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Sample records for lno buffer allowed

  1. LaNiO3 buffer layers for high critical current density YBa2Cu3O7-δ and Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8-δ films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.M.; Parilla, P.A.; Siegal, M.P.; Ginley, D.S.; Wang, Y.; Blaugher, R.D.; Price, J.C.; Overmyer, D.L.; Venturini, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate high critical current density superconducting films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) and Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 8-δ (Tl-2212) using LaNiO 3 (LNO) buffer layers. YBCO films grown on an LNO buffer layer have only a slightly lower J c (5 K, H=0) than films grown directly on a bare LaAlO 3 substrate. YBCO films grown on LNO buffer layers exhibit minor microstructural disorder and enhanced flux pinning. LNO-buffered Tl-2212 samples show large reductions in J c at all temperatures and fields compared to those grown on bare LaAlO 3 , correlating to both a-axis grain and nonsuperconducting phase formation. LNO could be a promising buffer layer for both YBCO and Tl-based superconducting films in coated conductor applications. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  2. LaNiO3 Buffer Layers for High Critical Current Density YBa2Cu3O7δ and Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8δ Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.M.; Parilla, P.A.; Siegal, M.P.; Ginley, D.S.; Wang, Y.-T.; Blaugher, R.D.; Price, J.C.; Overmyer, D.L.; Venturini, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate high critical current density superconducting films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) and Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 8-δ (Tl-2212) using LaNiO 3 (LNO) buffer layers. YBCO films grown on an LNO buffer layer have only a slightly lower J c (5K, H=0) than films grown directly on a bare LaAlO 3 substrate. It is noteworthy that YBCO films grown on LNO buffer layers exhibit minor microstructural disorder and enhanced flux pinning. LNO-buffered Tl-2212 samples show large reductions in J c at all temperatures and fields compared to those grown on bare LaAlO 3 , correlating to both a-axis grain and nonsuperconducting phase formation. With additional optimization, LNO could be a promising buffer layer for both YBCO and Tl-based superconducting films, perhaps ideally suited for coated conductor applications

  3. Print preparation of the logical INIS-character set for a digital LNO3 printer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.; Nevyjel, A.

    1987-09-01

    The implementation of the revised INIS-character set (describedin INIS-Circular Letter No.131) made it necessary to develop a print preparation program, which transfers most of the new INIS logical characters to characters, which are printable on a local LNO3 laser printer. The program is written in PL/I and runs under VAX/VMS on a VAX 11/750. It reads a normal print file and replaces the encoded logical characters by special control sequences, which generate the corresponding images on the LNO3 printer. The program is used for print preparation of any INIS-data records, both input preparation and output tape utilisation on the local VAX system. (Author)

  4. The Money Buffer Effect in China: A Higher Income Cannot Make You Much Happier but might Allow You to Worry Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eLi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the possibility that there is a curvilinear relationship between income and subjective well-being in China. This study also investigated whether this curvilinear relationship is moderated by social class and mediated by respondents’ material affluence. The study was conducted in China, and the sample consisted of 900 blue-collar workers and 546 white-collar workers. The results for emotional well-being showed that income significantly predicted negative affect but not positive affect. This finding indicates that in China, high incomes may not make people happier but might allow them to worry less, which we call the money buffer effect. The results also showed that material affluence mediates the interaction effect between income and social class on subjective well-being. The implications of these results for future research and practice are discussed.

  5. Study of Ni2-Mn-Ga phase formation by magnetron sputtering film deposition at low temperature onto Si substrates and LaNiO3/Pb(Ti,Zr)O3 buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiras, F.; Rauwel, E.; Amaral, V. S.; Vyshatko, N.; Kholkin, A. L.; Soyer, C.; Remiens, D.; Shvartsman, V. V.; Borisov, P.; Kleemann, W.

    2010-01-01

    Film deposition of Ni 2 MnGa phaselike alloy by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering was performed onto bare Si(100) substrates and LaNiO 3 /Pb(Ti,Zr)O 3 (LNO/PZT) ferroelectric buffer layer near room temperature. The prepared samples were characterized using conventional x-ray diffraction (XRD), superconducting quantum interference device, and electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy from scanning electron microscope observations. The optimized films deposited under high rf power and low argon pressure present good surface quality and highly textured phase crystallization. The positioning distance between the substrate and the target-holder axis has some limited effect on the film's composition due to the specific diffusion behavior of each element in the sputtering plasma. Extended four pole high resolution XRD analysis allowed one to discriminate the intended Ni-Mn-Ga tetragonal martensitic phase induced by the (100) LNO/PZT oriented buffer. This low temperature process appears to be very promising, allowing separate control of the functional layer's properties, while trying to achieve high electromagnetoelastic coupling.

  6. Complexes of (III) lanthanides isothiocyanate and (III) yttrium with 2,6-lutidine-n-oxide (2,6-LNO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arico, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of the complexes of yttrium and some lanthanides isothiocyanate with 2,6-lutidine-N-oxide (2,6-LNO) are described. The ligand employed in the synthesis of the compounds were prepared by the reaction of 2,6-lutidine with hydrogen peroxide in glacial acetic acid. The complexes were prepared using the relation 1:3 salt-ligand. Their characterization was made by elemental analysis, electrolytic conductance measurements, X-ray powder patterns, infrared spectra, electronic absorption spectra of the neodymium and fluorescence spectra of the europium compounds. (author)

  7. LaNiO(3) Buffer Layers for High Critical Current Density YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta) and Tl(2)Ba(2)CaCu(2)O(8-delta) Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, C.M.; Parilla, P.A.; Siegal, M.P.; Ginley, D.S.; Wang, Y.-T.; Blaugher, R.D.; Price, J.C.; Overmyer, D.L.; Venturini, E.L.

    1999-08-24

    We demonstrate high critical current density superconducting films of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (YBCO) and Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8{minus}{delta}} (Tl-2212) using LaNiO{sub 3} (LNO) buffer layers. YBCO films grown on an LNO buffer layer have only a slightly lower J{sub c} (5K, H=0) than films grown directly on a bare LaAlO{sub 3} substrate. It is noteworthy that YBCO films grown on LNO buffer layers exhibit minor microstructural disorder and enhanced flux pinning. LNO-buffered Tl-2212 samples show large reductions in J{sub c} at all temperatures and fields compared to those grown on bare LaAlO{sub 3}, correlating to both a-axis grain and nonsuperconducting phase formation. With additional optimization, LNO could be a promising buffer layer for both YBCO and Tl-based superconducting films, perhaps ideally suited for coated conductor applications.

  8. LaNiO{sub 3} buffer layers for high critical current density YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} and Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8{minus}{delta}} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, C.M.; Parilla, P.A.; Siegal, M.P.; Ginley, D.S.; Wang, Y.; Blaugher, R.D.; Price, J.C.; Overmyer, D.L.; Venturini, E.L.

    1999-10-01

    We demonstrate high critical current density superconducting films of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (YBCO) and Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8{minus}{delta}} (Tl-2212) using LaNiO{sub 3} (LNO) buffer layers. YBCO films grown on an LNO buffer layer have only a slightly lower J{sub c} (5 K, H=0) than films grown directly on a bare LaAlO{sub 3} substrate. YBCO films grown on LNO buffer layers exhibit minor microstructural disorder and enhanced flux pinning. LNO-buffered Tl-2212 samples show large reductions in J{sub c} at all temperatures and fields compared to those grown on bare LaAlO{sub 3}, correlating to both {ital a}-axis grain and nonsuperconducting phase formation. LNO could be a promising buffer layer for both YBCO and Tl-based superconducting films in coated conductor applications. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Electro-optic properties of epitaxial Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6 films grown on MgO substrates using LixNi2-xO buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. T.; Du, P. Y.; Ye, H.; Mak, C. L.; Wong, K. H.

    2008-08-01

    Textured LixNi2-xO (LNO) thin films have been fabricated on (001)MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique. The as-deposited LNO films shows a conductivity of 2.5×10-3 Ω m and possess a transmittance of about 35% in the visible region. Subsequent deposition of Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6 (SBN60) thin film on these LNO-coated MgO substrates resulted in a textured SBN layer with a orientation perpendicular to the substrate plane. Phi scans on the (221) plane of the SBN layer indicated that the films have two in-plane orientations with respect to the substrate. The SBN unit cells were rotated in the plane of the film by ± 8.2° as well as ± 45° with respect to the LNO/MgO substrate. Besides the highly (00l)-orientation, the SBN films also exhibited a dense microstructure as shown by scanning electron microscopy. The electro-optic coefficient (r33) of the SBN film was measured to be 186 pm/V. On the basis of our results, we have demonstrated that the LNO film can be used as a buffer layer as well as a transparent bottom electrode for waveguide applications. The SBN/LNO heterostructure is also a suitable candidate for integrated electro-optics devices.

  10. Crystal and molecular structure of 2,2’-(quinoxaline-2,3-diyl)dipyridinium dinitrate (H_2L)(NO_3)_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorova, O. A.; Polyakova, I. N.; Sergienko, V. S.; Davydov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of 2,2’-(quinoxaline-2,3-diyl)dipyridinium dinitrate (H_2L)(NO_3)_2 is studied by X-ray diffraction (T = 150 K, R1 = 0.0467). The H_2L"2"+ cation is located on the twofold rotation axis and connected with two NO_3"− anions by strong N–H···O hydrogen bonds. Planar quinoxaline fragments of cations form stacks with the interplanar spacing of 3.308 Å. The structure of the diprotonated H_2L"2"+ cation is compared with those of the monoprotonated H_2L"2"+ cation and neutral L molecule.

  11. Annealing effect on the bipolar resistive switching behaviors of BiFeO3 thin films on LaNiO3-buffered Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xinman; Zhang Hu; Ruan Kaibin; Shi Wangzhou

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Annealing effect on the bipolar resistive switching behaviors of BiFeO 3 thin films with Pt/BiFeO 3 /LNO was reported. ► Rectification property was explained from the asymmetrical contact between top and bottom interfaces and the distinct oxygen vacancy density. ► The modification of Schottky-like barrier was suggested to be responsible for the resistance switching behaviors of Pt/BiFeO 3 /LNO devices. - Abstract: We reported the annealing effect on the electrical behaviors of BiFeO 3 thin films integrated on LaNiO 3 (LNO) layers buffered Si substrates by sol–gel spin-coating technique. All the BiFeO 3 thin films exhibit the reversible bipolar resistive switching behaviors with Pt/BiFeO 3 /LNO configuration. The electrical conduction mechanism of the devices was dominated by the Ohmic conduction in the low resistance state and trap-controlled space charged limited current in the high resistance state. Good diode-like rectification property was observed in device with BiFeO 3 film annealed at 500 °C, but vanished in device with BiFeO 3 film annealed at 600 °C. This was attributed to the asymmetrical contact between top and bottom interfaces as well as the distinct oxygen vacancy density verified by XPS. Furthermore, the modification of Schottky-like barrier due to the drift of oxygen vacancies was suggested to be responsible for the resistance switching behaviors of Pt/BiFeO 3 /LNO devices.

  12. Buffers Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramette, Richard W.

    1998-11-01

    In 1989 JCE Software published The Acid-Base Package: A Collection of Useful Programs for Proton Transfer Systems (Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. Software 1989, 2B No. 2). This DOS program has been fully upgraded by the same author to the world of Windows 95. Buffers Plus takes advantage of a modern user interface and offers many new options not possible in the original version.

  13. Buffer fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Dedusanko, G Ya; Dinaburg, L S; Markov, Yu M; Rasizade, Ya N; Rozov, V N; Sherstnev, N M

    1979-08-30

    A drilling fluid is suggested for separating the drilling and plugging fluids which contains as the base increased solution of polyacrylamide and additive. In order to increase the viscoelastic properties of the liquid with simultaneous decrease in the periods of its fabrication, the solution contains as an additive dry bentonite clay. In cases of the use of a buffer fluid under conditions of negative temperatures, it is necessary to add to it table salt or ethylene glycol.

  14. Buffer mass test - Buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Boergesson, L.

    1982-08-01

    Commercial Na bentonite (MX-80) is the clay component of the buffer material in the heater holes as well of the tunnel backfill. Important characteristics are the clay content, liquid limit, X-ray diffraction pattern, water content, and degree of granulation. The ballast material consists of quartz-rich sand and feldspar-rich filler. The preparation of highly compacted bentonite for the near-field isolation of the canister was made by using isostatic compaction technique. The resulting dense bentonite core was cut into regularly shaped blocks which were arranged around each heater and lowered as one unit - heavily instrumented - in the respective deposition holes. For three of the six holes a narrow slot was left open between the bentonite stack and the rock; for the remaining ones a wider slot was chosen with a fill of soft bentonite powder. Both arrangements are expected to yield an ultimate bulk density which is sufficiently high to fulfil the requirement of a negligible permeability and a sufficient swelling pressure as well as heat conductivity, which are the essential parameters. The tunnel backfill, which consists of a mixture of suitably graded ballast material and MX-80 powder, has a considerably lower swelling pressure and heat conductivity, and a higher permeability, all these parameters still within the requirements of the KBS 2 concept. The various zones with different bentonite/sand ratios and the technique to apply them are described in the final part of the report. (Author)

  15. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  16. Smoothing type buffer memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podorozhnyj, D.M.; Yashin, I.V.

    1990-01-01

    The layout of the micropower 4-bit smoothing type buffer memory device allowing one to record without counting the sequence of input randomly distributed pulses in multi-channel devices with serial poll, is given. The power spent by a memory cell for one binary digit recording is not greater than 0.15 mW, the device dead time is 10 mus

  17. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  18. Methyl Bromide Commodity Fumigation Buffer Zone Lookup Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product labels for methyl bromide used in commodity and structural fumigation include requirements for buffer zones around treated areas. The information on this page will allow you to find the appropriate buffer zone for your planned application.

  19. Redox Buffer Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Levie, Robert

    1999-04-01

    The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. The ability of pH buffers to stabilize the pH is indicated by the buffer value b introduced in 1922 by van Slyke. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication we define the redox buffer strength by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.

  20. Organellar Calcium Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Daniel; Michalak, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Ca2+ is an important intracellular messenger affecting many diverse processes. In eukaryotic cells, Ca2+ storage is achieved within specific intracellular organelles, especially the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum, in which Ca2+ is buffered by specific proteins known as Ca2+ buffers. Ca2+ buffers are a diverse group of proteins, varying in their affinities and capacities for Ca2+, but they typically also carry out other functions within the cell. The wide range of organelles containing Ca2+ and the evidence supporting cross-talk between these organelles suggest the existence of a dynamic network of organellar Ca2+ signaling, mediated by a variety of organellar Ca2+ buffers. PMID:21421925

  1. The thermodynamic-buffer enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, J W

    1980-08-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation operates at optimal efficiency if and only if the condition of conductance matching L33/L11 = square root 1-q2 is fulfilled. In this relation L11 is the phenomenological conductance of phosphorylation, L33 the phenomenological conductance of the load, i.e. the irreversible ATP-utilizing processes in the cell, and q the degree of coupling of oxidative phosphorylation driven by respiration. Since during short time intervals L11 and q are constant whereas L33 fluctuates in the cell, oxidative phosphorylation would only rarely operate at optimal efficiency due to violation of conductance matching. This paper demonstrates that the reversible ATP-utilizing reaction catalyzed by adenylate kinase can effectively compensate deviations from conductance matching in the presence of a fluctuating L33 and hence allows oxidative phosphorylation to operate at optimal efficiency in the cell. Since the adenylate kinase reaction was found to buffer a thermodynamic potential, i.e. the phosphate potential, this finding was generalized to the concept of thermodynamic buffering. The thermodynamic buffering ability of the adenylate kinase reaction was demonstrated by experiments with incubated rat-liver mitochondria. Considerations of changes introduced in the entropy production by the adenylate kinase reaction allowed to establish the theoretical framework for thermodynamic buffering. The ability of thermodynamic buffering to compensate deviations from conductance matching in the presence of fluctuating loads was demonstrated by computer simulations. The possibility of other reversible ATP-utilizing reactions, like the ones catalyzed by creatine kinase and arginine kinase, to contribute to thermodynamic buffering is discussed. Finally, the comparison of the theoretically calculated steady-stae cytosolic adenine nucleotide concentrations with experimental data from perfused livers demonstrated that in livers from fed rats conductance matching is fulfilled on a

  2. Improving the SMM and luminescence properties of lanthanide complexes with LnO9 cores in the presence of ZnII: an emissive Zn2Dy single ion magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondo, Matilde; Corredoira-Vázquez, Julio; Herrera-Lanzós, Antía; García-Deibe, Ana M; Sanmartín-Matalobos, Jesús; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Colacio, Enrique; Nuñez, Cristina

    2017-12-12

    Mononuclear complexes of stoichiometry [Ln(H 3 L)(H 2 O)(NO 3 )](NO 3 ) 2 (Ln = Tb, 1; Dy, 2, Er, 3), which crystallise with different solvates, and the heterotrinuclear compound [Zn 2 Dy(L)(NO 3 ) 3 (OH)] (4) can be obtained with the same H 3 L compartmental ligand. The single X-ray crystal structure of the mononuclear complexes shows a LnO 9 core with a muffin-like disposition while the geometry of the DyO 9 core in 4 seems to be closer to spherical capped square antiprism. The analysis of the magnetic properties of all the complexes demonstrates that the mononuclear lanthanide compounds do not show slow relaxation of the magnetization, even when the samples are diluted with a diamagnetic matrix and subjected to a dc applied field of 1000 Oe. Nevertheless, the heterotrinuclear dysprosium complex 4·3H 2 O is a field-induced single ion magnet, with an estimated U eff barrier of 59 K. The luminescence characterisation of all the metal complexes in methanol solution at 298 K also shows a notable increase in the fluorescence emission of the heterotrinuclear complex with respect to the mononuclear ones, in such a way that 4 can be defined as a fluorescent single ion magnet.

  3. Buffer design 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvankoski, M.

    2013-08-01

    Posiva's spent nuclear fuel disposal is based on the KBS-3V concept and on the characteristics of the Olkiluoto site. In this concept single canisters containing spent nuclear fuel surrounded by a bentonite buffer are emplaced in individual vertical boreholes drilled in the floor of deposition tunnels in bedrock at about 420 m depth below ground level. Disk type bentonite blocks are installed at the bottom of the hole and on the top of the disposal canister. Ring type bentonite blocks surround the canisters. This report describes the detailed design of the buffer for a KBS-3V repository. The report presents the design basis, the reference design, and summarises the performance analyses carried out for the design. This report addresses aspects concerning the manufacture, quality control, mechanical strength, chemical resistance, thermal dimensioning, handling of buffer components and material ageing phenomena including the effect of radiation. Interaction of buffer and other engineered barriers are included in the study. The long-term evolution of the repository and its effective drivers are considered if they have an impact on the buffer performance but operational safety aspects are also included because they may affect long-term safety. (orig.)

  4. The SVT Hit Buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belforte, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Hit Buffer is part of the Silicon Vertex Tracker, a trigger processor dedicated to the reconstruction of particle trajectories in the Silicon Vertex Detector and the Central Tracking Chamber of the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The Hit Buffer is a high speed data-traffic node, where thousands of words are received in arbitrary order and simultaneously organized in an internal structured data base, to be later promptly retrieved and delivered in response to specific requests. The Hit Buffer is capable of processing data at a rate of 25 MHz, thanks to the use of special fast devices like Cache-Tag RAMs and high performance Erasable Programmable Logic Devices from the XILINX XC7300 family

  5. Buffer protection in the installation phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimelius, Hans; Pusch, Roland

    2008-12-01

    The research and development of the design and construction of the SKB's repository for final disposal of spent reactor fuel is conducted along several paths ('lines'). Issues concerning the bedrock are dealt with in the 'rock line' and those related to buffer and backfill in deposition holes and tunnels are considered in the 'buffer line' and 'backfill line', respectively. These lines also deal with sub-activities that are coupled to several other lines. One of them includes development of techniques for protecting buffer blocks from moisture and water in the installation phase. Techniques and methods for placement and removal of the 'buffer protection sheet' are dealt with in the 'buffer line'. The removal is, however, considered as being part of the backfilling sequence. Since the performance of the sheet is of fundamental importance to the placement and function of the buffer it deserves particular attention. Thus, the removal of the rubber sheet that serves to protect the buffer blocks in the installation phase may be difficult and can cause significant problems that may require retrieval of already placed canister, buffer and backfill. These matters are in focus in the present report. Arrangements for protecting already placed buffer blocks from moist air and water have been tested in earlier large-scale experiments, i.e. the Prototype Repository project at Aespoe but the experience from them has called for more effective protection of the clay blocks as described in the present report. Focus is on the construction of foundation components at the bottom of the deposition holes required for establishing a tight seal between rock and buffer blocks, and on the protection sheet and arrangements for limiting water pressure on it. Special attention is paid to the drainage of the space between rock and protection sheet that is necessary for avoiding failure of the sheet and to systems for achieving this and for providing alarm signals if the allowed pressure is

  6. Buffer protection in the installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimelius, Hans (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Pusch, Roland (Geodevelopment International AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    this and for providing alarm signals if the allowed pressure is exceeded. The major conclusions from earlier tests are that preparation of plane concrete foundations for the buffer columns is very difficult, and that more effective protection of the buffer from being wetted in the installation phase is required. The presently reported study serves as continuation of these earlier tests and it is concluded that the concept is feasible in principle. However, additional improvements and more field application, especially under more difficult conditions respecting inflow of water, are required for demonstration of its practical value

  7. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number of...... in the optimal OhOf(psortN + K/PB) parallel I/O complexity, where K is the size of the output reported in the process and psortN is the parallel I/O complexity of sorting N elements using P processors....

  8. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  9. Buffer Zone, Nicosia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, Marie Louise

    2010-01-01

    Images of the United Nations Buffer Zone or Green Line which has partitioned Cyprus since 1974 The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n° 217411.

  10. Creep in buffer clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Adey, R.

    1999-12-01

    The study involved characterization of the microstructural arrangement and molecular forcefields in the buffer clay for getting a basis for selecting suitable creep models. It is concluded that the number of particles and wide range of the particle bond spectrum require that stochastical mechanics and thermodynamics will be considered and they are basic to the creep model proposed for predicting creep settlement of the canisters. The influence of the stress level on creep strain of MX-80 clay is not well known but for the buffer creep is approximately proportional to stress. Theoretical considerations suggest a moderate impact for temperatures up to 90 deg C and this is supported by model experiments. It is believed that the assumption of strain being proportional to temperature is conservative. The general performance of the stochastic model can be illustrated in principle by use of visco-elastic rheological models implying a time-related increase in viscosity. The shear-induced creep settlement under constant volume conditions calculated by using the proposed creep model is on the order of 1 mm in ten thousand years and up to a couple of millimeters in one million years. It is much smaller than the consolidation settlement, which is believed to be on the order of 10 mm. The general conclusion is that creep settlement of the canisters is very small and of no significance to the integrity of the buffer itself or of the canisters

  11. Buffer Sizing in 802.11 Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, Kamran; Shihada, Basem; Xia, Li; Levis, Philip

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the problem of buffer sizing for TCP flows in 802.11-based Wireless Mesh Networks. Our objective is to maintain high network utilization while providing low queueing delays. The problem is complicated by the time-varying capacity of the wireless channel as well as the random access mechanism of 802.11 MAC protocol. While arbitrarily large buffers can maintain high network utilization, this results in large queueing delays. Such delays may affect TCP stability characteristics, and also increase queueing delays for other flows (including real-time flows) sharing the buffer. In this paper we propose sizing link buffers collectively for a set of nodes within mutual interference range called the 'collision domain'. We aim to provide a buffer just large enough to saturate the available capacity of the bottleneck collision domain that limits the carrying capacity of the network. This neighborhood buffer is distributed over multiple nodes that constitute the network bottleneck; a transmission by any of these nodes fully utilizes the available spectral resource for the duration of the transmission. We show that sizing routing buffers collectively for this bottleneck allows us to have small buffers (as low as 2 - 3 packets) at individual nodes without any significant loss in network utilization. We propose heuristics to determine these buffer sizes in WMNs. Our results show that we can reduce the end-to-end delays by 6× to 10× at the cost of losing roughly 5% of the network capacity achievable with large buffers.

  12. Buffer Sizing in 802.11 Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, Kamran

    2011-10-01

    We analyze the problem of buffer sizing for TCP flows in 802.11-based Wireless Mesh Networks. Our objective is to maintain high network utilization while providing low queueing delays. The problem is complicated by the time-varying capacity of the wireless channel as well as the random access mechanism of 802.11 MAC protocol. While arbitrarily large buffers can maintain high network utilization, this results in large queueing delays. Such delays may affect TCP stability characteristics, and also increase queueing delays for other flows (including real-time flows) sharing the buffer. In this paper we propose sizing link buffers collectively for a set of nodes within mutual interference range called the \\'collision domain\\'. We aim to provide a buffer just large enough to saturate the available capacity of the bottleneck collision domain that limits the carrying capacity of the network. This neighborhood buffer is distributed over multiple nodes that constitute the network bottleneck; a transmission by any of these nodes fully utilizes the available spectral resource for the duration of the transmission. We show that sizing routing buffers collectively for this bottleneck allows us to have small buffers (as low as 2 - 3 packets) at individual nodes without any significant loss in network utilization. We propose heuristics to determine these buffer sizes in WMNs. Our results show that we can reduce the end-to-end delays by 6× to 10× at the cost of losing roughly 5% of the network capacity achievable with large buffers.

  13. Buffered or under Scrutiny?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klopf, Patricia; Nell, Phillip C.; Puck, Jonas

    – they are to a stronger extent buffered from the external environment than small firms. Thus, this paper adds to previous research by disentangling the complex effects of size on the use of political strategies – a strand of literature which has been characterized by inconsistent findings in the past.......This paper investigates political strategies of MNE subsidiaries operating in emerging markets. Our findings support previous findings of more intense political strategies in the presence of stronger institutional pressures from public and private stakeholders. Furthermore, we hypothesize...

  14. Investigating the episodic buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Baddeley

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A brief account is presented of the three-component working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch. This is followed by an account of some of the problems it encountered in explaining how information from different subsystems with different codes could be combined, and how it was capable of communicating with long-term memory. In order to account for these, a fourth component was proposed, the episodic buffer. This was assumed to be a multidimensional store of limited capacity that can be accessed through conscious awareness. In an attempt to test and develop the concept, a series of experiments have explored the role of working memory in the binding of visual features into objects and verbal sequences into remembered sentences. The experiments use a dual task paradigm to investigate the role of the various subcomponents of working memory in binding. In contrast to our initial assumption, the episodic buffer appears to be a passive store, capable of storing bound features and making them available to conscious awareness, but not itself responsible for the process of binding.

  15. Buffer moisture protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Peura, J.

    2013-11-01

    With the present knowledge, bentonite blocks have to be protected from the air relative humidity and from any moisture leakages in the environment that might cause swelling of the bentonite blocks during the 'open' installation phase before backfilling. The purpose of this work was to design the structural reference solution both for the bottom of the deposition hole and for the buffer moisture protection and dewatering system with their integrated equipment needed in the deposition hole. This report describes the Posiva's reference solution for the buffer moisture protection system and the bottom plate on basis of the demands and functional requirements set by long-term safety. The reference solution with structural details has been developed in research work made 2010-2011. The structural solution of the moisture protection system has not yet been tested in practice. On the bottom of the deposition hole a copper plate which protects the lowest bentonite block from the gathered water is installed straight to machined and even rock surface. The moisture protection sheet made of EPDM rubber is attached to the copper plate with an inflatable seal. The upper part of the moisture protection sheet is fixed to the collar structures of the lid which protects the deposition hole in the disposal tunnel. The main function of the moisture protection sheet is to protect bentonite blocks from the leaking water and from the influence of the air humidity at their installation stage. The leaking water is controlled by the dewatering and alarm system which has been integrated into the moisture protection liner. (orig.)

  16. Buffer capacity of biologics--from buffer salts to buffering by antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, Anne R; Bahrenburg, Sven; Garidel, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Controlling pH is essential for a variety of biopharmaceutical process steps. The chemical stability of biologics such as monoclonal antibodies is pH-dependent and slightly acidic conditions are favorable for stability in a number of cases. Since control of pH is widely provided by added buffer salts, the current study summarizes the buffer characteristics of acetate, citrate, histidine, succinate, and phosphate buffers. Experimentally derived values largely coincide with values calculated from a model that had been proposed in 1922 by van Slyke. As high concentrated protein formulations become more and more prevalent for biologics, the self-buffering potential of proteins becomes of relevance. The current study provides information on buffer characteristics for pH ranges down to 4.0 and up to 8.0 and shows that a monoclonal antibody at 50 mg/mL exhibits similar buffer capacity as 6 mM citrate or 14 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). Buffer capacity of antibody solutions scales linearly with protein concentration up to more than 200 mg/mL. At a protein concentration of 220 mg/mL, the buffer capacity resembles the buffer capacity of 30 mM citrate or 50 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). The buffer capacity of monoclonal antibodies is practically identical at the process relevant temperatures 5, 25, and 40°C. Changes in ionic strength of ΔI=0.15, in contrast, can alter the buffer capacity up to 35%. In conclusion, due to efficient self-buffering by antibodies in the pH range of favored chemical stability, conventional buffer excipients could be dispensable for pH stabilization of high concentrated protein solutions. Copyright © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  17. Two-Buffer Simulation Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Hutagalung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider simulation games played between Spoiler and Duplicator on two Büchi automata in which the choices made by Spoiler can be buffered by Duplicator in two different buffers before she executes them on her structure. Previous work on such games using a single buffer has shown that they are useful to approximate language inclusion problems. We study the decidability and complexity and show that games with two buffers can be used to approximate corresponding problems on finite transducers, i.e. the inclusion problem for rational relations over infinite words.

  18. Using fractional order method to generalize strengthening generating operator buffer operator and weakening buffer operator

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, L.; Liu, S.; Yang, Yingjie

    2016-01-01

    Traditional integer order buffer operator is extended to fractional order buffer operator, the corresponding relationship between the weakening buffer operator and the strengthening buffer operator is revealed. Fractional order buffer operator not only can generalize the weakening buffer operator and the strengthening buffer operator, but also realize tiny adjustment of buffer effect. The effectiveness of GM(1,1) with the fractional order buffer operator is validated by six cases.

  19. Mechanisms of buffer therapy resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kate M; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; Cornnell, Heather H; Ribeiro, Maria C; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Gillies, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    Many studies have shown that the acidity of solid tumors contributes to local invasion and metastasis. Oral pH buffers can specifically neutralize the acidic pH of tumors and reduce the incidence of local invasion and metastatic formation in multiple murine models. However, this effect is not universal as we have previously observed that metastasis is not inhibited by buffers in some tumor models, regardless of buffer used. B16-F10 (murine melanoma), LL/2 (murine lung) and HCT116 (human colon) tumors are resistant to treatment with lysine buffer therapy, whereas metastasis is potently inhibited by lysine buffers in MDA-MB-231 (human breast) and PC3M (human prostate) tumors. In the current work, we confirmed that sensitive cells utilized a pH-dependent mechanism for successful metastasis supported by a highly glycolytic phenotype that acidifies the local tumor microenvironment resulting in morphological changes. In contrast, buffer-resistant cell lines exhibited a pH-independent metastatic mechanism involving constitutive secretion of matrix degrading proteases without elevated glycolysis. These results have identified two distinct mechanisms of experimental metastasis, one of which is pH-dependent (buffer therapy sensitive cells) and one which is pH-independent (buffer therapy resistant cells). Further characterization of these models has potential for therapeutic benefit. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrodialysis operation with buffer solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryn, John N [Naperville, IL; Daniels, Edward J [Orland Park, IL; Krumdick, Greg K [Crete, IL

    2009-12-15

    A new method for improving the efficiency of electrodialysis (ED) cells and stacks, in particular those used in chemical synthesis. The process entails adding a buffer solution to the stack for subsequent depletion in the stack during electrolysis. The buffer solution is regenerated continuously after depletion. This buffer process serves to control the hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion concentration so as to protect the active sites of electrodialysis membranes. The process enables electrodialysis processing options for products that are sensitive to pH changes.

  1. Heat conductivity of buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, L.; Fredrikson, Anders; Johannesson, L.E.

    1994-11-01

    The report deals with the thermal conductivity of bentonite based buffer materials. An improved technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of buffer materials is described. Measurements of FLAC calculations applying this technique have led to a proposal of how standardized tests should be conducted and evaluated. The thermal conductivity of bentonite with different void ratio and degree of water saturation has been determined in the following different ways: * Theoretically according to three different investigations by other researchers. * Laboratory measurements with the proposed method. * Results from back-calculated field tests. Comparison and evaluation showed that these results agreed very well, when the buffer material was almost water saturated. However, the influence of the degree of saturation was not very well predicted with the theoretical methods. Furthermore, the field tests showed that the average thermal conductivity in situ of buffer material (compacted to blocks) with low degree of water saturation was lower than expected from laboratory tests. 12 refs, 29 figs, 11 tabs

  2. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  3. Programmable pH buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  4. Thermophysical tests of buffer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H. [ITC, Tokyo (Japan); Taniguchi, Wataru

    1999-03-01

    Thermodynamic properties of buffer materials were measured for putting in order thermodynamic constants to be used in the near-field thermal analysis. The thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were measured as functions of the water content and temperature to deduce the specific heat. The thermal conductivity and specific heat varied significantly as the water content changed. Obtained values of the specific heat agreed well the expected values calculated based on the constituents of the buffer material. Temperature dependence of the thermodynamic constants was found small below 90degC. From the findings, the thermal conductivity and specific heat of the buffer material were formulated as functions of the water content. Thermodynamic study of powdery bentonite was carried out as well with a purpose of use for filling apertures in the artificial barrier. (H. Baba)

  5. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  6. A Capital Adequacy Buffer Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R.J. Powell (Robert); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper, we develop a new capital adequacy buffer model (CABM) which is sensitive to dynamic economic circumstances. The model, which measures additional bank capital required to compensate for fluctuating credit risk, is a novel combination of the Merton

  7. The buffer/container experiment design and construction report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, N.A.; Wan, A.W.L.; Roach, P.J

    1998-03-01

    The Buffer/Container Experiment was a full-scale in situ experiment, installed at a depth of 240 m in granitic rock at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The experiment was designed to examine the performance of a compacted sand-bentonite buffer material under the influences of elevated temperature and in situ moisture conditions. Buffer material was compacted in situ into a 5-m-deep, 1.24-m-diameter borehole drilled into the floor of an excavation. A 2.3-m long heater, representative of a nuclear fuel waste container, was placed within the buffer, and instrumentation was installed to monitor changes in buffer moisture conditions, temperature and stress. The experiment was sealed at the top of the borehole and restrained against vertical displacement. Instrumentation in the rock monitored pore pressures, temperatures and rock displacement. The heater was operated at a constant power of 1200 W, which provided a heater skin temperature of approximately 85 degrees C. Experiment construction and installation required two years, followed by two and a half years of heater operation and two years of monitoring the rock conditions during cooling. The construction phase of the experiment included the design, construction and testing of a segmental heater and controller, geological and hydrogeological characterization of the rock, excavation of the experiment room, drilling of the emplacement borehole using high pressure water, mixing and in situ compaction of buffer material, installation of instrumentation in the rock, buffer and on the heater, and the construction of concrete curb and steel vertical restraint system at the top of emplacement borehole. Upon completion of the experiment, decommissioning sampling equipment was designed and constructed and sampling methods were developed which allowed approximately 2000 samples of buffer material to be taken over a 12-day period. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of experiment

  8. The buffer/container experiment design and construction report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, N.A.; Wan, A.W.L.; Roach, P.J.

    1998-03-01

    The Buffer/Container Experiment was a full-scale in situ experiment, installed at a depth of 240 m in granitic rock at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The experiment was designed to examine the performance of a compacted sand-bentonite buffer material under the influences of elevated temperature and in situ moisture conditions. Buffer material was compacted in situ into a 5-m-deep, 1.24-m-diameter borehole drilled into the floor of an excavation. A 2.3-m long heater, representative of a nuclear fuel waste container, was placed within the buffer, and instrumentation was installed to monitor changes in buffer moisture conditions, temperature and stress. The experiment was sealed at the top of the borehole and restrained against vertical displacement. Instrumentation in the rock monitored pore pressures, temperatures and rock displacement. The heater was operated at a constant power of 1200 W, which provided a heater skin temperature of approximately 85 degrees C. Experiment construction and installation required two years, followed by two and a half years of heater operation and two years of monitoring the rock conditions during cooling. The construction phase of the experiment included the design, construction and testing of a segmental heater and controller, geological and hydrogeological characterization of the rock, excavation of the experiment room, drilling of the emplacement borehole using high pressure water, mixing and in situ compaction of buffer material, installation of instrumentation in the rock, buffer and on the heater, and the construction of concrete curb and steel vertical restraint system at the top of emplacement borehole. Upon completion of the experiment, decommissioning sampling equipment was designed and constructed and sampling methods were developed which allowed approximately 2000 samples of buffer material to be taken over a 12-day period. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of experiment construction

  9. Trading sulfur dioxide allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldburg, C.B.; Lave, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act is aimed at generators larger than 25 MW, as these are the largest polluters. Market incentives give each source an emissions allocation but also flexibility. If a plant has lower emissions than the target, it can sell the 'surplus' emissions as allowances to plants that fail to meet the target. Only a few trades have occurred to date. Market-based incentives should lower the costs of improving environmental quality significantly. However, currently institutional dificulties hamper implementation

  10. Flow and transport through a damaged buffer - exploration of the impact of a cemented and an eroded buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neretnieks, Ivars [Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The compacted bentonite buffer that surrounds the canister with spent fuel is designed not to allow water to flow through it in any appreciable quantities. Should the buffer be severely damaged water could flow to the canister and bring with it corrosive agent such as sulphide. This could speed up the rate of copper corrosion. Should the canister have a damage or be corroded so that the spent fuel inside the canister comes in contact with the water radionuclides could dissolve in the water and be carried away. Two modes of canister damage and their consequences for solute transport are explored in this report. In one case the buffer can potentially be eroded by the water seeping in the fractures in the surrounding rock and attain a high hydraulic conductivity allowing water to flow through it, at least locally. In another case it is conjectured that the buffer is cemented and becomes brittle. Then a crack could conceivably form in the cemented buffer allowing water to flow through it directly to the canister surface. Both cases are hypothetical although in the erosion case the erosion rate could possibly be quantified. The cases studied are to be seen as exploratory calculations for 'what if' cases. Some worst case assumptions have been used to explore bounding scenarios. Thus for the erosion case it is assumed that the hydraulic conductivity is so high that the buffer exerts negligible resistance to water flow. This implies that all the water that can flow through the fractures intersecting the deposition hole can reach the canister. Similarly for the cemented buffer case it is assumed that the crack in the buffer directly connects the rock fracture to the canister surface. For these circumstances it is found that the flowrate that can enter the deposition hole will be approximately two times as large as the water flow that would pass a projected area equal to that of the deposition hole. Thus if the flux in the rock some distance from the deposition

  11. Flow and transport through a damaged buffer - exploration of the impact of a cemented and an eroded buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, Ivars

    2006-12-01

    The compacted bentonite buffer that surrounds the canister with spent fuel is designed not to allow water to flow through it in any appreciable quantities. Should the buffer be severely damaged water could flow to the canister and bring with it corrosive agent such as sulphide. This could speed up the rate of copper corrosion. Should the canister have a damage or be corroded so that the spent fuel inside the canister comes in contact with the water radionuclides could dissolve in the water and be carried away. Two modes of canister damage and their consequences for solute transport are explored in this report. In one case the buffer can potentially be eroded by the water seeping in the fractures in the surrounding rock and attain a high hydraulic conductivity allowing water to flow through it, at least locally. In another case it is conjectured that the buffer is cemented and becomes brittle. Then a crack could conceivably form in the cemented buffer allowing water to flow through it directly to the canister surface. Both cases are hypothetical although in the erosion case the erosion rate could possibly be quantified. The cases studied are to be seen as exploratory calculations for 'what if' cases. Some worst case assumptions have been used to explore bounding scenarios. Thus for the erosion case it is assumed that the hydraulic conductivity is so high that the buffer exerts negligible resistance to water flow. This implies that all the water that can flow through the fractures intersecting the deposition hole can reach the canister. Similarly for the cemented buffer case it is assumed that the crack in the buffer directly connects the rock fracture to the canister surface. For these circumstances it is found that the flowrate that can enter the deposition hole will be approximately two times as large as the water flow that would pass a projected area equal to that of the deposition hole. Thus if the flux in the rock some distance from the deposition hole is 1

  12. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF QUAZISTEADY MODE OF BEARING AIR BUFFER FILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chertov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Today the only way to eliminate contact with the product during the manufacturing process is to provide a support surface under its support surface air buffer layer formed due to the expiration of the working environment through holes perforated gas distribution grids forms. There proposed the method of contactless formation of products consisting of composite materials by the means of air buffer in the article. The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of hydro-gas-dynamic processes occurring when casting of organic- mineral composite material onto the bearing air buffer expressed in the form of mathematical description realizing original hypotheses reflected in the choice of transformation algorithm and limiting conditions are presented. On the base of obtained mathematical model the algorithm of calculation of optimum parameters of transporting systems with discretely powered gas buffer is developed. The method of deduction of a semi-finished product on the gas buffer, which allows to level the pressure field under the bearing surface of the deduction object due to the usage of devices of pseudo fluidized granular material in pneumatic chambers is offered. The application of this method allows to eliminate the possibility of contact between the composite material and the working surface of the equipment and also to reduce the cost of production of pneumatic devices, to improve operational characteristics of this equipment. Submitted depending allowed to develop the methodology and implementation of engineering calculation device for non-contact casting composite materials on air buffer, semi-industrial and industrial variants were created and put into production.

  13. Urban Runoff: Model Ordinances for Aquatic Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic Buffers serve as natural boundaries between local waterways and existing development. The model and example ordinaces below provide suggested language or technical guidance designed to create the most effective stream buffer zones possible.

  14. Buffer Zone Requirements for Soil Fumigant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated pesticide product labels require fumigant users to establish a buffer zone around treated fields to reduce risks to bystanders. Useful information includes tarp testing guidance and a buffer zone calculator.

  15. Swelling characteristics of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Fujita, Tomoo

    1999-12-01

    After emplacement of the engineered barrier system (EBS), it is expected that the near-field environment will be impacted by phenomena such as heat dissipation by conduction and other heat transfer mechanism, infiltration of groundwater from the surrounding rock into the EBS, generation of swelling pressure in the buffer due to water infiltration and the stress imposed by the overburden pressure. These phenomena are not all independent, but can be strongly influenced by, and coupled with, each other. Evaluating these coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena is important in order to clarify the initial transient behavior of the engineered barrier system within the near-field. This report describes the results on measurement of swelling amount and stress at boundary built up under restraint condition with water uptake. The following results are identified. (1) The swelling stress of buffer material at saturated condition tends to be independent of effects of pore water pressure and synthetic sea water, and to decrease with increasing temperature. The swelling stress can be explained by the effective dry density. (2) The strain due to swelling estimated from the results of the swelling amount of buffer material is proportional to swelling stress. (3) The swelling stress and strain under unsaturated condition increase with water uptake. (author)

  16. Buffer erosion in dilute groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, T.; Kanerva, N.; Martikainen, J.; Sane, P.; Olin, M.; Seppaelae, A.; Koskinen, K.

    2013-08-01

    One scenario of interest for repository safety assessment involves the loss of bentonite buffer material in contact with dilute groundwater flowing through a transmissive fracture interface. In order to examine the extrusion/erosion behavior of bentonite buffer material under such circumstances, a series of experiments were performed in a flow-through, 1 mm aperture, artificial fracture system. These experiments covered a range of solution chemistry (salt concentration and composition), material composition (sodium montmorillonite and admixtures with calcium montmorillonite), and flow velocity conditions. No erosion was observed for sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions from 0.5 g/L to 10 g/L NaCl. No erosion was observed for 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against 0.5 g/L NaCl. Erosion was observed for both sodium montmorillonite and 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions ≤ 0.25 g/L NaCl. The calculated erosion rates for the tests with the highest levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under the most dilute conditions (ionic strength (IS) < ∼1 mM), were well-correlated to flow velocity, whereas the calculated erosion rates for the tests with lower levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under somewhat less dilute conditions (∼1 mM < IS < ∼4 mM), were not similarly correlated indicating that material and solution composition can significantly affect erosion rates. In every experiment, both erosive and non-erosive, emplaced buffer material extruded into the fracture and was observed to be impermeable to water flowing in the fracture effectively forming an extended diffusive barrier around the intersecting fracture/buffer interface. Additionally, a model which was developed previously to predict the rate of erosion of bentonite buffer material in low ionic strength water in rock fracture environments was applied to three different cases: sodium montmorillonite expansion in a vertical tube, a

  17. BUFFER CAPACITY IN HETEROGENEOUS MULTICOMPONENT SYSTEMS. REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Spinu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative basis of the theory of buffer properties for two-phase acid-base buffer systems and for multicomponent heterogeneous systems has been derived. The analytical equations with respect to all components for diverse multicomponent systems were deduced. It has been established, that the buffer capacities of components are mutually proportional.

  18. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  19. RESEARCH NEEDS IN RIPARIAN BUFFER RESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts; moreover, the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore rip...

  20. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering by enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Roels, Staf

    2009-01-01

    The significance of interior humidity in attaining sustainable, durable, healthy and comfortable buildings is increasingly recognised. Given their significant interaction, interior humidity appraisals need a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering. While the effe......The significance of interior humidity in attaining sustainable, durable, healthy and comfortable buildings is increasingly recognised. Given their significant interaction, interior humidity appraisals need a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering. While...... the effective moisture penetration depth and effective capacitance models allow quantified assessment, their reliance on the ‘moisture penetration depth’ necessitates comprehensive material properties and hampers their application to multi-dimensional interior objects. On the other hand, while various recently...... an alternative basis for quantitative evaluation of interior moisture buffering by the effective moisture penetration depth and effective capacitance models. The presented methodology uses simple and fast measurements only and can also be applied to multimaterial and/or multidimensional interior elements....

  1. 40 CFR 35.2025 - Allowance and advance of allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... advance of allowance. (a) Allowance. Step 2+3 and Step 3 grant agreements will include an allowance for facilities planning and design of the project and Step 7 agreements will include an allowance for facility... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowance and advance of allowance. 35...

  2. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  3. Buffered Communication Analysis in Distributed Multiparty Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniélou, Pierre-Malo; Yoshida, Nobuko

    Many communication-centred systems today rely on asynchronous messaging among distributed peers to make efficient use of parallel execution and resource access. With such asynchrony, the communication buffers can happen to grow inconsiderately over time. This paper proposes a static verification methodology based on multiparty session types which can efficiently compute the upper bounds on buffer sizes. Our analysis relies on a uniform causality audit of the entire collaboration pattern - an examination that is not always possible from each end-point type. We extend this method to design algorithms that allocate communication channels in order to optimise the memory requirements of session executions. From these analyses, we propose two refinements methods which respect buffer bounds: a global protocol refinement that automatically inserts confirmation messages to guarantee stipulated buffer sizes and a local protocol refinement to optimise asynchronous messaging without buffer overflow. Finally our work is applied to overcome a buffer overflow problem of the multi-buffering algorithm.

  4. A THEORETICAL DISCUSSION OF THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF BUFFER STOCKS AND BUFFER FUNDS

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Phil

    1988-01-01

    It has been established that the absence of risk markets justifies market intervention in principle. The form of intervention that has been discussed most widely in the literature is the buffer stock. This paper points out that other forms of intervention, specifically buffer funds, are likely to perform better. The analysis shows that buffer funds are likely to outperform buffer stocks because they address market failure more directly. A sub-theme developed in this paper is that since buffer...

  5. Conditions that allow for effective transfer of membrane proteins onto nitrocellulose membrane in Western blots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyrathne, Priyanka D; Lam, Joseph S

    2007-04-01

    A major hurdle in characterizing bacterial membrane proteins by Western blotting is the ineffectiveness of transferring these proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate -- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel onto nitrocellulose membrane, using standard Western blot buffers and electrophoretic conditions. In this study, we compared a number of modified Western blotting buffers and arrived at a composition designated as the SDS-PAGE-Urea Lysis buffer. The use of this buffer and specific conditions allowed the reproducible transfer of highly hydrophobic bacterial membrane proteins with 2-12 transmembrane-spanning segments as well as soluble proteins onto nitrocellulose membranes. This method should be broadly applicable for immunochemical studies of other membrane proteins.

  6. Development of Buffer Layer Technologies for LWIR and VLWIR HgCdTe Integration on Si

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golding, Terry D

    2005-01-01

    This program proposed to develop manufacturable, cost-effective buffer layer technologies that would allow either hybrid or monolithic integration of LWIR and VLWIR HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays...

  7. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tian, Hui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Corcoran, Sean [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop.' In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature (? 120 °C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

  8. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Guerrero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed.

  9. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Lardone, Patricia J.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Nuria; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Guerrero, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed. PMID:23609496

  10. Modelling of buffer material behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, L.

    1988-12-01

    Some material models of smectite rich buffer material suited for nuclear waste isolation are accounted for in the report. The application of these models in finite element calculations of some scenarios and performance are also shown. The rock shear scenario has been closely studied with comparisons between calculated and measured results. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of changing the density of the clay and the rate of shear have been performed as well as one calculation using a hollow steel cylinder. Material models and finite element calculations of canister settlement, thermomechanical effects and swelling are also accounted for. The report shows the present state of the work to establish material models and calculation tools which can be used at the final design of the repository. (31 illustrations)

  11. Signature-based store checking buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Vilas; Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    2015-06-02

    A system and method for optimizing redundant output verification, are provided. A hardware-based store fingerprint buffer receives multiple instances of output from multiple instances of computation. The store fingerprint buffer generates a signature from the content included in the multiple instances of output. When a barrier is reached, the store fingerprint buffer uses the signature to verify the content is error-free.

  12. SODR Memory Control Buffer Control ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Optical Disk Recorder (SODR) is a state of the art mass storage system for future NASA missions requiring high transmission rates and a large capacity storage system. This report covers the design and development of an SODR memory buffer control applications specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The memory buffer control ASIC has two primary functions: (1) buffering data to prevent loss of data during disk access times, (2) converting data formats from a high performance parallel interface format to a small computer systems interface format. Ten 144 p in, 50 MHz CMOS ASIC's were designed, fabricated and tested to implement the memory buffer control function.

  13. Buffer capacity of the coelomic fluid in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Marie; Laitat, Kim; Moulin, Laure; Catarino, Ana I; Grosjean, Philippe; Dubois, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    The increase in atmospheric CO2 due to anthropogenic activity results in an acidification of the surface waters of the oceans. The impact of these chemical changes depends on the considered organisms. In particular, it depends on the ability of the organism to control the pH of its inner fluids. Among echinoderms, this ability seems to differ significantly according to species or taxa. In the present paper, we investigated the buffer capacity of the coelomic fluid in different echinoderm taxa as well as factors modifying this capacity. Euechinoidea (sea urchins except Cidaroidea) present a very high buffer capacity of the coelomic fluid (from 0.8 to 1.8mmolkg(-1) SW above that of seawater), while Cidaroidea (other sea urchins), starfish and holothurians have a significantly lower one (from -0.1 to 0.4mmolkg(-1) SW compared to seawater). We hypothesize that this is linked to the more efficient gas exchange structures present in the three last taxa, whereas Euechinoidea evolved specific buffer systems to compensate lower gas exchange abilities. The constituents of the buffer capacity and the factors influencing it were investigated in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the starfish Asterias rubens. Buffer capacity is primarily due to the bicarbonate buffer system of seawater (representing about 63% for sea urchins and 92% for starfish). It is also partly due to coelomocytes present in the coelomic fluid (around 8% for both) and, in P. lividus only, a compound of an apparent size larger than 3kDa is involved (about 15%). Feeding increased the buffer capacity in P. lividus (to a difference with seawater of about 2.3mmolkg(-1) SW compared to unfed ones who showed a difference of about 0.5mmolkg(-1) SW) but not in A. rubens (difference with seawater of about 0.2 for both conditions). In P. lividus, decreased seawater pH induced an increase of the buffer capacity of individuals maintained at pH7.7 to about twice that of the control individuals and, for those at pH7

  14. Effects of Terrestrial Buffer Zones on Amphibians on Golf Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglis, Holly J.; Boone, Michelle D.

    2012-01-01

    A major cause of amphibian declines worldwide is habitat destruction or alteration. Public green spaces, such as golf courses and parks, could serve as safe havens to curb the effects of habitat loss if managed in ways to bolster local amphibian communities. We reared larval Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) in golf course ponds with and without 1 m terrestrial buffer zones, and released marked cricket frog metamorphs at the golf course ponds they were reared in. Larval survival of both species was affected by the presence of a buffer zone, with increased survival for cricket frogs and decreased survival for green frogs when reared in ponds with buffer zones. No marked cricket frog juveniles were recovered at any golf course pond in the following year, suggesting that most animals died or migrated. In a separate study, we released cricket frogs in a terrestrial pen and allowed them to choose between mown and unmown grass. Cricket frogs had a greater probability of using unmown versus mown grass. Our results suggest that incorporating buffer zones around ponds can offer suitable habitat for some amphibian species and can improve the quality of the aquatic environment for some sensitive local amphibians. PMID:22761833

  15. Buffer provisioning for large-scale data-acquisition systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)756497; The ATLAS collaboration; Garcia Garcia, Pedro Javier; Froening, Holger; Vandelli, Wainer

    2018-01-01

    The data acquisition system of the ATLAS experiment, a major experiment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, will go through a major upgrade in the next decade. The upgrade is driven by experimental physics requirements, calling for increased data rates on the order of 6~TB/s. By contrast, the data rate of the existing system is 160~GB/s. Among the changes in the upgraded system will be a very large buffer with a projected size on the order of 70 PB. The buffer role will be decoupling of data production from on-line data processing, storing data for periods of up to 24~hours until it can be analyzed by the event processing system. The larger buffer will allow a new data recording strategy, providing additional margins to handle variable data rates. At the same time it will provide sensible trade-offs between buffering space and on-line processing capabilities. This compromise between two resources will be possible since the data production cycle includes time periods where the experiment will not produ...

  16. Temperature buffer test. Dismantling operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite in the usual way, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a ring of sand. The test was dismantled and sampled during a period from the end of October 2009 to the end of April 2010, and this report describes this operation. Different types of samples have been obtained during this operation. A large number of diameter 50 mm bentonite cores have been taken for analysis of water content and density. Large pieces, so-called big sectors, have been taken for hydro-mechanical and chemical characterizations. Finally, there has been an interest to obtain different types of interface samples in which bentonite were in contact with sand, iron or concrete. One goal has been to investigate the retrievability of the upper heater, given the possibility to remove the surrounding sand shield, and a retrieval test has therefore been performed. The sand in the shield was first removed with an industrial vacuum cleaner after loosening the material through mechanical means (with hammer drill and core machine). A front loader was subsequently used for applying a sufficient lifting force to release the heater from the bentonite underneath. The experiment has been documented in different aspects: measurements of the coordinate (height or radius) of different interfaces (between bentonite blocks and between bentonite and sand); verification of sensor positions and retrieval of sensors for subsequent

  17. Temperature buffer test. Dismantling operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakesson, Mattias

    2010-12-01

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite in the usual way, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a ring of sand. The test was dismantled and sampled during a period from the end of October 2009 to the end of April 2010, and this report describes this operation. Different types of samples have been obtained during this operation. A large number of diameter 50 mm bentonite cores have been taken for analysis of water content and density. Large pieces, so-called big sectors, have been taken for hydro-mechanical and chemical characterizations. Finally, there has been an interest to obtain different types of interface samples in which bentonite were in contact with sand, iron or concrete. One goal has been to investigate the retrievability of the upper heater, given the possibility to remove the surrounding sand shield, and a retrieval test has therefore been performed. The sand in the shield was first removed with an industrial vacuum cleaner after loosening the material through mechanical means (with hammer drill and core machine). A front loader was subsequently used for applying a sufficient lifting force to release the heater from the bentonite underneath. The experiment has been documented in different aspects: measurements of the coordinate (height or radius) of different interfaces (between bentonite blocks and between bentonite and sand); verification of sensor positions and retrieval of sensors for subsequent

  18. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine equivalent...

  19. THE BUFFER CAPACITY OF AIRWAY EPITHELIAL SECRETIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusik eKim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF. The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 µl volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO3- is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (β increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO3- secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO3- secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions.

  20. Shock buffer for nuclear control assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1977-01-01

    A shock buffer is provided for the gradual deceleration of a rapidly descending control element assembly in a nuclear reactor. The interactive buffer components are associated respectively with the movable control element assembly and part of the upper guide structure independent of and spaced from the fuel assemblies of the reactor

  1. Buffer sizing for multi-hop networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-28

    A cumulative buffer may be defined for an interference domain in a wireless mesh network and distributed among nodes in the network to maintain or improve capacity utilization of network resources in the interference domain without increasing packet queuing delay times. When an interference domain having communications links sharing resources in a network is identified, a cumulative buffer size is calculated. The cumulative buffer may be distributed among buffers in each node of the interference domain according to a simple division or according to a cost function taking into account a distance of the communications link from the source and destination. The network may be monitored and the cumulative buffer size recalculated and redistributed when the network conditions change.

  2. Optimization of protein buffer cocktails using Thermofluor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Linda; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Geerlof, Arie; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Weiss, Manfred S

    2013-02-01

    The stability and homogeneity of a protein sample is strongly influenced by the composition of the buffer that the protein is in. A quick and easy approach to identify a buffer composition which increases the stability and possibly the conformational homogeneity of a protein sample is the fluorescence-based thermal-shift assay (Thermofluor). Here, a novel 96-condition screen for Thermofluor experiments is presented which consists of buffer and additive parts. The buffer screen comprises 23 different buffers and the additive screen includes small-molecule additives such as salts and nucleotide analogues. The utilization of small-molecule components which increase the thermal stability of a protein sample frequently results in a protein preparation of higher quality and quantity and ultimately also increases the chances of the protein crystallizing.

  3. COMBINATIONS OF BUFFER-STOCKS AND BUFFER-FUNDS FOR WOOL PRICE STABILISATION IN AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Moir, Brian; Piggott, Roley R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a preliminary analysis is presented of a combined buffer-fund and buffer-stock as an alternative to a pure buffer-fund or a pure buffer stock for stabilising wool prices. The alternatives analysed are designed so that each provides the same prices to producers as did the Reserve Price Scheme over the period of analysis. Least-cost combinations of policy instruments are derived. The results show that there is considerable potential for cost savings to be made by combining buffer-...

  4. Buffer mass test - Site documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to compile test site data that are assumed to be of importance for the interpretation of the Buffer Mass Test. Since this test mainly concerns water uptake and migration processes in the integrated rock/backfill system and the development of temperature fields in this system, the work has been focused on the constitution and hydrology of the rock. The major constitutional rock feature of interest for the BMT is the frequency and distribution of joints and fractures. The development of models for water uptake into the highly compacted bentonite in the heater holes requires a very detailed fracture survey. The present investigation shows that two of the holes (no. 1 and 2) are located in richly fractured rock, while the others are located in fracture-poor to moderately fractured rock. The hydrological conditions of the rock in the BMT area are characterized by water pressures of as much as 100 m water head at a few meters distance from the test site. The average hydraulic conductivity of the rock that confines the BMT tunnel has been estimated at about 10 -10 m/s by Lawrence Laboratory. The actual distribution of the water that enters the tunnel has been estimated by observing the successive moistening after having switched off the ventilation, and this has offered basis of predicting the rate and uniformity of the water uptake in the tunnel backfill. As to the heater holes the detailed fracture patterns and various inflow measurements have yielded a similar basis. The report also gives major data on the rock temperature, gas conditions, mineralogy, rock mechanics, and groundwater chemistry for BMT purposes. (author)

  5. Temperature buffer test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report is the final report and a summary of all work performed within the TBT project. The design and the installation of the different components are summarized: the depositions hole, the heating system, the bentonite blocks with emphasis on the initial density and water content in these, the filling of slots with sand or pellets, the retaining construction with the plug, lid and nine anchor cables, the artificial saturation system, and finally the instrumentation. An overview of the operational conditions is presented: the power output from heaters, which was 1,500 W (and also 1,600 W) from each heater during the first {approx}1,700 days, and then changed to 1,000 and 2,000 W, for the upper and lower heater respectively, during the last {approx}600 days. From the start, the bentonite was hydrated with a groundwater from a nearby bore-hole, but this groundwater was replaced with de-ionized water from day {approx}1,500, due to the high flow resistance of the injections points in the filter, which implied that a high filter pressure couldn't be sustained. The sand shield around the upper heater was hydrated from day {approx}1,500 to day {approx}1

  6. Temperature buffer test. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakesson, Mattias

    2012-04-01

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report is the final report and a summary of all work performed within the TBT project. The design and the installation of the different components are summarized: the depositions hole, the heating system, the bentonite blocks with emphasis on the initial density and water content in these, the filling of slots with sand or pellets, the retaining construction with the plug, lid and nine anchor cables, the artificial saturation system, and finally the instrumentation. An overview of the operational conditions is presented: the power output from heaters, which was 1,500 W (and also 1,600 W) from each heater during the first ∼1,700 days, and then changed to 1,000 and 2,000 W, for the upper and lower heater respectively, during the last ∼600 days. From the start, the bentonite was hydrated with a groundwater from a nearby bore-hole, but this groundwater was replaced with de-ionized water from day ∼1,500, due to the high flow resistance of the injections points in the filter, which implied that a high filter pressure couldn't be sustained. The sand shield around the upper heater was hydrated from day ∼1,500 to day ∼1,800. The sensors data concerning

  7. Dynamic mechanical properties of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Wataru

    1999-11-01

    The buffer material is expected to maintain its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. over a long period of time. Natural clay is mentioned as a material that can relatively satisfy above. Among the kinds of natural clay, bentonite when compacted is superior because (i) it has exceptionally low water permeability and properties to control the movement of water in buffer, (ii) it fills void spaces in the buffer and fractures in the host rock as it swells upon water uptake, (iii) it has the ability to exchange cations and to adsorb cationic radioelements. In order to confirm these functions for the purpose of safety assessment, it is necessary to evaluate buffer properties through laboratory tests and engineering-scale tests, and to make assessments based on the ranges in the data obtained. This report describes the procedures, test conditions, results and examinations on the buffer material of dynamic triaxial tests, measurement of elastic wave velocity and liquefaction tests that aim at getting hold of dynamic mechanical properties. We can get hold of dependency on the shearing strain of the shearing modulus and hysteresis damping constant, the application for the mechanical model etc. by dynamic triaxial tests, the acceptability of maximum shearing modulus obtained from dynamic triaxial tests etc. by measurement of elastic wave velocity and dynamic strength caused by cyclic stress etc. by liquefaction tests. (author)

  8. Buffer-regulated biocorrosion of pure magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Nicholas T; Waterman, Jay; Birbilis, Nick; Dias, George; Woodfield, Tim B F; Hartshorn, Richard M; Staiger, Mark P

    2012-02-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are being actively investigated as potential load-bearing orthopaedic implant materials due to their biodegradability in vivo. With Mg biomaterials at an early stage in their development, the screening of alloy compositions for their biodegradation rate, and hence biocompatibility, is reliant on cost-effective in vitro methods. The use of a buffer to control pH during in vitro biodegradation is recognised as critically important as this seeks to mimic pH control as it occurs naturally in vivo. The two different types of in vitro buffer system available are based on either (i) zwitterionic organic compounds or (ii) carbonate buffers within a partial-CO(2) atmosphere. This study investigated the influence of the buffering system itself on the in vitro corrosion of Mg. It was found that the less realistic zwitterion-based buffer did not form the same corrosion layers as the carbonate buffer, and was potentially affecting the behaviour of the hydrated oxide layer that forms on Mg in all aqueous environments. Consequently it was recommended that Mg in vitro experiments use the more biorealistic carbonate buffering system when possible.

  9. Influence of electrode, buffer gas and control gear on metal halide lamp performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamouri, A; Naruka, A; Sulcs, J; Varanasi, C V; Brumleve, T R

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the influence of electrode composition, buffer gas fill pressure and control gear on the performance of metal halide lamps is investigated. It is shown that pure tungsten electrodes improve lumen maintenance and reduce voltage rise over lamp life. An optimum buffer gas fill pressure condition is discovered which allows for reduced electrode erosion during lamp starting as well as under normal operating conditions. Use of electronic control gear is shown to improve the performance of metal halide lamps

  10. HFB : A FASTBUS multi event double port buffer memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerrito, L.; Lebbolo, H.

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe here the FB double port buffer memory developed at the LPNHE of the University Paris VI. Its purposes are to make available same features useful in the High Energy environment, to reduce, for a given amount of memory, the dead time data collection in a large size (in term of read-out channels) High Energy experiment and to get a buffer of memory as cheap and reliable as possible. The FB protocol, on the crate and cable side, is exploited using the coupler on 4 PAL's developed by G.Fremont and E.Sanchis. The DATA-Space is divided in 4 independent smaller blocks in a way such that a block can be accessed from a port while a different block is accessed from the other port. The two ports are: A, the FB crate port and B, the FB cable port. The buffer works as a rotary FIFO, looping over the 4 blocks of memory, but allowing for any random access. A mechanism is implemented on the board in order to be able to link different modules placed everywhere. If there are m modules, the looping will be around m 4 memory blocks. A multi event function is implemented on the board. HFB is quiped of two NTA for the DATA-Space on the port ''A'', and a flag to choose between them, to allow for a FB spying of DATA during the DAS dead time. HFB is a buffer of memory which can be used at each stage of a DAS: Frontend, Intermediate (MEB) or final, being completely FB standard. The HFB was designed for the LEP data acquisition system

  11. Surface Water Protection by Productive Buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin

    Vegetated riparian buffer zones are a widely recommended best management practice in agriculture for protecting surface and coastal waters from diffuse nutrient pollution. On the background of the EU funded research project NitroEurope (NEU; www.NitroEurope.eu), this study concentrates...... on the mitigation of nitrogen pollution in surface and groundwater, using riparian buffer zones for biomass production. The objectives are to map suitable areas for buffer implementation across the six NEU study landscapes, model tentative N-loss mitigation, calculate biomass production potential and economic...... designed for local conditions could be a way of protecting water quality attractive to many stakeholders....

  12. Buffer sizing for multi-hop networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem; Jamshaid, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    domain according to a simple division or according to a cost function taking into account a distance of the communications link from the source and destination. The network may be monitored and the cumulative buffer size recalculated and redistributed

  13. Moisture Buffer Value of Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut; Time, Berit

    2007-01-01

    When building materials are in contact with indoor air they have some effect to moderate the variations of indoor humidity in occupied buildings. But so far there has been a lack of a standardized quantity to characterize the moisture buffering capability of materials. It has been the objective o...... is a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested for determination of their Moisture Buffer Value. Finally, the paper presents some of the results of a Round Robin Test on various typical building materials that has been carried out in the project....... of a recent Nordic project to define such a quantity, and to declare it in the form of a NORDTEST method. The Moisture Buffer Value is the figure that has been developed in the project as a way to appraise the moisture buffer effect of materials, and the value is described in the paper. Also explained...

  14. Liquid growth hormone: preservatives and buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Anders, Bojesen; Skydsgaard, Karen

    2004-01-01

    injection are dependent on the preservative used in the formulation and the concentration of GH. Injection pain may also be related to the buffer substance and injection volume. A liquid formulation of GH, Norditropi SimpleXx, has been developed that dispenses with the need for reconstitution before...... solution. More pain was also reported following large volume injections and following injections with solutions containing high protein concentrations. In summary, optimization of the preservative and buffer content of a liquid GH formulation may reduce injection pain and lead to improved patient...... administration. The formulation uses phenol (3 mg/ml) as a preservative (to protect product from microbial degradation or contamination) and histidine as a buffer. Alternative preservatives used in other GH formulations include m-cresol (9 mg/ml) and benzyl alcohol (3-9 mg/ml). Buffering agents include citrate...

  15. Calculating Buffer Zones: A Guide for Applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffer zones provide distance between the application block (i.e., edge of the treated field) and bystanders, in order to control pesticide exposure risk from soil fumigants. Distance requirements may be reduced by credits such as tarps.

  16. Buffer Strips for Riparian Zone Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This study provides a review of technical literature concerning the width of riparian buffer strips needed to protect water quality and maintain other important values provided by riparian ecosystem...

  17. Lucas Heights buffer zone: plan of management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This plan is being used by the Commission as a guide for its management of the Lucas Heights buffer zone, which is essentially a circular area having a 1-6 km radius around the HIFAR reactor. Aspects covered by this plan include past uses, current use, objectives for buffer zone land management, emergency evacuation, resource conservation, archaeology, fire, access, rehabilitation of disturbed areas, resource management and plan implementation

  18. Buffer regulation of calcium puff sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraiman, Daniel; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2014-01-01

    Puffs are localized Ca 2+ signals that arise in oocytes in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ). They are the result of the liberation of Ca 2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum through the coordinated opening of IP 3 receptor/channels clustered at a functional release site. The presence of buffers that trap Ca 2+ provides a mechanism that enriches the spatio–temporal dynamics of cytosolic calcium. The expression of different types of buffers along the cell's life provides a tool with which Ca 2+ signals and their responses can be modulated. In this paper we extend the stochastic model of a cluster of IP 3 R-Ca 2+ channels introduced previously to elucidate the effect of buffers on sequences of puffs at the same release site. We obtain analytically the probability laws of the interpuff time and of the number of channels that participate of the puffs. Furthermore, we show that under typical experimental conditions the effect of buffers can be accounted for in terms of a simple inhibiting function. Hence, by exploring different inhibiting functions we are able to study the effect of a variety of buffers on the puff size and interpuff time distributions. We find the somewhat counter-intuitive result that the addition of a fast Ca 2+ buffer can increase the average number of channels that participate of a puff. (paper)

  19. Buffer regulation of calcium puff sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiman, Daniel; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2014-02-01

    Puffs are localized Ca(2 +) signals that arise in oocytes in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). They are the result of the liberation of Ca(2 +) from the endoplasmic reticulum through the coordinated opening of IP3 receptor/channels clustered at a functional release site. The presence of buffers that trap Ca(2 +) provides a mechanism that enriches the spatio-temporal dynamics of cytosolic calcium. The expression of different types of buffers along the cell's life provides a tool with which Ca(2 +) signals and their responses can be modulated. In this paper we extend the stochastic model of a cluster of IP3R-Ca(2 +) channels introduced previously to elucidate the effect of buffers on sequences of puffs at the same release site. We obtain analytically the probability laws of the interpuff time and of the number of channels that participate of the puffs. Furthermore, we show that under typical experimental conditions the effect of buffers can be accounted for in terms of a simple inhibiting function. Hence, by exploring different inhibiting functions we are able to study the effect of a variety of buffers on the puff size and interpuff time distributions. We find the somewhat counter-intuitive result that the addition of a fast Ca(2 +) buffer can increase the average number of channels that participate of a puff.

  20. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Mian Umer; Mahmud, Hisham Khaled Ben; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H 3 PO 4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid. (paper)

  1. Low noise buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators for precise time and frequency measurement and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, R. A.; Dachel, P.; Miller, W. H.; Ingold, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Extremely low noise, high performance, wideband buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators were developed. These buffer amplifiers are designed to distribute reference frequencies from 30 KHz to 45 MHz from a hydrogen maser without degrading the hydrogen maser's performance. The buffered phase comparators are designed to intercompare the phase of state of the art hydrogen masers without adding any significant measurement system noise. These devices have a 27 femtosecond phase stability floor and are stable to better than one picosecond for long periods of time. Their temperature coefficient is less than one picosecond per degree C, and they have shown virtually no voltage coefficients.

  2. Buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions: from protein buffer capacity prediction to bioprocess applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrenburg, Sven; Karow, Anne R; Garidel, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Protein therapeutics, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), have significant buffering capacity, particularly at concentrations>50 mg/mL. This report addresses pH-related issues critical to adoption of self-buffered monoclonal antibody formulations. We evaluated solution conditions with protein concentrations ranging from 50 to 250 mg/mL. Samples were both buffer-free and conventionally buffered with citrate. Samples were non-isotonic or adjusted for isotonicity with NaCl or trehalose. Studies included accelerated temperature stability tests, shaking stability studies, and pH changes in infusion media as protein concentrate is added. We present averaged buffering slopes of capacity that can be applied to any mAb and present a general method for calculating buffering capacity of buffer-free, highly concentrated antibody liquid formulations. In temperature stability tests, neither buffer-free nor conventionally buffered solution conditions showed significant pH changes. Conventionally buffered solutions showed significantly higher opalescence than buffer-free ones. In general, buffer-free solution conditions showed less aggregation than conventionally buffered solutions. Shaking stability tests showed no differences between buffer-free and conventionally buffered solutions. "In-use" preparation experiments showed that pH in infusion bag medium can rapidly approximate that of self-buffered protein concentrate as concentrate is added. In summary, the buffer capacity of proteins can be predicted and buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. High Performance Nano-Constituent Buffer Layer Thin Films to Enable Low Cost Integrated On-the-Move Communications Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, M. W; Nothwang, W. D; Hubbard, C; Ngo, E; Hirsch, S

    2004-01-01

    .... Utilizing a coplanar device design we successfully designed, fabricated, characterized, and optimized a high performance Ta2O5 thin film passive buffer layer on Si substrates, which will allow...

  4. Static mechanical properties of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hideaki

    1999-11-01

    The buffer material is expected to maintain its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. over a long period of time. Natural clay is mentioned as a material that can relatively satisfy above. Among the kinds of natural clay, bentonite when compacted is superior because (i) it has exceptionally low water permeability and properties to control the movement of water in buffer, (ii) it fills void spaces in the buffer and fractures in the host rock as it swells upon water uptake, (iii) it has the ability to exchange cations and to adsorb cationic radioelements. In order to confirm these functions for the purpose of safety assessment, it is necessary to evaluate buffer properties through laboratory tests and engineering-scale tests, and to make assessments based on the ranges in the data obtained. This report describes the procedures, test conditions, results and examinations on the buffer material of unconfined compression tests, one-dimensional consolidation tests, consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests and consolidated-undrained triaxial creep tests that aim at getting hold of static mechanical properties. We can get hold of the relationship between the dry density and tensile stress etc. by Brazilian tests, between the dry density and unconfined compressive strength etc. by unconfined compression tests, between the consolidation stress and void ratio etc. by one-dimensional consolidation tests, the stress pass of each effective confining pressure etc. by consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests and the axial strain rate with time of each axial stress etc. by consolidated-undrained triaxial creep tests. (author)

  5. Riparian forest buffers mitigate the effects of deforestation on fish assemblages in tropical headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorion, Christopher M; Kennedy, Brian P

    2009-03-01

    Riparian forest buffers may play a critical role in moderating the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream ecosystems, but very few studies have examined the ecological effects of riparian buffers in the tropics. To test the hypothesis that riparian forest buffers can reduce the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream biota, we sampled fish assemblages in lowland headwater streams in southeastern Costa Rica representing three different treatments: (1) forested reference stream reaches, (2) stream reaches adjacent to pasture with a riparian forest buffer averaging at least 15 m in width on each bank, and (3) stream reaches adjacent to pasture without a riparian forest buffer. Land cover upstream from the study reaches was dominated by forest at all of the sites, allowing us to isolate the reach-scale effects of the three study treatments. Fish density was significantly higher in pasture reaches than in forest and forest buffer reaches, mostly due to an increase in herbivore-detritivores, but fish biomass did not differ among reach types. Fish species richness was also higher in pasture reaches than in forested reference reaches, while forest buffer reaches were intermediate. Overall, the taxonomic and trophic structure of fish assemblages in forest and forest buffer reaches was very similar, while assemblages in pasture reaches were quite distinct. These patterns were persistent across three sampling periods during our 15-month study. Differences in stream ecosystem conditions between pasture reaches and forested sites, including higher stream temperatures, reduced fruit and seed inputs, and a trend toward increased periphyton abundance, appeared to favor fish species normally found in larger streams and facilitate a native invasion process. Forest buffer reaches, in contrast, had stream temperatures and allochthonous inputs more similar to forested streams. Our results illustrate the importance of riparian areas to stream ecosystem integrity in the tropics

  6. Temperature Buffer Test. Measurements of water content and density of the excavated buffer material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    TBT (Temperature Buffer Test) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at understanding and modeling the thermo-hydromechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test was carried out at the - 420 m level in Aespoe HRL in a 8 meters deep and 1.76 m diameter deposition hole, with two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter), surrounded by a MX-80 bentonite buffer and a confining plug on top anchored with 9 rods. It was installed during spring 2003. The bentonite around upper heater was removed during the period October - December 2009 and the buffer around the lower heater was removed during January - Mars 2010. During dismantling of the buffer, samples were taken on which analyses were made. This report describes the work with the deteroemoeination of the water content and the density of the taken samples. Most of the samples were taken from the buffer by core drilling from the upper surface of each installed bentonite block. The cores had a diameter of about 50 mm and a maximum length equal to the original height of the bentonite blocks (about 500 mm). The water content of the buffer was determined by drying a sample at a temperature of 105 deg C for 24 h and the bulk density was determined by weighing a sample both in the air and immerged in paraffin oil with known density. The water content, dry density, degree of saturation and void ratio of the buffer were then plotted. The plots show that all parts of the buffer had taken up water and the degree of saturation of the buffer varied between 90 - 100%. Large variation in the dry density of the buffer was also observed.

  7. Scientific Applications Performance Evaluation on Burst Buffer

    KAUST Repository

    Markomanolis, George S.

    2017-10-19

    Parallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing, especially in storing and processing very large datasets, such as the case of seismic imaging, CFD, combustion and weather modeling. The storage hierarchy includes nowadays additional layers, the latest being the usage of SSD-based storage as a Burst Buffer for I/O acceleration. We present an in-depth analysis on how to use Burst Buffer for specific cases and how the internal MPI I/O aggregators operate according to the options that the user provides during his job submission. We analyze the performance of a range of I/O intensive scientific applications, at various scales on a large installation of Lustre parallel file system compared to an SSD-based Burst Buffer. Our results show a performance improvement over Lustre when using Burst Buffer. Moreover, we show results from a data hierarchy library which indicate that the standard I/O approaches are not enough to get the expected performance from this technology. The performance gain on the total execution time of the studied applications is between 1.16 and 3 times compared to Lustre. One of the test cases achieved an impressive I/O throughput of 900 GB/s on Burst Buffer.

  8. Improved indexes for targeting placement of buffers of Hortonian runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.G. Dosskey; Z. Qiu; M.J. Helmers; D.E. Eisenhauer

    2011-01-01

    Targeting specific locations within agricultural watersheds for installing vegetative buffers has been advocated as a way to enhance the impact of buffers and buffer programs on stream water quality. Existing models for targeting buffers of Hortonian, or infiltration-excess, runoff are not well developed. The objective was to improve on an existing soil survey–based...

  9. A buffer overflow detection based on inequalities solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoai; Zhang Miao; Yang Yixian

    2007-01-01

    A new buffer overflow detection model based on Inequalities Solution was designed, which is based on analyzing disadvantage of the old buffer overflow detection technique and successfully converting buffer overflow detection to Inequalities Solution. The new model can conquer the disadvantage of the old technique and improve efficiency of buffer overflow detection. (authors)

  10. Moisture buffer capacity of different insulation materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2004-01-01

    . In the isothermal tests the material samples were exposed to the same change in the relative humidity of the ambient air on both sides, while the samples were exposed to variations in relative humidity only on the cold side in the non-isothermal tests. The results of these rather different measurement principles...... lead to more durable constructions. In this paper, a large range of very different thermal insulation materials have been tested in specially constructed laboratory facilities to determine their moisture buffer capacity. Both isothermal and nonisothermal experimental set-ups have been used...... are discussed, and different ways are presented how to determine the moisture buffer capacity of the materials using partly standard material parameters and partly parameters determined from the actual measurements. The results so far show that the determination of moisture buffer capacity is very sensitive...

  11. Buffer construction technique using granular bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Ryoichi; Asano, Hidekazu; Toguri, Satohito; Mori, Takuo; Shimura, Tomoyuki; Matsuda, Takeshi; Uyama, Masao; Noda, Masaru

    2007-01-01

    Buffer construction using bentonite pellets as filling material is a promising technology for enhancing the ease of repository operation. In this study, a test of such technology was conducted in a full-scale simulated disposal drift, using a filling system which utilizes a screw conveyor system. The simulated drift, which contained two dummy overpacks, was configured as a half-cross-section model with a height of 2.22 m and a length of 6.0 m. The average dry density of the buffer obtained in the test was 1.29 Mg/m 3 , with an angle of repose of 35 to 40 degrees. These test results indicate that buffer construction using a screw conveyor system for pellet emplacement in a waste disposal drift is a promising technology for repositories for high level radioactive wastes. (author)

  12. Labview virtual instruments for calcium buffer calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Frederick B; Pollack, Gerald H

    2003-01-01

    Labview VIs based upon the calculator programs of Fabiato and Fabiato (J. Physiol. Paris 75 (1979) 463) are presented. The VIs comprise the necessary computations for the accurate preparation of multiple-metal buffers, for the back-calculation of buffer composition given known free metal concentrations and stability constants used, for the determination of free concentrations from a given buffer composition, and for the determination of apparent stability constants from absolute constants. As implemented, the VIs can concurrently account for up to three divalent metals, two monovalent metals and four ligands thereof, and the modular design of the VIs facilitates further extension of their capacity. As Labview VIs are inherently graphical, these VIs may serve as useful templates for those wishing to adapt this software to other platforms.

  13. Developing suitable buffers to capture transport cycling behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas; Schipperijn, Jasper; Christiansen, Lars Breum

    2014-01-01

    units (e.g., home-buffer-based neighborhoods) are not necessarily representative for environmental exposure. An increased understanding of appropriate neighborhoods is needed. GPS cycling tracks from 78 participants for 7 days form the basis for the development and testing of different neighborhood...... buffers for transport cycling. The percentage of GPS points per square meter was used as indicator of the effectiveness of a series of different buffer types, including home-based network buffers, shortest route to city center buffers, and city center-directed ellipse-shaped buffers. The results show...... center-directed ellipse-shaped buffers yielded better results than traditional home-based network buffer types. The ellipse-shaped buffer types could therefore be considered an alternative to more traditional buffers or administrative units in future studies of transport cycling behavior....

  14. 76 FR 70883 - Clothing Allowance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... prescription skin cream for the ``face, neck, hands, arms, or any area not covered by clothing may come into... the clothing or outergarment due to a second appliance or medication.'' This language will clarify that a second clothing allowance may be paid when a second appliance and/or medication increases the...

  15. Buffer of Events as a Markovian Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J.; Mana, C.

    2001-01-01

    In Particle and Asro-Particle Physics experiments, the events which get trough the detectors are read and processes on-line before they are stored for a more detailed processing and future Physics analysis. Since the events are read and, usually, processed sequentially, the time involved in these operations can lead to a significant lose of events which is, to some extent, reduced by using buffers. We present an estimate of the optimum buffer size and the fraction of events lost for a simple experimental condition which serves as an introductory example to the use of Markow Chains.(Author)

  16. Buffer of Events as a Markovian Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J.; Mana, C.

    2001-07-01

    In Particle and Asro-Particle Physics experiments, the events which get trough the detectors are read and processes on-line before they are stored for a more detailed processing and future Physics analysis. Since the events are read and, usually, processed sequentially, the time involved in these operations can lead to a significant lose of events which is, to some extent, reduced by using buffers. We present an estimate of the optimum buffer size and the fraction of events lost for a simple experimental condition which serves as an introductory example to the use of Markow Chains.(Author)

  17. Emplacement of small and large buffer blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, H.; Nikula, M.; Suikki, M.

    2010-05-01

    The report describes emplacement of a buffer structure encircling a spent fuel canister to be deposited in a vertical hole. The report deals with installability of various size blocks and with an emplacement gear, as well as evaluates the achieved quality of emplacement and the time needed for installing the buffer. Two block assembly of unequal size were chosen for examination. A first option involved small blocks, the use of which resulted in a buffer structure consisting of small sector blocks 200 mm in height. A second option involved large blocks, resulting in a buffer structure which consists of eight blocks. In these tests, the material chosen for both block options was concrete instead of bentonite. The emplacement test was a three-phase process. A first phase included stacking a two meter high buffer structure with small blocks for ensuring the operation of test equipment and blocks. A second phase included installing buffer structures with both block options to a height matching that of a canister-encircling cylindrical component. A third phase included testing also the installability of blocks to be placed above the canister by using small blocks. In emplacement tests, special attention was paid to the installability of blocks as well as to the time required for emplacement. Lifters for both blocks worked well. Due to the mass to be lifted, the lifter for large blocks had a more heavy-duty frame structure (and other lifting gear). The employed lifters were suspended in the tests on a single steel wire rope. Stacking was managed with both block sizes at adequate precision and stacked-up towers were steady. The stacking of large blocks was considerably faster. Therefore it is probably that the overall handling of the large blocks will be more convenient at a final disposal site. From the standpoint of reliability in lifting, the small blocks were safer to install above the canister. In large blocks, there are strict shape-related requirements which are

  18. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: An annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This bibliography and associated literature synthesis (Melcher and Skagen, 2005) was developed for the Playa Lakes Joint Venture (PLJV). The PLJV sought compilation and annotation of the literature on grass buffers for protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants. In addition, PLJV sought information regarding the extent to which buffers may attenuate the precipitation runoff needed to fill playas, and avian use of buffers. We emphasize grass buffers, but we also provide information on other buffer types.

  19. Surfaces allowing for fractional statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneziris, Charilaos.

    1992-07-01

    In this paper we give a necessary condition in order for a geometrical surface to allow for Abelian fractional statistics. In particular, we show that such statistics is possible only for two-dimentional oriented surfaces of genus zero, namely the sphere S 2 , the plane R 2 and the cylindrical surface R 1 *S 1 , and in general the connected sum of n planes R 2 -R 2 -R 2 -...-R 2 . (Author)

  20. Use of Gap-fills in the Buffer and Backfill of an HLW Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The buffer and backfill are significant barrier components of the repository. They play the roles of preventing the inflow of groundwater from the surrounding rock, retarding the release of radionuclides from the waste, supporting disposal container against external impacts, and discharging decay heat from the waste. When the buffer and backfill are installed for the HLW repository, there may be gaps between the container and buffer and between the backfill and the wall of disposal tunnels, respectively. These gaps occur because spaces are allowed for ease of the installation of the buffer and backfill in excavated deposition boreholes and disposal tunnels. If the gaps are left without any sealing as they are, however, the buffer and backfill can't accomplish their functions as the barrier components. This paper reviews the gap-fill concepts of the developed foreign countries, and then suggests a gap-fill concept which is applicable for the KRS. The gap-fill is suggested to employ bentonite- based materials with a type of pellet, granule, and pellet-granule mixture. The roller compression method and extrusion-cutting method are applicable for the fabrication of the bentonite pellets which can have the high density and the required amount for use to the buffer and backfill. For the installation of the gap-fill, the pouring and then pressing method and the shotcrete- blowing method are preferable for the gap of the deposition borehole and the gap of the disposal tunnel, respectively.

  1. A Study on Establishment of Buffer Zone of Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Park, Joo Wan; Ju, Min Su; Kim, Chang Lak; Park, Jin Baek

    2008-01-01

    A new proposed repository has a final capacity of 800,000 drums radioactive waste. Most of foreign repositories have a general practice of segregating control zones which mainly contributes to classification of degree of control, whether it is called buffer zone or not. Domestic regulatory requirements of establishment of buffer zone in a repository are not much different from those of nuclear power plants for operation period, in which satisfactory design objective or performance objective is the most important factor in determination of the buffer zone. The meaning of buffer zone after closure is a minimum requested area which can prevent inadvertent intruders from leading to non-allowable exposure during institutional control period. Safety assessment with drinking well scenario giving rise to the highest probability of exposure among the intruder's actions can verify fulfillment of the buffer zone which is determined by operational safety of the repository. At present. for the repository to be constructed in a few years, the same procedure and concept as described in this paper are applied that can satisfy regulatory requirements and radiological safety as well. However, the capacity of the repository will be stepwise extended upto 800,000 drums, consequently its layout will be varied too. Timely considerations will be necessary for current boundary of the buffer zone which has been established on the basis of 100,000 drums disposal.

  2. Hydrogeological constraints on riparian buffers for reduction of diffuse pollution: examples from the Bear Creek watershed in Iowa, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, W W; Wineland, T R; Andress, R J; Johnston, D A; Caron, G C; Isenhart, T M; Schultz, R C

    2002-01-01

    Riparian Management Systems (RiMS) have been proposed to minimize the impacts of agricultural production and improve water quality in Iowa in the Midwestern USA. As part of RiMS, multispecies riparian buffers have been shown to decrease nutrient, pesticide, and sediment concentrations in runoff from adjacent crop fields. However, their effect on nutrients and pesticides moving in groundwater beneath buffers has been discussed only in limited and idealized hydrogeologic settings. Studies in the Bear Creek watershed of central Iowa show the variability inherent in hydrogeologic systems at the watershed scale, some of which may be favorable or unfavorable to future implementation of buffers. Buffers may be optimized by choosing hydrogeologic systems where a shallow groundwater flow system channels water directly through the riparian buffer at velocities that allow for processes such as denitrification to occur.

  3. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane Vindt, Steffen; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-01-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading...... potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system....

  4. Buffer gas cooling and mixture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David S.; Doyle, John M.

    2018-03-06

    An apparatus for spectroscopy of a gas mixture is described. Such an apparatus includes a gas mixing system configured to mix a hot analyte gas that includes at least one analyte species in a gas phase into a cold buffer gas, thereby forming a supersaturated mixture to be provided for spectroscopic analysis.

  5. Buffer Overflow Period in a MAP Queue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chydzinski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The buffer overflow period in a queue with Markovian arrival process (MAP and general service time distribution is investigated. The results include distribution of the overflow period in transient and stationary regimes and the distribution of the number of cells lost during the overflow interval. All theorems are illustrated via numerical calculations.

  6. Body Buffer Zone and Proxemics in Blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, John C.; Bahs, Clarence W.

    This paper investigates the effect of personal body buffer zones on compositional arrangements staged by novice directors. Relationships between directors' concepts of personal space and their projection of its dimensions into staging are studied through the use of a variety of proximity measures--distance, area angles of approach, and physical…

  7. Biochar contribution to soil pH buffer capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonutare, Tonu; Krebstein, Kadri; Utso, Maarius; Rodima, Ako; Kolli, Raimo; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2014-05-01

    Biochar as ecologically clean and stable form of carbon has complex of physical and chemical properties which make it a potentially powerful soil amendment (Mutezo, 2013). Therefore during the last decade the biochar application as soil amendment has been a matter for a great number of investigations. For the ecological viewpoint the trend of decreasing of soil organic matter in European agricultural land is a major problem. Society is faced with the task to find possibilities to stabilize or increase soil organic matter content in soil and quality. The availability of different functional groups (e.g. carboxylic, phenolic, acidic, alcoholic, amine, amide) allows soil organic matter to buffer over a wide range of soil pH values (Krull et al. 2004). Therefore the loss of soil organic matter also reduces cation exchange capacity resulting in lower nutrient retention (Kimetu et al. 2008). Biochar can retain elements in soil directly through the negative charge that develops on its surfaces, and this negative charge can buffer acidity in the soil. There are lack of investigations about the effect of biochar to soil pH buffering properties, The aim of our investigation was to investigate the changes in soil pH buffer capacity in a result of addition of carbonizated material to temperate region soils. In the experiment different kind of softwood biochars, activated carbon and different soil types with various organic matter and pH were used. The study soils were Albeluvisols, Leptosols, Cambisols, Regosols and Histosols . In the experiment the series of the soil: biochar mixtures with the biochar content 0 to 100% were used. The times of equiliberation between solid and liquid phase were from 1 to 168 hours. The suspension of soil: biochar mixtures was titrated with HCl solution. The titration curves were established and pH buffer capacities were calculated for the pH interval from 3.0 to 10.0. The results demonstrate the dependence of pH buffer capacity from soil type

  8. Emission allowances stall in marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malec, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    Misinformation and public misunderstanding have given emissions trading a bad reputation in the public marketplace, says William F. Malec, executive vice president of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), in Knoxville, Tennessee. Media coverage of a May 1992 emissions-allowance trade between TVA and Wisconsin Power and Light open-quotes focused on the agreement's pollution-trading aspects, not its overall potential economic and environmental benefits,close quotes Malec says. Such negative portrayal of TVA's transaction sparked severe public criticism and charges that emissions trading gives utilities the right to pollute. open-quotes The fact is that TVA sought the emissions-trading agreement as a means to reduce overall emissions in the most cost-effective way,close quotes Malec explains. Emissions trading allows a company with emission levels lower than clean-air standards to earn open-quotes credits.close quotes These credits then may be purchased by a company with emission levels that exceed federal standards. Under this arrangement, the environment is protected and companies that buy credits save money because they do not have to purchase expensive emissions-control devices or reduce their production levels. Malec says TVA decided to enter into the emissions-allowance market, not only to cut costs, but also to publicize the existence and benefits of emissions trading. However, TVA's experience proves that open-quotes people will not accept what they do not understand,close quotes concludes Malec, open-quotes especially when complex environmental issues are involved.close quotes

  9. Buffering action of human dentin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, J; Pashley, D H

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of the mineral and organic phases of dentin to its total buffering capacity and to compare the buffering abilities of normal and caries-affected dentin for acids used in adhesive dentistry. Disks of normal and caries-affected human coronal dentin 0.6 mm thick were prepared. Fifty microL of various acids were applied to the surface of mineralized or completely demineralized dentin for varying lengths of time. They were collected from the surface and combined with water rinses to permit titration of the total amount of acid applied, the amount recovered, the total amount that was taken up by the dentin, and the amount that diffused across dentin into 1 mL of water. Equal volumes of acids were applied to mineralized or demineralized dentin powder or hydroxyapatite powder. About 88% to 90% of applied acid was recovered from the surface; only 10% to 12% of the acid was taken up by dentin. Of the H+ that was taken up, only 1% to 2% actually diffused across 0.6 mm of dentin. Increasing the application time of 37% phosphoric acid did not increase the amount of H+ that diffused across dentin. Increasing the concentration of phosphoric acid from 10% to 65% produced only slight increases in H+ diffusion across dentin. There was no difference in the buffering capacity of normal vs caries-affected dentin disks. Almost all of the buffering capacity of dentin is due to its mineral phase. The high buffering capacity of dentin and the high reactivity of H+ insure that little H+ diffuses through dentin more than 0.6 mm thick.

  10. Coupled microrings data buffer using fast light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Jacob; Shahriar, Selim

    2013-03-01

    We present a theoretical study of a trap-door optical buffer based on a coupled microrings add/drop filter (ADF) utilizing the white light cavity (WLC). The buffer "trap-door" can be opened and closed by tuning the resonances of the microrings comprising the ADF and trap/release optical pulses. We show that the WLC based ADF yields a maximally flat filter which exhibits superior performances in terms of bandwidth and flatness compared to previous design approaches. We also present a realistic, Silicon-over-Insulator based, design and performance analysis taking into consideration the realistic properties and limitations of the materials and the fabrication process, leading to delays exceeding 850ps for 80GHz bandwidth, and a corresponding delay-bandwidth product of approximately 70.

  11. MOISTURE-BUFFERING CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The humidity level of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings, as well as the durability of building components. Indoor humidity levels depend on several factors, such as moisture sources, air flow, and the adsorption/desorption properties of materials. The moisture-buffering characteristics of building materials that are in contact with indoor air may help moderate the variations of indoor humidity, especially in the summer and winter. In this study, the moisture adsorption/desorption properties of building materials were investigated experimentally and numerically. These properties can be used to characterize the ability of building materials to exchange moisture with the indoor environment. This study indicates that a building material surface resistivity was the main factor creating variations of moisture buffering.

  12. Chemical buffering capacity of clay rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaucaire, C.; Pearson, F.J.; Gautschi, A.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term performance of a nuclear waste repository is strongly dependent on the chemical properties of the host rock. The host rock establishes the chemical environment that determines such important performance attributes as radionuclide solubilities from the waste and the transport rates from the repository to the accessible environment. Clay-rich rocks are especially favourable host rocks because they provide a strong buffering capacity to resist chemical changes prompted either internally, by reactions of the waste itself and emplacement materials, or externally, by changes in the hydrologic systems surrounding the host rock. This paper will focus on three aspects of the stability of clay-rich host rocks: their ability to provide pCO 2 and redox buffering, and to resist chemical changes imposed by changes in regional hydrology and hydro-chemistry. (authors)

  13. [Meeting point Stewart. Buffer bases, base excess and strong ions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, W

    2007-04-01

    Development of a two-buffer model which simulates the acid-base properties of blood and allows comparison of the different acidbase concepts according to Stewart and to Siggaard-Andersen. The two-buffer model consisted of different aqueous solutions of bicarbonate/CO(2) (pCO(2), sCO(2), pK(1)), HEPES buffer (A(tot), pK(a)) and electrolytes. These were used to calculate the pH from the independent variables according to Stewart - strong ion difference (SID), pCO(2) and total concentration of the weak acids (A(tot)) - from which all other dependent variables (cHCO(3)(-), cA(-), BB, BE) were obtained and compared with the measured values. The normal pH (7.408) was calculated from the normal values for SID (48 mmol/l), pCO(2) (40 mmHg) and A(tot) (45.2 mmol/l) and agreed perfectly with the measured value (7.409+/-0.001). This was also valid for all calculated and measured pH values when the SID was varied: non-respiratory alkalosis ( upward arrow) or acidosis ( downward arrow), pCO(2):respiratory acidosis ( upward arrow) or alkalosis ( downward arrow) and A(tot):hyperproteinemic acidosis ( upward arrow) or hypoproteinemic alkalosis ( downward arrow) were varied and the sum of the buffer bases (BB) was always equal to the SID. All changes and hence BE were also equal, providing that A(tot) was normal. This was not the case, however, if A(tot) was outside the normal range, when BE was then the difference from the normal BB at the respective reference point. Whereas the deviation of the measured pCO(2) was acceptable (1.74+/-0.86 mmHg), this was not the case for the SID (-6.18+/-3.58 mmol/l) calculated from the measured ion concentrations (Na, K, Ca, Cl). Despite controversial discussions, both concepts are much closer than might be expected. Whereas in the Stewart approach the focus of analysis is on plasma, with the Siggaard-Andersen approach it is on blood. Hence, a combined analysis of the blood gases (pH, pCO(2), pO(2), sO(2), cHb, BE) and of the strong ion gap (SIG

  14. Role of buffer gases in optoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas III, L.J.; Kelly, M.J.; Amer, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    The dependence of an acoustically resonant optoacoustic signal on the molecular weight and thermodynamic and transport properpties of the buffer gas is reported. Our results show that careful selection of such gases can significantly increase the sensitivity and flexibility of optoacoustic spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that such thermodynamic quantities as γ (equivalentC/sub p//C/sub v/) and sound velocity can now be measured readily and accurately. Other potential applications are suggested

  15. Microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratto, M.; Itavaara, M.

    2012-07-01

    The proposed disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes involves storing the wastes underground in copper-iron containers embedded in buffer material of compacted bentonite. Hydrogen sulphide production by sulphate-reducing prokaryotes is a potential mechanism that could cause corrosion of waste containers in repository conditions. The prevailing conditions in compacted bentonite buffer will be harsh. The swelling pressure is 7-8 MPa, the amount of free water is low and the average pore and pore throat diameters are small. This literature study aims to assess the potential of microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature on the environmental limits of microbial life in extreme conditions and the occurrence of sulphatereducing prokaryotes in extreme environments is reviewed briefly and the results of published studies characterizing microbes and microbial processes in repository conditions or in relevant subsurface environments are presented. The presence of bacteria, including SRBs, has been confirmed in deep groundwater and bentonite-based materials. Sulphate reducers have been detected in various high-pressure environments, and sulphate-reduction based on hydrogen as an energy source is considered a major microbial process in deep subsurface environments. In bentonite, microbial activity is strongly suppressed, mainly due to the low amount of free water and small pores, which limit the transport of microbes and nutrients. Spore-forming bacteria have been shown to survive in compacted bentonite as dormant spores, and they are able to resume a metabolically active state after decompaction. Thus, microbial sulphide production may increase in repository conditions if the dry density of the bentonite buffer is locally reduced. (orig.)

  16. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E.

    2012-01-01

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  17. Nuclear Calcium Buffering Capacity Shapes Neuronal Architecture*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauceri, Daniela; Hagenston, Anna M.; Schramm, Kathrin; Weiss, Ursula; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) such as parvalbumin are part of the cellular calcium buffering system that determines intracellular calcium diffusion and influences the spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium signals. In neurons, CaBPs are primarily localized to the cytosol and function, for example, in nerve terminals in short-term synaptic plasticity. However, CaBPs are also expressed in the cell nucleus, suggesting that they modulate nuclear calcium signals, which are key regulators of neuronal gene expression. Here we show that the calcium buffering capacity of the cell nucleus in mouse hippocampal neurons regulates neuronal architecture by modulating the expression levels of VEGFD and the complement factor C1q-c, two nuclear calcium-regulated genes that control dendrite geometry and spine density, respectively. Increasing the levels of nuclear calcium buffers by means of expression of a nuclearly targeted form of parvalbumin fused to mCherry (PV.NLS-mC) led to a reduction in VEGFD expression and, as a result, to a decrease in total dendritic length and complexity. In contrast, mRNA levels of the synapse pruning factor C1q-c were increased in neurons expressing PV.NLS-mC, causing a reduction in the density and size of dendritic spines. Our results establish a close link between nuclear calcium buffering capacity and the transcription of genes that determine neuronal structure. They suggest that the development of cognitive deficits observed in neurological conditions associated with CaBP deregulation may reflect the loss of necessary structural features of dendrites and spines. PMID:26231212

  18. Nuclear Calcium Buffering Capacity Shapes Neuronal Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauceri, Daniela; Hagenston, Anna M; Schramm, Kathrin; Weiss, Ursula; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-09-18

    Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) such as parvalbumin are part of the cellular calcium buffering system that determines intracellular calcium diffusion and influences the spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium signals. In neurons, CaBPs are primarily localized to the cytosol and function, for example, in nerve terminals in short-term synaptic plasticity. However, CaBPs are also expressed in the cell nucleus, suggesting that they modulate nuclear calcium signals, which are key regulators of neuronal gene expression. Here we show that the calcium buffering capacity of the cell nucleus in mouse hippocampal neurons regulates neuronal architecture by modulating the expression levels of VEGFD and the complement factor C1q-c, two nuclear calcium-regulated genes that control dendrite geometry and spine density, respectively. Increasing the levels of nuclear calcium buffers by means of expression of a nuclearly targeted form of parvalbumin fused to mCherry (PV.NLS-mC) led to a reduction in VEGFD expression and, as a result, to a decrease in total dendritic length and complexity. In contrast, mRNA levels of the synapse pruning factor C1q-c were increased in neurons expressing PV.NLS-mC, causing a reduction in the density and size of dendritic spines. Our results establish a close link between nuclear calcium buffering capacity and the transcription of genes that determine neuronal structure. They suggest that the development of cognitive deficits observed in neurological conditions associated with CaBP deregulation may reflect the loss of necessary structural features of dendrites and spines. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  20. META-ANALYSIS OF NITROGEN REMOVAL IN RIPARIAN BUFFERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffer zones, the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands, are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling nitrogen loads entering water bodies. Riparian buffer width may be positively related to nitrogen removal effectiveness by influencing nitrog...

  1. Success and failure with phthalate buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocek, P.; Gebauer, P.; Beckers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Phthalate buffers are currently used in capillary electrophoresis as robust electrolyte systems for indirect detection. This contribution demonstrates that these buffers show regularly not only successful regions of mobilities of analytes (sample window) but also regions of failure where the

  2. Costs of Producing Biomass from Riparian Buffer Strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow, A.

    2000-09-01

    Nutrient runoff from poultry litter applied to agricultural fields in the Delmarva Peninsula contributes to high nutrient loadings in Chesapeake Bay. One potential means of ameliorating this problem is the use of riparian buffer strips. Riparian buffer strips intercept overland flows of water, sediments, nutrients, and pollutants; and ground water flows of nutrients and pollutants. Costs are estimated for three biomass systems grown on buffer strips: willow planted at a density of 15,300 trees/ha (6200 trees/acre); poplar planted at a density of 1345 trees/ha (545 trees/acre); and switchgrass. These costs are estimated for five different scenarios: (1) total economic costs, where everything is costed [cash costs, noncash costs (e.g., depreciation), land rent, labor]; (2) costs with Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) payments (which pays 50% of establishment costs and an annual land rent); (3) costs with enhanced CRP payments (which pays 95% of establishment costs and an annual payment of approximately 170% of land rent for trees and 150% of land rent for grasses); (4) costs when buffer strips are required, but harvest of biomass is not required [costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities (e.g., fertilization), harvest, and transport]; and (5) costs when buffer strips are required. and harvest of biomass is required to remove nutrients (costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities and transport). CRP regulations would have to change to allow harvest. Delivered costs of willow, poplar, and switchgrass [including transportation costs of $0.38/GJ ($0.40/million Btu) for switchgrass and $0.57/GJ ($0.60/million Btu) for willow and poplar] at 11.2 dry Mg/ha-year (5 dry tons/acre-year) for the five cost scenarios listed above are [$/GJ ($million BIN)]: (1) 3.30-5.45 (3.45-5.75); (2) 2.30-3.80 (2.45-4.00); (3) 1.70-2.45 (1.80-2.60); (4) l-85-3.80 (1.95-4.05); and (5) 0.80-1.50 (0.85-1.60). At yields of 15.7 to 17.9 GJ/ha-year (7 to 8 dry tons

  3. International comparison of observation-specific spatial buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Lawrence D; Fox, Eric H; Ulmer, Jared M

    2017-01-01

    the relative differences in resulting explanatory power on self-reported physical activity outcomes. BEMs were developed in five countries using 'sausage,' 'detailed-trimmed,' and 'detailed,' network buffers at a distance of 1 km around participant household addresses (n = 5883). RESULTS: BEM values were...... significantly different (p trimmed buffer comparisons and 89% of sausage versus detailed network buffer comparisons. Results showed that BEM coefficients in physical activity models did not differ significantly across buffering methods, and in most cases BEM...

  4. Complexation of buffer constituents with neutral complexation agents: part I. Impact on common buffer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesová, Martina; Svobodová, Jana; Tošner, Zdeněk; Beneš, Martin; Tesařová, Eva; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2013-09-17

    The complexation of buffer constituents with the complexation agent present in the solution can very significantly influence the buffer properties, such as pH, ionic strength, or conductivity. These parameters are often crucial for selection of the separation conditions in capillary electrophoresis or high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and can significantly affect results of separation, particularly for capillary electrophoresis as shown in Part II of this paper series (Beneš, M.; Riesová, M.; Svobodová, J.; Tesařová, E.; Dubský, P.; Gaš, B. Anal. Chem. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/ac401381d). In this paper, the impact of complexation of buffer constituents with a neutral complexation agent is demonstrated theoretically as well as experimentally for the model buffer system composed of benzoic acid/LiOH or common buffers (e.g., CHES/LiOH, TAPS/LiOH, Tricine/LiOH, MOPS/LiOH, MES/LiOH, and acetic acid/LiOH). Cyclodextrins as common chiral selectors were used as model complexation agents. We were not only able to demonstrate substantial changes of pH but also to predict the general complexation characteristics of selected compounds. Because of the zwitterion character of the common buffer constituents, their charged forms complex stronger with cyclodextrins than the neutral ones do. This was fully proven by NMR measurements. Additionally complexation constants of both forms of selected compounds were determined by NMR and affinity capillary electrophoresis with a very good agreement of obtained values. These data were advantageously used for the theoretical descriptions of variations in pH, depending on the composition and concentration of the buffer. Theoretical predictions were shown to be a useful tool for deriving some general rules and laws for complexing systems.

  5. Further improvements in competitive guarantees for QoS buffering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Fleischer, L.K.; Kimbrel, T.; Mahdian, M.; Schieber, B.; Sviridenko, M.; Diaz, J.; Karhumäki, J.; Lepistö, A.; Sannella, D.

    2004-01-01

    We study the behavior of algorithms for buffering packets weighted by different levels of Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees in a single queue. Buffer space is limited, and packet loss occurs when the buffer overflows. We describe a modification of the previously proposed ``preemptive greedy{''}

  6. Towards Optimal Buffer Size in Wi-Fi Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Showail, Ahmad J.

    2016-01-19

    Buffer sizing is an important network configuration parameter that impacts the quality of data traffic. Falling memory cost and the fallacy that ‘more is better’ lead to over provisioning network devices with large buffers. Over-buffering or the so called ‘bufferbloat’ phenomenon creates excessive end-to-end delay in today’s networks. On the other hand, under-buffering results in frequent packet loss and subsequent under-utilization of network resources. The buffer sizing problem has been studied extensively for wired networks. However, there is little work addressing the unique challenges of wireless environment. In this dissertation, we discuss buffer sizing challenges in wireless networks, classify the state-of-the-art solutions, and propose two novel buffer sizing schemes. The first scheme targets buffer sizing in wireless multi-hop networks where the radio spectral resource is shared among a set of con- tending nodes. Hence, it sizes the buffer collectively and distributes it over a set of interfering devices. The second buffer sizing scheme is designed to cope up with recent Wi-Fi enhancements. It adapts the buffer size based on measured link characteristics and network load. Also, it enforces limits on the buffer size to maximize frame aggregation benefits. Both mechanisms are evaluated using simulation as well as testbed implementation over half-duplex and full-duplex wireless networks. Experimental evaluation shows that our proposal reduces latency by an order of magnitude.

  7. Managing Multiuser Database Buffers Using Data Mining Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, L.; Lu, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a data-mining-based approach to public buffer management for a multiuser database system, where database buffers are organized into two areas – public and private. While the private buffer areas contain pages to be updated by particular users, the public

  8. Heed the head: buffer benefits along headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Deanna (Dede) Olson

    2015-01-01

    Since the Northwest Forest Plan implemented riparian buffers along non-fish bearing streams in 1994, there have been questions about how wide those buffers need to be to protect aquatic and riparian resources from upland forest management activities. The Density Management and Riparian Buffer Study of western Oregon, also initiated in 1994, examines the effects of...

  9. Concentrated flow paths in riparian buffer zones of southern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Pankau; J.E. Schoonover; K.W.J. Willard; P.J. Edwards

    2012-01-01

    Riparian buffers in agricultural landscapes should be designed to trap pollutants in overland flow by slowing, filtering, and infiltrating surface runoff entering the buffer via sheet flow. However, observational evidence suggests that concentrated flow is prevalent from agricultural fields. Over time sediment can accumulate in riparian buffers forming berms that...

  10. Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton

    2011-01-01

    Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...

  11. Analysis of diffusive mass transport in a cracked buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.; Garisto, F.

    1989-11-01

    In the disposal vault design for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, cylindrical containers of used nuclear fuel would be placed in vertical boreholes in rock and surrounded with a bentonite-based buffer material. The buffer is expected to absorb and/or retard radionuclides leaching from the fuel after the containers fail. There is some evidence, however, that the buffer may be susceptible to cracking. In this report we investigate numerically the consequences of cracking on uranium diffusion through the buffer. The derivation of the mass-transport equations and the numerical solution method are presented for the solubility-limited diffusion of uranium in a cracked buffer system for both swept-away and semi-impermeable boundary conditions at the rock-buffer interface. The results indicate that for swept-away boundary conditions the total uranium flux through the cracked buffer system is, as expected, greater than through the uncracked buffer. The effect of the cracks is strongly dependent on the ratio D/D eff , where D and D eff are the pore-water and the effective buffer diffusion coefficient, respectively. However, although a decrease in D eff enhances the effect of cracks on the total cumulative flux (relative to the uncracked buffer), it also decreases the total cumulative flux through the cracked buffer system (relative to a cracked buffer with a larger D eff value). Finally, for semi-impermeable boundary conditions, the effect of cracks on the total radionuclide flux is relatively small

  12. Exchangeability of bentonite buffer and backfill materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, D. [Savage Earth Associates Ltd, Bournemouth (United Kingdom); Arthur, R. [Intera Inc, Ottawa, ON, (Canada); Luukkonen, A.

    2012-08-15

    Clay-based buffer and tunnel backfill materials are important barriers in the KBS-3 repository concept for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. One issue that is relevant to material properties is the degree to which different bentonite compositions can be regarded as interchangeable. In Posiva's current repository design, the reference bentonite composition is MX-80, a sodium montmorillonite dominated clay. Posiva would like to be able to use bentonite with Ca-montmorillonite as the dominant clay mineral. However, at this stage, it is not clear what supporting data need to be acquired/defined to be able to place the state of knowledge of Ca-bentonite at the same level as that of Na-bentonite. In this report, the concept of bentonite exchangeability has been evaluated through consideration of how bentonite behaviour may be affected in six key performance-relevant properties, namely (1) mineralogical composition and availability of materials, (2) hydraulic conductivity, (3) mechanical and rheological properties, (4) long-term alteration, (5) colloidal properties, and (6) swelling pressure. The report evaluates implications for both buffer and backfill. Summary conclusions are drawn from these sections to suggest how bentonite exchangeability may be addressed in regulatory assessments of engineered barrier design for a future geological repository for spent fuel in Finland. Some important conclusions are: (a) There are some fundamental differences between Ca- and Na-bentonites such as colloidal behaviour, pore structure and long-term alteration that could affect the exchangeability of these materials as buffer or backfill materials and which should be further evaluated; (b) Additional experimental data are desirable for some issues such as long-term alteration, hydraulic properties and swelling behaviour, (c) The minor mineral content of bentonites is very variable, both between different bentonites and within the same bentonite type, it is not clear

  13. Power Impact of Loop Buffer Schemes for Biomedical Wireless Sensor Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francky Catthoor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Instruction memory organisations are pointed out as one of the major sources of energy consumption in embedded systems. As these systems are characterised by restrictive resources and a low-energy budget, any enhancement in this component allows not only to decrease the energy consumption but also to have a better distribution of the energy budget throughout the system. Loop buffering is an effective scheme to reduce energy consumption in instruction memory organisations. In this paper, the loop buffer concept is applied in real-life embedded applications that are widely used in biomedical Wireless Sensor Nodes, to show which scheme of loop buffer is more suitable for applications with certain behaviour. Post-layout simulations demonstrate that a trade-off exists between the complexity of the loop buffer architecture and the energy savings of utilising it. Therefore, the use of loop buffer architectures in order to optimise the instructionmemory organisation from the energy efficiency point of view should be evaluated carefully, taking into account two factors: (1 the percentage of the execution time of the application that is related to the execution of the loops, and (2 the distribution of the execution time percentage over each one of the loops that form the application.

  14. Calcium Domains around Single and Clustered IP3 Receptors and Their Modulation by Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdiger, S.; Nagaiah, Ch.; Warnecke, G.; Shuai, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We study Ca2+ release through single and clustered IP3 receptor channels on the ER membrane under presence of buffer proteins. Our computational scheme couples reaction-diffusion equations and a Markovian channel model and allows our investigating the effects of buffer proteins on local calcium concentrations and channel gating. We find transient and stationary elevations of calcium concentrations around active channels and show how they determine release amplitude. Transient calcium domains occur after closing of isolated channels and constitute an important part of the channel's feedback. They cause repeated openings (bursts) and mediate increased release due to Ca2+ buffering by immobile proteins. Stationary domains occur during prolonged activity of clustered channels, where the spatial proximity of IP3Rs produces a distinct [Ca2+] scale (0.5–10 μM), which is smaller than channel pore concentrations (>100 μM) but larger than transient levels. While immobile buffer affects transient levels only, mobile buffers in general reduce both transient and stationary domains, giving rise to Ca2+ evacuation and biphasic modulation of release amplitude. Our findings explain recent experiments in oocytes and provide a general framework for the understanding of calcium signals. PMID:20655827

  15. A Buffer Management Issue in Designing SSDs for LFSs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaegeuk; Seol, Jinho; Maeng, Seungryoul

    This letter introduces a buffer management issue in designing SSDs for log-structured file systems (LFSs). We implemented a novel trace-driven SSD simulator in SystemC language, and simulated several SSD architectures with the NILFS2 trace. From the results, we give two major considerations related to the buffer management as follows. (1) The write buffer is used as a buffer not a cache, since all write requests are sequential in NILFS2. (2) For better performance, the main architectural factor is the bus bandwidth, but 332MHz is enough. Instead, the read buffer makes a key role in performance improvement while caching data. To enhance SSDs, accordingly, it is an effective way to make efficient read buffer management policies, and one of the examples is tracking the valid data zone in NILFS2, which can increase the data hit ratio in read buffers significantly.

  16. Magnetorheological elastomer and its application on impact buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, J; Yu, M; Zhu, L X; Dong, X M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a new magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) based buffer is proposed and its vibration isolation performance is investigated. The MRE buffer with a compact structure is first designed in order to accomplish the maximization of the variable stiffness range. The working characteristics of the MRE buffer are then measured and the model of MRE is established. On the basis of the experimental data, the control model of the MRE buffer is also formulated. A two-degree-of-freedom dynamic model with an MRE buffer is then developed. An intelligent control strategy, human simulated intelligent control (HSIC), is proposed to reduce the impact during the drop crash. Finally, the proposed MRE buffer and controller are validated numerically and experimentally. The results show that the proposed MRE buffer and the control strategy can reduce the impact acceleration effectively.

  17. Buffer layers and articles for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan P.; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.; Feenstra, Roeland; Goyal, Amit

    2004-07-20

    Materials for depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured and untextured metallic and metal oxide substrates for use in the manufacture of superconducting and other electronic articles comprise RMnO.sub.3, R.sub.1-x A.sub.x MnO.sub.3, and combinations thereof; wherein R includes an element selected from the group consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y, and A includes an element selected from the group consisting of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra.

  18. Shock buffer for nuclear control element assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1977-01-01

    A shock buffer for a control element assembly in a nuclear reactor is described, comprising a piston and a cylinder. The piston is affixed to and extends upward from the control rod guide structure; the cylinder is supported by the upper portion of the control element assembly and is vertically oriented with open end downward for receiving the piston. Coolant liquid normally has free access to the cylinder. The piston displaces liquid from the cylinder when inserted, thereby decelerating the control element assembly near its lower extent of travel. (LL)

  19. Optimal capacity and buffer size estimation under Generalized Markov Fluids Models and QoS parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavio, José; Marrón, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Quality of service (QoS) for internet traffic management requires good traffic models and good estimation of sharing network resource. A link of a network processes all traffic and it is designed with certain capacity C and buffer size B. A Generalized Markov Fluid model (GMFM), introduced by Marrón (2011), is assumed for the sources because describes in a versatile way the traffic, allows estimation based on traffic traces, and also consistent effective bandwidth estimation can be done. QoS, interpreted as buffer overflow probability, can be estimated for GMFM through the effective bandwidth estimation and solving the optimization problem presented in Courcoubetis (2002), the so call inf-sup formulas. In this work we implement a code to solve the inf-sup problem and other optimization related with it, that allow us to do traffic engineering in links of data networks to calculate both, minimum capacity required when QoS and buffer size are given or minimum buffer size required when QoS and capacity are given

  20. Defining context-specific scenarios to design vegetated buffer zones that limit pesticide transfer via surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carluer, N; Lauvernet, C; Noll, D; Munoz-Carpena, R

    2017-01-01

    When used in addition to environmentally friendly cultural practices, buffer zones can limit the water transfer of pollutants, in particular pesticides, towards water resources. The choice of the buffer zones' type and positioning, considering water pathways and flow components, is crucial. When this choice has been performed, buffer zones dimensions must still be optimized, according to the environment characteristics, which strongly influence their effectiveness. This article presents a method and its associated tools, including VFSMOD model, which aim at optimizing vegetative buffer zones (VFS) sizes, by simulating their transfer mitigation effectiveness. A first application of this methodology is illustrated on a small agricultural watershed in Brittany. A second application, based on the simulation of a large number of scenarios, leads to the elaboration of nomograms. They allow optimizing VFS size in a simpler way from the user's point of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Clad buffer rod sensors for liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jen, C.-K.; Ihara, I.

    1999-01-01

    Clad buffer rods, consisting of a core and a cladding, have been developed for ultrasonic monitoring of liquid metal processing. The cores of these rods are made of low ultrasonic-loss materials and the claddings are fabricated by thermal spray techniques. The clad geometry ensures proper ultrasonic guidance. The lengths of these rods ranges from tens of centimeters to 1m. On-line ultrasonic level measurements in liquid metals such as magnesium at 700 deg C and aluminum at 960 deg C are presented to demonstrate their operation at high temperature and their high ultrasonic performance. A spherical concave lens is machined at the rod end for improving the spatial resolution. High quality ultrasonic images have been obtained in the liquid zinc at 600 deg C. High spatial resolution is needed for the detection of inclusions in liquid metals during processing. We also show that the elastic properties such as density, longitudinal and shear wave velocities of liquid metals can be measured using a transducer which generates and receives both longitudinal and shear waves and is mounted at the end of a clad buffer rod. (author)

  2. Unsaturated hydraulic property of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Fujita, Tomoo

    1999-09-01

    After emplacement of the engineered barrier system (EBS), it is expected that the near-field environment will be impacted by phenomena such as heat dissipation by conduction and other heat transfer mechanism, infiltration of groundwater from the surrounding rock into the EBS, generation of swelling pressure in the buffer due to water infiltration and the stress imposed by the overburden pressure. These phenomena are not all independent, but can be strongly influenced by, and coupled with, each other. Evaluating these coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena is important in order to clarify the initial transient behavior of the engineered barrier system within the near-field. This report describes the results on measurement of chemical potential, water diffusivity, and thermal water diffusivity of bentonite that is considered as a candidate material of buffer and on comparison between measurements and theoretical studies for these properties. The following results are identified; (l) The hysteresis of chemical potential in wet and dry conditions for compacted bentonite is not shown clearly. The chemical potential depends on temperature and amount of montmorillonite. When chemical potential of compacted bentonite is zero, the specimen is saturated. The van Genuchten model is applicable to the measured chemical potential of compacted bentonite. (2) The Darcy's law and Philip and de Vries model are applicable to the measured water diffusivity and thermal water diffusivity of compacted bentonite. (author)

  3. The use of 0.01M phosphate buffered saline as detection buffer for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insufficient supply of manufacture's buffers/diluents in relation to the number of strips per kit has been found to have negative impact on patients' results. Some laboratories personnel tend to use diluents from other rapid tests manufacturers such as Bioline, Unigold as well as malaria rapid diagnostic test (MRDT). This study ...

  4. Vegetative buffer strips for reducing herbicide transport in runoff: effects of buffer width, vegetation, and season

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of vegetative buffer strip (VBS) width, vegetation, and season of the year on herbicide transport in runoff has not been well documented for runoff prone soils. A multi-year replicated plot-scale study was conducted on an eroded claypan soil with the following objectives: 1) assess the ef...

  5. Retention of ionisable compounds on high-performance liquid chromatography XVII. Estimation of the pH variation of aqueous buffers with the change of the methanol fraction of the mobile phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirats, Xavier; Bosch, Elisabeth; Rosés, Martí

    2007-01-05

    The use of methanol-aqueous buffer mobile phases in HPLC is a common election when performing chromatographic separations of ionisable analytes. The addition of methanol to the aqueous buffer to prepare such a mobile phase changes the buffer capacity and the pH of the solution. In the present work, the variation of these buffer properties is studied for acetic acid-acetate, phosphoric acid-dihydrogenphosphate-hydrogenphosphate, citric acid-dihydrogencitrate-hydrogencitrate-citrate, and ammonium-ammonia buffers. It is well established that the pH change of the buffers depends on the initial concentration and aqueous pH of the buffer, on the percentage of methanol added, and on the particular buffer used. The proposed equations allow the pH estimation of methanol-water buffered mobile phases up to 80% in volume of organic modifier from initial aqueous buffer pH and buffer concentration (before adding methanol) between 0.001 and 0.01 mol L(-1). From both the estimated pH values of the mobile phase and the estimated pKa of the ionisable analytes, it is possible to predict the degree of ionisation of the analytes and therefore, the interpretation of acid-base analytes behaviour in a particular methanol-water buffered mobile phase.

  6. Evaluation of buffers toxicity in tobacco cells: Homopiperazine-1,4-bis (2-ethanesulfonic acid) is a suitable buffer for plant cells studies at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgo, Lucélia

    2017-06-01

    Low pH is an important environmental stressor of plant root cells. Understanding the mechanisms of stress and tolerance to acidity is critical; however, there is no widely accepted pH buffer for studies of plant cells at low pH. Such a buffer might also benefit studies of Al toxicity, in which buffering at low pH is also important. The challenge is to find a buffer with minimal cellular effects. We examined the cytotoxicity and possible metabolic disturbances of four buffers that have adequate pK a values and potential use for studies in the pH range of 4.0-5.0. These were homopipes (homopiperazine-1,4-bis (2-ethanesulfonic acid); pK a1 4.4), 3,3-dimethylglutaric acid (pK a1 3.73), β-alanine (pK a1 3.70) and potassium biphthalate (pK a1 2.95; pK a2 5.41). First, tobacco BY-2 cells were grown in a rich medium containing 10 mM of each buffer or MES (2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid) as a control, with the pH initially adjusted to 5.7. β-alanine was clearly toxic and dimethylgluturate and biphthalate were found to be cytostatic, in which no culture growth occurred but cell viability was either unaffected or decreased only after 5 days. Only homopipes allowed normal culture growth and cell viability. Homopipes (10 mM) was then tested in cell cultures with an initial pH of 4.3 ± 0.17 in minimal medium to examine whether its undissociated species (H 2 A) displayed any cellular effects and no cytotoxic effects were observed. It is possible to conclude that among tested buffers, homopipes is the most suitable for studies at low pH, and may be especially useful for aluminum toxicity experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantifying Phosphorus Retnention in Soils of Riparian Buffers Influenced by Different Land Use Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, B.; Ross, D. S.; Adair, C.; Schroth, A. W.; Perdrial, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) loading to freshwater systems can lead to eutrophication, resulting in algal blooms and subsequent fish kills. Lake Champlain, located between Vermont, New York, and Quebec, has historically exhibited negative effects of eutrophication due to P overloading from non-point sources. To reduce P inputs to the Lake, the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources requires and provides guidelines for the management of riparian buffers, which help protect adjacent water bodies from nutrient and sediment runoff. To better understand how phosphorous retention in riparian buffers is influenced by soil wetness and adjacent land use, we explored differences in P content between riparian buffers located in forested and agricultural watersheds. Within each land use type, we focused on two paired riparian buffers with contrasting soil moisture levels (one wet transect and one dry transect). At each of the four sites, soil pits were dug along a transect perpendicular to the streambank and were placed strategically to capture convergent and divergent landscape positions. Soil samples were collected from each horizon within 0-30cm. In each of these samples, we measured orthophosphate, degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS), and trace elements. We investigated the relationship between DPS and aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) concentrations to determine how much of the variability in DPS was explained by Al and Fe concentrations, and compared these relationships between the four riparian buffer sites. We also assessed how these relationships varied with depth in the soil profile. The results of these analyses allow us to identify the characteristics of riparian buffers that promote the most effective P sequestration, which is beneficial to the effective management of riparian areas within the Lake Champlain basin.

  8. Coupled behaviour of bentonite buffer results of PUSKURI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, M.; Rasilainen, K.; Itaelae, A.

    2011-08-01

    In the report main results form a KYT2010 programme's project Coupled behaviour of bentonite buffer (PUSKURI) are presented. In THC modelling, Aku Itaelae made and published his Master of Science Thesis. Itaelae was able to successfully model the LOT-experiment. Additionally, he also listed problems and development proposals for THC-modelling of bentonite buffer. VTT and Numerola created in collaboration a model coupling saturation, diffusion and cation exchange; the model was implemented and tested in Numerrin, COMSOL and TOUGHREACT. Petri Jussila's PhD THM-model was implemented into COMSOL to facilitate further development. At GTK, the mineralogical characterisation of bentonite was planned. The previous THM model (Jussila's model) including only small deformations was successfully generalized to finite deformations in way at least formally preserving the original formalism. It appears that the theory allows also a possibility to include finite plastic deformations in the theory. In order to measure the relevant mechanical properties of compacted bentonite, two different experiments, namely hydrostatic compression experiment and one-dimensional compression experiment were designed. In the hydrostatic compression experiment, a cylindrical sample of compacted bentonite covered with liquid rubber coating is placed in the sample chamber equipped with a piston. The same device was also used in one-dimensional compression experiment. X-ray microtomographic techniques were used in order to study the basic mechanisms of water transport in bentonite. The preliminary results indicate that in the present experimental set-up, water transport is dominated by a dispersive mechanism such as diffusion of vapour in gas phase or diffusion of water in solid phase. (orig.)

  9. Experiments on thermal conductivity in buffer materials for geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, T.; Yano, T.; Wakamatsu, H.; Matsushima, E.

    1989-01-01

    Engineered barriers for geologic disposal for HLW are planned to consist of canister, overpack and buffer elements. One of important physical characteristics of buffer materials is determining temperature profiles within the near field in a repository. Buffer materials require high thermal conductivity to disperse radiogenic heat away to the host rock. As the buffer materials, compacted blocks of the mixture of sodium bentonite and sand have been the most promising candidate in some countries, e.g. Sweden, Switzerland and Japan. The authors have been carrying out a series of thermal dispersion experiments to evaluate thermal conductivity of bentonite/quartz sand blocks. In this study, the following two factors considered to affect thermal properties of the near field were examined: effective thermal conductivities of buffer materials, and heat transfer characteristics of the gap between overpack and buffer materials

  10. Moisture buffering capacity of highly absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerolini, S.; D' Orazio, M.; Stazi, A. [Department of Architecture, Construction and Structures (DACS), Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy); Di Perna, C. [Department of Energetics, Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy)

    2009-02-15

    This research investigates the possibility to use highly absorbing materials to dampen indoor RH% variations. The practical MBV of sodium polyacrylate, cellulose-based material, perlite and gypsum is evaluated for a daily cyclic exposure that alternates high (75%) and low (33%) RH% levels for 8 h and 16 h, respectively. The adjustment velocity to RH% variations and the presence of hysteretic phenomena are also presented. The cellulose-based material proves to be the most suitable for moisture buffering applications. Starting from this material's properties, the effect of thickness, vapour resistance factor ({mu}) and mass surface exchange coefficient (Z{sub v}) on sorption capacity is evaluated by the use of a numerical model. (author)

  11. A high capacity FASTBUS multiple event buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.; Farr, W.D.; Kaplan, D.M.; Levit, L.B.; Napier, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    We have developed a front-end data acquisition and event buffering memory. This single-width FASTBUS module has a capacity of 256K X 32 bits plus parity. The module is dual ported, and its front panel ECLport accepts data at up to 20 MB/sec. It may also be written to and read from as a standard FASTBUS Slave. The module records events as variable length records. Each record is accepted or rejected via front panel control signal. Circuitry to automate FASTBUS record readout and record skip is provided. In its ''linear'' mode, the module may be used as a single pass list. Alternatively, in the ''circular'' mode, the module's internal read pointer can follow its write pointer continuously around the memory. Circular mode is well suited to handling of a continuous data stream. Modules may be linked for larger memory capacity

  12. Buffer mass test - Heater design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, J.; Ramqvist, G.; Pusch, R.

    1984-06-01

    The nuclear waste is assumed to be contained in cylindrical metal canisters which will be inserted in deposition holes. Heat is generated as a result of the continuing decay of the radioactive waste and in the Buffer Mass Test (BMT) the heat flux expected from such canisters was simulated by the use of six electric heaters. the heaters were constructed partly of aluminium and partly of stainless steel. They are 1520 mm in length and 380 mm in diameter, and give a maximum power output of 3000 W. The heater power can be monitored by panel meters coupled to a computer-based data acquisition system. Both the heater and the control system were manufactured with a high degree of redundancy in case of component failure. This report describes the design, construction, testing, installation and necessary tools for heater installation and dismantling operation. (author)

  13. A study on manufacturing and construction method of buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Sugita, Yutaka; Amemiya, Kiyoshi

    1999-09-01

    As an engineered barrier system in the geological disposal of high-level waste, multibarrier system is considered. Multibarrier system consists of the vitrified waste, the overpack and the buffer. Bentonite is one of the potential material as the buffer because of its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. In order to evaluate the functions of buffer, a lot of experiments has been conducted. The evaluations of these functions are based on the assumption that the buffer is emplaced or constructed in the disposal tunnel (or disposal pit) properly. Therefore, it is necessary to study on the manufacturing / construction method of buffer. As the manufacturing / construction technology of the buffer, the block installation method and in-situ compaction method, etc, are being investigated. The block installation method is to emplace the buffer blocks manufactured in advance at the ground facility, and construction processes of the block installation method at the underground will be simplified compared with the in-situ compaction method. On the other hand, the in-situ compaction method is to introduce the buffer material with specified water content into the disposal tunnel and to make the buffer with high density at the site using a compaction machine. In regard to the in-situ compaction method, it is necessary to investigate the optimum finished thickness of one layer because it is impossible to construct the buffer at one time. This report describes the results of compaction property test and the summary of the past investigation results in connection with the manufacturing / construction method. Then this report shows the construction method that will be feasible in the actual disposal site. (J.P.N.)

  14. Moisture Buffer Effect and its Impact on Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mingjie; Qin, Menghao; Chen, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    The moisture buffer effect of building materials may have great influence on indoor hygrothermal environment. In order to characterize the moisture buffering ability of materials, the basic concept of moisture buffer value (MBV) is adopted. Firstly, a theoretical correction factor is introduced...... in this paper. The moisture uptake/release by hygroscopic materials can be calculated with the factor and the basic MBV. Furthermore, the validation of the correction factor is carried out. The impact of moisture buffering on indoor environment is assessed by using numerical simulations. The results show...

  15. Effects of node buffer and capacity on network traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Xiang; Ding Jian-Xun; Hu Mao-Bin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the optimization of network traffic by considering the effects of node buffer ability and capacity. Two node buffer settings are considered. The node capacity is considered to be proportional to its buffer ability. The node effects on network traffic systems are studied with the shortest path protocol and an extension of the optimal routing [Phys. Rev. E 74 046106 (2006)]. In the diagrams of flux—density relationships, it is shown that a nodes buffer ability and capacity have profound effects on the network traffic

  16. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  17. Solubilization of proteins: the importance of lysis buffer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Mandy; Marsh, Noelle; Miskiewicz, Ewa I; MacPhee, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The efficient extraction of proteins of interest from cells and tissues is not always straightforward. Here we demonstrate the differences in extraction of the focal adhesion protein Kindlin-2 from choriocarcinoma cells using NP-40 and RIPA lysis buffer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a more denaturing urea/thiourea lysis buffer for solubilization, by comparing its effectiveness for solubilization of small heat-shock proteins from smooth muscle with the often utilized RIPA lysis buffer. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of establishing the optimal lysis buffer for specific protein solubilization within the experimental workflow.

  18. How Do Stream Buffers Reduce the Offsite Impact of Pollution?

    OpenAIRE

    Easton, Zachary M.

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes the importance of buffers to reduce pollution and specifically examines where they can be used, how they work, their limitations, required maintenance, performance levels, and expected cost.

  19. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  20. Temperature buffer test. Installation of buffer, heaters and instruments in the deposition hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Barcena, Ignacio; Garcia-Sineriz, Jose Luis [Aitemin, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    During 2003 the Temperature Buffer Test was installed in Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Temperature, water pressure, relative humidity, total pressure and displacements etc. are measured in numerous points in the test. Most of the cables from the transducers are led in the deposition hole through slots in the rock surface of the deposition hole in watertight tubes to the data collection system in a container placed in the tunnel close to the deposition hole. This report describes the work with the installations of the buffer, heaters, and instruments and yields a description of the final location of all instruments. The report also contains a description of the materials that were installed and the densities yielded after placement.

  1. Temperature buffer test. Installation of buffer, heaters and instruments in the deposition hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Aakesson, Mattias; Barcena, Ignacio; Garcia-Sineriz, Jose Luis

    2010-12-01

    During 2003 the Temperature Buffer Test was installed in Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Temperature, water pressure, relative humidity, total pressure and displacements etc. are measured in numerous points in the test. Most of the cables from the transducers are led in the deposition hole through slots in the rock surface of the deposition hole in watertight tubes to the data collection system in a container placed in the tunnel close to the deposition hole. This report describes the work with the installations of the buffer, heaters, and instruments and yields a description of the final location of all instruments. The report also contains a description of the materials that were installed and the densities yielded after placement

  2. Associating Physical and Chemical Properties to Evaluate Buffer Materials by Th and U Sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, Yi-Lin; Chen, Tzu-Yun; Cheng, Hwai-Ping; Hsu, Chun-Nan; Tseng, Chia-Liang; Wei,Yuan-Yaw; Yang, Jen-Yan; Ke, Cheng-Hsiung; Chuang, Jui-Tang; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2003-02-27

    The physical and chemical properties of buffer materials to be used for a radwaste disposal repository should be evaluated prior to use. In a conventional approach, independent studies of physical and/or chemical characteristics are conducted. This study investigated the relationship between the plastic index (PI) and distribution ratio (Rd) of buffer materials composed of varying ratios of quartz sand and bentonite. Thorium (Th) and Uranium (U) were the nuclides of interest, and both synthetic groundwater and seawater were used as the liquid phases to simulate conditions representative of deep geological disposal within an island. Atterberg tests were used to determine PI values, and batch sorption experiments were employed to measure Rd values. The results show that Th reached maximum sorption behavior when the bentonite content exceeded 30 % of the mixture. Contrariwise, the sorption of U increased linearly with bentonite content, up to bentonite contents of 100%, and this correlation was present regardless of the liquid phase used. A further result is that U has a better additivity with respect to Rd than Th in both synthetic groundwater and synthetic seawater. These results will allow a determination of more effective buffer material composition, and improved estimates of the overall Rd of the buffer material mixture from the Rd of each mineral component.

  3. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. EnviroAtlas defines vegetated buffer for this community as trees and forest and grass and herbaceous. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  4. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. EnviroAtlas defines tree buffer for this community as only trees and forest. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  5. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may be...

  6. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and Classing...

  7. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21 Education... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education... allowable expenditures by projects funded under the program: (a) Cost of attendance, as defined in Title IV...

  8. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 215.27 Section 215.27... § 215.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles...

  9. 50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 80.15 Section 80.15... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable costs. (a) What are allowable costs? Allowable costs are costs that are necessary and reasonable for accomplishment of approved...

  10. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under Federal...

  11. The buffer/container experiment: results, synthesis, issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.; Chandler, N.A.; Dixon, D.A.; Roach, P.J.; To, T.; Wan, A.W.L.

    1997-12-01

    A large in-ground experiment has examined how heat affects the performance of the dense sand bentonite 'buffer' that has been proposed for use in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The experiment was performed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at its Underground Research Laboratory, Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba between 1991 and 1994. The experiment placed a full-size heater representing a container of nuclear fuel waste in a 1.24-m diameter borehole filled with buffer below the floor of a room excavated at 240-m depth in granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The buffer and surrounding rock were extensively instrumented for temperatures, total pressures, water pressures, suctions, and rock displacements. Power was provided to the heater for almost 900 days. The experiment showed that good rock conditions can be pre-selected, a borehole can be drilled, and buffer can be placed at controlled densities and water contents. The instrumentation generally worked well, and an extensive data base was successfully organized. Drying was observed in buffer close to the heater. This caused some desiccation cracking. However the cracks only extended approximately one third of the distance to the buffer-rock interface and did not form an advective pathway. Following sampling at the time of decommissioning, cracked samples of buffer were transported to the laboratory and given access to water. The hydraulic conductivities and swelling pressures of these resaturated samples were very similar to those of uncracked buffer. A good balance was achieved between the mass of water flowing into the experiment from the surrounding rock and the increased mass of water in the buffer. A good understanding was developed of the relationships between suctions, water contents, and total pressures in buffer near the buffer-rock interface. Comparisons between measurements and predictions of measured parameters show that a good understanding has been developed of the processes operating

  12. The buffer/container experiment: results, synthesis, issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J. [Univ. of Manitoba, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Chandler, N.A.; Dixon, D.A.; Roach, P.J.; To, T.; Wan, A.W.L

    1997-12-01

    A large in-ground experiment has examined how heat affects the performance of the dense sand bentonite 'buffer' that has been proposed for use in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The experiment was performed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at its Underground Research Laboratory, Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba between 1991 and 1994. The experiment placed a full-size heater representing a container of nuclear fuel waste in a 1.24-m diameter borehole filled with buffer below the floor of a room excavated at 240-m depth in granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The buffer and surrounding rock were extensively instrumented for temperatures, total pressures, water pressures, suctions, and rock displacements. Power was provided to the heater for almost 900 days. The experiment showed that good rock conditions can be pre-selected, a borehole can be drilled, and buffer can be placed at controlled densities and water contents. The instrumentation generally worked well, and an extensive data base was successfully organized. Drying was observed in buffer close to the heater. This caused some desiccation cracking. However the cracks only extended approximately one third of the distance to the buffer-rock interface and did not form an advective pathway. Following sampling at the time of decommissioning, cracked samples of buffer were transported to the laboratory and given access to water. The hydraulic conductivities and swelling pressures of these resaturated samples were very similar to those of uncracked buffer. A good balance was achieved between the mass of water flowing into the experiment from the surrounding rock and the increased mass of water in the buffer. A good understanding was developed of the relationships between suctions, water contents, and total pressures in buffer near the buffer-rock interface. Comparisons between measurements and predictions of measured parameters show that a good understanding has been developed of the processes

  13. Mechanical interaction buffer/backfill. Finite element calculations of the upward swelling of the buffer against both dry and saturated backfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boergesson, Lennart (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Hernelind, Jan (5T-Engineering AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    The mechanical interaction between the buffer material in the deposition hole and the backfill material in the deposition tunnel is an important process in the safety assessment since the primary function of the backfill is to keep the buffer in place and not allow it to expand too much and thereby loose too much of its density and barrier properties. In order to study the upwards swelling of the buffer and the subsequent density reduction a number of finite element calculations have been performed. The calculations have been done with the FE-program Abaqus with 3D-models of a deposition hole and the deposition tunnel. In order to refine the modelling only the two extreme cases of completely un-wetted (dry) and completely water saturated (wet) backfill have been modelled. For the wet case the influence of different factors has been studied while only one calculation of the dry case has been done. The calculated upwards swelling of the buffer varied between 2 and 15 cm for the different wet cases while it was about 10 cm for the dry case. In the wet reference case the E-modulus of the block and pellets fillings was 50 MPa and 3.24 MPa respectively, the friction angle between the buffer and the rock and canister was 8.7 deg and there were no swelling pressure from the backfill. There is a strong influence of the friction angle on both the upwards swelling and the canister heave. The friction is important for preventing especially canister displacements. The unrealistic case of no friction yielded strong unacceptable influence on the buffer with an upwards swelling of 15 cm and a strong heave of 5 cm of the canister. The influence of the backfill stiffness is as expected strong. Both buffer swelling and canister heave are twice as large at the E-modulus E = 25 MPa than at the E-modulus E = 100 MPa. The influence of the stiffness of the pellets filling is not strong since there are no pellets on the floor in the model used. The influence of the swelling pressure of the

  14. Mechanical interaction buffer/backfill. Finite element calculations of the upward swelling of the buffer against both dry and saturated backfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan

    2009-10-01

    The mechanical interaction between the buffer material in the deposition hole and the backfill material in the deposition tunnel is an important process in the safety assessment since the primary function of the backfill is to keep the buffer in place and not allow it to expand too much and thereby loose too much of its density and barrier properties. In order to study the upwards swelling of the buffer and the subsequent density reduction a number of finite element calculations have been performed. The calculations have been done with the FE-program Abaqus with 3D-models of a deposition hole and the deposition tunnel. In order to refine the modelling only the two extreme cases of completely un-wetted (dry) and completely water saturated (wet) backfill have been modelled. For the wet case the influence of different factors has been studied while only one calculation of the dry case has been done. The calculated upwards swelling of the buffer varied between 2 and 15 cm for the different wet cases while it was about 10 cm for the dry case. In the wet reference case the E-modulus of the block and pellets fillings was 50 MPa and 3.24 MPa respectively, the friction angle between the buffer and the rock and canister was 8.7 deg and there were no swelling pressure from the backfill. There is a strong influence of the friction angle on both the upwards swelling and the canister heave. The friction is important for preventing especially canister displacements. The unrealistic case of no friction yielded strong unacceptable influence on the buffer with an upwards swelling of 15 cm and a strong heave of 5 cm of the canister. The influence of the backfill stiffness is as expected strong. Both buffer swelling and canister heave are twice as large at the E-modulus E = 25 MPa than at the E-modulus E = 100 MPa. The influence of the stiffness of the pellets filling is not strong since there are no pellets on the floor in the model used. The influence of the swelling pressure of the

  15. Riparian ecosystems and buffers - multiscale structure, function, and management: introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Richard R. Lowrance

    2006-01-01

    Given the importance of issues related to improved understanding and management of riparian ecosystems and buffers, the American Water Resources Association (AWRA) sponsored a Summer Specialty Conference in June 2004 at Olympic Valley, California, entitled 'Riparian Ecosystems and Buffers: Multiscale Structure, Function, and Management.' The primary objective...

  16. Universal buffers for use in biochemistry and biophysical experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewey Brooke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of buffers that mimic biological solutions is a foundation of biochemical and biophysical studies. However, buffering agents have both specific and nonspecific interactions with proteins. Buffer molecules can induce changes in conformational equilibria, dynamic behavior, and catalytic properties merely by their presence in solution. This effect is of concern because many of the standard experiments used to investigate protein structure and function involve changing solution conditions such as pH and/or temperature. In experiments in which pH is varied, it is common practice to switch buffering agents so that the pH is within the working range of the weak acid and conjugate base. If multiple buffers are used, it is not always possible to decouple buffer induced change from pH or temperature induced change. We have developed a series of mixed biological buffers for protein analysis that can be used across a broad pH range, are compatible with biologically relevant metal ions, and avoid complications that may arise from changing the small molecule composition of buffers when pH is used as an experimental variable.

  17. Social Buffering of Stress in Development: A Career Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnar, Megan R.

    2016-01-01

    This review provides a broad overview of my research group's work on social buffering in human development in the context of the field. Much of the focus is on social buffering of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, one of the two major arms of the mammalian stress system. This focus reflects the centrality of the HPA system in research on social buffering in the fields of developmental psychobiology and developmental science. However, buffering of the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous system is also discussed. The central developmental question in this area derives from attachment theory which argues that the infant's experience of stress and arousal regulation in the context of her early attachment relationships is not an immature form of social buffering experienced in adulthood, but rather the foundation out of which individual differences in the capacity to gain stress relief from social partners emerge. The emergence of social buffering in infancy, changes in social buffering throughout childhood and adolescence, the influence of early experience on later individual differences in social buffering, and critical gaps in our knowledge are described. PMID:28544861

  18. Dynamic Buffer Capacity in Acid-Base Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna M; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    The generalized concept of 'dynamic' buffer capacity β V is related to electrolytic systems of different complexity where acid-base equilibria are involved. The resulting formulas are presented in a uniform and consistent form. The detailed calculations are related to two Britton-Robinson buffers, taken as examples.

  19. Molecular Buffers Permit Sensitivity Tuning and Inversion of Riboswitch Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Peter; Genee, Hans Jasper; Jensen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    transcription factor, while interacting DNA-binding domains mediate the transduction of signal and form an interacting molecular buffer. The molecular buffer system enables modular signal inversion through integration with repressor modules. Further, tuning of input sensitivity was achieved through perturbation...

  20. Reduction of buffering requirements: Another advantage of cooperative transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Yet another advent of cooperative transmission is exposed in this letter. It is shown that cooperation lends itself to the reduction of buffer sizes of wireless sensor nodes. It is less likely to find the channel busy when cooperative transmission is employed in the network. Otherwise, in the lack of cooperation, the probability of build up of packet queues in transmission buffers increases.

  1. Dynamic Buffer Capacity in Acid?Base Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Micha?owska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna M.; Micha?owski, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    The generalized concept of ?dynamic? buffer capacity ? V is related to electrolytic systems of different complexity where acid?base equilibria are involved. The resulting formulas are presented in a uniform and consistent form. The detailed calculations are related to two Britton?Robinson buffers, taken as examples.

  2. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  3. Sampling phase lock loop (PLL) with low power clock buffer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Bahai, A.; Bohsali, M.; Djabbari, A.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Socci, G.

    2013-01-01

    A sampling phase locked loop (PLL) circuit includes a pull-up/down buffer configured to convert an oscillator reference clock into a square wave sampling control signal input to a sampling phase detector. The buffer circuit is configured to reduce power by controlling the switching of the pull-up

  4. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are identified and benefits of employing the proposed tristate buffer topologies are put forward. SPICE simulation results using TSMC 180 nm CMOS technology parameters are included to support the theoretical formulations. The performance of proposed tristate buffer topologies is examined on the basis of propagation delay, output enable time, and power consumption. It is found that one of the proposed tristate buffer topology outperforms the others in terms of all the performance parameters. An examination of behavior of available and the proposed PFSCL tristate buffer topologies under parameter variations and mismatch shows a maximum variation of 14%.

  5. Effects of riparian buffers on hydrology of northern seasonal ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Brian J. Palik; Daniel P. Tersteeg; James C. Bell

    2011-01-01

    Although seasonal ponds are common in northern, glaciated, forested landscapes, forest management guidelines are generally lacking for these systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of riparian buffer type on seasonal pond hydrology following harvest of the adjacent upland forest. A replicated block design consisting of four buffer treatments...

  6. Smooth Nb surfaces fabricated by buffered electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Andy T.; Mammosser, John; Phillips, Larry; Delayen, Jean; Reece, Charles; Wilkerson, Amy; Smith, David; Ike, Robert

    2007-01-01

    It was demonstrated that smooth Nb surfaces could be obtained through buffered electropolishing (BEP) employing an electrolyte consisting of lactic, sulfuric, and hydrofluoric acids. Parameters that control the polishing process were optimized to achieve a smooth surface finish. The polishing rate of BEP was determined to be 0.646 μm/min which was much higher than 0.381 μm/min achieved by the conventional electropolishing (EP) process widely used in the superconducting radio frequency (SRF) community. Root mean square measurements using a 3D profilometer revealed that Nb surfaces treated by BEP were an order of magnitude smoother than those treated by the optimized EP process. The chemical composition of the Nb surfaces after BEP was analyzed by static and dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) systems. SIMS results implied that the surface oxide structure of Nb might be more complicated than what usually believed and could be inhomogeneous. Preliminary results of BEP on Nb SRF single cell cavities and half-cells were reported. It was shown that smooth and bright surfaces could be obtained in 1800 s when the electric field inside a SRF cavity was uniform during a BEP process. This study showed that BEP is a promising technique for surface treatment on Nb SRF cavities to be used in particle accelerators

  7. Buffers for biomass production in temperate European agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    , environmental pressures from intensive agriculture and policy developments. Use of conservation buffers by farmers outside of designated schemes is limited to date, but the increasing demand for bioenergy and the combination of agricultural production with conservation calls for a much wider implementation....... This paper reviews the biophysical knowledge on buffer functioning and associated ecosystem services. It describes how a three-zone buffer design, with arable fields buffered in combination by grassland, short rotation forestry (SRF) or coppice (SRC) and undisturbed vegetation along water courses, can...... be incorporated into farming landscapes as productive conservation elements and reflects on the potential for successful implementation. Land use plays a much greater role in determining catchment hydrology than soil type: shelterbelts or buffer strips have markedly higher infiltration capacity than arable...

  8. Evaluation on elution feature of bentonite buffer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Hirohisa; Kanno, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro

    1997-09-01

    In order to evaluate long term physical stability of artificial barrier in land disposal of high level radioactive wastes, it is necessary to know quantitatively elution behavior of buffering materials from disposal road (or cavity) to circumferential rock crack. When elution of the buffer material occurs on large scale, amount of bentonite in the disposal road (or cavity) reduces and reduction of various functions expected to the buffer materials is presumed. According to specification examples of road transverse arrangement and disposal vertical arrangement systems, evaluation on elution amount of the buffer materials at disposal environment was conducted. Opening width of rock crack in the disposal environment was supposed to be 0.5 mm. As a result, obtained mass elution ratios of the buffer materials due to extrusion phenomenon were 0.04 to 0.2% after 10,000 year and 2 to 12% after 1,000,000 years. (G.K.)

  9. Thin film photovoltaic devices with a minimally conductive buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Teresa M.; Burst, James

    2016-11-15

    A thin film photovoltaic device (100) with a tunable, minimally conductive buffer (128) layer is provided. The photovoltaic device (100) may include a back contact (150), a transparent front contact stack (120), and an absorber (140) positioned between the front contact stack (120) and the back contact (150). The front contact stack (120) may include a low resistivity transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer (124) and a buffer layer (128) that is proximate to the absorber layer (140). The photovoltaic device (100) may also include a window layer (130) between the buffer layer (128) and the absorber (140). In some cases, the buffer layer (128) is minimally conductive, with its resistivity being tunable, and the buffer layer (128) may be formed as an alloy from a host oxide and a high-permittivity oxide. The high-permittivity oxide may further be chosen to have a bandgap greater than the host oxide.

  10. Multi-Buffer Simulations for Trace Language Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Hutagalung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider simulation games played between Spoiler and Duplicator on two Büchi automata in which the choices made by Spoiler can be buffered by Duplicator in several buffers before she executes them on her structure. We show that the simulation games are useful to approximate the inclusion of trace closures of languages accepted by finite-state automata, which is known to be undecidable. We study the decidability and complexity and show that the game with bounded buffers can be decided in polynomial time, whereas the game with one unbounded and one bounded buffer is highly undecidable. We also show some sufficient conditions on the automata for Duplicator to win the game (with unbounded buffers.

  11. Replenishing data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Cernohous, Bob R [Rochester, MN; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Kumar, Sameer [White Plains, NY; Parker, Jeffrey J [Rochester, MN

    2011-10-11

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for replenishing data descriptors in a Direct Memory Access (`DMA`) injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer that include: determining, by a messaging module on an origin compute node, whether a number of data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds a predetermined threshold, each data descriptor specifying an application message for transmission to a target compute node; queuing, by the messaging module, a plurality of new data descriptors in a pending descriptor queue if the number of the data descriptors in the DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds the predetermined threshold; establishing, by the messaging module, interrupt criteria that specify when to replenish the injection FIFO buffer with the plurality of new data descriptors in the pending descriptor queue; and injecting, by the messaging module, the plurality of new data descriptors into the injection FIFO buffer in dependence upon the interrupt criteria.

  12. Buffer erosion: An overview of concepts and potential safety consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, Michael J.; Arthur, Randy; Bennett, David; Savage, David; Saellfors, Goeran; Wennerstroem, Haakan

    2010-11-01

    In its safety analysis SR-Can, SKB reported preliminary results and conclusions on the mechanisms of bentonite colloid formation and stability, with a rough estimate of the consequences of loss of bentonite buffer by erosion. With the review of SR-Can the authorities (SKI and SSI) commented that erosion of the buffer had the greatest safety significance, that the understanding of the mechanisms of buffer erosion was inadequate, and that more work would be required to arrive at robust estimates of the extent and impacts of buffer erosion. After the SR-Can report, SKB started a two-year research project on buffer erosion. The results from this two-year project have been reported in several SKB technical reports. SSM started this project to build up its own competence in the related scientific areas by a preliminary evaluation of SKB's research results

  13. Buffer erosion: An overview of concepts and potential safety consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apted, Michael J.; Arthur, Randy (INTERA Incorporated, Denver, CO (United States)); Bennett, David (TerraSalus Limited, Rutland (United Kingdom)); Savage, David (Savage Earth Associates Limited, Bournemouth (United Kingdom)); Saellfors, Goeran (GeoForce AB, Billdal (Sweden)); Wennerstroem, Haakan (Dept. of Chemistry, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    In its safety analysis SR-Can, SKB reported preliminary results and conclusions on the mechanisms of bentonite colloid formation and stability, with a rough estimate of the consequences of loss of bentonite buffer by erosion. With the review of SR-Can the authorities (SKI and SSI) commented that erosion of the buffer had the greatest safety significance, that the understanding of the mechanisms of buffer erosion was inadequate, and that more work would be required to arrive at robust estimates of the extent and impacts of buffer erosion. After the SR-Can report, SKB started a two-year research project on buffer erosion. The results from this two-year project have been reported in several SKB technical reports. SSM started this project to build up its own competence in the related scientific areas by a preliminary evaluation of SKB's research results

  14. Improved labelling of DTPA- and DOTA-conjugated peptides and antibodies with 111In in HEPES and MES buffer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, M.; Joosten, L.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Gotthardt, M.; Boerman, O.C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT], high specific activity of 111In-labelled tracers will allow administration of low amounts of tracer to prevent receptor saturation and/or side effects. To increase the specific activity, we studied the effect of the buffer

  15. Phosphorus retention in riparian buffers: review of their efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Kjaergaard, Charlotte; Uusi-Kämppä, Jaana; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Kronvang, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Ground water and surface water interactions are of fundamental importance for the biogeochemical processes governing phosphorus (P) dynamics in riparian buffers. The four most important conceptual hydrological pathways for P losses from and P retention in riparian buffers are reviewed in this paper: (i) The diffuse flow path with ground water flow through the riparian aquifer, (ii) the overland flow path across the riparian buffer with water coming from adjacent agricultural fields, (iii) irrigation of the riparian buffer with tile drainage water from agricultural fields where disconnected tile drains irrigate the riparian buffer, and (iv) inundation of the riparian buffer (floodplain) with river water during short or longer periods. We have examined how the different flow paths in the riparian buffer influence P retention mechanisms theoretically and from empirical evidence. The different hydrological flow paths determine where and how water-borne P compounds meet and interact with iron and aluminum oxides or other minerals in the geochemical cycling of P in the complex and dynamic environment that constitutes a riparian buffer. The main physical process in the riparian buffer-sedimentation-is active along several flow paths and may account for P retention rates of up to 128 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1), while plant uptake may temporarily immobilize up to 15 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1). Retention of dissolved P in riparian buffers is not as pronounced as retention of particulate P and is often below 0.5 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1). Several studies show significant release of dissolved P (i.e., up to 8 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1)).

  16. Clean Air Markets - Allowances Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowances Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The Allowances...

  17. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  18. Model analysis of riparian buffer effectiveness for reducing nutrient inputs to streams in agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKane, R. B.; M, S.; F, P.; Kwiatkowski, B. L.; Rastetter, E. B.

    2006-12-01

    Federal and state agencies responsible for protecting water quality rely mainly on statistically-based methods to assess and manage risks to the nation's streams, lakes and estuaries. Although statistical approaches provide valuable information on current trends in water quality, process-based simulation models are essential for understanding and forecasting how changes in human activities across complex landscapes impact the transport of nutrients and contaminants to surface waters. To address this need, we developed a broadly applicable, process-based watershed simulator that links a spatially-explicit hydrologic model and a terrestrial biogeochemistry model (MEL). See Stieglitz et al. and Pan et al., this meeting, for details on the design and verification of this simulator. Here we apply the watershed simulator to a generalized agricultural setting to demonstrate its potential for informing policy and management decisions concerning water quality. This demonstration specifically explores the effectiveness of riparian buffers for reducing the transport of nitrogenous fertilizers from agricultural fields to streams. The interaction of hydrologic and biogeochemical processes represented in our simulator allows several important questions to be addressed. (1) For a range of upland fertilization rates, to what extent do riparian buffers reduce nitrogen inputs to streams? (2) How does buffer effectiveness change over time as the plant-soil system approaches N-saturation? (3) How can buffers be managed to increase their effectiveness, e.g., through periodic harvest and replanting? The model results illustrate that, while the answers to these questions depend to some extent on site factors (climatic regime, soil properties and vegetation type), in all cases riparian buffers have a limited capacity to reduce nitrogen inputs to streams where fertilization rates approach those typically used for intensive agriculture (e.g., 200 kg N per ha per year for corn in the U

  19. Visualization of Buffer Capacity with 3-D "Topo" Surfaces: Buffer Ridges, Equivalence Point Canyons and Dilution Ramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garon C.; Hossain, Md Mainul

    2016-01-01

    BufCap TOPOS is free software that generates 3-D topographical surfaces ("topos") for acid-base equilibrium studies. It portrays pH and buffer capacity behavior during titration and dilution procedures. Topo surfaces are created by plotting computed pH and buffer capacity values above a composition grid with volume of NaOH as the x axis…

  20. 49 CFR 19.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by State, local or... Circular A-87, “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non... Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher...

  1. 29 CFR 95.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cost principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by... Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in accordance with... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in...

  2. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by State, local or federally..., “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is...

  3. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cost principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is...

  4. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by State, local or... Circular A-87, “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non... Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher...

  5. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred by State, local or... Circular A-87, “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowability of costs incurred by non... Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher...

  6. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable stresses...

  7. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for stress...

  8. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs specified...

  9. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in applicable...

  10. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those costs... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs, and...

  11. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... costs. An institution's share of allowable costs may be in cash or in the form of services. The... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section...

  12. BENTO buffer development program in Finland - Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.; Korkiala-Tanttu, L.; Vaehaenen, M.; Koskinen, K.; Korkeakoski, P.; Haapala, K.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Posiva launched a programme, BENTO, to develop technology of using bentonite in spent nuclear fuel repositories. The main purpose of the BENTO programme is to produce buffer designs and verify that they fulfil the requirements, especially safety requirements. To achieve this objective, resources and the level of expertise and know-how has to be increased. There are several uncertainties related to the functioning of the buffer components at present. An issue is defined as being significant if there is sufficient uncertainty that the buffer system might not fulfil the requirements because of the issue. These significant issues need to be resolved in order to develop a proper design and to verify the fulfilment of the requirements. The list of significant issues may change with time. Therefore it is crucial to develop adequate expertise, know-how and laboratory facilities to manage the changes. Moreover, there is confidence that by solving the open issues a defendable construction license application can be submitted in 2012. The basic nature of the programme is a combination of material and process research with the design and manufacturing of buffer components to produce feasible buffer design with proven long-term functional properties. The development work carried out under BENTO-programme has been initially divided into four different projects. During the course of work the number of projects and their content can be adjusted. The four BENTO projects are: 1. Manufacturing (MANU); 2. Design (DESI); 3. Modelling (MODE); 4. Material and Process Research (MARE). BENTO programme aims at producing feasible buffer designs which fulfil the requirements specified in Posiva's requirement management system. The designs are produced in DESI-project by following the design development scheme which starts from specification of design basis and ends in documented detailed designs and therefore DESIgn is specified as one

  13. Further contribution to the study of buffer layer on austenitic stainless stell overlays obtained by means of automatic submerged arc welding with electrode-wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colla, G.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of several buffer layer types on a 308 type austenitic stainless steel surface overlay having a 19-21% chromium and 10-12% nikel content have been analysed. Cladding passes have been deposited on carbon steel test samples by using automatic submerged arc welding process with electrode-wire. The experimental tests have involved buffer layers having seven different chemical compositions and the obtained results are reported and discussed in the paper. The achieved experimetal results allow selecting the most suitable buffer layer to be deposited in order to reach the required cladding performance in service

  14. Erosion of buffer caused by groundwater leakages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.; Hanana, K.; Punkkinen, O.; Koskinen, K.; Olin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the Finnish HLW disposal concept the most important properties of the bentonite clay being considered for these isolation purposes are its thermal behaviour, low hydraulic conductivity, diffusion limited transport, rheology, plasticity, sufficient swelling potential, and exchange capacity. All of these properties depend critically on bentonite density; therefore, any potential mass loss or redistribution events must be well characterized. One such event or process is the erosion of bentonite by flowing groundwater and the groundwater flowing in newly formed channels, in special. Mechanical erosion during the operational phase, due to high groundwater pressure gradients in open excavations, has been identified as a critical issue in TKS-2006 and SR-Can. This work addresses the mechanical erosion of bentonite by fluid shear. In order for buffer erosion to occur three processes must take place: detachment, entrainment, and transport. These processes are followed by the settling of the material and redistribution of buffer mass. Erosion begins with the detachment of a particle from surrounding material, which requires the application of shear forces greater than the attractive force between the particle and parent structure. Entrainment is the process by which the eroding medium lifts the detached particle into the flow. The most important aspect in entrainment is transfer of fluid's inertial forces via surface friction to particles' inertial forces, which, in turn, must overcome the frictional resistance between the particle and its surroundings. Factors influencing frictional resistance include gravity, particle mass, saturation degree of parent structure, composition of water present in parent structure, particle size, and surface roughness. Recent erosion tests, whereby water flow was directed over compacted bentonite blocks or through a system of bentonite pellets, have indicated that bentonite erodes

  15. MANU. Instrumentation of Buffer Demo. Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe feasible measuring and monitoring alternatives which can be used, if needed, in medium to full scale nuclear waste repository deposition hole mock-up tests. The focus of the work was to determine what variables can actually be measured, how to achieve the measurements and what kind of demands comes from the modelling, scientific, and technical points of view. This project includes a review of the previous waste repository mock-up tests carried out in several European countries such as Belgium, Czech Republic, Spain and Sweden. Also information was gathered by interviewing domestic and foreign scientists specialized in the fields of measurement instrumentation and related in-situ and laboratory work. On the basis of this review, recommendations were developed for the necessary actions needed to be done from the instrumentation point of view for future tests. It is possible to measure and monitor the processes going on in a deposition hole in-situ conditions. The data received during a test in real repository conditions enables to follow the processes and to verify the hypothesis made on the behaviour of various components of the repository: buffer, canister, rock and backfill. Because full scale testing is expensive, the objectives and hypothesis must be carefully set and the test itself with its instrumentation must serve very specific objectives. The main purpose of mock-up tests is to verify that the conditions surrounding the canister are according to the design requirements. A whole mock-up test and demonstration process requires a lot of time and effort. The instrumentation part of the work must also start at early stages to ensure that the instrumentation itself will not become bottlenecked nor suffer from low quality solutions. The planning of the instrumentation work could be done in collaboration with foreign scientists which have participated to previous instrumentation projects. (orig.)

  16. Temperature Buffer Test. Final THM modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Malmberg, Daniel; Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan; Ledesma, Alberto; Jacinto, Abel

    2012-01-01

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the final THM modelling which was resumed subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main part of this work has been numerical modelling of the field test. Three different modelling teams have presented several model cases for different geometries and different degree of process complexity. Two different numerical codes, Code B right and Abaqus, have been used. The modelling performed by UPC-Cimne using Code B right, has been divided in three subtasks: i) analysis of the response observed in the lower part of the test, by inclusion of a number of considerations: (a) the use of the Barcelona Expansive Model for MX-80 bentonite; (b) updated parameters in the vapour diffusive flow term; (c) the use of a non-conventional water retention curve for MX-80 at high temperature; ii) assessment of a possible relation between the cracks observed in the bentonite blocks in the upper part of TBT, and the cycles of suction and stresses registered in that zone at the start of the experiment; and iii) analysis of the performance, observations and interpretation of the entire test. It was however not possible to carry out a full THM analysis until the end of the test due to

  17. Temperature Buffer Test. Final THM modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Malmberg, Daniel; Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Ledesma, Alberto; Jacinto, Abel [UPC, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the final THM modelling which was resumed subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main part of this work has been numerical modelling of the field test. Three different modelling teams have presented several model cases for different geometries and different degree of process complexity. Two different numerical codes, Code{sub B}right and Abaqus, have been used. The modelling performed by UPC-Cimne using Code{sub B}right, has been divided in three subtasks: i) analysis of the response observed in the lower part of the test, by inclusion of a number of considerations: (a) the use of the Barcelona Expansive Model for MX-80 bentonite; (b) updated parameters in the vapour diffusive flow term; (c) the use of a non-conventional water retention curve for MX-80 at high temperature; ii) assessment of a possible relation between the cracks observed in the bentonite blocks in the upper part of TBT, and the cycles of suction and stresses registered in that zone at the start of the experiment; and iii) analysis of the performance, observations and interpretation of the entire test. It was however not possible to carry out a full THM analysis until the end of the test due to

  18. Vanadium oxide thin films deposited on silicon dioxide buffer layers by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sihai; Ma Hong; Wang Shuangbao; Shen Nan; Xiao Jing; Zhou Hao; Zhao Xiaomei; Li Yi; Yi Xinjian

    2006-01-01

    Thin films made by vanadium oxide have been obtained by direct current magnetron sputtering method on SiO 2 buffer layers. A detailed electrical and structural characterization has been performed on the deposited films by four-point probe method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At room temperature, the four-point probe measurement result presents the resistance of the film to be 25 kU/sheet. The temperature coefficient of resistance is - 2.0%/K. SEM image indicates that the vanadium oxide exhibits a submicrostructure with lamella size ranging from 60 nm to 300 nm. A 32 x 32-element test microbolometer was fabricated based on the deposited thin film. The infrared response testing showed that the response was 200 mV. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the vanadium oxide thin films on SiO 2 buffer layers is suitable for uncooled focal plane arrays applications

  19. Prioritization of buffer areas with multi objective analysis: application in the Basin Creek St. Helena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuluaga, Julian; Carvajal, Luis Fernando

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows a Multi objective Analysis (AMO-ELECTRE 111) with Geographical Information System (GIS) to establish priorities of buffer zones on the drainage network of the Santa Elena Creek, Medellin middle-east zone. 38 alternatives (small catchment) are evaluated with seven criteria, from field work, and maps. The criteria are: susceptibility to mass sliding, surface and lineal erosion, conflict by land use, and state of the waterways network in respect to hydrology, geology and human impact. The ELECTERE III method allows establishing priorities of buffer zones for each catchment; the indifference, acceptance, veto, and credibility threshold values, as well as those for criteria weighting factors are very important. The results show that the north zone of the catchment, commune 8, in particular La Castro creek, is most affected. The sensibility analysis shows that the obtained solution is robust, and that the anthropic and geologic criteria are paramount

  20. Retaining in-gel zymographic activity of cysteine proteases via a cysteine-supplemented running buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vootukuri Reddy, Sreekanth; Philpott, Mike P; Trigiante, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Zymography is a powerful technique to separate and identify different enzymatic activities on a standard acrylamide gel. For oxidation prone enzymes such as cysteine proteases however, the oxidizing species generated by electrolysis of the gel running buffer may result in partial or complete inactivation, thus compromising the final readout. This can be only partially remedied by subsequent treatment of the gel with reducing agents. We demonstrate the generation of reactive oxidizing species during electrophoresis and discovered that supplementation of the gel running buffer with a minimum of 5 mM cysteine prevents enzyme inactivation and allows retention of proteolytic activity as measured by zymography on model substrate N α-benzoyl-l-arginine p-nitroanilide, without at the same time altering the mobilities of the gel proteins. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The use of halogen carriers and buffers in the spectrographic determination of boron in carbonaceous materials and their combustion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucandio, M.I.; Martin, M.; Roca, M.

    1992-01-01

    For the determination of boron in carbonaceous materials (high purity graphite, coals and their processed products, such as ashes and slags from thermoelectric power plants) by atomic emission spectroscopy with direct current arc excitation and photographic recording, the behaviour of the analyte in the presence of halide compounds or spectrochemical buffers has been studied. Among the halides, cupric fluoride at a low concentration (2%) becomes very suitable for the graphite analysis, and at a higher concentration (25%) for coals being necessary in this case to carry out a dilution of samples with graphite. Strontium carbonate as a spectrochemical buffer allows to analyse satisfactorily coals and their combustion products. (author)

  2. The use of halogen carriers and buffers in the spectrographic determination of boron in carbonaceous materials and their combustion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucandio, M. I.; Martin, M.; Roca, M.

    1992-01-01

    For the determination of boron in carbonaceous materials (high purity graphite, coals and their processed products, such as ashes and slags from thermoelectric power plants) by atomic emission spectroscopy with direct current are excitation and photographic recording, the behaviour of the analyte in the presence of halide compounds or spectrochemical buffers has been studied. Among the halides, cupric fluoride at a low concentration (2%) becomes very suitable for the graphite analysis, and at a higher concentration (25 %) for coals, being necessary in this case to carry out a dilution of samples with graphite. Strontium carbonate as a spectrochemical buffer allows to analyse satisfactorily coals and their combustion products. (Author) 13 refs

  3. The Interplay between Feedback and Buffering in Cellular Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Edward J; Ang, Jordan; Papachristodoulou, Antonis; Stan, Guy-Bart

    2017-11-22

    Buffering, the use of reservoirs of molecules to maintain concentrations of key molecular species, and negative feedback are the primary known mechanisms for robust homeostatic regulation. To our knowledge, however, the fundamental principles behind their combined effect have not been elucidated. Here, we study the interplay between buffering and negative feedback in the context of cellular homeostasis. We show that negative feedback counteracts slow-changing disturbances, whereas buffering counteracts fast-changing disturbances. Furthermore, feedback and buffering have limitations that create trade-offs for regulation: instability in the case of feedback and molecular noise in the case of buffering. However, because buffering stabilizes feedback and feedback attenuates noise from slower-acting buffering, their combined effect on homeostasis can be synergistic. These effects can be explained within a traditional control theory framework and are consistent with experimental observations of both ATP homeostasis and pH regulation in vivo. These principles are critical for studying robustness and homeostasis in biology and biotechnology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Buffer lining manufacturing method for radioactive waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Susumu; Sugino, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    A recessed portion is formed on an upper surface of a filler layer made of a buffer powder filled into a container main body, the upper portion of the vessel main body is closed by a shrinkable liquid tight film. It is placed in a pressurizing container and pressed to mold a buffer lining base material integrated with the vessel main body. A flat upper surface and a containing space are formed by shaving to form a buffer lining. A disposing vessel containing radioactive wastes is inserted into the containing space, and the containing space is closed by a buffer block. The upper surface is sealed by a lid. With such a constitution, since a buffer lining integrated with the vessel main body can be formed easily inside the vessel main body, the disposing vessel can be contained in the containing vessel in a state surrounded by the buffer easily and stably without laying or piling over a large quantity of buffer blocks. (T.M.)

  5. Accelerating Science with the NERSC Burst Buffer Early User Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhimji, Wahid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bard, Debbie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romanus, Melissa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Paul, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ovsyannikov, Andrey [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Friesen, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bryson, Matt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Correa, Joaquin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lockwood, Glenn K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsulaia, Vakho [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Byna, Suren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Farrell, Steve [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gursoy, Doga [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS); Daley, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Beckner, Vince [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Van Straalen, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tull, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Weber, Gunther H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wright, Nicholas J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Prabhat, none [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    NVRAM-based Burst Buffers are an important part of the emerging HPC storage landscape. The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory recently installed one of the first Burst Buffer systems as part of its new Cori supercomputer, collaborating with Cray on the development of the DataWarp software. NERSC has a diverse user base comprised of over 6500 users in 700 different projects spanning a wide variety of scientific computing applications. The use-cases of the Burst Buffer at NERSC are therefore also considerable and diverse. We describe here performance measurements and lessons learned from the Burst Buffer Early User Program at NERSC, which selected a number of research projects to gain early access to the Burst Buffer and exercise its capability to enable new scientific advancements. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time a Burst Buffer has been stressed at scale by diverse, real user workloads and therefore these lessons will be of considerable benefit to shaping the developing use of Burst Buffers at HPC centers.

  6. pH variations during diafiltration due to buffer nonidealities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Youngbin; Yang, Deyu; Singh, Nripen; Arunkumar, Abhiram; Ghose, Sanchayita; Li, Zheng Jian; Zydney, Andrew L

    2017-11-01

    Diafiltration is used for final formulation of essentially all biotherapeutics. Several studies have demonstrated that buffer/excipient concentrations in the final diafiltered product can be different than that in the diafiltration buffer due to interactions between buffer species and the protein product. However, recent work in our lab has shown variations in solution pH that are largely independent of the protein concentration during the first few diavolumes. Our hypothesis is that these pH variations are due to nonidealities in the acid-base equilibrium coefficient. A model was developed for the diafiltration process accounting for the ionic strength dependence of the pK a . Experimental results obtained using phosphate and histidine buffers were in excellent agreement with model predictions. A decrease in ionic strength leads to an increase in the pK a for the phosphate buffer, causing a shift in the solution pH, even under conditions where the initial feed and the diafiltration buffer are at the same pH. This effect could be eliminated by matching the ionic strength of the feed and diafiltration buffer. The experimental data and model provide new insights into the factors controlling the pH profile during diafiltration processes. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1555-1560, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Protein buffering in model systems and in whole human saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamanda

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the buffer attributes (value, power, range and optimum of two model systems for whole human resting saliva, the purified proteins from whole human resting saliva and single proteins. Two model systems, the first containing amyloglucosidase and lysozyme, and the second containing amyloglucosidase and alpha-amylase, were shown to provide, in combination with hydrogencarbonate and di-hydrogenphosphate, almost identical buffer attributes as whole human resting saliva. It was further demonstrated that changes in the protein concentration as small as 0.1% may change the buffer value of a buffer solution up to 15 times. Additionally, it was shown that there was a protein concentration change in the same range (0.16% between saliva samples collected at the time periods of 13:00 and others collected at 9:00 am and 17:00. The mode of the protein expression changed between these samples corresponded to the change in basic buffer power and the change of the buffer value at pH 6.7. Finally, SDS Page and Ruthenium II tris (bathophenantroline disulfonate staining unveiled a constant protein expression in all samples except for one 50 kDa protein band. As the change in the expression pattern of that 50 kDa protein band corresponded to the change in basic buffer power and the buffer value at pH 6.7, it was reasonable to conclude that this 50 kDa protein band may contain the protein(s belonging to the protein buffer system of human saliva.

  8. The stochastic nuclide transport model for buffer/backfill materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liping; Han Yongguo

    2014-01-01

    Currently, study on nuclide migration law in geological disposal repository of high level waste is assumed buffer/backfill layer to be continuous medium, utilized the continuity equation, equation of state, the equations of motion, etc, formed a set of theory and method to estimate nuclide concentration distribution in buffer/backfill layer, and provided an important basis for nuclide migration rules of repository. However, it is necessary to study the buffer/backfill layer microstructure and subtly describe the pore structure and fracture system of the buffer/backfill layer, and reflect the changes in connectivity and in different directions of the buffer/backfill layer. Through using random field theory, the nuclide transport for the buffer/backfill layer in geological disposal repository of nuclear waste is described in the paper. This paper mainly includes that, t represents the time, ξ t ⊂ Z d = d represents the integer lattice, Z represents collectivity integers, d = l, 2, 3, for instance, d = 2, Z d = {(m, n) : m, n ∈ Z} the state point of ξ t is typically considered to be occupied by the nuclide concentration values of the buffer/backfill layer, ξ t also represents random set in the diagram of two dimensional integer lattice, namely, t ∈ [0, T], {ξ t ,0 ≤ t ≤ ⊂ T} Consequently, according to the stochastic process obtained above, the changes of the nuclide concentration values of the buffer/backfill layer or the buffer/backfill laboratory materials in the repository with the time can be known. (authors)

  9. Water uptake and stress development in bentonites and bentonite-sand buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.A.; Wan, A.W-L.; Gray, M.N.; Miller, S.H.

    1996-10-01

    The development of swelling pressure and the transfer of pore water pressures through dense bentonite and bentonite-sand materials are examined in this report. This report focuses on the swelling pressure and total pressure developed in initially unsaturated specimens allowed access to free water on one end. The bentonite in this wetted region rapidly develops its full swelling pressure and this pressure is transferred upwards through the specimen. Hence, the bentonite plug will exert a pressure approximately equivalent to the swelling pressure even though only a small region of the plug is actually saturated. A number of specimens were tested with total pressure sensors mounted normal and parallel to the axis of compaction. Lateral pressures developed long before the wetting front reached sensor locations, suggesting stress transfer through the unsaturated portions of these specimens. On achieving saturation, specimens were found to have similar swelling pressures both normal to and parallel to the axis of compaction. This indicates that there is little or no specimen anisotropy induced by the compaction process. Tests were conducted on specimens allowed only to take on a limited quantity of water and it was found that density anisotropy was induced as the result of the swelling pressures generated by the buffer. The wetted skin of buffer developed a considerable pressure and compressed a region of buffer immediately above the wetted region. The results suggest that the buffer material placed in a disposal vault will rapidly develop and transfer swelling pressures as a result of the saturation of a limited region or 'skin' within the emplacement site. The total pressure ultimately present on the container surface should be the sum of the swelling and hydraulic components. (author). 14 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs

  10. On Buffer-Aided Multiple-Access Relay Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Rongkuan; Popovski, Petar; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This letter treats uplink scenario where M user equipments (UEs) send to a base station (BS), possibly via a common relay station (RS) that is equipped with a buffer. This is a multiple-access relay channel aided by a buffer. We devise a protocol in which the transmission mode is selected...... entirely at the BS, while simultaneously a number of UEs sends new messages to the BS. The results show that the adaptive selection of direct and buffer-aided relay transmissions leads to significant average throughput gains....

  11. Lean buffering in serial production lines with Bernoulli machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Hu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean buffering is the smallest buffer capacity necessary to ensure the desired production rate of a manufacturing system. In this paper, analytical methods for selecting lean buffering in serial production lines are developed under the assumption that the machines obey the Bernoulli reliability model. Both closed-form expressions and recursive approaches are investigated. The cases of identical and nonidentical machines are analyzed. Results obtained can be useful for production line designers and production managers to maintain the required production rate with the smallest possible inventories.

  12. Buffer-gas-induced absorption resonances in Rb vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, Eugeniy E.; Novikova, Irina; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Welch, George R.

    2004-01-01

    We observe transformation of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) resonance into an absorption resonance in a Λ interaction configuration in a cell filled with 87 Rb and a buffer gas. This transformation occurs as one-photon detuning of the coupling fields is varied from the atomic transition. No such absorption resonance is found in the absence of a buffer gas. The width of the absorption resonance is several times smaller than the width of the EIT resonance, and the changes of absorption near these resonances are about the same. Similar absorption resonances are detected in the Hanle configuration in a buffered cell

  13. Buffer layers for REBCO films for use in superconducting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A superconducting article includes a substrate having a biaxially textured surface. A biaxially textured buffer layer, which can be a cap layer, is supported by the substrate. The buffer layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different transition metal cations. A biaxially textured superconductor layer is deposited so as to be supported by the buffer layer. A method of making a superconducting article is also disclosed.

  14. Stacking by electroinjection with discontinuous buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Zak K

    2002-08-01

    The work presented here demonstrates that electroinjection can be performed using discontinuous buffers, which can result in better stacking than that obtained by hydrodynamic injection. The sample can be concentrated at the tip of the capillary leaving practically the whole capillary for sample separation. This results in several advantages, such as better sample concentration, higher plate number and shorter time of stacking. However, sample introduction by electromigration is suited for samples free or low in salt content. Samples, which are high in salt content, are better introduced by the hydrodynamic injection for stacking by the discontinuous buffers. Different simple methods to introduce the discontinuity in the buffer for electroinjection are discussed.

  15. Potassium biphthalate buffer for pH control to optimize glycosyl hydrolase production in shake flasks using filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia dos Santos Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract The optimization of culture medium with statistical methods is widely used in filamentous fungi glycosyl hydrolase production. The implementation of such methodology in bioreactors is very expensive as it requires several pH-controlled systems operating in parallel in order to test a large number of culture media components. The objective of this study was to evaluate potassium biphthalate buffer for pH control, which allows the optimization studies to be performed in shake flasks.The results have shown that buffering the culture medium with 0.1 M potassium biphthalate allowed pH control, resulting in a decrease of the standard deviation of triplicates for pH and activities of glycosyl hydrolase measurements. The use of this buffer allowed shake flask culture media optimization of enzyme production by Trichoderma harzianum, increasing the cellulase activity by more than 2 times compared to standard unbuffered culture medium. The same buffer can be used for culture media optimization of other fungi, such as Penicillium echinulatum.

  16. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel...; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. Individuals awarded regular fellowships shall be entitled...) Stipend. (b) Dependency allowances. (c) When authorized in advance, separate allowances for travel. Such...

  17. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel... FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. Payments for stipends, dependency allowances, and the travel allowances...

  18. Superconducting NbN single-photon detectors on GaAs with an AlN buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Ekkehart; Merker, Michael; Ilin, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme (IMS), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Hertzstrasse 16, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    GaAs is the material of choice for photonic integrated circuits. It allows the monolithic integration of single-photon sources like quantum dots, waveguide based optical circuits and detectors like superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) onto one chip. The growth of high quality NbN films on GaAs is challenging, due to natural occurring surface oxides and the large lattice mismatch of about 27%. In this work, we try to overcome these problems by the introduction of a 10 nm AlN buffer layer. Due to the buffer layer, the critical temperature of 6 nm thick NbN films was increased by about 1.5 K. Furthermore, the critical current density at 4.2 K of NbN flim deposited onto GaAs with AlN buffer is 50% higher than of NbN film deposited directly onto GaAs substrate. We successfully fabricated NbN SNSPDs on GaAs with a AlN buffer layer. SNSPDs were patterned using electron-beam lithography and reactive-ion etching techniques. Results on the study of detection efficiency and jitter of a NbN SNSPD on GaAs, with and without AlN buffer layer will be presented and discussed.

  19. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allowable. The amount of compensation allowable is limited to the actual net reduction or loss of earnings or profits suffered. Calculations for net reductions or losses must clearly reflect adjustments for... available; (d) Any saved overhead or normal expenses not incurred as a result of the incident; and (e) State...

  20. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the type of entity incurring the cost as follows: (1) For-profit organizations. Allowability of costs incurred by for-profit organizations and those nonprofit organizations listed in Attachment C to... specifically authorized in the award document. (2) Other types of organizations. Allowability of costs incurred...

  1. 29 CFR 97.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. [53 FR 8069, 8087... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 97.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  2. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22 Allowable... principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable...

  3. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to ED. (b) The... OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial... principles for determining allowable costs. Allowability of costs are determined in accordance with the cost...

  4. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  5. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs. (a... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  6. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  7. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of... allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization...

  8. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter and...

  9. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs will be determined in...

  10. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in...

  11. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in...

  12. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND AGREEMENTS (INCLUDING SUBAWARDS) WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in...

  13. 38 CFR 49.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 49.27 Allowable...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is...

  14. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... Organizations.” (c) Allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in...

  15. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 30.27 Allowable...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is...

  16. Towards Optimal Buffer Size in Wi-Fi Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Showail, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    extensively for wired networks. However, there is little work addressing the unique challenges of wireless environment. In this dissertation, we discuss buffer sizing challenges in wireless networks, classify the state-of-the-art solutions, and propose two

  17. Studies of Latent Acidity and Neutral Buffered Chloroaluminate Ionic Liquids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osteryoung, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Studies on ionic liquids composed of aluminum chloride and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride were carried out, with emphasis on understanding and explaining acidity and latent acidity in "neutral buffered" melts...

  18. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  19. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  20. Full scale tests of moisture buffer capacity of wall materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2005-01-01

    that are harmful such as growth of house dust mites, surface condensation and mould growth. Therefore a series of experiments has been carried out in a full scale test facility to determine the moisture buffer effect of interior walls of cellular concrete and plaster board constructions. For the cellular concrete......Moisture buffer capacity of hygroscopic materials can be used to moderate peaks in the relative humidity (RH) of indoor air as well as moisture content variations in building materials and furnishing. This can help to ensure healthier indoor environments by preventing many processes...... of the changes of moisture content in specimens of the wall composites exposed to the same environment. It was found that the finishes had a big impact on the buffer performance of the underlying materials. Even though the untreated cellular concrete had a very high buffer capacity, the effect was strongly...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  2. Buffer management in wireless full-duplex systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouacida, Nader; Showail, Ahmad; Shihada, Basem

    2015-01-01

    , we address the problem of buffer management in full-duplex networks by using Wireless Queue Management (WQM), which is an active queue management technique for wireless networks. Our solution is based on Relay Full-Duplex MAC (RFD

  3. Design and analysis of hybrid optical and electronic buffer based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ARUNENDRA SINGH

    2018-03-10

    Mar 10, 2018 ... need and requirement of internet traffic is increasing in a very rapid pace. ... infrastructure of telecommunication and data networking. One of the significant .... packet loss rate, large buffer space would be required, and.

  4. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  5. Swelling of the buffer of KBS-3V deposition hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempinen, A.

    2006-12-01

    At the time of the installation of spent nuclear fuel canister in the KBS-3V deposition hole, empty space is left around bentonite buffer for technical reasons. The gap between the buffer and the canister is about 10 mm, and the gap between the buffer and the rock is 30 to 35 mm. In this study, the swelling of the buffer to fill the gaps was simulated, when the gaps are initially filled with water and no external water is available. The model used here is a thermodynamical model for swelling clay, with parameters determined for bentonite. The simulations presented here were performed with Freefem++ software, which is a finite element application for partial differential equations. These equations come from the material model. The simulation results show that the swelling fills the outer gaps in few years, but no significant swelling pressure is generated. For swelling pressure, external water supply is required. (orig.)

  6. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  10. Stacking and discontinuous buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Z K

    2000-08-01

    Discontinuous buffers for capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) can be used under less rigid conditions compared to those for isotachophoresis for stacking. They can be prepared simply by modifying the sample itself, either by addition of small inorganic ions, low conductivity diluents, or both, and also by adjusting its pH, meanwhile injecting a large volume on the capillary. Zwitterionic and organic-based buffers such as triethanolamine and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) are well suited for stacking due to their low conductivity, provided the buffer is discontinuous as demonstrated here. A simple mechanism based on discontinuous buffers is described to explain many of the observed stacking types in CZE, pointing out the many similarities to transient isotachophoresis.

  11. Optimizing the availability of a buffered industrial process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Jr., Harry F.; Hamada, Michael S.; Koehler, Arthur J.; Berg, Eric C.

    2004-08-24

    A computer-implemented process determines optimum configuration parameters for a buffered industrial process. A population size is initialized by randomly selecting a first set of design and operation values associated with subsystems and buffers of the buffered industrial process to form a set of operating parameters for each member of the population. An availability discrete event simulation (ADES) is performed on each member of the population to determine the product-based availability of each member. A new population is formed having members with a second set of design and operation values related to the first set of design and operation values through a genetic algorithm and the product-based availability determined by the ADES. Subsequent population members are then determined by iterating the genetic algorithm with product-based availability determined by ADES to form improved design and operation values from which the configuration parameters are selected for the buffered industrial process.

  12. RESEARCH SHOWS IMPORTANCE OF RIPARIAN BUFFERS FOR AQUATIC HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issue: Excess nitrogen from fertilizer, septic tanks, animal feedlots, and runoff from pavement can threaten aquatic ecosystem health. Riparian buffers -- the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands -- are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling excess ...

  13. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  17. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  18. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  19. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  1. Design of a flux buffer based on the flux shuttle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenson, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the design considerations for a flux buffer based on the flux-shuttle concept. Particular attention is given to the issues of flux popping, stability of operation and saturation levels for a large input. Modulation techniques used in order to minimize 1/f noise, in addition to offsets are also analyzed. Advantages over conventional approaches using a SQUID for a flux buffer are discussed. Results of computer simulations are presented

  2. Current status of mechanical erosion studies of bentonite buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sane, P.; Olin, M.; Koskinen, K.

    2013-08-01

    The performance of the bentonite buffer in KBS-3-type nuclear waste repository concept relies to a great extent on the buffer surrounding the canister having sufficient dry density. Loss of buffer material caused by erosion remains as the most significant process reducing the density of the buffer. The mechanical erosion, or pre-saturation erosion, is the process where flowing groundwater transports buffer material away from the deposition hole towards the deposition tunnel. This process reduces the overall buffer density and potentially creates localized regions of low density. In the worst case the process is assumed to last as long as the free volume between the pellets in the pellets filled regions is filled with groundwater. With fixed environmental and material parameters a set of experiments was performed, testing the erosive properties of different buffer and backfill materials (MX-80 and Friedland Clay) in different groundwater conditions. The method used was a pinhole erosion test using two sizescales; 100 mm and 400 mm of cell length. The purpose of the pinhole tests was to test the scenario where piping channel is formed in the buffer and water flows through a single channel. The erosion data was produced with two methods, firstly the time-related erosion rates measured in-situ during the measurement and secondly the overall mass loss in the sample cell measured after dismantling of the test. It was observed that erosion in piping channels decreases rapidly (∼24 h) and irreversibly to a level that is an order of magnitude lower than the peak values. (orig.)

  3. Implementing the countercyclical capital buffer in South Africa: Practical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Pravin Burra; Pieter Juriaan de Jongh; Helgard Raubenheimer; Gary van Vuuren; Henco Wiid

    2015-01-01

    The Basel II regulatory framework significantly increased the resilience of the banking system, but proved ineffective in preventing the 2008/9 financial crisis. The subsequent introduction of Basel III aimed, inter alia, to supplement bank capital using buffers. The countercyclical buffer boosts existing minimum capital requirements when systemic risk surges are detected. Bolstering capital in favourable economic conditions cushions losses in unfavourable conditions, thereby addressing capit...

  4. Traveling waves in the discrete fast buffered bistable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Je-Chiang; Sneyd, James

    2007-11-01

    We study the existence and uniqueness of traveling wave solutions of the discrete buffered bistable equation. Buffered excitable systems are used to model, among other things, the propagation of waves of increased calcium concentration, and discrete models are often used to describe the propagation of such waves across multiple cells. We derive necessary conditions for the existence of waves, and, under some restrictive technical assumptions, we derive sufficient conditions. When the wave exists it is unique and stable.

  5. Deflating link buffers in a wireless mesh network

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, Kamran; Shihada, Basem; Showail, Ahmad; Levis, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the problem of buffer sizing for backlogged TCP flows in 802.11-based wireless mesh networks. Our objective is to maintain high network utilization while providing low queueing delays. Unlike wired networks where a single link buffer feeds a bottleneck link, the radio spectral resource in a mesh network is shared among a set of contending mesh routers. We account for this by formulating the buffer size problem as sizing a collective buffer distributed over a set of interfering nodes. In this paper we propose mechanisms for sizing and distributing this collective buffer among the mesh nodes constituting the network bottleneck. Our mechanism factors in the network topology and wireless link rates, improving on pre-set buffer allocations that cannot optimally work across the range of configurations achievable with 802.11 radios. We evaluate our mechanisms using simulations as well as experiments on a testbed. Our results show that we can reduce the RTT of a flow by 6× or more, at the cost of less than 10% drop in end-to-end flow throughput.

  6. Deflating link buffers in a wireless mesh network

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, Kamran

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the problem of buffer sizing for backlogged TCP flows in 802.11-based wireless mesh networks. Our objective is to maintain high network utilization while providing low queueing delays. Unlike wired networks where a single link buffer feeds a bottleneck link, the radio spectral resource in a mesh network is shared among a set of contending mesh routers. We account for this by formulating the buffer size problem as sizing a collective buffer distributed over a set of interfering nodes. In this paper we propose mechanisms for sizing and distributing this collective buffer among the mesh nodes constituting the network bottleneck. Our mechanism factors in the network topology and wireless link rates, improving on pre-set buffer allocations that cannot optimally work across the range of configurations achievable with 802.11 radios. We evaluate our mechanisms using simulations as well as experiments on a testbed. Our results show that we can reduce the RTT of a flow by 6× or more, at the cost of less than 10% drop in end-to-end flow throughput.

  7. Buffering capacity: its relevance in soil and water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigliani, W.M. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Buffering capacities in soils are essential for neutralizing or immobilizing inputs of acids and heavy metals. There are four major buffering regimes, each of which operates in a defined pH range. When the rate of pollutant inputs exceeds the rate of natural replenishment of the buffer in a specific regime, the supply of buffer will be exhausted over time, and the soil may switch to a regime at lower pH. As the pH of the soil declines, so does its capacity to immobilize heavy metals. If the soil initially has a moderately high buffering capacity, the time scale before exhaustion is on the order of decades to a century. Over this time there may be no observable environmental effects. When the effects do become obvious, it may be too late to reverse the damage. The importance of buffering capacity as a valued environmental resource must be recognized, and its preservation must be a major component of long-term soil protection policies. (Author). 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Mechanisms of social buffering of fear in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, Ana I; Tacão-Monteiro, André; Oliveira, Rui F

    2017-03-31

    Some humans thrive whereas others resign when exposed to threatening situations throughout life. Social support has been identified as an important modulator of these discrepancies in human behaviour, and other social animals also exhibit phenomena in which individuals recover better from aversive events when conspecifics are present - aka social buffering. Here we studied social buffering in zebrafish, by exposing focal fish to an aversive stimulus (alarm substance - AS) either in the absence or presence of conspecific cues. When exposed to AS in the presence of both olfactory (shoal water) and visual (sight of shoal) conspecific cues, focal fish exhibited a lower fear response than when tested alone, demonstrating social buffering in zebrafish. When separately testing each cue's effectiveness, we verified that the visual cue was more effective than the olfactory in reducing freezing in a persistent threat scenario. Finally, we verified that social buffering was independent of shoal size and coincided with a distinct pattern of co-activation of brain regions known to be involved in mammalian social buffering. Thus, this study suggests a shared evolutionary origin for social buffering in vertebrates, bringing new evidence on the behavioural, sensory and neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon.

  9. Design, production and initial state of the buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Lennart; Gunnarsson, David; Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Jonsson, Esther

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the buffer for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the engineered barriers once they have been finally placed in the KBS-3 repository and will not be further handled within the repository facility. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the buffer shall be handled and installed. The report presents the design premises and reference design of the buffer and verifies the conformity of the reference design to the design premises. It also describes the production of the buffer, from excavation and delivery of buffer material to installation in the deposition hole. Finally, the initial state of the buffer and its conformity to the reference design and design premises is presented

  10. Effects of buffer thickness on ATW blanket performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Won Sik

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of target and buffer design studies for a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) system, aimed at maximizing the source importance while simultaneously reducing the irradiation damage to fuel. Using an 840 MWt LBE cooled ATW design, the effects of buffer thickness on the blanket performances have been studied. Varying the buffer thickness for a given blanket configuration, system performances have been estimated by a series of calculations using MCNPX and REBUS-3 codes. The effects of source importance change are studied by investigating the low-energy (< 20 MeV) neutron source distribution and the equilibrium cycle blanket performance parameters such as fuel inventory, discharge burnup, burnup reactivity loss, and peak fast fluence. As the irradiation damage to fuel, the displacements per atom (dpa), hydrogen production, and helium production rates are evaluated at the buffer and blanket interface where the peak fast fluence occurs. The results show that the damage rates and the source importance increase monotonically as the buffer thickness decreases. Based on a compromise between the competing objectives of increasing the source importance and reducing the damage rates, a buffer thickness of around 20 cm appears to be reasonable

  11. Effects of buffer ionization in protein transition volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Heerklotz, Heiko; Chalikian, Tigran V

    2010-05-01

    Protein denaturation events are generally associated with a change in the state of ionization of abnormally titrating groups and, therefore, are coupled with changes in buffer ionization/neutralization equilibria. Consequently, buffer ionization should influence the measured change in volume accompanying protein denaturation. Changes in volume accompanying protein denaturation reflect the differential packing and hydration of polypeptide chains in their native and denatured conformations while also describing the pressure stability of proteins. A characteristic feature of conformational transitions of globular proteins is a near zero change in volume that is comparable in magnitude with the volume of ionization of biologically relevant buffers. Thus, the impact of buffer ionization on the volume of protein denaturation could be very significant with the potential to affect not only its magnitude but also its sign. To investigate this point quantitatively, we performed pressure perturbation calorimetric (PPC) studies of lysozyme and ribonuclease A at pH 3.0 in four buffers differing in their ionization volumes. Our results identify buffer ionization as an important determinant of protein transition volume that needs to be carefully taken into account. We emphasize that the importance of our results is not limited to PPC measurements but is more general and applies to all volumetric investigations, in particular, extending to the derivation of the pressure-temperature phase diagram of protein stability.

  12. Utility allowed returns and market extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, D.A.; Nan, G.D.; Harrington, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years interest rates have fluctuated from exceptionally high levels in the early 1980s to their current levels, the lowest in two decades. Observers and analysts generally have assumed that allowed returns by regulatory commissions follow the movement of interest rates; indeed some analysts use a risk premium method to estimate the cost of common equity, assuming a constant and linear relationship between interest rates and the cost of common equity. That suggests we could expect a relatively stable relationship between interest rates and allowed returns, as well. However, a simple comparison of allowed returns and interest rates shows that this is not the case in recent years. The relationship between market interest rates and the returns allowed by commissions varies and is obviously a great deal more complicated. Empirically, there appears to be only a narrow range where market interest rates significantly affect the allowed returns on common stock set by state commissions, at least for electric and combination utilities. If rates are at historically low levels, allowed returns based largely on market rates will hasten subsequent rate filings, and commissions appear to look beyond the low rate levels. Conversely, it appears that regulators do not let historically high market rates determine allowed returns either. At either high or low interest levels, caution seems to be the policy

  13. Evaluating the effects of buffer conditions and extremolytes on thermostability of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor using high-throughput screening combined with design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablinger, Elisabeth; Hellweger, Monika; Leitgeb, Stefan; Zimmer, Andreas

    2012-10-15

    In this study, we combined a high-throughput screening method, differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF), with design of experiments (DoE) methodology to evaluate the effects of several formulation components on the thermostability of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). First we performed a primary buffer screening where we tested thermal stability of G-CSF in different buffers, pH values and buffer concentrations. The significance of each factor and the two-way interactions between them were studied by multivariable regression analysis. pH was identified as most critical factor regarding thermal stability. The most stabilizing buffer, sodium glutamate, and sodium acetate were determined for further investigations. Second we tested the effect of 6 naturally occurring extremolytes (trehalose, sucrose, ectoine, hydroxyectoine, sorbitol, mannitol) on the thermal stability of G-CSF, using a central composite circumscribed design. At low pH (3.8) and low buffer concentration (5 mM) all extremolytes led to a significant increase in thermal stability except the addition of ectoine which resulted in a strong destabilization of G-CSF. Increasing pH and buffer concentration led to an increase in thermal stability with all investigated extremolytes. The described systematic approach allowed to create a ranking of stabilizing extremolytes at different buffer conditions. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The future(s) of emission allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, K.M.; Villarreal, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a sulfur dioxide emission allowance system to be implemented by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under the two-phase implementation of the program, electric utilities responsible for approximately 70 percent of SO 2 emissions in the United States will be issued emission allowances, each representing authorization to emit one ton of sulfur dioxide during a specified calendar year or a later year. Allowances will be issued to utilities with electric-generating units affected by the CAAA limits, as well as to certain entities which may choose to opt-in to the program. Each utility or other emission source must hold a number of allowances at least equal to its total SO 2 emissions during any given year. Unused allowances may be sold, traded, or held in inventory for use against SO 2 emissions in future years. Anyone can buy and hold allowances, including affected utilities, non-utility companies, SO 2 allowances brokers and dealers, environmental groups, and individuals. During Phase I of the program, allowances equivalent to approximately 6.4 million tons of SO 2 emissions will be allocated annually to a group of 110 large, high-SO 2 -emitting power plants. In Phase II, virtually all power-generating utilities (representing approximately 99.4 percent of total US utility emissions) will be subject to the program. The number of allowances issued will increase to approximately 8.9 million a year, with certain special allocations raising the actual number issued to 9.48 million between the years 2000 to 2009, and 8.95 million yearly thereafter. Thus, the CAAA goal of annual emissions of 9 million tons should be achieved by 2010, when virtually all US emission sources will be participating in the program

  15. Keynes, family allowances and Keynesian economic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pressman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a short history of family allowances and documents the fact that Keynes supported family allowances as early as the 1920s, continuing through the 1930s and early 1940s. Keynes saw this policy as a way to help households raise their children and also as a way to increase consumption without reducing business investment. The paper goes on to argue that a policy of family allowances is consistent with Keynesian economics. Finally, the paper uses the Luxembourg Income Study to...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets ).

  17. EnviroAtlas - Portland, Maine - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  18. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  19. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. Vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest and Grass & Herbaceous. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  20. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. In this community, vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest, Grass & Herbaceous, Woody Wetlands, and Emergent Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  1. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  2. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (http:/www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  3. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  4. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/EnviroAtlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  5. EnviroAtlas - Milwaukee, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  6. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  7. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  8. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, Iowa - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  9. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  10. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  11. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  12. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. In this community, vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest and Grass & Herbaceous. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  13. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  14. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees and Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  15. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  16. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets ).

  17. EnviroAtlas - Milwaukee, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  18. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (http:/www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  19. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  20. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. Vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest and Grass & Herbaceous. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/EnviroAtlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  1. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  2. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. Vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest, Grass & Herbaceous, Woody Wetlands, and Emergent Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  3. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  4. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets ).

  5. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets ).

  6. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  7. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  8. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  9. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. In this community, vegetated cover is defined as Trees and Forest, Grass and Herbaceous, Woody Wetlands, and Emergent Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  10. Fast scalar data buffering interface in Linux 2.6 kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homs, A.

    2012-01-01

    Key instrumentation devices like counter/timers, analog-to-digital converters and encoders provide scalar data input. Many of them allow fast acquisitions, but do not provide hardware triggering or buffering mechanisms. A Linux 2.4 kernel driver called Hook was developed at the ESRF as a generic software-triggered buffering interface. This work presents the portage of the ESRF Hook interface to the Linux 2.6 kernel. The interface distinguishes 2 independent functional groups: trigger event generators and data channels. Devices in the first group create software events, like hardware interrupts generated by timers or external signals. On each event, one or more device channels on the second group are read and stored in kernel buffers. The event generators and data channels to be read are fully configurable before each sequence. Designed for fast acquisitions, the Hook implementation is well adapted to multi-CPU systems, where the interrupt latency is notably reduced. On heavily loaded dual-core PCs running standard (non real time) Linux, data can be taken at 1 KHz without losing events. Additional features include full integration into the /sys virtual file-system and hot-plug devices support. (author)

  11. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmers, Christopher C; Getz, Wayne M

    2005-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus) together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  12. Gray Wolves as Climate Change Buffers in Yellowstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmers Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  13. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Wilmers

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  14. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  15. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS... allowable under paragraph (a) of this section must be reduced by— (1) All compensation made available to the... under § 136.235. Government Revenues ...

  16. Agarose electrophoresis of DNA in discontinuous buffers, using a horizontal slab apparatus and a buffer system with improved properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsolnai, A; Orbán, L; Chrambach, A

    1993-03-01

    Using a horizontal slab apparatus with a buffer in the reservoirs at the level of the gel ("sea-level electrophoresis"), the retrograde discontinuous buffer system reported by Wiltfang et al. for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of proteins was applied to DNA electrophoresis. This application yielded the advantages of an increased displacement rate of the moving boundary front and a decrease in the concentration of the counterion base in the resolving phase, which yielded reduced relative mobility values at equivalent gel concentrations and practicable low buffer concentrations. The change of relative mobilities (Rf) with a variation of field strength is decreased compared to that of the migration rate in the continuous Tris-boric-acid-EDTA (TBE) buffer and thus the robustness of the system is improved, as well as the efficiency of separation. The system of Wiltfang et al. has in common with previously described discontinuous DNA system, that it is able to stack DNA from dilute samples and is insensitive to sample components with lower net mobilities than DNA, such as acetate. However, the variance of Rf at constant current density in the discontinuous buffer system is not improved over that of the migration rate at constant field strength in the continuous TBE buffer.

  17. BIOKID: Randomized controlled trial comparing bicarbonate and lactate buffer in biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions in children [ISRCTN81137991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misselwitz Joachim

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peritoneal dialysis (PD is the preferred dialysis modality in children. Its major drawback is the limited technique survival due to infections and progressive ultrafiltration failure. Conventional PD solutions exert marked acute and chronic toxicity to local tissues. Prolonged exposure is associated with severe histopathological alterations including vasculopathy, neoangiogenesis, submesothelial fibrosis and a gradual loss of the mesothelial cell layer. Recently, more biocompatible PD solutions containing reduced amounts of toxic glucose degradation products (GDPs and buffered at neutral pH have been introduced into clinical practice. These solutions contain lactate, bicarbonate or a combination of both as buffer substance. Increasing evidence from clinical trials in adults and children suggests that the new PD fluids may allow for better long-term preservation of peritoneal morphology and function. However, the relative importance of the buffer in neutral-pH, low-GDP fluids is still unclear. In vitro, lactate is cytotoxic and vasoactive at the concentrations used in PD fluids. The BIOKID trial is designed to clarify the clinical significance of the buffer choice in biocompatible PD fluids. Methods/design The objective of the study is to test the hypothesis that bicarbonate based PD solutions may allow for a better preservation of peritoneal transport characteristics in children than solutions containing lactate buffer. Secondary objectives are to assess any impact of the buffer system on acid-base status, peritoneal tissue integrity and the incidence and severity of peritonitis. After a run-in period of 2 months during which a targeted cohort of 60 patients is treated with a conventional, lactate buffered, acidic, GDP containing PD fluid, patients will be stratified according to residual renal function and type of phosphate binding medication and randomized to receive either the lactate-containing Balance solution or the

  18. BIOKID: randomized controlled trial comparing bicarbonate and lactate buffer in biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions in children [ISRCTN81137991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Barbara; Schmitt, Claus P; Almeida, Margarida; Arbeiter, Klaus; Ardissino, Gianluigi; Bonzel, Klaus E; Edefonti, Alberto; Fischbach, Michel; Haluany, Karin; Misselwitz, Joachim; Kemper, Markus J; Rönnholm, Kai; Wygoda, Simone; Schaefer, Franz

    2004-10-14

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the preferred dialysis modality in children. Its major drawback is the limited technique survival due to infections and progressive ultrafiltration failure. Conventional PD solutions exert marked acute and chronic toxicity to local tissues. Prolonged exposure is associated with severe histopathological alterations including vasculopathy, neoangiogenesis, submesothelial fibrosis and a gradual loss of the mesothelial cell layer. Recently, more biocompatible PD solutions containing reduced amounts of toxic glucose degradation products (GDPs) and buffered at neutral pH have been introduced into clinical practice. These solutions contain lactate, bicarbonate or a combination of both as buffer substance. Increasing evidence from clinical trials in adults and children suggests that the new PD fluids may allow for better long-term preservation of peritoneal morphology and function. However, the relative importance of the buffer in neutral-pH, low-GDP fluids is still unclear. In vitro, lactate is cytotoxic and vasoactive at the concentrations used in PD fluids. The BIOKID trial is designed to clarify the clinical significance of the buffer choice in biocompatible PD fluids. The objective of the study is to test the hypothesis that bicarbonate based PD solutions may allow for a better preservation of peritoneal transport characteristics in children than solutions containing lactate buffer. Secondary objectives are to assess any impact of the buffer system on acid-base status, peritoneal tissue integrity and the incidence and severity of peritonitis. After a run-in period of 2 months during which a targeted cohort of 60 patients is treated with a conventional, lactate buffered, acidic, GDP containing PD fluid, patients will be stratified according to residual renal function and type of phosphate binding medication and randomized to receive either the lactate-containing Balance solution or the bicarbonate-buffered Bicavera solution for a period of

  19. Effects of buffer thickness on ATW blanket performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W. S.; Mercatali, L.; Taiwo, T. A.; Hill, R. N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of target and buffer design studies for liquid metal cooled accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) systems, aimed at maximizing the source importance while simultaneously reducing the irradiation damage to fuel. Using 840 MWt liquid metal cooled ATW designs, the effects of buffer thickness on the blanket performance have been studied. Varying the buffer thickness for a given blanket configuration, system performance parameters have been estimated by a series of calculations using the MCNPX and REBUS-3 codes. The effects of source importance variation are studied by investigating the low-energy ( and lt; 20 MeV) neutron source distribution and the equilibrium cycle blanket performance parameters such as fuel inventory, discharge burnup, burnup reactivity loss, and peak fast fluence. For investigating irradiation damage to fuel, the displacements per atom (dpa), hydrogen production, and helium production rates are evaluated at the buffer and blanket interface where the peak fast fluence occurs. Results for the liquid-metal-cooled designs show that the damage rates and the source importance increase monotonically as the buffer thickness decreases. Based on a compromise between the competing objectives of increasing the source importance and reducing the damage rates, a buffer thickness of around 20 cm appears to be reasonable. Investigation of the impact of the proton beam energy on the target and buffer design shows that for a given blanket power level, a lower beam energy (0.6 GeV versus 1 GeV) results in a higher irradiation damage to the beam window. This trend occurs because of the increase in the beam intensity required to maintain the power level

  20. Effects of Buffer Thickness on ATW Blanket Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.S.; Mercatali, L.; Taiwo, T.A.; Hill, R.N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of target and buffer design studies for liquid metal cooled accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) systems, aimed at maximizing the source importance while simultaneously reducing the irradiation damage to fuel. Using 840 MWt liquid metal cooled ATW designs, the effects of buffer thickness on the blanket performance have been studied. Varying the buffer thickness for a given blanket configuration, system performance parameters have been estimated by a series of calculations using the MCNPX and REBUS-3 codes. The effects of source importance variation are studied by investigating the low-energy (< 20 MeV) neutron source distribution and the equilibrium cycle blanket performance parameters such as fuel inventory, discharge burnup, burnup reactivity loss, and peak fast fluence. For investigating irradiation damage to fuel, the displacements per atom (dpa), hydrogen production, and helium production rates are evaluated at the buffer and blanket interface where the peak fast fluence occurs. Results for the liquid-metal-cooled designs show that the damage rates and the source importance increase monotonically as the buffer thickness decreases. Based on a compromise between the competing objectives of increasing the source importance and reducing the damage rates, a buffer thickness of around 20 cm appears to be reasonable. Investigation of the impact of the proton beam energy on the target and buffer design shows that for a given blanket power level, a lower beam energy (0.6 GeV versus 1 GeV) results in a higher irradiation damage to the beam window. This trend occurs because of the increase in the beam intensity required to maintain the power level. (authors)

  1. Dynamic circular buffering: a technique for equilibrium gated blood pool imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, J J; Rahms, H; Green, M V; Del Pozo, F

    1996-03-01

    We have devised a software technique called "dynamic circular buffering" (DCB) with which we create a gated blood pool image sequence of the heart in real time using the best features of LIST and FRAME mode methods of acquisition/processing. The routine is based on the concept of independent "agents" acting on the timing and position data continuously written into the DCB. This approach allows efficient asynchronous operation on PC-type machines and enhanced capability on systems capable of true multiprocessing and multithreading.

  2. Photovoltaic Plants Generation Improvement Using Li-Ion Batteries as Energy Buffer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran, H.; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Luna, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the PV power plants operability improvement obtained when introducing energy storage (ES) systems which allow decoupling the power received from the sun on the photovoltaic (PV) panels from the power injected by the power plant into the grid. Two energy management strategies a...... are presented and analyzed, using Li-ion batteries as the energy storage buffer. The generated power redistribution and its variability reduction are All the results obtained in this paper are based on one year long simulations which used real irradiance data sampled every two minutes....

  3. Emission allowances -- Long-term price trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    Estimated trends in emission allowance (EA) values have been of interest to all those affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 since it became law in 1990. The authors published estimates of the values of EAs in December 1991, and revised their estimate in November 1992. The summary trends of the 1992 estimate is shown here. General estimates such as these are no longer useful. Everyone directly involved in complying with the Act or in buying and selling allowances has developed their own outlook on EA values. Many recent trades have been publicized. The prices from the first auction are also well known. Therefore this article is concerned only with what might happening the long-run. Once Phase 2 compliance is essentially complete and emissions roughly match Emission Allowance allocations of some 9.8 million tons annually, what pressures will there be on prices? What will be the direction of values after Phase 2 is in balance?

  4. Thermo-hydro-mechanical modelling of buffer, synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprak, E.; Mokni, N.; Olivella, S.; Pintado, X.

    2013-08-01

    This study addresses analyses of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in a scheme considered for the spent nuclear fuel repository in Olkiluoto (Finland). The finite element code CODE B RIGHT is used to perform modelling calculations. The objective of the THM modelling was to study some fundamental design parameters. The time required to reach full saturation, the maximum temperature reached in the canister, the deformations in the buffer-backfill interface, the stress-deformation balance between the buffer and the backfill, the swelling pressure developed and the homogenization process development are critical variables. Because of the complexity of the THM processes developed, only a single deposition hole has been modelled with realistic boundary conditions which take into account the entire repository. A thermal calculation has been performed to adopt appropriate boundary conditions for a reduced domain. The modelling has been done under axisymmetric conditions. As a material model for the buffer bentonite and backfill soil, the Barcelona Basic Model (BBM) has been used. Simulation of laboratory tests conducted at B and Tech under supervision of Posiva has been carried out in order to determine the fundamental mechanical parameters for modelling the behaviour of MX-80 bentonite using the BBM model. The modelling process of the buffer-backfill interface is an essential part of tunnel backfill design. The calculations will aim to determine deformations in this intersection, the behaviour of which is important for the buffer swelling. The homogenization process is a key issue as well. Porosity evolution during the saturation process is evaluated in order to check if the final saturated density accomplishes the homogenization requirements. This report also describes the effect of the existence of an air-filled gap located between the canister and the bentonite block rings in thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of the future spent nuclear fuel repository in

  5. Thermo-hydro-mechanical modelling of buffer, synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toprak, E.; Mokni, N.; Olivella, S. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Pintado, X. [B and Tech Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-08-15

    This study addresses analyses of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in a scheme considered for the spent nuclear fuel repository in Olkiluoto (Finland). The finite element code CODE{sub B}RIGHT is used to perform modelling calculations. The objective of the THM modelling was to study some fundamental design parameters. The time required to reach full saturation, the maximum temperature reached in the canister, the deformations in the buffer-backfill interface, the stress-deformation balance between the buffer and the backfill, the swelling pressure developed and the homogenization process development are critical variables. Because of the complexity of the THM processes developed, only a single deposition hole has been modelled with realistic boundary conditions which take into account the entire repository. A thermal calculation has been performed to adopt appropriate boundary conditions for a reduced domain. The modelling has been done under axisymmetric conditions. As a material model for the buffer bentonite and backfill soil, the Barcelona Basic Model (BBM) has been used. Simulation of laboratory tests conducted at B and Tech under supervision of Posiva has been carried out in order to determine the fundamental mechanical parameters for modelling the behaviour of MX-80 bentonite using the BBM model. The modelling process of the buffer-backfill interface is an essential part of tunnel backfill design. The calculations will aim to determine deformations in this intersection, the behaviour of which is important for the buffer swelling. The homogenization process is a key issue as well. Porosity evolution during the saturation process is evaluated in order to check if the final saturated density accomplishes the homogenization requirements. This report also describes the effect of the existence of an air-filled gap located between the canister and the bentonite block rings in thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of the future spent nuclear fuel

  6. Tradable allowances in a restructuring electric industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschirhart, J.

    1999-01-01

    The SO 2 tradable allowance program has been introduced into an electric industry undergoing dramatic changes. Entry of nonutilities into the industry and the emergence of stranded costs are two major changes that are shown to have an impact on the market for allowances and the industry's incentives to switch to cleaner fuels. The degree of impact depends on the extent to which consumers bypass traditional utilities and buy from entrants, and on public utility commission policies regarding the recovery of stranded costs. In turn, the amount of stranded costs depends on fuel switching. The results follow from simulations of a two-utility model that illustrate the qualitative effects of changing policies

  7. Implementing the countercyclical capital buffer in South Africa: Practical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Burra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Basel II regulatory framework significantly increased the resilience of the banking system, but proved ineffective in preventing the 2008/9 financial crisis. The subsequent introduction of Basel III aimed, inter alia, to supplement bank capital using buffers. The countercyclical buffer boosts existing minimum capital requirements when systemic risk surges are detected. Bolstering capital in favourable economic conditions cushions losses in unfavourable conditions, thereby addressing capital requirement procyclicality. This paper contains an overview of the countercyclical capital buffer and a critical discussion of its implementation as proposed in Basel III. Consequences of the buffer's introduction for South African banks are explored, and in particular, potential systemic risk indicator variables are identified that may be used by the South African Reserve Bank (SARB as early warning indicators of imminent systemic financial distress. These indicators may be of value to the SARB, which could use them in taking decisions on the build-up and release of the countercyclical buffer for South African banks.

  8. Carbon dioxide dissociation and buffering in chicken blood during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, H; Piiper, J

    1984-07-01

    Carbon dioxide dissociation curves of oxygenated and deoxygenated bloods, the Haldane effect, the buffer value and other blood and true plasma buffering indices, O2 capacity and hematocrit were determined in bloods withdrawn from chicks before, during and after hatching and 8-month-old hens. Blood CO2 dissociation curves shifted upwards in the developing embryo till pipping, and moved downwards after pipping and hatching. In accordance with the position of the CO2 dissociation curves, the true plasma bicarbonate and red cell CO2 standardized to PCO2 = 40 torr changed. The Haldane factor at standard PCO2 increased from 0.12-0.13 on days 10-14 of incubation to 0.34 in young hens. The buffering power changed in parallel with O2 capacity and hematocrit, increasing steadily during incubation, dropping at hatching and then increasing again to the adult value. The observed changes in the CO2 dissociation curves and buffering variables during the development enable the chick to minimize the changes in the acid-base status and are favorable for coping with the increasing demand for CO2 transport and buffering of the developing bird.

  9. A readout buffer prototype for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, D; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D; Mur, M

    2001-01-01

    Readout buffers are critical components in the dataflow chain of the ATLAS trigger/data-acquisition system. At up to 75 kHz, after each Level-1 trigger accept signal, these devices receive and store digitized data from groups of front-end electronic channels. Several readout buffers are grouped to form a readout buffer complex that acts as a data server for the high-level trigger selection algorithms and for the final data-collection system. This paper describes a functional prototype of a readout buffer based on a custom-made PCI mezzanine card that is designed to accept input data at up to 160 MB /s, to store up to 8 MB of data, and to distribute data chunks at the desired request rate. We describe the hardware of the card that is based on an Intel 1960 processor and complex programmable logic devices. We present the integration of several of these cards in a readout buffer complex. We measure various performance figures and discuss to which extent these can fulfil ATLAS needs. (5 refs).

  10. Evaluation of amine inhibitors for suitability as crevice buffering agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaweera, P.; Hettiarachchi, S.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the results of a research effort to evaluate the suitability of some selected amines and amino acids as a crevice-buffering agents in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators. The amines may be useful for buffering acid crevices, and the amino acids, because they contain both acidic and basic groups, may be useful for acidic and caustic crevices. Five commercially available amines and two amino acids were studied during this research. The study involved (1) the hydrolysis of these commercially available amines and amino acids, including measurement of their kinetics of decomposition, in simulated steam generator bulk water at 290 C, and (2) determination of their thermal stability in a simulated crevice environment. The study showed that, although the high-molecular-weight amines undergo hydrothermal decomposition, they have a better buffering capacity than their low-molecular-weight counterparts at 290 C. The amines provide effective crevice buffering by increasing the pH of the crevice solution by as much as 2.84 and to 4.24 units in the experimental setup used in this program. It was concluded that polyamines provide excellent buffering of the simulated crevice environment at 290 C and morpholine remains the best low-molecular-weight amine investigated. However, detailed volatility studies of the amines were not considered in this work. Such data would be needed before in-plant testing to ensure that the amines can concentrate in steam generator crevices to the levels assumed in this study

  11. Water body and riparian buffer strip characteristics in a vineyard area to support aquatic pesticide exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohliger, Renja; Schulz, Ralf

    2010-10-15

    The implementation of a geodata-based probabilistic pesticide exposure assessment for surface waters in Germany offers the opportunity to base the exposure estimation on more differentiated assumptions including detailed landscape characteristics. Since these characteristics can only be estimated using field surveys, water body width and depth, hydrology, riparian buffer strip width, ground vegetation cover, existence of concentrated flow paths, and riparian vegetation were characterised at 104 water body segments in the vineyard region Palatinate (south-west Germany). Water body segments classified as permanent (n=43) had median values of water body width and depth of 0.9m and 0.06m, respectively, and the determined median width:depth ratio was 15. Thus, the deterministic water body model (width=1m; depth=0.3m) assumed in regulatory exposure assessment seems unsuitable for small water bodies in the study area. Only 25% of investigated buffer strips had a dense vegetation cover (>70%) and allow a laminar sheet flow as required to include them as an effective pesticide runoff reduction landscape characteristic. At 77 buffer strips, bordering field paths and erosion rills leading into the water body were present, concentrating pesticide runoff and consequently decreasing buffer strip efficiency. The vegetation type shrubbery (height>1.5m) was present at 57 (29%) investigated riparian buffer strips. According to their median optical vegetation density of 75%, shrubberies may provide a spray drift reduction of 72±29%. Implementing detailed knowledge in an overall assessment revealed that exposure via drift might be 2.4 and via runoff up to 1.6 fold higher than assumed by the deterministic approach. Furthermore, considering vegetated buffer strips only by their width leads to an underestimation of exposure by a factor of as much as four. Our data highlight that the deterministic model assumptions neither represent worst-case nor median values and therefore cannot

  12. Novel nuclei isolation buffer for flow cytometric genome size estimation of Zingiberaceae: a comparison with common isolation buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Abhishek; Bhadra, Sreetama; Bandyopadhyay, Maumita

    2016-11-01

    Cytological parameters such as chromosome numbers and genome sizes of plants are used routinely for studying evolutionary aspects of polyploid plants. Members of Zingiberaceae show a wide range of inter- and intrageneric variation in their reproductive habits and ploidy levels. Conventional cytological study in this group of plants is severely hampered by the presence of diverse secondary metabolites, which also affect their genome size estimation using flow cytometry. None of the several nuclei isolation buffers used in flow cytometry could be used very successfully for members of Zingiberaceae to isolate good quality nuclei from both shoot and root tissues. The competency of eight nuclei isolation buffers was compared with a newly formulated buffer, MB01, in six different genera of Zingiberaceae based on the fluorescence intensity of propidium iodide-stained nuclei using flow cytometric parameters, namely coefficient of variation of the G 0 /G 1 peak, debris factor and nuclei yield factor. Isolated nuclei were studied using fluorescence microscopy and bio-scanning electron microscopy to analyse stain-nuclei interaction and nuclei topology, respectively. Genome contents of 21 species belonging to these six genera were determined using MB01. Flow cytometric parameters showed significant differences among the analysed buffers. MB01 exhibited the best combination of analysed parameters; photomicrographs obtained from fluorescence and electron microscopy supported the superiority of MB01 buffer over other buffers. Among the 21 species studied, nuclear DNA contents of 14 species are reported for the first time. Results of the present study substantiate the enhanced efficacy of MB01, compared to other buffers tested, in the generation of acceptable cytograms from all species of Zingiberaceae studied. Our study facilitates new ways of sample preparation for further flow cytometric analysis of genome size of other members belonging to this highly complex polyploid family

  13. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each kind... organizations is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A-122, “Cost Principles for Non...

  14. 13 CFR 143.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 143.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  15. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a...

  16. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  17. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may... the grantee or sub-grantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a...

  18. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 80.22... kind of organization, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. For the...

  19. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used... grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind of organization, there is a set of...

  20. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use...

  1. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... part for labor, weatherization materials, and related matters for a renewable energy system, shall not... beginning in calendar year 2010 and the $3,000 average for renewable energy systems will be adjusted... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy...

  2. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... typical “provider” costs, and costs (such as marketing, enrollment, membership, and operation of the HMO... principles applicable to provider costs, as set forth in § 417.536. (2) The allowability of other costs is determined in accordance with principles set forth in §§ 417.538 through 417.550. (3) Costs for covered...

  3. 44 CFR 295.21 - Allowable compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable compensation. 295.21 Section 295.21 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... no-cost crisis counseling services available in the community. FEMA will not reimburse for treatment...

  4. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rehabilitation facility or sheltered workshop; independent instructor; institutional non-farm cooperative: Full...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31... rehabilitation program under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 will receive a monthly subsistence allowance at the rates in...

  5. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... uniform cost accounting standards that comply with cost principles acceptable to the Federal agency. ... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative... increment above allowable costs) to the grantee or subgrantee. (b) Applicable cost principles. For each kind...

  6. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR AWARDS AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.27... Organizations” and paragraph (b) of this section. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher...

  7. 22 CFR 145.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 145...-Profit Organizations.” The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education is...

  8. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of... by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A...

  9. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217...

  10. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...

  11. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR 29-70 and 41... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 632.37 Section 632.37 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN...

  12. Description of buffer tests in 2005 - 2007. Results of laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanden, Torbjoern; Boergesson, Lennart; Dueck, Ann; Goudarzi, Reza; Loennqvist, Margareta; Nilsson, Ulf; Aakesson, Mattias (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    distance block and the rock surface as a means of improving performance of the buffer, but for different reasons. In DAWE, the entire tunnel will be filled when a functional plug has been built in order to minimize internal erosion. In BD, the slot between the distance blocks and the rock surface may be filled with water after the installation of each section in order to improve the sealing ability of the distance blocks. The hydro-mechanical interaction between the buffer, the water filled slot and the rock are important factors in the functioning of the two design alternatives. 4. Piping through distance blocks. In BD, the distance block section is required to hydraulically seal and isolate all container sections. Since the distance blocks cannot be installed without a gap between the blocks and the rock surface this gap must be sealed by the swelling bentonite before piping can be prevented. This requirement is very difficult to achieve at high water inflow rate, and a large number of tests have been performed in order to determine the limits of the allowable gap between the bentonite and rock and to improve the design. 5. Hydraulic pressure on distance block end surface. Since the distance block section in BD must hydraulically seal all container sections, there will be very high water pressure inside the supercontainer section when the air-filled volumes have been filled with water. If the water pressure propagates deeply into the joint between distance blocks or between a distance block and the supercontainer lid, unacceptably high forces will be applied on the distance blocks and on the fixing ring outside the distance block section

  13. Description of buffer tests in 2005 - 2007. Results of laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, Torbjoern; Boergesson, Lennart; Dueck, Ann; Goudarzi, Reza; Loennqvist, Margareta; Nilsson, Ulf; Aakesson, Mattias

    2008-12-01

    distance block and the rock surface as a means of improving performance of the buffer, but for different reasons. In DAWE, the entire tunnel will be filled when a functional plug has been built in order to minimize internal erosion. In BD, the slot between the distance blocks and the rock surface may be filled with water after the installation of each section in order to improve the sealing ability of the distance blocks. The hydro-mechanical interaction between the buffer, the water filled slot and the rock are important factors in the functioning of the two design alternatives. 4. Piping through distance blocks. In BD, the distance block section is required to hydraulically seal and isolate all container sections. Since the distance blocks cannot be installed without a gap between the blocks and the rock surface this gap must be sealed by the swelling bentonite before piping can be prevented. This requirement is very difficult to achieve at high water inflow rate, and a large number of tests have been performed in order to determine the limits of the allowable gap between the bentonite and rock and to improve the design. 5. Hydraulic pressure on distance block end surface. Since the distance block section in BD must hydraulically seal all container sections, there will be very high water pressure inside the supercontainer section when the air-filled volumes have been filled with water. If the water pressure propagates deeply into the joint between distance blocks or between a distance block and the supercontainer lid, unacceptably high forces will be applied on the distance blocks and on the fixing ring outside the distance block section

  14. Piping and erosion in buffer and backfill materials. Current knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Sanden, Torbjoern

    2006-09-01

    The water inflow into the deposition holes and tunnels in a repository will mainly take place through fractures in the rock and will lead to that the buffer and backfill will be wetted and homogenised. But in general the buffer and backfill cannot absorb all water that runs through a fracture, which leads to that a water pressure will be generated in the fracture when the inflow is hindered. If the counter pressure and strength of the buffer or backfill is insufficiently high, piping and subsequent erosion may take place. The processes and consequences of piping and erosion have been studied in some projects and several laboratory test series in different scales have been carried through. This brief report describes these tests and the results and conclusions that have emerged. The knowledge of piping and erosion is insufficient today and additional studies are needed and running

  15. On the risk of liquefaction of buffer and backfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2000-10-01

    The necessary prerequisites for liquefaction of buffers and backfills in a KBS-3 repository exist but the stress conditions and intended densities practically eliminate the risk of liquefaction for single earthquakes with magnitudes up to M=8 and normal duration. For buffers rich in expandable minerals it would be possible to reduce the density at water saturation to 1,700 - 1,800 kg/m{sup 3} or even less without any significant risk of liquefaction, while the density at saturation of backfills with 10 - 15% expandable clay should not be reduced to less than about 1,900 kg/m{sup 3}. Since the proposed densities of both buffers and backfills will significantly exceed these minimum values it is concluded that there is no risk of liquefaction of the engineered soil barriers in a KBS-3 repository even for very significant earthquakes.

  16. On the risk of liquefaction of buffer and backfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    2000-10-01

    The necessary prerequisites for liquefaction of buffers and backfills in a KBS-3 repository exist but the stress conditions and intended densities practically eliminate the risk of liquefaction for single earthquakes with magnitudes up to M=8 and normal duration. For buffers rich in expandable minerals it would be possible to reduce the density at water saturation to 1,700 - 1,800 kg/m 3 or even less without any significant risk of liquefaction, while the density at saturation of backfills with 10 - 15% expandable clay should not be reduced to less than about 1,900 kg/m 3 . Since the proposed densities of both buffers and backfills will significantly exceed these minimum values it is concluded that there is no risk of liquefaction of the engineered soil barriers in a KBS-3 repository even for very significant earthquakes

  17. Hydrothermal stability of bentonite-based buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.M.; Miller, H.G.

    1985-02-01

    The reactions expected in bentonite-based buffer materials under conditions typical of a nuclear fuel waste disposal include mineral transformations (e.g. smectite to illite; smectite to zeolite) and a range of low-temperature cementation reactions. The probable extent and significance of these reactions are reviewed, and other reactions involving proposed filler sands are also examined briefly. The effects of mineral transformations on buffer performance will be insignificant if disposal vault temperatures do not exceed 100-120 degrees C and pH remains in the range 4 to 8. At pH > 9, zeolitization and silica dissolution may occur and buffer stability cannot be assured. The effects of cementation reactions may be significant, but are difficult to predict and require further investigation

  18. Capacity gains of buffer-aided moving relays

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2017-03-14

    This work investigates the gain due to reduction in path loss by deploying buffer-aided moving relaying. In particular, the increase in gain due to moving relays is studied for dual-hop broadcast channels and the bidirectional relay channel. It is shown that the exploited gains in these channels due to buffer-aided relaying can be enhanced by utilizing the fact that a moving relay can communicate with the terminal closest to it and store the data in the buffer and then forward the data to the intended destination when it comes in close proximity with the destination. Numerical results show that for both the considered channels the achievable rates are increased as compared to the case of stationary relays. Numerical results also show that more significant increase in performance is seen when the relay moves to-and-fro between the source and the relay.

  19. Buffer thermal energy storage for an air Brayton solar engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Barr, K. P.

    1981-01-01

    The application of latent-heat buffer thermal energy storage to a point-focusing solar receiver equipped with an air Brayton engine was studied. To demonstrate the effect of buffer thermal energy storage on engine operation, a computer program was written which models the recuperator, receiver, and thermal storage device as finite-element thermal masses. Actual operating or predicted performance data are used for all components, including the rotating equipment. Based on insolation input and a specified control scheme, the program predicts the Brayton engine operation, including flows, temperatures, and pressures for the various components, along with the engine output power. An economic parametric study indicates that the economic viability of buffer thermal energy storage is largely a function of the achievable engine life.

  20. Database on gas migration tests through bentonite buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanai, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    Carbon steel is a candidate material for an overpack for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Japan. The corrosion of the carbon steel overpack in aqueous solution under anoxic conditions will cause the generation of hydrogen gas, which may affect hydrological and mechanical properties of the bentonite buffer. To evaluate such an effect of gas generation, it is necessary to develop a model of gas migration through bentonite buffer material taking account of data obtained from experiments. The gas migration experiments under both unsaturated and saturated conditions have been carried out to clarify the fundamental characteristics of bentonite for gas migration. This report compiles the experimental data obtained from gas migration tests for buffer material which has been conducted by JAEA until December, 2007. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (author)

  1. Clay colloid formation and release from MX-80 buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1999-12-01

    Flowing groundwater can tear off clay colloids from buffer clay that has penetrated into fractures and transport them and bring sorbed radionuclides up to the biosphere. The colloids are 2-50 μm particle aggregates that are liberated from expanded, softened buffer if the water flow rate in the fractures exceeds a few centimeters per second. Except for the first few months or years after application of the buffer in the deposition holes the flow rate will not be as high as that. The aperture of the fractures will not hinder transport of colloids but most of the fractures contain clastic fillings, usually chlorite, that attract and immobilize them. This condition and the flow rate criterion combine to reduce the chance of radionuclide-bearing clay colloids to reach the biosphere to practically zero except for certain cases that need to be considered

  2. Capacity gains of buffer-aided moving relays

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar; Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alnuweiri, Hussein; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates the gain due to reduction in path loss by deploying buffer-aided moving relaying. In particular, the increase in gain due to moving relays is studied for dual-hop broadcast channels and the bidirectional relay channel. It is shown that the exploited gains in these channels due to buffer-aided relaying can be enhanced by utilizing the fact that a moving relay can communicate with the terminal closest to it and store the data in the buffer and then forward the data to the intended destination when it comes in close proximity with the destination. Numerical results show that for both the considered channels the achievable rates are increased as compared to the case of stationary relays. Numerical results also show that more significant increase in performance is seen when the relay moves to-and-fro between the source and the relay.

  3. Early age sealing of buffer-rock gap by artificial wetting to induce bentonite swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, Erika; Marjavaara, Pieti

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The aim of this work is to study the homogeneous and rapid swelling of bentonite in the gap between the buffer blocks and the rock wall of the Olkiluoto disposal facility by artificial wetting. The focus was on the construction period of the deposition hole and buffer, and thus only the very early ages of the first weeks. In practice it is desirable that the bentonite material has a volume increase sufficient enough to prevent rock scaling while lowering the risks of bentonite piping and erosion due to potential water flow. This initial study was done in a small-scale mock-up in laboratory conditions. The small-scale steel mock-up had dimensions of 39 cm in height by 36 cm in diameter and included 12 pressure sensors, two displacement transducers, thermal couples, and pore water pressure measurements. The radial and axial pressure development was typically measured over a two week period to assess the rate and magnitude of sealing. A steel confining lid was used for simulating overpressure, though in some cases a plexiglass lid was used to take video images of the gap sealing. The buffer blocks were produced by isostatic compression of 100 MPa. The material was MX-80 Wyoming bentonite having a water content of approximately 13% and a dry density of 1890 kg/m 3 . The testing samples were dry sawn and core drilled from the large block and machined to their final dimensions. These were typically 30 x 30 cm, either as a solid block or three disks of 10 cm height each. The diameter was sometimes varied to allow for a change of gap width between 25 to 50 mm The study included various scenarios, such as: eccentric aligned blocks with gap sizes of 5 and 45 mm, free upward swelling or confinement, different types of pellet and granular gap filling, addition of water at varying rates, and longer term test duration. The samples were typically disassembled after two weeks. At this ending point, material assessments were done

  4. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  5. Exposure to buffer solution alters tendon hydration and mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safa, Babak N; Meadows, Kyle D; Szczesny, Spencer E; Elliott, Dawn M

    2017-08-16

    A buffer solution is often used to maintain tissue hydration during mechanical testing. The most commonly used buffer solution is a physiological concentration of phosphate buffered saline (PBS); however, PBS increases the tissue's water content and decreases its tensile stiffness. In addition, solutes from the buffer can diffuse into the tissue and interact with its structure and mechanics. These bathing solution effects can confound the outcome and interpretation of mechanical tests. Potential bathing solution artifacts, including solute diffusion, and their effect on mechanical properties, are not well understood. The objective of this study was to measure the effects of long-term exposure of rat tail tendon fascicles to several concentrations (0.9-25%) of NaCl, sucrose, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and SPEG (NaCl+PEG) solutions on water content, solute diffusion, and mechanical properties. We found that with an increase in solute concentration the apparent water content decreased for all solution types. Solutes diffused into the tissue for NaCl and sucrose, however, no solute diffusion was observed for PEG or SPEG. The mechanical properties changed for both NaCl solutions, in particular after long-term (8h) incubation the modulus and equilibrium stress decreased compared to short-term (15min) for 25% NaCl, and the cross sectional area increased for 0.9% NaCl. However, the mechanical properties were unchanged for both PEG and SPEG except for minor alterations in stress relaxation parameters. This study shows that NaCl and sucrose buffer solutions are not suitable for long-term mechanical tests. We therefore propose using PEG or SPEG as alternative buffer solutions that after long-term incubation can maintain tissue hydration without solute diffusion and produce a consistent mechanical response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermo-Hydraulic Modelling of Buffer and Backfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintado, X.; Rautioaho, E.

    2013-09-01

    The temporal evolution of saturation, liquid pressure and temperature in the components of the engineered barrier system was studied using numerical methods. A set of laboratory tests was conducted to calibrate the parameters employed in the models. The modelling consisted of thermal, hydraulic and thermo-hydraulic analysis in which the significant thermo-hydraulic processes, parameters and features were identified. CODE B RIGHT was used for the finite element modelling and supplementary calculations were conducted with analytical methods. The main objective in this report is to improve understanding of the thermo-hydraulic processes and material properties that affect buffer behaviour in the Olkiluoto repository and to determine the parametric requirements of models for the accurate prediction of this behaviour. The analyses consisted of evaluating the influence of initial canister temperature and gaps in the buffer, and the role played by fractures and the rock mass located between fractures in supplying water for buffer and backfill saturation. In the thermo-hydraulic analysis, the primary processes examined were the effects of buffer drying near the canister on temperature evolution and the manner in which heat flow affects the buffer saturation process. Uncertainties in parameters and variations in the boundary conditions, modelling geometry and thermo-hydraulic phenomena were assessed with a sensitivity analysis. The material parameters, constitutive models, and assumptions made were carefully selected for all the modelling cases. The reference parameters selected for the simulations were compared and evaluated against laboratory measurements. The modelling results highlight the importance of understanding groundwater flow through the rock mass and from fractures in the rock in order to achieve reliable predictions regarding buffer saturation, since saturation times could range from a few years to tens of thousands of years depending on the hydrogeological

  7. Impact of Burst Buffer Architectures on Application Portability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Oral, H. Sarp [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Center for Computational Science; Atchley, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Center for Computational Science; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Center for Computational Science

    2016-09-30

    The Oak Ridge and Argonne Leadership Computing Facilities are both receiving new systems under the Collaboration of Oak Ridge, Argonne, and Livermore (CORAL) program. Because they are both part of the INCITE program, applications need to be portable between these two facilities. However, the Summit and Aurora systems will be vastly different architectures, including their I/O subsystems. While both systems will have POSIX-compliant parallel file systems, their Burst Buffer technologies will be different. This difference may pose challenges to application portability between facilities. Application developers need to pay attention to specific burst buffer implementations to maximize code portability.

  8. The Countercyclical Capital Buffer of Basel III: A Critical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Repullo, Rafael; Saurina, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    We provide a critical assessment of the countercyclical capital buffer in the new regulatory framework known as Basel III, which is based on the deviation of the creditto- GDP ratio with respect to its trend. We argue that a mechanical application of the buffer would tend to reduce capital requirements when GDP growth is high and increase them when GDP growth is low, so it may end up exacerbating the inherent pro-cyclicality of risk-sensitive bank capital regulation. We also note that Basel I...

  9. Survey of Swedish buffer material candidates and methods for characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlstroem, M.; Pusch, R.

    1987-12-01

    The study has given a good overview of potential clay buffer candidates in the part of Sweden that offers the best possibilities to find large accessible quantities of smectitic materials. The most promising Scanian materials are those in the Kaageroed and Vallaakra (Margreteberg) areas since they represent the most smectitic ones, which may serve as raw material for the production of canister embedment. The moraine clays in the Lund-Landskrona region seem to be useful for backfilling purposes. A refined version of Reynolds technique is suggested as an SKB standard for prospecting and characterization of buffer materials. (orig./DG)

  10. Evidence for the buffer zone in a plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.A.; Clothiaux, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of an absorbing layer, or buffer zone, of weakly ionized gas between the rear of the projectile and the front of the plasma arc armature in a plasma accelerator has been postulated. In the studies reported here a technique for finding the position of the projectile as a function of time is given and compared to the plasma armature position as determined by inductive probes. Analyses of these signals provide the basis for a description of the in-bore motion of the projectile with respect to the plasma arc armature. The experimental evidence appears to support the existence of a buffer zone

  11. Moisture buffering and its consequence in whole building hygrothermal modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Grau, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Moisture absorption and desorption of materials in contact with indoor air of buildings can be used as a passive, i.e., nonmechanical, way to moderate the variation of indoor humidity. This phenomenon, which is recognized as,moisture buffering', could potentially be used as an attractive feature...... for ventilation if indoor humidity is a parameter for controlling ventilation rate, 2. it is possible to improve the perceived acceptability of indoor air, as judged by the temperature and humidity of the air, by using moisture buffering to control the indoor humidity. The results of the whole building...

  12. Biomechanical Response and Behavior of Users under Emergency Buffer Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Miralbes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the biomechanical effects on elevator users and the injuries sustained should an elevator crash happen. The analysis will focus on buffer impact, signaling that the earlier mentioned buffer is usually located at the bottom of the pit. In order to carry out this analysis, a numerical technique based on finite element method will be used, while elevator users will be simulated by means of automotive dummies. Two crash factors will be studied, namely, location of dummy and fall velocity. The analysis criteria will be damages sustained by the dummy, based on biomechanical index such as HIC, CSI, forces, and accelerations.

  13. Effect of buffer at nanoscale molecular recognition interfaces - electrostatic binding of biological polyanions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Ana C; Laurini, Erik; Vieira, Vânia M P; Pricl, Sabrina; Smith, David K

    2017-10-19

    We investigate the impact of an over-looked component on molecular recognition in water-buffer. The binding of a cationic dye to biological polyanion heparin is shown by isothermal calorimetry to depend on buffer (Tris-HCl > HEPES > PBS). The heparin binding of self-assembled multivalent (SAMul) cationic micelles is even more buffer dependent. Multivalent electrostatic molecular recognition is buffer dependent as a result of competitive interactions between the cationic binding interface and anions present in the buffer.

  14. Buffering mechanisms in aging: a systems approach toward uncovering the genetic component of aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv Bergman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An unrealized potential to understand the genetic basis of aging in humans, is to consider the immense survival advantage of the rare individuals who live 100 years or more. The Longevity Gene Study was initiated in 1998 at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine to investigate longevity genes in a selected population: the "oldest old" Ashkenazi Jews, 95 years of age and older, and their children. The study proved the principle that some of these subjects are endowed with longevity-promoting genotypes. Here we reason that some of the favorable genotypes act as mechanisms that buffer the deleterious effect of age-related disease genes. As a result, the frequency of deleterious genotypes may increase among individuals with extreme lifespan because their protective genotype allows disease-related genes to accumulate. Thus, studies of genotypic frequencies among different age groups can elucidate the genetic determinants and pathways responsible for longevity. Borrowing from evolutionary theory, we present arguments regarding the differential survival via buffering mechanisms and their target age-related disease genes in searching for aging and longevity genes. Using more than 1,200 subjects between the sixth and eleventh decades of life (at least 140 subjects in each group, we corroborate our hypotheses experimentally. We study 66 common allelic site polymorphism in 36 candidate genes on the basis of their phenotype. Among them we have identified a candidate-buffering mechanism and its candidate age-related disease gene target. Previously, the beneficial effect of an advantageous cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP-VV genotype on lipoprotein particle size in association with decreased metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, as well as with better cognitive function, have been demonstrated. We report an additional advantageous effect of the CETP-VV (favorable genotype in neutralizing the deleterious effects of the lipoprotein(a (LPA gene

  15. Super-allowed Fermi beta-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    A final analysis of J π =0 + ->0 + super-allowed Fermi transitions yields vertical bar V ud vertical bar 2 =0.9500±0.0007; vertical bar V ud vertical bar 2 + vertical bar V us vertical bar 2 + vertical bar V ub vertical bar 2 =0.9999±0.0011 with the operational vector coupling constant G V */(-bar c) 3 =(1.15052±0.00021)x10 -5 GeV -2

  16. Making It Personal: Per Capita Carbon Allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fawcett, Tina; Hvelplund, Frede; Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The Chapter highligts the importance of introducing new, efficient schemes for mitigation of global warming. One such scheme is Personal Carbon Allowances (PCA), whereby individuals are allotted a tradable ration of CO2 emission per year.This chapter reviews the fundamentals of PCA and analyzes its...... merits and problems. The United Kingdom and Denmark have been chosen as case studies because the energy situation and the institutional setup are quite different between the two countries....

  17. Investigation on performance of all optical buffer with large dynamical delay time based on cascaded double loop optical buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Jun, Wang; Xiang-Jun, Xin; Xiao-Lei, Zhang; Chong-Qing, Wu; Kuang-Lu, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Optical buffers are critical for optical signal processing in future optical packet-switched networks. In this paper, a theoretical study as well as an experimental demonstration on a new optical buffer with large dynamical delay time is carried out based on cascaded double loop optical buffers (DLOBs). It is found that pulse distortion can be restrained by a negative optical control mode when the optical packet is in the loop. Noise analysis indicates that it is feasible to realise a large variable delay range by cascaded DLOBs. These conclusions are validated by the experiment system with 4-stage cascaded DLOBs. Both the theoretical simulations and the experimental results indicate that a large delay range of 1–9999 times the basic delay unit and a fine granularity of 25 ns can be achieved by the cascaded DLOBs. The performance of the cascaded DLOBs is suitable for the all optical networks. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  18. Molding method of buffer material for underground disposal of radiation-contaminated material, and molded buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasaka, Hidenari; Shimura, Satoshi; Kawakami, Susumu; Ninomiya, Nobuo; Yamagata, Junji; Asano, Eiichi

    1995-01-01

    Upon molding of a buffer material to be used upon burying a vessel containing radiation-contaminated materials in a sealed state, a powdery buffer material to be molded such as bentonite is disposed at the periphery of a mandrel having a cylindrical portion somewhat larger than contaminate container to be subjected to underground disposal. In addition, it is subjected to integration-molding such as cold isotropic press with a plastic film being disposed therearound, to form a molding product at high density. The molding product is released and taken out with the plastic film being disposed thereon. Releasability from an elastic mold is improved by the presence of the plastic film. In addition, if it is stored or transported while having the plastic film being disposed thereon, swelling of the buffer material due to water absorption or moisture absorption can be suppressed. (T.M.)

  19. The Buffer and Backfill Handbook. Part 2: Materials and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, Roland

    2001-12-01

    Improved technology and prospection yielding more pure and homogeneous raw materials for preparing buffers and backfills will ultimately outdate the clays and ballast materials described in the present part of the Handbook. It describes experimentally investigated materials of potential use in repositories but other, more suitable materials will replace them in the future. The Handbook will hence have to be reviewed regularly, making room for superior materials in future, upgraded Handbook versions. Buffer is the term for dense clay used for embedment of canisters with highly radioactive waste, while backfill is soil used for filling tunnels and shafts in repositories. Examples of soil materials of potential use as buffers and backfills in repositories of KBS-3 type are described in this part of the Handbook. They are: smectitic clay materials intended for preparation of buffers (canister-embedding clay) and used as clay component in artificially prepared tunnel and shaft backfills consisting of mixtures of clay and ballast. Ballast materials intended for backfilling of tunnels and shafts and used as components of artificially prepared backfills. Smectitic natural clay soils intended for use as buffers and backfills. Very fine-grained smectite clay used as grout for sealing rock fractures. In this part of the Handbook for Buffers and Backfills, description of various candidate materials will be made with respect to their mineral composition and physical properties, with respect to the groundwater chemistry that can be expected in a deep repository in Swedish bedrock. Chapter 3 deals with smectitic clay materials intended for embedment of heat-producing canisters with highly radioactive waste. Focus is on the nature of the buffer constituents, i. e. the smectite content, the non-expanding clay minerals colloidal and the accessory non-clay minerals as well as amorphous matter and organic substances. The dominant part of the chapter describes the occurrence and origin

  20. The Buffer and Backfill Handbook. Part 2: Materials and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    Improved technology and prospection yielding more pure and homogeneous raw materials for preparing buffers and backfills will ultimately outdate the clays and ballast materials described in the present part of the Handbook. It describes experimentally investigated materials of potential use in repositories but other, more suitable materials will replace them in the future. The Handbook will hence have to be reviewed regularly, making room for superior materials in future, upgraded Handbook versions. Buffer is the term for dense clay used for embedment of canisters with highly radioactive waste, while backfill is soil used for filling tunnels and shafts in repositories. Examples of soil materials of potential use as buffers and backfills in repositories of KBS-3 type are described in this part of the Handbook. They are: smectitic clay materials intended for preparation of buffers (canister-embedding clay) and used as clay component in artificially prepared tunnel and shaft backfills consisting of mixtures of clay and ballast. Ballast materials intended for backfilling of tunnels and shafts and used as components of artificially prepared backfills. Smectitic natural clay soils intended for use as buffers and backfills. Very fine-grained smectite clay used as grout for sealing rock fractures. In this part of the Handbook for Buffers and Backfills, description of various candidate materials will be made with respect to their mineral composition and physical properties, with respect to the groundwater chemistry that can be expected in a deep repository in Swedish bedrock. Chapter 3 deals with smectitic clay materials intended for embedment of heat-producing canisters with highly radioactive waste. Focus is on the nature of the buffer constituents, i. e. the smectite content, the non-expanding clay minerals colloidal and the accessory non-clay minerals as well as amorphous matter and organic substances. The dominant part of the chapter describes the occurrence and origin

  1. Imidacloprid sorption and transport in cropland, grass buffer and riparian buffer soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satkowski, Laura E.; Goyne, Keith W.; Anderson, Stephen H.; Lerch, Robert N.; Allen, Craig R.; Snow, Daniel D.

    2018-01-01

    An understanding of neonicotinoid sorption and transport in soil is critical for determining and mitigating environmental risk associated with the most widely used class of insecticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate mobility and transport of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (ICD) in soils collected from cropland, grass vegetative buffer strip (VBS), and riparian VBS soils. Soils were collected at six randomly chosen sites within grids that encompassed all three land uses. Single-point equilibrium batch sorption experiments were conducted using radio-labeled (14C) ICD to determine solid–solution partition coefficients (Kd). Column experiments were conducted using soils collected from the three vegetation treatments at one site by packing soil into glass columns. Water flow was characterized by applying Br− as a nonreactive tracer. A single pulse of 14C-ICD was then applied, and ICD leaching was monitored for up to 45 d. Bromide and ICD breakthrough curves for each column were simulated using CXTFIT and HYDRUS-1D models. Sorption results indicated that ICD sorbs more strongly to riparian VBS (Kd = 22.6 L kg−1) than crop (Kd = 11.3 L kg−1) soils. Soil organic C was the strongest predictor of ICD sorption (p < 0.0001). The column transport study found mean peak concentrations of ICD at 5.83, 10.84, and 23.8 pore volumes for crop, grass VBS, and riparian VBS soils, respectively. HYDRUS-1D results indicated that the two-site, one-rate linear reversible model best described results of the breakthrough curves, indicating the complexity of ICD sorption and demonstrating its mobility in soil. Greater sorption and longer retention by the grass and riparian VBS soils than the cropland soil suggests that VBS may be a viable means to mitigate ICD loss from agroecosystems, thereby preventing ICD transport into surface water, groundwater, or drinking water resources.

  2. A novel contra propagating ultrasonic flowmeter using glad buffer rods for high temperature measurement. Application to the oil and gas industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Demartonne R. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Cheng-Kuei Jen; Yuu Ono [National Research Council (NRC), Quebec (Canada). Industrial Materials Institute

    2005-07-01

    Ultrasonic techniques are attractive for process monitoring and control because they are non-intrusive, robust and inexpensive. Two common concerns limiting the high temperature performance of conventional ultrasonic systems for flow measurement are related to transducers and couplants. A suitable approach to overcoming this drawback is to insert a thermal isolating buffer rod with good ultrasonic performance (e.g., high signal-to-noise ratio). This requirement is important because, a priori, the noises generated in the buffer rod may bury the desired signals, so that no meaningful information is extracted. Besides protecting the ultrasonic transducers from overheating in applications such as high temperature flow measurements, buffer rods are also a solution for the couplant between the probe and tested sample, since their probing end can be directly wetted by fluids. Here, we propose clad buffer rods driven by shear transducers as the main building block of contra propagating ultrasonic flowmeters for high temperature application. It is demonstrated that the superior signal-to-noise ratio exhibit by clad buffer rods compared to the reported non-clad counterparts improve precision in transit-time measurement, leading to more accurate flow speed determination. In addition, it is shown that clad buffer rods generate specific ultrasonic signals for temperature calibration of flowmeters, allowing temperature variation while still measuring accurately the flow speed. These results are of interest for the oil and gas industries. (author)

  3. Sulfur dioxide allowances. Trading and technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Surender; Managi, Shunsuke

    2010-01-01

    The US Clean Air Act Amendments introduce an emissions trading system to regulate SO 2 emissions. This study finds that changes in SO 2 emissions prices are related to innovations induced by these amendments. We find that electricity-generating plants are able to increase electricity output and reduce emissions of SO 2 and NO x from 1995 to 2007 due to the introduction of the allowance trading system. However, compared to the approximate 8% per year of exogenous technological progress, the induced effect is relatively small, and the contribution of the induced effect to overall technological progress is about 1-2%. (author)

  4. Development and application of a green-chemistry solution deposition technique for buffer layer coating on cube-textured metal substrates in view of further deposition of rare-earth based superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallewatta, Pallewatta G A P

    which consist of YBCO superconducting coatings on cube-textured Ni based alloy tapes.  Before the epitaxial deposition this superconducting layer, a buffer layer is applied on the metal substrate as a diffusion barrier which is also required to transfer the strong texture of the underlying substrate......, allowing the epitaxial growth of the superconducting layer. State-of-the-art coated conductor hetero structures are mainly based on CeO2 based buffer stacks that consist of a sequence of several different buffer layers. Buffer layers deposited by continuous chemical deposition techniques, which...... is expected to be very advantageous in reel-to-reel applications. The thickness of these SrTiO3 monolayers was large enough to stop the nickel and copper diffusion from the Cu/Ni substrate. Hence, the developed high quality buffer layers are expected to be acting as efficient diffusion barriers and also...

  5. The extraction of "2"2"9Th"3"+ from a buffer-gas stopping cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wense, L. von der; Seiferle, B.; Laatiaoui, M.; Thirolf, P.G.

    2016-01-01

    In the whole landscape of atomic nuclei, "2"2"9Th is currently the only known nucleus which could allow for the development of a nuclear-based frequency standard, as it possesses an isomeric state of just 7.6 eV energy above the ground state. The 3+ charge state is of special importance in this context, as Th"3"+ allows for a simple laser-cooling scheme. Here we emphasize the direct extraction of triply-charged "2"2"9Th from a buffer-gas stopping cell. This finding will not only simplify any future approach of "2"2"9Th ion cooling, but is also used for thorium-beam purification and in this way provides a powerful tool for the direct identification of the "2"2"9Th isomer to ground state nuclear transition.

  6. Analysis of Barrier Performance: Modelling of Copper corrosion scenarios with and without buffer erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benbow, Steven J.; Robinson, Peter C.; Watson, Sarah P.

    2011-02-01

    SKB have identified buffer erosion as a process that could potentially lead to increased corrosion of the copper canister. Buffer erosion can be caused by: the formation of bentonite (i.e., montmorillonite) colloids and their transport away from deposition holes in intersecting fractures containing dilute groundwaters (such as subglacial meltwaters); steep hydraulic gradients during buffer resaturation; or shearing of solid bentonite particles by rapidly flowing groundwater. Only colloidal removal of bentonite (the first of the processes listed) is considered in this study. The erosion of the bentonite leads to a reduction in density and swelling potential, and hence a lowering of transport resistances in the buffer that can make it easier for corrosive agents to transported to be the canister surface, resulting in increased levels of corrosion of the canister surface compared with those predicted in 'normal evolution' conditions. The reduction in bentonite density that follows as a consequence of erosion also leads to the possibility of breaching other safety functions of the buffer, for example prevention of canister sinking and resistance to shear deformation. These are not considered in this study. This report describes the modelling of copper corrosion processes in the SKB KBS-3 design concept. The modelling includes an initial representation of all relevant physical processes, but with some processes represented in more detail than others. This allows investigation of the impacts of the processes that are modelled on canister corrosion, allowing identification of the processes that impact most on the key performance measures for the EBS, which will help to focus modelling developments in future work. This work could be taken as the starting point in a longer-term modelling study in which the interactions between processes that affect canister corrosion are further investigated. Two high-level scenarios are considered in this work: a base case scenario in

  7. Analysis of Barrier Performance: Modelling of Copper corrosion scenarios with and without buffer erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbow, Steven J.; Robinson, Peter C.; Watson, Sarah P. (Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom))

    2011-02-15

    SKB have identified buffer erosion as a process that could potentially lead to increased corrosion of the copper canister. Buffer erosion can be caused by: the formation of bentonite (i.e., montmorillonite) colloids and their transport away from deposition holes in intersecting fractures containing dilute groundwaters (such as subglacial meltwaters); steep hydraulic gradients during buffer resaturation; or shearing of solid bentonite particles by rapidly flowing groundwater. Only colloidal removal of bentonite (the first of the processes listed) is considered in this study. The erosion of the bentonite leads to a reduction in density and swelling potential, and hence a lowering of transport resistances in the buffer that can make it easier for corrosive agents to transported to be the canister surface, resulting in increased levels of corrosion of the canister surface compared with those predicted in 'normal evolution' conditions. The reduction in bentonite density that follows as a consequence of erosion also leads to the possibility of breaching other safety functions of the buffer, for example prevention of canister sinking and resistance to shear deformation. These are not considered in this study. This report describes the modelling of copper corrosion processes in the SKB KBS-3 design concept. The modelling includes an initial representation of all relevant physical processes, but with some processes represented in more detail than others. This allows investigation of the impacts of the processes that are modelled on canister corrosion, allowing identification of the processes that impact most on the key performance measures for the EBS, which will help to focus modelling developments in future work. This work could be taken as the starting point in a longer-term modelling study in which the interactions between processes that affect canister corrosion are further investigated. Two high-level scenarios are considered in this work: a base case

  8. Runtime buffer management to improve the performance in irregular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S¯adhan¯a Vol. 40, Part 4, June 2015, pp. 1117–1137. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Runtime buffer management to improve the performance in irregular Network-on-Chip architecture. UMAMAHESWARI S1,∗, MEGANATHAN D2 and. RAJA PAUL PERINBAM J3. 1Department of Information Technology, Anna University, ...

  9. Optimizing the HLT Buffer Strategy with Monte Carlo Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2266763

    2017-01-01

    This project aims to optimize the strategy of utilizing the disk buffer for the High Level Trigger (HLT) of the LHCb experiment with the help of Monte-Carlo simulations. A method is developed, which simulates the Event Filter Farm (EFF) -- a computing cluster for the High Level Trigger -- as a compound of nodes with different performance properties. In this way, the behavior of the computing farm can be analyzed at a deeper level than before. It is demonstrated that the current operating strategy might be improved when data taking is reaching a mid-year scheduled stop or the year-end technical stop. The processing time of the buffered data can be lowered by distributing the detector data according to the processing power of the nodes instead of the relative disk size as long as the occupancy level of the buffer is low enough. Moreover, this ensures that data taken and stored on the buffer at the same time is processed by different nodes nearly simultaneously, which reduces load on the infrastructure.

  10. The function of buffer layer in resistive switching device.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, B.; Prokop, V.; Střižík, L.; Zima, Vítězslav; Kutálek, P.; Vlček, Milan; Wágner, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 8 (2017), s. 291-295 ISSN 1584-8663 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : resistive switching * chalcogenide glasses * buffer layer Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.732, year: 2016 http://www.chalcogen.ro/291_ZhangB.pdf

  11. The effect of buffer zone width on biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian Morten

    2012-01-01

    Field margin management for conservation purposes is a way to protect both functional biodiversity and biodiversity per se without considerable economical loss as field margins are less productive. However, the effect of width of the buffer zone on achievable biodiversity gains has received littl...

  12. Moisture buffering phenomenon and its impact on building energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mingjie; Qin, Menghao; Rode, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    buffering on building energy consumption in different climate conditions is assessed by using numerical simulations. The results show that the potential energy saving rate could be up to 25–30% when using proper hygroscopic materials in the test building in temperate climates and semi-arid climates. Finally......, the relationship between MBV and potential energy saving rate is also discussed....

  13. Optimal Maintenance of a Production System with Intermediate Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos C. Karamatsoukis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a production-inventory system that consists of an input-generating installation, a production unit and L intermediate buffers. It is assumed that the installation transfers the raw material to buffer and the production unit pulls the raw material from buffer We consider the problem of the optimal preventive maintenance of the installation if the installation deteriorates stochastically with usage and the production unit is always in operative condition. We also consider the problem of the optimal preventive maintenance of the production unit if the production unit deteriorates stochastically with usage and the installation is always in operative condition. Under a suitable cost structure and for given contents of the buffers, it is proved that the average-cost optimal policy for the first (second problem initiates a preventive maintenance of the installation (production unit if and only if the degree of deterioration of the installation (production unit exceeds some critical level. Numerical results are presented for both problems.

  14. Study of buffer layer thickness on bulk heterojunction solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seunguk; Suman, C K; Lee, Donggu; Kim, Seohee; Lee, Changhee

    2010-10-01

    We studied the effect of the buffer layer (molybdenum-oxide (MoO3)) thickness on the performance of organic solar cell based on blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester fullerene derivative (PCBM). The thickness of MoO3 was varied from 1 nm to 30 nm for optimization of device performance. The photocurrent-voltage and impedance spectroscopy were measured under dark and AM1.5G solar simulated illumination of 100 mW/cm2 for exploring the role of the buffer layer thickness on carrier collection at an anode. The MoO3 thickness of the optimized device (efficiency approximately 3.7%) was found to be in the range of 5 approximately 10 nm. The short-circuit current and the shunt resistance decrease gradually for thicker MoO3 layer over 5 nm. The device can be modeled as the combination of three RC parallel circuits (each one for the active layer, buffer layer and interface between the buffer layer and the active layer) in series with contact resistance (Rs approximately 60 ohm).

  15. Buffering Implications for the Design Space of Streaming MEMS Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatib, M.G.; Abelmann, Leon; Preas, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Emerging nanotechnology-based systems encounter new non-functional requirements. This work addresses MEMS storage, an emerging technology that promises ultrahigh density and energy-efficient storage devices. We study the buffering requirement of MEMS storage in streaming applications. We show that

  16. Nitrogen transformation and retention in riparian buffer zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hefting, Maria Margaretha

    2003-01-01

    Diffuse pollution of nutrients and pesticides from agricultural areas is increasingly recognised as a major problem in water management. Ecotechnological measures as constructed wetlands and riparian buffer zones clearly have an important role in the reduction of diffuse pollution by removing and

  17. Challenges of Buffer Zone Management in Cross River National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These developments might be adduced to the low level of awareness of Park laws and buffer zone management policies by these communities. It is therefore recommended that public enlightenment campaigns should be stepped up to educate the populace on the need to abide by the laws and policies governing the Park ...

  18. SDRAM-based packet buffer model for high speed switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    based on the specifications of a real-life DDR3-SDRAM chip. Based on this model the performance of different schemes for optimizing the performance of such a packet buffer can be evaluated. The purpose of this study is to find efficient schemes for memory mapping of the packet queues and I/O traffic...

  19. The Edinburgh approach to urban heritage : why a buffer zone?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, R.H.J.; van Niel, W.; Veldpaus, L.; Pereira Roders, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    The architectural ensemble of Old and New Towns of Edinburgh, UNESCO World Heritage since 1995, is among the sites affected by urban development. The absence of a buffer zone is assumed to be one of the causes of the impact and the recently adopted Historic Urban Landscape approach aims to assist on

  20. VLSI scaling methods and low power CMOS buffer circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma Vijay Kumar; Pattanaik Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Device scaling is an important part of the very large scale integration (VLSI) design to boost up the success path of VLSI industry, which results in denser and faster integration of the devices. As technology node moves towards the very deep submicron region, leakage current and circuit reliability become the key issues. Both are increasing with the new technology generation and affecting the performance of the overall logic circuit. The VLSI designers must keep the balance in power dissipation and the circuit's performance with scaling of the devices. In this paper, different scaling methods are studied first. These scaling methods are used to identify the effects of those scaling methods on the power dissipation and propagation delay of the CMOS buffer circuit. For mitigating the power dissipation in scaled devices, we have proposed a reliable leakage reduction low power transmission gate (LPTG) approach and tested it on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) buffer circuit. All simulation results are taken on HSPICE tool with Berkeley predictive technology model (BPTM) BSIM4 bulk CMOS files. The LPTG CMOS buffer reduces 95.16% power dissipation with 84.20% improvement in figure of merit at 32 nm technology node. Various process, voltage and temperature variations are analyzed for proving the robustness of the proposed approach. Leakage current uncertainty decreases from 0.91 to 0.43 in the CMOS buffer circuit that causes large circuit reliability. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. Buffered Simulation Games for Büchi Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Hutagalung

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulation relations are an important tool in automata theory because they provide efficiently computable approximations to language inclusion. In recent years, extensions of ordinary simulations have been studied, for instance multi-pebble and multi-letter simulations which yield better approximations and are still polynomial-time computable. In this paper we study the limitations of approximating language inclusion in this way: we introduce a natural extension of multi-letter simulations called buffered simulations. They are based on a simulation game in which the two players share a FIFO buffer of unbounded size. We consider two variants of these buffered games called continuous and look-ahead simulation which differ in how elements can be removed from the FIFO buffer. We show that look-ahead simulation, the simpler one, is already PSPACE-hard, i.e. computationally as hard as language inclusion itself. Continuous simulation is even EXPTIME-hard. We also provide matching upper bounds for solving these games with infinite state spaces.

  2. Comparison of Five Nuclear Isolation Buffers for Flow Cytometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jocky

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... species. A systematic comparison of nuclear lysis buffers has been ... All experiments were carried out with 3 replicates (n = 3) per treatment. ... Na2EDTA, 0.5 mM spermine.4HCl, 80 mM KCl, 20 mM NaCl, 0.1%. (v/v) Triton ...

  3. Rare earth zirconium oxide buffer layers on metal substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland

    2001-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0layer can be deposited using sol-gel or metal-organic decomposition. The laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  4. Moisture Buffer Performance of a Fully Furnished Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svennberg, Kaisa; Hedegaard, Lone Grønbæk; Rode, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    of the indoor air, such as growth of house dust mites, emissions from materials and mould growth it is anticipated that the moisture buffer effect can help to ensure healthier indoor environments. The building materials as well as furniture and other furnishing materials exposed to the indoor air...

  5. Unusual buffer action of free-standing nanoscopically confined water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kylin; Xu, Xiaozhou; Du, Xuezhong

    2010-01-15

    The acid-base properties of nanoscopic water confined in the black soap films (BSFs), which were prepared from aqueous solutions of sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) with the dye neutral red (NR) as a pH probe, were investigated using a combination of UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. For the SDS micellar solutions at pH 1.0-9.5 adjusted with HCl/NaOH solutions and at pH 9.4 with ammonium buffered solution, the aqueous core thicknesses in the corresponding BSFs ranged from 2.7 to 6.2 nm, and the nanoscopically confined water exhibits unusual buffer action resistant not only to acidic/alkaline solutions but also to standard buffer solution. In the heavily water-depleted confined zones, it is most likely that charge pairs in proton-transfer reactions could not be formed effectively and proton transfer was prohibited in the absence of sufficient solvating ability. Theoretical analyzes indicated that the buffer action of the nanoscopic water originated from the confinement effect of two charged surfaces of the BSFs. These results might inspire deeper understanding and further studies of biobuffering, enzyme superactivity, acid-catalyzed reactions, and Nafion fuel cell membranes.

  6. Spirituality and optimism as buffer of sense of coherence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the buffering influence of spirituality and optimism on sense of coherence among imminent retirees in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey utilizing an expost-facto research design. Six hundred and five imminent retirees constituted the participants for the study. Through the use ...

  7. Evaluation of buffering potency of oyster ( Crassostrea gasar ) shells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) shells on acidic borehole water for fish farming. Eighteen (18), 100-litre shaded plastic tanks (3/4- filled, pH 4.0) of three replicates per treatment of 270 g buffer agent were used. There were four trials of six treatments (T) namely control (C) ...

  8. Multiple function benefit - cost comparison of conservation buffer placement strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z. Qiu; M.G. Dosskey

    2012-01-01

    Conservation buffers are considered to be effective practices for repairing impaired streams and restoring multiple ecosystem functions in degraded agricultural watersheds. Six different planning strategies for targeting their placement within watersheds were compared in terms of cost-effectiveness for environmental improvement in the 144 km² Neshanic River...

  9. TRIO: Burst Buffer Based I/O Orchestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Teng [Auburn University; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Pritchard, Michael [Auburn University; Wang, Bin [Auburn University; Yu, Weikuan [Auburn University

    2015-01-01

    The growing computing power on leadership HPC systems is often accompanied by ever-escalating failure rates. Checkpointing is a common defensive mechanism used by scientific applications for failure recovery. However, directly writing the large and bursty checkpointing dataset to parallel filesystem can incur significant I/O contention on storage servers. Such contention in turn degrades the raw bandwidth utilization of storage servers and prolongs the average job I/O time of concurrent applications. Recently burst buffer has been proposed as an intermediate layer to absorb the bursty I/O traffic from compute nodes to storage backend. But an I/O orchestration mechanism is still desired to efficiently move checkpointing data from bursty buffers to storage backend. In this paper, we propose a burst buffer based I/O orchestration framework, named TRIO, to intercept and reshape the bursty writes for better sequential write traffic to storage severs. Meanwhile, TRIO coordinates the flushing orders among concurrent burst buffers to alleviate the contention on storage server bandwidth. Our experimental results reveal that TRIO can deliver 30.5% higher bandwidth and reduce the average job I/O time by 37% on average for data-intensive applications in various checkpointing scenarios.

  10. Substrate-induced magnetism in epitaxial graphene buffer layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramaniam, A; Medhekar, N V; Shenoy, V B

    2009-07-08

    Magnetism in graphene is of fundamental as well as technological interest, with potential applications in molecular magnets and spintronic devices. While defects and/or adsorbates in freestanding graphene nanoribbons and graphene sheets have been shown to cause itinerant magnetism, controlling the density and distribution of defects and adsorbates is in general difficult. We show from first principles calculations that graphene buffer layers on SiC(0001) can also show intrinsic magnetism. The formation of graphene-substrate chemical bonds disrupts the graphene pi-bonds and causes localization of graphene states near the Fermi level. Exchange interactions between these states lead to itinerant magnetism in the graphene buffer layer. We demonstrate the occurrence of magnetism in graphene buffer layers on both bulk-terminated as well as more realistic adatom-terminated SiC(0001) surfaces. Our calculations show that adatom density has a profound effect on the spin distribution in the graphene buffer layer, thereby providing a means of engineering magnetism in epitaxial graphene.

  11. Runtime buffer management to improve the performance in irregular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Network-on-Chip; latency; power; dynamic buffer allocation; RTBM router ..... The design operates at a supply voltage of 1.8 V, and the power results were ..... Morris R, Kodi A K, Sarathy A and Louri A 2012 Extending the energy efficiency and.

  12. Performance analysis of tandem queues with small buffers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van M.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Papadopoulos, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present an approximation for the performance analysis of single-server tandem queues with small buffers and generally distributed service times. The approximation is based on decomposition of the tandem queue in subsystems, the parameters of which are determined by an iterative

  13. What parents say about the allowance: Function of the allowance for parents of different economic incomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani Lauer Lellis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The practice of giving allowance is used by several parents in different parts of the world and can contribute to the economic education of children. This study aimed to investigate the purposes of the allowance with 32 parents of varying incomes. We used the focus group technique and Alceste software to analyze the data. The results involved two classes related to the process of using the allowance. These classes have covered aspects of the role of socialization and education allowance, serving as an instrument of reward, but sometimes encouraging bad habits in children. The justification of the fathers concerning the amount of money to be given to the children and when to stop giving allowance were also highlighted.   Keywords: allowance; economic socialization; parenting practices.

  14. 34 CFR 656.30 - What are allowable costs and limitations on allowable costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES What Conditions Must Be... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are allowable costs and limitations on allowable costs? 656.30 Section 656.30 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education...

  15. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances. 82.8 Section 82.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Albemarle Bill Clark Pest Control, Inc. Burnside Services, Inc. Cardinal Professional Products Chemtura Corp...

  16. 75 FR 14442 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [GSA Bulletin FTR 10-04] Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-- Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy... (73 FR 35952) specifying that GSA would no longer publish the RITA tables found in 41 CFR Part 301-17...

  17. 76 FR 32340 - Federal Travel Regulation; Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... reflection of the actual tax impact on the employee. Therefore, this proposed rule offers the one-year RITA... to estimate the additional income tax liability that you incur as a result of relocation benefits and... Allowances (Taxes); Relocation Allowances (Taxes) AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy (OGP), General...

  18. Layer-based buffer aware rate adaptation design for SHVC video streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudumasu, Srinivas; Hamza, Ahmed; Asbun, Eduardo; He, Yong; Ye, Yan

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a layer based buffer aware rate adaptation design which is able to avoid abrupt video quality fluctuation, reduce re-buffering latency and improve bandwidth utilization when compared to a conventional simulcast based adaptive streaming system. The proposed adaptation design schedules DASH segment requests based on the estimated bandwidth, dependencies among video layers and layer buffer fullness. Scalable HEVC video coding is the latest state-of-art video coding technique that can alleviate various issues caused by simulcast based adaptive video streaming. With scalable coded video streams, the video is encoded once into a number of layers representing different qualities and/or resolutions: a base layer (BL) and one or more enhancement layers (EL), each incrementally enhancing the quality of the lower layers. Such layer based coding structure allows fine granularity rate adaptation for the video streaming applications. Two video streaming use cases are presented in this paper. The first use case is to stream HD SHVC video over a wireless network where available bandwidth varies, and the performance comparison between proposed layer-based streaming approach and conventional simulcast streaming approach is provided. The second use case is to stream 4K/UHD SHVC video over a hybrid access network that consists of a 5G millimeter wave high-speed wireless link and a conventional wired or WiFi network. The simulation results verify that the proposed layer based rate adaptation approach is able to utilize the bandwidth more efficiently. As a result, a more consistent viewing experience with higher quality video content and minimal video quality fluctuations can be presented to the user.

  19. Cybernetic principles of aging and rejuvenation: the buffering- challenging strategy for life extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylighen, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Aging is analyzed as the spontaneous loss of adaptivity and increase in fragility that characterizes dynamic systems. Cybernetics defines the general regulatory mechanisms that a system can use to prevent or repair the damage produced by disturbances. According to the law of requisite variety, disturbances can be held in check by maximizing buffering capacity, range of compensatory actions, and knowledge about which action to apply to which disturbance. This suggests a general strategy for rejuvenating the organism by increasing its capabilities of adaptation. Buffering can be optimized by providing sufficient rest together with plenty of nutrients: amino acids, antioxidants, methyl donors, vitamins, minerals, etc. Knowledge and the range of action can be extended by subjecting the organism to an as large as possible variety of challenges. These challenges are ideally brief so as not to deplete resources and produce irreversible damage. However, they should be sufficiently intense and unpredictable to induce an overshoot in the mobilization of resources for damage repair, and to stimulate the organism to build stronger capabilities for tackling future challenges. This allows them to override the trade-offs and limitations that evolution has built into the organism's repair processes in order to conserve potentially scarce resources. Such acute, "hormetic" stressors strengthen the organism in part via the "order from noise" mechanism that destroys dysfunctional structures by subjecting them to strong, random variations. They include heat and cold, physical exertion, exposure, stretching, vibration, fasting, food toxins, micro-organisms, environmental enrichment and psychological challenges. The proposed buffering-challenging strategy may be able to extend life indefinitely, by forcing a periodic rebuilding and extension of capabilities, while using the Internet as an endless source of new knowledge about how to deal with disturbances.

  20. Assessment and preliminary design of an energy buffer for regenerative braking in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, R.; Mathur, A. K.

    1979-01-01

    Energy buffer systems, capable of storing the vehicle energy during braking and reusing this stored energy during acceleration, were examined. Some of these buffer systems when incorporated in an electric vehicle would result in an improvement in the performance and range under stop and go driving conditions. Buffer systems considered included flywheels, hydropneumatic, pneumatic, spring, and regenerative braking. Buffer ranking and rating criteria were established. Buffer systems were rated based on predicted range improvements, consumer acceptance, driveability, safety, reliability and durability, and initial and life cycle costs. A hydropneumatic buffer system was selected.

  1. A buffer bridge process for growing multiple YBa2Cu3O7-y grains from one top seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J-H; Park, S-D; Jun, B-H; Lee, J S; Kim, C-J; Han, S C; Han, Y H

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a buffer bridge process that allows growing multiple YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-y (Y123) grains from one top seed. This process uses a buffer bridge pellet (Y 2 BaCuO 5 or Y123) to deliver the Y123 growth from one seed to several Y123 compacts. The top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process combined with the buffer bridge process facilitated the fabrication of several single-grained Y123 superconductors using one seed. In addition to achieving the growth of multiple Y123 grains, this process ensured a uniform distribution of superconducting properties of the top surface because the seed/compact interface area (the number of seeds), which is the route for the impurities from the seeds, was minimized. Additionally, the impurity contamination from a seed was considerably suppressed using a buffer pellet. One (110) diagonal facet line, as a result of the corner-to-corner growth, developed on the top surfaces of the prepared Y123 compacts, which is comparable to the x-like facet line of the conventional TSMG processed samples. The trapped magnetic field (H) profiles at 77 K of the prepared Y123 compacts, which were estimated using an Nd-B-Fe permanent magnet, showed the H contour map of a single-grain mode. The force-distance curves for the field cooled and zero-field cooled Y123 compacts at 77 K showed high and reliable levitation forces with a small deviation among compacts. The buffer bridge process can be applied to a batch process for the mass production of single-grain REBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-y (RE: rare-earth elements) superconductors with uniform top surface properties.

  2. Retention of ionisable compounds on high-performance liquid chromatography. XV. Estimation of the pH variation of aqueous buffers with the change of the acetonitrile fraction of the mobile phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirats, Xavier; Bosch, Elisabeth; Rosés, Martí

    2004-12-03

    The most commonly used mobile phases in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) are hydro-organic mixtures of an aqueous buffer and an organic modifier. The addition of this organic solvent to buffered aqueous solutions involves a variation of the buffer properties (pH and buffer capacity). In this paper, the pH variation is studied for acetic acid-acetate, phosphoric acid-dihydrogenphosphate-hydrogenphosphate, citric acid-dihydrogencitrate-citrate, and ammonium-ammonia buffers. The proposed equations allow pH estimation of acetonitrile-water buffered mobile phases up to 60% (v/v) of organic modifier and initial aqueous buffer concentrations between 0.001 and 0.1 mol L(-1), from the initial aqueous pH. The estimated pH variation of the mobile phase and the pKa variation of the analytes allow us to predict the degree of ionisation of the analytes and from this and analyte hydrophobicities, to interpret the relative retention and separation of analyte mixtures.

  3. Thermochemical parameters of minerals from oxygen-buffered hydrothermal equilibrium data: Method, application to annite and almandine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, E.-A.

    1973-01-01

    Reversed univariant hydrothermal phase-equilibrium reactions, in which a redox reaction occurs and is controlled by oxygen buffers, can be used to extract thermochemical data on minerals. The dominant gaseous species present, even for relatively oxidizing buffers such as the QFM buffer, are H2O and H2; the main problem is to calculate the chemical potentials of these components in a binary mixture. The mixing of these two species in the gas phase was assumed by Eugster and Wones (1962) to be ideal; this assumption allows calculation of the chemical potentials of the two components in a binary gas mixture, using data in the literature. A simple-mixture model of nonideal mixing, such as that proposed by Shaw (1967), can also be combined with the equations of state for oxygen buffers to permit derivation of the chemical potentials of the two components. The two mixing models yield closely comparable results for the more oxidizing buffers such as the QFM buffer. For reducing buffers such as IQF, the nonideal-mixing correction can be significant and the Shaw model is better. The procedure of calculation of mineralogical thermochemical data, in reactions where hydrogen and H2O simultaneously appear, is applied to the experimental data on annite, given by Wones et al. (1971), and on almandine, given by Hsu (1968). For annite the results are: Standard entropy of formation from the elements, Sf0 (298, 1)=-283.35??2.2 gb/gf, S0 (298, 1) =+92.5 gb/gf. Gf0 (298, 1)=-1148.2??6 kcal, and Hf0 (298, 1)=-1232.7??7 kcal. For almandine, the calculation takes into account the mutual solution of FeAl2O4 (Hc) in magnetite and of Fe3O4 (Mt) in hercynite and the temperature dependence of this solid solution, as given by Turnock and Eugster (1962); the calculations assume a regular-solution model for this binary spinel system. The standard entropy of formation of almandine, Sf,A0 (298, 1) is -272.33??3 gb/gf. The third law entropy, S0 (298, 1) is +68.3??3 gb/gf, a value much less than the

  4. Estimation of the resource buffers in the assembly process of a shearer machine in the CPPM method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwiazda Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic development of scheduling systems allows significantly improving currently realized tasks. Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM is one of the methods of project management basing on network planning. In this method is utilized the concept of a critical chain derived from the Theory of Constraints. This method allows avoiding losses considered project time and resources. It results in quicker project implementation (20-30%, and in reducing the risk level considered with tasks realization. The projects are cheaper, and the risk of cost overruns is significantly reduced. Factors that distinguish CCPM method from traditional network planning methods are: the balance of resources and the introduction of buffers. Moreover in the CCPM method key elements are: times of tasks that are reduced from traditional estimates to realistic ones. Activities associated with the task start as late as possible in accordance with the ALAP principle (As Late As Possible. This work presents the process of managing the assembly of a shearer machine taking into account the process of safety buffers utilization and the whole project optimization. It is presented the estimation of buffers capacity to obtain the improvement of project realization task.

  5. Use of bicarbonate buffer systems for dissolution characterization of enteric-coated proton pump inhibitor tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hiroko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of buffer systems (bicarbonate or phosphate at different concentrations) on the in vitro dissolution profiles of commercially available enteric-coated tablets. In vitro dissolution tests were conducted using an USP apparatus II on 12 enteric-coated omeprazole and rabeprazole tablets, including innovator and generic formulations in phosphate buffers, bicarbonate buffers and a media modified Hanks (mHanks) buffer. Both omeprazole and rabeprazole tablets showed similar dissolution profiles among products in the compendial phosphate buffer system. However, there were large differences between products in dissolution lag time in mHanks buffer and bicarbonate buffers. All formulations showed longer dissolution lag times at lower concentrations of bicarbonate or phosphate buffers. The dissolution rank order of each formulation differed between mHanks buffer and bicarbonate buffers. A rabeprazole formulation coated with a methacrylic acid copolymer showed the shortest lag time in the high concentration bicarbonate buffer, suggesting varied responses depending on the coating layer and buffer components. Use of multiple dissolution media during in vitro testing, including high concentration bicarbonate buffer, would contribute to the efficient design of enteric-coated drug formulations. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

  6. Surface runoff water quality in a managed three zone riparian buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, Richard; Sheridan, Joseph M

    2005-01-01

    Managed riparian forest buffers are an important conservation practice but there are little data on the water quality effects of buffer management. We measured surface runoff volumes and nutrient concentrations and loads in a riparian buffer system consisting of (moving down slope from the field) a grass strip, a managed forest, and an unmanaged forest. The managed forest consisted of sections of clear-cut, thinned, and mature forest. The mature forest had significantly lower flow-weighted concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, total Kjeldahl N (TKN), sediment TKN, total N (nitrate + TKN), dissolved molybdate reactive P (DMRP), total P, and chloride. The average buffer represented the conditions along a stream reach with a buffer system in different stages of growth. Compared with the field output, flow-weighted concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, DMRP, and total P decreased significantly within the buffer and flow-weighted concentrations of TKN, total N, and chloride increased significantly within the buffer. All loads decreased significantly from the field to the middle of the buffer, but most loads increased from the middle of the buffer to the sampling point nearest the stream because surface runoff volume increased near the stream. The largest percentage reduction of the incoming nutrient load (at least 65% for all nutrient forms) took place in the grass buffer zone because of the large decrease (68%) in flow. The average buffer reduced loadings for all nutrient species, from 27% for TKN to 63% for sediment P. The managed forest and grass buffer combined was an effective buffer system.

  7. Does Confucianism allow for body donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth; Nie, Jing-Bao

    2018-01-16

    Confucianism has been widely perceived as a major moral and cultural obstacle to the donation of bodies for anatomical purposes. The rationale for this is the Confucian stress on xiao (filial piety), whereby individuals' bodies are to be intact at death. In the view of many, the result is a prohibition on the donation of bodies to anatomy departments for the purpose of dissection. The role of dissection throughout the development of anatomy within a Confucian context is traced, and in contemporary China the establishment of donation programs and the appearance of memorial monuments is noted. In reassessing Confucian attitudes, the stress laid on a particular interpretation of filial piety is questioned, and an attempt is made to balance this with the Confucian emphasis on a moral duty to those outside one's immediate family. The authors argue that the fundamental Confucian norm ren (humaneness or benevolence) allows for body donation as people have a moral duty to help others. Moreover, the other central Confucian value, li (rites), offers important insights on how body donation should be performed as a communal activity, particularly the necessity of developing ethically and culturally appropriate rituals for body donation. In seeking to learn from this from a Western perspective, it is contended that in all societies the voluntary donation of bodies is a deeply human activity that is to reflect the characteristics of the community within which it takes place. This is in large part because it has educational and personal repercussions for students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Resident away rotations allow adaptive neurosurgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Melanie Hayden; Derstine, Pamela; Oyesiku, Nelson M; Grady, M Sean; Burchiel, Kim; Batjer, H Hunt; Popp, A John; Barbaro, Nicholas M

    2015-04-01

    Subspecialization of physicians and regional centers concentrate the volume of certain rare cases into fewer hospitals. Consequently, the primary institution of a neurological surgery training program may not have sufficient case volume to meet the current Residency Review Committee case minimum requirements in some areas. To ensure the competency of graduating residents through a comprehensive neurosurgical education, programs may need for residents to travel to outside institutions for exposure to cases that are either less common or more regionally focused. We sought to evaluate off-site rotations to better understand the changing demographics and needs of resident education. This would also allow prospective monitoring of modifications to the neurosurgery training landscape. We completed a survey of neurosurgery program directors and query of data from the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education to characterize the current use of away rotations in neurosurgical education of residents. We found that 20% of programs have mandatory away rotations, most commonly for exposure to pediatric, functional, peripheral nerve, or trauma cases. Most of these rotations are done during postgraduate year 3 to 6, lasting 1 to 15 months. Twenty-six programs have 2 to 3 participating sites and 41 have 4 to 6 sites distinct from the host program. Programs frequently offset potential financial harm to residents rotating at a distant site by support of housing and transportation costs. As medical systems experience fluctuating treatment paradigms and demographics, over time, more residency programs may adapt to meet the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education case minimum requirements through the implementation of away rotations.

  9. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was < 3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be < rmax. Further, the ratio of desired harvest rate to 0.5 x rmax may be a useful metric for ascertaining the applicability of specific requirements of the National Environmental Protection Act.

  10. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: A literature synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    We summarize current knowledge about grass buffers for protecting small, isolated wetlands in agricultural contexts, including information relevant to protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants, and information on how buffers may affect densities and productivity of grassland birds. Land-uses surrounding the approximately 60,000 playas within the Playa Lakes Region (PLR), including intensive agriculture, feedlots, and oil extraction, can contribute to severe degradation of playas. Farming and grazing can lead to significant sedimentation in nearby playas, eliminating their ability to hold water, support the region’s biodiversity, or adequately recharge aquifers. Contaminants further degrade habitats and threaten the water quality of underlying aquifers, including the Ogallala Aquifer.

  11. Buffer development in KBS-3H repository design variant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, T.; Boergesson, L.; Autio, J.; Oehberg, A.; Anttila, P.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. KBS-3H project is a joint project between Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) in Sweden and Posiva Oy in Finland. The overall objectives of the project phase are to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and to demonstrate that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirements as the reference design KBS-3V, which calls for vertical emplacement of the canisters in individual deposition holes. KBS-3H and KBS-3V are the two variants of the KBS-3 method. In KBS-3H each spent fuel canister, with a surrounding layer of bentonite clay, is placed in a perforated steel cylinder prior to disposal; the entire assembly is called the supercontainer. Several super-containers are positioned along up to 300 m long approximately horizontal deposition drifts. The drifts will be excavated at the depth of about 420 m in bedrock. Bentonite distance blocks separate the super-containers, one from another, along the drift. The bentonite inside the super-containers and the bentonite distance blocks are jointly termed the buffer. There are two KBS-3H design alternatives; a design based on Drainage, Artificial Watering and air Evacuation (DAWE) and a less mature alternative called Semi Tight Compartments design (STC). Significant effort has been made in the KBS-3H project to solve the functional uncertainties related to buffer behaviour, which could e.g. cause piping, erosion, displacement and rupture of distance blocks. Some of the issues were prioritised as being important if there was clear uncertainty regarding the ability of the buffer to fulfil the specified requirements with respect to this issue. The design components in KBS-3H design alternatives include currently significant amounts of iron and titanium as possible alternative material to iron. Therefore the buffer development work has also included studies on the Fe-bentonite and Ti-bentonite interaction. The work has included testing in

  12. Buffer-Aided Relaying with Adaptive Link Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatanov, Nikola; Schober, Robert; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a simple network consisting of a source, a half-duplex decode-and-forward relay, and a destination. We propose a new relaying protocol employing adaptive link selection, i.e., in any given time slot, based on the channel state information of the source-relay and the relay......-destination link a decision is made whether the source or the relay transmits. In order to avoid data loss at the relay, adaptive link selection requires the relay to be equipped with a buffer such that data can be queued until the relay-destination link is selected for transmission. We study both delay......-constrained and delay-unconstrained transmission. For the delay-unconstrained case, we characterize the optimal link selection policy, derive the corresponding throughput, and develop an optimal power allocation scheme. For the delay-constrained case, we propose to starve the buffer of the relay by choosing...

  13. Social buffering by God: prayer and measures of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belding, Jennifer N; Howard, Malcolm G; McGuire, Anne M; Schwartz, Amanda C; Wilson, Janie H

    2010-06-01

    Social buffering is characterized by attenuation of stress in the presence of others, with supportive individuals providing superior buffering. We were interested in learning if the implied presence of a supportive entity, God, would reduce acute stress. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: prayer, encouraging self-talk, and control. They were subsequently placed in a stressful situation. Self ratings of stress were lower among the prayer and self-talk conditions relative to controls. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures only among those who prayed were lower than controls; however, prayer and self-talk did not differ. Prayer alone did not significantly reduce stress, perhaps because the majority of students in the prayer condition did not consider reading a prayer to constitute praying.

  14. NORDTEST Project on Moisture Buffer Value of Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2005-01-01

    Building materials and furnishing used in contact with indoor air have some effect to moderate the variations of indoor humidity in occupied buildings. Very low humidity can be alleviated in winter, as well as can high indoor humidity in summer and during high occupancy loads. Thus, materials can...... have been carried out on various typical building materials. The paper gives an account on the definition of the Moisture Buffer Value, it outlines the content of the test protocol, and it gives some examples of results from the Round Robin Tests....... being completed, to develop a definition, and to declare it in the form of a NORDTEST method. Apart from the definition of the term Moisture Buffer Value, the project also declares a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested. Finally as a part of the project, some Round Robin Tests...

  15. The influence of buffer system and biological fluids on the degradation of magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törne, Karin; Örnberg, Andreas; Weissenrieder, Jonas

    2017-08-01

    The influence of frequently used buffer system 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) compared to CO 2 /HCO3- on the corrosion of magnesium is investigated. Samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (m-SBF) while monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for up to 30 days. In CO 2 /HCO3- the initial corrosion rate was 0.11 mm yr -1 . An inner protective layer of magnesium oxide was formed within the first 30 min exposure and subsequently covered by an outer layer of apatite within 24 h . The corrosion mechanism thereafter is best described as passive pitting with a porosity of ∼10%. Using HEPES as buffer agent increased the corrosion rate to 3.37 mm yr -1 . Cross sectional microscopy show a porous outer corrosion layer allowing rapid diffusion of aggressive ions through the film. Here the EIS results are best described by an active pitting model with an inner layer 5 to 10 times less protective compared to the inner layer formed without HEPES. Further the suitability of human whole blood and plasma as in vitro models for Mg degradation was evaluated. Mg corrosion caused coagulation after 24 h in both biological fluids. The corrosion during the first 24 h is similar to the corrosion in m-SBF with HEPES. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1490-1502, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. "cAMP sponge": a buffer for cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Lefkimmiatis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While intracellular buffers are widely used to study calcium signaling, no such tool exists for the other major second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a genetically encoded buffer for cAMP based on the high-affinity cAMP-binding carboxy-terminus of the regulatory subunit RIbeta of protein kinase A (PKA. Addition of targeting sequences permitted localization of this fragment to the extra-nuclear compartment, while tagging with mCherry allowed quantification of its expression at the single cell level. This construct (named "cAMP sponge" was shown to selectively bind cAMP in vitro. Its expression significantly suppressed agonist-induced cAMP signals and the downstream activation of PKA within the cytosol as measured by FRET-based sensors in single living cells. Point mutations in the cAMP-binding domains of the construct rendered the chimera unable to bind cAMP in vitro or in situ. Cyclic AMP sponge was fruitfully applied to examine feedback regulation of gap junction-mediated transfer of cAMP in epithelial cell couplets. CONCLUSIONS: This newest member of the cAMP toolbox has the potential to reveal unique biological functions of cAMP, including insight into the functional significance of compartmentalized signaling events.

  17. Towards radiation detected resonance ionization spectroscopy on transfermium elements in a buffer gas cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautenschlaeger, Felix; Walther, Thomas [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, TU Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Laatiaoui, Mustapha; Block, Michael [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Lauth, Werner; Backe, Hartmut [Institut fuer Kernphysik, JGU Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Hessberger, Fritz-Peter [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The study of the atomic structure of transfermium elements like nobelium (No) and lawrencium (Lr) via Radiation Detected Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RADRIS) is one of the most fascinating disciplines of modern atomic physics. It allows the determination of relativistic effects at the heaviest elements and provides a critical test of theoretical predictions. For these transfermium elements no experimental data on atomic level schemes are available at present. First experiments on {sup 254}No were performed in 2007, in which a buffer gas cell with an overall efficiency of 1%. In this experiment the evaporation temperature of nobelium was determined for the first time. To increase the efficiency of the buffer gas cell, off-line measurements have been performed with nat. ytterbium, the chemical homologue of nobelium. Also on-line experiments during a parasitic beam-time in 2012 provided an insight into the critical parameters of our setup. The results of the off-line and on-line measurements are briefly summarized in this talk.

  18. A study of the efficiency of different spectrochemical buffers applied to the uranium ore analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Diaz Guerra, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    A direct-reading emission spectroscopy method allowing the determination of Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si and Ti in geological materials, that are of interest for the prospecting and recovery of uranium, is proposed. Direct-current are between graphite electrodes Is used as the excitation source. Efficiency of Ag 2 O, BaCO 3 , Bi 2 O 3 , CuF 2 , CuO, Ga 2 0 3 , Ge0 2 , graphite, K 2 CO 3 , H 2 B 4 O 7 , Li 2 CO 3 , Ni, PbS, Sb 2 o 4 , SrC0 3 , Ti 2 O 3 and ZnO as spectrochemical buffers has been studied. It has been inferred that through a sample dilution with Li 2 CO 3 , SrC0 3 and graphite powder in the rations 1:10:10:20, respectively, the highest reduction of the matrix effects is achieved. Phosphorus determination Is better performed with PbS as spectrochemical buffer Instead of the indicated above. The action of the selected compounds Is completed by using Co, In, Li and Sr as internal standards, and, as a whole, satisfactory accuracy and reproducibility are attained. (Author) 7 refs

  19. Use of quasi-isoelectric buffers to limit protein adsorption in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitevin, Martine; Hammad, Karim; Ayed, Ichraf; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Peltre, Gabriel; Descroix, Stephanie

    2008-08-01

    The use of quasi-isoelectric buffers consisting of narrow pH cuts of carrier ampholytes (NC) has been investigated to limit protein adsorption on capillary walls during capillary zone electrophoresis experiments. To quantify protein adsorption on the silica surface, a method derived from that of Towns and Regnier has been developed. alpha-Lactalbumin (14 kDa, pI 4.8) and alpha-chymotrypsinogen A (25 kDa, pI 9.2) have been used as model proteins. Acidic narrow pH cuts of carrier ampholytes (NC, pH 3.0) obtained from fractionation of Serva 4-9 carrier ampholytes were used as BGE in bare-silica capillaries, and allowed to decrease significantly protein adsorption, as compared to experiments performed with classical formate buffer. The use of NC as BGE appeared to be as efficient as the use of polydimethylacrylamide coating to prevent protein adsorption. This increase of protein recovery when using NC was attributed to the interaction of carrier ampholytes with the silica surface, leading to a shielding of the capillary wall.

  20. KEY COMPARISON: Final report of EUROMET Project 696: pH determination of a phthalate buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Petra; Charlet, Philippe; Eberhard, Ralf; Karpov, Oleg V.; Philippe, Rachel; Rivier, Cedric; Maximov, Igor; Sudmeier, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    The EUROMET project 696, a trilateral comparison between PTB, Germany, LNE, France and VNIIFTRI, Russia was performed in order to demonstrate and document the capability of the participants to measure the pH of a phthalate buffer by the primary measurement procedure for pH. Good agreement of the reported results was observed. The sample was very similar to the one used in the comparison CCQM-K17. PTB acts as pilot laboratory in CCQM-K17 and in EUROMET 696. This comparison allows one to link the results obtained by LNE to the CCQM-K17 key comparison through the degree of equivalence of PTB. On the other hand, the discrepancy between measured pH values at the VNIIFTRI and PTB for the same type of buffer solution decreased, as compared with a bilateral comparison in 1997. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  1. Are Capital Buffers Countercyclical ? An Evidence From Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romila Qamar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available New risk based capital requirement have pro-cyclical effect and causes negative externalities in the economy. During recession, on one side, quality of loan portfolio deteriorates and probability of default increases resulting into increased level of provisions and write off’s and reduced capital level. This causes an increase in capital requirements which becomes more expensive. Weaker banks fail to access new capital and ultimately reduce the credit supply. On the other side, banks are required to maintain the minimum capital which results into credit supply contraction and hits the bank’s profitability leading to a situation called Credit Crunch. This situation may prolong recession. During the crisis, developing countries are more affected than developed countries and this debate is entirely new in Pakistan. This research empirically investigates the pro-cyclical effect of new capital regulation under Basel II using panel data of 47 Pakistani Banks from 2001-2012. Particularly this paper examines the capital management mechanisms using capital buffers, using Generalized Method of Moments (GMM one step and two step estimation techniques on dynamic panel data model. The results gives evidence that capital buffer are counter-cyclical except in case of specialized banks because of difference in operations. The findings also suggest that adjustment costs, cost of raising capital and bankruptcy costs are major determines of holding capital buffer. Analysis confirms too big to fail hypothesis. Form the results, it is concluded that capital buffer are counter-cyclical, consistent with the hypothesis. The findings suggest the banks to adopt Basel III Accord.

  2. Performance of buffer material under radiation and thermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shuaiwei; Yang Zhongtian; Liu Wei

    2012-01-01

    Bentonite is generally selected as backfill and buffer material for repositories in the world. Radiation and heat release is the intrinsic properties of high level radioactive waste. This paper made a preliminary research on foreign literature about performance of the engineering barrier material under radiation and at higher temperatures (e. g. above 100℃). As our current research is just budding in this area, we need to draw lessons from foreign experience and methods. (authors)

  3. Hypothalamic oxytocin mediates social buffering of the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam S; Wang, Zuoxin

    2014-08-15

    While stressful life events can enhance the risk of mental disorders, positive social interactions can propagate good mental health and normal behavioral routines. Still, the neural systems that promote these benefits are undetermined. Oxytocin is a hormone involved in social behavior and stress; thus, we focus on the impact that social buffering has on the stress response and the governing effects of oxytocin. Female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) were exposed to 1 hour immobilization stress and then recovered alone or with their male partner to characterize the effect of social contact on the behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine stress response. In addition, we treated immobilized female voles recovering alone with oxytocin or vehicle and female voles recovering with their male partner with a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist or vehicle. Group sizes varied from 6 to 8 voles (N = 98 total). We found that 1 hour immobilization increased anxiety-like behaviors and circulating levels of corticosterone, a stress hormone, in female prairie voles recovering alone but not the female prairie voles recovering with their male partner. This social buffering by the male partner on biobehavioral responses to stress was accompanied by increased oxytocin release in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Intra-paraventricular nucleus oxytocin injections reduced behavioral and corticosterone responses to immobilization, whereas injections of an oxytocin receptor antagonist blocked the effects of the social buffering. Together, our data demonstrate that paraventricular nucleus oxytocin mediates the social buffering effects on the stress response and thus may be a target for treatment of stress-related disorders. Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry on behalf of Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  4. A fast photo-counter with multi-level buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hu; Zhou Peiling; Yao Kun; Guo Guangcan

    1992-01-01

    Digital Photon Correlator (DPC) is composed of a Photo-counter and a data processing unit. The performance of Photo-counter in data acquisition system has a direct influence on data processing. The Photo-counter with fast carry designed here has multi-level buffers. Photon pulses can be correctly and dynamically recorded by the Photo-counter and processed by a single chip computer

  5. Success and failure with phthalate buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boček, Petr; Gebauer, Petr; Beckers, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2001), s. 1106-1111 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031103; GA AV ČR IAA4031703; GA ČR GA203/99/0044; GA ČR GA203/01/0401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : phthalate buffer * system peaks * electromigration dispersion Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.282, year: 2001

  6. The Determinants of Banks' Liquidity Buffers in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Corinne Deléchat; Camila Henao; Priscilla Muthoora; Svetlana Vtyurina

    2014-01-01

    Banks’ liquidity holdings are comfortably above legal or prudential requirements in most Central American countries. While good for financial stability, high liquidity may nonetheless hinder financial market development and monetary policy transmission. Using a panel of 96 commercial banks from Central America, Panama and the Dominican Republic for 2006-2010, we find that the demand for precautionary liquidity buffers is associated with measures of bank’s size, profitability, capitalization, ...

  7. Function, Design, and Establishment of Riparian Forest Buffers: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Klapproth, Julia Caldwell

    1999-01-01

    Through the interaction of their soils, hydrology, and biotic communities, riparian forests protect and improve water quality, provide habitat for plants and animals, support aquatic communities, and provide many benefits to humans. Virginia, along with other states in the Chesapeake Bay region, has recognized the importance of riparian forests by implementing a plan to restore forested buffers along streams, rivers, and lakes. This project reviews selected literature on riparian forest bu...

  8. Variation of power generation at different buffer types and conductivities in single chamber microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Kyeong-Ho; Shin, Hang-Sik; Logan, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are operated with solutions containing various chemical species required for the growth of electrochemically active microorganisms including nutrients and vitamins, substrates, and chemical buffers. Many different buffers

  9. Simulation study on single event burnout in linear doping buffer layer engineered power VDMOSFET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Yunpeng; Su Hongyuan; Hu Dongqing; Wu Yu; Jin Rui

    2016-01-01

    The addition of a buffer layer can improve the device's secondary breakdown voltage, thus, improving the single event burnout (SEB) threshold voltage. In this paper, an N type linear doping buffer layer is proposed. According to quasi-stationary avalanche simulation and heavy ion beam simulation, the results show that an optimized linear doping buffer layer is critical. As SEB is induced by heavy ions impacting, the electric field of an optimized linear doping buffer device is much lower than that with an optimized constant doping buffer layer at a given buffer layer thickness and the same biasing voltages. Secondary breakdown voltage and the parasitic bipolar turn-on current are much higher than those with the optimized constant doping buffer layer. So the linear buffer layer is more advantageous to improving the device's SEB performance. (paper)

  10. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment Longer than 8 Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  11. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  12. Buffer management in wireless full-duplex systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouacida, Nader

    2015-10-19

    Wireless full-duplex radios can simultaneously transmit and receive using the same frequency. In theory, this can double the throughput. In fact, there is only little work addressing aspects other than throughput gains in full-duplex systems. Over-buffering in today\\'s networks or the so-called “bufferbloat” phenomenon creates excessive end-to-end delays resulting in network performance degradation. Our analysis shows that full-duplex systems may suffer from high latency caused by bloated buffers. In this paper, we address the problem of buffer management in full-duplex networks by using Wireless Queue Management (WQM), which is an active queue management technique for wireless networks. Our solution is based on Relay Full-Duplex MAC (RFD-MAC), an asynchronous media access control protocol designed for relay full-duplexing. We compare the performance of WQM in full-duplex environment to Drop Tail mechanism over various scenarios. Our solution reduces the end-to-end delay by two orders of magnitude while achieving similar throughput in most of the cases.

  13. Joint optimization of maintenance, buffers and machines in manufacturing lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Nabil; Nourelfath, Mustapha

    2018-01-01

    This article considers a series manufacturing line composed of several machines separated by intermediate buffers of finite capacity. The goal is to find the optimal number of preventive maintenance actions performed on each machine, the optimal selection of machines and the optimal buffer allocation plan that minimize the total system cost, while providing the desired system throughput level. The mean times between failures of all machines are assumed to increase when applying periodic preventive maintenance. To estimate the production line throughput, a decomposition method is used. The decision variables in the formulated optimal design problem are buffer levels, types of machines and times between preventive maintenance actions. Three heuristic approaches are developed to solve the formulated combinatorial optimization problem. The first heuristic consists of a genetic algorithm, the second is based on the nonlinear threshold accepting metaheuristic and the third is an ant colony system. The proposed heuristics are compared and their efficiency is shown through several numerical examples. It is found that the nonlinear threshold accepting algorithm outperforms the genetic algorithm and ant colony system, while the genetic algorithm provides better results than the ant colony system for longer manufacturing lines.

  14. Assisting in Auditing of Buffer Overflow Vulnerabilities via Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkun Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buffer overflow vulnerability is a kind of consequence in which programmers’ intentions are not implemented correctly. In this paper, a static analysis method based on machine learning is proposed to assist in auditing buffer overflow vulnerabilities. First, an extended code property graph is constructed from the source code to extract seven kinds of static attributes, which are used to describe buffer properties. After embedding these attributes into a vector space, five frequently used machine learning algorithms are employed to classify the functions into suspicious vulnerable functions and secure ones. The five classifiers reached an average recall of 83.5%, average true negative rate of 85.9%, a best recall of 96.6%, and a best true negative rate of 91.4%. Due to the imbalance of the training samples, the average precision of the classifiers is 68.9% and the average F1 score is 75.2%. When the classifiers were applied to a new program, our method could reduce the false positive to 1/12 compared to Flawfinder.

  15. Success and failure with phthalate buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocek, P; Gebauer, P; Beckers, J L

    2001-04-01

    Phthalate buffers are currently used in capillary electrophoresis as robust electrolyte systems for indirect detection. This contribution demonstrates that these buffers show regularly not only successful regions of mobilities of analytes (sample window) but also regions of failure where the migration of analytes is strongly deteriorated due to the presence of a system zone. System zones in phthalate buffers may be easily detected by UV detection and manifest themselves as peaks or dips. Peak shape diagrams are advantageously used for the prediction of the migration behavior of system zones in phthalate background electrolyte (BGE) systems at various pH. It is shown that the mobility of the system zone varies strongly with pH, is practically zero at pH values below 4 and above 7, and shows a maximum at pH 5. Thus, the system peak may coincide either with the peaks of various analytes or with the electroosmotic flow (EOF) peak. Experiments are given showing the effects of such coincidences as, e.g., zigzag detection patterns, double EOF peaks, and/or unusually broad peaks/dips. The message of this contribution is to show how to understand the electrophoretic properties of phthalate BGEs that, regardless of possible failure regions, may be successfully used in the analytical practice of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE).

  16. α-Helix Unwinding as Force Buffer in Spectrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirohide; Rico, Felix; Chipot, Christophe; Scheuring, Simon

    2018-03-27

    Spectrins are cytoskeletal proteins located at the inner face of the plasma membrane, making connections between membrane anchors and the actin cortex, and between actin filaments. Spectrins share a common structure forming a bundle of 3 α-helices and play a major role during cell deformation. Here, we used high-speed force spectroscopy and steered molecular dynamics simulations to understand the mechanical stability of spectrin, revealing a molecular force buffering function. We find that spectrin acts as a soft spring at short extensions (70-100 Å). Under continuous external stretching, its α-helices unwind, leading to a viscous mechanical response over larger extensions (100-300 Å), represented by a constant-force plateau in force/extension curves. This viscous force buffering emerges from a quasi-equilibrium competition between disruption and re-formation of α-helical hydrogen bonds. Our results suggest that, in contrast to β-sheet proteins, which unfold in a catastrophic event, α-helical spectrins dominantly unwind, providing a viscous force buffer over extensions about 5 times their folded length.

  17. The buffer value of groundwater when well yield is limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T.; Brozović, N.; Speir, C.

    2017-04-01

    A large proportion of the total value of groundwater in conjunctive use systems is associated with the ability to smooth out shortfalls in surface water supply during droughts. Previous research has argued that aquifer depletion in these regions will impact farmers negatively by reducing the available stock of groundwater to buffer production in future periods, and also by increasing the costs of groundwater extraction. However, existing studies have not considered how depletion may impact the productivity of groundwater stocks in conjunctive use systems through reductions in well yields. In this work, we develop a hydro-economic modeling framework to quantify the effects of changes in well yields on the buffer value of groundwater, and apply this model to an illustrative case study of tomato production in California's Central Valley. Our findings demonstrate that farmers with low well yields are forced to forgo significant production and profits because instantaneous groundwater supply is insufficient to buffer surface water shortfalls in drought years. Negative economic impacts of low well yields are an increasing function of surface water variability, and are also greatest for farmers operating less efficient irrigation systems. These results indicate that impacts of well yield reductions on the productivity of groundwater are an important economic impact of aquifer depletion, and that failure to consider this feedback may lead to significant errors in estimates of the value of groundwater management in conjunctive use systems.

  18. Does education buffer the impact of disability on psychological distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandemakers, Jornt J; Monden, Christiaan W S

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigates whether education buffers the impact of physical disability on psychological distress. It further investigates what makes education helpful, by examining whether cognitive ability and occupational class can explain the buffering effect of education. Two waves of the 1958 British National Child Development Study are used to test the hypothesis that the onset of a physical disability in early adulthood (age 23 to 33) has a smaller effect on psychological distress among higher educated people. In total 423 respondents (4.6%) experienced the onset of a physical disability between the ages of 23 and 33. We find that a higher educational level cushions the psychology impact of disability. Cognitive ability and occupational class protect against the effect of a disability too. The education buffer arises in part because individuals with a higher level of education have more cognitive abilities, but the better social position of those with higher levels of education appears to be of greater importance. Implications of these findings for the social gradient in health are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Manufacturing and performance of customized pellets used for buffer and backfill sealing in nuclear waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, Erika; Marjavaara, Pieti; Man, Alex; Kim, Chang-Seok; Dixon, David

    2012-01-01

    from free fall pouring of the largest Cebogel QSE pellets and the highest values were obtained from compacted small grain size Minelco bentonite. The highest dry density value observed in these larger-scale tests was slightly lower than in small scale tests because no additional compaction methods (e,g, vibration, dynamic or static compression), were used. With a target as-placed dry density for the pellets of ∼920 kg/m 3 it would seem that almost any of the materials and methods examined could be successfully used to fill the buffer-rock gap. The second part of this study was done to further optimize the pellet filling material by customizing the materials and pellet manufacturing. Pellets were made using both and extrusion and roller compaction and methods. The pellets were intended for use in gaps between compacted bentonite and the rock walls in both buffer deposition holes and tunnel backfilling. One of the goals of this project was to evaluate the performance of different types of custom-made pellets with regard to their ease of manufacturing, density, crush strength, abrasion resistance, water holding capacity, free swelling and also their thermal conductivity. These evaluations were done in both Finland (by VTT) and Canada (by AECL). All of the roller-compacted pellets had individual pellet wet densities in the order of 2000 kg/m 3 . The roller-compacted pellets having the best performance in placement trials were the smallest size (∼9 mm diameter and 6 mm thick). The work done using extrusion pellets has shown that it is possible to manufacture pellets with higher water contents, up to 24% for MX-80. This is higher than was typically possible using roller compaction methods, and allows for closer compatibility with the designed buffer water content

  20. Structured oligonucleotides for target indexing to allow single-vessel PCR amplification and solid support microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Laurie D; Boissinot, Karel; Peytavi, Régis; Boissinot, Maurice; Bergeron, Michel G

    2015-02-07

    The combination of molecular diagnostic technologies is increasingly used to overcome limitations on sensitivity, specificity or multiplexing capabilities, and provide efficient lab-on-chip devices. Two such techniques, PCR amplification and microarray hybridization are used serially to take advantage of the high sensitivity and specificity of the former combined with high multiplexing capacities of the latter. These methods are usually performed in different buffers and reaction chambers. However, these elaborate methods have high complexity and cost related to reagent requirements, liquid storage and the number of reaction chambers to integrate into automated devices. Furthermore, microarray hybridizations have a sequence dependent efficiency not always predictable. In this work, we have developed the concept of a structured oligonucleotide probe which is activated by cleavage from polymerase exonuclease activity. This technology is called SCISSOHR for Structured Cleavage Induced Single-Stranded Oligonucleotide Hybridization Reaction. The SCISSOHR probes enable indexing the target sequence to a tag sequence. The SCISSOHR technology also allows the combination of nucleic acid amplification and microarray hybridization in a single vessel in presence of the PCR buffer only. The SCISSOHR technology uses an amplification probe that is irreversibly modified in presence of the target, releasing a single-stranded DNA tag for microarray hybridization. Each tag is composed of a 3-nucleotide sequence-dependent segment and a unique "target sequence-independent" 14-nucleotide segment allowing for optimal hybridization with minimal cross-hybridization. We evaluated the performance of five (5) PCR buffers to support microarray hybridization, compared to a conventional hybridization buffer. Finally, as a proof of concept, we developed a multiplexed assay for the amplification, detection, and identification of three (3) DNA targets. This new technology will facilitate the design