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Sample records for load projections bpa

  1. Load Composition Model Workflow (BPA TIP-371 Deliverable 1A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Cezar, Gustavo V.; /SLAC

    2017-07-17

    This project is funded under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Strategic Partnership Project (SPP) 17-005 between BPA and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The project in a BPA Technology Improvement Project (TIP) that builds on and validates the Composite Load Model developed by the Western Electric Coordinating Council's (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force (LMTF). The composite load model is used by the WECC Modeling and Validation Work Group to study the stability and security of the western electricity interconnection. The work includes development of load composition data sets, collection of load disturbance data, and model development and validation. This work supports reliable and economic operation of the power system. This report was produced for Deliverable 1A of the BPA TIP-371 Project entitled \\TIP 371: Advancing the Load Composition Model". The deliverable documents the proposed work ow for the Composite Load Model, which provides the basis for the instrumentation, data acquisition, analysis and data dissemination activities addressed by later phases of the project.

  2. Review of BPA funded sturgeon, resident fish and wildlife projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) held a public meeting on November 19--21, 1991, for the purpose of review, coordination, and consultation of the BPA-funded projects for sturgeon, resident fish, and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin (Basin). The comments received after the meeting were favorable and the participants agreed that the meeting was stimulating and productive. The information exchanged should lead to better coordination with other projects throughout the Basin. This document list the projects by title, the project leaders and BPA's project officers, and an abstract of each leader's presentation

  3. Draft environmental impact statement - BPA/Lower Valley transmission project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration and Lower Valley Power and Light, Inc., propose to solve a voltage stability problem in the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. For the Agency Proposed Action, BPA and Lower Valley would construct a new 115-kV line from BPA's Swan Valley Substation near Swan Valley in Bonneville County, Idaho about 58 km (36 miles) east to BPA's Teton Substation near Jackson in Teton County, Wyoming. The new line would be next to an existing 115-kV line. Most of the line would be supported by a mix of single-circuit wood pole H-frame structures would be used. The Single-Circuit Line Alternative has all the components of the Agency Proposed Action except that the entire line would be supported by single-circuit structures. The Short Line Alternative has all the components of the Single-Circuit Line Alternative except it would then be removed. For the Static Var Compensation Alternative, BPA would install a Static Var Compensator (SVC) at Teton or Jackson Substation. An SVC is a group of electrical equipment placed at a substation to help control voltage on a transmission system. The No Action Alternative assumes that no new transmission line is built, and no other equipment is added to the transmission system. The USFS (Targhee and Bridger-Teton National Forests) must select al alternative based on their needs and objectives, decide if the project complies with currently approved forest plans, decide if special use permits or easements are needed for construction, operation, and maintenance of project facilities, and decide if they would issue special use permits and letters of consent to grant easements for the project

  4. BPA/PGE transmission support project: Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan describes the mitigation measures identified in the BPA/PGE Transmission Support Project Environmental Assessment. These measures commit to actions that will reduce the environmental impacts that could occur by constructing, operating and maintaining the transmission line and related facilities. They have been developed in coordination with environmental specialists, design and construction engineers and maintenance personnel. The measures will be written into the construction specifications for the project, which is expected to be constructed by contract personnel. Unless noted in the plan, the construction inspector or the line foreman would be responsible for carrying out the mitigation; environmental staff would also monitor the area for mitigation effectiveness. The right-of-way would be cleared in 1997 or 1998, and construction would begin in the spring of 1998 and be completed later that fall

  5. BPA/Lower Valley transmission project. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration and Lower Valley Power and Light, Inc. propose to solve a voltage stability problem in the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. Lower Valley buys electricity from BPA and then supplies it to the residences and businesses of the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. BPA is considering five alternatives. For the Agency Proposed Action, BPA and Lower Valley would construct a new 115-kV line from BPA's Swan Valley Substation near Swan Valley in Bonneville County, Idaho about 58 km (36 miles) east to BPA's Teton Substation near Jackson in Teton County, Wyoming. The new line would be next to an existing 115-kV line. The Single-Circuit Line Alternative has all the components of the Agency Proposed Action except that the entire line would be supported by single-circuit wood pole H-frame structures. the Short Line Alternative has all the components of the Single-Circuit Line Alternative except it would only be half as long. BPA would also construct a new switching station near the existing right-of-way, west or north of Targhee Tap. Targhee Tap would then be removed. For the Static Var Compensation Alternative, BPA would install a Static Var Compensator (SVC) at Teton or Jackson Substation. An SVC is a group of electrical equipment placed at a substation to help control voltage on a transmission system. The No Action Alternative assumes that no new transmission line is built, and no other equipment is added to the transmission system

  6. BPA Statutes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-08-01

    This report contains the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) authorizing statutes--the Bonneville Project Act, the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act and other laws that contain provisions that define BPA's mission and affect the way it is carried out.

  7. BPA Facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is a federal nonprofit power marketing administration based in the Pacific Northwest . Although BPA is part of the U .S . Department of Energy, it is self-funding and covers its costs by selling its products and services . BPA markets wholesale electrical power from 31 federal hydro projects in the Columbia River Basin, one nonfederal nuclear plant and several small nonfederal power plants . The dams are operated by the U .S . Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation . About 30 percent of the electric power used in the Northwest comes from BPA . BPA’s resources — primarily hydroelectric — make its power nearly carbon free . BPA also operates and maintains about three- fourths of the high-voltage transmission in its service territory . BPA’s service territory includes Idaho, Oregon, Washington, western Montana and small parts of eastern Montana, California, Nevada, Utah and Wyoming . BPA promotes energy efficiency, renewable resources and new technologies that improve its ability to deliver on its mission . BPA also funds regional efforts to protect and enhance fish and wildlife populations affected by hydropower development in the Columbia River Basin . BPA is committed to public service and seeks to make its decisions in a manner that provides opportunities for input from stakeholders . In its vision statement, BPA dedicates itself to providing high system reliability, low rates consistent with sound business principles, environmental stewardship and accountability

  8. BPA/Puget Power Northwest Washington Transmission Project. Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration and Puget Sound Power ampersand Light Company propose to upgrade the existing high-voltage transmission system in the Whatcom and Skagit County area between the towns of Custer and Sedro Woolley, including within the City of Bellingham, starting in 1995. The upgrades of the interconnected 230-kV and 115-kV systems are needed to increase the import capacity on a nearby U.S.-Canada 500-kV intertie by about 850 megawatts (MW). BPA and Puget Power would share the increase in north-south transfer capability. An existing BPA 230-kV single-circuit, wood-pole H-frame transmission line would be upgraded to a 230-kV lattice-steel double-circuit line. A Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the project was issued in November 1993. New 1994 studies showed that other improvements to Puget Power's system, and the addition of local generation has lessened local reliability problems. Also in 1994, BPA reevaluated all existing projects with this goal in mind. BPA and Puget determined that benefits would still result from this project, and that additional transfer capacity and improved system integrity warrant the expenditures. Given the changes in need, BPA decided to issue a Supplemental DEIS, and provide a second public review-and-comment period. The proposed action is designated Option 1. Impacts would be low to moderate and localized. Effects on soils and water resources in sensitive areas would be low to moderate; there would be little increase in magnetic fields, noise levels would approximate existing levels; and land use and property value impacts would be low. Threatened and endangered species would not be adversely affected, and all proposed Sections in wetlands would be covered by Nationwide Permit. Visual and socioeconomic impacts would be low to moderate. No cultural resources listed on the National Register of Historic Places would be affected

  9. Autonomous Propellant Loading Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) project consists of three activities. The first is to develop software that will automatically control loading of...

  10. BPA/Puget Power Northwest Washington Transmission Project Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Puget Sound Power & Light Company (Puget Power) propose to upgrade the existing high-voltage transmission system in the Whatcom and Skagit counties area between the towns of Custer and Sedro Woolley, including some areas within the City of Bellingham, starting in 1995. A Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the project was issued in November 1993, followed by a 45-day public comment period. Public response to the DEIS included the identification of several new transmission route alternatives in the Lake Whatcom area. BPA issued a Supplemental DEIS in April 1995 to provide a second public review-and-comment period. Rebuilding an existing 230-kV line to a double-circuit 230-kV transmission line was identified in the Supplemental DEIS as the Proposed Action. The Supplemental DEIS also examined in detail a North Shore Road alternative which was proposed by some members of the public. Public comments on the EIS were listed and responded to in the Supplemental DEIS. In May 1995, a second set of open houses and public meetings was held to review the Supplemental DEIS. Electromagnetic field (EMF) effects raised as an issue in the DEIS continued to be an issue of public concern in the meetings. The EIS has identified impacts that would generally be classified as low to moderate and localized. Effects on soils and water resources in sensitive areas (e.g., near Lake Whatcom) would be low to moderate; there would be little change in magnetic fields; noise levels would remain at existing levels; and land use and property value impacts would be minimal. Threatened and endangered species would not be adversely affected, and all proposed actions in wetlands would be covered by a Corps of Engineers Nationwide Permit. Visual and socioeconomic would be low to moderate. There would be no effect on cultural resources.

  11. Draft Environmental Impact Statement: BPA/Puget Power Northwest Washington Transmission Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPS) and Puget Sound Power ampersand Light (Puget Power) propose to upgrade the existing high-voltage transmission system in the Whatcom and Skagit County area between the towns of Custer and Sedro Woolley, including within the city of Bellingham starting in 1995. The upgrades of the interconnected 230,000 volt (230-kV) and 115-kV systems are needed to increase the reliability of the local transmission system and to increase the import capacity on a nearby US-Canada 500-kV intertie by about 850 megawatts (MW). The increase in north-south transfer capability would be shared by BPA and Puget Power (about 425 MW each). Other actions would include replacement of an existing BPA 230-kV single-circuit, wood-pole H-frame transmission line with a lattice-steel double-circuit line; an existing Puget Power 115-kV single wood-pole transmission line rebuild, two short 115-kV Puget Power lines added at BPA's Bellingham Substation; and improvements made at existing BPA and Puget Power substations

  12. 1998 BPA habitat projects completed within the Asotin Creek Watershed, WA; Ridge-Top to Ridge-Top Habitat Projects; 1998 BPA Completion Report - November 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    2000-01-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Program (ACMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The Asotin Creek watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. The ACMWP began coordinating habitat projects in 1995. Approximately two hundred forty-six projects have been implemented through the ACMWP as of 1998. Fifty-nine of these projects were funded in part through Bonneville Power Administration's 1998 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These projects used a variety of methods to enhance and protect watershed conditions. In-stream work for fish habitat included construction of hard structures (e.g. vortex rock weirs), meander reconstruction, placement of large woody debris (LWD) and whole trees and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; one hundred thirty-nine pools were created with these structures. Three miles of stream benefited from riparian improvements such as fencing, vegetative plantings, and noxious weed control. Two alternative water developments were completed, providing off-stream-watering sources for livestock. 20,500 ft of upland terrace construction, seven sediment basin construction, one hundred eighty-seven acres of grass seeding, eight hundred fifty acres of direct seeding and eighteen sediment basin cleanouts were implemented to reduce sediment production and delivery to streams in the watershed

  13. Inflow forecasting at BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamon, A. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The Columbia River Power System operates with consideration for flood control, endangered species, navigation, irrigation, water supply, recreation, other fish and wildlife concerns and power production. The Bonneville Power Association (BPA) located in Portland, Oregon is responsible for 35-40 per cent of the power consumed within the region. This presentation discussed inflow power concerns at BPA. The presentation illustrated elevational relief of projects; annual and daily variability; the hydrologic cycle; national river service weather forecasting service (NRSWFS); components of NRSWFS; and hydrologic forecast locations. Project operations and inventory were included along with a comparison of the 71-year average unregulated flow with regulated flow at the Dalles. Consistency between short-term and long-term forecasts and long-term streamflow forecasts were also illustrated in graphical format. The presentation also discussed the issue of reducing model and parameter uncertainty; reducing initial conditions uncertainty; snow updating; and reducing meteorological uncertainty. tabs., figs.

  14. Annual Review of BPA-Funded Projects in Natural and Artificial Propagation of Salmonids, March 27-29, 1985, Holiday Inn Airport, Portland, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-04-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Division of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) hosted a meeting for contractors to present the results of fiscal year 1984 research conducted to implement the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program. The meeting focused on those projects specifically related to natural and artificial propagation of salmonids. The presentations were held at the Holiday Inn Airport in Portland, Oregon, on March 27-29, 1985. This document contains abstracts of the presentations from that meeting. Section 1 contains abstracts on artificial propagation, fish health, and downstream migration, and Section 2 contains abstracts on natural propagation and habitat improvement. The abstracts are indexed by BPA Project Number and by Fish and Wildlife Program Measure. The registered attendees at the meeting are listed alphabetically in Appendix A and by affiliation in Appendix B.

  15. Bisphenol A (BPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoke Cockroaches Dust Mites Pets & Animals Pollen Aloe Vera Arsenic Bisphenol A (BPA) Bisphenol A (BPA) Cell ... including use in some food and drink packaging, e.g., water and infant bottles, compact discs, impact- ...

  16. BPA genetic monitoring - BPA Genetic Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Initiated in 1989, this study monitors genetic changes associated with hatchery propagation in multiple Snake River sub-basins for Chinook salmon and steelhead. We...

  17. BPA riparian fencing and alternative water development projects completed within Asotin Creek Watershed ; 2000 and 2001 Asotin Creek fencing final report of accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.J.Bradley J.

    2002-01-01

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 35. According to Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife's (WDFW) Priority WRIA's by ''At-Risk Stock Significance Map'', it is the highest priority WRIA in southeastern Washington. Summer steelhead, bull trout, and Snake River spring chinook salmon which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. WDFW manages it as a Wild Steelhead Reserve; no hatchery fish have been released here since 1997. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe, Washington Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. Local students, volunteers and Salmon Corps members from the Nez Perce Tribe have been instrumental in the success of the Model Watershed Program on Asotin Creek. ACCD began coordinating habitat projects in 1995 with the help of BPA funding. Approximately two hundred and seventy-six projects have been implemented as of 1999. The Washington State Legislature was successful in securing funding for endangered salmon and steelhead recovery throughout the State in 1998. While these issues were new to most of the State, the ACCD has been securing and administering funding for endangered salmonids since 1994. The ''Asotin Creek Riparian Planting 2000-053-00 and Asotin Creek Riparian Fencing 2000-054-00'' teamed BPA and the Governor's Salmon Recovery Funding to plant approximately 84

  18. BPA review of Washington Public Power Supply System, Projects 1 and 3 (WNP 1 and 3), construction schedule and financing assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This document contains the following appendices: Data provided By Supply System Regarding Costs and Schedules; Basic Supply System Data and Assumptions; Detailed Modeling of Net Present Values; Origin and Detailed Description of the System Analysis Mode; Decision Analysis Model; Pro Forma Budget Expenditure Levels for Fiscal years 1984 through 1990; Financial Flexibility Analysis - Discretionary/Nondiscretionary Expenditure Levels; Detailed Analysis of BPA's Debt Structure Under the 13 Pro Forma Budget Scenarios for Fiscal Years 1984 through 1990; Wertheim and Co., Inc., August 30, 1984 Letter; Project Considerations and Licensing/Regulatory Issues, Supply System September 15, 1984 Letter; and Summary of Litigation Affecting WNP 1 and 3, and WNP 4 and 5

  19. Environmental Effects of BPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Canesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on bisphenol A (BPA as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection.

  20. Sustainability at BPA 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    THIS IS THE THIRD YEAR BPA has reported on sustainability program accomplishments. The report provides an opportunity to review progress made on sustainability initiatives, evaluate how far we have come and how much we can improve. The program has demonstrated maturation as the concepts of sustainability and resource conservation are communicated and understood. The sustainability program started as an employee-driven “grass roots” effort in 2010. Sustainability is becoming a consideration in how work is performed. The establishment of several policies supporting sustainability efforts proves the positive progress being made. In 2009, BPA became a founder and member of The Climate Registry, a nonprofit collaboration that sets standards to calculate, verify and report greenhouse gas emissions. This year, BPA completed and published our Greenhouse Gas inventory for the years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. The 2012 inventory is currently in the process of third-party verification and scheduled for public release in January 2014. These inventories provide a concrete measure of the progress we are making.

  1. Hood River Conservation Project load analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, T.K.

    1987-11-01

    As a part of the Hood River Conservation Project (HRCP), 314 homes were monitored to measure electrical energy use. The total electrical load, space heating load, water heating load (in about 200 homes), wood-stove heat output (in about 100 homes), and indoor temperature were monitored. Data were collected for one full year before and one full year after these homes were retrofit with conservation measures. Local weather information was also collected on a 15-min basis. This data base was used to evaluate the load savings attributable to HRCP. Two methods of weather normalization were used and showed close agreement. The weather-normalized diversified residential load savings on the Pacific Power and Light system and Hood River area peak days were >0.5 kW/household. The average spring, summer, and fall savings were much smaller, <0.1 kW/household. The load factor for the diversified residential load decreased following the conservation retrofit actions. 11 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. FJET Database Project: Extract, Transform, and Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samms, Kevin O.

    2015-01-01

    The Data Mining & Knowledge Management team at Kennedy Space Center is providing data management services to the Frangible Joint Empirical Test (FJET) project at Langley Research Center (LARC). FJET is a project under the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The purpose of FJET is to conduct an assessment of mild detonating fuse (MDF) frangible joints (FJs) for human spacecraft separation tasks in support of the NASA Commercial Crew Program. The Data Mining & Knowledge Management team has been tasked with creating and managing a database for the efficient storage and retrieval of FJET test data. This paper details the Extract, Transform, and Load (ETL) process as it is related to gathering FJET test data into a Microsoft SQL relational database, and making that data available to the data users. Lessons learned, procedures implemented, and programming code samples are discussed to help detail the learning experienced as the Data Mining & Knowledge Management team adapted to changing requirements and new technology while maintaining flexibility of design in various aspects of the data management project.

  3. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  4. Canby Area Service Project substation and associated transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp's substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC's Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC's substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA's proposed action is intended to meet SVEC's increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC's increasing energy load by tapping into BPA's existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC's Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no ''environmental impact statement'' is not required

  5. Ice Load Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Timothy J. [DNV GL, Seattle, WA (United States); Brown, Thomas [IFC Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada); Byrne, Alex [DNV GL, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-10-30

    As interest and investment in offshore wind projects increase worldwide, some turbines will be installed in locations where ice of significant thickness forms on the water surface. This ice moves under the driving forces of wind, current, and thermal effects and may result in substantial forces on bottom-fixed support structures. The North and Baltic Seas in Europe have begun to see significant wind energy development and the Great Lakes of the United States and Canada may host wind energy development in the near future. Design of the support structures for these projects is best performed through the use of an integrated tool that can calculate the cumulative effects of forces due to turbine operations, wind, waves, and floating ice. The dynamic nature of ice forces requires that these forces be included in the design simulations, rather than added as static forces to simulation results. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard[2] for offshore wind turbine design and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard[3] for offshore structures provide requirements and algorithms for the calculation of forces induced by surface ice; however, currently none of the major wind turbine dynamic simulation codes provides the ability to model ice loads. The scope of work of the project described in this report includes the development of a suite of subroutines, collectively named IceFloe, that meet the requirements of the IEC and ISO standards and couples with four of the major wind turbine dynamic simulation codes. The mechanisms by which ice forces impinge on offshore structures generally include the forces required for crushing of the ice against vertical-sided structures and the forces required to fracture the ice as it rides up on conical-sided structures. Within these two broad categories, the dynamic character of the forces with respect to time is also dependent on other factors such as the velocity and thickness of the moving ice

  6. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, Bernard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bravo, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yinger, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chassin, Dave [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Huang, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Ning [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hiskens, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Venkataramanan, Giri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  7. Canby Area Service Project substation and associated transmission line. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp`s substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC`s Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC`s substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA`s proposed action is intended to meet SVEC`s increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC`s increasing energy load by tapping into BPA`s existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC`s Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no ``environmental impact statement`` is not required.

  8. Canby Area Service Project : Substation and Associated Transmission Line : Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp's substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC's Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC's substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA's proposed action is intended to meet SVEC's increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC's increasing energy load by tapping into BPA's existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC's Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no environmental impact statement'' is not required.

  9. Plutonium Immobilization Project - Robotic canister loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site (SRS), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). When operational in 2008, the PIP will fulfill the nation's nonproliferation commitment by placing surplus weapons-grade plutonium in a permanently stable ceramic form and making it unattractive for reuse. Since there are significant radiation and security concerns, the program team is developing novel and unique technology to remotely perform plutonium immobilization tasks. The remote task covered in this paper employs a jointed arm robot to load seven 3.5 inch diameter, 135-pound cylinders (magazines) through the 4 inch diameter neck of a stainless steel canister. Working through the narrow canister neck, the robot secures the magazines into a specially designed rack pre-installed in the canister. To provide the deterrent effect, the canisters are filled with a mixture of high-level waste and glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)

  10. Resource contingency program - Oregon. Final environmental impact statement, Hermiston power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial, and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. In 1990, to cover the outer range of potential load growth with new resources, BPA embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP). Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later, if and when it is needed. The decision to acquire any of these option energy projects to fulfill statutory supply obligations will be influenced by Federal system load growth, the outcome of BPA's Business Plan, required operational changes in Columbia-Snake River Hydroelectric facilities, and the loss of major generating resources. In September 1993, three option development agreements were signed with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop, Washington, and near Hermiston, Oregon. Together these three projects could supply BPA with 1,090 average megawatts (aMW) of power. Under these agreements, sponsors are obtaining permits and conducting project design work, and BPA is completing this EIS process. In September 1993, BPA published a Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on these three proposed gas-fired combustion turbine projects and held public scoping meetings in October 1993 at each site. In February 1994, BPA released an Implementation Plan on the proposed scope of the EIS. A draft EIS on the three proposed projects was published in February 1995. The impacts of the Chehalis and Satsop projects located in Washington State will be covered in one EIS document, while the impacts of the Hermiston project located in Oregon are covered in this final EIS document. It is BPA's intent to continue to base the analysis of impacts on the assumption that all three projects may be constructed at some point in the future

  11. Resource Contingency Program - Oregon : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hermiston Power Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial, and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. In 1990, to cover the outer range of potential load growth with new resources, BPA embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP). Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later, if and when it is needed. The decision to acquire any of these option energy projects to fulfill statutory supply obligations will be influenced by Federal system load growth, the outcome of BPA`s Business Plan, required operational changes in Columbia-Snake River Hydroelectric facilities, and the loss of major generating resources. In September 1993, three option development agreements were signed with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop, Washington, and near Hermiston, Oregon. Together these three projects could supply BPA with 1,090 average megawatts (aMW) of power. Under these agreements, sponsors are obtaining permits and conducting project design work, and BPA is completing this EIS process. In September 1993, BPA published a Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on these three proposed gas-fired combustion turbine projects and held public scoping meetings in October 1993 at each site. In February 1994, BPA released an Implementation Plan on the proposed scope of the EIS. A draft EIS on the three proposed projects was published in February 1995. The impacts of the Chehalis and Satsop projects located in Washington State will be covered in one EIS document, while the impacts of the Hermiston project located in Oregon are covered in this final EIS document. It is BPA`s intent to continue to base the analysis of impacts on the assumption that all three projects may be constructed at some point in the future.

  12. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  13. Seismic safety margins research program. Project VIII load combination project: work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.K.; Vepa, K.; George, L.; Smith, P.D.

    1979-01-01

    The proposed load combination project has the following overall objectives: develop a methodology for appropriate combination of dynamic loads for nuclear power plants under normal plant operation, transients, accidents, and natural hazards; establish design criteria, load factors, and component service levels for appropriate combinations of dynamic loads or responses to be used in nuclear power plant design; determine the reliability of typical piping systems, both inside and outside the containment structure, and provide the NRC with a sound technical basis for defining the criteria for postulating pipe breaks; and determine the probabilities of a large LOCA induced directly and indirectly by a range of earthquakes

  14. Calculation of projected waste loads for transuranic waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, K.; Kotek, T.; Koebnick, B.; Wang, Y.; Kaicher, C.

    1995-01-01

    The level of treatment and the treatment and interim storage site configurations (decentralized, regional, or centralized) impact transuranic (TRU) waste loads at and en route to sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Other elements that impact waste loads are the volume and characteristics of the waste and the unit operation parameters of the technologies used to treat it. Projected annual complexwide TRU waste loads under various TRU waste management alternatives were calculated using the WASTEunderscoreMGMT computational model. WASTEunderscoreMGMT accepts as input three types of data: (1) the waste stream inventory volume, mass, and contaminant characteristics by generating site and waste stream category; (2) unit operation parameters of treatment technologies; and (3) waste management alternative definitions. Results indicate that the designed capacity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, identified under all waste management alternatives as the permanent disposal facility for DOE-generated TRU waste, is sufficient for the projected complexwide TRU waste load under any of the alternatives

  15. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

    2009-08-24

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

  16. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geuther, J.; Conrad, E.A.; Rhoadarmer, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described

  17. Contribution of a submerged membrane bioreactor in the treatment of synthetic effluent contaminated by Bisphenol-A: Mechanism of BPA removal and membrane fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyhi, Brahima; Drogui, Patrick; Buelna, Gerardo; Azaïs, Antonin; Heran, Marc

    2013-01-01

    A submerged membrane bioreactor has been operated at the laboratory scale for the treatment of a synthetic effluent containing Bisphenol-A (BPA). COD, NH 4 –N, PO 4 –P and BPA were eliminated respectively, at 99%, 99%, 61% and 99%. The increase of volumetric loading rate from 0 to 21.6 g/m 3 /d did not affect the performance of the MBR system. However, the removal rate decreased rapidly when the BPA loading rate increased above 21.6 g/m 3 /d. The adsorption process of BPA on the biomass was very well described by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Subsequently, biodegradation of BPA occurred and followed the first order kinetic reaction, with a constant rate of 1.13 ± 0.22 h −1 . During treatment, membrane fouling was reversible in the first 84 h of filtration, and then became irreversible. The membrane fouling was mainly due to the accumulation of suspended solid and development of biofilm on the membrane surface. -- Highlights: •High BPA removal rates (up to 99%) were obtained in the MBR. •A limit of the toxicity of 21.6 g/m 3 /d of BPA was recorded for the MBR. •The first order kinetic model described very well the biodegradation process for BPA. •The kinetic rates (0.61–1.13 h −1 ) depend on BPA loading (0.10–0.50 mg/g TSS). •The initial organic loading (0.04 and 0.20 g COD g −1 TSS) did not affect the kinetic. -- High BPA removal rates (up to 99%) were obtained in the MBR, with a limit of the toxicity closed to 21.6 g/m 3 /d of BPA

  18. BPA Prepares for the 21st Century.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-04-01

    This is a brief review of the state of the Bonneville Power Administration. It reviews BPA`s competitive status, fish and wildlife funding, cost structure of the federal system, subscription sales of electricity, emergency cost recovery, cost reduction measures, transmission access and operation, and the 1998 power rate case decision making process.

  19. Biomonitoring Equivalents for bisphenol A (BPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Kannan; Gagné, Michelle; Nong, Andy; Aylward, Lesa L; Hays, Sean M

    2010-10-01

    Recent efforts worldwide have resulted in a growing database of measured concentrations of chemicals in blood and urine samples taken from the general population. However, few tools exist to assist in the interpretation of the measured values in a health risk context. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration or range of concentrations of a chemical or its metabolite in a biological medium (blood, urine, or other medium) that is consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline. BE values are derived by integrating available data on pharmacokinetics with existing chemical risk assessments. This study reviews available health-based exposure guidance values for bisphenol A (BPA) from Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). BE values were derived based on data on BPA urinary excretion in humans. The BE value corresponding to the oral provisional tolerable daily intake (pTDI) of 25 microg/kg-d from Health Canada is 1mg/L (1.3mg/g creatinine); value corresponding to the US EPA reference dose (RfD) and EFSA tolerable daily intake (TDI) estimates (both of which are equal to 50 microg/kg-d) is 2mg/L (2.6 mg/g creatinine). These values are estimates of the 24-h average urinary BPA concentrations that are consistent with steady-state exposure at the respective exposure guidance values. These BE values may be used as screening tools for evaluation of central tendency measures of population biomonitoring data for BPA in a risk assessment context and can assist in prioritization of the potential need for additional risk assessment efforts for BPA relative to other chemicals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High Heat Load Diamond Monochromator Project at ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van aerenbergh, P.; Detlefs, C.; Haertwig, J.; Lafford, T. A.; Masiello, F.; Roth, T.; Schmid, W.; Wattecamps, P.; Zhang, L.

    2010-01-01

    Due to its outstanding thermal properties, diamond is an attractive alternative to silicon as a monochromator material for high intensity X-ray beams. To date, however, the practical applications have been limited by the small size and relatively poor crystallographic quality of the crystals available. The ESRF Diamond Project Group has studied the perfection of diamonds in collaboration with industry and universities. The group has also designed and tested different stress-free mounting techniques to integrate small diamonds into larger X-ray optical elements. We now propose to develop a water-cooled Bragg-Bragg double crystal monochromator using diamond (111) crystals. It will be installed on the ESRF undulator beamline, ID06, for testing under high heat load. This monochromator will be best suited for the low energy range, typically from ∼3.4 keV to 15 keV, due to the small size of the diamonds available and the size of the beam footprint. This paper presents stress-free mounting techniques studied using X-ray diffraction imaging, and their thermal-mechanical analysis by finite element modelling, as well as the status of the ID06 monochromator project.

  1. CLARITY-BPA: Effects of chronic bisphenol A exposure on the immune system: Part 2 - Characterization of lymphoproliferative and immune effector responses by splenic leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinpeng; Bach, Anthony; Crawford, Robert B; Phadnis-Moghe, Ashwini S; Chen, Weimin; D'Ingillo, Shawna; Kovalova, Natalia; Suarez-Martinez, Jose E; Zhou, Jiajun; Kaplan, Barbara L F; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly used in the manufacturing of a wide range of consumer products, including polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resin that lines beverage and food cans, and some dental sealants. Consumption of food and beverages containing BPA represents the primary route of human BPA exposure, which is virtually ubiquitous. An increasing number of studies have evaluated the effects of BPA on immune responses in laboratory animals that have reported a variety of effects some of which have been contradictory. To address the divergent findings surrounding BPA exposure, a comprehensive chronic treatment study of BPA was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats, termed the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on Toxicity of BPA (CLARITY-BPA). As a participant in the CLARITY-BPA project, our studies evaluated the effects of BPA on a broad range of immune function endpoints using spleen cells isolated from BPA or vehicle treated rats. This comprehensive assessment included measurements of lymphoproliferation in response to mitogenic stimuli, immunoglobulin production by B cells, and cellular activation of T cells, NK cells, monocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. In total, 630 different measurements in BPA treated rats were performed of which 35 measurements were statistically different from vehicle controls. The most substantive alteration associated with BPA treatment was the augmentation of lymphoproliferation in response to pokeweed mitogen stimulations in 1 year old male rats, which was also observed in the reference estrogen ethinyl estradiol treated groups. With the exception of the aforementioned, the statistically significant changes associated with BPA treatment were mostly sporadic and not dose-dependent with only one out of five BPA dose groups showing a statistical difference. In addition, the observed BPA-associated alterations were mostly moderate in magnitude and showed no persistent trend over the one-year time period

  2. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

  3. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  4. 1980 survey and evaluation of utility conservation, load management, and solar end-use projects. Volume 3: utility load management projects. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The results of the 1980 survey of electric utility-sponsored energy conservation, load management, and end-use solar energy conversion projects are described. The work is an expansion of a previous survey and evaluation and has been jointly sponsored by EPRI and DOE through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are three volumes and a summary document. Each volume presents the results of an extensive survey to determine electric utility involvement in customer-side projects related to the particular technology (i.e., conservation, solar, or load management), selected descriptions of utility projects and results, and first-level technical and economic evaluations.

  5. Presence and leaching of bisphenol a (BPA) from dental materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Rune; Wellendorf, Hanne; Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Samuelsen, Jan Tore; Thomsen, Cathrine; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Kopperud, Hilde Molvig

    2018-01-01

    Abstract BPA has been reported to leach from some resin based dental restorative materials and materials used for orthodontic treatment. To confirm and update previous findings, especially in light of the new temporary lower threshold value for tolerable daily BPA intake, we have investigated the leaching of BPA from 4 composite filling materials, 3 sealants and 2 orthodontic bonding materials. The materials were either uncured and dissolved in methanol or cured. The cured materials were kept in deionized water for 24 hours or 2 weeks. Samples were subsequently analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS). The composite filling material Tetric EvoFlow® and the fissure sealant DELTON® showed significantly higher levels of BPA leaching compared to control samples for all test conditions (uncured, 24 h leaching and 2 weeks leaching). There were no significant differences in amount of leached BPA for any of the tested materials after 24 hours compared to 2 weeks. These results show that BPA is still released from some dental materials despite the general concern about potential adverse effects of BPA. However, the amounts of BPA were relatively low and most likely represent a very small contribution to the total BPA exposure. PMID:29868625

  6. Load Bearing Equipment for Bone and Muscle Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald G.; Shackelford, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Axial skeletal loads coupled with muscle torque forces around joints maintain bone. Astronauts working in pairs to exercise can provide high eccentric loads for each other that are most effective. A prototype of load bearing equipment that will allow astronauts to perform exercises using each other for counter force generation in a controlled fashion and provide eccentric overload is proposed. A frame and attachments that can be rapidly assembled for use and easily stored will demonstrate feasibility of a design that can be adapted for ISS testing and Orion use.

  7. CLARITY-BPA: Effects of chronic Bisphenol A exposure on the immune system: Part 1 - Quantification of the relative number and proportion of leukocyte populations in the spleen and thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinpeng; Bach, Anthony; Crawford, Robert B; Phadnis-Moghe, Ashwini S; Chen, Weimin; D'Ingillo, Shawna; Kovalova, Natalia; Suarez-Martinez, Jose E; Zhou, Jiajun; Kaplan, Barbara L F; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is extensively used in manufacturing of a broad range of consumer products worldwide. Due to its widespread use, human exposure to BPA is virtually ubiquitous. Broad human exposure coupled with a large scientific literature describing estrogenic activity of BPA in animals has raised public health concerns. To comprehensively evaluate the health effects of BPA exposure, a chronic toxicity study using a wide-range of BPA doses (2.5-25000 μg/kg bw/day) was conducted jointly by the NTP, thirteen NIEHS-supported grantees, and the FDA, which is called the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on Toxicity of BPA (CLARITY-BPA). As a participant in the CLARITY-BPA project, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of chronic BPA exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats on the relative number and proportion of defined leukocyte populations in the spleen and the thymus. Toward this end, lymphoid tissues from a total of 641 rats were assayed after being continuously dosed with BPA or controls for up to one year. To comprehensively evaluate the effects of BPA on leukocyte compositions, extensive endpoints that cover major populations of leukocytes were assessed, including B cells, T cells, NK cells, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. In total, of the 530 measurements in BPA-treated rats, 10 measurements were statistically different from vehicle controls and were mainly associated with either the macrophage or dendritic cell populations. Most, if not all, of these alterations were found to be transient with no persistent trend over the one-year time period. In addition, the observed BPA-associated alterations were mostly moderate in magnitude and not dose-dependent. Due to the aforementioned, it is unlikely that the observed BPA-mediated changes alone would adversely affect immune competence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bisphenol A (BPA) in U.S. food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Arnold; Malik, Noor; Haffner, Darrah; Smith, Sarah; Harris, T Robert; Paepke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2010-12-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used for lining metal cans and in polycarbonate plastics, such as baby bottles. In rodents, BPA is associated with early sexual maturation, altered behavior, and effects on prostate and mammary glands. In humans, BPA is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and male sexual dysfunction in exposed workers. Food is a major exposure source. We know of no studies reporting BPA in U.S. fresh food, canned food, and food in plastic packaging in peer reviewed journals. We measured BPA levels in 105 fresh and canned foods, foods sold in plastic packaging, and in cat and dog foods in cans and plastic packaging. We detected BPA in 63 of 105 samples, including fresh turkey, canned green beans, and canned infant formula. Ninety-three of these samples were triplicates which had similar detected levels. Detected levels ranged from 0.23 to 65.0 ng/g ww and were not associated with type of food or packaging but did vary with pH. BPA levels were higher for foods of pH 5 compared to more acidic and alkaline foods. Detected levels were comparable to those found by others. Further research is indicated to determine BPA levels in U.S. food in larger, representative sampling.

  9. BPA and BSH accumulation in experimental tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, H.; Sedgwick, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    The accumulation of boronated compounds into tumors is a critical component to the success of BNCT. To date, great variability has been demonstrated in the tumor:blood ratio achieved in samples both from different patients and within samples taken from the same patient. The factors that probably influence the level of uptake include the vascular perfusion within the tumor, the permeability of these vessels and the viability of the tumor cells themselves. These experiments were designed to measure these various factors in different experimental tumor models and to relate these measurements to the uptake of both BPA (Boronophenylalanine) and BSH (Sodiumborocaptate). They demonstrate that within different tumors there can be wide variations in the vascular parameters. In addition, the viability of the tumor cells may also be an important determinant of tumor uptake. (author)

  10. Projected transuranic waste loads requiring treatment, storage, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, K.; Kotek, T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides information on the volume of TRU waste loads requiring treatment, storage, and disposal at DOE facilities for three siting configurations. Input consisted of updated inventory and generation data from. Waste Isolation Pilot plant Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory report. Results indicate that WIPP's design capacity is sufficient for the CH TRU waste found throughout the DOE Complex

  11. [Research on characteristic of interrelationship between toxic organic compound BPA and Chlorella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan-Jia; Chen, Xiu-Rong; Yan, Long; Zhao, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Fei; Jiang, Zi-Jian

    2014-04-01

    The effects of different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) on Chlorella vulgaris and removal capacity of BPA by Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. Results showed that a low concentration (0-20 mg x L(-1)) of BPA promoted the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, whereas a relative high concentration (20-50 mg x L(-1)) of BPA inhibited the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, and the inhibition effect was positively correlated with the concentration of BPA. Likewise, a high dose of initial BPA (> 20 mg x L(-1)) led to a decline in the content of chlorephyll a. Chlorella vulgaris had BPA removal capacity when initial BPA concentration ranged from 2 mg x L(-1) to 50 mg x L(-1). There was positive correlation between the removal rate of BPA per cell and initial BPA concentration. The removal rate of BPA was the highest when initial BPA was 50 mg x L(-1), which appeared between lag phase and logarithmic phase.

  12. Evaluation of mercury loads from climate change projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Conrads; Paul M. Bradley; Stephen T. Benedict; Toby D. Feaster

    2016-01-01

    McTier Creek is a small coastal plain watershed located in Aiken County, South Carolina. McTier Creek forms part of the headwaters for the Edisto River basin, which is noted for having some of the highest recorded fish-tissue mercury concentrations in the United States. A simple water-quality load model, TOPLOAD, which was developed for McTier Creek, utilizes a mass...

  13. Project W320 52-inch diameter equipment container load test: Test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellomy, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    This test report summarizes testing activities and documents the results of the load tests performed on-site and off-site to structural qualify the 52-inch equipment containers designed and fabricated under Project W-320

  14. Structural analysis of the ITER Vacuum Vessel regarding 2012 ITER Project-Level Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marc.martinez@live.fr [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul lez Durance (France); Jun, C.H.; Portafaix, C.; Choi, C.-H.; Ioki, K.; Sannazzaro, G.; Sborchia, C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul lez Durance (France); Cambazar, M.; Corti, Ph.; Pinori, K.; Sfarni, S.; Tailhardat, O. [Assystem EOS, 117 rue Jacquard, L' Atrium, 84120 Pertuis (France); Borrelly, S. [Sogeti High Tech, RE2, 180 rue René Descartes, Le Millenium – Bat C, 13857 Aix en Provence (France); Albin, V.; Pelletier, N. [SOM Calcul – Groupe ORTEC, 121 ancien Chemin de Cassis – Immeuble Grand Pré, 13009 Marseille (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • ITER Vacuum Vessel is a part of the first barrier to confine the plasma. • ITER Vacuum Vessel as Nuclear Pressure Equipment (NPE) necessitates a third party organization authorized by the French nuclear regulator to assure design, fabrication, conformance testing and quality assurance, i.e. Agreed Notified Body (ANB). • A revision of the ITER Project-Level Load Specification was implemented in April 2012. • ITER Vacuum Vessel Loads (seismic, pressure, thermal and electromagnetic loads) were summarized. • ITER Vacuum Vessel Structural Margins with regards to RCC-MR code were summarized. - Abstract: A revision of the ITER Project-Level Load Specification (to be used for all systems of the ITER machine) was implemented in April 2012. This revision supports ITER's licensing by accommodating requests from the French regulator to maintain consistency with the plasma physics database and our present understanding of plasma transients and electro-magnetic (EM) loads, to investigate the possibility of removing unnecessary conservatism in the load requirements and to review the list and definition of incidental cases. The purpose of this paper is to present the impact of this 2012 revision of the ITER Project-Level Load Specification (LS) on the ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) loads and the main structural margins required by the applicable French code, RCC-MR.

  15. BPA uptake in rat tissues after partial hepatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatkin, D.N.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Coderre, J.A.; Fisher, C.D.; Joel, D.D.; Lombardo, D.T.; Micca, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), boron given as boronophenylalanine (BPA) accumulates transiently not only in tumors but also in normal tissues. Average boron concentrations in transplanted 9L gliosarcoma tumors of 20 rats were 2.5 to 3.7 times concentrations found in blood. Although boron levels in a variety of tissues were also higher than blood the concentrations were less than the lowest found in the tumor. Further note than although BPA is a structural analogue of phenylalanine (Phe), the pathway of BPA uptake into regenerating liver may not be linked to Phe uptake mechanisms.

  16. Projected costs of nuclear and conventional base load electricity generation in some IAEA Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The cost of nuclear and conventional electricity is one of the most important parameters for power system planning, and in particular for decisions on base load power projects. This study reviews the projected levelized electricity generation costs of the base load power generation options expected to be available in the medium term, using an agreed common economic methodology. Cost projections were obtained and evaluated for nuclear and fossil fuelled (mainly coal-fired) plants that could be commissioned in the mid- to late 1990s in 10 IAEA Member States. 27 refs, figs and tabs

  17. From BPA to its analogues: Is it a safe journey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Afia; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most abundant synthetic chemicals in the world due to its uses in plastics. Its widespread exposure vis-a-vis low dose effects led to a reduction in its safety dose and imposition of ban on its use in infant feeding bottles. This restriction paved the way for the gradual market entry of its analogues. However, their structural similarity to BPA has put them under surveillance for endocrine disrupting potential. The application of these analogues is increasing and so are the studies reporting their toxicity. This review highlights the reasons which led to the ban of BPA and also reports the exposure and toxicological data available on its analogues. Hence, this compilation is expected to answer in a better way whether the replacement of BPA by these analogues is safer or more harmful? Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Exchange of current BPA surplus power for future power from certain companies' share of WNP-3 to settle a dispute over construction delay. Record of decision. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) sets forth the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) reasons for settling litigation over the delay in constructing Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) Nuclear Project No. 3 (WNP-3). The litigation concerns the decision in May 1983 to defer construction until financing becomes available to the Supply System and a demonstrable need for the Project is established. The construction deferral was made at the request of the Administrator of BPA, a federal power marketing agency in the Pacific Northwest. BPA is obligated to pay principal and interest on bonds sold by the Supply System to finance 70 percent of the project. The construction delay was opposed by the project's minority owners, four Northwest investor-owned utilities (companies) which collectively own 30 percent of the project

  19. Neurotoxicity of low bisphenol A (BPA) exposure for young male mice: Implications for children exposed to environmental levels of BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yuanxiu; Wang, Zhouyu; Xia, Minghan; Zhuang, Siyi; Gong, Xiaobing; Pan, Jianwen; Li, Chuhua; Fan, Ruifang; Pang, Qihua; Lu, Shaoyou

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the neuron toxicities of low-dose exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in children, mice were used as an animal model. We examined brain cell damage and the effects of learning and memory ability after BPA exposure in male mice (4 weeks of age) that were divided into four groups and chronically received different BPA treatments for 8 weeks. The comet assay and hippocampal neuron counting were used to detect the brain cell damage. The Y-maze test was applied to test alterations in learning and memory ability. Long term potentiation induction by BPA exposure was performed to study the potential mechanism of performance. The percentages of tail DNA, tail length and tail moment in brain cells increased with increasing BPA exposure concentrations. Significant differences in DNA damage were observed among the groups, including between the low-dose and control groups. In the Y-maze test, the other three groups qualified for the learned standard one day earlier than the high-exposed group. Furthermore, the ratio of qualified mice in the high-exposed group was always the lowest among the groups, indicating that high BPA treatment significantly altered the spatial memory performance of mice. Different BPA treatments exerted different effects on the neuron numbers of different regions in the hippocampus. In the CA1 region, the high-exposed group had a significant decrease in neuron numbers. A non-monotonic relationship was observed between the exposure concentrations and neuron quantity in the CA3 region. The hippocampal slices in the control and medium-exposed groups generated long-term potentiation after induction by theta burst stimulation, but the low-exposed group did not. A significant difference was observed between the control and low-exposed groups. In conclusion, chronic exposure to a low level of BPA had adverse effects on brain cells and altered the learning and memory ability of adolescent mice. - Highlights: • Low dose BPA exposure could lead to DNA

  20. 123I-BPA and 123I-BPA-fructose complex as a new radiopharmaceutical for the imaging of amino acid transport in tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, T. H.; Choi, C. W.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Lee, S. J.; Hong, S. W.; Lim, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    Boronophenylalanine (BPA) as derivative of phenylalanine, was used to treatment for glioma and melanoma in BNCT. We labeled BPA with radioiodides for tumor imaging of amino acid transport with gamma camera. Because of limited solubility of BAP, I-BPA-Fructose(I-BPA was complexed with fructose) to increase solubility. I-BPA was labeled by chloramine T coated bead method. Serum stability of I-BPA analyzed by HPLC at 37 .deg. C. Cellular uptake of I-BPA and I-BPA-Fructose was compared in 9L glioma and B16 melanoma. To see biodistribution, I-BPA 9x10 5 Bq(20 μg/100 μl) or I-BPA-Fructose 9x10 5 Bq(20 μg/fructose 55 μg/100 μl) was injected to B16 melanoma bearing C57 mice. In tumor bearing mice at 30 min, 1, 2, 24 hr after injection of tracers (n-4 per group). In 24hr, radiochemical purity of I-BPA in serum was retained above 90%. In cultured cells the maximum uptake was observed at 60min. In 9L glioma cells, %uptake of I-BPA and I-BPA-Fructose was 2.05, 2.6 at 60min. But in B16 melanoma, %uptake of I-BPA and I-BPA and-Fructose was 2.57, 6.62 at 60 min. In melanoma bearing mice, tumor/muscle ratio of I-BPA in 30 min, 1hr, 2hr, 24hr after injection was 1.48, 2.19, 2.28, 0.29 and %ID/g of tumor was 6.25, 5.17, 3.52, 0.29. Tumor/muscle ratio of I-BPA-Fructose was 1.51, 2.05, 2.1, 2.84 in 30 min, 1hr, 2hr, 24hr post-injection and %ID/g of tumor was 4.61, 3.65, 2.93, 0.71. The radioactivity was excreted mainly via hepatobiliary tract to the intestine. I-BPA was stable in serum upto 24hr. Uptake of I-BPA-Fructose was higher than I-BPA in melanoma cells. I-BPA-Fructose, is a promising tumor imaging radiopharmaceutical in some tumors

  1. Air, hand wipe, and surface wipe sampling for Bisphenol A (BPA) among workers in industries that manufacture and use BPA in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Cynthia J; Jackson, Matthew V; Christianson, Annette L; Clark, John C; Arnold, James E; Pretty, Jack R; Deddens, James A

    2017-11-01

    For decades, bisphenol A (BPA) has been used in making polycarbonate, epoxy, and phenolic resins and certain investment casting waxes, yet published exposure data are lacking for U.S. manufacturing workers. In 2013-2014, BPA air and hand exposures were quantified for 78 workers at six U.S. companies making BPA or BPA-based products. Exposure measures included an inhalable-fraction personal air sample on each of two consecutive work days (n = 146), pre- and end-shift hand wipe samples on the second day (n = 74 each), and surface wipe samples (n = 88). Potential determinants of BPA air and end-shift hand exposures (after natural log transformation) were assessed in univariate and multiple regression mixed models. The geometric mean (GM) BPA air concentration was 4.0 µg/m 3 (maximum 920 µg/m 3 ). The end-shift GM BPA hand level (26 µg/sample) was 10-times higher than the pre-shift level (2.6 µg/sample). BPA air and hand exposures differed significantly by industry and job. BPA air concentrations and end-shift hand levels were highest in the BPA-filled wax manufacturing/reclaim industry (GM Air = 48 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 130 µg/sample) and in the job of working with molten BPA-filled wax (GM Air = 43 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 180 µg/sample), and lowest in the phenolic resins industry (GM Air = 0.85 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 0.43 µg/sample) and in the job of flaking phenolic resins (GM AIR = 0.62 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 0.38 µg/sample). Determinants of increased BPA air concentration were industry, handling BPA containers, spilling BPA, and spending ≥50% of the shift in production areas; increasing age was associated with lower air concentrations. BPA hand exposure determinants were influenced by high values for two workers; for all other workers, tasks involving contact with BPA-containing materials and spending ≥50% of the shift in production areas were associated with increased BPA hand levels. Surface wipe BPA levels were significantly lower in

  2. Labelling of 4-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine(BPA) with 99Tcm and biodistribution of 99Tcm-DMG-BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yan; Tu Jing; Tang Xiuhuan; Tang Lingtian; Wang Xiangyun

    2005-01-01

    BPA(4-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine) has being used in clinical trials for treatment of cancer with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) technology for its selective accumulation in tumors. BPA is prepared according to the published synthetic procedure. A new BATO complex is synthesized with dimethylglyoxime, BPA, and 99 Tc m O 4 - as the starting materials via a template reaction. The biodistribution of 99 Tc m -DMG-BPA is studied. The results demonstrate that the complex is selectively accumulated in tumor and slowly cleared from it, the uptake in tumor is higher than in blood, heart, muscle and most of the other organs. The uptake ratio of tumor-to-tissue increased along with time. At 4 hour after injection, the uptake ratio of tumor to muscle reached 6.0, tumor/blood 4.5, tumor/heart 6.0, tumor/lung 3.0, tumor/liver 0.41, and tumor/kidney 0.134. The possible molecular structure of 99 Tc m -DMG-BPA complex is predicated by ab inito MO calculation. (authors)

  3. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS). Part III. Oversight hearing before the Subcommittee on Mining, Forest Management, and Bonneville Power Administration of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eight Congress, Second Session, March 28 and August 2, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Part III of the hearing record contains the testimony of Peter Johnson, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Administrator, and Energy Secretary Donald Hodel on the subject of BPA's contracts with the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) in which BPA will assume responsibility of WPPSS nuclear projects 1, 2, and 3. At issue was whether the contracts exceed BPA's authority and the protection of BPA's $1.9 billion invested in the projects. Johnson denied any secret agreements and emphasized that the intent was to preserve the assets for the federal government and federal power system. On the second hearing day, Hodel explained DOE's involvement in the agreements and its concurrence with BPA because of related litigation. An appendix with additional correspondence and statements submitted for the record follows the testimony

  4. Thermal load resistance of erosion-monitoring beryllium maker tile for JET ITER like wall project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, T.; Linke, J.; Sundelin, P.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Matthews, G.F.; Lungu, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The ITER reference materials, beryllium (Be), carbon fibre composite (CFC) and tungsten (W), have been tested separately in tokamaks. An integrated test demonstrating both compatibility of metal plasma facing components with high-power operation and acceptable tritium retention has not yet been carried out. At JET, the size, magnetic field strength and high plasma current allow to conducting tests with the combination of the materials. Thus, the ITER-like Wall (ILW) project has been launched. In the project, Be will be the plasmafacing material on the main chamber wall of JET. To assess the erosion of the Be tiles, a Be marker tile was proposed and designed. The test samples which simulate the JET Be marker tile have been produced in MEdC, Romania in order to study the thermal load resistance of the JET Be marker (20 x 20 mm 2 size with 30 mm height). The marker tile sample consists of bulk Be, high-Z interlayer (2-3 μm Ni coating) and 8-9 μm Be coating. Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) techniques based on the electron-induced evaporation have been selected for this purpose. In the present work, the global characterization of the maker tile samples and thermal load tests were performed. After the pre-characterization (microstructure observation by scanning electron microscope and elemental analysis by means of Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy), the thermal loading tests were performed in the electron beam facility JUDITH. The coating consisted of tiny platelets of ∝0.1 um in diameter and localized larger platelets of 1 um in diameter. The surface and bulk temperature were observed during the tests. In the screening thermal load test, the samples were loaded to 6 MW/m 2 for 10 s. The layers did not show any macroscopic damages at up to 4.5 MW/m 2 for 10 s (45 MJ/m 2 ). However, the coating delaminated and the maker was damaged when the thermal loading reached at 5 MW/m 2 (∝50 MJ/m 2 ). Cyclic heat load tests were

  5. MATHEMATICAL MODEL DESIGNATED FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL LOAD PRODUCED BY A BUILDING PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapidus Azariy Abramovich

    2012-10-01

    The theoretical background of the proposed approach consists in an integrated methodology implemented in the system engineering of construction projects. A building system may be represented as the aggregate of all stages of construction works and participants involved in them. The building system is object-oriented, and it is implemented under the impact of pre-determined environmental factors. The core constituent of the building system represents a Production Technology Module (PTM, or summarized groups of processes. The model formula designated for the assessment of the intensity of the ecological load produced by the construction project onto the environment may be represented as follows:

  6. 75 FR 6020 - Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Electrical Interconnection of the Lower Snake River Wind Energy Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE... (BPA) has decided to offer Puget Sound Energy Inc., a Large Generator Interconnection Agreement for...

  7. Beam dynamics in THz dielectric-loaded waveguides for the AXSIS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinatier, T.; Assmann, R. W.; Dorda, U.; Lemery, F.; Marchetti, B.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate with ASTRA simulations the beam dynamics in dielectric-loaded waveguides driven by THz pulses, used as linac structure for the AXSIS project. We show that the bunch properties at the linac exit are very sensitive to the phase velocity of the THz pulse and are limited by the strong phase slippage of the bunch respective to it. We also show that the bunch properties are optimized when low frequencies (ERC Grant Agreement n. 609920.

  8. Bisphenol A (BPA) in the serum of pet dogs following short-term consumption of canned dog food and potential health consequences of exposure to BPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, Zoe L; Backus, Robert C; Tsuruta, Kaoru; Spollen, William G; Johnson, Sarah A; Javurek, Angela B; Ellersieck, Mark R; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Xue, Jingchuan; Bivens, Nathan J; Givan, Scott A; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2017-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely present endocrine disruptor chemical found in many household items. Moreover, this chemical can bioaccumulate in various terrestrial and aquatic sources; thereby ensuring continual exposure of animals and humans. For most species, including humans, diet is considered the primary route of exposure. However, there has been little investigation whether commercial-brands of dog foods contain BPA and potential health ramifications of BPA-dietary exposure in dogs. We sought to determine BPA content within dog food, whether short-term consumption of these diets increases serum concentrations of BPA, and potential health consequences, as assessed by potential hematological, serum chemistry, cortisol, DNA methylation, and gut microbiome changes, in dogs associated with short-term dietary exposure to BPA. Fourteen healthy privately-owned dogs were used in this study. Blood and fecal samples were collected prior to dogs being placed for two-weeks on one of two diets (with one considered to be BPA-free), and blood and fecal samples were collected again. Serum/plasma samples were analyzed for chemistry and hematology profiles, cortisol concentrations, 5-methylcytosine in lymphocytes, and total BPA concentrations. Fecal samples were used for microbiome assessments. Both diets contained BPA, and after two-weeks of being on either diet, dogs had a significant increase in circulating BPA concentrations (pre-samples=0.7±0.15ng/mL, post-samples=2.2±0.15ng/mL, pfood increased circulating BPA concentrations in dogs comparable to amounts detected in humans, and greater BPA concentrations were associated with serum chemistry and microbiome changes. Dogs, who share our internal and external environments with us, are likely excellent indicators of potential human health concerns to BPA and other environmental chemicals. These findings may also have relevance to aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) can be accurately measured without contamination in human serum and urine, and that BPA causes numerous hazards from multiple routes of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    vom Saal, Frederick S.; Welshons, Wade V.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) is related to a wide range of adverse health effects based on both human and experimental animal studies. However, a number of regulatory agencies have ignored all hazard findings. Reports of high levels of unconjugated (bioactive) serum BPA in dozens of human biomonitoring studies have also been rejected based on the prediction that the findings are due to assay contamination and that virtually all ingested BPA is rapidly converted to inactive metabolites. NIH and industry-sponsored round robin studies have demonstrated that serum BPA can be accurately assayed without contamination, while the FDA lab has acknowledged uncontrolled assay contamination. In reviewing the published BPA biomonitoring data, we find that assay contamination is, in fact, well controlled in most labs, and cannot be used as the basis for discounting evidence that significant and virtually continuous exposure to BPA must be occurring from multiple sources. PMID:25304273

  10. 75 FR 39241 - Hooper Springs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Hooper Springs Project AGENCY: Bonneville... (collectively referred to as the Hooper Springs Project). The new BPA substation would be called Hooper Springs... proposed project would address voltage stability and reliability concerns of two of BPA's full requirements...

  11. Channel Selection and Feature Projection for Cognitive Load Estimation Using Ambulatory EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Lan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an ambulatory cognitive state classification system to assess the subject's mental load based on EEG measurements. The ambulatory cognitive state estimator is utilized in the context of a real-time augmented cognition (AugCog system that aims to enhance the cognitive performance of a human user through computer-mediated assistance based on assessments of cognitive states using physiological signals including, but not limited to, EEG. This paper focuses particularly on the offline channel selection and feature projection phases of the design and aims to present mutual-information-based techniques that use a simple sample estimator for this quantity. Analyses conducted on data collected from 3 subjects performing 2 tasks (n-back/Larson at 2 difficulty levels (low/high demonstrate that the proposed mutual-information-based dimensionality reduction scheme can achieve up to 94% cognitive load estimation accuracy.

  12. The Impact of Climatological Conditions on Low Enriched Uranium Loading Station Operations for the HEU Blend Down Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    A computer model was developed using COREsim to perform a time motion study for the Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Loading Station operations. The project is to blend Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) with Natural Uranium (NU) to produce LEU to be shipped to Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for further processing. To cope with a project cost reduction, the LEU Loading Station concept has changed from an enclosed building with air-conditioning to a partially enclosed building without air conditioning. The LEU Loading Station is within a radiological contaminated area; two pairs of coveralls and negative pressure respirator are required. As a result, inclement weather conditions, especially heat stress, will affect and impact the LEU loading operations. The purposes of the study are to determine the climatological impacts on LEU Loading operations, resources required for committed throughputs, and to find out the optimum process pathways for multi crews working simultaneously in the space-lim ited LEU Loading Station

  13. Industrial pollution load assessment in Phnom Penh, Cambodia using an industrial pollution projection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Vibol; Spoann, Vin; Schmidt, Johannes

    2018-02-15

    Approximately 56% out of the total 1302 Cambodian firms are operated in the Capital city of Cambodia. The necessary information on industrial pollution to set strategies, priorities and action plans on environmental protection issues is absent in Cambodia. In the absence of this data, effective environmental protection cannot be implemented. The objective of this study is to estimate industrial pollution load by employing the Industrial Pollution Projection System, a rapid environmental management tool for assessment of pollution load, to produce a scientific rational basis for preparing future policy direction to reduce industrial pollution in Phnom Penh city. Factory data between 1994 and 2014 obtained from the Ministry of Industry and Handicraft of Cambodia were used in our study. Due to the high number of employees, the total environmental load generated in Phnom Penh city was estimated to be 476,981Mg in 2014. Phnom Penh city generated 189,109Mg of VOC, 165,411Mg of toxic chemicals to air, 38,523Mg of toxic chemicals to land, and 28,968Mg of SO 2 in 2014. The results of the estimation show that the Textiles and Apparel sector was the highest generators of toxic chemicals into land and air, and toxic metals into land, air and water, while the Basic Metal sector was the greatest contributor of toxic chemicals to water. The Textiles and Apparel sector alone emitted 436,016Mg of total pollution load. The results indicate that the Dangkao and Meanchey districts were the greatest emitters of all pollutants in Phnom Penh. The results suggest that reduction in industrial pollution could be achieved by focusing on the most polluting sectors and areas. Adopting waste minimization strategies, which include cleaner production processes, will not only reduce the cost of controlling pollution, it will also make manufacturing more efficient thereby increasing profits while reducing pollution load in the long run. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pilot project - demonstration of capabilities and benefits of bridge load rating through physical testing : tech transfer summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This project demonstrated the capabilities for load testing bridges in Iowa, developed and presented a webinar to local and state engineers, and produced a spreadsheet and benefit evaluation matrix that others can use to preliminarily assess where br...

  15. Analysis of electrical circuits with variable load regime parameters projective geometry method

    CERN Document Server

    Penin, A

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces electric circuits with variable loads and voltage regulators. It allows to define invariant relationships for various parameters of regime and circuit sections and to prove the concepts characterizing these circuits. Generalized equivalent circuits are introduced. Projective geometry is used for the interpretation of changes of operating regime parameters. Expressions of normalized regime parameters and their changes are presented. Convenient formulas for the calculation of currents are given. Parallel voltage sources and the cascade connection of multi-port networks are d

  16. Reducing Plug Loads in Office Spaces: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppy, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Metzger, I. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holland, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hanada, A. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-01-01

    As part of its overall strategy to meet its energy goals, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) partnered with the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This project was one of several demonstrations of new or underutilized commercial energy technologies. The common goal was to demonstrate and measure the performance and economic benefit of the system while monitoring any ancillary impacts to related standards of service and operation and maintenance (O&M) practices. In short, demonstrations at naval facilities simultaneously evaluate the benefits and compatibility of the technology with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) mission, and with NAVFAC's design, construction, operations, and maintenance practices, in particular. This project demonstrated the performance of commercially available advanced power strips (APSs) for plug load energy reductions in building A4 at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH), Hawaii.

  17. 2007-2008 Annual Progress Report for BPA Grant Exp Restore Walla Walla River Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Bob [WWBWC (Walla Walla Basin Watershed Council)

    2009-07-10

    WWBWC and its partners have been working on a wide variety of conservation and aquifer recharge related activities including: monitoring groundwater and surface water conditions, creating a geospatial database for the Walla Walla River valley (project focal area), expanding aquifer recharge testing at the HBDIC site and conducting an extensive outreach/education program by which to share the information, ideas and potential solutions to our current water management issues in this basin. This report is an outline of those activities and is accompanied by individual program-component (attached as appendices) reports for the areas that BPA is assisting to fund these on-the-ground projects along with the innovative research and monitoring being done to further aquifer recharge as a water management tool for the Pacific Northwest.

  18. Position paper: Live load design criteria for Project W-236A Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giller, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the live loads applied to the underground storage tanks of the Multi Function Waste Tank Facility, and to provide the basis for Project W-236A live load criteria. Project 236A provides encompasses building a Weather Enclosure over the two underground storage tanks at the 200-West area. According to the Material Handling Study, the Groves AT 1100 crane used within the Weather Enclosure will have a gross vehicle weight of 66.5 tons. Therefore, a 100-ton concentrated live load is being used for the planning of the construction of the Weather Enclosure

  19. Demonstration project: Load management on the user side at power shortages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindskoug, Stefan

    2005-10-01

    The risk for power shortages during extreme cold weather has increased in Sweden. Comments are made that high electricity spot prices are important for holding down the demand. Through the consumers' higher price sensitivity, the electricity system can be operated with lower reserve capacity. The objective of the demonstration project is to show methods for reducing the electricity demand at the national level at high spot prices. An important prerequisite is that the measures must be profitable for all parties involved. Four separate studies were made, two concerning households, one industry and one for the district heating sector. The conclusion from the studies is that load management on the customer's side is an economic alternative to investment in new production capacity

  20. Occupational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in a plastic injection molding factory in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Wided Kouidhi; Letchumi Thannimalay; Chen Sau Soon; Mustafa Ali Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study has been to assess ambient bisphenol A (BPA) levels in workplaces and urine levels of workers and to establish a BPA database for different populations in Malaysia. Material and Methods: Urine samples were collected from plastic factory workers and from control subjects after their shift. Air samples were collected using gas analyzers from 5 sampling positions in the injection molding unit work area and from ambient air. The level of BPA in airborne and u...

  1. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low ...

  2. Developmental programming: interaction between prenatal BPA exposure and postnatal adiposity on metabolic variables in female sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Moeller, Jacob; Sreedharan, Rohit; Singer, Kanakadurga; Lumeng, Carey; Ye, Wen; Pease, Anthony; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-02-01

    Among potential contributors for the increased incidence of metabolic diseases is the developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is an estrogenic chemical used in a variety of consumer products. Evidence points to interactions of BPA with the prevailing environment. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on postnatal metabolic outcomes, including insulin resistance, adipose tissue distribution, adipocyte morphometry, and expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue as well as to assess whether postnatal overfeeding would exacerbate these effects. Findings indicate that prenatal BPA exposure leads to insulin resistance in adulthood in the first breeder cohort (study 1), but not in the second cohort (study 2), which is suggestive of potential differences in genetic susceptibility. BPA exposure induced adipocyte hypertrophy in the visceral fat depot without an accompanying increase in visceral fat mass or increased CD68, a marker of macrophage infiltration, in the subcutaneous fat depot. Cohens effect size analysis found the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat depot in the prenatal BPA-treated overfed group to be higher compared with the control-overfed group. Altogether, these results suggest that exposure to BPA during fetal life at levels found in humans can program metabolic outcomes that lead to insulin resistance, a forerunner of type 2 diabetes, with postnatal obesity failing to manifest any interaction with prenatal BPA relative to insulin resistance and adipocyte hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Characteristics of BPA removal from water by PACl-Al13 in coagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoying, Ma; Guangming, Zeng; Chang, Zhang; Zisong, Wang; Jian, Yu; Jianbing, Li; Guohe, Huang; Hongliang, Liu

    2009-09-15

    This paper discussed the coagulation characteristics of BPA with polyaluminum chloride (PACl-Al(13)) as coagulant, examined the impact of coagulation pH, PACl-Al(13) dosage, TOC (total organic carbon) and turbidity on BPA removal, and analyzed the possible dominant mechanisms in water coagulation process. Formation and performance of flocs during coagulation processes were monitored using photometric dispersion analyzer (PDA). When the concentration of humic acid matters and turbidity was low in the solution, the experimental results showed that the removal of BPA experienced increase and subsequently decrease with the PACl-Al(13) dosage increasing. The optimal PACl-Al(13) dosage was found at BPA/PACl-Al(13)=1:2.6(M/M) under our experiment conditions. Results show that the maximum BPA removal efficiency occurred at pH 9.0 due to the adsorption by Al(13) aggregates onto BPA rather than charge neutralization mechanism by polynuclear aluminous salts in the solution. The humic acid matters and kaolin in the solution have significant effect on BPA removal with PACl-Al(13) in the coagulation. The BPA removal will be weakened at high humic matters. The removal rate of BPA increased and subsequently decreased with the turbidity increasing.

  4. Expanded BPA residential weatherization program: summary of regional health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Thor, P.W.; Alton, C.C.; Mellinger, P.J.; Cross, F.T.

    1984-11-01

    The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Expanded Residential Weatherization Program has been completed, printed, and distributed. This document incorporates numerous revisions based on both oral and written comments received during the public comment of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). The estimates of regional health effects were revised to incorporate results of the second Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES). The FEIS now expresses the estimated regional health effects in terms of incidence of cancers per 100,000 people exposed, which allows comparison to be made to the annual average risk of fatality by other causes. The estimates of regional health effects are also compared to health effects resulting from supplying and operating a conventional coal plant at a power level equal to the amount of energy saved from installation of additional tightening measures. Numerical results for the estimated health effects described above are provided. A summary of the comments received on the DEIS is also provided, along with estimated health effects associated with the Environmentally Preferred and BPA Preferred Alternatives to the Proposed Action. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Extensive metabolism and route-dependent pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) in neonatal mice following oral or subcutaneous administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draganov, Dragomir I.; Markham, Dan A.; Beyer, Dieter; Waechter, John M.; Dimond, Stephen S.; Budinsky, Robert A.; Shiotsuka, Ronald N.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Ehman, Kimberly D.; Hentges, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Orally administered bisphenol A (BPA) undergoes efficient first-pass metabolism to produce the inactive conjugates BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G) and BPA-sulfate (BPA-S). This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of BPA, BPA-G and BPA-S in neonatal mice following the administration of a single oral or subcutaneous (SC) dose. This study consisted of 3 phases: (1) mass-balance phase in which effective dose delivery procedures for oral or SC administration of 3 H-BPA to postnatal day three (PND3) mice were developed; (2) pharmacokinetic phase during which systemic exposure to total 3 H-BPA-derived radioactivity in female PND3 mice was established; and (3) metabolite profiling phase in which 50 female PND3 pups received either a single oral or SC dose of 3 H-BPA. Blood was collected from 5 pups/route/time-point at various times post-dosing, the blood plasma samples were pooled by group, and time-point and samples were profiled by HPLC with fraction collection. Fractions were analyzed for total radioactivity and data used to reconstruct radiochromatograms and to integrate individual peaks. The identity of the BPA, BPA-G, and BPA-S peaks was confirmed using authentic standards and LC–MS/MS analysis. The result of this study revealed that female PND3 mice have the capacity to metabolize BPA to BPA-G, BPA-S and other metabolites after both routes of administration. Systemic exposure to free BPA is route-dependent as the plasma concentrations were lower following oral administration compared to SC injection

  6. Fatigue load considerations and use of high efficiency materials in the nuclear refurbishment projects: a structural engineering perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohee, F. M., E-mail: fmm_p@yahoo.com [Univ. of Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    For the Darlington refurbishment project in Canada, fatigue load consideration is a very crucial component in the analysis and design of different structures in the nuclear facilities. New and innovative structural materials having much higher ultimate tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, that are free from corrosion, should be considered along with fatigue load during the analysis and design of the nuclear refurbishment projects. The structural analysis should include beam, column and slabs, vibrating, rotating and crane supporting structures, robotic structures, pipe supports, Serapid chain and associated automated gate structures, flask supporting structures, processing unit and lidding unit support structures. (author)

  7. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Deem, Sharon L.; Bhandari, Ramji K.; Holliday, Casey M.; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Selcer, Kyle; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Fredrick S.; Velez, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26 °C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20 ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100 μg BPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated “males”, but in none of the control males (n = 35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low = 30%, BPA-medium = 33%, BPA-high = 39%), this difference was not significant (p = 0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations.

  8. Molecular analysis of the apoptotic effects of BPA in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Pozzo Giovanna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: BPA (bisphenol A or 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-phenolpropane is present in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, which can be used in impact-resistant safety equipment and baby bottles, as protective coatings inside metal food containers, and as composites and sealants in dentistry. Recently, attention has focused on the estrogen-like and carcinogenic adverse effects of BPA. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity of this compound. Methods: Cell cycle, apoptosis and differentiation analyses; western blots. Results: BPA is able to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in three different acute myeloid leukemias. Although some granulocytic differentiation concomitantly occurred in NB4 cells upon BPA treatment, the major action was the induction of apoptosis. BPA mediated apoptosis was caspase dependent and occurred by activation of extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways modulating both FAS and TRAIL and by inducing BAD phosphorylation in NB4 cells. Finally, also non genomic actions such as the early decrease of both ERK and AKT phosphorylation were induced by BPA thus indicating that a complex intersection of regulations occur for the apoptotic action of BPA. Conclusion: BPA is able to induce apoptosis in leukemia cells via caspase activation and involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis.

  9. Bisphenol A (BPA) in China: a review of sources, environmental levels, and potential human health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y Q; Wong, C K C; Zheng, J S; Bouwman, H; Barra, R; Wahlström, B; Neretin, L; Wong, M H

    2012-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), identified as an endocrine disruptor, is an industrially important chemical that is used as a raw material in the manufacture of many products such as engineering plastics (e.g., epoxy resins/polycarbonate plastics), food cans (i.e., lacquer coatings), and dental composites/sealants. The demand and production capacity of BPA in China have grown rapidly. This trend will lead to much more BPA contamination in the environmental media and in the general population in China. This paper reviews the current literature concerning the pollution status of BPA in China (the mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan) and its potential impact on human health. Due to potential human health risks from long-term exposure to BPA, body burden of the contaminant should be monitored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Estrogens in the wrong place at the wrong time: Fetal BPA exposure and mammary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Tessie; Speroni, Lucia; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2015-07-01

    Iatrogenic gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced alterations of the genital tract and predisposed individuals to develop clear cell carcinoma of the vagina as well as breast cancer later in life. Gestational exposure of rodents to a related compound, the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) increases the propensity to develop mammary cancer during adulthood, long after cessation of exposure. Exposure to BPA during gestation induces morphological alterations in both the stroma and the epithelium of the fetal mammary gland at 18 days of age. We postulate that the primary target of BPA is the fetal stroma, the only mammary tissue expressing estrogen receptors during fetal life. BPA would then alter the reciprocal stroma-epithelial interactions that mediate mammogenesis. In addition to this direct effect on the mammary gland, BPA is postulated to affect the hypothalamus and thus in turn affect the regulation of mammotropic hormones at puberty and beyond. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term BPA infusions. Evaluation in the rat brain tumor and rat spinal cord models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Joel, D.D.; Morris, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the BPA-based dose escalation clinical trial, the observations of tumor recurrence in areas of extremely high calculated tumor doses suggest that the BPA distribution is non-uniform. Longer (6-hour) i.v. infusions of BPA are evaluated in the rat brain tumor and spinal cord models to address the questions of whether long-term infusions are more effective against the tumor and whether long-term infusions are detrimental in the central nervous system. In the rat spinal cord, the 50% effective doses (ED 50 ) for myeloparesis were not significantly different after a single i.p. injection of BPA-fructose or a 6 hour i.v. infusion. In the rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor model, BNCT following 2-hr or 6-hr infusions of BPA-F produced similar levels of long term survival. (author)

  12. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures.

  13. Adaptive wing : Investigations of passive wing technologies for loads reduction in the cleansky smart fixed wing aircraft (SFWA) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, W.R.; Dillinger, J; De Breuker, R.; Reyes, M.; Haydn, K.

    2016-01-01

    In the work package “Adaptive Wing” in the Clean-Sky “Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft” (SFWA) project, design processes and solutions for aircraft wings have been created, giving optimal response with respect to loads, comfort and performance by the introduction of passive and active concepts. Central

  14. Evaluation of Load Analysis Methods for NASAs GIII Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Josue; Miller, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC), and FlexSys Inc. (Ann Arbor, Michigan) have collaborated to flight test the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flaps. These flaps were installed on a Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) GIII aircraft and tested at AFRC at various deflection angles over a range of flight conditions. External aerodynamic and inertial load analyses were conducted with the intention to ensure that the change in wing loads due to the deployed ACTE flap did not overload the existing baseline GIII wing box structure. The objective of this paper was to substantiate the analysis tools used for predicting wing loads at AFRC. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and distributed mass inertial models were developed for predicting the loads on the wing. The analysis tools included TRANAIR (full potential) and CMARC (panel) models. Aerodynamic pressure data from the analysis codes were validated against static pressure port data collected in-flight. Combined results from the CFD predictions and the inertial load analysis were used to predict the normal force, bending moment, and torque loads on the wing. Wing loads obtained from calibrated strain gages installed on the wing were used for substantiation of the load prediction tools. The load predictions exhibited good agreement compared to the flight load results obtained from calibrated strain gage measurements.

  15. 2012 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-06

    The White Book is a planning analysis produced by BPA that informs BPA of its load and resource conditions for sales and purchases. The White Book provides a 10-year look at the expected obligations and resources in the Federal system and PNW region. The White Book is used as a planning tool for the Columbia River Treaty (Treaty) studies, as an information tool for customers and regional interests, and as a publication of information utilized by other planning entities for their analyses. The White Book is not used to guide day-to-day operations of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) or determine BPA revenues or rates.

  16. Structural Analysis of the Bacterial Proteasome Activator Bpa in Complex with the 20S Proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, Marcel; Delley, Cyrille L; Leibundgut, Marc; Boehringer, Daniel; Ban, Nenad; Weber-Ban, Eilika

    2016-12-06

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis harbors proteasomes that recruit substrates for degradation through an ubiquitin-like modification pathway. Recently, a non-ATPase activator termed Bpa (bacterial proteasome activator) was shown to support an alternate proteasomal degradation pathway. Here, we present the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of Bpa in complex with the 20S core particle (CP). For docking into the cryo-EM density, we solved the X-ray structure of Bpa, showing that it forms tight four-helix bundles arranged into a 12-membered ring with a 40 Å wide central pore and the C-terminal helix of each protomer protruding from the ring. The Bpa model was fitted into the cryo-EM map of the Bpa-CP complex, revealing its architecture and striking symmetry mismatch. The Bpa-CP interface was resolved to 3.5 Å, showing the interactions between the C-terminal GQYL motif of Bpa and the proteasome α-rings. This docking mode is related to the one observed for eukaryotic activators with features specific to the bacterial complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Occupational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in a plastic injection molding factory in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouidhi, Wided; Thannimalay, Letchumi; Soon, Chen Sau; Ali Mohd, Mustafa

    2017-07-14

    The purpose of this study has been to assess ambient bisphenol A (BPA) levels in workplaces and urine levels of workers and to establish a BPA database for different populations in Malaysia. Urine samples were collected from plastic factory workers and from control subjects after their shift. Air samples were collected using gas analyzers from 5 sampling positions in the injection molding unit work area and from ambient air. The level of BPA in airborne and urine samples was quantified by the gas chromatography mass spectrometry - selected ion monitoring (GCMS-SIM) analysis. Bisphenol A was detected in the median range of 8-28.3 ng/m³ and 2.4-3.59 ng/m³ for the 5 sampling points in the plastic molding factory and in the ambient air respectively. The median urinary BPA concentration was significantly higher in the workers (3.81 ng/ml) than in control subjects (0.73 ng/ml). The urinary BPA concentration was significantly associated with airborne BPA levels (ρ = 0.55, p Malaysia are occupationally exposed to BPA. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):743-750. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  18. Stability of bisphenol A (BPA) in oil-in water emulsions under riboflavin photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Yeong; Park, Chan Uk; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2012-08-01

    Effects of riboflavin photosensitization on the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) were determined in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or sodium azide, which are a metal chelator or a singlet oxygen quencher, respectively. Also, the distribution of BPA between the continuous and dispersed phases in O/W emulsions was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentration of BPA in O/W emulsions significantly decreased by 38.6% after 2 h under visible light irradiation and in the presence of riboflavin (P riboflavin photosensitization (P riboflavin photodegradation in O/W emulsions. Concentration of BPA, an endocrine disrupting chemical, was decreased significantly in oil-in-water emulsions under riboflavin and visible light irradiation. BPA in continuous aqueous phase was major target of riboflavin photosensitization. However, BPA was distributed more densely in lipid phase and more protected from riboflavin photosensitized O/W emulsions. This study can help to decrease the level of BPA in foods made of O/W emulsions containing riboflavin, which could be displayed under visible light irradiation. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Klickitat Cogeneration Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Klickitat Energy Partners

    1994-09-01

    To meet BPA`s contractual obligation to supply electrical power to its customers, BPA proposes to acquire power generated by Klickitat Cogeneration Project. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment evaluating the proposed project. Based on the EA analysis, BPA`s proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the following reasons: (1)it will not have a significant impact land use, upland vegetation, wetlands, water quality, geology, soils, public health and safety, visual quality, historical and cultural resources, recreation and socioeconomics, and (2) impacts to fisheries, wildlife resources, air quality, and noise will be temporary, minor, or sufficiently offset by mitigation. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI (Finding of No Significant Impact).

  20. Klickitat Cogeneration Project: Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    To meet BPA's contractual obligation to supply electrical power to its customers, BPA proposes to acquire power generated by Klickitat Cogeneration Project. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment evaluating the proposed project. Based on the EA analysis, BPA's proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the following reasons: (1)it will not have a significant impact land use, upland vegetation, wetlands, water quality, geology, soils, public health and safety, visual quality, historical and cultural resources, recreation and socioeconomics, and (2) impacts to fisheries, wildlife resources, air quality, and noise will be temporary, minor, or sufficiently offset by mitigation. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI (Finding of No Significant Impact)

  1. Load alleviation potential of the Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flap (CRTEF) in the INDUFLAP project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Thanasis K.; Bergami, Leonardo; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    The load alleviation potential of the Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flap (CRTEF) is verified on a full Design Load Base (DLB) setup using the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and by investigating a flap configuration for the NREL 5MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) model. The performance of the CRTEF...

  2. Thermal load testing of erosion-monitoring beryllium marker tile for the ITER-Like Wall Project at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, T.; Linke, J.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Likonen, J.; Lungu, C.P.; Matthews, G.F.; Philipps, V.; Wessel, E.

    2008-01-01

    ITER-Like Wall Project has been launched at JET in order to perform a fully integrated test of plasma-facing materials. During the next major shutdown a full metal wall will be installed: tungsten in the divertor and beryllium in the main chamber. Beryllium erosion is one of key issues to be addressed. Special marker tiles have been designed for this purpose. Test coupons of such markers have been manufactured and examined. The performance test under high power deposition was carried in the electron beam facility JUDITH. The results of material characterization before and after high heat flux loads are presented. The samples survived, without macroscopic damage, power loads of up to 4.5 MW/m 2 for 10 s (surface temperature ∼650 deg. C) and 50 cyclic loads at 3.5 MW/m 2 lasting 10 s each (surface temperature ∼600 deg. C)

  3. MATHEMATICAL MODEL DESIGNATED FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL LOAD PRODUCED BY A BUILDING PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Lapidus Azariy Abramovich; Berezhnyy Aleksandr Yurevich

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, the author proposes a mathematical model designated for the assessment of the ecological impact produced on the environment within the territory of the construction site. Integrated index EI (Environmental Index) is introduced as a vehicle designated for the evaluation of the ecological load. EI represents the intensity of the ecological load, or a generalized and optimized parameter reflecting the intensity of the anthropogenic impact of the construction site onto the natural e...

  4. Enhancing Skin Permeation of Biphenylacetic Acid (BPA) Using Salt Formation with Organic and Alkali Metal Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Vijay; Naik, Prashant; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a series of organic and alkali metal salts of biphenylacetic acid (BPA) have been prepared and evaluated in vitro for percutaneous drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of BPA salts were determined using solubility measurements, DSC, and IR. The DSC thermogram and FTIR spectra confirmed the salt formation with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts with organic amines (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, and diethylamine) had lowered melting points while the alkali metal salt (sodium) had a higher melting point than BPA. The in vitro study showed that salt formation improves the physicochemical properties of BPA, leading to improved permeability through the skin. Amongst all the prepared salts, ethanolamine salt (1b) showed 7.2- and 5.4-fold higher skin permeation than the parent drug at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively, using rat skin.

  5. Exposure assessment to bisphenol A (BPA) in Portuguese children by human biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-Sá, Luísa; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Schütze, André; Pälmke, Claudia; Norberto, Sónia; Calhau, Conceição; Domingues, Valentina F; Koch, Holger M

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is known to be widespread and available data suggests that BPA can act as an endocrine disruptor. Diet is generally regarded as the dominant BPA exposure source, namely through leaching to food from packaging materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of 110 Portuguese children (4-18 years old), divided in two groups: the regular diet group (n = 43) comprised healthy normal weight/underweight children with no dietary control; the healthy diet group (n = 67) comprised children diagnosed for obesity/overweight (without other known associated diseases) that were set on a healthy diet for weight control. First morning urine samples were collected and total urinary BPA was analyzed after enzymatic hydrolysis via on-line HPLC-MS/MS with isotope dilution quantification. Virtually, all the children were exposed to BPA, with 91% of the samples above the LOQ (limit of quantification) of 0.1 μg/L. The median (95th percentile) urinary BPA levels for non-normalized and creatinine-corrected values were 1.89 μg/L (16.0) and 1.92 μg/g creatinine (14.4), respectively. BPA levels in the regular diet group were higher than in the healthy diet group, but differences were not significant. Calculated daily BPA intakes, however, were significantly higher in children of the regular diet group than in children of healthy diet group. Median (95th percentile) daily intakes amounted to 41.6 (467) ng/kg body weight/day in the regular diet group, and 23.2 (197) ng/kg body weight/day in the healthy diet group. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that children in the healthy diet group had 33% lower intakes than children in the regular diet group (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.51-0.89). For both groups, however, urinary BPA levels and daily BPA intakes were within the range reported for other children's populations and were well below health guidance values such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) temporary tolerable daily intake

  6. Enhancing Skin Permeation of Biphenylacetic Acid (BPA) Using Salt Formation with Organic and Alkali Metal Bases

    OpenAIRE

    PAWAR, Vijay; NAIK, Prashant; GIRIDHAR, Rajani; YADAV, Mange Ram

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a series of organic and alkali metal salts of biphenylacetic acid (BPA) have been prepared and evaluated in vitro for percutaneous drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of BPA salts were determined using solubility measurements, DSC, and IR. The DSC thermogram and FTIR spectra confirmed the salt formation with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts with organic amines (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanol-amine, and diethylamine) had lowered ...

  7. ELBE - Validation and improvement of load prognoses (project phase 1); ELBE - Validierung und Verbesserung von Lastprognosen (Projektphase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronig, P.; Waelchli, U.; Zuercher, S. [BKW FMB Energie AG, Bern (Switzerland); Hoeckel, M. [Berner Fachhochschule, Biel (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    In the project 'Prognosekompetenz' we have identified and quantified by means of a comprehensive analysis of grid and climate data the factors which have a significant impact on the grid load. The study focused in the beginning on the regional data from a big electricity utility. In a second step, additional local data were also considered to better identify climatic and economic characteristics. We found a strong correlation between load, on the one hand, and outdoor temperature and economic activity, on the other hand. The influence of further factors is very limited. On this basis we developed two Matlab-based, easy-to-use tools for the prediction of the daily grid load profile in quarter-of-hour steps. One tool uses the method of the transfer function, where specific correlation factors account for the influential factors. The second tool based on the method of the artificial neuronal network, which had been tuned with data from several years to make sure that a high accuracy is obtained. We could show by self developed testing procedures that for both tools the precision in forecasting the daily load profile is very high. (authors)

  8. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL & OPERATING LOADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TOLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs).

  9. Wind Energy Management System EMS Integration Project: Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-01-01

    unique features make this work a significant step forward toward the objective of incorporating of wind, solar, load, and other uncertainties into power system operations. Currently, uncertainties associated with wind and load forecasts, as well as uncertainties associated with random generator outages and unexpected disconnection of supply lines, are not taken into account in power grid operation. Thus, operators have little means to weigh the likelihood and magnitude of upcoming events of power imbalance. In this project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a framework has been developed for incorporating uncertainties associated with wind and load forecast errors, unpredicted ramps, and forced generation disconnections into the energy management system (EMS) as well as generation dispatch and commitment applications. A new approach to evaluate the uncertainty ranges for the required generation performance envelope including balancing capacity, ramping capability, and ramp duration has been proposed. The approach includes three stages: forecast and actual data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of future grid balancing requirements for specified time horizons and confidence levels. Assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on a histogram analysis, incorporating all sources of uncertainties of both continuous (wind and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and start-up failures) nature. A new method called the “flying brick” technique has been developed to evaluate the look-ahead required generation performance envelope for the worst case scenario within a user-specified confidence level. A self-validation algorithm has been developed to validate the accuracy of the confidence intervals.

  10. Large LOCA-earthquake combination probability assessment - Load combination program. Project 1 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, S; Streit, R D; Chou, C K

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Load Combination Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to establish a technical basis for the NRC to use in reassessing its requirement that earthquake and large loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) loads be combined in the design of nuclear power plants. A systematic probabilistic approach is used to treat the random nature of earthquake and transient loading to estimate the probability of large LOCAs that are directly and indirectly induced by earthquakes. A large LOCA is defined in this report as a double-ended guillotine break of the primary reactor coolant loop piping (the hot leg, cold leg, and crossover) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, a four-loop PWR-1, is used for this study. To estimate the probability of a large LOCA directly induced by earthquakes, only fatigue crack growth resulting from the combined effects of thermal, pressure, seismic, and other cyclic loads is considered. Fatigue crack growth is simulated with a deterministic fracture mechanics model that incorporates stochastic inputs of initial crack size distribution, material properties, stress histories, and leak detection probability. Results of the simulation indicate that the probability of a double-ended guillotine break, either with or without an earthquake, is very small (on the order of 10{sup -12}). The probability of a leak was found to be several orders of magnitude greater than that of a complete pipe rupture. A limited investigation involving engineering judgment of a double-ended guillotine break indirectly induced by an earthquake is also reported. (author)

  11. Large LOCA-earthquake combination probability assessment - Load combination program. Project 1 summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.; Streit, R.D.; Chou, C.K.

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Load Combination Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to establish a technical basis for the NRC to use in reassessing its requirement that earthquake and large loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) loads be combined in the design of nuclear power plants. A systematic probabilistic approach is used to treat the random nature of earthquake and transient loading to estimate the probability of large LOCAs that are directly and indirectly induced by earthquakes. A large LOCA is defined in this report as a double-ended guillotine break of the primary reactor coolant loop piping (the hot leg, cold leg, and crossover) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, a four-loop PWR-1, is used for this study. To estimate the probability of a large LOCA directly induced by earthquakes, only fatigue crack growth resulting from the combined effects of thermal, pressure, seismic, and other cyclic loads is considered. Fatigue crack growth is simulated with a deterministic fracture mechanics model that incorporates stochastic inputs of initial crack size distribution, material properties, stress histories, and leak detection probability. Results of the simulation indicate that the probability of a double-ended guillotine break, either with or without an earthquake, is very small (on the order of 10 -12 ). The probability of a leak was found to be several orders of magnitude greater than that of a complete pipe rupture. A limited investigation involving engineering judgment of a double-ended guillotine break indirectly induced by an earthquake is also reported. (author)

  12. Literature Review for Texas Department of Transportation Research Project 0-4695: Guidance for Design in Areas of Extreme Bed-Load Mobility, Edwards Plateau, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heitmuller, Franklin T; Asquith, William H; Fang, Xing; Thompson, David B; Wang, Keh-Han

    2005-01-01

    A review of the literature addressing sediment transport in gravel-bed river systems and structures designed to control bed-load mobility is provided as part of Texas Department of Transportation research project 0-4695...

  13. Wave Pressures and Loads on a Small Scale Model of the Svåheia SSG Pilot Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buccino, Mariano; Vicinanza, Diego; Ciardulli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports on 2D small scale experiments conducted to investigate wave loadings acting on a pilot project of device for the conversion of wave energy into electricity. The conversion concept is based on the overtopping principle and the structure is worldwide known with the acronym SSG....... The hydraulic model tests have been carried out at the LInC laboratory of the University of Naples Federico II using random waves. Results indicate wave overtopping is able to cause a sudden inversion of vertical force under wave crest, so that it is alternatively upward and downward directed over a short time...

  14. Effects of riboflavin photosensitization on the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) in model and real-food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dong-Oh; Jeong, Min Kyu; Park, Chan Uk; Park, Min Hee; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Lee, Jae Hwan

    2009-06-01

    Effects of riboflavin photosensitizations on the stability of bisphenol A (BPA), a well-known endocrine disrupting chemical, were studied in model and real-food systems by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration of BPA was significantly decreased under light exposure (P 0.05). Addition of 50, 100, and 200 microM sodium azide significantly increased the stability of BPA in riboflavin photosensitization with concentration dependent manner (P canned tea beverages with different phenolic contents. BPA was more stable in the beverage sample with higher total phenolic contents and free radical scavenging ability. The photodegradation of BPA in riboflavin photosensitization can be an efficient way to decrease the concentration of BPA from environmental or food systems.

  15. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B.; Ye, W.; Padmanabhan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics

  16. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ye, W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, V., E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  17. Problems of increased transport load as a result of implementation of projects of high-rise constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provotorov, Ivan; Gasilov, Valentin; Anisimova, Nadezhda

    2018-03-01

    The structure of problems of high-rise construction us suggested, which includes the impact on environment, design solutions, transportation problems, financial costs for construction and operation, and others. Positive and negative aspects of high-rise construction are considered. One of the basic problems of high-rise construction is the problem of increased transport load. Construction of the subway on the basis of the concession mechanism, with the use of unmanned control of rolling stock is proposed as the most expedient solution. An evaluation of the effectiveness of this project is presented, it shows quite high performance indicators for a private investor. Main problems that the project implementation may face in conditions of lack of scientific and methodological support are outlined.

  18. Marion Industrial Substation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Consumers Power, Inc. (CPI), proposes to construct a new distribution substation under the existing Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Albay-Lebanon transmission line near the city of Albany in Linn County, Oregon. BPA is proposing to grant a new Point of Delivery to CPI at this substation. The purpose of the project is to serve the developing industrial needs in the Marion Industrial Park and on the 550 acres of nearby land within CPI's service area that are zoned for residential use. CPI prepared, and the Rural Electrification Administration (REA) has approved a Borrower's Environmental Report (BER) which addresses this action along with several other proposed projects in the CPI service area. Portions of this BER are summarized in this brief EA. BPA is preparing its own EA since Department of Energy National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) guidelines require additional environmental concerns to be addressed than are required by REA's NEPA guidelines

  19. Perinatal BPA Exposure Induces Hyperglycemia, Oxidative Stress and Decreased Adiponectin Production in Later Life of Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunzhe Song

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main object of the present study was to explore the effect of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA exposure on glucose metabolism in early and later life of male rat offspring, and to establish the potential mechanism of BPA-induced dysglycemia. Pregnant rats were treated with either vehicle or BPA by drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/mL BPA from gestation day 6 through the end of lactation. We measured the levels of fasting serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin and parameters of oxidative stress on postnatal day (PND 50 and PND100 in male offspring, and adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue were also examined. Our results showed that perinatal exposure to 1 or 10 µg/mL BPA induced hyperglycemia with insulin resistance on PND100, but only 10 µg/mL BPA exposure had similar effects as early as PND50. In addition, increased oxidative stress and decreased adiponectin production were also observed in BPA exposed male offspring. Our findings indicated that perinatal exposure to BPA resulted in abnormal glucose metabolism in later life of male offspring, with an earlier and more exacerbated effect at higher doses. Down-regulated expression of adiponectin gene and increased oxidative stress induced by BPA may be associated with insulin resistance.

  20. Collaborative Learning Using a Project across Multiple Business Courses: A Cognitive Load and Knowledge Convergence Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sandeep; Chandra, Aruna; Harper, Jeffrey S.; Sweetin, Vernon

    2015-01-01

    Four business professors at a state university in the Midwestern United States launched a collaborative learning project grounded in cognitive learning theory and knowledge convergence theory with the objective of assessing student learning gains in cross-functional knowledge (CFK), course-related knowledge (CRK), and overall satisfaction with…

  1. Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of BPA in rats at different life stages using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoxia, E-mail: Xiaoxia.Yang@fda.hhs.gov; Doerge, Daniel R.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2013-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has received considerable attention throughout the last decade due to its widespread use in consumer products. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in neonatal and adult rats to quantitatively evaluate age-dependent pharmacokinetics of BPA and its phase II metabolites. The PBPK model was calibrated in adult rats using studies on BPA metabolism and excretion in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, and pharmacokinetic data with BPA in adult rats. For immature rats the hepatic and gastrointestinal metabolism of BPA was inferred from studies on the maturation of phase II enzymes coupled with serum time course data in pups. The calibrated model predicted the measured serum concentrations of BPA and BPA conjugates after administration of 100 μg/kg of d6-BPA in adult rats (oral gavage and intravenous administration) and postnatal days 3, 10, and 21 pups (oral gavage). The observed age-dependent BPA serum concentrations were partially attributed to the immature metabolic capacity of pups. A comparison of the dosimetry of BPA across immature rats and monkeys suggests that dose adjustments would be necessary to extrapolate toxicity studies from neonatal rats to infant humans. - Highlights: • A PBPK model predicts the kinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) in young and adult rats. • BPA metabolism within enterocytes is required for fitting of oral BPA kinetic data. • BPA dosimetry in young rats is different than adult rats and young monkeys.

  2. Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of BPA in rats at different life stages using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Doerge, Daniel R.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has received considerable attention throughout the last decade due to its widespread use in consumer products. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in neonatal and adult rats to quantitatively evaluate age-dependent pharmacokinetics of BPA and its phase II metabolites. The PBPK model was calibrated in adult rats using studies on BPA metabolism and excretion in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, and pharmacokinetic data with BPA in adult rats. For immature rats the hepatic and gastrointestinal metabolism of BPA was inferred from studies on the maturation of phase II enzymes coupled with serum time course data in pups. The calibrated model predicted the measured serum concentrations of BPA and BPA conjugates after administration of 100 μg/kg of d6-BPA in adult rats (oral gavage and intravenous administration) and postnatal days 3, 10, and 21 pups (oral gavage). The observed age-dependent BPA serum concentrations were partially attributed to the immature metabolic capacity of pups. A comparison of the dosimetry of BPA across immature rats and monkeys suggests that dose adjustments would be necessary to extrapolate toxicity studies from neonatal rats to infant humans. - Highlights: • A PBPK model predicts the kinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) in young and adult rats. • BPA metabolism within enterocytes is required for fitting of oral BPA kinetic data. • BPA dosimetry in young rats is different than adult rats and young monkeys

  3. BPA's Eighth Annual Energy Conservation Management Conference : Proceedings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Conservation Management Conference (8th : 1981); United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1981-01-01

    The five-year energy conservation program at Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is described at the conference. An overview of the program is presented. Topics covered in panel discussions include: how utilities can work effectively with weatherization contractors, homebuilders, energy auditors, and weatherization material suppliers; mechanisms for implementing conservation programs in the commercial sector; experiences gained in existing residential weatherization programs; and streamlining relationships between consumers, utilities, and BPA in providing services and getting feedback. The planning, programming, technical assistance, and engineering thrusts of BPA's conservation programs are discussed. Indoor air quality, renewable energy, and the regulator's role in relationships to energy conservation are discussed. Passive solar programs, DOE initiatives in solar and conservation for buildings, conservation potential in the commercial and industrial sectors, and current conservation research and development are also discussed. (MCW)

  4. Facilitating value creation and delivery in construction projects via front-end loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Mikael Hygum; Emmitt, Stephen; Bonke, Sten

    2008-01-01

    -struction phase of the building projects. However it is in the early design phase that client value is established and the scene is set for everything that follows. Productivity in the construction phase is strongly dependent on performance of the design team and real client value will not be achieved...... if the building design does not meet client expectations (understanding the client as a wide range of stakeholders). Therefore a holistic view of the building process should be applied with a greater focus on the design phase and value creation. In Denmark a consulting engineering company has together...... with a major contractor developed a value based work-shop model that seeks to capture client values and manage the subsequent stages of the building process within a Lean framework striving to maximize value and reduce waste. This paper reports the initial findings of a joint research project between academic...

  5. Urinary BPA measurements in children and mothers from six European member states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Covaci, Adrian; Hond, Elly Den; Geens, Tinne

    2015-01-01

    -mother pairs were recruited through schools or population registers from six European member states (Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden). Children (5-12y) and mothers donated a urine sample. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, life style, dietary habits, and educational...... determinants. Consumption of canned food and social class (represented by the highest educational level of the family) were the most important predictors for the urinary levels of BPA in mothers and children. The individual BPA levels in children were significantly correlated with the levels in their mothers...

  6. {sup 11}B-NMR spectroscopic study on the interaction of epinephrine and p-BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihara, K.; Yoshino, K. [Shinshu Univ., Department of Chemistry, Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    It is studied that p-BPA (p-bronophenylalanine) which formed complex with catechol functional group has interaction with epinephrine by {sup 11}B-NMR. Two {sup 11}B-NMR resonance signals were observed at pH 7.0. The signal at 29.6 ppm is assigned to p-BPA and at 10.8 ppm is assigned to that of complex. We can determine complex formation constants (logK') in various pH. (author)

  7. 1991 Pacific Northwest loads and resources study, Pacific Northwest economic and electricity use forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan)

  8. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan).

  9. Biodistribution of BPA and BSH after single, repeated and simultaneous administrations for neutron-capture therapy of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, H. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)], E-mail: ichikawa@pharm.kobegakuin.ac.jp; Taniguchi, E. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Fujimoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fukumori, Y. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The effect of administration mode of L-BPA and BSH on the biodistribution in the melanoma-bearing hamsters was investigated. In single intravenous (i.v.) administration, BSH (100 mg BSH/kg) showed no significant retention of {sup 10}B in all the tissues, including tumors, while long-term retention of {sup 10}B in the tumor, muscle and brain was observed with L-BPA (500 mg BPA/kg). The dose escalation of L-BPA and the simultaneous single administration of L-BPA and BSH were not so effective at increasing boron accumulation in tumor after bolus i.v. injection. The boron concentration in tumor was 41 {mu}g B/g after single bolus i.v. injection even at the dose of 1000 mg BPA/kg. In contrast, two sequential bolus i.v. injections of L-BPA with the dose of 500 mg BPA/kg each was found to be effective at increasing {sup 10}B accumulation in the tumor; the maximum {sup 10}B concentration in the tumor reached 52 {mu}g B/g at 3 h after the second i.v. injection.

  10. Dynamics of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) in the European paper cycle: Need for concern?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Laner, David; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2018-01-01

    in toxicological profiles have raised concerns that the use of bisphenol S (BPS) as a substitute for BPA may result in yet another situation of a problematic chemical being distributed in consumer products. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the current knowledge of BPA and BPS use in thermal paper...

  11. Biodistribution of p-borophenylalanine (BPA) in dogs with spontaneous undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, M.A.; Viaggi, M.; Rebagliati, R. Jimenez; Castillo, V.A.; Batistoni, D.; Cabrini, R.L.; Castiglia, S.; Juvenal, G.J.; Pisarev, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Human undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor which lacks an adequate treatment. The UTC human cell line ARO has a selective uptake of BPA in vitro and after transplanting into nude mice. Applications of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to mice showed a 100% control of growth and a 50% histological cure of tumors with an initial volume of 50 mm 3 or less. As a further step towards the potential application in humans we have performed the present studies. Four dogs with diagnosis of spontaneous UTC were studied. A BPA-fructose solution was infused during 60 min and dogs were submitted to thyroidectomy. Samples of blood and from different areas of the tumors (and in one dog from normal thyroid) were obtained and the boron was determined by ICP-OES. Selective BPA uptake by the tumor was found in all animals, the tumor/blood ratios ranged between 2.02 and 3.76, while the tumor/normal thyroid ratio was 6.78. Individual samples had tumor/blood ratios between 8.36 and 0.33. These ratios were related to the two histological patterns observed: homogeneous and heterogeneous tumors. We confirm the selective uptake of BPA by spontaneous UTC in dogs and plan to apply BNCT in the future

  12. Exposure to BPA in Children—Media-Based and Biomonitoring-Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L.Y. Christensen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is used in numerous industrial and consumer product applications resulting in ubiquitous exposure. Children’s exposure is of particular concern because of evidence of developmental effects. Childhood exposure is estimated for different age groups in two ways. The “forward” approach uses information on BPA concentrations in food and other environmental media (air, water, etc. combined with average contact rates for each medium. The “backward” approach relies on urinary biomonitoring, extrapolating backward to the intake which would have led to the observed biomarker level. The forward analysis shows that BPA intakes are dominated by canned food consumption, and that intakes are higher for younger ages. Mean intake estimates ranged from ~125 ng/kg-day for 1 year-olds to ~73 ng/kg-day among 16–20 years olds. Biomonitoring-based intakes show the same trend of lower intakes for older children, with an estimate of 121 (median to 153 (mean ng/kg-day for 2–6 years, compared with 33 (median to 53–66 (mean ng/kg-day for 16–20 years. Infant intakes were estimated to range from ~46 to 137 ng/kg-day. Recognizing uncertainties and limitations, this analysis suggests that the “forward” and “backward” methods provide comparable results and identify canned foods as a potentially important source of BPA exposure for children.

  13. Biodistribution of p-borophenylalanine (BPA) in dogs with spontaneous undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagrosa, M.A. E-mail: aledagrosa@fibertel.com.ar; Viaggi, M.; Rebagliati, R. Jimenez; Castillo, V.A.; Batistoni, D.; Cabrini, R.L.; Castiglia, S.; Juvenal, G.J.; Pisarev, M.A

    2004-11-01

    Human undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor which lacks an adequate treatment. The UTC human cell line ARO has a selective uptake of BPA in vitro and after transplanting into nude mice. Applications of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to mice showed a 100% control of growth and a 50% histological cure of tumors with an initial volume of 50 mm{sup 3} or less. As a further step towards the potential application in humans we have performed the present studies. Four dogs with diagnosis of spontaneous UTC were studied. A BPA-fructose solution was infused during 60 min and dogs were submitted to thyroidectomy. Samples of blood and from different areas of the tumors (and in one dog from normal thyroid) were obtained and the boron was determined by ICP-OES. Selective BPA uptake by the tumor was found in all animals, the tumor/blood ratios ranged between 2.02 and 3.76, while the tumor/normal thyroid ratio was 6.78. Individual samples had tumor/blood ratios between 8.36 and 0.33. These ratios were related to the two histological patterns observed: homogeneous and heterogeneous tumors. We confirm the selective uptake of BPA by spontaneous UTC in dogs and plan to apply BNCT in the future.

  14. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  15. Low-dose BPA exposure alters the mesenchymal and epithelial transcriptomes of the mouse fetal mammary gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perinaaz R Wadia

    Full Text Available Exposure of rodent fetuses to low doses of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA causes subtle morphological changes in the prenatal mammary gland and results in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions during adulthood. To examine whether the BPA-induced morphological alterations of the fetal mouse mammary glands are a associated with changes in mRNA expression reflecting estrogenic actions and/or b dependent on the estrogen receptor α (ERα, we compared the transcriptomal effects of BPA and the steroidal estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2 on fetal mammary tissues of wild type and ERα knock-out mice. Mammary glands from fetuses of dams exposed to vehicle, 250 ng BPA/kg BW/d or 10 ng EE2/kg BW/d from embryonic day (E 8 were harvested at E19. Transcriptomal analyses on the ductal epithelium and periductal stroma revealed altered expression of genes involved in the focal adhesion and adipogenesis pathways in the BPA-exposed stroma while genes regulating the apoptosis pathway changed their expression in the BPA-exposed epithelium. These changes in gene expression correlated with previously reported histological changes in matrix organization, adipogenesis, and lumen formation resulting in enhanced maturation of the fat-pad and delayed lumen formation in the epithelium of BPA-exposed fetal mammary glands. Overall similarities in the transcriptomal effects of BPA and EE2 were more pronounced in the epithelium, than in the stroma. In addition, the effects of BPA and EE2 on the expression of various genes involved in mammary stromal-epithelial interactions were suppressed in the absence of ERα. These observations support a model whereby BPA and EE2 act directly on the stroma, which expresses ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in fetal mammary glands, and that the stroma, in turn, affects gene expression in the epithelium, where ERα and ERβ are below the level of detection at this stage of development.

  16. First clinical results on the finnish study on BPA-mediated BNCT in glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanranta, L.; Seppaelae, T.; Kallio, M.

    2000-01-01

    An open phase I dose-escalation boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) study on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was initiated at the BNCT facility FiR 1, Espoo, Finland, in May 1999. The aim of the study is to investigate the safety of boronophenylalanine (BPA)-mediated BNCT. Ten GBM patients were treated with a 2-field treatment plan using one fraction. BPA-F was used as the 10 B carrier infused as a fructose solution 290 mg BPA/kg over 2-hours prior to irradiation with epithermal neutrons. Average doses to the normal brain, contrast enhancing tumour, and the target ranged from 3.0 to 5.6 Gy (W), from 35.1 to 66.7 Gy (W), and from 29.6 to 53.6 Gy (W), respectively. BNCT was associated with acceptable toxicity. The median follow-up is 9 months (range, 3 to 16 months) post diagnosis in July 2000. Seven of the 10 patients have recurrent or persistent GBM, and the median time to progression is 8 months. Only one patient has died, and the estimated 1-year overall survival is 86%. Five of the recurrent tumours were treated with external beam photon radiation therapy to the total dose of 30-40 Gy with few acute side-effects. These preliminary findings suggest that acute toxicity of BPA-mediated BNCT is acceptable when average brain doses of 5.6 Gy (W) or less are used. The followup time is too short to evaluate survival, but the estimated 1-year survival of 86% achieved with BNCT followed by conventional photon irradiation at the time of tumour progression is encouraging and emphasises the need of further investigation of BPA-mediated BNCT. (author)

  17. Dramatic decreases in runoff and sediment load in the Huangfuchuan Basin of the Middle Yellow River, China: historical records and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, E.; Li, D.; Wang, Y.; Fu, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Yellow River is well known for its high sediment load and serious water shortage. The long-term averaged sediment load is about 1.6´103 million tons per year, resulting in aggrading and perched lower reaches. In recent years, however, dramatic decreases in runoff and sediment load have been observed. The annual sediment load has been less than 150 million tons in the last ten years. Extrapolation of this trend into the future would motivate substantial change in the management strategies of the Lower Yellow River. To understand the possible trend and its coevolving drivers, we performed a case study of the Huangfuchuang River, which is a tributary to the Middle Yellow River, with a drainage area of 3246 km2 and an annual precipitation of 365 mm. Statistical analysis of historical data from 1960s to 2015 showed a significantly decreasing trend in runoff and sediment load since 1984. As potential drivers, the precipitation does not show an obvious change in annual amount, while the vegetation cover and the number of check dams have been increased gradually as a result of the national Grain for Green project. A simulation with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) reproduced the historical evolution processes, and showed that human activities dominated the reduction in runoff and sediment load, with a contribution of around 80%. We then projected the runoff and sediment load for the next 50 years (2016-2066), considering typical scenarios of climate change and accounting for vegetation cover development subject to climate conditions and storage capacity loss of check dams due to sediment deposition. The differences between the projected trend and the historical record were analyzed, so as to highlight the coevolving processes of climate, vegetation, and check dam retention on a time scale of decades. Keywords: Huangfuchuan River Basin, sediment load, vegetation cover, check dams, annual precipitation, SWAT.

  18. Application of the boron neutron capture therapy to undifferentiated thyroid cancer using two boron compounds (BPA and BOPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viaggi, Mabel; Dagrosa, Maria A.; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.; Longhino, Juan M.; Blaumann, Hernan R.; Calzetta Larrieu, Osvaldo A.; Kahl, Stephen B.

    2004-01-01

    We have shown the selective uptake of boronophenylalanine (BPA) by undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC) human cell line ARO, both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, a 50% histologic cure of mice bearing the tumor was observed when the complete boron neutron capture therapy was applied. More recently we have analyzed the biodistribution of BOPP (tetrakis-carborane carboxylate ester of 2,4-bis-(ba-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX) and showed that when BOPP was injected 5 days before BPA, and the animals were sacrificed 60 min after the ip injection of BPA, a significant increase in boron uptake by the tumor was found (38-45ppm with both compounds Vs. 20 ppm with BPA alone). Five days post the ip BOPP injection and 1 hr after BPA, the ratios were: tumor/blood 3,75; tumor /distal skin 2. Other important ratios were tumor/thyroid 6,65 and tumor/lung 3,8. The present studies were performed in mice transplanted with ARO cells and injected with BOPP and BPA. Only in mice treated with the neutron beam and injected with the boronated compounds we observed a 100% control of tumor growth. Two groups of mice received different total absorbed doses: 3.00 and 6.01 Gy, but no further improvement in the outcome was found compared to the previous results using BPA alone (4.3 Gy). (author)

  19. Preliminary estimation of infantile exposure to BPA based on the standard quality of baby bottles distributed in Isfahan urban society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Abdi Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was aimed to estimate the bisphenol A (BPA intake from baby bottles, considering the diversity and the standard quality of the baby bottles distributed in an Isfahan urban society. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in Isfahan in 2011. Baby shops ( n = 33 and drug stores ( n = 7 in four district areas were included in the study. The distribution of baby bottles was investigated regarding their brand, origin, and being labeled "BPA free." Estimation of exposure to BPA from baby bottles was made based on the national and international representative data. Results: The products marked as "BPA free" were found among the western products and limited to two of the selected areas. No "BPA free" marked baby bottle was distinguished among the Iranian made products. Of the 8% exclusively formula-fed infants, 90% may be the high consumers of BPA from polycarbonate baby bottles, with an intake of 1.5-2 μg/kg b.w./day for the moderate and 7.5-10 μg/kg b.w./day in case of worse condition. Conclusion: Considering the current globally accepted threshold daily intake (TDI for BPA, primary exposure estimation is that feeding using non-BPA-free baby bottles is not a serious health concern in Iran. Thought that threshold level of TDI is discussed to be reduced in future, improvement and revision of the national standards can be effective in reducing the exposure to BPA in Iranian infants so as to provide large margin of safety for them.

  20. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Beckett, EM; Abi Salloum, B; Ye, W; Padmanabhan, V

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess hormonal preovulatory changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. PMID:24923655

  1. The status of Tsukuba BNCT trial: BPA-based boron neutron capture therapy combined with X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T., E-mail: tetsu_tsukuba@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakai, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Nariai, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kumada, H.; Okumura, T.; Mizumoto, M.; Tsuboi, K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Zaboronok, A.; Ishikawa, E.; Aiyama, H.; Endo, K.; Takada, T.; Yoshida, F.; Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The phase II trial has been prepared to assess the effectiveness of BPA (250 mg/kg)-based NCT combined with X-ray irradiation and temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2}) for the treatment of newly diagnosed GBM. BPA uptake is determined by {sup 18}F-BPA-PET and/or {sup 11}C-MET-PET, and a tumor with the lesion to normal ratio of 2 or more is indicated for BNCT. The maximum normal brain point dose prescribed was limited to 13.0 Gy or less. Primary end point is overall survival.

  2. Evaluation of Bernese periacetabular osteotomy: prospective studies examining projected load-bearing area, bone density, cartilage thickness and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechlenburg, Inger

    2008-06-01

    The typical dysplastic hip joint is characterised by maldirection of the acetabulum and femoral neck, insufficient coverage of the femoral head focally and globally and erosions of the limbus acetabuli (1). An unknown number of persons with hip dysplasia will suffer from pain in hip or groin, decreased hip function and development of osteoarthritis at a young age. The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy is performed to prevent osteoarthritis in patients with hip dysplasia and has been carried out at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark since 1996 with more than 500 osteotomies performed. Throughout the years, research and quality improvement of the treatment has taken place and this PhD thesis is part of that process. The aims of this PhD thesis were to evaluate outcome aspects after periacetabular osteotomy in terms of I) estimating the projected loadbearing surface before and after periacetabular osteotomy, II) estimating bone density changes in the acetabulum after periacetabular osteotomy, III) developing a technique to precisely and efficiently estimate the thickness of the articular cartilage in the hip joint and IV) examining the stability of the re-orientated acetabulum after periacetabular osteotomy. In study I, we applied a stereologic method based on 3D computed tomography (CT) to estimate the projected loadbearing surface in six normal hip joints and in six dysplastic hips. The dysplastic hips were CT scanned before and after periacetabular osteotomy. We found that the average area of the projected loadbearing surface of the femoral head preoperatively was 7.4 (range 6.5-8.4) cm2 and postoperatively 11 (9.8-14.3) cm2. The area of the projected loadbearing surface was increased significantly with a mean of 49% (34-70%) postoperatively and thus comparable with the load-bearing surface in the normal control group. Double measurements were performed and the error variance of the mean was estimated to be 1.6%. The effect of overprojection, on the projected

  3. Biotransformation of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in isolated bovine pulmonary artery (BPA) and bovine pulmonary vein (BPV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A proposed mechanism of GTN-induced vasodilation requires biotransformation of GTN to glyceryl dinitrate (GDN). They have previously shown that GTN is metabolized to GDN during relaxation of isolated rabbit aorta. The authors have extended this study to include BPA and BPV and to determine if their sensitivity to GTN correlates with their ability to metabolize GTN. Strips of BPA and BPV were contracted submaximally with KCl and then incubated with 0.5 μM 14 C-GTN for 2 min. GTN-induced relaxation of these vessels was monitored and tissue GTN and metabolite concentrations were measured. Data are presented which support the above hypothesis that GTN biotransformation and relaxation occur together in vascular smooth muscle; however, there appear to be factors other than extent of GTN biotransformation that account for the difference in sensitivity to GTN of the artery and vein

  4. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL AND OPERATING LOADS WITH SEISMIC ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; DEIBLER JE; RINKER MW; JOHNSON KI; ABATT FG; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; STOOPS KL

    2009-01-15

    This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TaLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs). The bases of the analytical work presented herein are two ANSYS{reg_sign} finite element models that were developed to represent a bounding-case tank. The TaLA model includes the effects of temperature on material properties, creep, concrete cracking, and various waste and annulus pressure-loading conditions. The seismic model considers the interaction of the tanks with the surrounding soil including a range of soil properties, and the effects of the waste contents during a seismic event. The structural evaluations completed with the representative tank models do not reveal any structural deficiencies with the integrity of the DSTs. The analyses represent 60 years of use, which extends well beyond the current date. In addition, the temperature loads imposed on the model are significantly more severe than any service to date or proposed for the future. Bounding material properties were also selected to provide the most severe combinations. While the focus of the analyses was a bounding-case tank, it was necessary during various evaluations to conduct tank-specific analyses. The primary tank buckling evaluation was carried out on a tank-specific basis because of the sensitivity to waste height, specific gravity, tank wall thickness, and primary tank vapor space vacuum limit. For this analysis, the occurrence of maximum tank vacuum was classified as a service level C, emergency load condition. The only area of potential concern in the analysis was with the buckling evaluation of the AP tank, which showed the current limit on demand of l2-inch water gauge vacuum to exceed the allowable of 10.4 inches. This determination was based on analysis at the

  5. Might iodomethyl-α-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with 10 B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that 10 B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing 18 F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron 18 F (T 1/2 = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of 123 I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT

  6. Might iodomethyl-{alpha}-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with {sup 10}B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that {sup 10}B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing {sup 18}F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron {sup 18}F (T{sub 1/2} = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of {sup 123}I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT.

  7. [Substance monograph on bisphenol A (BPA) - reference and human biomonitoring (HBM) values for BPA in urine. Opinion of the Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is used for the production of polycarbonates and synthetic resins. Many of the items that contain BPA, for example polycarbonate bottles and coated cans, are commodities from which BPA can migrate into food and drinks, resulting in ubiquitous exposure of the population. Numerous animal studies and in vitro tests have shown that BPA acts as an "endocrine disruptor". Because of the still incomplete understanding of the complex and contradictory effects of BPA at doses below the NOAEL, the toxicological significance of recent findings is uncertain. The German HBM Commission takes notice that the risk assessment is currently in flux and that in the EU and other countries precautionary bans on BPA have been introduced. In the light of the extensive and growing body of literature, the Commission does not see itself in a position to resolve this controversy, nor to answer the question of the relevance of observed effects of low BPA doses on human health. The Commission has derived reference values (RV95) and TDI-based HBM I values for total BPA in urine. The RV95 values are 30 μg/l for 3-5 year olds, 15 μg/l for 6-14 year olds, and 7 μg/l for 20-29 year olds. The HBM I value for children is 1.5 mg/l and 2.5 mg/l for adults, respectively. The Commission emphasizes that the HBM values will require immediate adjustment should the current TDI of 0.05 mg/kg bw/day be changed. For the practical application of HBM, the Commission recommends an assessment based on the RV95. Confirmed exceedance of the RV95 by repeat measurements should prompt a search for the possible source(s), following the ALARA principle.

  8. Estrogenic effects of several BPA analogs in the developing zebrafish brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel eCano-Nicolau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Important set of studies have demonstrated the endocrine disrupting activity of Bisphenol A (BPA. The present work aimed at defining estrogenic-like activity of several BPA structural analogs, including BPS, BPF, BPAF, and BPAP, on 4-day or 7-day post-fertilization (dpf zebrafish larva as an in vivo model. We measured the induction level of the estrogen-sensitive marker cyp19a1b gene (Aromatase B, expressed in the brain, using three different in situ/in vivo strategies: 1 Quantification of cyp19a1b transcripts using RT-qPCR in wild type 7-dpf larva brains exposed to bisphenols ; 2 Detection and distribution of cyp19a1b transcripts using in situ hybridization on 7-dpf brain sections (hypothalamus; and 3 Quantification of the cyp19a1b promoter activity in live cyp19a1b-GFP transgenic zebrafish (EASZY assay at 4-dpf larval stage. These three different experimental approaches demonstrated that BPS, BPF or BPAF exposure, similarly to BPA, significantly activates the expression of the estrogenic marker in the brain of developing zebrafish. In vitro experiments using both reporter gene assay in a glial cell context and competitive ligand binding assays strongly suggested that up-regulation of cyp19a1b is largely mediated by the zebrafish estrogen nuclear receptor alpha (zfERα. Importantly, and in contrast to other tested bisphenol A analogs, the bisphenol AP (BPAP did not show estrogenic activity in our model.

  9. Clinical results of BNCT for malignant gliomas using BSH and BPA simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Kawabata, Shinji; Kajimoto, Yoshinaga

    2006-01-01

    Since 2002 to 2006, we applied BNCT for 41 cases of malignant gliomas. We used 3 different protocols. In each protocol, we used BSH and BPA simultaneously. In protocol 1, BSH 5g/body and BPA 250 mg/kg were used for consecutive 13 cases. Median survival time (MST) of newly diagnosed 4 cases of GB was 23 months after diagnosis. 2 cases were still alive. All cases including recurrent ones showed radiographic improvement. Eight out of 12 cases showed more than 50% mass reduction on images. Major cause of death was CSF dissemination. In protocol 2, BNCT were applied for 4 patients, two times with one to 2 week-interval. MST after BNCT was 13.3 months. In protocol 3, BPA 700 mg/kg were used with 20 to 30 Gy XRT after BNCT. XRT boost was applied especially for deeper part of the tumor. In protocol 3, 6 newly diagnosed GB patients were observed more than 16 months. 3 were dead and 3 were still alive on the preparation of this abstract. MST of these 6 patients was 17.3 months after diagnosis. In each protocol, radiation necrosis was the problem for recurrent cases, while removal of the necrosis prolonged the survival and recovered the neurological deficits. (author)

  10. Radiobiology of BNCT mediated by GB-10 and GB-10+BPA in experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Nigg, David; Calzetta, Osvaldo; Blaumann, Herman; Longhino, Juan; Schwint, Amanda E. E-mail: schwint@cnea.gov.ar

    2004-11-01

    We previously reported biodistribution and pharmacokinetic data for GB-10 (Na{sub 2}{sup 10}B{sub 10}H{sub 10}) and the combined administration of GB-10 and boronophenylalanine (BPA) as boron delivery agents for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The aim of the present study was to assess, for the first time, the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue and normal tissue to BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BPA administered jointly using the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. GB-10 exerted 75.5% tumor control (partial+complete remission) with no damage to precancerous tissue around tumor or to normal tissue. Thus, GB-10 proved to be a therapeutically efficient boron agent in this model despite the fact that it is not taken up selectively by oral tumor tissue. GB-10 exerted a selective effect on tumor blood vessels leading to significant tumor control with a sparing effect on normal tissue. BNCT mediated by the combined administration of GB-10 and BPA resulted in a reduction in the dose to normal tissue and would thus allow for significant escalation of dose to tumor without exceeding normal tissue tolerance.

  11. Radiobiology of BNCT mediated by GB-10 and GB-10+BPA in experimental oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Nigg, David; Calzetta, Osvaldo; Blaumann, Herman; Longhino, Juan; Schwint, Amanda E.

    2004-01-01

    We previously reported biodistribution and pharmacokinetic data for GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ) and the combined administration of GB-10 and boronophenylalanine (BPA) as boron delivery agents for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The aim of the present study was to assess, for the first time, the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue and normal tissue to BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BPA administered jointly using the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. GB-10 exerted 75.5% tumor control (partial+complete remission) with no damage to precancerous tissue around tumor or to normal tissue. Thus, GB-10 proved to be a therapeutically efficient boron agent in this model despite the fact that it is not taken up selectively by oral tumor tissue. GB-10 exerted a selective effect on tumor blood vessels leading to significant tumor control with a sparing effect on normal tissue. BNCT mediated by the combined administration of GB-10 and BPA resulted in a reduction in the dose to normal tissue and would thus allow for significant escalation of dose to tumor without exceeding normal tissue tolerance

  12. BPA/Lower Valley transmission project. Final environmental impact statement. Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration is investigating the feasibility of constructing an additional transmission line, which for the most part will be adjacent to the existing transmission line. This would require the construction or acquisition of additional access roads, used for routine and emergency maintenance and construction activities. A survey was conducted to map any occurrences of threatened, endangered and sensitivity plant species and weed species along the Swan Valley-Teton Line. This report contains Appendix C

  13. BPA/Lower Valley transmission project. Final environmental impact statement. Appendix F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration is investigating the feasibility of constructing an additional transmission line, which for the most part will be adjacent to the existing transmission line. This would require the construction or acquisition of additional access roads, used for routine and emergency maintenance and construction activities. A survey was conducted to map any occurrences of threatened, endangered and sensitivity plant species and weed species along the Swan Valley-Teton Line. This report contains Appendix F

  14. Business Case for Nonintrusive Load Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hao, He [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report explores how utilities, researchers, and consumers could benefit from a lower cost approach to submetering using non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM). NILM is a process of using data from a single point of monitoring, such as a utility smart meter, to provide an itemized accounting of end use energy consumption in residential and small commercial buildings. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) prepared this report for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). PNNL participated in an advisory group as part of a research project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Bonneville Power Administration, and the State of Washington. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) convened the advisory committee for two workshops held to identify ways in which NILM may be used. PNNL, on behalf of DOE, helped to cosponsor the first of these workshops. Results of an end-use monitoring study of a bank branch conducted by PNNL are also presented for purposes of illustrating the need for better data in energy savings modeling (DOE 2013a).

  15. Electroenzymatic oxidation of bisphenol A (BPA) based on the hemoglobin (Hb) film in a membraneless electrochemical reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tiantian; Hou, Juying; Ai, Shiyun; Qiu, Yanyan; Ma, Qiang; Han, Ruixia

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents a novel electroenzymatic method for the treatment of bisphenol A (BPA) in a membraneless electrochemical reactor. The electrochemical reactor was arranged with a stainless steel and an enzymatic film as anode and cathode, respectively. The enzymatic film was formed by immobilizing hemoglobin (Hb) on carbon fiber. In the membraneless electrochemical reactor, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was generated in situ in cathode and BPA was oxidated and removed by the combining Hb with H(2)O(2). The experimental conditions for electrogeneration of H(2)O(2) and electroremoval of BPA were optimized. Experimental results showed that in supplied voltage 2.4 V, pH 5.0 and oxygen flow rate 25 mL/min, the electrogeneration of H(2)O(2) and the electroenzymatic removal of BPA were highest. Under optimal operation conditions, the removal efficiency of BPA reached 50.7% in 120 min and then kept constant when further prolonging the period of reaction. Compared with electrochemical and biochemical methods, the removal of BPA through electroenzymatic method was comparatively favorable. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electroenzymatic oxidation of bisphenol A (BPA) based on the hemoglobin (Hb) film in a membraneless electrochemical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Tiantian; Hou Juying; Ai Shiyun; Qiu Yanyan; Ma Qiang; Han Ruixia

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel electroenzymatic method for the treatment of bisphenol A (BPA) in a membraneless electrochemical reactor. The electrochemical reactor was arranged with a stainless steel and an enzymatic film as anode and cathode, respectively. The enzymatic film was formed by immobilizing hemoglobin (Hb) on carbon fiber. In the membraneless electrochemical reactor, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was generated in situ in cathode and BPA was oxidated and removed by the combining Hb with H 2 O 2 . The experimental conditions for electrogeneration of H 2 O 2 and electroremoval of BPA were optimized. Experimental results showed that in supplied voltage 2.4 V, pH 5.0 and oxygen flow rate 25 mL/min, the electrogeneration of H 2 O 2 and the electroenzymatic removal of BPA were highest. Under optimal operation conditions, the removal efficiency of BPA reached 50.7% in 120 min and then kept constant when further prolonging the period of reaction. Compared with electrochemical and biochemical methods, the removal of BPA through electroenzymatic method was comparatively favorable.

  17. Bisphenol A (BPA) aggravates multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced Type 1 diabetes in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetkovic-Cvrlje, Marina; Thinamany, Sinduja; Bruner, Kylie A

    2017-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disorder characterized by destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. Whereas epidemiological data implicate environmental factors in the increasing incidence of T1D, their identity remains unknown. Though exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with several disorders, no epidemiologic evidence has linked BPA exposure and T1D. The goal of this study was to elucidate diabetogenic potentials of BPA and underlying mechanisms in the context of T-cell immunity, in a multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDSTZ)-induced autoimmune mouse T1D model. C57BL/6 mice were orally exposed to 1 or 10 mg BPA/L starting at 4 wk of age; diabetes was induced at 9 wk of age with STZ. T-cell composition, function, and insulitis levels were studied at Days 11 and 50 during diabetes development (i.e. post-first STZ injection). Results showed both BPA doses increased diabetes incidence and affected T-cell immunity. However, mechanisms of diabetogenic action appeared divergent based on dose. Low-dose BPA fits a profile of an agent that exhibits pro-diabetogenic effects via T-cell immunomodulation in the early stages of disease development, i.e. decreases in splenic T-cell subpopulations [especially CD4 + T-cells] along with a trend in elevation of splenic T-cell formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6). In contrast, high-dose BPA did not affect T-cell populations and led to decreased levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Both treatments did not affect insulitis levels at the disease early stage, but aggravated it later on. By the study end, besides decreasing T-cell proliferative capacity, low-dose BPA did not affect other T-cell-related parameters, including cytokine secretion, comparable to the effects of high-dose BPA. In conclusion, this study confirmed BPA as a potential diabetogenic compound with immunomodulatory mechanisms of action - in the context of T-cell immunity - that seemed to be dose

  18. Androgen and Progesterone Receptors Are Targets for Bisphenol A (BPA, 4-Methyl-2,4-bis-(P-HydroxyphenylPent-1-Ene--A Potent Metabolite of BPA, and 4-Tert-Octylphenol: A Computational Insight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rehan

    Full Text Available Exposure to toxic industrial chemicals that have capacity to disrupt the endocrine system, also known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs, has been increasingly associated with reproductive problems in human population. Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4'-(propane-2,2-diyldiphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutylphenol are among the most common environmental contaminants possessing endocrine disruption properties and are present in plastics, epoxy resins, detergents and other commercial products of common personal and industrial use. A metabolite of BPA, 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenylpent-1-ene (MBP is about 1000 times more biologically active compared to BPA. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have shown association of BPA and OP with adverse effects on male and female reproductive system in human and animals. The endocrine disruption activity can occur through multiple pathways including binding to steroid receptors. Androgen receptor (AR and progesterone receptor (PR are critical for reproductive tract growth and function. Structural binding characterization of BPA, MBP, and OP with AR and PR using molecular docking simulation approaches revealed novel interactions of BPA with PR, and MBP and OP with AR and PR. For BPA, MBP, and OP, five AR interacting residues Leu-701, Leu-704, Asn-705, Met-742, and Phe-764 overlapped with those of native AR ligand testosterone, and four PR interacting residues Leu-715, Leu-718, Met-756, and Met-759 overlapped with those of PR co-complex ligand, norethindrone. For both the receptors the binding strength of MBP was maximum among the three compounds. Thus, these compounds have the potential to block or interfere in the binding of the endogenous native AR and PR ligands and, hence, resulting in dysfunction. The knowledge of the key interactions and the important amino-acid residues also allows better prediction of potential of xenobiotic molecules for disrupting AR- and PR

  19. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette M Hormann

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax in unconjugated (bioactive BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

  20. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Annette M; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Stahlhut, Richard W; Moyer, Carol L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Welshons, Wade V; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

  1. Holding Thermal Receipt Paper and Eating Food after Using Hand Sanitizer Results in High Serum Bioactive and Urine Total Levels of Bisphenol A (BPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Annette M.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Moyer, Carol L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welshons, Wade V.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

  2. Staphylococcus aureus host cell invasion and virulence in sepsis is facilitated by the multiple repeats within FnBPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Edwards

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Entry of Staphylococcus aureus into the bloodstream can lead to metastatic abscess formation and infective endocarditis. Crucial to the development of both these conditions is the interaction of S. aureus with endothelial cells. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that the staphylococcal invasin FnBPA triggers bacterial invasion of endothelial cells via a process that involves fibronectin (Fn bridging to alpha(5beta(1 integrins. The Fn-binding region of FnBPA usually contains 11 non-identical repeats (FnBRs with differing affinities for Fn, which facilitate the binding of multiple Fn molecules and may promote integrin clustering. We thus hypothesized that multiple repeats are necessary to trigger the invasion of endothelial cells by S. aureus. To test this we constructed variants of fnbA containing various combinations of FnBRs. In vitro assays revealed that endothelial cell invasion can be facilitated by a single high-affinity, but not low-affinity FnBR. Studies using a nisin-inducible system that controlled surface expression of FnBPA revealed that variants encoding fewer FnBRs required higher levels of surface expression to mediate invasion. High expression levels of FnBPA bearing a single low affinity FnBR bound Fn but did not invade, suggesting that FnBPA affinity for Fn is crucial for triggering internalization. In addition, multiple FnBRs increased the speed of internalization, as did higher expression levels of FnBPA, without altering the uptake mechanism. The relevance of these findings to pathogenesis was demonstrated using a murine sepsis model, which showed that multiple FnBRs were required for virulence. In conclusion, multiple FnBRs within FnBPA facilitate efficient Fn adhesion, trigger rapid bacterial uptake and are required for pathogenesis.

  3. Nevada Test Site Perspective on Characterization and Loading of Legacy Transuranic Drums Utilizing the Central Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.G. Lahoud; J. F. Norton; I. L. Siddoway; L. W. Griswold

    2006-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) has successfully completed a multi-year effort to characterize and ship 1860 legacy transuranic (TRU) waste drums for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a permanent TRU disposal site. This has been a cooperative effort among the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), the U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office (DOE/CBFO), the NTS Management and Operations (M and O) contractor Bechtel Nevada (BN), and various contractors under the Central Characterization Project (CCP) umbrella. The success is due primarily to the diligence, perseverance, and hard work of each of the contractors, the DOE/CBFO, and NNSA/NSO, along with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Headquarters (DOE/HQ). This paper presents, from an NTS perspective, the challenges and successes of utilizing the CCP for obtaining a certified characterization program, sharing responsibilities for characterization, data validation, and loading of TRU waste with BN to achieve disposal at WIPP from a Small Quantity Site (SQS) such as the NTS. The challenges in this effort arose from two general sources. First, the arrangement of DOE/CBFO contractors under the CCP performing work and certifying waste at the NTS within a Hazard Category 2 (HazCat 2) non-reactor nuclear facility operated by BN, presented difficult challenges. The nuclear safety authorization basis, safety liability and responsibility, conduct of operations, allocation and scheduling of resources, and other issues were particularly demanding. The program-level and field coordination needed for the closely interrelated characterization tasks was extensive and required considerable effort by all parties. The second source of challenge was the legacy waste itself. None of the waste was generated at the NTS. The waste was generated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Lynchburg, Rocky

  4. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  5. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  6. Bacterial proteasome activator bpa (rv3780) is a novel ring-shaped interactor of the mycobacterial proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delley, Cyrille L; Laederach, Juerg; Ziemski, Michal; Bolten, Marcel; Boehringer, Daniel; Weber-Ban, Eilika

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of the proteasome in bacteria is limited to the phylum of actinobacteria, where it is maintained in parallel to the usual bacterial compartmentalizing proteases. The role it plays in these organisms is still not fully understood, but in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) the proteasome supports persistence in the host. In complex with the ring-shaped ATPase Mpa (called ARC in other actinobacteria), the proteasome can degrade proteins that have been post-translationally modified with the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein Pup. Unlike for the eukaryotic proteasome core particle, no other bacterial proteasome interactors have been identified to date. Here we describe and characterize a novel bacterial proteasome activator of Mycobacterium tuberculosis we termed Bpa (Rv3780), using a combination of biochemical and biophysical methods. Bpa features a canonical C-terminal proteasome interaction motif referred to as the HbYX motif, and its orthologs are only found in those actinobacteria encoding the proteasomal subunits. Bpa can inhibit degradation of Pup-tagged substrates in vitro by competing with Mpa for association with the proteasome. Using negative-stain electron microscopy, we show that Bpa forms a ring-shaped homooligomer that can bind coaxially to the face of the proteasome cylinder. Interestingly, Bpa can stimulate the proteasomal degradation of the model substrate β-casein, which suggests it could play a role in the removal of non-native or damaged proteins.

  7. The loading of waters from forestry, final report of the MESUVE -project; Metsaetalouden vesistoekuormitus. MESUVE{sub p}rojektin loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenttaemies, K.; Mattsson, T. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The joint research project entitled 'Developing the integrated forestry planning with water protection using GIS-oriented erosion sensitivity modeling' (MESUVE) which was funded by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and the Ministry of the Environment in 2003-2005. The partners in the project were the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), the Forest Research Institute, the Forestry Development Centre Tapio, the National Board of Forestry and the Geological Survey of Finland. The project was headed by Kaarle Kenttaemies, limnologist (SYKE), and the steering group was chaired by Marja Hilska-Aaltonen, Senior Adviser, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. In addition to several articles on proper forestry planning (establishing the research catchments, developing a soil survey for forestry and using geological soil maps, adapting a processoriented SWAT model for erosion studies in forestry), this final report includes papers on subprojects dealing with calculation methods and restriction strategies of forestry loading, the issues of the importance of implementing the water protection framework programme in EU-countries. These reports include the river basin scale calculations of nutrient loads from forestry and scenarios for the future, new reports on nutrient loads from clear cutting and mitigation drainage of forests that include data from seven new forest catchments, the long term monitoring results of clear cutting and forest drainage and results of comprehensive data from nutrient loads from mitigation drainage. The effectiveness of organic soils in adsorbing phosphates on buffer zones and the use of phosphates from forested catchments for algae growth are also presented in this final report. (orig.)

  8. Glycemic load, glycemic index, bread and incidence of overweight/obesity in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Carmen; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Zazpe, Itziar; Vazquez-Ruiz, Zenaida; Benito-Corchon, Silvia; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2014-10-22

    To evaluate prospectively the relationship between white, or whole grain bread, and glycemic index, or glycemic load from diet and weight change in a Mediterranean cohort. We followed-up 9 267 Spanish university graduates for a mean period of 5 years. Dietary habits at baseline were assessed using a semi-quantitative 136-item food-frequency questionnaire. Average yearly weight change was evaluated according to quintiles of baseline glycemic index, glycemic load, and categories of bread consumption. We also assessed the association between bread consumption, glycemic index, or glycemic load, and the incidence of overweight/obesity. White bread and whole-grain bread were not associated with higher weight gain. No association between glycemic index, glycemic load and weight change was found.White bread consumption was directly associated with a higher risk of becoming overweight/obese (adjusted OR (≥2 portions/day) versus (≤1 portion/week): 1.40; 95% CI: 1.08-1.81; p for trend: 0.008). However, no statistically significant association was observed between whole-grain bread, glycemic index or glycemic load and overweight/obesity. Consumption of white bread (≥2 portions/day) showed a significant direct association with the risk of becoming overweight/obese.

  9. The molecular mechanism of bisphenol A (BPA as an endocrine disruptor by interacting with nuclear receptors: insights from molecular dynamics (MD simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanlan Li

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA can interact with nuclear receptors and affect the normal function of nuclear receptors in very low doses, which causes BPA to be one of the most controversial endocrine disruptors. However, the detailed molecular mechanism about how BPA interferes the normal function of nuclear receptors is still undiscovered. Herein, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the detailed interaction mechanism between BPA with three typical nuclear receptors, including hERα, hERRγ and hPPARγ. The simulation results and calculated binding free energies indicate that BPA can bind to these three nuclear receptors. The binding affinities of BPA were slightly lower than that of E2 to these three receptors. The simulation results proved that the binding process was mainly driven by direct hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, structural analysis suggested that BPA could interact with these nuclear receptors by mimicking the action of natural hormone and keeping the nuclear receptors in active conformations. The present work provided the structural evidence to recognize BPA as an endocrine disruptor and would be important guidance for seeking safer substitutions of BPA.

  10. Modification of Bisphenol-A Based Bismaleimide Resin (BPA-BMI) with an Allyl-Terminated Hyperbranched Polyimide (AT-PAEKI)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qin, Haihu; Mather, Patrick T; Baek, Jong-Beom; Tan, Loon-Seng

    2006-01-01

    ... bismaleimide resin (BPA-BMI). This was pursued in anticipation of improvements in processability as well as physical properties including glass transition temperature, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness...

  11. Fish & Wildlife Annual Project Summary, 1983.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-07-01

    BPA's Division of Fish and Wildlife was created in 1982 to develop, coordinate and manage BPA's fish and wildlife program. Division activities protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife resources impacted by hydroelectric development and operation in the Columbia River Basin. At present the Division spends 95% of its budget on restoration projects. In 1983, 83 projects addressed all aspects of the anadromous fish life cycle, non-migratory fish problems and the status of wildlife living near reservoirs.

  12. Is container type the biggest predictor of trace element and BPA leaching from drinking water bottles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Preud'Homme, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    The knowledge-base of bottled water leachate is highly contradictory due to varying methodologies and limited multi-elemental and/or molecular analyses; understanding the range of contaminants and their pathways is required. This study determined the leaching potential and leaching kinetics of trace elements, using consistent comprehensive quantitative and semi-quantitative (79 elements total) analyses, and BPA, using isotopic dilution and MEPS pre-concentration with UHPLC-ESI-QTOF. Statistical methods were used to determine confounders and predictors of leaching and human health risk throughout 12days of UV exposure and after exposure to elevated temperature. Various types of water were used to assess the impact of water quality. Results suggest Sb leaching is primarily dependent upon water quality, not container type. Bottle type is a predictor of elemental leaching for Pb, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Sr; BPA was detected in samples from polycarbonate containers. Health risks from the consumption of bottled water increase after UV exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Wind Energy Management System Integration Project Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-09-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation) and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. In order to improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively, by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter unique

  14. Literature review for Texas Department of Transportation Research Project 0-4695: Guidance for design in areas of extreme bed-load mobility, Edwards Plateau, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Asquith, William H.; Fang, Xing; Thompson, David B.; Wang, Keh-Han

    2005-01-01

    A review of the literature addressing sediment transport in gravel-bed river systems and structures designed to control bed-load mobility is provided as part of Texas Department of Transportation research project 0–4695: Guidance for Design in Areas of Extreme Bed-Load Mobility. The study area comprises the western half of the Edwards Plateau in central Texas. Three primary foci of the literature review are journal articles, edited volumes, and government publications. Major themes within the body of literature include deterministic sediment transport theory and equations, development of methods to measure and analyze fluvial sediment, applications and development of theory in natural channels and flume experiments, and recommendations for river management and structural design. The literature review provides an outline and foundation for the research project to characterize extreme bed-load mobility in rivers and streams across the study area. The literature review also provides a basis upon which potential modifications to low-water stream-crossing design in the study area can be made.

  15. ELBE - Analysis and appraisal of loading and weather data (project phase 2); ELBE - Analyse und Auswertung von Last- und Wetterdaten (Projektphase 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronig, P.; Waelchli, U.; Zuercher, S. [BKW FMB Energie AG, Bern (Switzerland); Hoeckel, M. [Berner Fachhochschule, Biel (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    In the project 'Prognosekompetenz' we have identified and quantified by means of a comprehensive analysis of grid and climate data the factors which have a significant impact on the grid load. The study focused in the beginning on the regional data from a big electricity utility. In a second step, additional local data were also considered to better identify climatic and economic characteristics. We found a strong correlation between load, on the one hand, and outdoor temperature and economic activity, on the other hand. The influence of further factors is very limited. On this basis we developed two Matlab-based, easy-to-use tools for the prediction of the daily grid load profile in quarter-of-hour steps. One tool uses the method of the transfer function, where specific correlation factors account for the influential factors. The second tool based on the method of the artificial neuronal network, which had been tuned with data from several years to make sure that a high accuracy is obtained. We could show by self developed testing procedures that for both tools the precision in forecasting the daily load profile is very high. (authors)

  16. OC5 Project Phase II: Validation of Global Loads of the DeepCwind Floating Semisubmersible Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Amy N.; Wendt, Fabian; Jonkman, Jason M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings from Phase II of the Offshore Code Comparison, Collaboration, Continued, with Correlation project. The project is run under the International Energy Agency Wind Research Task 30, and is focused on validating the tools used for modeling offshore wind systems thro...

  17. Klondike III/Biglow Canyon Wind Integration Project; Final Environmental Impact Statement, September 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    2006-09-01

    BPA has been asked by PPM Energy, Inc. to interconnect 300 megawatts (MW) of electricity generated from the proposed Klondike III Wind Project to the Federal Columbia River Transmission System. Orion Energy LLC has also asked BPA to interconnect 400 MW of electricity from its proposed Biglow Canyon Wind Farm, located north and east of the proposed Klondike III Wind Project. (Portland General Electric recently bought the rights to develop the proposed Biglow Canyon Wind Farm from Orion Energy, LLC.) Both wind projects received Site Certificates from the Oregon Energy Facility Siting Council on June 30, 2006. To interconnect these projects, BPA would need to build and operate a 230-kV double-circuit transmission line about 12 miles long, expand one substation and build one new substation. The wind projects would require wind turbines, substation(s), access roads, and other facilities. Two routes for the transmission line are being considered. Both begin at PPM's Klondike Schoolhouse Substation then travel north (Proposed Action) or north and westerly (Middle Alternative) to a new BPA 230-kV substation next to BPA's existing John Day 500-kV Substation. BPA is also considering a No Action Alternative in which BPA would not build the transmission line and would not interconnect the wind projects. The proposed BPA and wind projects would be located on private land, mainly used for agriculture. If BPA decides to interconnect the wind projects, construction of the BPA transmission line and substation(s) could commence as early as the winter of 2006-07. Both wind projects would operate for much of each year for at least 20 years. The proposed projects would generally create no or low impacts. Wildlife resources and local visual resources are the only resources to receive an impact rating other than ''none'' or ''low''. The low to moderate impacts to wildlife are from the expected bird and bat mortality and the cumulative

  18. Prenatal exposure to BPA alters the epigenome of the rat mammary gland and increases the propensity to neoplastic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dhimolea

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental estrogens (xenoestrogens may play a causal role in the increased breast cancer incidence which has been observed in Europe and the US over the last 50 years. The xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA leaches from plastic food/beverage containers and dental materials. Fetal exposure to BPA induces preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the adult rat mammary gland. Previous results suggest that BPA acts through the estrogen receptors which are detected exclusively in the mesenchyme during the exposure period by directly altering gene expression, leading to alterations of the reciprocal interactions between mesenchyme and epithelium. This initiates a long sequence of altered morphogenetic events leading to neoplastic transformation. Additionally, BPA induces epigenetic changes in some tissues. To explore this mechanism in the mammary gland, Wistar-Furth rats were exposed subcutaneously via osmotic pumps to vehicle or 250 µg BPA/kg BW/day, a dose that induced ductal carcinomas in situ. Females exposed from gestational day 9 to postnatal day (PND 1 were sacrificed at PND4, PND21 and at first estrus after PND50. Genomic DNA (gDNA was isolated from the mammary tissue and immuno-precipitated using anti-5-methylcytosine antibodies. Detection and quantification of gDNA methylation status using the Nimblegen ChIP array revealed 7412 differentially methylated gDNA segments (out of 58207 segments, with the majority of changes occurring at PND21. Transcriptomal analysis revealed that the majority of gene expression differences between BPA- and vehicle-treated animals were observed later (PND50. BPA exposure resulted in higher levels of pro-activation histone H3K4 trimethylation at the transcriptional initiation site of the alpha-lactalbumin gene at PND4, concomitantly enhancing mRNA expression of this gene. These results show that fetal BPA exposure triggers changes in the postnatal and adult mammary gland epigenome and alters gene

  19. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Nigg; William Bauer; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  20. Conforth Ranch (Wanaket) Wildlife Mitigation Project. Draft Management Plan and Draft Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to mitigate for loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of Columbia River Basin hydroelectric projects, including McNary dam. The proposed wildlife mitigation project involves wildlife conservation on 1140 hectares (ha)(2817 acres) of land (including water rights) in Umatilla County, Oregon. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA)(DOE/EA- 1016) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  1. MODEL FOR ELECTRIC LOAD OF COMMUNITY HOUSING PROJECTS TO INVESTIGATE “GENERATOR – ACCUMULATOR – CONSUMER” SYSTEM WHILE USING MONTE-CARLO METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Dobrego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we observe rather rapid growth of energy accumulators market. There are prerequisites to their extensive application in Belarus. In spite of technology development problems pertaining to optimization of electric power and their operation under conditions of specific systems “generator – accumulator – consumer” (GAC have not obtained proper consideration. At the same time tuning and optimization of the GAC system may provide competitive advantages to various accumulating systems because application of accumulator batteries in non-optimal charge – discharge conditions reduces its operating resource. Optimization of the GAC system may include utilization of hybrid accumulator systems together with heterogeneous chemical and mechanical accumulators, tuning of system controller parameters etc. Research papers present a great number of empirical and analytical methods for calculation of electric loads. These methods use the following parameters as initial data: time-averaged values of actual electric power consumption, averaged apartment electric loads, empirical and statistical form coefficients, coefficients of maximum electric load for a group of uniform consumers. However such models do not meet the requirements of detailed simulation of relatively small system operation when the simulation must correspond to non-stationary, non-averaged, stochastic load nature. The paper provides a simple approach to the detailed simulation of electric loads in regard to small projects such as multi-unit apartment building or small agricultural farm. The model is formulated both in physical and algorithmic terms that make it possible to be easily realized in any programming environment. The paper presents convergence of integral electric power consumption, which is set by the model, to statistically averaged parameters. Autocorrelation function has been calculated in the paper that shows two scales for autocorrelation of simulated load diagrams

  2. A highly sensitive and specific capacitive aptasensor for rapid and label-free trace analysis of Bisphenol A (BPA) in canned foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzajani, Hadi; Cheng, Cheng; Wu, Jayne; Chen, Jiangang; Eda, Shigotoshi; Najafi Aghdam, Esmaeil; Badri Ghavifekr, Habib

    2017-03-15

    A rapid, highly sensitive, specific and low-cost capacitive affinity biosensor is presented here for label-free and single step detection of Bisphenol A (BPA). The sensor design allows rapid prototyping at low-cost using printed circuit board material by benchtop equipment. High sensitivity detection is achieved through the use of a BPA-specific aptamer as probe molecule and large electrodes to enhance AC-electroelectrothermal effect for long-range transport of BPA molecules toward electrode surface. Capacitive sensing technique is used to determine the bounded BPA level by measuring the sample/electrode interfacial capacitance of the sensor. The developed biosensor can detect BPA level in 20s and exhibits a large linear range from 1 fM to 10 pM, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 152.93 aM. This biosensor was applied to test BPA in canned food samples and could successfully recover the levels of spiked BPA. This sensor technology is demonstrated to be highly promising and reliable for rapid, sensitive and on-site monitoring of BPA in food samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An analysis of the static load test on single square pile of 40x40 cm2, using finite element method in Rusunawa project, Jatinegara, Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasid, Harun; Roesyanto; Iskandar, Rudi; Silalahi, Sofyan A.

    2018-03-01

    Piling Foundation is one of the foundations which is used to penetrate its load through soil layer. The power carried by the piling is obtained from the end bearing capacity, that is, the compressive end piling and friction bearing capacity obtained from friction bearing and adhesive capacity between the piling and the soil around it. The investigation on the Standard Penetration Test is aimed to get the description of soil layer, based on the type and color of soil through visual observation, and soil characteristics. SPT data can be used to calculate bearing capacity. Besides investigating the SPT, this study is also been equipped by taking the samples in laboratory and loading test on the piling and Ducth Cone Penetrometer (DCP) data to confirm its bearing capacity. This study analyzed bearing capacity and settlement in the square pile of 40X40 cm in diameter in a single pile or grouped, using an empirical method, AllPile program, Plaxis program, and comparing the result with interpreting its loading test in the foundation of Rusunawa project, Jatinegara, Jakarta. The analysis was been done by using the data on soil investigation and laboratory by comparing them with Mohr-Coulomb soil model. Ultimate bearing capacity from the SPT data in the piling of 15.4 meters was 189.81 tons and the parameter of soil shear strength was 198.67 tons. The sander point, based on Aoki and De Alencar bearing capacity was 276.241 tons and based on Mayerhoff it was 305.49 tons. Based on the loading test of bearing capacity, unlimited bearing capacity for the three methods was Davisson (260 tons), Mazurkiewich (270 tons), and Chin (250 tons). The efficiency of grouped piles according to Converse-Library Equation method = 0.73, according to Los Angeles Group Action Equation method = 0.59, and according to Sheila-Keeny method = 0.94. Bearing capacity based on piling strength was 221.76 tons, bearing capacity based on calendaring data was 201.71 tons, and lateral bearing capacity of a

  4. Long-term effects of a binary mixture of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiter, Susanne; Baumann, Lisa; Farber, H

    2012-01-01

    aimed at evaluating the long-term effects and toxicity-increasing behavior of PFOS in vivo using the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were maintained in flow-through conditions and exposed to single and binary mixtures of PFOS and the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) at nominal concentrations of 0...

  5. 48 CFR 339.7001 - Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Use of General Services Administration Blanket Purchase Agreements for Independent Risk Analysis... micro-purchase threshold, that obtaining the required services from a source other than a GSA BPA holder... include additional supporting rationale to document the best value decision, as appropriate. ...

  6. Enhanced uptake of BPA in the presence of nanoplastics can lead to neurotoxic effects in adult zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Qiqing; Yin, Daqiang; Jia, Yunlu; Schiwy, Sabrina; Legradi, Jessica; Yang, Shouye; Hollert, Henner

    2017-01-01

    Plastic particles have been proven to be abundant in the aquatic environment, raising concerns about their potential toxic effects. In the present study, we determined the bioaccumulation potential of bisphenol A (BPA) in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) in the absence and presence of nano-sized

  7. Biodistribution study with combined administration of BPA and BSH for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabalino, M A; Heber, E M; Monti Hughes, A; Pzzi, E C C; Molinari, A J; Niggg, D W; Bauer, W; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2012-01-01

    We previously proved the therapeutic potential of the chemically non-selective boron compound decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as a stand-alone boron carrier for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model with no toxic effects in normal or precancerous tissue. Although GB-10 is not taken up selectively by oral tumor tissue, selective tumor lethality would result from selective aberrant tumor blood vessel damage. Furthermore, BNCT efficacy was enhanced when GB-10 and boronophenylalanine (BPA) were administered jointly. The fact that sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically as a stand-alone boron agent for BNCT of brain tumors and in combination with BPA for recurrent head and neck malignancies makes it a particularly interesting boron compound to explore. Based on the working hypothesis that BSH would conceivably behave similarly to GB-10 in oral cancer, we previously performed biodistribution studies with BSH alone in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The aim of the present study was to perform biodistribution studies of BSH + BPA administered jointly in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model as a starting point to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology and optimize therapeutic efficacy. The right cheek pouch of Syrian hamsters was subjected to topical administration of a carcinogen twice a week for 12 weeks. Once the exophytic tumors, i.e. squamous cell carcinomas, had developed, the animals were used for biodistribution studies with BSH + BPA. Three administration protocols with different proportions of each of the compounds were assessed: 1. BSH, 50 mg 10 B/kg, iv + BPA, 15.5 mg 10 B/kg, ip; 2. BSH, 34.5 mg 10 B/kg, iv + BPA, 31 mg 10 B/kg, ip; 3. BSH, 20 mg 10 B/kg, iv + BPA, 46.5 mg 10 B/kg, ip. Groups of animals were euthanized 4 h after the administration of BSH and 3 h after the administration of BPA. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous and normal pouch and other tissues with

  8. Statistical analysis of the vibration loading of the reactor internals and fuel assemblies of reactor units type WWER-440 from deferent projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovcharov, O.; Pavelko, V.; Usanov, A.; Arkadov, G.; Dolgov, A.; Molchanov, V.; Anikeev, J.; Pljush, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the following items have been presented: 1) Vibration noise instrument channels; 2) Vibration loading characteristics of control assemblies, internals and design peculiarities of internals of WWER-440 deferent projects; 3) Coolant flow rate through the reactor, reactor core, fuel assemblies and control assemblies for different projects WWER-440 and 4) Noise measurements of coolant speed per channel. The change of auto power spectrum density of absolute displacement detector signal for the last 12 years of SUS monitoring of the Kola NPP unit 2; the coherence functions groups between two SPND of the same level for the Kola NPP unit 1; the measured coolant flow rate at Paks NPP and the auto power spectrum density group of SPND signals from 11 neutron measuring channels of the Kola NPP unit 1 are given. The main factors of vibration loading of internals and fuel assemblies for Kola NPP units 1-4, Bohunice NPP units 1 and 2 and Novovoronezh NPP units 3 and 4 are also discussed

  9. PREFIT project: Integration of man-in-the-loop and automation for manipulation of heavy loads and forces in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubus, G. [CEA, LIST, Interactive Robotics Unit, 18 route du Panorama, BP6, Fontenay-aux-Roses F-92265 (France)], E-mail: gregory.dubus@cea.fr; David, O.; Measson, Y.; Friconneau, J.-P. [CEA, LIST, Interactive Robotics Unit, 18 route du Panorama, BP6, Fontenay-aux-Roses F-92265 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Operating within the framework of the Euratom Fusion Training Scheme (EFTS), the PREFIT partnership prepares remote handling (RH) engineers for ITER with an integrated programme of training and research over 3 years. One of the research topics aims at improving effectiveness and safety of remote handling manipulation of heavy loads, a significant challenge associated with ITER's maintenance scheme. In all areas needing scheduled maintenance work - in-vessel components, neutral beam injector, hot cells - introduction of man-in-the-loop technologies would provide very useful help in case of unexpected events. The focus of this work is the problem of vibrations experienced when handling heavy loads using flexible robotic structures. Vibrations are induced during start and stop movements, high accelerations or in the case of collision. It is therefore necessary to develop strategies to remove undesired effects of stimulating dynamics or critical trajectories. Analysis of previous works on flexible arms proves that model-based control of light structures gives good performance providing that dynamic terms take into account the compliance of the joints and the structural deformation.

  10. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 2, Book 1, Energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific and Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This analysis updates the 1992 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1992. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility (1) Electrical demand firm loads; (2) Generating resources; and (3) Contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here.

  11. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA's substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA

  12. Hot Springs-Garrison Fiber Optic Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to upgrade its operational telecommunications system between the Hot Springs Substation and the Garrison Substation using a fiber optic system. The project would primarily involve installing 190 kilometers (120 miles) of fiber optic cable on existing transmission structures and installing new fiber optic equipment in BPA`s substation yards and control houses. BPA prepared an environmental assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed action. This EA was published in October 1994. The EA identifies a number of minor impacts that might occur as a result of the proposed action, as well as some recommended mitigation measures. This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) identifies specific measures to avoid, minimize, or compensate for impacts identified in the EA.

  13. Impairment of learning and memory performances induced by BPA: Evidences from the literature of a MoA mediated through an ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina; Belzunces, Luc P; Canivenc, Marie-Chantal; Schroeder, Henri; Chevrier, Cécile; Pasquier, Elodie

    2018-03-29

    Many rodent studies and a few non-human primate data report impairments of spatial and non-spatial memory induced by exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), which are associated with neural modifications, particularly in processes involved in synaptic plasticity. BPA-induced alterations involve disruption of the estrogenic pathway as established by reversal of BPA-induced effects with estrogenic receptor antagonist or by interference of BPA with administered estradiol in ovariectomised animals. Sex differences in hormonal impregnation during critical periods of development and their influence on maturation of learning and memory processes may explain the sexual dimorphism observed in BPA-induced effects in some studies. Altogether, these data highly support the plausibility that alteration of learning and memory and synaptic plasticity by BPA is essentially mediated by disturbance of the estrogenic pathways. As memory function in humans involves similar signaling pathways, this mode of action of BPA has the potential to alter human cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  15. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Today`s notice announces BPA`s proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA`s obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  16. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Today's notice announces BPA's proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA's obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  17. Use of fluorine-18-BPA PET images and image registration to enhance radiation treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Khurram

    The Monte-Carlo based simulation environment for radiation therapy (SERA) software is used to simulate the dose administered to a patient undergoing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Point sampling of tumor tissue results in an estimate of a uniform boron concentration scaling factor of 3.5. Under conventional treatment protocols, this factor is used to scale the boron component of the dose linearly and homogenously within the tumor and target volumes. The average dose to the tumor cells by such a method could be improved by better methods of quantifying the in-vivo 10B biodistribution. A better method includes radiolabeling para-Boronophenylalanine (p-BPA) with 18F and imaging the pharmaceutical using positron emission tomography (PET). This biodistribution of 18F-BPA can then be used to better predict the average dose delivered to the tumor regions. This work uses registered 18F-BPA PET images to incorporate the in-vivo boron biodistribution within current treatment planning. The registered 18F-BPA PET images are then coupled in a new computer software, PET2MRI.m, to linearly scale the boron component of the dose. A qualititative and quantitative assessment of the dose contours is presented using the two approaches. Tumor volume, tumor axial extent, and target locations are compared between using MRI or PET images to define the tumor volume. In addition, peak-to-normal brain value at tumor axial center is determined for pre and post surgery patients using 18F-BPA PET images. The differences noted between the registered GBM tumor volumes (range: 34.04--136.36%), tumor axial extent (range: 20--150%), and the beam target location (1.27--4.29 cm) are significantly different. The peak-to-normal brain values are also determined at the tumor axial center using the 18F-BPA PET images. The peak-to-normal brain values using the last frame of the pre-surgery study for the GBM patients ranged from 2.05--3.4. For post surgery time weighted PET data, the peak

  18. Effects of wood-ash addition on nitrogen turnover in a highly nitrogen loaded spruce site. Final project report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.; Hoegbom, Lars; Nordlund, Sten

    2000-04-01

    During two consecutive years, it was studied how a fertilization with 4.2 tonnes pelleted bark ash per ha, made six-seven years earlier, affected soil chemistry, nitrogen turnover and soil-water chemistry on a Norway spruce site in SW Sweden. The actual site has a very acidic soil. At the same time, the supply of inorganic N is rich. Measures against soil acidification, e. g. addition of ash or lime, may significantly influence the turnover of N with a subsequent risk for increased leaching. Thus, there is a potential conflict between two urgent environmental goals, i. e. to decrease acidification and to decrease the N load on aquatic ecosystems. In the humus layer and the upper 5 cm of the mineral soil, pH(H 2 O) had increased with at the most 0.2 units because of the ash addition. The easily extractable amounts of Mg, P and nitrate were slightly increased. The potential nitrification in the humus layer was generally higher in the ash treatment, but the difference. was not statistically significant. The soil water at 50 cm depth was 0.1-0.2 pH-units more acidic where ash had been applied. Simultaneously, there were tendencies for higher concentrations of nitrate, Al and K. This is the first time in Sweden that ash fertilization of a closed forest has given clear indications of an increased N leaching. As expected, the ash fertilization decreased the acidity of the top soil. On the contrary, the runoff became more acidic and more rich in Al. Thus, the ash fertilization has counteracted one of its primary goals, i. e. to produce a runoff less toxic to aquatic life. The acidification of the runoff may partially be because of acid production during nitrification

  19. Enhanced heterogeneous photo-Fenton process modified by magnetite and EDDS: BPA degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenyu; Luo, Mengqi; Wei, Chaoshuai; Wang, Yinghui; Hanna, Khalil; Mailhot, Gilles

    2017-04-01

    In this research, magnetite and ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) are used in a heterogeneous photo-Fenton system in order to find a new way to remove organic contaminants from water. Influence of different parameters including magnetite dosage, EDDS concentration, H 2 O 2 concentration, and pH value were evaluated. The effect of different radical species including HO · and HO 2 · /O 2 ·- was investigated by addition of different scavengers into the system. The addition of EDDS improved the heterogeneous photo-Fenton degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) through the formation of photochemically efficient Fe-EDDS complex. This effect is dependent on the H 2 O 2 and EDDS concentrations and pH value. The high performance observed at pH 6.2 could be explained by the ability of O 2 ·- to generate Fe(II) from Fe(III) species reduction. GC-MS analysis suggested that the cleavage of the two benzene rings is the first degradation step followed by oxidation leading to the formation of the benzene derivatives. Then, the benzene ring was opened due to the attack of HO · radicals producing short-chain organic compounds of low molecular weight like glycerol and ethylene glycol. These findings regarding the capability of EDDS/magnetite system to promote heterogeneous photo-Fenton oxidation have important practical implications for water treatment technologies.

  20. Artificial neural networks to evaluate the boron concentration decreasing profile in Blood-BPA samples of BNCT patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Reiriz, Alejandro; Magallanes, Jorge; Zupan, Jure; Líberman, Sara

    2011-01-01

    For the prediction of decay concentration profiles of the p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in blood during BNCT treatment, a method is suggested based on Kohonen neural networks. The results of a model trained with the concentration profiles from the literature are described. The prediction of the model was validated by the leave-one-out method. Its robustness shows that it is mostly independent on small variations. The ability to fit retrospective experimental data shows an uncertainty lower than the two compartment model used previously. - Highlights: ► We predicted decaying concentration profiles of BPA in blood during BNCT therapy. ► Is suggested a method based on Kohonen neural networks. ► The results show that it is very robust and mostly independent of small variations. ► It has a better ability to fit retrospective experimental data. ► The model could be progressively improved by adding new data to the training matrix.

  1. Early phase II study on BNCT in metastatic malignant melanoma using the boron carrier BPA (EORTC protocol 11011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, Andrea; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Moss, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the trial is to examine the clinical response of metastatic melanoma following BNCT with BPA. The trial contains an optional biodistribution sub-study, which is done if operable metastases are removed prior BNCT. BNCT is applied in 2 fractions at the HFR in Petten. In cases of diffuse brain metastases the whole brain is irradiated homogeneously using 5 irradiation beams from different directions. Up to now 4 patients suffering from multiple brain metastases (more than 20) have been included. In all cases we observed a partial response or no change in the irradiated volume. However, none of the patients survived more than 3 months. The pharmacokinetic of the BPA can be predicted very precisely using a two-compartment model. The treatment can be performed safety. (author)

  2. Modeling and optimization of tissue 10B concentration and dosimetry for arbitrary BPA-F infusion schedules in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiger, W.S. III; Newton, T.H.; Palmer, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Separate compartmental models have been derived for the concentration of 10 B resulting from BPA-F infusion in the central vascular space (i.e., blood or, more appropriately, plasma) and in glioblastoma multiforme and normal brain. By coupling the model for the temporal variation of 10 B concentration in the central vascular space with that for tissue, the dynamic behavior of the 10 B concentration and the resulting dosimetry in the relevant tissues and blood may be predicted for arbitrary infusion schedules. This coupled model may be used as a tool for identifying the optimal time for BNCT irradiation and optimal BPA-F infusion schedule (i.e., temporal targeting) in humans without the need for expensive and time-consuming pharmacokinetic studies for every infusion schedule considered. This model was used to analyze the concentration profiles resulting from a wide range of infusion schedules and their implications for dosimetry. (author)

  3. Analytical determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol analogues in paper products by GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurek, A; Leitner, E

    2017-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA; 4-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propan-2-yl]phenol), a suspected endocrine disruptor with a weak estrogenic activity, is used in a variety of consumer products, including food-contact materials made of paper and cardboard products. Due to restrictions on the use of BPA because of its potential health risks, BPA is gradually being replaced by other bisphenols because no limitations exist for these substances. This study presents a method for the simultaneous analysis of BPA, bisphenol AF (BPAF), bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) in paper and board products using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Paper samples were extracted by liquid extraction, as well as by Folch extraction, derivatised with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and the results compared. The developed method showed good linearity (R 2  > 0.9965) and precision, yielding relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 16.6% for reproducibility and 19.8% for repeatability. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for the different bisphenols ranged from 0.23 to 2.70 µg kg - 1 paper and from 0.78 to 9.10 µg kg - 1 paper, respectively. Analysis of different paper products (recycled, virgin fibre) showed that all the analysed bisphenols were present in the samples, except for BPAF and BPB. A calculation of the 'worst-case' scenario assuming a maximum potential migration of 100% of the analytes into food showed that the analysed products can be assumed to be safe regarding the migration of bisphenols.

  4. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

    1999-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  5. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact

  6. Projecting the epidemiological effect, cost-effectiveness and transmission of HIV drug resistance in Vietnam associated with viral load monitoring strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quang Duy; Wilson, David P; Nguyen, Thuong Vu; Do, Nhan Thi; Truong, Lien Xuan; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Zhang, Lei

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential epidemiological impact of viral load (VL) monitoring and its cost-effectiveness in Vietnam, where transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) prevalence has increased from HIV drug-resistance tests. We assessed the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted for each scenario. Projecting expected ART scale-up levels, to approximately double the number of people on ART by 2030, will lead to an estimated 18 510 cases (95% CI: 9120-34 600 cases) of TDR and 55 180 cases (95% CI: 40 540-65 900 cases) of acquired drug resistance (ADR) in the absence of VL monitoring. This projection corresponds to a TDR prevalence of 16% (95% CI: 11%-24%) and ADR of 18% (95% CI: 15%-20%). Annual or biennial VL monitoring with 30% coverage is expected to relieve 12%-31% of TDR (2260-5860 cases), 25%-59% of ADR (9620-22 650 cases), 2%-6% of HIV-related deaths (360-880 cases) and 19 270-51 400 DALYs during 2015-30. The 30% coverage of VL monitoring is estimated to cost US$4848-5154 per DALY averted. The projected additional cost for implementing this strategy is US$105-268 million over 2015-30. Our study suggests that a programmatically achievable 30% coverage of VL monitoring can have considerable benefits for individuals and leads to population health benefits by reducing the overall national burden of HIV drug resistance. It is marginally cost-effective according to common willingness-to-pay thresholds. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A cancer research UK pharmacokinetic study of BPA-mannitol in patients with high grade glioma to optimise uptake parameters for clinical trials of BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, S.; James, N.D.; Cruickshank, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation will describe a human pharmacokinetic study which is scheduled to begin recruitment in Summer 2006. The study has been ongoing for approximately 4 years to develop the necessary protocols, validate boron assays and to develop a new formulation of BPA. The study population will be patients with glioblastoma multiforme and the study focuses on the route of infusion (intra venous or intra carotid artery) and in each will assess the effect of administration of mannitol (as a blood-brain barrier disrupter). Mannitol will be administered as a bolus at the beginning of a two hour infusion of BPA. The BPA formulation (BPA - mannitol) is also new and avoids some of the problems of low solubility associated with BPA-fructose as well as the potential risk of fructose intolerance. The approach will include stereotactic biopsy which is necessary to confirm diagnosis. Tissue samples collected will include needle biopsy samples of tumour and brain around tumour for estimation of BPA transporter expression, together with microdialysis catheter collection of extra-cellular fluid and routine collection of blood and urine for BPA levels. Where possible, according to surgical plan and the route of entry, samples of cerebro-spinal will also be collected. These data will be used to develop a pharmacokinetic model following the general approach already established by others in the field. This paper presents initial pre-clinical studies on the BPA-mannitol formulation and some assay validation work together with suggestions for approaches to normalisation of the macroscopic boron assays using simultaneous measurement of Mg levels in tissue. (author)

  8. Vascular parameters continue to decrease post-exposure with simultaneous, but not individual exposure to BPA and hypoxia in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypher, Alysha D; Fetterman, Bryce; Bagatto, Brian

    2018-04-01

    How fish respond to hypoxia, a common stressor, can be altered by simultaneous exposure to pollutants like bisphenol A (BPA), a plasticizer. BPA is cardiotoxic and interferes with the hypoxia inducible factor pathway (HIF-1α), therefore disrupting the hypoxic response. Co-exposure to hypoxia and BPA also causes severe bradycardia and reduced cardiac output in zebrafish larvae. The purpose of this work was to determine how the cardiovascular effects of co-exposure vary with BPA concentration and persist beyond exposure. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 100 μg/L of BPA during normoxia (>6.0 mg/L O 2 ) and hypoxia (2.0 ± 0.5 mg/L O 2 ) between 1 h post fertilization (hpf) and late hatching (72-96 hpf). Heart rate, cardiac output, and red blood cell (RBC) velocity were determined through video microscopy and digital motion analysis at late hatching and 10 days post fertilization (dpf), several days post exposure. In comparison to the hypoxic control, RBC velocity was 25% lower with 0.01 μg/L BPA and hypoxia at late hatching. At 10 dpf, the difference in RBC velocity between these treatments doubled, despite several days of recovery. This coincided with a 24% thinner outer diameter for caudal vein but no effect on cardiac or developmental parameters. Statistical interactions between BPA and oxygen concentration were found for arterial RBC velocity at both ages. Because the co-occurrence of both stressors is extremely common, it would be beneficial to understand how BPA and hypoxia interact to affect cardiovascular function during and after exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]BPA: A perspective application to assess tumour extraction of boron in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichetti, L. [Department of PET and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: luca.menichetti@ifc.cnr.it; Cionini, L. [Unit of Radiotherapy, AOUP-University Hospital, Pisa (Italy); Sauerwein, W.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Duisburg-Essen, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Altieri, S. [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear Physics, Pavia (Italy); Solin, O.; Minn, H. [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku (Finland); Salvadori, P.A. [Department of PET and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a key imaging tool in clinical practice and biomedical research to quantify and study biochemical processes in vivo. Physiologically active compounds are tagged with positron emitters (e.g. {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C, {sup 124}I) while maintaining their biological properties, and are administered intravenously in tracer amounts (10{sup -9}-10{sup -12} M quantities). The recent physical integration of PET and computed tomography (CT) in hybrid PET/CT scanners allows a combined anatomical and functional imaging: nowadays PET molecular imaging is emerging as powerful pharmacological tool in oncology, neurology and for treatment planning as guidance for radiation therapy. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of boron carrier for BNCT and the quantification of {sup 10}B in living tissue were performed by PET in the late nineties using compartmental models based on PET data. Nowadays PET and PET/CT have been used to address the issue of pharmacokinetic, metabolism and accumulation of BPA in target tissue. The added value of the use of L-[{sup 18}F]FBPA and PET/CT in BNCT is to provide key data on the tumour extraction of {sup 10}B-BPA versus normal tissue and to predict the efficacy of the treatment based on a single-study patient analysis. Due to the complexity of a binary treatment like BNCT, the role of PET/CT is currently to design new criteria for patient enrolment in treatment protocols: the L-[{sup 18}F]BPA/PET methodology could be considered as an important tool in newly designed clinical trials to better estimate the concentration ratio of BPA in the tumour as compared to neighbouring normal tissues. Based on these values for individual patients the decision could be made whether BNCT treatment could be advantageous due to a selective accumulation of BPA in an individual tumour. This approach, applicable in different tumour entities like melanoma, glioblastoma and head and neck malignancies, make this methodology as reliable

  10. Evaluation of the toxic effect of endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA) in the acute and chronic toxicity tests with Pomacea lineata gastropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, André Lucas Correa; Soares, Priscila Rafaela Leão; da Silva, Stephannie Caroline Barros Lucas; da Silva, Marília Cordeiro Galvão; Santos, Thamiris Pinheiro; Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro Sales; Soares, Pierre Castro; Cadena, Pabyton Gonçalves

    2017-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plasticizer and a risk when it interacts with organisms, and can cause changes in the development and reproduction of them. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of BPA, by acute and chronic toxicity tests with neonates and adults of Pomacea lineata. Adults and neonates were divided into groups exposed to BPA (1-20mg/L), or 17β-estradiol (1mg/L) and control in the acute and chronic toxicity tests. Behavior, heart rate, reproduction and hemolymph biochemical analysis were measured. In the acute toxicity test, the 96-h LC 50 with adults was 11.09 and with neonates was 3.14mg/L. In this test, it was observed lethargic behavior and an increase of 77.6% of aspartate aminotransferase in the adults' hemolymph (ptest, it was observed behaviors associated with reproduction, as Copulate, in the groups exposed to BPA. The results that were found in this study proved that BPA is a potentially toxic agent to Pomacea lineata according to biological parameters evaluated. These data contribute to the understanding of BPA toxic effects' in the aquatic invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasticizers and BPA Residues in Tunisian and Italian Culinary Herbs and Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Ben Mansour, Hedi; Ben Tekaya, Asma; Beltifa, Asma; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Saiya, Emanuele; Bartolomeo, Giovanni; Dugo, Giacomo; Lo Turco, Vincenzo

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, 18 plasticizers and residues in 10 different Tunisian and Italian culinary herbs and spices (black pepper, mint, caraway, coriander, oregano, rosemary, thyme, fennel, verbena, and laurel) were determined by GC/MS. Di-methylphthalate, di-(2-methylpropyl)adipate, di-n-butyladipate, di-propylphthalate, benzylbenzoate, di-phenylphthalate, and bisphenol A were lower than their LOQ in all 118 samples. Among the Tunisian samples, di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was found in all types of samples and di-butylphthalate in 50% of types; all other phthalates were rarely dectected. Among the adipates, only di-methyladipate was found in 90% of types; di-ethyladipate was seldom found and di-(2-ethylhexyl)adipate only in samples of caraway. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate was found in all types of samples; di-(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate was detected rarely but with high values. Among the Sicilian samples, di-ethylphthalate and di-(2-methylpropyl)phthalate were detected only in samples of mint; di-methyladipate, di-butylphthalate, and benzylbutylphthalate were identified in oregano and laurel; di-(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate only in oregano. In any case, the results suggested that intake of these contaminants through spices and herbs is not a dangerous risk to the consumers. Probably, as already observed for the other food, these contaminants could result from pollution of the environment (air, water, and/or soil) and/or farming methods. Plasticizers and BPA in Tunisian and Italian spices were determined by GC/MS. Tunisian spices seem to contain more residues than Italian samples. Intake of these contaminants by spices is not a dangerous risk to the consumers. These pollutants could result from environmental pollution or agricultural practices. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. 75 FR 27550 - Electrical Interconnection of the Juniper Canyon I Wind Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Electrical Interconnection of the Juniper Canyon I Wind Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION... would be generated from their proposed Juniper Canyon I Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) in Klickitat...

  13. Water pollution abatement programme. The Czech Republic. Project 4.2. Assessing critical loads of acidity to surface waters in the Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity to surface waters, north-eastern Bohemia and northern Moravia, The Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lien, L.; Raclavsky, K.; Raclavska, H.; Matysek, D.; Hovind, H.

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses estimates of critical loads of acidity to surface waters and their exceedances, for north-eastern Bohemia and Moravia in The Czech Republic. The survey covers 13 400 km{sup 2}, or 17% of the area of the country. Varying critical loads were observed within the examined region. 19% of the examined area showed exceedance of critical load and another 11% was close to exceedance. The survey should continue in Bohemia. 24 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Ashland Area Support Substation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides wholesale electric service to the City of Ashland (the City) by transferring power over Pacific Power ampersand Light Company's (PP ampersand L) 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines and through PP ampersand L's Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. The City distributes power over a 12.5-kV system which is heavily loaded during winter peak periods and which has reached the limit of its ability to serve peak loads in a reliable manner. Peak loads under normal winter conditions have exceeded the ratings of the transformers at both the Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. In 1989, the City modified its distribution system at the request of PP ampersand L to allow transfer of three megawatts (MW's) of electric power from the overloaded Ashland Substation to the Oak Knoll Substation. In cooperation with PP ampersand L, BPA installed a temporary 6-8 megavolt-amp (MVA) 115-12.5-kV transformer for this purpose. This additional transformer, however, is only a temporary remedy. BPA needs to provide additional, reliable long-term service to the Ashland area through additional transformation in order to keep similar power failures from occurring during upcoming winters in the Ashland area. The temporary installation of another 20-MVA mobile transformer at the Ashland Substation and additional load curtailment are currently being studied to provide for sustained electrical service by the peak winter period 1992. Two overall electrical plans-of-service are described and evaluated in this report. One of them is proposed for action. Within that proposed plan-of-service are location options for the substation. Note that descriptions of actions that may be taken by the City of Ashland are based on information provided by them

  15. Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    BPA proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Project is intended to mitigate for wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs. The Project would allow the sponsors to secure land and conduct wildlife habitat improvement and long-term management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0940) evaluating the potential environmental effects of the proposed Project (Alternative B) and No Action (Alternative A). Protection and re-establishment of riparian and upland habitat on the Colville Indian Reservation, under Alternative B, would not have a significant adverse environmental impact because: (1) there would be only limited, mostly short-term adverse impacts on soils, water quality, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife (including no effect on endangered species); and (2) there would be no adverse effect on water quantity, cultural resources, or land use. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  16. Models for estimation of the 10B concentration after BPA-fructose complex infusion in patients during epithermal neutron irradiation in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryynaenen, Paeivi M.; Kortesniemi, Mika; Coderre, Jeffrey A.; Diaz, Aidnag Z.; Hiismaeki, Pekka; Savolainen, Sauli E.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To create simple and reliable models for clinical practice for estimating the blood 10 B time-concentration curve after p-boronophenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) infusion in patients during neutron irradiation in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Methods and Materials: BPA-F (290 mg BPA/kg body weight) was infused i.v. during two hours to 10 glioblastoma multiforme patients. Blood samples were collected during and after the infusion. Compartmental models and bi-exponential function fit were constructed based on the 10 B blood time-concentration curve. The constructed models were tested with data from six additional patients who received various amounts of infused BPA-F and data from one patient who received a one-hour infusion of 170 mg BPA/kg body weight. Results: The resulting open two-compartment model and bi-exponential function estimate the clearance of 10 B after 290 mg BPA/kg body weight infusion from the blood with satisfactory accuracy during the first irradiation field (1 ppm, i.e., 7%). The accuracy of the two models in predicting the clearance of 10 B during the second irradiation field are for two-compartment model 1.0 ppm (8%) and 0.2 ppm (2%) for bi-exponential function. The models predict the average blood 10 B concentration with an increasing accuracy as more data points are available during the treatment. Conclusion: By combining the two models, a robust and practical modeling tool is created for the estimation of the 10 B concentration in blood after BPA-F infusion

  17. Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sex-specific modification of hepatic gene expression and epigenome at birth that may exacerbate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strakovsky, Rita S.; Wang, Huan; Engeseth, Nicki J. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Flaws, Jodi A. [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Helferich, William G. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Pan, Yuan-Xiang, E-mail: yxpan@illinois.edu [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Lezmi, Stéphane, E-mail: slezmi@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure increases adulthood hepatic steatosis with reduced mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential epigenetic mechanisms behind developmental BPA-induced hepatic steatosis, pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed with vehicle (oil) or BPA (100 μg/kg/day) from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PND) 21. After weaning, offspring were either challenged with a high-fat (HF; 45% fat) or remained on a control (C) diet until PND110. From PND60 to 90, both BPA and HF diet increased the fat/lean ratio in males only, and the combination of BPA and HF diet appeared to cause the highest ratio. On PND110, Oil-HF, BPA-C, and BPA-HF males had higher hepatic lipid accumulation than Oil-C, with microvesicular steatosis being marked in the BPA-HF group. Furthermore, on PND1, BPA increased and modified hepatic triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) compositions in males only. In PND1 males, BPA increased hepatic expression of FFA uptake gene Fat/Cd36, and decreased the expression of TG synthesis- and β-oxidation-related genes (Dgat, Agpat6, Cebpα, Cebpβ, Pck1, Acox1, Cpt1a, Cybb). BPA altered DNA methylation and histone marks (H3Ac, H4Ac, H3Me2K4, H3Me3K36), and decreased the binding of several transcription factors (Pol II, C/EBPβ, SREBP1) within the male Cpt1a gene, the key β-oxidation enzyme. In PND1 females, BPA only increased the expression of genes involved in FFA uptake and TG synthesis (Lpl, Fasn, and Dgat). These data suggest that developmental BPA exposure alters and reprograms hepatic β-oxidation capacity in males, potentially through the epigenetic regulation of genes, and further alters the response to a HF diet. - Highlights: • Developmental BPA exposure exacerbates HF-diet induced steatosis in adult males. • Gestational BPA exposure increases hepatic lipid accumulation in neonatal males. • BPA decreases Cpt1a and other hepatic β-oxidation genes in neonatal males. • BPA alters neonatal male Cpt1a

  18. Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sex-specific modification of hepatic gene expression and epigenome at birth that may exacerbate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strakovsky, Rita S.; Wang, Huan; Engeseth, Nicki J.; Flaws, Jodi A.; Helferich, William G.; Pan, Yuan-Xiang; Lezmi, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure increases adulthood hepatic steatosis with reduced mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential epigenetic mechanisms behind developmental BPA-induced hepatic steatosis, pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed with vehicle (oil) or BPA (100 μg/kg/day) from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PND) 21. After weaning, offspring were either challenged with a high-fat (HF; 45% fat) or remained on a control (C) diet until PND110. From PND60 to 90, both BPA and HF diet increased the fat/lean ratio in males only, and the combination of BPA and HF diet appeared to cause the highest ratio. On PND110, Oil-HF, BPA-C, and BPA-HF males had higher hepatic lipid accumulation than Oil-C, with microvesicular steatosis being marked in the BPA-HF group. Furthermore, on PND1, BPA increased and modified hepatic triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) compositions in males only. In PND1 males, BPA increased hepatic expression of FFA uptake gene Fat/Cd36, and decreased the expression of TG synthesis- and β-oxidation-related genes (Dgat, Agpat6, Cebpα, Cebpβ, Pck1, Acox1, Cpt1a, Cybb). BPA altered DNA methylation and histone marks (H3Ac, H4Ac, H3Me2K4, H3Me3K36), and decreased the binding of several transcription factors (Pol II, C/EBPβ, SREBP1) within the male Cpt1a gene, the key β-oxidation enzyme. In PND1 females, BPA only increased the expression of genes involved in FFA uptake and TG synthesis (Lpl, Fasn, and Dgat). These data suggest that developmental BPA exposure alters and reprograms hepatic β-oxidation capacity in males, potentially through the epigenetic regulation of genes, and further alters the response to a HF diet. - Highlights: • Developmental BPA exposure exacerbates HF-diet induced steatosis in adult males. • Gestational BPA exposure increases hepatic lipid accumulation in neonatal males. • BPA decreases Cpt1a and other hepatic β-oxidation genes in neonatal males. • BPA alters neonatal male Cpt1a

  19. BPA/Lower Valley transmission project. Final environmental impact statement. Appendices A, B, D, E, G-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration is investigating the feasibility of constructing an additional transmission line, which for the most part will be adjacent to the existing transmission line. This would require the construction or acquisition of additional access roads, used for routine and emergency maintenance and construction activities. A survey was conducted to map any occurrences of threatened, endangered and sensitivity plant species and weed species along the Swan Valley-Teton Line. This report contains Appendices A, B, D, E, G--N

  20. Indoor temperature changes after retrofit: inferences based on electricity billing data for nonparticipants and participants in the BPA Residential Weatherization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; White, D.

    1985-07-01

    This report discusses changes in indoor temperatures in response to retrofit improvements. The data on which this analysis is based are from an evaluation of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) interim Residential Weatherization Program. The BPA program, operated through participating private and public utilities throughout the Pacific Northwest, offered financial assistance (generally a cash rebate) to encourage installation of energy-efficiency improvements to existing homes in the region. These retrofits included attic, wall, floor and heating duct insulation; storm windows and doors; clock thermostats; and caulking and weatherstripping. This program, which operated during 1982 and 1983, weatherized 104 thousand homes at a total cost to BPA of $157 million. In mid-1983, staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Evaluation Research Corporation began an evaluation of the BPA program. The primary focus of this evaluation was assessment of the actual electricity saving that can be attributed to the program (Hirst, et al., 1985). These savings estimates were used to help assess the economic attractiveness of the program to participants, the BPA power system, and the Pacific Northwest region as a whole.

  1. Artificial neural networks to evaluate the boron concentration decreasing profile in Blood-BPA samples of BNCT patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Reiriz, Alejandro, E-mail: garciareiriz@gmail.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, National University of Rosario, Rosario Institute of Chemistry (IQUIR-CONICET), Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Magallanes, Jorge [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zupan, Jure [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SLO-1000 Ljubljana, Eslovenia (Slovenia); Liberman, Sara [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    For the prediction of decay concentration profiles of the p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in blood during BNCT treatment, a method is suggested based on Kohonen neural networks. The results of a model trained with the concentration profiles from the literature are described. The prediction of the model was validated by the leave-one-out method. Its robustness shows that it is mostly independent on small variations. The ability to fit retrospective experimental data shows an uncertainty lower than the two compartment model used previously. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We predicted decaying concentration profiles of BPA in blood during BNCT therapy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is suggested a method based on Kohonen neural networks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results show that it is very robust and mostly independent of small variations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has a better ability to fit retrospective experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model could be progressively improved by adding new data to the training matrix.

  2. Identification of secretaglobin Scgb2a1 as a target for developmental reprogramming by BPA in the rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rebecca Lee Yean; Wang, Quan; Treviño, Lindsey S; Bosland, Maarten C; Chen, Jing; Medvedovic, Mario; Prins, Gail S; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Walker, Cheryl Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Secretoglobins are a superfamily of secreted proteins thought to participate in inflammation, tissue repair, and tumorigenesis. Secretoglobin family 2A member 1 (Scgb2a1) is a component of prostatein, a major androgen-binding protein secreted by the rat prostate. Using a rat model for developmental reprogramming of susceptibility to prostate carcinogenesis, we identified, by RNA-seq, that Scgb2a1 is significantly upregulated (>100-fold) in the prostate of adult rats neonatally exposed to bisphenol A (BPA), with increased gene expression confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation for histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation. Bisulfite analysis of both CpG islands located within 10 kb of the Scgb2a1 promoter identified significant hypomethylation of the CpG island upstream of the transcription start site of this gene in the reprogrammed prostate. These data suggest that expression of Scgb2a1 in the adult prostate could be epigenetically reprogrammed by BPA exposure during prostate development, with potential implications for cancer risk and response to chemotherapeutics associated with prostatein binding.

  3. Optimisation of load control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  4. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  5. 10B-NMR determination of 10B-BPA, 10B-BPA–fructose complex and total 10B in blood for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, K.; Yabe, T.; Hattori, T.; Saito, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Ohki, H.

    2014-01-01

    First spontaneous, noninvasive determination method of 10 B-BPA, 10 B-BPA–fructose complex, and total 10 B in blood is described. 10 B-NMR measurement with 100,000 FT accumulation enables us to obtain the result within 100 min/sample. The detection limits for the simultaneous analysis were 3 ppm, 3 ppm and 6 ppm for 10 B-BPA, 10 B-BPA–fructose complex and total 10 B respectively in this study. By this method, we can actually discuss behavior of the 10 B-BPA–fructose complex in blood. - Highlights: • First 10 B-NMR determination of 10 B-BPA and 10 B-BPA–fructose complex in blood. • Total 10 B concentration in blood could be obtained by this method • The detection limit was 3 ppm for total 10 B

  6. Field review of fish habitat improvement projects in central Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beschta, R.L.; Griffith, J.; Wesche, T.A.

    1993-05-01

    The goal of this field review was to provide information to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) regarding previous and ongoing fish habitat improvement projects in central Idaho. On July 14, 1992, the review team met at the Sawtooth National Recreation Area office near Ketchum, Idaho, for a slide presentation illustrating several habitat projects during their construction phases. Following the slide presentation, the review team inspected fish habitat projects that have been implemented in the last several years in the Stanley Basin and adjacent valleys. At each site the habitat project was described to the field team and a brief period for project inspection followed. The review team visited approximately a dozen sites on the Challis, Sawtooth, and Boise National Forests over a period of approximately two and a half days. There are two objectives of this review namely to summarize observations for specific field sites and to provide overview commentary regarding the BPA habitat improvement program in central Idaho

  7. Evaluation of BPA uptake in clear cell sarcoma (CCS) in vitro and development of an in vivo model of CCS for BNCT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, T; Andoh, T; Sudo, T; Fujita, I; Imabori, M; Moritake, H; Sugimoto, T; Sakuma, Y; Takeuchi, T; Sonobe, H; Epstein, Alan L; Akisue, T; Kirihata, M; Kurosaka, M; Fukumori, Y; Ichikawa, H

    2011-12-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS), a rare malignant tumor with a predilection for young adults, is of poor prognosis. Recently however, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with the use of p-borono-L-phenylalanine (BPA) for malignant melanoma has provided good results. CCS also produces melanin; therefore, the uptake of BPA is the key to the application of BNCT to CCS. We describe, for the first time, the high accumulation of boron in CCS and the CCS tumor-bearing animal model generated for BNCT studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of low-dose chronic exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) on adult male zebrafish adaption to the environmental complexity: Disturbing the color preference patterns and reliving the anxiety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Li, Xu; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Dai, Liang-Ti; Liu, Xing-Yu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2017-11-01

    The extensive usage of xenobiotic endocrine disrupting chemicals (XEDCs), such as Bisphenol A (BPA), has created obvious threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Although a comprehensive understanding of the adverse effect of BPA on behaviors and physiology have been proven, the potential impact of low-dose BPA on altering the basic ability of aquatic organism in adapting to the surrounded complex environment still remains elusive. In this research, we report that treatment of adult male zebrafish with chronic (7 weeks) low-dose (0.22 nM-2.2 nM) BPA, altered the ability in adapting the complex environment by disturbing the natural color preference patterns. In addition, chronic 50 ng/L (0.22 nM) BPA exposure alleviated the anxiety behavior of male zebrafish confronted with the novel environment by enhancing the preference towards light in the light/dark preference test. This phenotype was associated with less expression of serotonin (5-TH) in the hypothalamus and the down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in brain tissues. As such, our results show that low-dose BPA remnant in surface waters altered zebrafish behavior that are known to have ecological and evolutionary consequences. Here we reported that the impact of chronic low-dose BPA exposure on the basic capability of zebrafish to adapt to the environmental complexity. Specifically, BPA at low concentration, under the environmental safety level and 3000-fold lower than the accepted human daily exposure, interfered with the ability to discriminate color and alleviate anxiety induced by the novel environment, which finally altered the capability of male zebrafish to adapt to the environmental complexity. These findings revealed the ecological effect of low-dose BPA and regular BPA concentration standard are not necessarily safe. The result also provided the consideration of retuning the hazard concentration level of BPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lower Columbia River Terminal Fisheries Research Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-04-01

    This notice announces BPA`S`s decision to fund the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the Clatsop Economic Development Committee for the Lower Columbia River Terminal Fisheries Research Project (Project). The Project will continue the testing of various species/stocks, rearing regimes, and harvest options for terminal fisheries, as a means to increase lower river sport and commercial harvest of hatchery fish, while providing both greater protection of weaker wild stocks and increasing the return of upriver salmon runs to potential Zone 6 Treaty fisheries. The Project involves relocating hatchery smolts to new, additional pen locations in three bays/sloughs in the lower Columbia River along both the Oregon and Washington sides. The sites are Blind Slough and Tongue Point in Clatsop County, Oregon, and Grays Bay/Deep River, Wahkiakum County, Washington. The smolts will be acclimated for various lengths of time in the net pens and released from these sites. The Project will expand upon an existing terminal fisheries project in Youngs Bay, Oregon. The Project may be expanded to other sites in the future, depending on the results of this initial expansion. BPA`S has determined the project is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and BPA`S is issuing this FONSI.

  10. The hamster cheek pouch (HCP) as an experimental model of oral cancer for BNCT: biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreimann, E.; Itoiz, M.E.; Dagrosa, A.; Garavaglia, R.; Farias, S.; Batistoni, D.; Schwint, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    We propose and validate the HCP model of oral cancer for BNCT studies. This model serves to explore new applications of the technique, study the biology of BNCT and assess Boron uptake in clinically relevant oral tissues. Tumors are induced by a process that mimics spontaneous malignant transformation instead of by the growth of implanted tumor cells. Syrian hamsters were submitted to tumor induction with a chemical carcinogenesis protocol and then used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies of BPA. The data reveal selective uptake by tumor and, to a lesser degree, by precancerous tissue. Boron concentration in oral tissues and skin was higher than in blood, an issue of clinical relevance given that these tissues may be dose-limiting. Absolute and relative values of Boron concentration would be potentially therapeutic. Boron concentration exhibited a linear relationship with percentage of viable tissue in HCP tumors. The HCP model would provide a novel, contributory approach to BNCT research. (author)

  11. Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1-F3 following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA, bis(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the "plastics" or "lower dose plastics" mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures.

  12. Wind River Watershed Project; 1998 Annual Report; Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    The authors report here their on-ground restoration actions. Part 1 describes work conducted by the Underwood Conservation District (UCD) on private lands. This work involves the Stabler Cut-Bank project. Part 2 describes work conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. The Stabler Cut-Bank Project is a cooperative stream restoration effort between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the UCD, private landowners, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The Stabler site was identified by UCD during stream surveys conducted in 1996 as part of a USFWS funded project aimed at initiating water quality and habitat restoration efforts on private lands in the basin. In 1997 the Wind River Watershed Council selected the project as a top priority demonstration project. The landowners were approached by the UCD and a partnership developed. Due to their expertise in channel rehabilitation, the Forest Service was consulted for the design and assisted with the implementation of the project. A portion of the initial phase of the project was funded by USFWS. However, the majority of funding (approximately 80%) has been provided by BPA and it is anticipated that additional work that is planned for the site will be conducted with BPA funds

  13. Dust Measurement of Two Organophosphorus Flame Retardants, Resorcinol Bis(diphenylphosphate) (RBDPP) and Bisphenol A Bis(diphenylphosphate) (BPA-BDPP), Used as Alternatives for BDE-209

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, S.H.; Sellström, U.; de Wit, C.A.; de Boer, J.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Resorcinol bis(diphenylphosphate) (RBDPP) and bisphenol A bis(diphenylphosphate) (BPA-BDPP) are two halogen-free organophosphorus flame retardant (PFRs) that are used as an alternative for the decabromodiphenyl ether (Deca-BDE) technical mixture in TV/flatscreen housing and other electronic consumer

  14. Amendment of the assured delivery provisions of BPA's Long-Term Intertie Access Policy and increased assured delivery: Access for non-scheduling utilities. Record of decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration's BPA's preferred alternative for providing non-Federal Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest (PNW-PSW) Intertie access is to adopt the Capacity Ownership alternative combined with the Increased Assured Delivery--Access for Non-Scheduling Utilities alternative. BPA's decision to offer Capacity Ownership was documented in a March 1994 Non-Federal Capacity Ownership Record of Decision (ROD). This ROD documents BPA's decision to facilitate PNW-PSW Intertie access by proceeding with (1) bidirectional Increased Assured Delivery--Access for Non Scheduling Utilities; and (2) amending the Assured Delivery provisions of BPA's Long-Term Intertie Access Policy (LTIAP). Given that the various non-Federal PNW-PSW Intertie access alternatives in the NFP EIS all allowed for different types of contracts, little environmental impact difference among the alternatives was found. Rather, environmental impact was found to be associated with whether exchange contracts or firm power sales contracts would predominate. Such impacts and related environmental analysis are discussed further in section 3.0 of this ROD

  15. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  16. Reliable implementation of intelligent load control and decentralized power generation in the E-Energy project E-DeMa; Zuverlaessige Integration intelligenter Laststeuerung und dezentraler Energieerzeugung im E-Energy Projekt E-DeMa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langhammer, N.; Kays, R. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Kommunikationstechnik; Mueller, C.; Wietfeld, C. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Kommunikationsnetze; Kreutz, S.; Belitz, H.J.; Koenig, D.; Rehtanz, C. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiesysteme, Energieeffizienz und Energiewirtschaft

    2012-07-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the integration of intelligent load control and distributed power producers into future smart grid energy systems. The authors present the approaches and innovations that have been developed in the framework of the E-Energy project E-DeMa. The focus of this paper is on the implementation of a communication infrastructure that has been built up in E-DeMa in a large-scale field test in two pilot regions and is currently being tested. Furthermore, the economic potential of the so-called aggregator is presented that summarizes a variety of loads in the retail sector in and intelligently controls remotely.

  17. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Washington Facilities (Intrastate) Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howerton, Jack

    1984-11-01

    This report was prepared for BPA in fulfillment of section 1004 (b)(1) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, to review the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation program at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Projects addressed are: Merwin Dam; Swift Project; Yale Project; Cowlitz River; Boundary Dam; Box Canyon Dam; Lake Chelan; Condit Project; Enloe Project; Spokane River; Tumwater and Dryden Dam; Yakima; and Naches Project.

  18. EPA oyster project: nitrogen in water. - Transport and fate of nutrient and pathogen loadings into nearshore Puget Sound: consequences for shellfish growing areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project seeks to develop and apply an assessment of shellfish growing area (SGA) vulnerability to closures caused by watershed- and marine-derived pathogens....

  19. Vehicle Ancillary Load Reduction Project Close-Out Report: An Overview of the Task and a Compilation of the Research Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J.; Farrington, R.

    2008-01-01

    The amount of fuel used for climate control in U.S. vehicles reduces the fuel economy of more than 200 million light-duty conventional vehicles and thus affects U.S. energy security. Researchers at the DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory estimated that the United States consumes about 7 billion gallons of fuel per year for air-conditioning (A/C) light-duty vehicles. Using a variety of tools, NREL researchers developed innovative techniques and technologies to reduce the amount of fuel needed for these vehicles' ancillary loads. For example, they found that the A/C cooling capacity of 5.7 kW in a Cadillac STS could be reduced by 30% while maintaining a cooldown performance of 30 minutes. A simulation showed that reducing the A/C load by 30% decreased A/C fuel consumption by 26%. Other simulations supported the great potential for improving fuel economy by using new technologies and techniques developed to reduce ancillary loads.

  20. The Chad-Cameroon petroleum project: loaded dices on the pipeline; Projet petrolier Tchad-Cameroun: des pipes sur le pipe-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The project of a oil pipeline starting from Chad and passing threw Cameroon has raised several controversies. History has shown several times in the past that oil discovery in Africa is very often synonymous of the increase of corruption and dictatorship. Talking into account the political situation of both countries, this book explains how this project can be a source of anxiety, in particular concerning the populations' rights and the environment protection. (J.S.)

  1. The Chad-Cameroon petroleum project: loaded dices on the pipeline; Projet petrolier Tchad-Cameroun: des pipes sur le pipe-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The project of a oil pipeline starting from Chad and passing threw Cameroon has raised several controversies. History has shown several times in the past that oil discovery in Africa is very often synonymous of the increase of corruption and dictatorship. Talking into account the political situation of both countries, this book explains how this project can be a source of anxiety, in particular concerning the populations' rights and the environment protection. (J.S.)

  2. Comparative study of two boron compounds (BPA and BOPP) for the application of BNCT to an animal model of undifferentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, Maria A.; Viaggi, Mabel; Juvenal, Guillermo; Pisarev, Mario A.

    2003-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the selective uptake of certain boron compounds by tumors. Once the uptake, relative to normal tissues, is equal of greater than 3, the tumoral area is irradiated with an appropriate neutron beam. The 10 B is then converted into 11 B and this decays releasing an atom of Li, gamma rays and alpha particles. These latter have a high linear energy transfer (LET) and will cause local damage, eventually killing the tumoral cells. At the present time several clinical trials are being conducted in different countries to treat patients with glioblastoma multiform and melanomas. So far the results obtained, specially with this last disease, are quite encouraging. Undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor which does not respond to the therapies available at the present. Usually it has a very bad prognosis with a very short survival period. We have previously shown that the human UTC cell line ARO has an uptake of borophenylanine (BPA) significantly greater than normal thyroid or than human follicular adenoma cells in culture. Moreover, an animal model for UTC was developed in our laboratory by transplanting the human ARO cells into nude mice. This model closely resembles the evolution of human disease and even produces lung metastasis, like the human. In the present studies we have compared the uptake of two boron compounds: BPA and boronated porphyrin (BOPP). BPA was administered via ip in a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight, while BOPP was given either ip or iv, in doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The animals were sacrificed at different times after the injection: up to 150 min for BPA and after 24 h with BOPP. The concentration of boron was determined by ICP-AES. The results obtained showed that the uptake of BPA was significantly greater in the tumoral area and in the infiltrated surrounding skin than in the other organs examined (liver, kidney, lung, mice thyroid, blood, spleen and distal skin

  3. Survey of magnetic fields near BPA 230-kV and 500-kV transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, N.; Aggarwal, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize typical levels and variability of 60Hz magnetic fields at the centerline and edge of right-of-way of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) 230-kV and 500-kV transmission lines. This was accomplished by taking magnetic field measurements at over 800 spans in Oregon and Washington. The spans were sampled using a stratified random sampling procedure with region (East vs. West), voltage (230-kV vs 500-kV), and circuit configuration as strata. There were five different circuit configuration groups for each region/voltage category requiring a total of 200 strata. Magnetic field measurements were taken at 13 locations under each span using an EMDEX-C as a survey meter. Additional information recorded for each span included conductor height (at 10 locations), right-of-way width, longitudinal and lateral slope, time of day, vegetation, terrain, weather conditions, temperature, wind speed, span length and presence of other lines in the corridor. 9 refs., 17 figs., 26 tabs

  4. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  5. Evaluation of the toxic effects of brominated compounds (BDE-47, 99, 209, TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA) using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Chan, King Ming, E-mail: kingchan@cuhk.edu.hk

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A homologous zebrafish thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR) reporter gene system was developed in a zebrafish liver cell-line (ZFL) to study the possible effects of chemicals on TR activities. • BPA was found to have antagonistic effects on T3 induced TR activity, BDE-47, BDE-99, and TBBPA did not show any interference of TR activity. • Down regulation of deiodinases and some sulfation enzymes or phase II enzymes by the tested chemicals indicated their impacts on TH eleiminations. • The up-regulation of tranthyretin by BDE-47 at 96 h long-term exposure gave a link to the CYP family for its role in producing a more toxic and oxidized form. - Abstract: The toxic effects of three polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE-47, -99, and -209), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA), were evaluated by determining their 24 h and 96 h median lethal concentrations using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL. It was found that BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA showed comparative cytotoxicity within the range of 1.2–4.2 μM, and were more toxic than BPA (367.1 μM at 24 h and 357.6 μM at 96 h). However, BDE-209 induced only 15% lethality with exposures up to 25 μM. The molecular stresses of BDE-47, -99, TBBPA and BPA involved in thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis and hepatic metabolism were also investigated. Using a reporter gene system to detect zebrafish thyroid hormone receptor β (zfTRβ) transcriptional activity, the median effective concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) was determined to be 9.2 × 10{sup −11} M. BDE-47, BDE-99, TBBPA and BPA alone, however, did not exhibit zfTRβ agonistic activity. BPA displayed T3 (0.1 nM) induced zfTRβ antagonistic activity with a median inhibitory concentration of 19.3 μM. BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA displayed no antagonistic effects of T3-induced zfTRβ activity. Target gene expressions were also examined under acute exposures. The significant inhibition of different types of deiodinases by all of

  6. Determination of BPA, BPB, BPF, BADGE and BFDGE in canned energy drinks by molecularly imprinted polymer cleaning up and UPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Pasquale; Di Marco Pisciottano, Ilaria; Esposito, Francesco; Fasano, Evelina; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Mita, Gustavo Damiano; Cirillo, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    A new method for simultaneous determination of five bisphenols in canned energy drinks by UPLC with fluorescence detection, after clean up on molecularly imprinted polymers, is herein described. The method was validated at two concentration levels, calculating trueness, repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility, specificity, linearity of detector response, the limits of quantifications and the limits of detection for each bisphenol. The method is specific, reliable and very sensitive, allowing for determination of bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE), bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) down to 0.50ng/mL; it was employed to determine contamination levels from these bisphenols in forty energy drinks of different brands, collected from the market in Naples. BPA was detected in 17 out of 40 samples (42.5%); in some energy drinks also BPF, BADGE and BFDGE were determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A cancer research UK pharmacokinetic study of BPA-mannitol in patients with high grade glioma to optimise uptake parameters for clinical trials of BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruickshank, G.S. [University of Birmingham and University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)], E-mail: garth.cruickshank@uhb.nhs.uk; Ngoga, D.; Detta, A.; Green, S.; James, N.D.; Wojnecki, C.; Doran, J.; Hardie, J.; Chester, M.; Graham, N.; Ghani, Z. [University of Birmingham and University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Halbert, G.; Elliot, M.; Ford, S. [CR-UK Formulation Unit, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Braithwaite, R.; Sheehan, T.M.T. [Regional Laboratory for Toxicology, Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Vickerman, J.; Lockyer, N. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Steinfeldt, H.; Croswell, G. [CR-UK Drug Development Office, London (United Kingdom)] (and others)

    2009-07-15

    This paper describes results to-date from a human pharmacokinetic study which began recruitment in December 2007. Results are presented for a single patient recruited in December 2007. A second patient was recruited in July 2008 but detailed data are not available at the time of writing. The trial is an open-label, non-comparative, non-therapeutic study of BPA-mannitol in patients with high-grade glioma, who will be undergoing stereotactic brain biopsy as part of the diagnostic process before definitive treatment. The study investigates the route of infusion (intra-venous (IV) or intra-carotid artery) and in each case will assess the effect of administration of mannitol as a blood-brain barrier disrupter. All cohorts will receive a 2 h infusion of BPA-mannitol, and for some cohorts an additional mannitol bolus will be administered at the beginning of this infusion. Measurements are made by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of {sup 10}B concentration in samples of blood, urine, extra-cellular fluid in normal brain (via a dialysis probe), brain tissue around tumour and tumour tissue. Additional analysis of the tumour tissue is performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The first patient was part of the cohort having intra-venous infusion without mannitol bolus. No serious clinical problems were experienced and the assay results can be compared with available patient data from other BNCT centres. In particular we note that the peak {sup 10}B concentration in blood was 28.1 mg/ml for a total BPA administration of 350 mg/kg which is very consistent with the previous experience with BPA-fructose reported by the Helsinki group.

  8. In vitro impact of bisphenols BPA, BPF, BPAF and 17β-estradiol (E2) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cell generation, maturation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švajger, Urban; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Jeras, Matjaž

    2016-05-01

    Bisphenols (BPs) are widely spread pollutants that act as estrogen-like endocrine disruptors and are potentially affecting human health on a long run. We explored the effects of BPA, BPF and BPAF, on in vitro differentiation and maturation of MDDCs. Monocytes were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) and each BP at the beginning of their differentiation into iMDDCs. We found that 10 and 50 μM of BPA and BPF, 10 and 30μM of BPAF and 10 and 50 nM of E2 did not affect cell viability. However, 50 μM of BPA and BPF, as well as 10 and 30 μM of BPAF, significantly decreased the endocytotic capacity of iMDDCs. Both, BPA (50 μM) and BPAF (30 μM) decreased the expression of CD1a and increased the amount of DC-SIGN molecules on iMDDCs. The E2 pre-treatment moderately decreased expression of CD80, CD86 and CD83 co-stimulatory molecules while increasing the numbers of HLA-DR on mMDDCs. Only BPAF significantly influenced the expression of CD80 and CD86 (both decreased), as well as CD83 and HLA-DR molecules (both increased) on mMDDCs. In addition, BPAF modulated DC maturation signaling pathways by lowering the phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappaB) and ERK (extracellular signal regulated kinase) 1/2 proteins. Consequently, the in vitro proliferation of allogeneic T cells, stimulated with differently pre-treated iMDDCs and mMDDCs, was significantly reduced only in case of BPAF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A cancer research UK pharmacokinetic study of BPA-mannitol in patients with high grade glioma to optimise uptake parameters for clinical trials of BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruickshank, G.S.; Ngoga, D.; Detta, A.; Green, S.; James, N.D.; Wojnecki, C.; Doran, J.; Hardie, J.; Chester, M.; Graham, N.; Ghani, Z.; Halbert, G.; Elliot, M.; Ford, S.; Braithwaite, R.; Sheehan, T.M.T.; Vickerman, J.; Lockyer, N.; Steinfeldt, H.; Croswell, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes results to-date from a human pharmacokinetic study which began recruitment in December 2007. Results are presented for a single patient recruited in December 2007. A second patient was recruited in July 2008 but detailed data are not available at the time of writing. The trial is an open-label, non-comparative, non-therapeutic study of BPA-mannitol in patients with high-grade glioma, who will be undergoing stereotactic brain biopsy as part of the diagnostic process before definitive treatment. The study investigates the route of infusion (intra-venous (IV) or intra-carotid artery) and in each case will assess the effect of administration of mannitol as a blood-brain barrier disrupter. All cohorts will receive a 2 h infusion of BPA-mannitol, and for some cohorts an additional mannitol bolus will be administered at the beginning of this infusion. Measurements are made by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of 10 B concentration in samples of blood, urine, extra-cellular fluid in normal brain (via a dialysis probe), brain tissue around tumour and tumour tissue. Additional analysis of the tumour tissue is performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The first patient was part of the cohort having intra-venous infusion without mannitol bolus. No serious clinical problems were experienced and the assay results can be compared with available patient data from other BNCT centres. In particular we note that the peak 10 B concentration in blood was 28.1 mg/ml for a total BPA administration of 350 mg/kg which is very consistent with the previous experience with BPA-fructose reported by the Helsinki group.

  10. Effects of BPA and E2 on expression profiles of genes related to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengling; Li, Zhaoxin; Wang, Qingyin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2013-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly viewed as persistent pollutants, similar to natural hormones in function. This paper describes the expression profiles of 7 genes ( DMRT, VTG GnRHR FSHR CYP17A CYP19A, and CYP19B) involved in sex steroid synthesis and action as well as sexual development in adult male and female Cynoglossus semilaevis, after exposure to different concentrations of Bisphenol A (BPA) and 17β-estradiol (E2). Both BPA (1, 10, 50, 125, and 250 mg/kg) and E2 (0.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) induced changes in target gene expression, although the estrogenic effects of E2 as a model estrogen were stronger. Among the 7 genes, VTG CYP17A and CYP19 responded strongly to BPA or E2 exposure and can thus serve as reference biomarkers for estrogenic EDCs exposure in marine teleosts. These data will provide a window to establish a hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal model in C. semilaevis to better understand the effect pathways of EDCs.

  11. The results of a non-linear mathematical model for the kinetics of 10B after BPA-F infusion in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryynaenen, P.; Savolainen, S.; Hiismaeki, P.; Kangasmaeki, A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to create a model for the kinetics of 10 B in glioma patients after p-boronophenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) infusion in order to predict the 10 B concentration in blood during the neutron irradiations in BNCT. The more specific aim was to create a flexible model that would work with variable infusion duration and variable amounts of infused BRA, by forehand carrying out only 1 to 2 kinetic studies per different trials. Previously used bi-exponential fitting and open compartmental model are capable, but, however, heavy kinetic studies are needed before they are reliable enough. A model probe with a memory effect based on phenomenological findings was created. The model development was based on the data from 10 glioblastoma multiforme patients from the Brookhaven National Laboratory BNCT trials. These patients received i.v. 290 mg BPA/kg body weight as a fructose complex during two hours. Blood samples were collected during and after the infusion. The accuracy of the model was verified with distinctive fitting of 10 new glioma patient data from the Finnish BNCT-trials. The 10 B- concentration in whole blood samples was determined by ICP-AES method. In the study it is concluded that the constructed non-linear model is flexible and capable in describing the kinetics of 10 B concentration in blood after a single infusion of BPA-F. (author)

  12. California Publicly-Owned Utilities (POUs) – LBNL ‘Beyond Widgets’ Project. Task: ambient lighting and occupancy-based plug load control. System Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alastair; Mathew, Paul A.; Regnier, Cynthia; Schwartz, Peter; Schakelford, Jordan; Walter, Travis

    2017-09-01

    This program manual contains detailed technical information for implementing an incentive program for task-ambient lighting and occupancy-based plug load control. This manual was developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in collaboration with the California Publicly-Owned Utilities (CA POUs) as a partner in the ‘Beyond Widgets’ program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office. The primary audience for this manual is the program staff of the various CA POUs. It may also be used by other utility incentive programs to help develop similar programs. It is anticipated that the content of this manual be utilized by the CA POU staff for developing related documents such as the Technical Resource Manual and other filings pertaining to the rollout of an energy systems-based rebate incentive program.

  13. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Sioux County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  14. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Johnson County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  15. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Ida County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  16. Load and resistance factor design of drilled shafts in shale for lateral loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    A research project involving 32 drilled shaft load tests was undertaken to establish LRFD procedures for : design of drilled shafts subjected to lateral loads. Tests were performed at two Missouri Department of : Transportation (MoDOT) geotechnical r...

  17. Disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish embryo-larvae following waterborne exposure to BDE-47, TBBPA and BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Winson K. [Biochemistry Program, School of Life Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chan, King Ming, E-mail: kingchan@cuhk.edu.hk [Biochemistry Program, School of Life Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Environmental Science Program, School of Life Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2012-02-15

    We performed waterborne exposures of 2,2 Prime ,4,4 Prime -tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) or bisphenol A (BPA) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo-larvae and quantitatively measured the expression of genes belonging to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis to assess for adverse thyroid function. For analysis on the effects of BDE-47, TBBPA and BPA on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid genes, zebrafish embryo-larvae were acutely exposed to lethal concentrations of the chemical agents in order to determine the 96 h-LC50 (96 h lethal median concentration) and 96 h-EC50 (96 h effective median concentration) values. Further exposures at sub-lethal concentrations were then carried out and total RNA samples were extracted to quantify the mRNA expression levels of the genes of interest. In larvae, BDE-47 was found to have significantly induced many genes of interest, namely thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, thyroid receptors {alpha} and {beta}, thyroid stimulating hormone, and transthyretin. TBBPA only significantly induced three genes of interest (thyroid receptor {alpha}, thyroid stimulating hormone, and transthyretin) while BPA only induced thyroid stimulating hormone. In embryos, BDE-47 significantly induced the sodium iodide symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone. TBBPA significantly induced thyroid receptor {alpha} and thyroid stimulating hormone, while BPA did not significantly induce any of the genes. Most genes were only induced at the 75% 96 h-LC50 or 96 h-EC50 value; however, thyroid peroxidase and thyroid stimulating hormone demonstrated upregulation in a level as little as the 10% 96 h-LC50 value. The present study provides a new set of data on zebrafish mRNA induction of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid genes from exposure to BDE-47, TBBPA, or BPA. This information would serve useful for elucidating the toxicological mechanism of brominated flame retardants, assessing appropriate safety levels in the environment for

  18. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.ar [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ({sup 10}BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10{sup 6} MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of {sup 10}B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R{sup 2} = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R{sup 2} = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT

  19. Disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish embryo–larvae following waterborne exposure to BDE-47, TBBPA and BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Winson K.; Chan, King Ming

    2012-01-01

    We performed waterborne exposures of 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) or bisphenol A (BPA) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo–larvae and quantitatively measured the expression of genes belonging to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis to assess for adverse thyroid function. For analysis on the effects of BDE-47, TBBPA and BPA on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid genes, zebrafish embryo–larvae were acutely exposed to lethal concentrations of the chemical agents in order to determine the 96 h-LC50 (96 h lethal median concentration) and 96 h-EC50 (96 h effective median concentration) values. Further exposures at sub-lethal concentrations were then carried out and total RNA samples were extracted to quantify the mRNA expression levels of the genes of interest. In larvae, BDE-47 was found to have significantly induced many genes of interest, namely thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, thyroid receptors α and β, thyroid stimulating hormone, and transthyretin. TBBPA only significantly induced three genes of interest (thyroid receptor α, thyroid stimulating hormone, and transthyretin) while BPA only induced thyroid stimulating hormone. In embryos, BDE-47 significantly induced the sodium iodide symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone. TBBPA significantly induced thyroid receptor α and thyroid stimulating hormone, while BPA did not significantly induce any of the genes. Most genes were only induced at the 75% 96 h-LC50 or 96 h-EC50 value; however, thyroid peroxidase and thyroid stimulating hormone demonstrated upregulation in a level as little as the 10% 96 h-LC50 value. The present study provides a new set of data on zebrafish mRNA induction of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid genes from exposure to BDE-47, TBBPA, or BPA. This information would serve useful for elucidating the toxicological mechanism of brominated flame retardants, assessing appropriate safety levels in the environment for these compounds, as well

  20. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  1. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  2. Assembly procedure for Shot Loading Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routh, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This supporting document describes the assembly procedure for the Shot Loading Platform. The Shot Loading Platform is used by multiple equipment removal projects to load shielding shot in the annular spaces of the equipment storage containers. The platform height is adjustable to accommodate different sizes of storage containers and transport assemblies

  3. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  4. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  5. System light-loading technology for mHealth: Manifold-learning-based medical data cleansing and clinical trials in WE-CARE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Anpeng; Xu, Wenyao; Li, Zhinan; Xie, Linzhen; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Li, Xiaoming; Cong, Jason

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major issue to public health. It contributes 41% to the Chinese death rate each year. This huge loss encouraged us to develop a Wearable Efficient teleCARdiology systEm (WE-CARE) for early warning and prevention of CVD risks in real time. WE-CARE is expected to work 24/7 online for mobile health (mHealth) applications. Unfortunately, this purpose is often disrupted in system experiments and clinical trials, even if related enabling technologies work properly. This phenomenon is rooted in the overload issue of complex Electrocardiogram (ECG) data in terms of system integration. In this study, our main objective is to get a system light-loading technology to enable mHealth with a benchmarked ECG anomaly recognition rate. To achieve this objective, we propose an approach to purify clinical features from ECG raw data based on manifold learning, called the Manifold-based ECG-feature Purification algorithm. Our clinical trials verify that our proposal can detect anomalies with a recognition rate of up to 94% which is highly valuable in daily public health-risk alert applications based on clinical criteria. Most importantly, the experiment results demonstrate that the WE-CARE system enabled by our proposal can enhance system reliability by at least two times and reduce false negative rates to 0.76%, and extend the battery life by 40.54%, in the system integration level.

  6. Impact of Investments in Generating Units and Transmission and Distribution Power Grids by 2025 on Voltage Stability and Branches Load in ENERGA SA Operational Territory – Main Findings of Research Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Falkowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes a research project which was conducted in order to ensure what will be the influence of future investments and changes in the Polish Power System on the stability and functionality of the ENERGA SA distribution grid system. Development of the ENERGA SA distribution grid system was also included. Only stable states were tested for various cases of system load and generation in power plants (the Nuclear Power Plant in Żarnowiec was taken into account and also in wind farms. The system was also tested in N-1 and N-2 states. The result of this study is an overall evaluation of the ENERGA SA distribution grid condition, as well as the identification of potential weak points inside this structure.

  7. Sustainability at BPA 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-01

    BPA’s Sustainability Action Plan is grounded in our commitment to environmental stewardship and Executive Order 13514 that calls on the federal agencies to “lead by example” by setting a 2020 greenhouse gas emissions target, increasing energy efficiency; reducing fleet petroleum consumption; conserving water; reducing waste; supporting sustainable communities; and leveraging federal purchasing power to promoting environmentally responsible products and technologies.

  8. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  9. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  10. Pay for load demand - electricity pricing with load demand component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrko, Jurek; Sernhed, Kerstin; Abaravicius, Juozas

    2003-01-01

    This publication is part of a project called Direct and Indirect Load Control in Buildings. Peak load problems have attracted considerable attention in Sweden during last three winters, caused by a significant decrease in available reserve power, which is a consequence of political decisions and liberalisation of the electricity market. A possible way to lower peak loads, avoiding electricity shortages and reducing electricity costs both for users and utilities, is to make customers experience the price difference during peak load periods and, in this way, become more aware of their energy consumption pattern and load demand. As of January 1st 2001, one of the Swedish energy utilities - Sollentuna Energi - operating in the Stockholm area, introduced a new electricity tariff with differentiated grid fees based on a mean value of the peak load every month. This tariff was introduced for all residential customers in the service area. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which a Load Demand Component, included in electricity pricing, can influence energy use and load demand in residential buildings. What are the benefits and disadvantages for customers and utilities? This paper investigates the impact of the new tariff on the utility and different types of typical residential customers, making comparisons with previous tariff. Keywords Load demand, electricity pricing, tariff, residential customers, energy behaviour

  11. Bateria Psicológica para Avaliação da Atenção (BPA): desempenho de diferentes faixas etárias Batería Psicológica para Evaluación de la Atención (BPA): desempeño de distintos rangos etarios Psychological Battery for Attention Assessment (BPA): performance of different age groups

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián Javier Marín Rueda; Rebecca de Magalhães Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi analisar o desempenho atencional em diferentes momentos da vida. Participaram 1.759 pessoas, de ambos os sexos, e com idades variando de 6 até 82 anos. O instrumento utilizado foi a Bateria Psicológica para Avaliação da Atenção (BPA), composta pelos testes de Atenção Concentrada, Atenção Dividida e Atenção Alternada. Os resultados estão de acordo com o apontado pela literatura ao relacionar a atenção com as diferentes etapas do desenvolvimento. Nesse sentido, observou...

  12. Plan estratégico agro industrial de calidad y ambiental, del sector pecuario de Córdoba, con base en las BPA, BPM y BPG

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada Toledo, Rosemberg de Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Artículo (Maestría en Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Económicas y Administrativas, 2014 En esta investigación se tomó como referencia las actuales condiciones macroeconómicas del país y del departamento de Córdoba, proyectando una mayor adopción del uso en las Buenas Prácticas Agrícolas (BPA), Buenas Practicas Ganaderas (BPG) y Buenas Practicas Manufactureros (BPM) por parte del empresariado, sobre todo en la incorporaci...

  13. 1H MRS of a boron neutron capture therapy 10B-carrier, L-p-boronophenylalanine-fructose complex, BPA-F: phantom studies at 1.5 and 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, S; Kangasmaeki, A; Timonen, M; Kankaanranta, L; Haekkinen, A-M; Lundbom, N; Vaehaetalo, J; Savolainen, S

    2003-01-01

    The quantification of a BNCT 10 B-carrier, L-p-boronophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F), was evaluated using 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) with phantoms at 1.5 and 3.0 T. For proper quantification, relaxation times T 1 and T 2 are needed. While T 1 is relatively easy to determine, the determination of T 2 of a coupled spin system of aromatic protons of BPA is not straightforward with standard MRS sequences. In addition, an uncoupled concentration reference for aromatic protons of BPA must be used with caution. In order to determine T 2 , the response of an aromatic proton spin system to the MRS sequence PRESS with various echo times was calculated and the product of the response curve with exponential decay was fitted to the measured intensities. Furthermore, the response curve can be used to correct the intensities, when an uncoupled resonance is used as a concentration reference. BPA was quantified using both phantom replacement and internal water referencing methods with accuracies of ±5% and ±15%. Our phantom results suggest that in vivo studies on BPA concentration determination will be feasible

  14. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project; Operations and Maintenance and Planning and Design, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.; Penney, Aaron K. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-12-01

    This report fulfills the contract obligations based on the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2002 annual report combines information from two contracts with a combined value of $3,036,014. Bonneville Power Administration identifies them as follows; (1) Part I--Operations and Maintenance--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4504, and $2,682,635 which includes--Equipment costs of $1,807,105. (2) Part II--Planning and Design--Project No. 1983-35-04, Contract No. 4035, $352,379 for Clearwater Coho Restoration Master Plan development Based on NPPC authorization for construction and operation of NPTH, the annual contracts were negotiated for the amounts shown above under (1) and (2). Construction contracts were handled by BPA until all facilities are completed and accepted.

  15. South Fork Snake River/Palisades Wildlife Mitigation Project: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    BPA proposes to fund the implementation of the South Fork Snake River Programmatic Management Plan to compensate for losses of wildlife and wildlife habitat due to hydroelectric development at Palisades Dam. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game drafted the plan, which was completed in May 1993. This plan recommends land and conservation easement acquisition and wildlife habitat enhancement measures. These measures would be implemented on selected lands along the South Fork of the Snake River between Palisades Dam and the confluence with the Henry`s Fork, and on portions of the Henry`s Fork located in Bonneville, Madison, and Jefferson Counties, Idaho. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating the proposed project. The EA also incorporates by reference the analyses in the South Fork Snake River Activity/Operations Plan and EA prepared jointly in 1991 by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  16. Microwave irradiation induced modifications on the interfaces in SAN/EVA/PVC and PVAc/BPA/PVP ternary polymer blends: Positron lifetime study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinesh, Meghala; Chikkakuntappa, Ranganathaiah

    2013-01-01

    Ternary polymer blends of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and poly(vinyl acetate)/bisphenol A/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVAc/BPA/PVP) with different compositions have been prepared by solvent casting method and characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry DSC. Phase modifications have been induced by irradiating the blends with microwave radiation. These changes have been monitored by measuring the free-volume content in the blends. The results clearly show improved interactions between the constituent polymers of the blends upon microwave irradiation. However, the free-volume data and DSC measurements are found to be inadequate to reveal the changes at the interfaces and the interfaces determine the final properties of the blend. For this we have used hydrodynamic interaction (α ij ) approach developed by us to measure strength of hydrodynamic interaction at the interfaces. These results show that microwave irradiation stabilizes the interfaces if the blend contains strong polar groups. SAN/EVA/PVC blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from −3.18 to −4.85 at composition 50/35/15 upon microwave irradiation and PVAc/BPA/PVP blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from −3.81 to −7.57 at composition 20/50/30 after irradiation

  17. Microwave irradiation induced modifications on the interfaces in SAN/EVA/PVC and PVAc/BPA/PVP ternary polymer blends: Positron lifetime study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinesh, Meghala; Chikkakuntappa, Ranganathaiah, E-mail: crang1@rediffmail.com

    2013-09-01

    Ternary polymer blends of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and poly(vinyl acetate)/bisphenol A/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVAc/BPA/PVP) with different compositions have been prepared by solvent casting method and characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry DSC. Phase modifications have been induced by irradiating the blends with microwave radiation. These changes have been monitored by measuring the free-volume content in the blends. The results clearly show improved interactions between the constituent polymers of the blends upon microwave irradiation. However, the free-volume data and DSC measurements are found to be inadequate to reveal the changes at the interfaces and the interfaces determine the final properties of the blend. For this we have used hydrodynamic interaction (α{sub ij}) approach developed by us to measure strength of hydrodynamic interaction at the interfaces. These results show that microwave irradiation stabilizes the interfaces if the blend contains strong polar groups. SAN/EVA/PVC blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from −3.18 to −4.85 at composition 50/35/15 upon microwave irradiation and PVAc/BPA/PVP blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from −3.81 to −7.57 at composition 20/50/30 after irradiation.

  18. Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

  19. Washington wildlife mitigation projects. Final programmatic environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities

  20. Exchange of current BPA surplus power for future power from certain companies' share of WNP-3 to settle a dispute over construction delay. Record of decision. Volume II. Exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This exchange is between BPA and Portland General Electric Company, Puget Sound Power and Light Company, and the Washington Water Power Company. Pacific Power and Light Company (Pacific) is not initially a party to the exchange. Pacific may at any time prior to January 1, 1994 elect on at least 12 months notice to enter the exchange provided that if BPA determines to resume full plant construction Pacific must elect or forego the option within 6 months after construction is resumed. If the plant is terminated at a time when the option has not been exercised, the option may not thereafter be exercised. If Pacific elects to make the exchange effective and the plant is later terminated prior to the effective data of the exchange, the exchange will become effective on the specified data, unless, prior to such data. Pacific notifies BPA that is rescinds such prior election

  1. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  2. Energy efficiency and load curve impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilberg, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    One of SINTEF Energy Research's European RTD projects is the two-year EFFLOCOM (Energy EFFiciency and LOad curve impacts of COMmercial development in competitive markets). This project will determine the end-user response of different market-related services offered in deregulated power markets. The project will investigate the possibility of influencing load curves by using different price signals and two-way communications via Internet. The partners are from Denmark. Finland, England, France and Norway. SINTEF Energy Research is in charge of the project management. During the project, the changes in load curves will he studied in the in the participating countries before and after deregulation. Specific issues are the use of ICT, time- and situation-dependent tariffs and smart-house technology. The project will consist of 5 work packages that will give recommendations about new methods, guidelines and tools to promote effective use of energy in the partner countries. The total budget is EUR 692 000. (author)

  3. The BPA-substitute bisphenol S alters the transcription of genes related to endocrine, stress response and biotransformation pathways in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Herrero

    Full Text Available Bisphenol S (BPS is an industrial alternative to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA, and can be found in many products labeled "BPA-free". Its use has grown in recent years, and presently it is considered a ubiquitous emerging pollutant. To date there is a lack of information on the effects of BPS on invertebrates, although they represent more than 95% of known species in the animal kingdom and are crucial for the structure and proper function of ecosystems. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the early detrimental effects of BPS on the transcriptional rate of genes in the model species Chironomus riparius, specifically those related to the ecdysone pathway (EcR, ERR, E74, Vtg, cyp18a1 crucial for insect development and metamorphosis, stress and biotransformation mechanisms (hsp70, hsp40, cyp4g, GPx, GSTd3 that regulate adaptive responses and determine survival, and ribosome biogenesis (its2, rpL4, rpL13 which is essential for protein synthesis and homeostasis. While 24-hour exposure to 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L BPS had no effect on larval survival, almost all the studied genes were upregulated following a non-monotonic dose-response curve. Genes with the greatest increases in transcriptional activity (fold change relative to control were EcR (3.8, ERR (2, E74 (2.4, cyp18a1 (2.5, hsp70 (1.7, hsp40 (2.5, cyp4g (6.4, GPx (1.8, and GST (2.1, while others including Vtg, GAPDH, and selected ribosomal genes remained stable. We also measured the transcriptional activity of these genes 24 hours after BPS withdrawal and a general downregulation compared to controls was observed, though not significant in most cases. Our findings showed that BPS exposure altered the transcriptional profile of these genes, which may have consequences for the hormone system and several metabolic pathways. Although further research is needed to elucidate its mode of action, these results raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives.

  4. The BPA-substitute bisphenol S alters the transcription of genes related to endocrine, stress response and biotransformation pathways in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Óscar; Aquilino, Mónica; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Planelló, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    Bisphenol S (BPS) is an industrial alternative to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA), and can be found in many products labeled "BPA-free". Its use has grown in recent years, and presently it is considered a ubiquitous emerging pollutant. To date there is a lack of information on the effects of BPS on invertebrates, although they represent more than 95% of known species in the animal kingdom and are crucial for the structure and proper function of ecosystems. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the early detrimental effects of BPS on the transcriptional rate of genes in the model species Chironomus riparius, specifically those related to the ecdysone pathway (EcR, ERR, E74, Vtg, cyp18a1) crucial for insect development and metamorphosis, stress and biotransformation mechanisms (hsp70, hsp40, cyp4g, GPx, GSTd3) that regulate adaptive responses and determine survival, and ribosome biogenesis (its2, rpL4, rpL13) which is essential for protein synthesis and homeostasis. While 24-hour exposure to 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L BPS had no effect on larval survival, almost all the studied genes were upregulated following a non-monotonic dose-response curve. Genes with the greatest increases in transcriptional activity (fold change relative to control) were EcR (3.8), ERR (2), E74 (2.4), cyp18a1 (2.5), hsp70 (1.7), hsp40 (2.5), cyp4g (6.4), GPx (1.8), and GST (2.1), while others including Vtg, GAPDH, and selected ribosomal genes remained stable. We also measured the transcriptional activity of these genes 24 hours after BPS withdrawal and a general downregulation compared to controls was observed, though not significant in most cases. Our findings showed that BPS exposure altered the transcriptional profile of these genes, which may have consequences for the hormone system and several metabolic pathways. Although further research is needed to elucidate its mode of action, these results raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives.

  5. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  6. AUTOMATIC LOAD SHARING OF TRANSFORMERS USING MICROCONTROLLER

    OpenAIRE

    Vidhun M; Akshara Shanmughan; Liya Immanual; Sreelakshmi V G

    2017-01-01

    The transformer is a static device, which converts power from one level to another level. The aim of the project is to protect the transformer under overload condition by load sharing. Due to overload on transformer, the efficiency drops and windings get overheated and may get burnt. Thus by sharing load on transformer, the transformer is protected. This will be done by connecting another transformer in parallel through a micro-controller. The micro controller compares the load on the first t...

  7. Assessment of wind turbine load measurement instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfiadakis, E; Papadopoulos, K [CRES (Greece); Borg, N van der [ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Petersen, S M [Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Seifert, H [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    In the framework of Sub-Task3 `Wind turbine load measurement instrumentation` of EU-project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development`, the load measurement techniques have been assessed by laboratory, full scale and numerical tests. The existing methods have been reviewed with emphasis on the strain gage application techniques on composite materials and recommendations are provided for the optimisation of load measurement techniques. (au) EU. 14 refs.

  8. Compressor Load Stand: Commissioning and Control Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Causey, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research project was to commission this load stand, which includes setting up the hardware, setting up a control system, a data acquisition system, and an automatic test sequence system...

  9. Home Appliance Load Scheduling with SEMIAH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Ghasem Azar, Armin; Zhang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The European research project SEMIAH aims at designing a scalable infrastructure for residential demand response. This paper presents the progress towards a centralized load scheduling algorithm for controlling home appliances taking power grid constraints and satisfaction of consumers into account....

  10. Lower Red River Meadow Stream Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    As part of a continuing effort to restore anadromous fish populations in the South Fork Clearwater River basin of Idaho, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project (Project). The Project is a cooperative effort with the Idaho Soil and Water Conservation District, Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The proposed action would allow the sponsors to perform stream bank stabilization, aquatic and riparian habitat improvement activities on IDFG's Red River Management Area and to secure long-term conservation contracts or agreements for conducting streambank and habitat improvement activities with participating private landowners located in the Idaho County, Idaho, study area. This preliminary Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of stabilizing the stream channel, restoring juvenile fish rearing habitat and reestablishing a riparian shrub community along the stream

  11. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project, Segment II, 2000-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, Brian; Olegario, Anthony; Powers, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its second year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey - Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW).

  12. Puget Sound Reinforcement Project : Planning for Peak Power Needs : Scoping Report, Part A, Summary of Public Comments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-07-01

    This report summarizes public participation in the environmental scoping process for the Puget Sound Reinforcement Project, a Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Puget Sound area utilities study of voltage stability in northwestern Washington state. The environmental scoping phase of the Puget Sound project consisted of a series of public meetings and a public comment period. The content of these meetings is summarized in 2.0, Public Involvement. In 3.0, Comment Summary, the report summarizes comments received via meetings, mail and phone. The report ends with a description of the next steps in the project. Chapter 4.0, describes the decision process to be used by BPA and area utilities. Chapter 5.0 describes opportunities for public participation in decisions to be made about the future reliability of Puget Sound's electricity supply.

  13. High power s-band vacuum load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Michael [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Dudas, Alan [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Krasnykh, Anatoly [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-29

    Through a combination of experimentation and calculation the components of a novel room temperature dry load were successfully fabricated. These components included lossy ceramic cylinders of various lengths, thicknesses, and percent of silicon carbide (SiC). The cylinders were then assembled into stainless steel compression rings by differential heating of the parts and a special fixture. Post machining of this assembly provided a means for a final weld. The ring assemblies were then measured for S-parameters, individually and in pairs using a low-cost TE10 rectangular to TE01 circular waveguide adapter specially designed to be part of the final load assembly. Matched pairs of rings were measured for assembly into the final load, and a sliding short designed and fabricated to assist in determining the desired short location in the final assembly. The plan for the project was for Muons, Inc. to produce prototype loads for long-term testing at SLAC. The STTR funds for SLAC were to upgrade and operate their test station to ensure that the loads would satisfy their requirements. Phase III was to be the sale to SLAC of loads that Muons, Inc. would manufacture. However, an alternate solution that involved a rebuild of the old loads, reduced SLAC budget projections, and a relaxed time for the replacement of all loads meant that in-house labor will be used to do the upgrade without the need for the loads developed in this project. Consequently, the project was terminated before the long term testing was initiated. However, SLAC can use the upgraded test stand to compare the long-term performance of the ones produced in this project with their rebuilt loads when they are available.

  14. High power s-band vacuum load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, Michael; Dudas, Alan; Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Through a combination of experimentation and calculation the components of a novel room temperature dry load were successfully fabricated. These components included lossy ceramic cylinders of various lengths, thicknesses, and percent of silicon carbide (SiC). The cylinders were then assembled into stainless steel compression rings by differential heating of the parts and a special fixture. Post machining of this assembly provided a means for a final weld. The ring assemblies were then measured for S-parameters, individually and in pairs using a low-cost TE10 rectangular to TE01 circular waveguide adapter specially designed to be part of the final load assembly. Matched pairs of rings were measured for assembly into the final load, and a sliding short designed and fabricated to assist in determining the desired short location in the final assembly. The plan for the project was for Muons, Inc. to produce prototype loads for long-term testing at SLAC. The STTR funds for SLAC were to upgrade and operate their test station to ensure that the loads would satisfy their requirements. Phase III was to be the sale to SLAC of loads that Muons, Inc. would manufacture. However, an alternate solution that involved a rebuild of the old loads, reduced SLAC budget projections, and a relaxed time for the replacement of all loads meant that in-house labor will be used to do the upgrade without the need for the loads developed in this project. Consequently, the project was terminated before the long term testing was initiated. However, SLAC can use the upgraded test stand to compare the long-term performance of the ones produced in this project with their rebuilt loads when they are available.

  15. Estimates of dietary exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) from light metal packaging using food consumption and packaging usage data: a refined deterministic approach and a fully probabilistic (FACET) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldring, P K T; Castle, L; O'Mahony, C; Dixon, J

    2014-01-01

    The FACET tool is a probabilistic model to estimate exposure to chemicals in foodstuffs, originating from flavours, additives and food contact materials. This paper demonstrates the use of the FACET tool to estimate exposure to BPA (bisphenol A) from light metal packaging. For exposure to migrants from food packaging, FACET uses industry-supplied data on the occurrence of substances in the packaging, their concentrations and construction of the packaging, which were combined with data from a market research organisation and food consumption data supplied by national database managers. To illustrate the principles, UK packaging data were used together with consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) dietary survey for 19-64 year olds for a refined deterministic verification. The UK data were chosen mainly because the consumption surveys are detailed, data for UK packaging at a detailed level were available and, arguably, the UK population is composed of high consumers of packaged foodstuffs. Exposures were run for each food category that could give rise to BPA from light metal packaging. Consumer loyalty to a particular type of packaging, commonly referred to as packaging loyalty, was set. The BPA extraction levels used for the 15 types of coating chemistries that could release BPA were in the range of 0.00005-0.012 mg dm(-2). The estimates of exposure to BPA using FACET for the total diet were 0.0098 (mean) and 0.0466 (97.5th percentile) mg/person/day, corresponding to 0.00013 (mean) and 0.00059 (97.5th percentile) mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for consumers of foods packed in light metal packaging. This is well below the current EFSA (and other recognised bodies) TDI of 0.05 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). These probabilistic estimates were compared with estimates using a refined deterministic approach drawing on the same input data. The results from FACET for the mean, 95th and 97.5th percentile exposures to BPA lay between the

  16. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A; Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  17. Exposición a Bisfenol A (BPA en mujeres embarazadas y su relación con la obesidad en sus hijos: revisión sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Gómez-Mercado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El bisfenol A (BPA es un contaminante químico no persistente que altera el funcionamiento normal del sistema endocrino. Se sugiere que la exposición prenatal se asocia con la obesidad en la descendencia. Objetivo: Revisar la literatura sobre la exposición al BPA en mujeres embarazadas y su relación con la obesidad en sus hijos. Metodología: Revisión sistemática de acuerdo a la guía PRISMA. Se realizaron búsquedas en las bases de datos Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Clinical Key, Medline, Ebsco y Scielo y el motor de búsqueda Google Scholar hasta el 30 de Abril de 2017 por dos investigadores independientes que utilizaron los mismos términos de búsqueda. Se incluyeron estudios prospectivos de cohorte realizados que midieron el BPA en la orina materna. Resultados: Se incluyeron 5 estudios con tamaños de muestra entre 297 y 757 binomios madre e hijo, se encontró asociación positiva entre la exposición prenatal a BPA con la circunferencia de cintura en niños de cuatro años β: 0.28 (IC95%:0.01 a 0.57 y el índice de masa grasa β: 0.31 (IC95%: 0.01 a 0.60 en dos de los estudios. Se observaron asociaciones positivas y/o negativas no significativas con índice de masa corporal y su puntaje Z, porcentaje de grasa, sobrepeso/obesidad, peso y talla al nacer, porcentaje de masa grasa. Conclusión: Los resultados de estudios epidemiológicos de cohorte, limita las afirmaciones sobre un vínculo causal entre la exposición prenatal BPA y la obesidad postnatal.

  18. Load prediction of stall regulated wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerck, A.; Dahlberg, J.Aa. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Carlen, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Marine Structural Engineering; Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentua (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Measurements of blade loads on a turbine situated in a small wind farm shows that the highest blade loads occur during operation close to the peak power i.e. when the turbine operates in the stall region. In this study the extensive experimental data base has been utilised to compare loads in selected campaigns with corresponding load predictions. The predictions are based on time domain simulations of the wind turbine structure, performed by the aeroelastic code VIDYN. In the calculations a model were adopted in order to include the effects of dynamic stall. This paper describes the work carried out so far within the project and key results. 5 refs, 10 figs

  19. Coyote Springs Cogeneration Project, Morrow County, Oregon: Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    BPA is considering whether to transfer (wheel) electrical power from a proposed privately-owned, combustion-turbine electrical generation plant in Oregon. The plant would be fired by natural gas and would use combined-cycle technology to generate up to 440 average megawatts (aMW) of energy. The plant would be developed, owned, and operated by Portland General Electric Company (PGE). The project would be built in eastern Oregon, just east of the City of Boardman in Morrow County. The proposed plant would be built on a site within the Port of Morrow Industrial Park. The proposed use for the site is consistent with the County land use plan. Building the transmission line needed to interconnect the power plant to BPA`s transmission system would require a variance from Morrow County. BPA would transfer power from the plant to its McNary-Slatt 500-kV transmission line. PGE would pay BPA for wheeling services. Key environmental concerns identified in the scoping process and evaluated in the draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) include these potential impacts: (1) air quality impacts, such as emissions and their contributions to the {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} effect; (2) health and safety impacts, such as effects of electric and magnetic fields, (3) noise impacts, (4) farmland impacts, (5) water vapor impacts to transportation, (6) economic development and employment impacts, (7) visual impacts, (8) consistency with local comprehensive plans, and (9) water quality and supply impacts, such as the amount of wastewater discharged, and the source and amount of water required to operate the plant. These and other issues are discussed in the DEIS. The proposed project includes features designed to reduce environmental impacts. Based on studies completed for the DEIS, adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed project were identified, and no evidence emerged to suggest that the proposed action is controversial.

  20. Bateria Psicológica para Avaliação da Atenção (BPA: desempenho de diferentes faixas etárias Batería Psicológica para Evaluación de la Atención (BPA: desempeño de distintos rangos etarios Psychological Battery for Attention Assessment (BPA: performance of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Javier Marín Rueda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar o desempenho atencional em diferentes momentos da vida. Participaram 1.759 pessoas, de ambos os sexos, e com idades variando de 6 até 82 anos. O instrumento utilizado foi a Bateria Psicológica para Avaliação da Atenção (BPA, composta pelos testes de Atenção Concentrada, Atenção Dividida e Atenção Alternada. Os resultados estão de acordo com o apontado pela literatura ao relacionar a atenção com as diferentes etapas do desenvolvimento. Nesse sentido, observou-se que houve um aumento de desempenho até o início da vida adulta, com um leve decréscimo a partir dos 30 anos, que fica mais evidente a partir dos 50 anos. Ainda, a ANOVA permitiu identificar seis faixas etárias que se diferenciaram claramente. Por fim, identificou-se que o desempenho em atenção dividida é inferior aos outros tipos de atenção. Sugerem-se novos estudos que permitam identificar e diferenciar um maior número de idades.El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la capacidad de atención en diferentes momentos de la vida. Participaron 1.759 personas, de ambos sexos, y con edades de 6 hasta 82 años. El instrumento utilizado fue la Batería Psicológica para Evaluación de la Atención (BPA, compuesta por los testes de Atención Concentrada, Atención Dividida y Atención Alternada. Los resultados están de acuerdo con lo mencionado por la literatura al relacionar la atención con las distintas etapas del desarrollo. En ese sentido, se observó que hubo un aumento en el desempeño hasta el inicio de la vida adulta, con una pequeña disminución a partir de los 30 años, que se queda más evidente a partir de los 50 años. Además, el ANOVA permitió identificar seis rangos etarios que se diferencian claramente. Finalmente, se identificó que el desempeño en atención dividida es inferior a los otros tipos de atención. Se sugieren nuevos estudios que permitan identificar y diferenciar un mayor número de edades.This study

  1. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. This area consists of several separated land parcels, of which 2,000 hectares (4,943 acres) have been purchased by BPA and an additional 4,640 hectares (11,466 acres) have been identified by the Colville Confederated Tribes for inclusion in the Project. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  2. Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife mitigation project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. This area consists of several separated land parcels, of which 2,000 hectares (4,943 acres) have been purchased by BPA and an additional 4,640 hectares (11,466 acres) have been identified by the Colville Confederated Tribes for inclusion in the Project. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs

  3. The DEMO wall load challenge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wenninger, R.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Bachmann, C.; Barbato, L.; Barrett, T.; Beckers, M.; Biel, W.; Boccaccini, L.; Carralero, D.; Coster, D.; Eich, T.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Firdaouss, M.; Graves, J.; Horáček, Jan; Kovari, M.; Lanthaler, S.; Loschiavo, V.; Lowry, C.; Lux, H.; Maddaluno, G.; Maviglia, F.; Mitteau, R.; Neu, R.; Pfefferle, D.; Schmid, K.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Snicker, A.; Subba, F.; Varje, J.; Zohm, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 046002. ISSN 0029-5515 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : DEMO * power loads * first wall Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/aa4fb4

  4. Shot loading platform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the shot loading platform. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. AISC and UBC load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met

  5. Duration of Load Effects on Different Sized Timber Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Lotte; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report submitted to EC in connection with a project on duration of load. The report contains the results of the experimental work on duration of load for beams and notched beams of LVL and of glulam. The report also contains experimental results from duration of load experiments...

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project Conservation and Rebuilding Program : Supplemental Fnal Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    This document announces Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) proposal to fund three separate but interrelated actions which are integral components of the overall Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild the Snake River Sockeye salmon run in the Sawtooth Valley of south-central Idaho. The three actions are as follows: (1) removing a rough fish barrier dam on Pettit Lake Creek and constructing a weir and trapping facilities to monitor future sockeye salmon adult and smolt migration into and out of Pettit Lake; (2) artificially fertilizing Readfish Lake to enhance the food supply for Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles released into the lake; and (3) trapping kokanee fry and adults to monitor the fry population and to reduce the population of kokanee in Redfish Lake. BPA has prepared a supplemental EA (included) which builds on an EA compled in 1994 on the Sawtooth Valley Project. Based on the analysis in this Supplemental EA, BPA has determined that the proposed actions are not major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  7. Determination of boron by ICP-AES in normal and malignant cells incubated 'in vitro' with fructose 10BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Farias, Silvia S.; Rodriguez, Ruben E.; Servant, Roberto E.; Liberman, Sara; Pisarev, Mario A.; Batistoni, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the development and optimization of methodology for total boron concentration in cell cultures coming from fixation and accumulation of this element by normal and malignant cells. On account of sample mass and low volume resulting from dilution, generally about 1 mL, a procedure for automatic injection of micro volumes was designed, developed and optimized. Iron interference was carefully studied. Linear calibration curves were obtained for 50 to 2500 ng B/mL range. Determination limits were 10 and 20 ng B/mL for B 249.772 nm and 249.677 nm, respectively. Repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation was better than 5% for a 100 ng B/mL. Recovery of analyte added to real samples ranged between 95 and 103%. The method was applied to studies on F-98 cells (rat glioma) and normal glia in BNCT project frame. (author)

  8. Computer Assets Recovery Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    CortesPena, Aida Yoguely

    2010-01-01

    This document reports on the project that was performed during the internship of the author. The project involved locating and recovering machines in various locations that Boeing has no need for, and therefore requires that they be transferred to another user or transferred to a non-profit organization. Other projects that the author performed was an inventory of toner and printers, loading new computers and connecting them to the network.

  9. Optimizing Preseason Training Loads in Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David L; Crow, Justin; Ong, Kok-Leong; Blanch, Peter; Morris, Meg E; Dascombe, Ben J; Crossley, Kay M

    2018-02-01

    To investigate whether preseason training plans for Australian football can be computer generated using current training-load guidelines to optimize injury-risk reduction and performance improvement. A constrained optimization problem was defined for daily total and sprint distance, using the preseason schedule of an elite Australian football team as a template. Maximizing total training volume and maximizing Banister-model-projected performance were both considered optimization objectives. Cumulative workload and acute:chronic workload-ratio constraints were placed on training programs to reflect current guidelines on relative and absolute training loads for injury-risk reduction. Optimization software was then used to generate preseason training plans. The optimization framework was able to generate training plans that satisfied relative and absolute workload constraints. Increasing the off-season chronic training loads enabled the optimization algorithm to prescribe higher amounts of "safe" training and attain higher projected performance levels. Simulations showed that using a Banister-model objective led to plans that included a taper in training load prior to competition to minimize fatigue and maximize projected performance. In contrast, when the objective was to maximize total training volume, more frequent training was prescribed to accumulate as much load as possible. Feasible training plans that maximize projected performance and satisfy injury-risk constraints can be automatically generated by an optimization problem for Australian football. The optimization methods allow for individualized training-plan design and the ability to adapt to changing training objectives and different training-load metrics.

  10. Antelope--Fossil rebuild project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Columbia Power Cooperative Association (CPCA), Monument, Oregon, proposes to upgrade a 69-kV transmission line in Wasco and Wheeler Counties, Oregon, between the Antelope Substation and the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Fossil Substation. The project involves rebuilding and reconductoring 23.2 miles of transmission line, including modifying it for future use at 115 kV. Related project activities will include setting new wood pole structures, removing and disposing of old structures, conductors, and insulators, and stringing new conductor, all within the existing right-of-way. No new access roads will be required. A Borrower's Environmental Report was prepared for the 1992--1993 Work Plan for Columbia Power Cooperative Association in March 1991. This report investigated cultural resources, threatened or endangered species, wetlands, and floodplains, and other environmental issues, and included correspondence with appropriate Federal, state, and local agencies. The report was submitted to the Rural Electrification Administration for their use in preparing their environmental documentation for the project

  11. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially. PMID:26082709

  12. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  13. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  14. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grape juice (12 ounces) 55 225 Lunch Milk, chocolate, reduced fat (12 ounces) 45 285 4 slices ... usual during carbohydrate loading to get the same benefits as a man does. Despite carbohydrate loading, you ...

  15. Fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into nuclear fuel elements and particularly for the automatic loading of fuel pellets from within a sealed compartment. (author)

  16. 6 Project-Management Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to project management, the IT department is typically its own worst enemy. When project requests are pushed through the budgeting process by different departments, it's up to IT to make them all work. The staff is required to be "heroic" to get the project load done. People get to work over weekends and postpone their vacations. The…

  17. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1983-01-01

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author) [pt

  18. Influence of Load Modes on Voltage Stability of Receiving Network at DC/AC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Chizu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses influence of load modes on DC/AC system. Because of widespread use of HVDC, DC/AC system become more complex than before and the present modes used in dispatch and planning departments are not fit in simulation anymore. So it is necessary to find load modes accurately reflecting characteristics of the system. For the sake of the voltage stability, commutation failure, etc. the practical example of the receiving network in a large DC/AC system in China is simulated with BPA, and the influence of Classical Load Mode (CLM and Synthesis load model (SLM on simulation results is studies. Furthermore, some important parameters of SLM are varied respectively among an interval to analyse how they affect the system. According to this practical examples, the result is closely related to load modes and their parameters, and SLM is more conservative but more reasonable than the present modes. The consequences indicate that at critical states, micro variation in parameters may give rise to change in simulation results radically. Thus, correct mode and parameters are important to enhance simulation accuracy of DC/AC system and researches on how they affect the system make senses.

  19. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  20. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  1. Yakima Fisheries Project. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    BPA proposes to fund several fishery-related activities in the Yakima River Basin. These activities, known as the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP), would be jointly managed by the State of Washington and the Yakima Indian Nation. The YFP is included in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council's) fish and wildlife program. The Council selected the Yakima River system for attention because fisheries resources are severely reduced from historical levels and because there is a significant potential for enhancement of these resources. BPA's proposed action is to fund (1) information gathering on the implementation of supplementation techniques and on feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon in an environment where native populations have become extinct; (2) research activities based on continuous assessment, feedback and improvement of research design and activities (open-quotes adaptive managementclose quotes); and (3) die construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities for supplementing populations of upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Examined in addition to No Action are two alternatives for action: (1) supplementation of depressed natural populations of upper Yakima spring chinook and (2) that same supplementation plus a study to determine the feasibility of reestablishing naturally spawning population and a significant fall fishery for coho in the Yakima Basin. Alternative 2 is the preferred action. A central hatchery would be built for either alternative, as well as three sites with six raceways each for acclimation and release of spring chinook smolts. Major issues examined in the Revised Draft EIS include potential impacts of the project on genetic and ecological resources of existing fish populations, on water quality and quantity, on threatened and endangered species listed under the Endangered Species Act, and on the recreational fishery

  2. Yakima Fisheries Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington.

    1996-01-01

    BPA proposes to fund several fishery-related activities in the Yakima River Basin. These activities, known as the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP), would be jointly managed by the State of Washington and the Yakima Indian Nation. The YFP is included in the Northwest Power Planning Council`s (Council`s) fish and wildlife program. The Council selected the Yakima River system for attention because fisheries resources are severely reduced from historical levels and because there is a significant potential for enhancement of these resources. BPA`s proposed action is to fund (1) information gathering on the implementation of supplementation techniques and on feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon in an environment where native populations have become extinct; (2) research activities based on continuous assessment, feedback and improvement of research design and activities ({open_quotes}adaptive management{close_quotes}); and (3) die construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities for supplementing populations of upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Examined in addition to No Action are two alternatives for action: (1) supplementation of depressed natural populations of upper Yakima spring chinook and (2) that same supplementation plus a study to determine the feasibility of reestablishing naturally spawning population and a significant fall fishery for coho in the Yakima Basin. Alternative 2 is the preferred action. A central hatchery would be built for either alternative, as well as three sites with six raceways each for acclimation and release of spring chinook smolts. Major issues examined in the Revised Draft EIS include potential impacts of the project on genetic and ecological resources of existing fish populations, on water quality and quantity, on threatened and endangered species listed under the Endangered Species Act, and on the recreational fishery.

  3. Mid-Columbia coho reintroduction feasibility project. Preliminary environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Before the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) decides whether to fund a program to reintroduce coho salmon to mid-Columbia River basin tributaries, research is needed to determine the ecological risks and biological feasibility of such an effort. Since the early 1900s, the native stock of coho has been decimated in the tributaries of the middle reach of the Columbia River. The four Columbia River Treaty Tribes identified coho reintroduction in the mid-Columbia as a priority in the Tribal Restoration Plan. It is a comprehensive plan put forward by the Tribes to restore the Columbia River fisheries. In 1996, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) recommended the tribal mid-Columbia reintroduction project for funding by BPA. It was identified as one of fifteen high-priority supplementation projects for the Columbia River basin, and was incorporated into the NPPC's Fish and Wildlife Program. The release of coho from lower Columbia hatcheries into mid-Columbia tributaries is also recognized in the Columbia River Fish Management Plan

  4. Yakima fisheries project. Revised draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    BPA proposes to fund several fishery-related activities in the Yakima River Basin. These activities, known as the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP), would be jointly managed by the State of Washington and the Yakima Indian Nation. The YFP is included in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council's) fish and wildlife program. The Council selected the Yakima River system for attention because fisheries resources are severely reduced from historical levels and because there is a significant potential for enhancement of these resources. BPA's proposed action is to fund (1) information gathering on the implementation of supplementation techniques and on feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon in an environment where native populations have become extinct; (2) research activities based on continuous assessment, feedback and improvement of research design and activities (adaptive management); and (3) the construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities for supplementing populations of upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Major issues examined in the Revised Draft EIS include potential impacts of the project on genetic and ecological resources of existing fish populations, on water quality and quantity, on threatened and endangered species listed under the Endangered Species Act, and on the recreational fishery. Only minor differences in environmental consequences were found between Alternatives 1 and 2. Potentially high impacts on wild, native, and non-target fish populations under both alternatives would be mitigated through careful adherence to the adaptive management process outlined in the EIS

  5. Mid-Columbia Coho Salmon Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State) Department of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation

    1999-01-01

    Before the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) decides whether to fund a program to reintroduce coho salmon to mid-Columbia River basin tributaries, research is needed to determine the ecological risks and biological feasibility of such an effort. Since the early 1900s, the native stock of coho has been decimated in the tributaries of the middle reach of the Columbia River. The four Columbia River Treaty Tribes identified coho reintroduction in the mid-Columbia as a priority in the Tribal Restoration Plan. It is a comprehensive plan put forward by the Tribes to restore the Columbia River fisheries. In 1996, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) recommended the tribal mid-Columbia reintroduction project for funding by BPA. It was identified as one of fifteen high-priority supplementation projects for the Columbia River basin, and was incorporated into the NPPC`s Fish and Wildlife Program. The release of coho from lower Columbia hatcheries into mid-Columbia tributaries is also recognized in the Columbia River Fish Management Plan.

  6. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  7. Client's Constraining Factors to Construction Project Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    factors as a significant system that constrains project management success of public and ... finance for the project and prompt payment for work executed; clients .... consideration of the loading patterns of these variables, the major factor is ...

  8. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-08-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) performed a technology demonstration and evaluation for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in Seattle City Light's (SCL) service territory. This report summarizes the process and results of deploying open automated demand response (OpenADR) in Seattle area with winter morning peaking commercial buildings. The field tests were designed to evaluate the feasibility of deploying fully automated demand response (DR) in four to six sites in the winter and the savings from various building systems. The project started in November of 2008 and lasted 6 months. The methodology for the study included site recruitment, control strategy development, automation system deployment and enhancements, and evaluation of sites participation in DR test events. LBNL subcontracted McKinstry and Akuacom for this project. McKinstry assisted with recruitment, site survey collection, strategy development and overall participant and control vendor management. Akuacom established a new server and enhanced its operations to allow for scheduling winter morning day-of and day-ahead events. Each site signed a Memorandum of Agreement with SCL. SCL offered each site $3,000 for agreeing to participate in the study and an additional $1,000 for each event they participated. Each facility and their control vendor worked with LBNL and McKinstry to select and implement control strategies for DR and developed their automation based on the existing Internet connectivity and building control system. Once the DR strategies were programmed, McKinstry commissioned them before actual test events. McKinstry worked with LBNL to identify control points that can be archived at each facility. For each site LBNL collected meter data and trend logs from the energy management and control system. The communication system allowed the sites to receive day-ahead as well as day-of DR test event signals. Measurement of DR was

  9. Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project : 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesling, Jason; Abel, Chad; Schwabe, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    In 1998, the Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT) submitted a proposal to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for the acquisition of the Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project). The proposed mitigation site was for the Denny Jones Ranch and included Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and Oregon Division of State Lands (DSL) leases and grazing allotments. The Project approval process and acquisition negotiations continued for several years until the BPT and BPA entered into a Memorandum of Agreement, which allowed for purchase of the Project in November 2000. The 31,781 acre Project is located seven miles east of Juntura, Oregon and is adjacent to the Malheur River (Figure 1). Six thousand three hundred eighty-five acres are deeded to BPT, 4,154 acres are leased from DSL, and 21,242 acres are leased from BLM (Figure 2). In total 11 grazing allotments are leased between the two agencies. Deeded land stretches for seven miles along the Malheur River. It is the largest private landholding on the river between Riverside and Harper, Oregon. Approximately 938 acres of senior water rights are included with the Ranch. The Project is comprised of meadow, wetland, riparian and shrub-steppe habitats. The BLM grazing allotment, located south of the ranch, is largely shrub-steppe habitat punctuated by springs and seeps. Hunter Creek, a perennial stream, flows through both private and BLM lands. Similarly, the DSL grazing allotment, which lies north of the Ranch, is predominantly shrub/juniper steppe habitat with springs and seeps dispersed throughout the upper end of draws (Figure 2).

  10. Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    Implementation of the Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project -- Phase 2 would significantly improve the production of anadromous fish in the Yakima River system. The project would provide offsite mitigation and help to compensate for lower Columbia River hydroelectric fishery losses. The Phase 2 screens would allow greater numbers of juvenile anadromous fish to survive. As a consequence, there would be higher returns of adult salmon and steelhead to the Yakima River. The proposed action would play an integral part in the overall Yakima River anadromous fish enhancement program (fish passage improvement, habitat enhancement, hatchery production increases, and harvest management). These would be environmental benefits associated with implementation of the Fish Passage and Protective Facilities Phase 2 Project. Based on the evaluation presented in this assessment, there would be no significant adverse environmental impacts if the proposed action was carried forward. No significant adverse environmental effects have been identified from construction and operation of the Yakima Phase 2 fish passage project. Proper design and implementation of the project will ensure no adverse effects will occur. Based on the information in this environmental analysis, BPA's and Reclamation's proposal to construct these facilities does not constitute a major Federal action that could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  12. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  13. Load regulating expansion fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located there between. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig

  14. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  15. Electrical load modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgas, Helio Moreira; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Franca, Carlos [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da; Pires, Robson Celso; Costa, Junior, Roberto Affonso [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Accurate dynamic load models allow more precise calculations of power system controls and stability limits, which are critical mainly in the operation planning of power systems. This paper describes the development of a computer program (software) for static and dynamic load model studies using the measurement approach for the CEMIG system. Two dynamic load model structures are developed and tested. A procedure for applying a set of measured data from an on-line transient recording system to develop load models is described. (author) 6 refs., 17 figs.

  16. Interior moisture design loads for residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Iain S. Walker

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology to obtain design values for indoor boundary conditions for moisture design calculations for residences. This is part of a larger effort by ASHRAE Standard Project Committee 160P, Design Criteria for Moisture Control in Buildings, to formulate criteria for moisture design loads, analysis techniques, and material and building performance...

  17. Oscillations of end loaded cantilever beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macho-Stadler, E; Elejalde-García, M J; Llanos-Vázquez, R

    2015-01-01

    This article presents several simple experiments based on changing transverse vibration frequencies in a cantilever beam, when acted on by an external attached mass load at the free end. By using a mechanical wave driver, available in introductory undergraduate laboratories, we provide various experimental results for end loaded cantilever beams that fit reasonably well into a linear equation. The behaviour of the cantilever beam’s weak-damping resonance response is studied for the case of metal resonance strips. As the mass load increases, a more pronounced decrease occurs in the fundamental frequency of beam vibration. It is important to note that cantilever construction is often used in architectural design and engineering construction projects but current analysis also predicts the influence of mass load on the sound generated by musical free reeds with boundary conditions similar to a cantilever beam. (paper)

  18. Oscillations of end loaded cantilever beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-Stadler, E.; Elejalde-García, M. J.; Llanos-Vázquez, R.

    2015-09-01

    This article presents several simple experiments based on changing transverse vibration frequencies in a cantilever beam, when acted on by an external attached mass load at the free end. By using a mechanical wave driver, available in introductory undergraduate laboratories, we provide various experimental results for end loaded cantilever beams that fit reasonably well into a linear equation. The behaviour of the cantilever beam’s weak-damping resonance response is studied for the case of metal resonance strips. As the mass load increases, a more pronounced decrease occurs in the fundamental frequency of beam vibration. It is important to note that cantilever construction is often used in architectural design and engineering construction projects but current analysis also predicts the influence of mass load on the sound generated by musical free reeds with boundary conditions similar to a cantilever beam.

  19. Load Balancing in Hypergraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgosha, Payam; Anantharam, Venkat

    2018-03-01

    Consider a simple locally finite hypergraph on a countable vertex set, where each edge represents one unit of load which should be distributed among the vertices defining the edge. An allocation of load is called balanced if load cannot be moved from a vertex to another that is carrying less load. We analyze the properties of balanced allocations of load. We extend the concept of balancedness from finite hypergraphs to their local weak limits in the sense of Benjamini and Schramm (Electron J Probab 6(23):13, 2001) and Aldous and Steele (in: Probability on discrete structures. Springer, Berlin, pp 1-72, 2004). To do this, we define a notion of unimodularity for hypergraphs which could be considered an extension of unimodularity in graphs. We give a variational formula for the balanced load distribution and, in particular, we characterize it in the special case of unimodular hypergraph Galton-Watson processes. Moreover, we prove the convergence of the maximum load under some conditions. Our work is an extension to hypergraphs of Anantharam and Salez (Ann Appl Probab 26(1):305-327, 2016), which considered load balancing in graphs, and is aimed at more comprehensively resolving conjectures of Hajek (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 36(6):1398-1414, 1990).

  20. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane eqrthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years. 23 refs., 9 tabs

  1. Load Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  2. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane earthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years

  3. Load event: Aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Factores que afectan el posicionamiento estratégico agro industrial de calidad y ambiental, existente para el sector pecuario de Córdoba, con base en las BPA, BPM y BPG

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada Toledo, Rosemberg de Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Tesis (Maestría en Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Económicas y Administrativas, 2014 Para realizar la presente investigación se tomó como referencia las actuales condiciones macroeconómicas del país y del departamento de Córdoba, proyectando una mayor adopción del uso en las Buenas Prácticas Agrícolas (BPA), Ganaderas(BPG) y Manufactureros (BPM) por parte del empresariado, sobre todo en la incorporación de valor al prod...

  5. The Impact of Distributed Generation Systems in the Load Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Benedicto Llorens, Juan Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Projecte fet en col.laboració amb l'Instituto Superior Tecnico. Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Load forecasting is vitally important for the electric industry in the deregulated economy. It has many applications including energy purchasing and generation, load switching, contract evaluation and infrastructure development. Because of this, a large variety of mathematical methods have been developed for load forecasting. In addition, the large-scale integration of wind power, now...

  6. Accommodating Oversize and Overweight Loads : Instructor and Student Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This instructor and student guide is designed to guide the instructor in conveying information at the district level concerning Research Project 0-6404 Accommodating Oversize and Overweight Loads. The specific information focuses on the Bryan D...

  7. Studies on the Effects of High Renewable Penetrations on Driving Point Impedance and Voltage Regulator Performance: National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Sacramento Municipal Utility District Load Tap Changer Driving Point Impedance Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarajan, Adarsh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Coddington, Michael H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, David [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States); Hassan, Sheikh [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States); Franciosa, Leonardo [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States); Sison-Lebrilla, Elaine [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

    2018-01-09

    Voltage regulators perform as desired when regulating from the source to the load and when regulating from a strong source (utility) to a weak source (distributed generation). (See the glossary for definitions of a strong source and weak source.) Even when the control is provisioned for reverse operation, it has been observed that tap-changing voltage regulators do not perform as desired in reverse when attempting regulation from the weak source to the strong source. The region of performance that is not as well understood is the regulation between sources that are approaching equal strength. As part of this study, we explored all three scenarios: regulator control from a strong source to a weak source (classic case), control from a weak source to a strong source (during reverse power flow), and control between equivalent sources.

  8. 30 CFR 77.1605 - Loading and haulage equipment; installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Loading and Haulage § 77.1605 Loading and haulage equipment; installations. (a) Cab... railroads shall be designed, installed, and maintained in a safe manner consistent with the speed and type... projection of moving railroad equipment shall be provided on at least one side of the tracks; all places...

  9. Laboratory investigation of the loading rate effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.; Van Tol, A.F.; Hölscher, P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the interpretation of the quasi-static (e.g. Statnamic) pile load tests, a research project has been started to investigate effects of the loading rate on the bearing capacity of a pile in sand. A series of laboratory tests has been carried out. The testing program consists of a

  10. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  11. Status of load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchymenko, A

    1983-08-01

    A summary is presented of the status of load management, defined as any activity by an electric utility to affect the size and characteristics of its load. Load management is currently viewed by electric utilities as an important tool for marketing electricity in a competitive fuel situation. A major aim of the National Energy Program is to reduce Canada's dependence on oil by 1990 to 10% of the energy used by all markets. As a result, electricity may play a greater role in the supply of primary energy. Research in load management has been directed mostly towards the residential market, especially direct control of domestic hot water heaters and air conditioners. Studies conducted in Canada and the U.S. to determine user's receptiveness to direct control of loads and thermal energy storage systems indicate that these load management techniques are in most cases not acceptable to customers, who prefer voluntary reduction in demand. The potential exists in the industrial market to use load management to assist in electrifying many of the fossil fuel-fired processes at competitive energy prices. Some of the more important applications include an industrial heat pump to heat liquids to 120{degree}C, induction heating for melting and heat treating of metals, and mechanical vapor recompression equipment to produce proces steam. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Hungry Horse--Columbia Falls line rebuild and relocation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has identified a need to rebuild the Hungry Horse-Columbia Falls 115,000-volt (115-kV) transmission line to 230-kV. This line supplies power to customers in the area of Columbia Falls, Montana, and integrates generation at the US Bureau of Reclamation's (USBR) Hungry Horse Dam into BPA's transmission grid. There are several problems with the existing system. The Hungry Horse-Columbia Falls 1 15-kV line is 45 years old and requires excessive maintenance. The USBR has decided to replace their aging 115-kV transformers at the dam with 230-kV transformers, which also would increase their operational flexibility. With the small conductor size and voltage of the line presently being used, significant amounts of energy are lost as the power moves across the line. Transformer failure at Hungry Horse Dam has led to joint planning between BPA and the USBR. (USBR and the US Forest Service are cooperating agencies on the proposed project.) The proposal to eliminate the 115-kV equipment and convert to 230-kV operation was the least costly of the options studied. By rebuilding the line, maintenance costs (and time required for outages) would be reduced. The increased generation at the USBR dam would be safely and consistently transmitted over the improved system, and less energy would be lost from the line, a cost and energy savings

  13. Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement pertaining to the Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Yakama Indian Nation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities for the Project within the boundaries of the Yakama Indian Reservation. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large 20, 340 hectare (50, 308 acre) project area. As individual properties are secured for the Project, three site-specific activities (habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) may be subject to further site-specific environmental review. All required Federal/Tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground disturbing activities

  14. Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1994-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement pertaining to the Lower Yakima Valley Wetlands and Riparian Restoration Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Yakama Indian Nation and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities for the Project within the boundaries of the Yakama Indian Reservation. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large 20, 340 hectare (50, 308 acre) project area. As individual properties are secured for the Project, three site-specific activities (habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) may be subject to further site-specific environmental review. All required Federal/Tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground disturbing activities.

  15. Ice load reducer for dams : laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupien, R.; Cote, A.; Robert, A. [Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Many studies have focused on measuring static ice loads on various hydraulic structures in Canada. This paper discussed a Hydro-Quebec research project whose main purpose was to harmonize the ice thrust value in load combinations for use in general hydraulic works or for specific cases. The objectives of the project were to obtain a better understanding of existing data and to characterize sites and their influence on ice thrust; study the structural mechanisms involved in the generation of ice thrust, their consequences on the structural behaviour of ice and the natural mitigating circumstances that may be offered by ice properties or site operating procedures; and examine the relevance of developing an ice load reducer for works that might not fit the harmonized design value. The paper presented the main research goals and ice load reducer goals, with particular focus on the four pipe samples that were planned, built and tested. The experimental program involved checking the pipe shape behaviour in terms of flexibility-stiffness; maximum deformations; maximum load reduction; permanent deformations; and, ability to shape recovering. The testing also involved examining the strength versus strain rate; creep versus strain rate; and creep capacity under biaxial state of tension and compression. It was concluded that the two phenomena involved in generation of ice thrust, notably thermal expansion and water level changes, had very low strain rates. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  16. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Genetic Studies; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busack, Craig A.; Fritts, Anthony L.; Kassler, Todd (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2006-05-01

    This report covers one of many topics under the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project's Monitoring and Evaluation Program (YKFPME). The YKFPME is funded under two BPA contracts, one for the Yakama Nation and the other for the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (Contract number 22370, Project Number 1995-063-25). A comprehensive summary report for all of the monitoring and evaluation topics will be submitted after all of the topical reports are completed. This approach to reporting enhances the ability of people to get the information they want, enhances timely reporting of results, and provides a condensed synthesis of the whole YKFPME. The current report was completed by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  17. Yakima Fisheries Project revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP) to undertake fishery research and enhancement activities in the Yakima River Basin. The State of Washington and the Yakima Indian Nation would jointly direct the project. The Yakima River system is a promising location for mitigation and enhancement to compensate for stock losses from development and operation of hydroelectric projects elsewhere in the Columbia Basin. The YFP would help determine the role that supplementation might play in increasing natural production of anadromous salmonids throughout the Columbia Basin. In cooperation with BPA, the project managers propose to construct, operate and maintain anadromous (e.g. salmon) fish production facilities. The goal is to conduct research activities designed to increase knowledge of supplementation techniques. These techniques would be applied to rebuild naturally spawning anadromous fish stocks historically present in the Yakima River Basin and, ultimately, those throughout the Columbia River Basin. Eventually, the YFP might involve the supplementation of all stocks of anadromous fish known to have occurred in the Yakima Basin. However, at this time only two alternatives have been proposed: Alternative 1 would supplement depressed naturally spawning populations of upper Yakima spring chinook salmon; Alternative 2 (preferred) would include all actions under Alternative 1; it would also add a study to determine the feasibility of re-establishing a naturally spawning population and a significant fall fishery for coho salmon in the Yakima Basin. (Coho smolts are currently being imported from another basin under the Columbia River Basin Fish Management Plan; the stock is now virtually eliminated from the Basin.)

  18. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading density. This dataset is associated with the...

  19. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Science.gov (United States)

    LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality

  20. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  1. Cognitive load theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Kirschner, F. C., & Paas, F. (2009). Cognitive load theory. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.). Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia, Volume 1, a-j (pp. 205-209). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.

  2. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  3. Load proportional safety brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    This brake is a self-energizing mechanical friction brake and is intended for use in a rotary drive system. It incorporates a torque sensor which cuts power to the power unit on any overload condition. The brake is capable of driving against an opposing load or driving, paying-out, an aiding load in either direction of rotation. The brake also acts as a no-back device when torque is applied to the output shaft. The advantages of using this type of device are: (1) low frictional drag when driving; (2) smooth paying-out of an aiding load with no runaway danger; (3) energy absorption proportional to load; (4) no-back activates within a few degrees of output shaft rotation and resets automatically; and (5) built-in overload protection.

  4. Plug Load Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We provide MATLAB binary files (.mat) and comma separated values files of data collected from a pilot study of a plug load management system that allows for the...

  5. Project Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents sixteen project notes developed by pupils of Chipping Norton School and Bristol Grammar School, in the United Kingdom. These Projects include eight biology A-level projects and eight Chemistry A-level projects. (HM)

  6. Load power device, system and method of load control and management employing load identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Luebke, Charles John; Schoepf, Thomas J.

    2018-01-09

    A load power device includes a power input, at least one power output for at least one load, a plurality of sensors structured to sense voltage and current at the at least one power output, and a processor. The processor provides: (a) load identification based upon the sensed voltage and current, and (b) load control and management based upon the load identification.

  7. Operating years 1993 through 1995 power purchases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is obligated to supply electric power to its contractual customers. Based on a forecast of growing customer loads and assuming Critical Period water conditions in the Columbia River Basin, BPA is planning to meet a firm energy deficit during the four operating years (OY) 1992 through 1995, i.e., August 1991 through July 1995. BPA has executed several power purchase agreements to cover the projected OY 1992 deficit. The proposed action is to extend two existing one-year power purchase agreements for an additional three years to cover the four-year Critical Period energy deficit. The extension of these two one-year power purchase agreements would: (1) increase BPA's firm energy load-carrying capability; (2) allow BPA to meet its firm energy contractual commitments over the remaining three years of the four-year Critical Period from August 1, 1992, to July 31, 1995; (3) provide flexibility for BPA's use of hydroelectric resources over the Critical Period; and (4) increase system reliability. Under Critical Period water conditions, absent the proposed action, projected loads would exceed the capability of the Federal power system to serve those loads. The purpose of BPA's proposed action is to assure consistency with its statutory responsibilities, including those found in the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act)

  8. Effects of wood-ash addition on nitrogen turnover in a highly nitrogen loaded spruce site. Final project report; Effekter av askaaterfoering paa kvaeveomsaettningen i ett kvaeverikt granbestaand i Halland. Slutrapport foer projektet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.; Hoegbom, Lars; Nordlund, Sten [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    During two consecutive years, it was studied how a fertilization with 4.2 tonnes pelleted bark ash per ha, made six-seven years earlier, affected soil chemistry, nitrogen turnover and soil-water chemistry on a Norway spruce site in SW Sweden. The actual site has a very acidic soil. At the same time, the supply of inorganic N is rich. Measures against soil acidification, e. g. addition of ash or lime, may significantly influence the turnover of N with a subsequent risk for increased leaching. Thus, there is a potential conflict between two urgent environmental goals, i. e. to decrease acidification and to decrease the N load on aquatic ecosystems. In the humus layer and the upper 5 cm of the mineral soil, pH(H{sub 2}O) had increased with at the most 0.2 units because of the ash addition. The easily extractable amounts of Mg, P and nitrate were slightly increased. The potential nitrification in the humus layer was generally higher in the ash treatment, but the difference. was not statistically significant. The soil water at 50 cm depth was 0.1-0.2 pH-units more acidic where ash had been applied. Simultaneously, there were tendencies for higher concentrations of nitrate, Al and K. This is the first time in Sweden that ash fertilization of a closed forest has given clear indications of an increased N leaching. As expected, the ash fertilization decreased the acidity of the top soil. On the contrary, the runoff became more acidic and more rich in Al. Thus, the ash fertilization has counteracted one of its primary goals, i. e. to produce a runoff less toxic to aquatic life. The acidification of the runoff may partially be because of acid production during nitrification.

  9. The HGF strategy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Fellmoser, F.; Lefhalm, C.; Mack, K.; Pettan, C.; Piecha, H.; Konys, J.; Adelhelm, C.; Glasbrenner, H.; Muscher, H.; Novotny, J.; Voss, Z.; Wedemeyer, O.; Mueller, G.; Heinzel, A.; Schumacher, G.; Huber, R.; Zimmermann, F.; Groetzbach, G.; Dorr, B.; Carteciano, L.N.

    2000-01-01

    Within the Hermann von Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF) an HGF-Strategy Fund Project entitled 'Innovative Technologies to Reduce Radiotoxicity' is funded since October 1999. The objectives of this HGF-Strategy Fund Project is the development of new methods and technologies to design and manufacture thin-walled and highly thermally-loaded surfaces which are cooled by a corrosive heavy liquid metal (lead-bismuth eutectic). The result of this project will be the basic scientific-technical tool which allows the conception and the design of a European Demonstrator of an ADS system (cf. 32.23.05). The work performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is embedded in a broad European research and development programme on ADS systems. The project is divided in three sub-projects: Sub-Project 1: Thermalhydraulic Investigations, Sub-Project 2: Material Specific Investigations, Sub-Project 3: Oxygen Control System. This progress report gives a general description of the project and its envisaged objectives. As a selection of the results achieved, first, FLUTAN calculations for the COULI beam window design and, second, the oxygen control system for the KArlsruhe Lead LAboratory KALLA are described in detail. Finally, the design and status of KALLA is given. (orig.)

  10. Recovery Act. Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yi [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Casey, Patrick [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Du, Liang [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); He, Dawei [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2014-02-12

    In response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE)’s goal of achieving market ready, net-zero energy residential and commercial buildings by 2020 and 2025, Eaton partnered with the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Georgia Institute of Technology to develop an intelligent load identification and management technology enabled by a novel “smart power strip” to provide critical intelligence and information to improve the capability and functionality of building load analysis and building power management systems. Buildings account for 41% of the energy consumption in the United States, significantly more than either transportation or industrial. Within the building sector, plug loads account for a significant portion of energy consumption. Plug load consumes 15-20% of building energy on average. As building managers implement aggressive energy conservation measures, the proportion of plug load energy can increase to as much as 50% of building energy leaving plug loads as the largest remaining single source of energy consumption. This project focused on addressing plug-in load control and management to further improve building energy efficiency accomplished through effective load identification. The execution of the project falls into the following three major aspects; An intelligent load modeling, identification and prediction technology was developed to automatically determine the type, energy consumption, power quality, operation status and performance status of plug-in loads, using electric waveforms at a power outlet level. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed technology through a large set of plug-in loads measurements and testing; A novel “Smart Power Strip (SPS) / Receptacle” prototype was developed to act as a vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of load identification technology as a low-cost, embedded solution; and Market environment for plug-in load control and management solutions

  11. Failure of composite plates under static biaxial planar loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waas, Anthony M.; Khamseh, Amir R.

    1992-01-01

    The project involved detailed investigations into the failure mechanisms in composite plates as a function of hole size (holes centrally located in the plates) under static loading. There were two phases to the project, the first dealing with uniaxial loads along the fiber direction, and the second dealing with coplanar biaxial loading. Results for the uniaxial tests have been reported and published previously, thus this report will place emphasis on the second phase of the project, namely the biaxial tests. The composite plates used in the biaxial loading experiments, as well as the uniaxial, were composed of a single ply unidirectional graphite/epoxy prepreg sandwiched between two layers of transparent thermoplastic. This setup enabled us to examine the failure initiation and propagation modes nondestructively, during the test. Currently, similar tests and analysis of results are in progress for graphite/epoxy cruciform shaped flat laminates. The results obtained from these tests will be available at a later time.

  12. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS--Tapteal Bend Riparian Corridor Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-08-11

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the restoration of approximately 500 feet of streambank along the Yakima River at river mile 8, upstream of the Van Giesen Bridge on SR 224, in and between Richland and West Richland, Washington. This project will also result in the acquisition of Fox Island, a 12-acre island directly across the river from the restoration area. There is no development planned for the island. The proposed project includes: The installation of a bio-engineered streambank that incorporates barbs to capture silt and deflect flow, roughened rock or log toes, a riparian buffer, soil reinforcement, and bank grading. Long-term photo-point and plot sampling will also be implemented to evaluate the effectiveness and success of the restoration project. The NEPA compliance checklist for this project was completed by Darrel Sunday, a contractor with Sunday and Associates, Inc. (April 4, 2004), and meets the standards and guidelines for the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed species that may occur in the general vicinity of the project area are the pygmy rabbit, bald eagle, bull trout, Ute ladies'-tresses, and mid-Columbia Steelhead. The pygmy rabbit, bald eagle, and Ute ladies'Tresses are not known to occur in the immediate project vicinity, and it was determined that the proposed restoration project would have no effect on these species. It is difficult to determine if bull trout occur within the Tapteal project area and Dave Carl of the Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife was contacted and concurred with this assumption. It was determined that the project may affect, but is not likely to adversely affect bull trout, and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service has concurred with that determination (July 28, 2004). For the mid-Columbia Steelhead, an anadromous fish species, BPA has determined that if conducted in accordance with

  13. Yakima Fisheries Project : Revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-05-01

    BPA proposes to fund several fishery-related activities in the Yakima River Basin. The Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP), included in the Northwest Power Planning Council`s fish and wildlife program, would be jointly managed by the State of Washington and the Yakima Indian Nation. Fisheries resources in the Yakima River are severely reduced from historical levels and there is a significant potential for enhancement of these resources. BPA`s proposed action is to fund (1) information gathering on the implementation of supplementation techniques and on feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon in an environment where native populations have become extinct; (2) research activities based on continuous assessment, feedback and improvement of research design and activities ({open_quotes}adaptive management{close_quotes}); and (3) the construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities for supplementing populations of upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. The project has been considerably revised from the original proposal described in the first draft EIS. Examined in addition to No Action (which would leave present anadromous fisheries resources unchanged in the, Basin) are two alternatives for action: (1) supplementation of depressed natural populations of upper Yakima spring chinook and (2) that same supplementation plus a study to determine the feasibility of re-establishing (via stock imported from another basin) naturally spawning population and a significant fall fishery for coho in the Yakima Basin. Alternative 2 has been identified as the preferred action. Major issues examined in the Revised Draft EIS include potential impacts of the project on genetic and ecological resources of existing fish populations, on water quality and quantity, on threatened and endangered species listed under the Endangered Species Act, and on the recreational fishery.

  14. Ocean Tide Loading Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    2005-01-01

    September 15,2003 through May 15,2005 This grant funds the maintenance, updating, and distribution of programs for computing ocean tide loading, to enable the corrections for such loading to be more widely applied in space- geodetic and gravity measurements. These programs, developed under funding from the CDP and DOSE programs, incorporate the most recent global tidal models developed from Topex/Poscidon data, and also local tide models for regions around North America; the design of the algorithm and software makes it straightforward to combine local and global models.

  15. DYNAMIC LOAD DAMPER MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loktev Aleksey Alekseevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present their findings associated with their modeling of a dynamic load damper. According to the authors, the damper is to be installed onto a structure or its element that may be exposed to impact, vibration or any other dynamic loading. The damper is composed of paralleled or consecutively connected viscous and elastic elements. The authors study the influence of viscosity and elasticity parameters of the damper produced onto the regular displacement of points of the structure to be protected and onto the regular acceleration transmitted immediately from the damper to the elements positioned below it.

  16. Vitrification of highly-loaded SDS zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, D.H.; Bryan, G.H.; Knowlton, D.E.; Knox, C.A.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is demonstrating a vitrification system designed for immobilization of highly loaded SDS zeolites. The Zeolite Vitrification Demonstration Project (ZVDP) utilizes an in-can melting process. All steps of the process have been demonstrated, from receipt of the liners through characterization of the vitrified product. The system has been tested with both nonradioactive and radioactive zeolite material. Additional high-radioactivity demonstrations are scheduled to begin in FY-83. 5 figures, 4 tables

  17. FLOAT Project - Task 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchalot, Tanguy; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Sørensen, Eigil V.

    .com, 2011). CRC floats could be a very cost-effective technology with enhanced loading capacity and environmental resistance, and very low maintenance requirements, affecting directly the final energy price. The project involves DEXA Wave Energy Ltd, Wave Star A/S, Aalborg University and Hi-Con A......The objective of the FLOAT project is to study the reliability of high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete, also known as Compact Reinforced Composite (CRC), for the floats of wave energy converters. In order to reach commercial breakthrough, wave energy converters need to achieve a lower price...

  18. Lateral loadings on snubber assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the installation of snubber assemblies in power plants with respect to transverse or lateral loads as well as axial loads. Evaluation of the effects of low level, lateral loads was performed by analytical means. At higher loadings, the snubber assembly could no longer be treated as a column; therefore, the effects of lateral loadings was determined by test. The test consisted of applying both lateral and axial loads simultaneously. Results of both the analysis and the test showed that the application of lateral loads had a considerable effect on the snubber assemblies

  19. FY1998 survey on IEA international cooperation project on demonstration and survey of new load leveling methods (participation in the IEA/DSM task VI); 1998 nendo fuka heijunka shinshuho jissho chosa IEA kokusai kyoryoku jigyo 'IEA/DSM task 6 eno sanka ni tsuite' chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    It is intended to participate in the IEA international cooperation project related to DSA, exchange items of information, and promote demonstration and survey of new load leveling methods. The existing and newly proposed DSM mechanisms as the achievement of the previous tasks were put into order. The arena of information exchange and discussions was prepared through use of the Internet homepage for the IEA/DSM implementation agreement. Necessary official policies were also made available. Points of precautions when the mechanisms of other countries are used in Japan: the key to the success depends on social or cultural situations that work as the base; therefore, comparisons and analyses are necessary on such elements as customers as the object, energy projects and governments; compatibility of the situation and pattern of the demand side with the DSM technologies governs the reasonability thereof; the types of the mechanisms are narrowed down by size of the customer division, consumption pattern, electric power quality and safety, and needs on the flexibility; proliferation levels of the DSM technologies determine the appropriate mechanisms; and how the DSM is conceived against the final consumption is governed by the conception by both of the customers and the government. (NEDO)

  20. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-01

    With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment - thus facing penalties in system efficiency, comfort, and cost. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of multifamily buildings and single-family homes market needs. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services on hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data. CARB compiled and analyzed these data to see what the thermal load ranges are in various multifamily apartments and attached single-family home types (duplex and townhouse). In total, design loads from 941 dwellings from SWA's recent multifamily and attached single-family work across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic were analyzed. Information on the dwelling characteristics, design loads, and the specifications of installed mechanical equipment were analyzed to determine any trends that exist within the dataset.

  1. Wave loads on offshore wind turbines: Accurate tools and structural response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Can the design models for offshore wind turbine wave loads be improved? And how will that change the overall load picture? Core questions of the Wave Loads project which was finalised in 2013 with two PhD theses, response calculations for jackets and monopiles, a detailed set of experiments and a3D...... coupled CFD wave solver...

  2. Fuel Load (FL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan C. Lutes; Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fuel Load method (FL) is used to sample dead and down woody debris, determine depth of the duff/ litter profile, estimate the proportion of litter in the profile, and estimate total vegetative cover and dead vegetative cover. Down woody debris (DWD) is sampled using the planar intercept technique based on the methodology developed by Brown (1974). Pieces of dead...

  3. HIV Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  4. Loading device for incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempelmann, W.

    1983-01-01

    An incinerator for radioactive waste is described. Heat radiation from the incinerator into the loading device is reduced by the design of the slider with a ceramic plate and the conical widening of the pot, and also by fixing a metal plate between the pot and the floor. (PW) [de

  5. Side loading filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    A side loading filter chamber for use with radioactive gases is described. The equipment incorporates an inexpensive, manually operated, mechanism for aligning filter units with a number of laterally spaced wall openings and for removing the units from the chamber. (U.K.)

  6. EQUATING FACULTY LOADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OOSTING, KENNETH W.

    AT ALPENA COMMUNITY COLLEGE, A NORMAL TEACHING LOAD FOR ANY FACULTY MEMBER IS 14-16 SEMESTER HOURS, WITH 75-125 STUDENTS AND 2-3 PREPARATIONS. VARIATIONS FROM THE SCHEDULE ARE IN ACCORDANCE WITH SPECIFIC FORMULAS RELATING TO TOTAL MEMBERS OF STUDENTS, NUMBERS OF PREPARATIONS, ASSIGNMENT TO ENGLISH COMPOSITION CLASSES, NEW COURSES, AND CLASSES…

  7. Probabilistic Load Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the probabilistic load flow (PLF) techniques. Applications of the PLF techniques in different areas of power system steady-state analysis are also discussed. The purpose of the review is to identify different available PLF techniques and their corresponding...

  8. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    A duration of load study representing 13 years of testing was recently terminated. Preliminary results have been published over the years. This paper represents the final account of the study, which was focused on the influ-ence of moisture content on time to failure for structural timber subject...

  9. Robust surgery loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; van Houdenhoven, Mark; Kazemier, Geert

    2008-01-01

    We consider the robust surgery loading problem for a hospital’s operating theatre department, which concerns assigning surgeries and sufficient planned slack to operating room days. The objective is to maximize capacity utilization and minimize the risk of overtime, and thus cancelled patients. This

  10. Temoporfin-loaded liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Freisleben, Ines; Steiniger, Frank

    2010-01-01

    . In contrast, if phospholipids with longer fatty acid chains (distearoylphosphatidylcholine/-glycerol) were used, phase transitions were well above body temperature even at high drug load. Size and thermal behavior were not distinctly influenced by the addition of pegylated lipids but cryo-electron microscopic...

  11. Pac-Rim LNG project : final project report specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    PAC-RIM LNG Inc. has submitted a proposal to the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office, to develop a liquefied natural gas project which would purchase pipeline quality natural gas from sources in northeast British Columbia and Alberta and transport it via a dedicated pipeline system to a LNG processing plant on tidewater on the Pacific coast. The project would include storage and processing facilities and a marine loading terminal. This document sets out the final project report specifications prepared by the Project Committee on the basis of input received from the public, First Nations and federal, provincial and local governments

  12. Distribution load forecast with interactive correction of horizon loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glamochanin, V.; Andonov, D.; Gagovski, I.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the interactive distribution load forecast application that performs the distribution load forecast with interactive correction of horizon loads. It consists of two major parts implemented in Fortran and Visual Basic. The Fortran part is used for the forecasts computations. It consists of two methods: Load Transfer Coupling Curve Fitting (LTCCF) and load Forecast Using Curve Shape Clustering (FUCSC). LTCCF is used to 'correct' the contaminated data because of load transfer among neighboring distribution areas. FUCSC uses curve shape clustering to forecast the distribution loads of small areas. The forecast for each small area is achieved by using the shape of corresponding cluster curve. The comparison of forecasted loads of the area with historical data will be used as a tool for the correction of the estimated horizon load. The Visual Basic part is used to provide flexible interactive user-friendly environment. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  13. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  14. Research report of FY 1997 on the clean coal technology promotion project and region model survey. Measures for environmental load reduction: feasibility survey on the environmental load reduction-type utilization Energy Center (interim report); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Clean coal technology suishin jigyo chiiki model chosa `kankyo fuka teigen taisaku: kankyo fuka teigengata sekitan riyo energy center feasibility chosa` chosa hokokusho (chukan hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The survey has given an eye to the coal that it can be easily burnt together with combustible waste and supplements unstable generation of waste. Thus, the establishment of the Energy Center at the place where infrastructure of coal will be arranged, a lot of combustible waste will be expected to generate and a considerable aniybt if energy will be used, has been planned, and this survey is intended to study the scale of Energy Center, its economy and the problems to be solved. In power plant project using RDF for above-mentioned local governments, the construction of power plant and the renewal time of the existing incinerator to RDF facility can be planned separately in this system. The power plant will be economically constructed and the amount of coal can be decreased in accordance with increased RDF to meet wide range of refuse treatment. In FY 1997, the actual situation of the waste treatment and the infrastructure of coal supply was surveyed, and selection of the place suitable for the Energy Center and its scale was studied. 69 figs., 50 tabs.

  15. Software defined networks reactive flow programming and load balance switching

    OpenAIRE

    Καλλιανιώτης, Νικόλαος; Kallianiotis, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    This project serves as a Master Thesis as the requirements of the master’s programme Master of Digital Communications and Networks. It proposes load balancing algorithms applied to Software-Defined Networks to achieve the best possible resource utilisation of each of the links present in a network. The open-sources Opendaylight project and Floodlight project are used as SDN controllers, and the network is emulated using Mininet software

  16. The studsvik BNCT project: structure and the proposed protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capala, J.; Stenstam, B.H.; Skoeld, K.; Henriksson, R.; Salford, L.; Carlsson, J.

    2000-01-01

    The BNCT facility at Studsvik is now ready for clinical trials. Scientific operations of the Studsvik BNCT project are overseen by the Scientific Advisory Board comprised of representatives of all major universities in Sweden. Furthermore, special task groups for clinical and preclinical studies have been formed to facilitate collaboration with academia and to assure the quality of the research. Proposed clinical Phase II trials for glioblastoma are sponsored by the Swedish National Neuro-Oncology Group and, initially, will involve two protocols: Protocol no.1. BNCT for glioblastoma patients who have not received any therapy other than surgery (including stereotactic biopsy only). Protocol no.2. BNCT as a palliative treatment for patients with recurrent glioblastoma following conventional therapies or BNCT. In both protocols, BPA, administered by a 6 hour i.v. infusion, will be used as the boron delivery agent. (author)

  17. Load theory behind the wheel; perceptual and cognitive load effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M

    2017-09-01

    Perceptual Load Theory has been proposed as a resolution to the longstanding early versus late selection debate in cognitive psychology. There is much evidence in support of Load Theory but very few applied studies, despite the potential for the model to shed light on everyday attention and distraction. Using a driving simulator, the effect of perceptual and cognitive load on drivers' visual search was assessed. The findings were largely in line with Load Theory, with reduced distractor processing under high perceptual load, but increased distractor processing under high cognitive load. The effect of load on driving behaviour was also analysed, with significant differences in driving behaviour under perceptual and cognitive load. In addition, the effect of perceptual load on drivers' levels of awareness was investigated. High perceptual load significantly increased inattentional blindness and deafness, for stimuli that were both relevant and irrelevant to driving. High perceptual load also increased RTs to hazards. The current study helps to advance Load Theory by illustrating its usefulness outside of traditional paradigms. There are also applied implications for driver safety and roadway design, as the current study suggests that perceptual and cognitive load are important factors in driver attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  19. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015.......Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015....

  20. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Chai, Kah-Hin; Le, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the true coverage of PM theory through a bibliometric analysis of the International Journal of Project Management from 1996-2012. We identify six persistent research themes: project time management, project risk management, programme management, large-scale project management......, project success/failure and practitioner development. These differ from those presented in review and editorial articles in the literature. In addition, topics missing from the PM BOK: knowledge management project-based organization and project portfolio management have become more popular topics...

  1. Load handling gripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, C.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus for releasably engaging and moving workpieces comprises pivotable gripper jaws with a spring-loaded plunger to maintain the jaws in a closed condition. The plunger is slidable in a bore in a housing and the end of the plunger remote from the jaws cooperates with a blind end of the bore to provide a gas cushion. A rod in conjunction with a backplate (not shown) are provided to cause the jaws to open and release a workpiece on axial movement of the housing in a first direction through a predetermined distance and releasable locking means maintain the jaws in an open condition. On axial movement of the housing in the reverse direction the locking means are released to allow the spring-loaded plunger to return to a position to close to jaws. (author)

  2. Heavy-Load Lifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Oturai, Peter; Steele, Megan L

    2018-01-01

    of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal....... repetition maximum (RM), two sets of 15-20 repetitions) and heavy-load (85-90% 1RM, three sets of 5-8 repetition) upper-extremity resistance exercise separated by a one-week wash-out period. Swelling was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, with breast cancer......-related lymphedema symptoms (heaviness, swelling, pain, tightness) reported using a numeric rating scale (0-10). Order of low- versus heavy-load was randomized. All outcomes were assessed pre-, immediately post-, and 24- and 72-hours post-exercise. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate changes over...

  3. Economics of biofiltration for remediation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudelson, J.M.; Tinari, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    Biofilters with granular activated carbon (GAC) filter backup units offer substantial savings compared to conventional GAC filters and catalytic/thermal oxidation (Catox) units in controlling emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petroleum remediation projects. Provided that the biofilter supplier is willing to satisfy the client's and consultant's risk-management concerns, biofilters offer anew method for reducing the cost of remediation projects, with savings of up to $10,000 (24%) per facility in 24-month projects and up to $16,000 (32%) per facility in 36-month projects for simple gas station remediation projects. Savings will be greater for longer projects and projects with higher average contaminant loadings

  4. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, A.

    1998-01-01

    Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

  5. Fuel element loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P; s.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element loading system is described which conveys a plurality of fuel rods to longitudinal passages in fuel elements. Conveyor means successively position the fuel rods above the longitudinal passages in axial alignment therewith and adapter means guide the fuel rods from the conveyor means into the longitudinal passages. The fuel elements are vibrated to cause the fuel rods to fall into the longitudinal passages through the adapter means

  6. TFTR generator load assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, F.M.

    1975-10-01

    Typical experimental load demands on the TFTR generators are illustrated based on the electrical characteristics of the field coils, the coil leads, the main bus work, the various auxiliary bus work, the rectifiers, and transformers. The generator MW capacities are shown to be adequate for the proposed experimental operations with allowances made for variations in the final designs. The generator MVA capacities are shown to be adequate provided portions of the TF and EF rectifiers are freewheeled at selected times

  7. Project descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This part specifies the activities and project tasks of each project broken down according to types of financing, listing the current projects Lw 1 through 3 funded by long-term provisions (budget), the current projects LB 1 and 2, LG 1 through 5, LK1, LM1, and LU 1 through 6 financed from special funds, and the planned projects ZG 1 through 4 and ZU 1, also financed from special funds. (DG) [de

  8. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  9. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkman, Jed; Sexton, Amy D. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR)

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of these efforts is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. Six projects, two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and one property on the mainstem Walla Walla River were part of the exercise. Several thousand native plants as bare-root stock and cuttings were reintroduced to the sites and 18 acres of floodplain corridor was seeded with native grass seed. Pre and post-project monitoring efforts were included for all projects, incorporating methodologies from CTUIR's Draft Monitoring Plan.

  10. Selected Area Fishery Evaluation Project Economic Analysis Study Final Report, Final Draft Revision 4: November 10, 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville Power Administration; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this Study is to provide an economic review of current and proposed changes to the Select Area Fishery Evaluation Project (SAFE or Project). The Study results are the information requested in comments made on the Project by a joint review dated March 2005 by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) and Independent Economic Analysis Board (IEAB). North et al. (2006) addressed technical questions about operations and plans, and this report contains the response information for comments concerning Project economics. This report can be considered an economic feasibility review meeting guidelines for cost-effective analysis developed by the IEAB (2003). It also contains other economic measurement descriptions to illustrate the economic effects of SAFE. The SAFE is an expansion of a hatchery project (locally called the Clatsop Economic Development Council Fisheries Project or CEDC) started in 1977 that released an early run coho (COH) stock into the Youngs River. The Youngs River entrance to the Columbia River at River Mile 12 is called Youngs Bay, which is located near Astoria, Oregon. The purpose of the hatchery project was to provide increased fishing opportunities for the in-river commercial fishing gillnet fleet. Instead of just releasing fish at the hatchery, a small scale net pen acclimation project in Youngs Bay was tried in 1987. Hirose et al. (1998) found that 1991-1992 COH broodstock over-wintered at the net pens had double the smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) of traditional hatchery release, less than one percent stray rates, and 99 percent fishery harvests. It was surmised that smolts from other Columbia River hatcheries could be hauled to the net pens for acclimation and release to take advantage of the SAR's and fishing rates. Proposals were tendered to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other agencies to fund the expansion for using other hatcheries smolts and other off

  11. Plastic limit loads for cylindrical shell intersections under combined loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopinsky, V.N.; Berkov, N.A.; Vogov, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, applied methods of nonlinear analysis and results of determining the plastic limit loads for shell intersection configurations under combined internal pressure, in-plane moment and out-plane moment loadings are presented. The numerical analysis of shell intersections is performed using the finite element method, geometrically nonlinear shell theory in quadratic approximation and plasticity theory. For determining the load parameter of proportional combined loading, the developed maximum criterion of rate of change of relative plastic work is employed. The graphical results for model of cylindrical shell intersection under different two-parameter combined loadings (as generalized plastic limit load curves) and three-parameter combined loading (as generalized plastic limit load surface) are presented on the assumption that the internal pressure, in-plane moment and out-plane moment loads were applied in a proportional manner. - Highlights: • This paper presents nonlinear two-dimensional FE analysis for shell intersections. • Determining the plastic limit loads under combined loading is considered. • Developed maximum criterion of rate of change of relative plastic work is employed. • Plastic deformation mechanism in shell intersections is discussed. • Results for generalized plastic limit load curves of branch intersection are presented

  12. Predictive Solar-Integrated Commercial Building Load Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasgow, Nathan [EdgePower Inc., Aspen, CO (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This report is the final technical report for the Department of Energy SunShot award number EE0007180 to EdgePower Inc., for the project entitled “Predictive Solar-Integrated Commercial Building Load Control.” The goal of this project was to successfully prove that the integration of solar forecasting and building load control can reduce demand charge costs for commercial building owners with solar PV. This proof of concept Tier 0 project demonstrated its value through a pilot project at a commercial building. This final report contains a summary of the work completed through he duration of the project. Clean Power Research was a sub-recipient on the award.

  13. Project studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geraldi, Joana; Söderlund, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Project organising is a growing field of scholarly inquiry and management practice. In recent years, two important developments have influenced this field: (1) the study and practice of projects have extended their level of analysis from mainly focussing on individual projects to focussing on micro......, and of the explanations of project practices they could offer. To discuss avenues for future research on projects and project practice, this paper suggests the notion of project studies to better grasp the status of our field. We combine these two sets of ideas to analyse the status and future options for advancing...... project research: (1) levels of analysis; and (2) type of research. Analysing recent developments within project studies, we observe the emergence of what we refer to as type 3 research, which reconciles the need for theoretical development and engagement with practice. Type 3 research suggests pragmatic...

  14. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  15. Cognitive Load and Strategic Sophistication

    OpenAIRE

    Allred, Sarah; Duffy, Sean; Smith, John

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between the cognitive load manipulation and strategic sophistication. The cognitive load manipulation is designed to reduce the subject's cognitive resources that are available for deliberation on a choice. In our experiment, subjects are placed under a large cognitive load (given a difficult number to remember) or a low cognitive load (given a number which is not difficult to remember). Subsequently, the subjects play a one-shot game then they are asked to recall...

  16. Mission Need Statement: Calcine Disposition Project Major Systems Acquisition Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. T. Beck

    2007-01-01

    This document identifies the need to establish the Calcine Disposition Project to determine and implement the final disposition of calcine including characterization, retrieval, treatment (if necessary), packaging, loading, onsite interim storage pending shipment to a repository or interim storage facility, and disposition of related facilities

  17. Virtual projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects....... The overall implications for research and practice are to acknowledge virtual project management as very different to traditional project management and to address this difference.......Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...

  18. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.U.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concepts and components of the project financing of large industrial facilities. Diagrams of a simple partnership structure and a simple leveraged lease structure are included. Finally, a Hypothetical Project is described with basic issues identified for discussion purposes. The topics of the paper include non-recourse financing, principal advantages and objectives, disadvantages, project financing participants and agreements, feasibility studies, organization of the project company, principal agreements in a project financing, insurance, and an examination of a hypothetical project

  19. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, David B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% - 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  20. Research of Impact Load in Large Electrohydraulic Load Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongguang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stronger impact load will appear in the initial phase when the large electric cylinder is tested in the hardware-in-loop simulation. In this paper, the mathematical model is built based on AMESim, and then the reason of the impact load is investigated through analyzing the changing tendency of parameters in the simulation results. The inhibition methods of impact load are presented according to the structural invariability principle and applied to the actual system. The final experimental result indicates that the impact load is inhibited, which provides a good experimental condition for the electric cylinder and promotes the study of large load simulator.

  1. Demand Response Load Following of Source and Load Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Cao, Jinde; Yong, Taiyou

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a demand response load following strategy for an interconnected source and load system, in which we utilize traditional units and population of cooling thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) to follow the mismatched power caused by the load activities and the renewable power...... injection in real time. In the demand side of power systems, these TCLs are often affiliated to a bus load agent and can be aggregated to multiple TCL aggregators. Firstly, aggregate evaluation of the TCL aggregator is carried out based on a bilinear aggregate model so as to derive the available regulation...

  2. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-19

    Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment must be right-sized to ensure energy performance and comfort. With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment that creates system efficiency, comfort, and cost penalties. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment that is oversized or inefficient and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of the needs of the multifamily building and attached single-family (duplex and townhouse) home market. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services for hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data that describe multifamily and attached single-family home characteristics. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) compiled and analyzed these data to outline the characteristics of low-load dwellings such as the heating and cooling design loads.

  3. Load Estimation from Modal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández

    2007-01-01

    In Natural Input Modal Analysis the modal parameters are estimated just from the responses while the loading is not recorded. However, engineers are sometimes interested in knowing some features of the loading acting on a structure. In this paper, a procedure to determine the loading from a FRF m...

  4. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  5. Android Fully Loaded

    CERN Document Server

    Huddleston, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Fully loaded with the latest tricks and tips on your new Android! Android smartphones are so hot, they're soaring past iPhones on the sales charts. And the second edition of this muscular little book is equally impressive--it's packed with tips and tricks for getting the very most out of your latest-generation Android device. Start Facebooking and tweeting with your Android mobile, scan barcodes to get pricing and product reviews, download your favorite TV shows--the book is positively bursting with practical and fun how-tos. Topics run the gamut from using speech recognition, location-based m

  6. Spreading the load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, Greg

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the management of power demand by the regional electricity companies in the United Kingdom so that consumers use most power at times when the pool price is at its lowest. The use of teleswitching for load management, the control of the heating of large residential buildings, the power demand of supermarkets with 24hr opening, financial incentives, and the forecasting of demand are discussed. Details are given of the work of the operational forecasting team, and the matching of demand with generators availability by the scheduling team of the National Grid. (UK)

  7. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Containing 12 new chapters, this second edition contains offers increased-coverage of weather correction and normalization of forecasts, anticipation of redevelopment, determining the validity of announced developments, and minimizing risk from over- or under-planning. It provides specific examples and detailed explanations of key points to consider for both standard and unusual utility forecasting situations, information on new algorithms and concepts in forecasting, a review of forecasting pitfalls and mistakes, case studies depicting challenging forecast environments, and load models illustrating various types of demand.

  8. Development of a network-based information infrastructure for fisheries and hydropower information in the Columbia River Basin : Final project report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Johnson, Gary E.; Perkins, Bill

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this project was to help develop technology and a unified structure to access and disseminate information related to the Bonneville Power Administration's fish and wildlife responsibility in the Pacific Northwest. BPA desires to increase access to, and exchange of, information produced by the Environment Fish, and Wildlife Group in concert with regional partners. Historically, data and information have been managed through numerous centralized, controlled information systems. Fisheries information has been fragmented and not widely exchanged. Where exchange has occurred, it often is not timely enough to allow resource managers to effectively use the information to guide planning and decision making. This project (and related projects) have successfully developed and piloted a network-based infrastructure that will serve as a vehicle to transparently connect existing information systems in a manner that makes information exchange efficient and inexpensive. This project was designed to provide a mechanism to help BPA address measures in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife program: 3.2H Disseminate Research and Monitoring Information and 5.1A.5 manage water supplies in accordance with the Annual Implementation Work Plan. This project also provided resources that can be used to assist monitoring and evaluation of the Program

  9. Development of a Network-Based Information Infrastructure for Fisheries and Hydropower Information in the Columbia River Basin : Final Project Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Johnson, Gary E.; Perkins, Bill

    1997-05-01

    The goal of this project was to help develop technology and a unified structure to access and disseminate information related to the Bonneville Power Administration's fish and wildlife responsibility in the Pacific Northwest. BPA desires to increase access to, and exchange of, information produced by the Environment Fish, and Wildlife Group in concert with regional partners. Historically, data and information have been managed through numerous centralized, controlled information systems. Fisheries information has been fragmented and not widely exchanged. Where exchange has occurred, it often is not timely enough to allow resource managers to effectively use the information to guide planning and decision making. This project (and related projects) have successfully developed and piloted a network-based infrastructure that will serve as a vehicle to transparently connect existing information systems in a manner that makes information exchange efficient and inexpensive. This project was designed to provide a mechanism to help BPA address measures in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife program: 3.2H Disseminate Research and Monitoring Information and 5.1A.5 manage water supplies in accordance with the Annual Implementation Work Plan. This project also provided resources that can be used to assist monitoring and evaluation of the Program.

  10. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  11. Microsoft project

    OpenAIRE

    Markić, Lucija; Mandušić, Dubravka; Grbavac, Vitomir

    2005-01-01

    Microsoft Project je alat čije su prednosti u svakodnevnom radu nezamjenjive. Pomoću Microsoft Projecta omogućeno je upravljanje resursima, stvaranje izvještaja o projektima u vremenu, te analize različitih scenarija. Pojavljuje u tri verzije: Microsoft Project Professional, Microsoft Project Server i Microsoft Project Server Client Access Licenses. Upravo je trend da suvremeni poslovni ljudi zadatke povjeravaju Microsoft Projectu jer on znatno povećava produktivnost rada. Te prednos...

  12. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

    2013-01-01

    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  13. Dynamic stability under sudden loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simitses, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of dynamic stability of elastic structures subjected to sudden (step) loads is discussed. The various criteria and related methodologies for estimating critical conditions are presented with the emphasis on their similarities and differences. These are demonstrated by employing a simple mechanical model. Several structural configurations are analyzed, for demonstration purposes, with the intention of comparing critical dynamic loads to critical static loads. These configurations include shallow arches and shallow spherical caps, two bar frames, and imperfect cylindrical shells of metallic as well as laminated composite construction. In the demonstration examples, the effect of static pre loading on the dynamic critical load is presented

  14. ANFO bulk loading in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajjar, A.

    1987-08-01

    With India's total coal production projected to increase from 152 to 237 million tons by 1990, net additional production from new mines must be more because of substantial depletion in existing mines. This article discusses the best possible application of explosive techniques in open-cast coal mines to economize production cost. The most energy-efficient and safest explosive is ANFO (ammonium nitrate, fuel oil); however, manual charging by INFO is not possible. Therefore, the solution is the application of bulk-loading systems of ANFO for giant mining operations. Cost of blasting per ton of coal production in India is in the range of Rs 25. Thus, the author suggests it will be the responsibility of mining engineers to see that the ANFO based bulk-loading system is implemented and the cost of production per ton reduced to Rs 19.50.

  15. OCGen Module Mooring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC, Portland, ME (United States)

    2015-02-06

    Ocean Renewable Power Company's OCGen Module Mooring Project provided an extensive research, design, development, testing and data collection effort and analysis conducted with respect to a positively buoyant, submerged MHK device secured to the seabed using a tensioned mooring system. Different analytic tools were evaluated for their utility in the design of submerged systems and their moorings. Deployment and testing of a prototype OCGen® system provided significant data related to mooring line loads and system attitude and station keeping. Mooring line loads were measured in situ and reported against flow speeds. The Project made a significant step in the development of designs, methodologies and practices related to floating and mooring of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. Importantly for Ocean Renewable Power Company, the Project provided a sound basis for advancing a technically and commercially viable OCGen® Power System. The OCGen® Power System is unique in the MHK industry and, in itself, offers distinct advantages of MHK devices that are secured to the seabed using fixed structural frames. Foremost among these advantages are capital and operating cost reductions and increased power extraction by allowing the device to be placed at the most energetic level of the water column.

  16. Simulating tokamak PFC performance using simultaneous dual beam particle loading with pulsed heat loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Gregory; Gonderman, Sean; Tripathi, Jitendra; Ray, Tyler; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    The performance of plasma facing components (PFCs) in a fusion device are expected to change due to high flux particle loading during operation. Tungsten (W) is a promising PFC candidate material, due to its high melting point, high thermal conductivity, and low tritium retention. However, ion irradiation of D and He have each shown to diminish the thermal strength of W. This work investigates the synergistic effect between ion species, using dual beam irradiation, on the thermal response of W during ELM-like pulsed heat loading. Experiments studied three different loading conditions: laser, laser + He+, and laser + He+ + D+. 100 eV He+ and D+ exposures used a flux of 3.0-3.5 x 1020 m-2 s-1. ELM-like loading was applied using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at an energy density of 0.38-1.51 MJ m-2 (3600 1 ms pulses at 1 Hz). SEM imaging revealed that laser + He+ loading at 0.76 MJ m-2 caused surface melting, inhibiting fuzz formation. Increasing the laser fluence decreased grain size and increased surface pore density. Thermally-enhanced migration of trapped gases appear to reflect resultant molten morphology. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation PIRE project.

  17. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  18. Harmful loading of water courses caused by precipitation. Phase 2. Part project 8: Loading of harmful substances by precipitation. Pt. A, B, and C. Pt. A: Harmful substances introduced by atmospheric deposition dust.Pt. B: Sources and mobility of harmful substances. Pt. C: Load of harmful substances from roof and road surfaces; NIEDERschlagsbedingte SCHadstoffbeLAstung der Gewaesser - Phase 2. Teilprojekt 8: Schadstoffbelastung durch Niederschlag. T. A, B und C. T. A: Schadstoffeintrag durch atmosphaerische Staubdeposition. T. B: Quellen und Mobilitaet von Schadstoffen. T. C: Schadstofffrachten von Dach- und Strassenflaechen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetzner, K.; Grothkopp, H.; Gebhard, V.; Rennert, S.; Huth, B.

    1997-02-28

    The heavy metal loading of flow from roofs depends, on the one hand, on the deposited load of dust and on the other hand, on the material used. The resulting solution process are especially prominent if the pH values are low and there is limitation of particulate material, together with a missing ability to buffer. For roads in town areas, the loading of the surface flows does not only depend on the traffic density. This applies most for particle loading regarding some elements. Driving behaviour, eg: Frequent starting and braking, is also important here. The background loading, flushing of unsolidified surfaces and other activities (eg: Intensive building work) also affect the loading of side streets. During the precipitation events examined, after about 6 mm of precipitation, the washing out of the layer of air near the ground was ended. After rain of 15 mm has fallen, the nearly complete flushing of the particulate load was found for two events. About 80% of heavy metal loading (for Cu only about 50%) of the catchment area is caused by emission from road traffic. Copper roofs emit about 40% of the CU load. The heavy metal load of flow from roofs is mainly contained in the liquid phase (except Pb, Fe), however the load from flow from roads in 90% bount to particles. Reduction of this heavy metal load could therefore occur via the AFS reduction. From the calculation carried out on the basis of known mean values, the city cleaning at Dresden at present removes about half of the total FE and Ni load and about 40% of the total Cu, Pb and Zn load of the catchment area. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Die Schwermetallbelastung von Dachabfluessen ist einerseits abhaengig von der deponierten Staubfracht, andererseits vom verwendeten Material. Die daraus resultierenden Loesungsvorgaenge treten insbesondere dann in den Vordergrund, wenn die pH-Werte gering sind und Limitierung von partikulaerem Material auftritt, verbunden mit fehlendem Pufferungsvermoegen. Bei Strassen in

  19. High thermal load component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Toshiaki; Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1996-01-01

    A cooling tube made of a pure copper is connected to the inner portion of an armour (heat resistant member) made of an anisotropic carbon/carbon composite (CFC) material. The CFC material has a high heat conductivity in longitudinal direction of fibers and has low conductivity in perpendicular thereto. Fibers extending in the armour from a heat receiving surface just above the cooling tube are directly connected to the cooling tube. A portion of the fibers extending from a heat receiving surface other than portions not just above the cooling tube is directly bonded to the cooling tube. Remaining fibers are disposed so as to surround the cooling tube. The armour and the cooling tube are soldered using an active metal flux. With such procedures, high thermal load components for use in a thermonuclear reactor are formed, which are excellent in a heat removing characteristic and hardly causes defects such as crackings and peeling. (I.N.)

  20. Global Loads on FRP Ship Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    Fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) composites used for high-speed vessels have lower modulus of elasticity than the conventionally used steels.Therefore, for large fast ships the lowest natural frequencies of the global hull modes can be relatively low compared to the frequency of waveencounter....... As part of the NoKoS project it was decided to investigate the effect of hull flexibility on the wave-induced as well as accidental structural loads on high-speed ships.Especially it was decided to determine whether there is an upper size of FRP and aluminium mono-hulls caused by continuous wave action...

  1. Dynamical load factor of impact loaded shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammel, J.

    1977-01-01

    Dynamical loaded structures can be analysed by spectral representations, which usually lead to an enormous computational effort. If it is possible to find a fitting dynamical load factor, the dynamical problem can be reduced to a statical one. The computation of this statical problem is much simpler. The disadvantage is that the dynamical load factor usually leads to a very rough approximation. In this paper it will be shown, that by combination of these two methods, the approximation of the dynamical load factor can be improved and the consumption of computation time can be enormously reduced. (Auth.)

  2. Local load management system and intermittent power on the grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The project relates to the UK's obligations on renewable energy sources. The objectives were (i) to identify contractual requirements and commercial benefits of load management under the UK's Renewable Obligation and electric power trading arrangements (ii) through modelling, demonstrate the benefits of load management to major customers operating on-site wind generators; (iii) to develop a low-cost load management system incorporating communication technologies and switching devices and (iv) to identify the social and psychological aspects of load management. The demonstration of the load management system was conducted on the Findhorn Foundation's low voltage electric power distribution network and a 75kw wind turbine. The project demonstrated suitable technology for distributed load management on a grid-connected system in order to optimize the renewable energy generated on site, and the analyses identified several areas where grid-connected management can provide financial benefits. There is much scope for exploitation of commercial opportunities. The work was conducted by Econnect Ltd under contract to the DTI.

  3. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  4. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...

  5. Probabilistic Load Models for Simulating the Impact of Load Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    . It is concluded that the AR(12) model is favored with limited measurement data and that the joint-normal model may provide better results with a large data set. Both models can be applied in general to model load time series and used in time-sequential simulation of distribution system planning.......This paper analyzes a distribution system load time series through autocorrelation coefficient, power spectral density, probabilistic distribution and quantile value. Two probabilistic load models, i.e. the joint-normal model and the autoregressive model of order 12 (AR(12)), are proposed...... to simulate the impact of load management. The joint-normal model is superior in modeling the tail region of the hourly load distribution and implementing the change of hourly standard deviation. Whereas the AR(12) model requires much less parameter and is superior in modeling the autocorrelation...

  6. Feasibility Study of RFID Technology for Construction Load Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    RFID technology was proven to be successful in tracking dump trucks from loading plant to a paver location on a highway project. The average roundtrip time was 1 hour and 4 minutes. However, 3% of this data has truck delivery times in excess of 2 hou...

  7. Load transfer effect in the true threshold creep behaviour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čadek, Josef; Kuchařová, Květa

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2003), s. 127-132 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2041001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : Dispersion strengthening * load transfer Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2003

  8. Using the internet of things to enable electrical load optimisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available about itself and also allowing the object to be controlled by some process. This paper describes a research project in balancing the electrical load in the kitchens of an IT organisation. Ten kitchen appliances were enhanced with digital intelligence...

  9. Computable majorants of the limit load in Hencky's plasticity problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Repin, S.; Sysala, Stanislav; Haslinger, Jaroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 1 (2018), s. 199-217 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1602 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : computable bounds * divergence free fields * Hencky's plasticity * limit load * penalization Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122117305552

  10. Aggregation model for curtailable generation and sheddable loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthinsen, Håkon; Morch, Andrei Z.; Plećaš, Milana

    2017-01-01

    This study shows modelling developed during the first year of the SmartNet project. In particular, it presents a mathematical model for aggregation of curtailable generation and sheddable loads. The model determines the quantity and the cost of the flexibility provided by the flexible resources...

  11. The breathing of webs under repeated partial edge loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škaloud, Miroslav; Zörnerová, Marie; Urushadze, Shota

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2012), s. 463-468 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [Steel structures and bridges. Podbanske, 26.09.2012-28.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1340 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : slender webs * breathing * fatigue limit state * design * repeated partial edge loading Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  12. Coupling Effect between Mechanical Loading and Chemical Reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klika, Václav; Maršík, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 44 (2009), s. 14689-14697 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/08/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : coupling * dynamic loading * reaction kinetics Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics Impact factor: 3.471, year: 2009

  13. Load balancing in 5G Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsirakis Christos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expected huge increase of mobile devices and user data demand by 2020 will stress the current mobile network in an unprecedented way. The future mobile networks must meet several strong requirements regarding the data rate, latency, quality of service and experience, mobility, spectrum and energy efficiency. Therefore, efforts for more efficient mobile network solutions have been recently initiated. To this direction, load balancing has attracted much attention as a promising solution for higher resource utilization, improved system performance and decreased operational cost. It is an effective method for balancing the traffic and alleviating the congestion among heterogeneous networks in the upcoming 5G networks. In this paper, we focus on an offloading scenario for load balancing among LTE and Wi-Fi networks. Additionally, network graphs methodology and its abstracted parameters are investigated in order to better manage wireless resource allocation among multiple connections. The COHERENT architectural framework, which consists of two main control components, makes use of such abstracted network graphs for controlling or managing various tasks such as traffic steering, load balancing, spectrum sharing and RAN sharing. As a result, the COHERENT project eventually develops a unified programmable control framework used to efficiently coordinate the underlying heterogeneous mobile networks as a whole.

  14. Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moya, Christian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-08

    Frequency control plays an important role in preserving the power balance of a multi-machine power system. Generators modify their power output when a non-zero frequency deviation is presented in order to restore power balance across the network. However, with plans for large-scale penetration of renewable energy resources, performing primary frequency control using only supply-side resources becomes not only prohibitively expensive, but also technically difficult. Frequency control from the demand side or load control presents a novel and viable way for providing the desired frequency response. Loads can measure frequency locally and change their power consumption after a non-zero frequency deviation is presented in order to achieve power balance between generation and consumption. The specific objectives of this project are to: •Provide a framework to facilitate large-scale deployment of frequency responsive end-use devices •Systematically design decentralized frequency-based load control strategies for enhanced stability performance •Ensure applicability over wide range of operating conditions while accounting for unpredictable end-use behavior and physical device constraints •Test and validate control strategy using large-scale simulations and field demonstrations •Create a level-playing field for smart grid assets with conventional generators

  15. Load Balancing Routing with Bounded Stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Siyuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in wireless networks has been heavily studied in the last decade. Many routing protocols are based on classic shortest path algorithms. However, shortest path-based routing protocols suffer from uneven load distribution in the network, such as crowed center effect where the center nodes have more load than the nodes in the periphery. Aiming to balance the load, we propose a novel routing method, called Circular Sailing Routing (CSR, which can distribute the traffic more evenly in the network. The proposed method first maps the network onto a sphere via a simple stereographic projection, and then the route decision is made by a newly defined "circular distance" on the sphere instead of the Euclidean distance in the plane. We theoretically prove that for a network, the distance traveled by the packets using CSR is no more than a small constant factor of the minimum (the distance of the shortest path. We also extend CSR to a localized version, Localized CSR, by modifying greedy routing without any additional communication overhead. In addition, we investigate how to design CSR routing for 3D networks. For all proposed methods, we conduct extensive simulations to study their performances and compare them with global shortest path routing or greedy routing in 2D and 3D wireless networks.

  16. High thermal load structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Seiichi; Toyota, Masahiko.

    1995-01-01

    A highly thermal load structure applied to a plasma-opposed equipment of a thermonuclear device comprises heat resistant protection tiles and a cooling tube disposed in the protection tiles. As the protection tiles, a carbon/carbon composite material is used. The carbon/carbon composite material on the heat receiving surface comprises carbon fibers disposed in one direction (one dimensionally) arranged from the heat receiving surface toward the cooling tube. The carbon/carbon composite material on the side opposite to the heat receiving surface comprises carbon fibers arranged two-dimensionally in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the cooling tube. Then, the cooling tube is interposed between the one-dimensional carbon/carbon composite material and the two-dimensional carbon/carbon composite material, and they are joined with each other by vacuum brazing. This can improve heat removing performance. In addition, thermal stresses at the joined portion is reduced. Further, electromagnetic force generated in the thermonuclear device is reduced. (I.N.)

  17. High thermal load structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Seiichi; Toyota, Masahiko

    1995-06-16

    A highly thermal load structure applied to a plasma-opposed equipment of a thermonuclear device comprises heat resistant protection tiles and a cooling tube disposed in the protection tiles. As the protection tiles, a carbon/carbon composite material is used. The carbon/carbon composite material on the heat receiving surface comprises carbon fibers disposed in one direction (one dimensionally) arranged from the heat receiving surface toward the cooling tube. The carbon/carbon composite material on the side opposite to the heat receiving surface comprises carbon fibers arranged two-dimensionally in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the cooling tube. Then, the cooling tube is interposed between the one-dimensional carbon/carbon composite material and the two-dimensional carbon/carbon composite material, and they are joined with each other by vacuum brazing. This can improve heat removing performance. In addition, thermal stresses at the joined portion is reduced. Further, electromagnetic force generated in the thermonuclear device is reduced. (I.N.).

  18. LEX Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Larsen, Torben J.; Walbjørn, Jacob

    This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept.......This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept....

  19. OMEGA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    The OMEGA - Observation of Multiple particle production, Exotic Interactions and Gamma-ray Air Shower-project is presented. The project try to associate photosensitive detectors from experiences of hadronic interactions with electronic detectors used by experiences that investigate extensive atmospheric showers. (M.C.K.)

  20. Reactors Project Delivery: The Value of Experiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stosic, V. Zoran

    2014-01-01

    State of Affairs: Energy Potential and Density versus Environmental Load of different Energy Sources, Development of Fuel into Energy/Electricity Generation, Production Costs of Electricity, Contributions of Nuclear Energy to Security of Energy Supply, Recent Nuclear Development, Public Support growing again. Projects Status: Reactors under Construction, Different Projects Industrial Schemes, Projects Overview. The Value of Experience: Licensing, Standardization on Early Engineering Activities, Supply Chain and Manufacturing of Heavy Components, Installation, Procurement. (author)

  1. Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Scott A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thornton, Brian A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widder, Sarah H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.

  2. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-06-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with the EcoVillage cohousing community in Ithaca, New York, on the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience neighborhood. This communityscale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments and 25 single-family residences. Units range in size from 450 ft2 to 1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 for a studio apartment to $235,000 for a three- or four-bedroom single-family home. For the research component of this project, CARB analyzed current heating system sizing methods for superinsulated homes in cold climates to determine if changes in building load calculation methodology should be recommended. Actual heating energy use was monitored and compared to results from the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s Manual J8 (MJ8) and the Passive House Planning Package software. Results from that research indicate that MJ8 significantly oversizes heating systems for superinsulated homes and that thermal inertia and internal gains should be considered for more accurate load calculations.

  3. The Danish Agenda for Rethinking Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Grex, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the similarities and differences between the Danish Re-thinking Project Management initiative named Project Half Double (PHD) and the rethinking project man-agement (RPM) research stream. The paper furthermore discusses how PHD and RPM can inspire...... ideas and local implementations. Findings – RPM and PHD share a focus on value creation, social processes, learning and complexity while PHD also focuses on lean thinking, agile thinking, front-end loading and leadership, which are largely topics beyond the RPM research stream. Originality...... a foundation for further development of both rethinking project management and Project Half Double....

  4. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  5. Fatigue Reliability under Random Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the probability of survival (non-failure) and the probability of safe operation (strength greater than a limiting value) of structures subjected to random loads. These probabilities are formulated in terms of the probability distributions of the loads...... propagation stage. The consequences of this behaviour on the fatigue reliability are discussed....

  6. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  7. Inexpensive Bolt-Load Gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    "Built-in" gage determines whether large bolt or stud has been torqued to desired load and provides for continuous inspection to ensure proper load is being maintained. Gage detects longitudinal stress/strain bolt; requires no electronic or sonic test equipment.

  8. Nuclear fuel rod loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel loading apparatus, incorporating a microprocessor control unit, is described which automatically loads nuclear fuel pellets into dual fuel rods with a minimum of manual involvement and in a manner and sequence to ensure quality control and accuracy. (U.K.)

  9. Blue Creek Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Agreement pertaining to the Blue Creek Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Spokane Tribe, Upper Columbia United Tribes, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). If fully implemented, the proposed action would allow the sponsors to protect and enhance 2,631 habitat units of big game winter range and riparian shrub habitat on 2,185 hectares (5,400 acres) of Spokane Tribal trust lands, and to conduct long term wildlife management activities within the Spokane Indian Reservation project area. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir

  10. Watchdog Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc., Pullman, WA (United States); Campbell, Jack [CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, TX (United States); Hadley, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Watchdog Project completed 100% of the project Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The Watchdog project was a very aggressive project looking to accomplish commercialization of technology that had never been commercialized, as a result it took six years to complete not the original three that were planned. No additional federal funds were requested from the original proposal and SEL contributed the additional cost share required to complete the project. The result of the Watchdog Project is the world’s first industrial rated Software Defined Network (SDN) switch commercially available. This technology achieved the SOPOO and DOE Roadmap goals to have strong network access control, improve reliability and network performance, and give the asset owner the ability to minimize attack surface before and during an attack. The Watchdog project is an alliance between CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). SEL is the world’s leader in microprocessor-based electronic equipment for protecting electric power systems. PNNL performs basic and applied research to deliver energy, environmental, and national security for our nation. CenterPoint Energy is the third largest publicly traded natural gas delivery company in the U.S and third largest combined electricity and natural gas delivery company. The Watchdog Project efforts were combined with the SDN Project efforts to produce the entire SDN system solution for the critical infrastructure. The Watchdog project addresses Topic Area of Interest 5: Secure Communications, for the DEFOA- 0000359 by protecting the control system local area network itself and the communications coming from and going to the electronic devices on the local network. Local area networks usually are not routed and have little or no filtering capabilities. Combine this with the fact control system protocols are designed with inherent trust the control

  11. Umbilical Cable Recovery Load Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; JIA Zhao-lin; FENG Xiao-wei; LI Shi-tao

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field.The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work.Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system.Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem.The tension load at the mudline must be known first,and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation.The recovery analysis also involves umbilicalsoil interaction and becomes more complicated.Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed.The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  12. Scaling structure loads for SMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Song, Jeong Guk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Lim, Hak Kyu; Lee, Kwang Nam [KEPCO ENC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    When the Seismic Margin Analysis(SMA) is conducted, the new structural load generation with Seismic Margin Earthquake(SME) is the time consuming work. For the convenience, EPRI NP 6041 suggests the scaling of the structure load. The report recommend that the fixed base(rock foundation) structure designed using either constant modal damping or modal damping ratios developed for a single material damping. For these cases, the SME loads can easily and accurately be calculated by scaling the spectral accelerations of the individual modes for the new SME response spectra. EPRI NP 6041 provides two simple methodologies for the scaling structure seismic loads which are the dominant frequency scaling methodology and the mode by mode scaling methodology. Scaling of the existing analysis to develop SME loads is much easier and more efficient than performing a new analysis. This paper is intended to compare the calculating results of two different methodologies.

  13. Scaling structure loads for SMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Song, Jeong Guk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Lim, Hak Kyu; Lee, Kwang Nam

    2012-01-01

    When the Seismic Margin Analysis(SMA) is conducted, the new structural load generation with Seismic Margin Earthquake(SME) is the time consuming work. For the convenience, EPRI NP 6041 suggests the scaling of the structure load. The report recommend that the fixed base(rock foundation) structure designed using either constant modal damping or modal damping ratios developed for a single material damping. For these cases, the SME loads can easily and accurately be calculated by scaling the spectral accelerations of the individual modes for the new SME response spectra. EPRI NP 6041 provides two simple methodologies for the scaling structure seismic loads which are the dominant frequency scaling methodology and the mode by mode scaling methodology. Scaling of the existing analysis to develop SME loads is much easier and more efficient than performing a new analysis. This paper is intended to compare the calculating results of two different methodologies

  14. Freedom Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Suarez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freedom Project trains prisoners in nonviolent communication and meditation. Two complementary studies of its effects are reported in this article. The first study is correlational; we found decreased recidivism rates among prisoners trained by Freedom Project compared with recidivism rates in Washington state. The second study compared trained prisoners with a matched-pair control group and found improvement in self-reported anger, self-compassion, and certain forms of mindfulness among the trained group. Ratings of role-plays simulating difficult interactions show increased social skills among the group trained by Freedom Project than in the matched controls.

  15. Guideline for load and resistance assessment of existing european railway bridges

    OpenAIRE

    JENSEN, Jens S; CASAS, Joan R; KAROUMI, Raid; PLOS, Mario; CREMONA, Christian; MELBOURNE, Clive

    2008-01-01

    Many of the European railway bridges are getting close to the end of their service life. At the same time the railway operators demand higher axle loads for freight trains and higher speeds for passenger trains. This requires new and better approaches for assessing both the railway loads and the resistance of railway bridges. The main objective of the "Guideline for Load and Resistance Assessment of Existing European Railway Bridges", developed within EU founded project "Sustainable Bridge...

  16. Cognitive Load Theory: How Many Types of Load Does It Really Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuga, Slava

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive load theory has been traditionally described as involving three separate and additive types of load. Germane load is considered as a learning-relevant load complementing extraneous and intrinsic load. This article argues that, in its traditional treatment, germane load is essentially indistinguishable from intrinsic load, and therefore…

  17. Testing of tunnel support: dynamic load testing of rock support containment systems (eg wire mesh).

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ortlepp, WD

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to determine the performance characteristics of containment elements of tunnel support in common use in South African mines under dynamic loading. The magnitude of the energy levels in this testing had...

  18. Effects of Drawdown and Structures on Bed-Load Transport in Pool 8 Navigation Channel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abraham, David; Hendrickson, Jon

    2003-01-01

    ... of a pool drawdown and structures on bed-load transport in the Pool 8 navigation channel. Work was conducted as part of the Monitoring of Completed Navigation Projects (MCNP) program. BACKGROUND...

  19. EBFA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    An engineering project office was established during the fall of 1976 to manage and coordinate all of the activities of the Electron Beam Fusion Project. The goal of the project is to develop the Electron Beam Fusion Accelerator (EBFA) and its supporting systems, and integrate these systems into the new Electron Beam Fusion Facility (EBFF). Supporting systems for EBFA include a control/monitor system, a data acquistion/automatic data processing system, the liquid transfer systems, the insulating gas transfer systems, etc. Engineers and technicians were assigned to the project office to carry out the engineering design, initiate procurement, monitor the fabrication, perform the assembly and to assist the pulsed power research group in the activation of the EBFA

  20. Project Reptile!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffily, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Integrating curriculum is important in helping children make connections within and among areas. Presents a class project for kindergarten children which came out of the students' interests and desire to build a reptile exhibit. (ASK)

  1. Project Soar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Marion

    1982-01-01

    Project Soar, a Saturday enrichment program for gifted students (6-14 years old), allows students to work intensively in a single area of interest. Examples are cited of students' work in crewel embroidery, creative writing, and biochemistry. (CL)

  2. Mechanical stability of Ni and Ir under hydrostatic and uniaxial loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Petr; Černý, Miroslav; Šob, Mojmír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 5 (2015), art. n. 055010 ISSN 0965-0393 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0311 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : ab initio calculations * elastic stability * phonon instability * theoretical strength * hydrostatic loading * uniaxial loading Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.859, year: 2015

  3. Testing the feasibility of using a conveyor belt to load weanling and nursery pigs for transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation is known to be a multi-faceted stressor, with the process of loading being one of the most significant factors impacting the stress to which animals are exposed. This project was designed to determine if using a conveyor to load pigs into the top deck of a simulated straight deck trai...

  4. EUROFANCOLEN Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueren, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The first follow-up report of European Project EUROFANCOLEN, the purpose of which is to develop a gene therapy clinical trial to resolve bone marrow failure in patients with a genetic disease known as Fanconi anemia (FA), was sent to the European Commission in September. The main objective of project EUROFANCOLEN is to develop a gene therapy trial for patients with Fanconi anemia Type A (FA-A), which affects 80% of the patients with FA in Spain. (Author)

  5. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2009-01-01

    In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception......In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception...

  6. The Atlas load protection switch

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, H A; Dorr, G; Martínez, M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Pierce, D; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a high-energy pulsed-power facility under development to study materials properties and hydrodynamics experiments under extreme conditions. Atlas will implode heavy liner loads (m~45 gm) with a peak current of 27-32 MA delivered in 4 mu s, and is energized by 96, 240 kV Marx generators storing a total of 23 MJ. A key design requirement for Atlas is obtaining useful data for 95601130f all loads installed on the machine. Materials response calculations show current from a prefire can damage the load requiring expensive and time consuming replacement. Therefore, we have incorporated a set of fast-acting mechanical switches in the Atlas design to reduce the probability of a prefire damaging the load. These switches, referred to as the load protection switches, short the load through a very low inductance path during system charge. Once the capacitors have reached full charge, the switches open on a time scale short compared to the bank charge time, allowing current to flow to the load when the trigger pu...

  7. Cognitive Load of Learner Control: Extraneous or Germane Load?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Vandewaetere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-based learning environments become more tailored when learners can exert control over one or more parts of the learning process. Learner control (LC demands additional efforts of learners because, in addition to learning, they also have to monitor that learning. As a consequence, LC may cause additional cognitive load and even cognitive overload. The central question in this study is what type of cognitive load is induced by LC and whether the experienced load is related to learning outcomes. For this study, half of the students had control over task selection, while the other half had not. Within each condition, students were assigned to a single treatment, with the primary task to solely focus on the learning content, and a dual treatment, comprising a primary task and a secondary task. The results indicate that LC did not impose higher cognitive load as measured by secondary task scores and mental effort ratings.

  8. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Project - ODFW, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Scott

    2009-04-10

    Core activities of the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCSP) are funded through the authority of the Lower Snake River Fish and Wildlife Compensation Plan (LSRCP). The LSRCP program was approved by the Water Resources Development Act of 1976, PL 94-587, Section 102, 94th Congress substantially in accordance with the Special Report, LSRCP, June 1975 on file with the Chief of Engineers. The LSRCP was prepared and submitted in compliance with the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1958, PL 85-624, 85th Congress, August 12, 1958 to mitigate for the losses of fish and wildlife caused by the construction of dams on lower Snake River. The GRESCSP is an artificial propagation program that was initiated by Bonneville Power Administrations Fish and Wildlife program in the mid 1990's. The intent of this program was to change the mitigation aspect of the LSRCP program (harvest mitigation) to an integrated supplementation program; inasmuch as, hatchery produced fish could be experimentally used as a recovery tool and fish surplus to mitigation would be available for in-place and in-kind harvest. Fish production is still authorized by the LSRCP with the original mitigation return goal of 5,860 adult spring Chinook to the project area. The GRESCSP was developed with two primary components: (1) conventional broodstock (projects 199800702; 199800703; 199800704) and (2) captive brood (projects 199801001; 199801006). The GRESCSP relies on cooperative M&E efforts from the LSRCP including setting aside the Wenaha and Minam tributaries as natural production reserves components used for reference streams. The GRESCSP, coordinated with federal and tribal partners, identifies production levels for both propagation components and weir management strategies for each of the three supplemented tributary areas within the Grande Ronde Sub-basin. The three supplemented areas are Catherine Creek, Lostine River, and upper Grande Ronde River. Lookingglass

  9. +Gz load and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Marcin P; Tarnowski, Adam; Lengsfeld, Kamila; Lewkowicz, Rafał; Kowalczuk, Krzysztof; Dereń, Miroslaw

    2013-05-01

    Pilots are constantly exposed to a number of environmental factors, which include +Gz load. Physiological changes evoked by +Gz stimuli have already been well investigated in aviation medicine. However, the influence of +Gz stimulation on executive functions in pilots has not yet been thoroughly explored. There were 20 pilot cadets between the ages of 19 and 22 yr who volunteered to participate in the experiment. The subjects were divided into two groups: the G-load group, which was exposed to accelerations in the centrifuge, and the control group, which did not undergo this stimulation. Executive functions were assessed by means of the Schulte tables and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test. +Gz load exposure significantly improved attention switching. This relationship was valid for performance speed (M = 268.09 s in the pretest in the G-load group; M = 228.09 s in the posttest in the G-load group) and for the cumulative time of mistakes (M = 26.73 s in the pretest in the G-load group; M = 12 s in the posttest in the G-load group), whereas reproduction of visuospatial stimuli from memory deteriorated significantly under the influence of +Gz stimulation (M = 17.18 points in the posttest in the G-load group; M = 28.18 points in the posttest in the control group). These results suggest that the impact of +Gz load is not homogenous and unidirectional, since it improves attention switching but visuospatial working memory decreases under its influence. These aspects are particularly important for understanding the mechanisms responsible for maintaining situational awareness during the flight.

  10. Sustainable railway bridges with higher axle loads:monitoring examples from northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Elfgren, Lennart; Enochsson, Ola; Täljsten, Björn; Paulsson, Björn

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring of several railway bridges has been carried out in northern Sweden in order to increase the allowable axle load. The work is part of a European Integrated Project "Sustainable Bridges - Assessment for Future Traffic Demands and Longer Lives". The paper describes the project and gives some examples of applications. Monitoring of several railway bridges has been carried out in northern Sweden in order to increase the allowable axle load. The work is part of a European Integrated P...

  11. Limit load assessment of centre cracked plates under biaxial loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, C.; Ainsworth, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Fitness-for-service of equipment and components containing defects is generally assessed using procedures such as BS 7910, API 579 and R6. There is currently little detailed advice in these procedures on the effects of biaxial and triaxial loading on fracture. This poster shows some theoretical bounding solutions of the plastic limit load for centre cracked plates under a variety of biaxial loading ratios and compares the estimates with those found by numerical methods using finite element (FE) analysis using Abacus CAE modelling software. The limit load of a structure is the maximum load that it can carry before plastic collapse occurs; this is often when the plastic zone has become large enough to spread from the crack tip to a remote boundary. For an elastic-perfectly plastic material, the irreversible deformation will continue at stresses no higher than the yield stress. The model for these limit load solutions is a bi-axially loaded plate of width 2W and height 2H, a centre crack of width 2a, acted on by remotely applied uniform stresses σ 2 perpendicular to the crack and Bσ 2 parallel to the crack, where B is the biaxial loading ratio, it means the ratio of the parallel to the perpendicular stress. A quarter plate of an elastic-perfectly plastic material has been modelled. The results show that an exact solution has been found for negative and low positive values of B. For B > 1, the lower bound solution is conservative for all values of a/W and B

  12. Full scale test SSP 34m blade, combined load. Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find M. (and others)

    2010-11-15

    This report is part of the research project where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S was tested in combined flap and edgewise load. The applied load is 55% of an imaginary extreme event based on the certification load of the blade. This report describes the reason for choosing the loads and the load direction and the method of applying the loads to the blade. A novel load introduction allows the blade to deform in a more realistic manner, allowing the observation of e.g. transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the blades' respond to repeated tests has been studied and the result from these investigations are presented, including the measurements performed. (Author)

  13. Northern micro-grid project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, David; Singh, Bob

    2010-09-15

    The electrical distribution system for the Kasabonika Lake First Nation in northern Ontario (Canada) consumed 1.2 million liters of diesel fuel in 2008, amounting to 3,434 tones of CO2 emissions. The Northern Micro-Grid Project, supported by seven partners, involves integrating renewable generation & storage into the Kasabonika Lake distribution system. Through R&D and demonstration, the objectives are to reduce the amount of diesel consumed, support the distribution system exclusively on renewable resources during light loads, engage and impart knowledge/training to better position the community for future opportunities. The paper will discuss challenges, opportunities and future plans associated with the project.

  14. Project mobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.; Limbrick, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper identifies and reviews the issues to be addressed and the procedures to be followed during the mobilisation of projects using LFG as an energy source. Knowledge of the procedures involved in project mobilisation, their sequence and probable timescales, is essential for efficient project management. It is assumed that the majority of projects will be situated on existing, licensed landfill sites and, in addition to complying with the relevant conditions of the waste management licence and original planning consent, any proposed developments on the site will require a separate planning consent. Experience in the UK indicates that obtaining planning permission rarely constitutes a barrier to the development of schemes for the utilisation of LFG. Even so, an appreciation of the applicable environmental and planning legislation is essential as this will enable the developer to recognise the main concerns of the relevant planning authority at an early stage of the project, resulting in the preparation of an informed and well-structured application for planning permission. For a LFG utilisation scheme on an existing landfill site, the need to carry out an environmental assessment (EA) as part of the application for planning permission will, in vitually all cases, be discretionary. Even if not deemed necessary by the planning authority, an EA is a useful tool at the planning application stage, to identify and address potential problems and to support discussions with bodies such as the Environment Agency, from whom consents or authorisations may be required. Carrying out an EA can thus provide for more cost-effective project development and enhanced environmental protection. Typically, the principal contractual arrangements, such as the purchase of gas or the sale of electricity, will have been established before the project mobilisation phase. However, there are many other contractural arrangements that must be established, and consents and permits that may be

  15. Financing wind projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation reviewed some of the partnership opportunities available from GE Energy. GE Energy's ecomagination commitment has promised to double research investment, make customers true partners and reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). GE Energy's renewable energy team provides a broad range of financial products, and has recently funded 30 wind farms and 2 large solar projects. The company has a diverse portfolio of technology providers and wind regimes, and is increasing their investment in technology. GE Energy recognizes that the wind industry is growing rapidly and has received increased regulatory support that is backed by strong policy and public support. It is expected that Canada will have 3006 wind projects either planned or under construction by 2007. According to GE Energy, successful wind financing is dependent on the location of the site and its wind resources, as well as on the wind developer's power sales agreement. The success of a wind project is also determined by clear financing goals. Site-specific data is needed to determine the quality of wind resource, and off-site data can also be used to provide validation. Proximity to load centres will help to minimize capital costs. Power sales agreements should be based on the project's realistic net capacity factor as well as on the cost of the turbines. The economics of many wind farms is driven by the size of the turbines used. Public consultations are also needed to ensure the success of wind power projects. It was concluded that a good partner will have staying power in the wind power industry, and will understand the time-lines and needs that are peculiar to wind energy developers. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item

  17. Structural Impact of Construction Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Numerous bridge construction accidents have occurred across the country because of construction loadings, which are an underemphasized : topic in many DOT specifications and design manuals. Bridge girders are least stable when they are subjected to c...

  18. Nuclear fuel pellet loading machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kee, R.W.; Denero, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus for loading nuclear fuel pellets on trays for transfer in a system is described. A conveyor supplies pellets from a source to a loading station. When the pellets reach a predetermined position at the loading station, a manual or automatically operated arm pushes the pellets into slots on a tray and this process is repeated until pellet sensing switches detect that the tray is full. Thereupon, the tray is lowered onto a belt or other type conveyor and transferred to other apparatus in the system, such as a furnace for sintering, and in some cases, reduction of UO 2 . 2 to UO 2 . The pellets are retained on the tray and subsequently loaded directly into fuel rods to be used in the reactor core. (auth)

  19. Ultimate load model test for Sizewell 'B' primary containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers the factors influencing the adoption of an ultimate load factor for the Sizewell 'B' PWR primary containment structure. As part of the validation process for the ultimate load analysis method, a proposal has been made by Nuclear Design Associates to build and test a 1/10th scale model of the containment structure, which would proceed following the granting of section 2 consent for Sizewell 'B'. The modelling principles, construction method and test proposals are examined in some detail. The proposal is currently being considered by the CEGB's Project Management Team. (author)

  20. Load Test in Sheet Pile

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Orlando Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    In this work, are discussed experiences in the use of mathematical modeling and testing in hydraulic engineering structures. For this purpose the results of load tests in sheet pile, evaluating horizontal and vertical deformations that occur in the same exposed. Comparisons between theoretical methods for calculating deformations and mathematical models based on the Finite Element Method are established. Finally, the coincidence between the numerical model and the results of the load test ful...