy multi objective decision making in order to simultaneously optimize multiple economic objectives and tackle the inherent uncertainties in the parameters and decision makers' aspiration levels for the goals. The viability of the decision model is explored with computational experiments on a real-world biomass to energy supply chain and further analyses are performed to observe the effects of different conditions. To this aim, scenario analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of energy crop utilization and operational costs on supply chain structure and performance measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Supporting decision-making processes for evidence-based mental health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jané-Llopis, Eva; Katschnig, Heinz; McDaid, David; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2011-12-01

    The use of evidence is critical in guiding decision-making, but evidence from effect studies will be only one of a number of factors that will need to be taken into account in the decision-making processes. Equally important for policymakers will be the use of different types of evidence including implementation essentials and other decision-making principles such as social justice, political, ethical, equity issues, reflecting public attitudes and the level of resources available, rather than be based on health outcomes alone. This paper, aimed to support decision-makers, highlights the importance of commissioning high-quality evaluations, the key aspects to assess levels of evidence, the importance of supporting evidence-based implementation and what to look out for before, during and after implementation of mental health promotion and mental disorder prevention programmes.

  10. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.E.; Smith, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater

  11. Optimal condition-based maintenance decisions for systems with dependent stochastic degradation of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, H.P.; Zhou, W.; Zhang, S.; Ye, W.

    2014-01-01

    Components in engineered systems are subjected to stochastic deterioration due to the operating environmental conditions, and the uncertainty in material properties. The components need to be inspected and possibly replaced based on preventive or failure replacement criteria to provide the intended and safe operation of the system. In the present study, we investigate the influence of dependent stochastic degradation of multiple components on the optimal maintenance decisions. We use copula to model the dependent stochastic degradation of components, and formulate the optimal decision problem based on the minimum expected cost rule and the stochastic dominance rules. The latter is used to cope with decision maker's risk attitude. We illustrate the developed probabilistic analysis approach and the influence of the dependency of the stochastic degradation on the preferred decisions through numerical examples

  12. Extended VIKOR Method for Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multiattribute Decision-Making Based on a New Distance Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An intuitionistic fuzzy VIKOR (IF-VIKOR method is proposed based on a new distance measure considering the waver of intuitionistic fuzzy information. The method aggregates all individual decision-makers’ assessment information based on intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging operator (IFWA, determines the weights of decision-makers and attributes objectively using intuitionistic fuzzy entropy, calculates the group utility and individual regret by the new distance measure, and then reaches a compromise solution. It can be effectively applied to multiattribute decision-making (MADM problems where the weights of decision-makers and attributes are completely unknown and the attribute values are intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs. The validity and stability of this method are verified by example analysis and sensitivity analysis, and its superiority is illustrated by the comparison with the existing method.

  13. The Effect of Conflict Theory Based Decision-Making Skill Training Psycho-Educational Group Experience on Decision Making Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Gucray, S. Sonay

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of conflict theory based decision making skill training group applications on decision making styles of adolescents was investigated. A total of 36 students, including 18 students in experimental group and 18 students in control group, participated in the research. When assigning students to experimental group or control…

  14. The Environmental Virtual Observatory (EVO) local exemplar: A cloud based local landscape learning visualisation tool for communicating flood risk to catchment stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Beven, Keith; Brewer, Paul; El-khatib, Yehia; Gemmell, Alastair; Haygarth, Phil; Mackay, Ellie; Macklin, Mark; Marshall, Keith; Quinn, Paul; Stutter, Marc; Thomas, Nicola; Vitolo, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Today's world is dominated by a wide range of informatics tools that are readily available to a wide range of stakeholders. There is growing recognition that the appropriate involvement of local communities in land and water management decisions can result in multiple environmental, economic and social benefits. Therefore, local stakeholder groups are increasingly being asked to participate in decision making alongside policy makers, government agencies and scientists. As such, addressing flooding issues requires new ways of engaging with the catchment and its inhabitants at a local level. To support this, new tools and approaches are required. The growth of cloud based technologies offers new novel ways to facilitate this process of exchange of information in earth sciences. The Environmental Virtual Observatory Pilot project (EVOp) is a new initiative from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) designed to deliver proof of concept for new tools and approaches to support the challenges as outlined above (http://www.evo-uk.org/). The long term vision of the Environmental Virtual Observatory is to: • Make environmental data more visible and accessible to a wide range of potential users including public good applications; • Provide tools to facilitate the integrated analysis of data, greater access to added knowledge and expert analysis and visualisation of the results; • Develop new, added-value knowledge from public and private sector data assets to help tackle environmental challenges. As part of the EVO pilot, an interactive cloud based tool has been developed with local stakeholders. The Local Landscape Visualisation Tool attempts to communicate flood risk in local impacted communities. The tool has been developed iteratively to reflect the needs, interests and capabilities of a wide range of stakeholders. This tool (assessable via a web portal) combines numerous cloud based tools and services, local catchment datasets, hydrological models and

  15. Comparison of Subset-Based Local and Finite Element-Based Global Digital Image Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Bing

    2015-02-12

    Digital image correlation (DIC) techniques require an image matching algorithm to register the same physical points represented in different images. Subset-based local DIC and finite element-based (FE-based) global DIC are the two primary image matching methods that have been extensively investigated and regularly used in the field of experimental mechanics. Due to its straightforward implementation and high efficiency, subset-based local DIC has been used in almost all commercial DIC packages. However, it is argued by some researchers that FE-based global DIC offers better accuracy because of the enforced continuity between element nodes. We propose a detailed performance comparison between these different DIC algorithms both in terms of measurement accuracy and computational efficiency. Then, by measuring displacements of the same calculation points using the same calculation algorithms (e.g., correlation criterion, initial guess estimation, subpixel interpolation, optimization algorithm and convergence conditions) and identical calculation parameters (e.g., subset or element size), the performances of subset-based local DIC and two FE-based global DIC approaches are carefully compared in terms of measurement error and computational efficiency using both numerical tests and real experiments. A detailed examination of the experimental results reveals that, when subset (element) size is not very small and the local deformation within a subset (element) can be well approximated by the shape function used, standard subset-based local DIC approach not only provides better results in measured displacements, but also demonstrates much higher computation efficiency. However, several special merits of FE-based global DIC approaches are indicated.

  16. Comparison of Subset-Based Local and Finite Element-Based Global Digital Image Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Bing; Wang, B.; Lubineau, Gilles; Moussawi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) techniques require an image matching algorithm to register the same physical points represented in different images. Subset-based local DIC and finite element-based (FE-based) global DIC are the two primary image matching methods that have been extensively investigated and regularly used in the field of experimental mechanics. Due to its straightforward implementation and high efficiency, subset-based local DIC has been used in almost all commercial DIC packages. However, it is argued by some researchers that FE-based global DIC offers better accuracy because of the enforced continuity between element nodes. We propose a detailed performance comparison between these different DIC algorithms both in terms of measurement accuracy and computational efficiency. Then, by measuring displacements of the same calculation points using the same calculation algorithms (e.g., correlation criterion, initial guess estimation, subpixel interpolation, optimization algorithm and convergence conditions) and identical calculation parameters (e.g., subset or element size), the performances of subset-based local DIC and two FE-based global DIC approaches are carefully compared in terms of measurement error and computational efficiency using both numerical tests and real experiments. A detailed examination of the experimental results reveals that, when subset (element) size is not very small and the local deformation within a subset (element) can be well approximated by the shape function used, standard subset-based local DIC approach not only provides better results in measured displacements, but also demonstrates much higher computation efficiency. However, several special merits of FE-based global DIC approaches are indicated.

  17. Factors influencing the surgical decision for the treatment of degenerative lumbar stenosis in a preference-based shared decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Park, Jae-Young; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Yeom, Jin S

    2015-02-01

    In a preference-based shared decision-making system, several subjective and/or objective factors such as pain severity, degree of disability, and the radiological severity of canal stenosis may influence the final surgical decision for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). However, our understanding of the shared decision-making process and the significance of each factor remain primitive. In the present study, we aimed to investigate which factors influence the surgical decision for the treatment of LSS when using a preference-based, shared decision-making process. We included 555 patients, aged 45-80 years, who used a preference-based shared decision-making process and were treated conservatively or surgically for chronic leg and/or back pain caused by LSS from April 2012 to December 2012. Univariate and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of surgical decision making with age, sex, body mass index, symptom duration, radiologic stenotic grade, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analog scale (VAS) scores for back and leg pain, Short Form-36 (SF-36) subscales, and motor weakness. In univariate analysis, the following variables were associated with a higher odds of a surgical decision for LSS: male sex; the VAS score for leg pain; ODI; morphological stenotic grades B, C, and D; motor weakness; and the physical function, physical role, bodily pain, social function, and emotional role of the SF-36 subscales. Multivariate analysis revealed that male sex, ODI, morphological stenotic grades C and D, and motor weakness were significantly associated with a higher possibility of a surgical decision. Motor weakness, male sex, morphological stenotic grade, and the amount of disability are critical factors leading to a surgical decision for LSS when using a preference-based shared decision-making process.

  18. Decision making in advanced otosclerosis: an evidence-based strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkus, P.; van Loon, M.C.; Smit, C.F.G.M.; Smits, J.C.M.; de Cock, A.F.C.; Hensen, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis: To propose an evidence-based strategy for the management of patients with advanced otosclerosis accompanied by severe to profound hearing loss. Study Design: Systematic review of the literature and development of treatment guidelines. Methods: A systematic review was conducted

  19. Making Instructional Decisions Based on Data: What, How, and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Rosemary, Catherine A.; Edwards, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    A carefully coordinated literacy assessment and instruction framework implemented school-wide can support school teams in making sense of various types of data for instructional planning. Instruction that is data based and goal driven sets the stage for continuous reading and writing improvement. (Contains 2 figures.)

  20. Risk based decision tool for space exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Cornford, Steve; Moran, Terrence

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an approach and corresponding tool to assess and analyze the risks involved in a mission during the pre-phase A design process. This approach is based on creating a risk template for each subsystem expert involved in the mission design process and defining appropriate interactions between the templates.

  1. [Value-based cancer care. From traditional evidence-based decision making to balanced decision making within frameworks of shared values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Salvatore; Filice, Aldo; Mastroianni, Candida; Biamonte, Rosalbino; Conforti, Serafino; Liguori, Virginia; Turano, Salvatore; De Simone, Rosanna; Rovito, Antonio; Manfredi, Caterina; Minardi, Stefano; Vilardo, Emmanuelle; Loizzo, Monica; Oriolo, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    Clinical decision making in oncology is based so far on the evidence of efficacy from high-quality clinical research. Data collection and analysis from experimental studies provide valuable insight into response rates and progression-free or overall survival. Data processing generates valuable information for medical professionals involved in cancer patient care, enabling them to make objective and unbiased choices. The increased attention of many scientific associations toward a more rational resource consumption in clinical decision making is mirrored in the Choosing Wisely campaign against the overuse or misuse of exams and procedures of little or no benefit for the patient. This cultural movement has been actively promoting care solutions based on the concept of "value". As a result, the value-based decision-making process for cancer care should not be dissociated from economic sustainability and from ethics of the affordability, also given the growing average cost of the most recent cancer drugs. In support of this orientation, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has developed innovative and "complex" guidelines based on values, defined as "evidence blocks", with the aim of assisting the medical community in making overall sustainable choices.

  2. New Multi-Criteria Group Decision-Making Method Based on Vague Set Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Sui Lin

    2016-01-01

    In light of the deficiencies and limitations for existing score functions, Lin has proposed a more effective and reasonable new score function for measuring vague values. By using Lin’s score function and a new weighted aggregation score function, an algorithm for multi-criteria group decision-making method was proposed to solve vague set based group decision-making problems under vague environments. Finally, a numerical example was illustrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed multi-...

  3. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM AND REMOTE SENSING BASED DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND DECISION SUPPORT PLATFORM: AYDES

    OpenAIRE

    Keskin, İ.; Akbaba, N.; Tosun, M.; Tüfekçi, M. K.; Bulut, D.; Avcı, F.; Gökçe, O.

    2018-01-01

    The accelerated developments in information technology in recent years, increased the amount of usage of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) in disaster management considerably and the access from mobile and web-based platforms to continuous, accurate and sufficient data needed for decision-making became easier accordingly. The Disaster Management and Decision Support System (AYDES) has been developed with the purpose of managing the disaster and emergency manageme...

  4. Development of an evidence-based decision pathway for vestibular schwannoma treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Faina; Valappil, Benita; McAfee, Jacob; Goughnour, Sharon L; Hildrew, Douglas M; McCall, Andrew A; Linkov, Igor; Hirsch, Barry; Snyderman, Carl

    To integrate multiple sources of clinical information with patient feedback to build evidence-based decision support model to facilitate treatment selection for patients suffering from vestibular schwannomas (VS). This was a mixed methods study utilizing focus group and survey methodology to solicit feedback on factors important for making treatment decisions among patients. Two 90-minute focus groups were conducted by an experienced facilitator. Previously diagnosed VS patients were recruited by clinical investigators at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC). Classical content analysis was used for focus group data analysis. Providers were recruited from practices within the UPMC system and were surveyed using Delphi methods. This information can provide a basis for multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework to develop a treatment decision support system for patients with VS. Eight themes were derived from these data (focus group + surveys): doctor/health care system, side effects, effectiveness of treatment, anxiety, mortality, family/other people, quality of life, and post-operative symptoms. These data, as well as feedback from physicians were utilized in building a multi-criteria decision model. The study illustrated steps involved in the development of a decision support model that integrates evidence-based data and patient values to select treatment alternatives. Studies focusing on the actual development of the decision support technology for this group of patients are needed, as decisions are highly multifactorial. Such tools have the potential to improve decision making for complex medical problems with alternate treatment pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An Integrated Web-based Decision Support System in Disaster Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Z. C.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Derron, M. H.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays, web based decision support systems (DSS) play an essential role in disaster risk management because of their supporting abilities which help the decision makers to improve their performances and make better decisions without needing to solve complex problems while reducing human resources and time. Since the decision making process is one of the main factors which highly influence the damages and losses of society, it is extremely important to make right decisions at right time by combining available risk information with advanced web technology of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Decision Support System (DSS). This paper presents an integrated web-based decision support system (DSS) of how to use risk information in risk management efficiently and effectively while highlighting the importance of a decision support system in the field of risk reduction. Beyond the conventional systems, it provides the users to define their own strategies starting from risk identification to the risk reduction, which leads to an integrated approach in risk management. In addition, it also considers the complexity of changing environment from different perspectives and sectors with diverse stakeholders' involvement in the development process. The aim of this platform is to contribute a part towards the natural hazards and geosciences society by developing an open-source web platform where the users can analyze risk profiles and make decisions by performing cost benefit analysis, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) with the support of others tools and resources provided. There are different access rights to the system depending on the user profiles and their responsibilities. The system is still under development and the current version provides maps viewing, basic GIS functionality, assessment of important infrastructures (e.g. bridge, hospital, etc.) affected by landslides and visualization of the impact

  6. Framing the decision to contract out elderly care and primary health care services – perspectives of local level politicians and civil servants in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tynkkynen Liina-Kaisa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the literature there are only few empirical studies that analyse the decision makers’ reasoning to contract out health care and social services to private sector. However, the decisions on the delivery patterns of health care and social services are considered to be of great importance as they have a potential to influence citizens’ access to services and even affect their health. This study contributes to filling this cap by exploring the frames used by Finnish local authorities as they talk about contracting out of primary health care and elderly care services. Contracting with the private sector has gained increasing popularity, in Finland, during the past decade, as a practise of organising health care and social services. Methods Interview data drawn from six municipalities through thematic group interviews were used. The data were analysed applying frame analysis in order to reveal the underlying reasoning for the decisions. Results Five argumentation frames were found: Rational reasoning; Pragmatic realism; Promoting diversity among providers; Good for the municipality; Good for the local people. The interviewees saw contracting with the private sector mostly as a means to improve the performance of public providers, to improve service quality and efficiency and to boost the local economy. The decisions to contract out were mainly argued through the good for the municipal administration, political and ideological commitments, available resources and existing institutions. Conclusions This study suggests that the policy makers use a number of grounds to justify their decisions on contracting out. Most of the arguments were related to the benefits of the municipality rather than on what is best for the local people. The citizens were offered the role of active consumers who are willing to purchase services also out-of-pocket. This development has a potential to endanger the affordability of the services and lead

  7. Framing the decision to contract out elderly care and primary health care services - perspectives of local level politicians and civil servants in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkkynen, Liina-Kaisa; Lehto, Juhani; Miettinen, Sari

    2012-07-17

    In the literature there are only few empirical studies that analyse the decision makers' reasoning to contract out health care and social services to private sector. However, the decisions on the delivery patterns of health care and social services are considered to be of great importance as they have a potential to influence citizens' access to services and even affect their health. This study contributes to filling this cap by exploring the frames used by Finnish local authorities as they talk about contracting out of primary health care and elderly care services. Contracting with the private sector has gained increasing popularity, in Finland, during the past decade, as a practise of organising health care and social services. Interview data drawn from six municipalities through thematic group interviews were used. The data were analysed applying frame analysis in order to reveal the underlying reasoning for the decisions. Five argumentation frames were found: Rational reasoning; Pragmatic realism; Promoting diversity among providers; Good for the municipality; Good for the local people. The interviewees saw contracting with the private sector mostly as a means to improve the performance of public providers, to improve service quality and efficiency and to boost the local economy. The decisions to contract out were mainly argued through the good for the municipal administration, political and ideological commitments, available resources and existing institutions. This study suggests that the policy makers use a number of grounds to justify their decisions on contracting out. Most of the arguments were related to the benefits of the municipality rather than on what is best for the local people. The citizens were offered the role of active consumers who are willing to purchase services also out-of-pocket. This development has a potential to endanger the affordability of the services and lead to undermining some of the traditional principles of the Nordic welfare

  8. A survey tool for measuring evidence-based decision making capacity in public health agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Julie A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While increasing attention is placed on using evidence-based decision making (EBDM to improve public health, there is little research assessing the current EBDM capacity of the public health workforce. Public health agencies serve a wide range of populations with varying levels of resources. Our survey tool allows an individual agency to collect data that reflects its unique workforce. Methods Health department leaders and academic researchers collaboratively developed and conducted cross-sectional surveys in Kansas and Mississippi (USA to assess EBDM capacity. Surveys were delivered to state- and local-level practitioners and community partners working in chronic disease control and prevention. The core component of the surveys was adopted from a previously tested instrument and measured gaps (importance versus availability in competencies for EBDM in chronic disease. Other survey questions addressed expectations and incentives for using EBDM, self-efficacy in three EBDM skills, and estimates of EBDM within the agency. Results In both states, participants identified communication with policymakers, use of economic evaluation, and translation of research to practice as top competency gaps. Self-efficacy in developing evidence-based chronic disease control programs was lower than in finding or using data. Public health practitioners estimated that approximately two-thirds of programs in their agency were evidence-based. Mississippi participants indicated that health department leaders' expectations for the use of EBDM was approximately twice that of co-workers' expectations and that the use of EBDM could be increased with training and leadership prioritization. Conclusions The assessment of EBDM capacity in Kansas and Mississippi built upon previous nationwide findings to identify top gaps in core competencies for EBDM in chronic disease and to estimate a percentage of programs in U.S. health departments that are evidence-based

  9. A heuristic framework for understanding the role of participatory decision making in community-based non-profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Kimberly D; Perkins, Douglas D; Cooper, Daniel G; Jones, Diana L

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the role of member participation in decision-making (PDM) from an organizational learning (OL) perspective. Community-based organizations (CBOs) serve as mediators between the individual and the local community, often providing the means for community member participation and benefiting organizationally from members' input. Community psychologists have recognized these benefits; however, the field has paid less attention to the role participation plays in increasing CBOs' capacity to meet community needs. We present a framework for exploring how CBO contextual factors influence the use of participatory decision-making structures and practices, and how these affect OL. We then use the framework to examine PDM in qualitative case study analysis of four CBOs: a youth development organization, a faith-based social action coalition, a low-income neighborhood organization, and a large human service agency. We found that organizational form, energy, and culture each had a differential impact on participation in decision making within CBOs. We highlight how OL is constrained in CBOs and document how civic aims and voluntary membership enhanced participation and learning.

  10. Model based decision support system of operating settings for MMAT nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Bradley Keith

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Droplet size, which is affected by nozzle type, nozzle setups and operation, and spray solution, is one of the most critical factors influencing spray performance, environment pollution, food safety, and must be considered as part of any application scenario. Characterizing spray nozzles can be a timely and expensive proposition if the entire operational space (all combinations of spray pressure and orifice size, what influence flow rate is to be evaluated. This research proposes a structured, experimental design that allows for the development of computational models for droplet size based on any combination of a nozzle’s potential operational settings. The developed droplet size determination model can be used as Decision Support System (DSS for precise selection of sprayer working parameters to adapt to local field scenarios. Five nozzle types (designs were evaluated across their complete range of orifice size (flow rate* and spray pressures using a response surface experimental design. Several of the models showed high level fits of the modeled to the measured data while several did not as a result of the lack of significant effect from either orifice size (flow rate* or spray pressure. The computational models were integrated into a spreadsheet based user interface for ease of use. The proposed experimental design provides for efficient nozzle evaluations and development of computational models that allow for the determination of droplet size spectrum and spraying classification for any combination of a given nozzle’s operating settings. The proposed DSS will allow for the ready assessment and modification of a sprayers performance based on the operational settings, to ensure the application is made following recommendations in plant protection products (PPP labels.

  11. Document localization algorithms based on feature points and straight lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoryukina, Natalya; Shemiakina, Julia; Arlazarov, Vladimir L.; Faradjev, Igor

    2018-04-01

    The important part of the system of a planar rectangular object analysis is the localization: the estimation of projective transform from template image of an object to its photograph. The system also includes such subsystems as the selection and recognition of text fields, the usage of contexts etc. In this paper three localization algorithms are described. All algorithms use feature points and two of them also analyze near-horizontal and near- vertical lines on the photograph. The algorithms and their combinations are tested on a dataset of real document photographs. Also the method of localization quality estimation is proposed that allows configuring the localization subsystem independently of the other subsystems quality.

  12. GSNL 2.0: leveraging on Open Science to promote science-based decision making in Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Stefano; Rubbia, Giuliana; Abruzzese, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    In 2010 the GEO Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories initiative (GSNL) launched the concept of a global partnership among the geophysical scientific community and the satellite and in situ data providers, aiming to promote scientific advancements in the knowledge of seismic and volcanic phenomena. The initial goal was successfully achieved, and many more new scientific results were obtained than it could have been possible if the Supersites had not existed (http://www.earthobservations.org/gsnl.php). At the same time the Supersites have demonstrated to be able to effectively support the rapid transfer of useful scientific information to the risk managers, exploiting the existing institutional relationships between the Supersite coordinators and the local decision makers. However, a more demanding call for action is given by the Sendai Framework 2015-2030 (outcome of the 2015 UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction), where for the first time the knowledge of the risk components and the science based decision-making process are defined as top priorities for an effective DRR. There are evident possible synergies between the Sendai framework, GEO, the CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites), and GSNL, but for maximum benefit and effectiveness the latter needs to progress at a faster pace towards a full implementation of the Open Science approach to geohazard science. In the above global framework the Supersites can represent local test beds where to experiment coordination, collaboration and communication approaches and technological solutions tailored to the local situation, to ensure that the scientific community can contribute the information needed for the best possible decision making. This vision and the new developments of GSNL 2.0 have been approved by the GEO Program Board, and a clear roadmap has been set for the period 2017-2019. We will present the approach and the implementation plan at the conference.

  13. Patient and family communication during consultation visits: The effects of a decision aid for treatment decision-making for localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lixin; Tyler, Christina; Clayton, Margaret F; Rodgiriguez-Rassi, Eleanor; Hill, Latorya; Bai, Jinbing; Pruthi, Raj; Bailey, Donald E

    2017-02-01

    To analyze the effects of a decision aid on improving patients' and family members' information giving and question asking during consultations for prostate cancer treatment decision-making. This study is a secondary analysis of archived audio-recorded real-time consultation visits with participants from a randomized clinical trial. Participants were randomly assigned into three groups: TD-intervention targeted patient-only; TS-intervention targeted patients and family members; and control-a handout on staying healthy during treatment. We conducted content analysis using a researcher-developed communication coding system. Using SAS 9.3, we conducted Chi-square/Fisher's exact test to examine whether information giving and question asking among patients and family members varied by groups when discussing different content/topics. Compared with those in the TS and control groups, significantly higher percentages of participants in the TD group demonstrated information giving in discussing topics about diagnosis, treatment options, risks and benefits, and preferences; and engaged in question asking when discussing diagnosis, watchful waiting/active surveillance, risks and benefits, and preferences for treatment impacts. Information support and communication skills training for patients were effective in improving communication during treatment decision-making consultations. Providing information about prostate cancer and communication skills training empower patients and their family members. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Workshop: Community Based Environmental Decision Making, Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop in the Environmental Policy and Economics Workshop Series (2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings from a one-day workshop cosponsored by US EPA Office of Economy and Environment and National Center for Environmental Research and the National Science Foundation Decision, Risk,and Management Science Program on community-based decision making

  15. Dacfood: a knowledge-based system for decision support in case of radiological contamination of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, A.; Despres, A.; Soulatges, D.

    1991-01-01

    In case of radiological contamination of foodstuffs, the introduction of a countermeasure has to be justified by balancing its advantages and drawbacks, as recommended by ICRP. Also, to provide authorities with information about the decision context, it has been decided to develop a Decision Support System (DSS). A knowledge-based approach is used for the DSS. Indeed, it allows: . better modelling thanks to, for instance, object oriented programming and rules, . ability to introduce more knowledge thanks to an easier consistency and validity control of the knowledge base, . handling of uncertainties (incomplete, uncertain or evolving knowledge). The present state of the system is presented. DACFOOD is a decision aiding system for contamined foodstuffs, based on a knowledge-based approach. A demonstration model has been developed in a post-Chernobyl CEC research program. It evaluates the sanitary situation, the alternative actions through costs and sanitary effects, and gives information on the decisional background

  16. Expected Utility Based Decision Making under Z-Information and Its Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, Rashad R; Mraiziq, Derar Atallah Talal; Huseynov, Oleg H

    2015-01-01

    Real-world decision relevant information is often partially reliable. The reasons are partial reliability of the source of information, misperceptions, psychological biases, incompetence, and so forth. Z-numbers based formalization of information (Z-information) represents a natural language (NL) based value of a variable of interest in line with the related NL based reliability. What is important is that Z-information not only is the most general representation of real-world imperfect information but also has the highest descriptive power from human perception point of view as compared to fuzzy number. In this study, we present an approach to decision making under Z-information based on direct computation over Z-numbers. This approach utilizes expected utility paradigm and is applied to a benchmark decision problem in the field of economics.

  17. Online decision support based on modeling with the aim of increased irrigation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dövényi-Nagy, Tamás; Bakó, Károly; Molnár, Krisztina; Rácz, Csaba; Vasvári, Gyula; Nagy, János; Dobos, Attila

    2015-04-01

    The significant changes in the structure of ownership and control of irrigation infrastructure in the past decades resultted in the decrease of total irrigable and irrigated area (Szilárd, 1999). In this paper, the development of a model-based online service is described whose aim is to aid reasonable irrigation practice and increase water use efficiency. In order to establish a scientific background for irrigation, an agrometeorological station network has been built up by the Agrometeorological and Agroecological Monitoring Centre. A website has been launched in order to provide direct access for local agricultural producers to both the measured weather parameters and results of model based calculations. The public site provides information for general use, registered partners get a handy model based toolkit for decision support at the plot level concerning irrigation, plant protection or frost forecast. The agrometeorological reference station network was established in the recent years by the Agrometeorological and Agroecological Monitoring Centre and is distributed to cover most of the irrigated cropland areas of Hungary. From the spatial aspect, the stations have been deployed mainly in Eastern Hungary with concentrated irrigation infrastructure. The meteorological stations' locations have been carefully chosen to represent their environment in terms of soil, climatic and topographic factors, thereby assuring relevant and up-to-date input data for the models. The measured parameters range from classic meteorological data (air temperature, relative humidity, solar irradiation, wind speed etc.) to specific data which are not available from other services in the region, such as soil temperature, soil water content in multiple depths and leaf wetness. In addition to the basic grid of reference stations, specific stations under irrigated conditions have been deployed to calibrate and validate the models. A specific modeling framework (MetAgro) has been developed

  18. The Cellular Differential Evolution Based on Chaotic Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfeng Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To avoid immature convergence and tune the selection pressure in the differential evolution (DE algorithm, a new differential evolution algorithm based on cellular automata and chaotic local search (CLS or ccDE is proposed. To balance the exploration and exploitation tradeoff of differential evolution, the interaction among individuals is limited in cellular neighbors instead of controlling parameters in the canonical DE. To improve the optimizing performance of DE, the CLS helps by exploring a large region to avoid immature convergence in the early evolutionary stage and exploiting a small region to refine the final solutions in the later evolutionary stage. What is more, to improve the convergence characteristics and maintain the population diversity, the binomial crossover operator in the canonical DE may be instead by the orthogonal crossover operator without crossover rate. The performance of ccDE is widely evaluated on a set of 14 bound constrained numerical optimization problems compared with the canonical DE and several DE variants. The simulation results show that ccDE has better performances in terms of convergence rate and solution accuracy than other optimizers.

  19. Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Statistical Locally Linear Embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Zheng, Yuan; Zhao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Jinping

    2015-07-06

    Fault diagnosis is essentially a kind of pattern recognition. The measured signal samples usually distribute on nonlinear low-dimensional manifolds embedded in the high-dimensional signal space, so how to implement feature extraction, dimensionality reduction and improve recognition performance is a crucial task. In this paper a novel machinery fault diagnosis approach based on a statistical locally linear embedding (S-LLE) algorithm which is an extension of LLE by exploiting the fault class label information is proposed. The fault diagnosis approach first extracts the intrinsic manifold features from the high-dimensional feature vectors which are obtained from vibration signals that feature extraction by time-domain, frequency-domain and empirical mode decomposition (EMD), and then translates the complex mode space into a salient low-dimensional feature space by the manifold learning algorithm S-LLE, which outperforms other feature reduction methods such as PCA, LDA and LLE. Finally in the feature reduction space pattern classification and fault diagnosis by classifier are carried out easily and rapidly. Rolling bearing fault signals are used to validate the proposed fault diagnosis approach. The results indicate that the proposed approach obviously improves the classification performance of fault pattern recognition and outperforms the other traditional approaches.

  20. Localized Ambient Solidity Separation Algorithm Based Computer User Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Zhang, Tongda; Chai, Yueting; Liu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Most of popular clustering methods typically have some strong assumptions of the dataset. For example, the k-means implicitly assumes that all clusters come from spherical Gaussian distributions which have different means but the same covariance. However, when dealing with datasets that have diverse distribution shapes or high dimensionality, these assumptions might not be valid anymore. In order to overcome this weakness, we proposed a new clustering algorithm named localized ambient solidity separation (LASS) algorithm, using a new isolation criterion called centroid distance. Compared with other density based isolation criteria, our proposed centroid distance isolation criterion addresses the problem caused by high dimensionality and varying density. The experiment on a designed two-dimensional benchmark dataset shows that our proposed LASS algorithm not only inherits the advantage of the original dissimilarity increments clustering method to separate naturally isolated clusters but also can identify the clusters which are adjacent, overlapping, and under background noise. Finally, we compared our LASS algorithm with the dissimilarity increments clustering method on a massive computer user dataset with over two million records that contains demographic and behaviors information. The results show that LASS algorithm works extremely well on this computer user dataset and can gain more knowledge from it. PMID:26221133