WorldWideScience

Sample records for lng release prevention

  1. Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.

    1982-03-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

  2. Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

  3. Modeling the release, spreading, and burning of LNG, LPG, and gasoline on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, David W.; Cornwell, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Current interest in the shipment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has renewed the debate about the safety of shipping large volumes of flammable fuels. The size of a spreading pool following a release of LNG from an LNG tank ship has been the subject of numerous papers and studies dating back to the mid-1970s. Several papers have presented idealized views of how the LNG would be released and spread across a quiescent water surface. There is a considerable amount of publicly available material describing these idealized releases, but little discussion of how other flammable fuels would behave if released from similar sized ships. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the models currently available from the United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) can be used to simulate the release, spreading, vaporization, and pool fire impacts for materials other than LNG, and if so, identify which material-specific parameters are required. The review of the basic equations and principles in FERC's LNG release, spreading, and burning models did not reveal a critical fault that would prevent their use in evaluating the consequences of other flammable fluid releases. With the correct physical data, the models can be used with the same level of confidence for materials such as LPG and gasoline as they are for LNG

  4. LNG containment release: Comparison of NFPA-59A and 49-CFR-193

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, H.H.; Pfenning, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the potential wide area impact of an unplanned LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) release, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and later the US Department of Transportation issued standards and regulations which included specific methodologies for analyzing the consequence of an accidental LNG release. The concept of a ''design spill'' was defined in order to evaluate the consequences of an accidental LNG release, with particular attention to the influence of safety protective measures. In addition to specifying the magnitude of the unplanned release, the design spill also specified some of the parameters for estimation of the downwind LNG vapor dispersion and the extent of the radiant heat from an LNG pool fire. Since the NFPA-59A and 49-CFR-193 standards were the first in-depth regulation to address consequence analysis estimation for petroleum components, it is particularly important to consider their details in light of the recently proposed EPA 40-CFR-68 regulations [Risk Management for Chemical Accidental Release Prevention] which specifically address consequence analysis as a part of process safety management

  5. LNG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.; Idir, N.; Hosanski, J.M.; Jonkman, H.; Pelloux-Prayer, D.; Wells, D.

    2007-01-01

    The LNG industry has entered a new step of its development, faster and more complex. The time parameter, the huge investments and the uncertainties relative to the demand growth are some of the factors that control its evolution. How the emergence of 'international price' signals will influence this activity? What supply-demand status can be foreseen from now to 2015? What role LNG would be able to play in terms of modulation management? What are the impacts of environmental constraints on LNG infrastructures? These are the different points discussed during this workshop by the five participants, specialists of the LNG questions. (J.S.)

  6. Full scale ambient water flow tests of a 10-inch emergency release coupling for LNG transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putte, L.J. van der; Webber, T.; Bokhorst, E. van; Revell, C.

    2016-01-01

    For LNG transfer in ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore configurations emergency release couplings (F.RC) in combination with loading arms and multi-composite hoses are applied In view of a demand for increasing transfer flow rates in offshore LNG applications a 10-inch ERC has been developed intended

  7. LNG; GNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrelie, M.F. [Cedigaz, 1 - 4 Avenue de Bois-Preau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison (France); Idir, N. [Commission de regulation de l' energie - CRE, 2 rue du Quatre-Septembre, 75084 Paris Cedex 02 (France); Hosanski, J.M. [Total, Dir. Gaz et Electricite, 2 place de la Coupole, La Defense 6, 92400 Courbevoie (France); Jonkman, H. [CEO, 4Gas, Max Euwelaan 21, 3062 MA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pelloux-Prayer, D. [Gaz de France, 75 - Paris (France); Wells, D. [Shell Global LNG (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The LNG industry has entered a new step of its development, faster and more complex. The time parameter, the huge investments and the uncertainties relative to the demand growth are some of the factors that control its evolution. How the emergence of 'international price' signals will influence this activity? What supply-demand status can be foreseen from now to 2015? What role LNG would be able to play in terms of modulation management? What are the impacts of environmental constraints on LNG infrastructures? These are the different points discussed during this workshop by the five participants, specialists of the LNG questions. (J.S.)

  8. Safety in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhrow, C. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl Bergbau/Tiefbau; Niemann-Delius, C.; Okafor, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde 3

    2005-07-01

    Germany needs an LNG receiving terminal to import LNG and supplement expected future gas supply shortages. Enormous economic benefits also abound if Germany is to install an LNG receiving terminal. Jobs will be created for several hundred people. New tax revenues will be generated for state and local governments and this will further enhance the economic competitiveness of Germany. Additionally, it will provide Germany with a reliable source of clean-burning energy. Any proposed LNG receiving terminal should incorporate safety right from the start. These safety requirements will: ensure that certain public land uses, people, and structures outside the LNG facility boundaries are protected in the event of LNG fire, prevent vapour clouds associated with an LNG spill from reaching a property line that can be built upon, prevent severe burns resulting from thermal radiation, specify requirements for design, construction and use of LNG facilities and other equipments, and promote safe, secure and reliable LNG operations. The German future LNG business will not be complete without the evolution of both local and international standards that can apply to LNG operations. Currently existing European standards also appear inadequate. With an OHSAS 18001 management system integrated with other existing standards we can better control our LNG occupational health and safety risks, and improve performance in the process. Additionally, an OHSAS 18001 System will help future German LNG contractors and operators safeguard their most important assets - their employees. (orig.)

  9. LNG project - contractual aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Bruno Almeida

    2008-07-01

    This paper intends to provide from the legal point of view an outline of the main challenges of a LNG project in the upstream, regulatory aspects, liquefaction, financing and midstream through a basic checklist; an overview of the contractual complexity of a LNG project; some basic discussion of particular LNG contract clauses; and a comparative analysis between the classic clauses of a Gas Transportation Agreement (GTA) through a gas pipeline and LNG logistic. (author)

  10. Kitimat LNG terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaltz, I.; Boulton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Kitimat Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal is a terminal development company owned by Galveston LNG, a privately owned Canadian energy development company. This presentation provided information on Kitimat LNG with particular reference to its terminal located in Bish Cove on the Douglas Channel in British Columbia. This LNG terminal is reported to be the only fully permitted regasification terminal on the west coast of Canada and the United States. The presentation addressed market fundamentals including several graphs, such as world natural gas proved reserves in 2006; LNG supplements to Canadian gas supplies; global LNG demand for 2005-2020; average annual United States LNG imports; and global LNG liquefaction projects. Other market fundamentals were described, including that Kitimat is the only other approved terminal aside from the Costa Azul terminal in Mexico; Kitimat is the only west coast LNG import terminal that connects to midwest and eastern North American markets through existing gas pipelines; LNG producers are looking for destination diversification; and markets and marketers are looking for supply diversification. The authors noted that by 2010, western Canadian gas demand will exceed Californian demand. Other topics that were discussed in the presentation included Canadian natural gas field receipts; unadjusted bitumen production outlook; oil sands gas demand; forward basis fundamentals; and the commercial drivers of the Kitimat LNG terminal. The presentation also discussed the pacific trail pipelines, a partnership between Galveston LNG and Pacific Northern Gas to develop the natural gas transmission line from Kitimat to Summit. The presentation concluded with a discussion of the benefits of Kitimat LNG terminal such as providing access to the largest natural gas markets in the world via major gas transmission lines with spare capacity. figs

  11. World LNG outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.

    1999-01-01

    CEDIGAZ proposes this new survey about LNG in view of the main changes which have occurred on this market during the past few years. Several projects under construction or planned three years ago are now commissioned (Qatargas) or on the verge of starting to export this year (Trinidad LNG, RasGas, Nigeria LNG) or next years (Oman LNG). The Asian crisis, which had major impacts on both short-term demand in Asia and LNG prices, has brought about new uncertainties to the long-term prospects. At the same time, it now seems more and more certain that firstly India and then China will import LNG in the next decade. It remains to be seen at what level and when this will occur. LNG growth in Europe has now become a reality, and new potential markets, for example in South America (Brazil), are also being considered as real opportunities in the near future. Considering these 'new' trends, an updated study about LNG appeared necessary. This survey 'World LNG Outlook - 99 Edition' is organised as the previous one: a historical record since 1964 (Chapter 1) followed by a description of the infrastructures existing in 1998 (Chapter 2). The analysis continues with world trade prospects by the year 2010 (Chapters 3 to 5). Chapter 6 describes the future LNG chain and the last Chapter (7) focuses on economic matters (LNG price trends, cost reductions). The study 'World LNG Outlook - 99 Edition' offers hence a comprehensive panorama of this sector from a short and long-term point of view. (author)

  12. Minimum Release of Tributyltin to Prevent Macrofouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    Thain, J.E., M.J. Waldock, and M.E. Wait, Toxicity and degradation studies of Tributyltin ( TBT ) and Dibutyltin (DBT) in the aquatic environment, in...MATERIALS AND METHODS The test system used was designed to pump a known volume of a tributyltin ( TBT ) solution of known concentration through a porous...ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) nimum Release of Tributyltin to Prevent Macrofoulinq 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  13. LNG transport through pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfund, P; Philipps, A

    1975-01-01

    LNG pipelines could help solve some peakshaving problems if operated in conjunction with other facilities that could use the LNG cold recovered during regasification. In some areas at present, LNG is delivered by tanker and regasified near the terminal for transmission through conventional gas pipelines. In other places, utilities liquefy natural gas for easy storage for later peakshaving use. The only chance to avoid the second expensive liquefaction step would be to convey imported LNG through a suitable designed LNG pipeline. The technical problems involved in LNG pipeline construction have basically been solved in recent years, but those pipelines actually constructed have been only short ones. To be economically justified, long-distance LNG lines require additional credit, which could be obtained by selling the LNG cold recovered during regasification to industrial users located in or near the points of gas consumption. Technical details presented cover the pipe material, stress relief, steel composition, pressure enthalpy, bellows-type expansion joints, and mechanical and thermal insulation.

  14. The LNG Industry - 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    First estimates for the marketed production of natural gas in 2005 show a rise of about 1.5 % over 2004. The share of LNG in the gas trade accounts for almost 21 % of the total. This annual report presents: 1 - LNG contracts and trade, 2 - Contracts concluded in 2005, 3 - LNG imports - Sources of imports - Quantities received in 2005 by the importing countries from the exporting countries, 4 - LNG tankers, 5 - 18 Ships delivered in 2005, 6 - Tanker distribution, 7 - Liquefaction plants, 8 - re-gasification plants, 9 - Long-term and medium-term contracts in force in 2005, 10 - Spot and short term quantities received in 2005 by the importing countries from the exporting countries, 11 - Sea transportation routes, 12 - Liquefaction plants (table), 13 - re-gasification plants (table), 14 - Delivery date of the LNG tankers

  15. The LNG Industry - 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    First estimates for the marketed production of natural gas in 2004 show a rise of about 2 % over 2003. The share of LNG in the gas trade accounts for 21.9 % of the total. This annual report presents: 1 - LNG contracts and trade, 2 - Contracts concluded in 2004, 3 - LNG imports - Sources of imports - Quantities received in 2005 by the importing countries from the exporting countries, 4 - LNG tankers, 5 - 21 Ships delivered in 2004, 6 - Tanker distribution (at the end of 2004), 7 - Liquefaction plants, 8 - re-gasification plants, 9 - Long-term and medium-term contracts in force in 2004, 10 - Spot and short term quantities received in 2004 by the importing countries from the exporting countries, 11 - Sea transportation routes, 12 - Liquefaction plants (table), 13 - re-gasification plants (table), 14 - Delivery date of the LNG tankers

  16. The LNG Industry - 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    Estimates for the marketed production of natural gas in 2007 show a rise of about 1.6% over 2006. The share of LNG in the gas trade accounts for almost 24% of the total. This annual report presents: 1 - LNG contracts and trade, 2 - Contracts concluded in 2007, 3 - LNG imports - Sources of imports - Quantities received in 2007, 4 - LNG tankers, 5 - 35 Ships delivered 10 2007, 6 - Tanker distribution, 7 - Liquefaction plants, 8 - re-gasification plants, 9 - Long-term and medium-term contracts in force in 2007, 10 - Spot and short term quantities received in 2007 by the importing countries from the exporting countries, 11 - Sea transportation routes, 12 - Liquefaction plants (table), 13 - re-gasification plants (table), 14 - Delivery date of the LNG tankers

  17. The LNG Industry - 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    Estimates for the marketed production of natural gas in 2008 show a rise of about 3.4% over 2007. The share of LNG in the gas trade accounts for 27% of the total (excluding trade within the Former Soviet Union and United Arab Emirates). This annual report presents: 1 - LNG contracts and trade, 2 - Contracts concluded in 2008, 3 - LNG imports - Sources of imports - Quantities received in 2008, 4 - LNG tankers, 5 - Ships delivered, 6 - Tanker distribution, 7 - Liquefaction plants, 8 - re-gasification plants, 9 - Contracts in force in 2008, 10 - Spot and short term quantities received in 2008, 11 - Sea transportation routes, 12 - Liquefaction plants (table), 13 - re-gasification plants (table), 14 - Delivery date of the LNG tankers

  18. The LNG Industry - 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    Estimates for the marketed production of natural gas in 2009 show a decrease of about 3.9% over 2008. The share of LNG in the gas trade accounts for 30% of the total (excluding trade within the Former Soviet Union and United Arab Emirates). This annual report presents: 1 - LNG contracts and trade, 2 - Contracts concluded in 2009, 3 - LNG imports - Sources of imports - Quantities received in 2009, 4 - LNG tankers, 5 - Ships delivered, 6 - Tanker distribution, 7 - Liquefaction plants, 8 - re-gasification plants, 9 - Contracts in force in 2009, 10 - Spot and short term quantities received in 2009, 11 - Sea transportation routes, 12 - Liquefaction plants (table), 13 - re-gasification plants (table), 14 - Delivery date of the LNG tankers

  19. Small Scale LNG in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The conference has 19 presentation that addresses topics within the economic and marketing aspects, distribution and transmission, size, operation and design of LNG production units, transportation aspects, technology assessment, storage of LNG and risk and safety aspects of the use and production of LNG. Some LNG application cases are also presented

  20. Small Scale LNG in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The conference has 19 presentation that addresses topics within the economic and marketing aspects, distribution and transmission, size, operation and design of LNG production units, transportation aspects, technology assessment, storage of LNG and risk and safety aspects of the use and production of LNG. Some LNG application cases are also presented.

  1. New developments in LNG trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, Morten

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of international trade in liquefied natural gas. Factors and forces causing changes in the international LNG market are explored covering Japan and South East Asian markets, the rapidly growing Spanish and Italian markets, competition faced by LNG imports by pipeline gas in France and Belgium, the reopening of mothballed LNG receiving facilities in the US east coast, and markets with large LNG potential in India, China and South America. Developments in the price of LNG in Japan, Europe, and the US east coast are considered, and shipping issues, and future trends in LNG purchase arrangements and LNG pricing are discussed

  2. Reduction of LNG FOB cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ichizo; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi

    1997-01-01

    To achieve a competitive LNG price for the consumers against other energy sources, reduction of LNG FOB (Free on Board) cost i.e. LNG cost at LNG ship flange, will be the key item. It is necessary to perform a many optimization studies (or value engineering) for each stage of the LNG project. These stages are: Feasibility study; Conceptual design - FEED (Front End Engineering and Design); EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction); Operation and maintenance. Since the LNG plant forms one part of the LNG chain, starting from gas production to LNG receiving, and requires several billion US dollar of investment, the consequences of a plant shut down on the LNG chain are clear, it is, therefore, important to get high availability which will also contribute the reduction of LNG FOB cost. (au) 25 refs

  3. LNG TERMINAL SAFE OPERATION MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ; Włodzimierz KAMIŃSKI

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the significance of LNG terminal safety issues in natural gas sea transport. It shows particular requirements for LNG transmission installations resulting from the specific properties of LNG. Out of the multi‐layer critical safety areas comprising structural elements of the terminal safety system, possibilities to decrease the risk of emergency occurrence on LNG terminals have been selected. Tasks performed by the LNG terminal, together with its own personnel and the out...

  4. The Malaysia LNG experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammed, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the nature of the LNG trade, the essential components and characteristics of an LNG project, and relates the Malaysia LNG experience to project realization with some emphasis on the financial aspects of the project. Twelve offshore lending institutions were involved in the total project loop providing U.S. dollar equivalents of 4.0 billions with interest rates ranging from 5% to 8%. The total project was completed on schedule and within budget except for the ships which got caught in the political development of the Malaysian petroleum industry at that time

  5. LNG, the way ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the many obstacles producers must overcome, particularly to satisfy demand at the right time, LNG remains the pre-eminent option for ensuring the expansion of the world's gas industry. (author)

  6. Kitimat LNG Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, R.

    2006-01-01

    Kitimat LNG terminal is the first fully permitted liquefied natural gas (LNG) on the west coast of Canada and the United States. The terminal was designed to have a small environmental footprint, and has the full support of communities and First Nations groups in the area. Regulatory approvals are now in place, and site construction is planned to start in 2007. This presentation provided details of the facility's gas production and liquefaction processes, shipping, and LNG import and regasification terminals. The site was selected due to its deepwater, all-season port and the fact that the Pacific Trail Pipelines provide access to major transmission lines. The terminal will be comprised of an offshore LNG tanker berth and unloading jetty, a construction and tug berth, 2 LNG storage tanks, a separation unit, and send-out pipelines for natural gas and gas liquids. The terminal was designed for maximum LNG receiving flexibility as it can handle a wide variety of gas specifications and will be able to receive the largest possible LNG tankers. Market interest in the terminal has been considerable as investors are increasingly convinced that LNG can provide long-term supply alternatives to the North American gas market. Once operational the terminal will attract supply from the Pacific basin and the Middle East. Western Canadian gas demand is projected to grow at nearly 6 per cent through 2015. It was concluded that marine safety is crucial to the successful operation of the terminal. Details of safety plans formed after consultation with various organizations were presented. refs., tabs., figs

  7. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  8. LNG TERMINAL SAFE OPERATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the significance of LNG terminal safety issues in natural gas sea transport. It shows particular requirements for LNG transmission installations resulting from the specific properties of LNG. Out of the multi‐layer critical safety areas comprising structural elements of the terminal safety system, possibilities to decrease the risk of emergency occurrence on LNG terminals have been selected. Tasks performed by the LNG terminal, together with its own personnel and the outside one, have been defined. General theses for LNG terminal safety have been formulated.

  9. The LNG Industry - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    In 2010, global energy demand has recovered. Estimates for World Natural Gas consumption show a 7.3% increase compared with 2009 thanks to the economic rally and the cold winter conditions in Western countries. Due to the decline of indigenous productions in mature markets and to the development of new gas markets, international gas flows continued to expand, and total international gas trade increased by 10.9% compared with 2009. In this context, LNG flows recorded the largest growth with a 21% increase in 2010, the operational start-up of new liquefaction capacity in Qatar being the primary reason. By comparison, pipeline trade increased by 7%. This annual report presents: 1 - LNG contracts and trade, 2 - Contracts concluded in 2010, 3 - LNG imports - Sources of imports - Quantities received in 2010, 4 - LNG tankers, 5 - Ships delivered, 6 - Tanker distribution, 7 - Liquefaction plants, 8 - re-gasification plants, 9 - Contracts in force in 2010, 10 - Spot and short term quantities received in 2010, 11 - Sea transportation routes, 12 - Liquefaction plants (table), 13 - re-gasification plants (table), 14 - Delivery date of the LNG tankers

  10. LNG projects - nationally and internationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graff, Oscar Fr.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation discusses various aspects of LNG projects nationally and internationally. The emphasis is on the future development of the natural gas markets, the competitiveness and economic requirements of the LNG production and transportation systems and the demands LNG projects will have to competence, technology, products and management

  11. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG CARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Posavec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 LNG carriers currently in operation (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. Improvement of plant reliability in PT. Badak LNG plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad, S.; Somantri, A.

    1997-01-01

    PT. Badak's LNG sales commitment has been steadily increasing, therefore, there has been more emphasis to improve and maintain the LNG plant reliability. From plant operation historical records, Badak LNG plant experienced a high number of LNG process train trips and down time for 1977 through 1988. The highest annual number of LNG plant trips (50 times) occurred in 1983 and the longest LNG process train down time (1259 train-hours) occurred in 1988. Since 1989, PT. Badak has been able to reduce the number of LNG process train trips and down time significantly. In 1994 the number of LNG process train trips and was 18 times and the longest LNG process train down time was 377 train-hours. This plant reliability improvement was achieved by implementing plant reliability improvement programs beginning with the design of the new facilities and continuing with the maintenance and modification of the existing facilities. To improve reliability of the existing facilities, PT. Badak has been implementing comprehensive maintenance programs, to reduce the frequency and down time of the plant, such as Preventive and Predictive Maintenance as well as procurement material improvement since PT. Badak location is in a remote area. By implementing the comprehensive reliability maintenance, PT. Badak has been able to reduce the LNG process train trips to 18 and down time to 337 train hours in 1994 with the subsequent maintenance cost reduction. The average PT. Badak plant availability from 1985 to 1995 is 94.59%. New facilities were designed according to the established PT. Badak design philosophy, master plan and specification. Design of new facilities was modified to avoid certain problems from past experience. (au)

  13. Arctic Islands LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Ltd. made a feasibility study of transporting LNG from the High Arctic Islands to a St. Lawrence River Terminal by means of a specially designed and built 125,000 cu m or 165,000 cu m icebreaking LNG tanker. Studies were made of the climatology and of ice conditions, using available statistical data as well as direct surveys in 1974, 1975, and 1976. For on-schedule and unimpeded (unescorted) passage of the LNG carriers at all times of the year, special navigation and communications systems can be made available. Available icebreaking experience, charting for the proposed tanker routes, and tide tables for the Canadian Arctic were surveyed. Preliminary design of a proposed Arctic LNG icebreaker tanker, including containment system, reliquefaction of boiloff, speed, power, number of trips for 345 day/yr operation, and liquefaction and regasification facilities are discussed. The use of a minimum of three Arctic Class 10 ships would enable delivery of volumes of natural gas averaging 11.3 million cu m/day over a period of a year to Canadian markets. The concept appears to be technically feasible with existing basic technology.

  14. LNG - emergency control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardinelli, Ricardo Porto; Correa, Kleber Macedo; Moura Filho, Nelson Barboza de; Fernandez, Carlos Antonio [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Matos, Jose Eduardo Nogueira de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The operation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is pioneering within the PETROBRAS System. PETROBRAS Transporte - TRANSPETRO is going to operate two flexible LNG terminals, located in Ceara and Rio de Janeiro. In accordance with the Corporate Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) Directive - Training, Education and Awareness, PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO has prepared an action plan with the objective of ensuring the operational safety of the undertaking. Among other actions a training program for the emergency control of LNG will be inserted into the timetable. The above mentioned training program was held over a period of 20 hours, and was divided between theory and practice. In the theoretical part, the characteristics of the product, the history of accidents and the emergency response procedures were covered. In the practical part, 3000 gallons of LNG were utilized where the behavior of the product could be confirmed following a confined leak, thereby verifying the efficacy of the emergency control resources. The teaching process of the course was developed in the company through the preparation of specific procedures, emergency plans and the formation of internal instructors. (author)

  15. The LNG Industry - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    In 2013 the LNG markets remained extremely tight due to the demand pull from nuclear closures in Japan and South Korea and the difficulties to ramp-up production of new facilities in Angola and Algeria, bringing LNG price levels in the Far East to record highs in the first quarter. In addition to Cheniere's Sabine Pass, three new liquefaction projects received full approvals in the U.S.A. last year, confirming the country's path to become the world's third largest LNG exporter by the end of the decade. Cameron joined their ranks in early 2014 so that at the time of this writing, a total 62.5 Mt/y of capacity have been approved to export to non-FTA countries by the Department of Energy, already impacting the LNG industry, if not in physical volume then in contracting strategy. 2013 could be considered a transition year. LNG traded volumes as a whole remained at the same level as in 2012, but new trade patterns seem to emerge. The past year may have seen a slowdown in the number of FIDs, counting only one greenfield (Yamal LNG) and two expansion projects, but not in capacity increase with a respectable 29 Mt/y committed in total. Demand remained strong in Asia, mainly in China and South Korea. In Japan, imports continued to increase, although more moderately in a response to high prices and the yen devaluation, shifting the energy mix towards other sources of energy. Demand also increased in South America, strongly related to weather factors. Europe remained the swing provider to the world's LNG market. In a context of depressed local demand and with the utilization rate of the re-gasification terminals in their region at a historical low, European players continued with innovative transactions in search for business (such as re-loadings, two-port loadings, ship-to-ship transfers) while developing new markets for LNG as a transportation fuel. Three new countries joined the ranks of LNG importers in 2013: Israel, Malaysia, and Singapore. Total

  16. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatey, A.; Arnett, M.

    1997-01-01

    During the history of SRS, continual improvements in facilities, process, and operations, and changes in the site''s mission have reduced the amount of radioactive liquid releases. In the early years of SRS (1958 to 1965), the amount of tritium discharged to the Savannah River averaged approximately 61,000 curies a year. During the mid-1980''s (1983 to 1988), liquid releases of tritium averaged 27,000 curies a year. By 1996, liquid releases of tritium are projected to be just 3000 curies for the year. This large projected decrease is the result of the planned shut-down of all reactors and the anticipated significant decline in the amount of tritium migrating from the site seepage basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility

  17. LNG demand, shipping will expand through 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    True, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    The 1990s, especially the middle years, have witnessed a dramatic turnaround in the growth of liquefied-natural-gas demand which has tracked equally strong natural-gas demand growth. This trend was underscored late last year by several annual studies of world LNG demand and shipping. As 1998 began, however, economic turmoil in Asian financial markets has clouded near-term prospects for LNG in particular and all energy in general. But the extent of damage to energy markets is so far unclear. A study by US-based Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL, reveals that LNG imports worldwide have climbed nearly 8%/year since 1980 and account for 25% of all natural gas traded internationally. In the mid-1970s, the share was only 5%. In 1996, the most recent year for which complete data are available, world LNG trade rose 7.7% to a record 92 billion cu m, outpacing the overall consumption for natural gas which increased 4.7% in 1996. By 2015, says the IGT study, natural-gas use would surpass coal as the world''s second most widely used fuel, after petroleum. Much of this growth will occur in the developing countries of Asia where gas use, before the current economic crisis began, was projected to grow 8%/year through 2015. Similar trends are reflected in another study of LNG trade released at year end 1997, this from Ocean Shipping Consultants Ltd., Surrey, U.K. The study was done too early, however, to consider the effects of the financial problems roiling Asia

  18. LNG - the challenge of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    LNG growth prospects - both in the Far East and Atlantic Basin - have never been better. Natural gas is responding strongly to the green momentum and to its clear competitive advantage in power generation. To meet growing demand, the major energy buyers are turning increasingly to large remote reserves of gas which often can only be delivered as LNG. But, the market will decide when and which LNG projects are developed - and the trigger will be price. LNG will compete head-on not only with low priced oil and coal but, in some markets, also with long-haul pipeline gas. This paper outlines regional demand and supply opportunities for LNG and then considers the challenges that the LNG industry must now tackle if it is to realistically expect a larger share of the world's energy market

  19. LNG in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, Mike; White, Nick; Le Fevre, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the content of a 402 p. study published by CEDIGAZ, the International Center for Natural Gas Information. According to this study, LNG as a fuel will capture a significant market share in the transport sector by 2035. The greatest potential is seen in road transport, were annual demand is projected to reach 96 million tons per year (mtpa) in CEDIGAZ' base scenario while demand in the marine sector could grow to an estimated 77 mtpa. The rail sector could add another 6 mtpa to global demand. However, the development of LNG as a transport fuel faces a number of challenges, and will have to go hand in hand with the development of fueling infrastructure

  20. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) CARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Posavec; Katarina Simon; Matija Malnar

    2010-01-01

    Modern liquefied natural gas carriers are double-bottom ships classified according to the type of LNG tank. The tanks are specially designed to store natural gas cooled to -161°C, the boiling point of methane. Since LNG is highly flammable, special care must be taken when designing and operating the ship. The development of LNG carriers has begun in the middle of the twentieth century. LNG carrier storage space has gradually grown to the current maximum of 260000 m3. There are more than 300 L...

  1. The LNG industry - 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The average annual growth of the world primary energy consumption has been 2.2% over the last ten years, with the highest growth rate observed for 2004 (+4.7%). In 2007, world primary energy consumption registered a 2.4% increase, still exceeding the 10-year average but less than for the four previous years. As for the previous years, the Asia Pacific region shows the most important increase in volume for 2007, rising by 5% and accounting for two-third of the global growth (China alone accounts in 2007 for more than half of this global growth, as was already the case in 2005 and 2006). Over the last ten years, the world energy consumption rose from 8920 10 6 toe in 1998 to 11099 10 6 toe in 2007, a 24.4% overall increase. For the seventh year running, coal has increased its share of the overall energy market, up to 28.6%. It should be noted that nuclear power decreased by 2%, Germany and Japan accounting for more than 90% of this decline. The growth of natural gas consumption in 2007 (+3.1%) was higher than in 2006 (+2.4%). The US accounted for nearly half of the global increase. Strong growth was also observed in China (+19.9%), representing the second largest increment to world gas consumption. Inversely, the EU consumption decreased (-1.6%) for the second year in a row. The market share for natural gas remained stable in 2007 (23.8%) compared to 2006 (23.6%)(1). Estimates for the marketed production of natural gas in 2008(2) show a rise of about 3.4% over 2007. The share of LNG in the gas trade accounts for 27% of the total (excluding trade within the Former Soviet Union and United Arab Emirates). Details are given about: LNG contracts and trade, Contracts concluded in 2008, LNG imports - Sources of imports, Quantities received in 2008, LNG tankers, Ships delivered, Tanker distribution, Liquefaction plants, Re-gasification plants, Contracts in force in 2008, Spot and short term quantities received in 2008, Sea transportation routes, Liquefaction plants, Re

  2. The LNG Industry - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    In the main, the global LNG industry can look back on 2014 as another year of relative stagnation with LNG trade reaching 239.2 MMT, a 1% increase over 2013, but just below 2011 levels. Although one new liquefaction plant came on stream in May in Papua New Guinea and one expansion train started producing in Algeria, disappointments in Angola and Egypt and slowdown in Qatar limited the volume of additional LNG supply. Low demand in South Korea as well as slower than expected growth in China contributed to loosen the market tightness observed in recent years, foreboding the return of a buyers' market as the year progressed. Other highlights in the past year's review of LNG imports are the remarkable gain in India, ahead of the U.K and Japan's demand increase, and the arrival of Lithuania as the world's 30. importer with a floating storage and re-gasification unit (FSRU). On the supply side, Queensland Curtis was on the brink at year-end of joining the producers' rank and managed to load its first cargo in December. Nigeria showed the second largest addition of supply (after PNG) attributable to a much improved feed-gas supply. During the second half of the year a sharp decrease in crude oil prices combined with a looser supply situation in the Pacific drove down prices in Asia, where spot prices were halved between March and October of last year. On the supply side, this price drop in Asia will inevitably slow down or defer development of expensive new supply projects. On the demand side, it has begun to translate into the return of flexible LNG cargoes to Europe, where spot prices have been disconnected from oil prices for some time. In this context of demand and price uncertainty, traditional procurement models are changing, as new players with different business models emerge, new procurement alliances are being formed and new commercial offerings are being structured; all mainly in the pursuit of enhanced flexibility both in terms of

  3. The LNG Industry - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    The 2011 catastrophic tsunami in Japan continued its grip on LNG flows throughout 2012, causing massive shifts eastwards of Atlantic Basin and Middle East-sourced cargoes to satisfy the strong demand of Japan's power industry. Its commercial effects are likely to continue beyond the current year as well as beyond a mere diversion of product flows. On the production side, capacity additions have been below expectations and insufficient to make up for the higher loss of capacity due to planned shutdowns and unscheduled production interruptions, mainly resulting from a shortfall of feed-gas. As a result, in 2012, LNG trade has seen the first decline (minus 1.9%) in the past thirty years. The strong growth in spot and short term trade seen in recent years (up by 110% from 2009 to 2011) is no longer there, primarily, but not solely, in line with the lack of new supplies. Undoubtedly, the conversion of non-committed production and flexible supplies and of so-called wedge cargoes -especially from Qatar and Peru- into term volumes has reduced the overall short term liquidity. Until substantial new volumes become available, this phenomenon is likely to continue for the next couple of years as Asian importers have a growing appetite for (more) secure supplies. Two events in 2012, albeit of a different nature, stand out among the highlights of the year: a significant rise in reloads, and the first final investment decision (FID) of exports from North America. Reloading of cargoes in receiving terminals is generally presented as a demonstration of commercial innovation though sometimes simply allowing to overcome destination restrictions or difficult negotiations on profit sharing from cargo deviations. Considering operational cost efficiency and the environmental impact, it is doubtful that reloads will continue to be a growing feature in LNG trading, despite a total count in 2012 of 70 re-exported cargoes actually discharged in 2012 (up 60% from last year). It is

  4. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  5. The sustainability of LNG evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.; Van der Kooi, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) import terminals are under construction to fulfil the growing demand for energy carriers. After storage in tanks, the LNG needs to be heated and evaporated, also called ‘regasified’, to the natural gas needed in households and industry. Several options exist for

  6. 77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2012 LNG Export Study AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability of 2012 LNG Export Study and request for comments. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. [FE Docket No. 10-161-LNG] and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC. Lake Charles Exports, LLC.... [FE Docket...

  7. LNG -- Technology on the edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    With immense promise and many supporters, LNG as a vehicular fuel is still, a nascent industry. In about two years, an array of LNG engines should be commercially available, and infrastructure greatly expanded. These developments should reduce the present premium of LNG equipment, greatly improving industry economics. The most propitious sign for LNG-market developed lies in the natural gas industry's recently refined strategy for natural gas vehicles. The new strategy targets the right competitor--diesel, not gasoline. It also targets the right market for an emerging fuel--high-fuel-usage fleets made up of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, often driven long distances. But problems persist in critical areas of development. These problems are related to the materials handling of LNG and the refueling of vehicles. The paper discusses the studies on LNG handling procedures, its performance benefits to high-fuel use vehicles, economic incentives for its use, tax disadvantages that are being fought, and LNG competition with ''clean'' diesel fuels

  8. Training simulator for operations at LNG terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuta, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tetsuka, S.; Koyama, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Tokyo Gas LNG terminals are among the major energy centers of the Tokyo area, supplying 8 million customers with city gas, and also supplying fuel for thermal power generation at the neighboring thermal power plant operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. For this reason, in the event of an emergency at the terminal operators have to be able to respond quickly and accurately to restore operations and prevent secondary damage. Modern LNG terminals are highly reliable and are equipped with backup systems, and occurrences of major trouble are now almost nil. Operators therefore have to be trained to respond to emergencies using simulators, in order to heighten their emergency response capabilities. Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. has long been aware of the need for simulators and has used them in training, but a new large-scale, real-time simulator has now developed in response to new training needs, applying previously accumulated expertise to create a model of an entire LNG terminal incorporating new features. The development of this new simulator has made possible training for emergencies affecting an entire terminal, and this has been very effective in raising the standards of operators. (au)

  9. Introduction to the marine transportation of bulk LNG and the design of LNG carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J J

    1974-03-01

    The marine transportation of bulk LNG is expected to expand considerably in the near future to help supply the continuous and growing demand for energy predicted for the U.S., Japan, and Western Europe. The number of new LNG tankers required to provide for these markets is estimated to be at least 50 new 4.4 million ft/sup 3/ tankers by 1980. The standard LNG tanker size is expected to increase to 7.06 million ft/sup 3/ within 5 yr. In selecting a particular tanker system, prospective ship-owners may have to consider such factors as national and international subsidies, shipyard limitations, and the trend to build certain specialized tanker components in areas other than in the shipyard. This work separation could help reduce tanker construction cost and time--especially important when several ships are to be constructed. Containment techniques available for construction of the cargo tanks include the self-supporting and the integrated designs, with the most economical provided by systems carrying LNG as a bulk cargo slightly subcooled below its boiling temperature at near-atmospheric pressure. All designs must fulfill the requirements for maintaining the approved temperature over the entire hull structure, preventing excess heat leaks into the cargo, providing tight liquid containment of the cargo, controlling the conditions inside and outside, and providing the proper facilities for safe loading and unloading. Materials of construction range from a combination of various grades of mild steel for the hull to the highest grades of aluminum alloys and nickel steels for the tank areas. Insulation includes polyurethane foam, silicon-coated perlite, and balsa wood used with fiberglass, polyurethane foam, or mineral wool. The insulation materials and arrangement must be waterproof, fire-resistant, and suitable to withstand the forces imposed on them. Finally, the tankers must include the proper equipment for LNG handling, pumping, and boiloff control.

  10. Analysis of temperature and pressure changes in liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.-S.; Wegrzyn, J.; Prasad, V.

    2004-10-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a transportation fuel for heavy vehicles such as trucks and transit buses, to lessen the dependency on oil and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The LNG stations are properly designed to prevent the venting of natural gas (NG) from LNG tanks, which can cause evaporative greenhouse gas emissions and result in fluctuations of fuel flow and changes of fuel composition. Boil-off is caused by the heat added into the LNG fuel during the storage and fueling. Heat can leak into the LNG fuel through the shell of tank during the storage and through hoses and dispensers during the fueling. Gas from tanks onboard vehicles, when returned to LNG tanks, can add additional heat into the LNG fuel. A thermodynamic and heat transfer model has been developed to analyze different mechanisms of heat leak into the LNG fuel. The evolving of properties and compositions of LNG fuel inside LNG tanks is simulated. The effect of a number of buses fueled each day on the possible total fuel loss rate has been analyzed. It is found that by increasing the number of buses, fueled each day, the total fuel loss rate can be reduced significantly. It is proposed that an electric generator be used to consume the boil-off gas or a liquefier be used to re-liquefy the boil-off gas to reduce the tank pressure and eliminate fuel losses. These approaches can prevent boil-off of natural gas emissions, and reduce the costs of LNG as transportation fuel.

  11. LNG plants in the US and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT's LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to the LNG industry, IGT has cosponsored the International Conference on Liquefied Natural Gas for the part 20 years. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of our recent survey results as well as provide an overview of world LNG trade. This information is important in assessing the potential near term availability of LNG for transportation applications. The IGT LNG Survey appraised the capacity and current market activity of LNG peak shaving, satellite storage, and import receiving facilities in the United States and Canada. Information was requested from facilities on three main topics: liquefaction, storage, and regasification. Additional questions were posed regarding the year of operation, designer/contractor for liquefaction cycle and storage, source of LNG (for storage-only facilities), plans for expansion, and level of interest in providing LNG as a vehicle fuel. The IGT LNG Survey has to date received information on 56 LNG peak shaving facilities, 28 satellite storage facilities, and 4 LNG import receiving terminals

  12. Prevention and mitigation of groundwater contamination from radioactive releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This document gives basic information on potential pathways and mechanisms, by which radioactive materials from releases can reach man, and on modelling considerations to predict the behaviour of radioactive materials in the ground. The main objective is to present an overview of existing techniques for preventing the offsite releases of contaminants into the groundwater systems and techniques for mitigation of effects of such releases should they occur. The recommended techniques are fully applicable to any hazardous materials, such as organic liquids, and toxic materials or otherwise dangerous materials, the presence of which in the accessible biosphere can represent health risks as well as economic losses to the general public. 11 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  13. An evaluation of the simultaneous use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUS, Mirena®) combined with endometrial ablation in the management of menorrhagia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vaughan, D

    2012-05-01

    The objective of our study was to document the efficacy and possible complications in women who were treated for menorrhagia with the simultaneous use of endometrial ablation and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device. Women were offered this combined treatment if they complained of menorrhagia and needed contraception. A structured questionnaire was mailed to 150 women who had undergone this combined treatment; 105 (70%) returned a completed questionnaire. The mean duration of follow-up was 25 months (range 6-54 months). Following treatment, 53 women (50.5%) described their periods as being lighter than normal and 49 (46%) had become amenorrhoeic. Overall, 101 (96%) stated that they were satisfied with the treatment. Of the women, 95 (90.5%) said that the treatment had been a \\'complete success\\'; eight (7.6%) \\'partly successful\\' and two women (1.9%) said the treatment had been a \\'failure\\'. One woman subsequently required a hysterectomy. This observational study supports the hypothesis that combined endometrial ablation and insertion of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device is an effective treatment for menorrhagia and has some advantages when compared with the individual use of these treatments.

  14. LNG terminalil on idaraha keeld / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjon kiirustab Balti riike LNG (vedeldatud maagaasi) terminali asukohas kokku leppima. Kolmest tingimusest, millele peab LNG terminali projekt vastama, et tekiks võimalus kandideerida EL-i toetusele

  15. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG) can...

  16. Comparison of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device with oral progestins in heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) cases with uterine leiomyoma (LNG-IUD and oral progestin usage in myoma uteri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Ayse Kavasoglu; Tosun, Ismet; Suer, Necdet

    2014-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness and acceptability of LNG-IUD with oral progesterone (norethisterone acetate; NETA) in achieving a reduction in volume of the myomas, hemoglobin levels, satisfaction of the women. This study includes randomized 30 women treated by LNG-IUD and randomized 30 women treated by oral norethisterone (NETA). All these participants in the study have received medical treatment and had been registered as patients in Istanbul Medeniyet University Göztepe Education and Research Hospital. Leiomyoma volumes and hemoglobin levels have been determined. In the third and sixth months, these measurements have been done again. We examined the adverse effects and the treatment continuity. For the statistical analysis of the findings NCSS [Number Cruncher Statistical System] 2007 & PASS 2008 program; student t, Mann Whitney U, Paired Samples t, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks, Ki-Kare, Fisher's Exact Ki-Kare tests have been used. After six months treatment, the reduction of bleeding determined by Visual Bleeding Score (VBS) in LNG-IUD group is 80% and in oral norethisteron group is 56%; in both groups leiomyoma volumes and hemoglobin levels were significantly high. LNG-IUD is a good alternative treatment to the oral progesterone in long term minimizing the hysterectomy for myoma uteri because of the good patient tolerance and easy usage.

  17. North America and Asia Pacific LNG markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirie, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) export opportunities in the Asia Pacific market were reviewed. Some of the differences that affect a North American LNG projects compared to more typical LNG projects were also outlined. The two main aspects of the LNG market in North America include the establishment of LNG import terminals on the east and southern coasts of the United States and the development of export oriented LNG projects. The Pac-Rim LNG project calls for initial delivery to South Korea of 4.0 MTPA by the end of 2000. A large LNG project has also been proposed for the year 2005 which would use Prudhoe Bay gas. Generally, in North America, there is little use for large scale LNG import projects because of the vast pipeline network that delivers gas reliably and at low cost anywhere in North America. However, LNG remains a good alternative for the Asia Pacific region because of the lack of a pipeline network. Also, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, the three main centers for LNG demand, have no domestic energy supplies and rely on imported energy sources. China is another major market opportunity for LNG. The Pac-Rim LNG project differs from others of its kind in that usually, an LNG project is based on the availability of large reservoirs of natural gas owned by state governments and involves production agreements with multi-national oil and gas companies. This scenario is simply not possible in Canada's deregulated environment. In contrast, the existence of upstream facilities, technical expertise, and low capital costs, hence reduced risks and time to develop an LNG project, gives Canada significant advantages. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Global LNG - characteristics, clients and contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauquis, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Total's liquefied natural gas (LNG) holdings were described. Other topics discussed included an overview of gas consumption and internationally traded gas in 1995, a primer on the history of LNG, Japan's average import prices in 1996, Europe's border gas prices and consumption in 1995, Canada/US regional price differences in 1995 and 1996, and world gas markets and prices in 1996. The projected LNG supply and demand in Europe and Asia , especially in Japan, China and India, was also discussed. General concepts of LNG pricing, the general structure of a gas sales contract, and the different categories of LNG contracts were also reviewed. 24 figs

  19. The LNG Industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Estimates for the marketed production of natural gas in 2006 show a rise of about 3% over 2005. The share of LNG in the gas trade accounts for 23% of the total. In 2006, the international trade in liquid form accounted for 348.4 10 6 m 3 or almost 159 10 6 t. It rose by 38.4 10 6 m 3 , or 12.4%, the highest growth rate ever recorded over the last decade. As to imports: - Japan remained by far the world's largest LNG importer with 136 10 6 m 3 , or 39% of all imports, followed by Korea with 55.3 10 6 m 3 (15.9%) and Spain with 41.6 10 6 m 3 (12.0%), markedly higher than the U.S.A. ranking fourth with 26 10 6 m 3 (7.5%). Seventeen countries were involved in LNG imports with the addition of China and Mexico in 2006. - The growth rate of European imports remained stable at 21%, above the global growth rate of 12.4%, resulting in a market share for Europe of 27.4% and demonstrating the dynamism of this region in the LNG trade. With a 12% market share in worldwide trade, Spain maintained its position as Europe's largest LNG market. - After substantial increases during the early part of this decade, the US market suffered most from the shortage in LNG production and price arbitration prompted some shippers to divert spot LNG away from the US market. Imports for the Americas as a whole still decreased by 3.2% and their global market share fell to 8.5%. - The Asian market kept on growing steadily by 11.4% with imports to the region rising from 200.6 10 6 m 3 to 223.4 10 6 m 3 or an increase of 22.8 10 6 m 3 , mainly due to the continued rise of Indian imports with a 3.9% market share, and the emergence of China on the LNG scene. Japanese imports steadily rose to 136 10 6 m 3 . Korea also enjoyed a significant growth by 13.5% to 55.3 10 6 m 3 while Taiwan's imports grew by 8.5% to 17 10 6 m 3 . As to sources of imports: Indonesia lost its leading position and Qatar became the world's largest LNG producer with 15.5% of all exports. Indonesia ranked second with 13.9%, Malaysia

  20. Power and LPG production with LNG import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, J.Y.

    2004-01-01

    When used in power cogeneration, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is both energy efficient and can eliminate seawater or fuel gas consumption as well as the associated environmental impacts of conventional regasification processes. However, some liquefied natural gas (LNG) sources have heating values higher than current North American natural gas pipelines can allow for. LNG from these cannot be injected into gas pipelines without several heating control processing steps. This paper outlines two new technologies developed to address this issue. The first is a power cogeneration process using LNG as a heat sink. The second technology involves a fractionation process removing Liquid Propane Gas (LPG) components from imported LNG, thereby controlling heat value. Both technologies are applicable in grassroots installations as well as being suitable for retrofitting to existing LNG regasification for power generation and LPG production. It was concluded that power cogeneration with a mixed fluid power cycle recovered a significant portion of energy in LNG liquefaction plants. Additionally, it was also possible to fractionate high quality LPG from LNG at a low cost, with the residue being further re-condensed and re-utilized for power generation. It was also concluded that the LNG fractionation process would add flexibility to the LNG receiving terminals, allowing the import of lower quality LNG to North America, while also generating additional revenues from LPG production. 3 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  1. Key issues considered at LNG 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, S.

    2001-01-01

    In the past few years, deregulation of the gas markets throughout the world has changed the way LNG projects can be brought into realisation. Gone are the days when large consortia of buyers could aggregate demand into quantities that made an LNG project economic. Today's market is typified by buyers requesting greater flexibility in volumes, shorter contract terms and reduced exposure to take-or-pay clauses. This means that the onus is on the producer to aggregate volume to make a large project viable, and to find flexible supply options as demand increases. As a result, there is an increasing ability to source LNG from excess capacity around the world, as has been demonstrated with the extended shutdown of the Arun LNG plant in Indonesia. Although some flexibility exists for the supply of LNG, it is unlikely that a world market where LNG is freely traded will develop. LNG projects will still require long-term contracts to ensure project financing. Furthermore, the 'LNG world' will remain separated into two regions the Atlantic and Asia-Pacific basins with only small amounts of 'spot' trading occurring between them. This is primarily due to the increased shipping costs associated with the global movement of LNG, and thus the ability to compete with closer sources of LNG and pipeline gas. Australia's position and its challenges in the LNG market is analysed

  2. A method for prevention of radioactive material release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Sato, Chikara; Kitamura, Masao.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a method for preventing an underwater radioactive material from being released in a simple and highly reliable manner, which can decrease an amount of radioactive materials discharged into open air from reactor water containing a large amount of radioactive materials such as a reactor core pool. Structure: Pure warm water higher in temperature than that of reactor water is poured from the top of a water surface of a water tank which stores reactor water containing radioactive materials such as radioactive iodine, and water is drawn through an outlet located downwardly of the pure warm water inlet to form a layer of pure warm water at the upper part of the water tank while preventing diffusion of the reactor water into the pure warm water by the difference in density between the reactor water and the pure warm water and downward movement of the pure warm water, thereby preventing contact of the reactor water with the atmosphere and diffusion of the radioactive material into the atmosphere. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Mediterranean fruit fly preventative release programme in southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, Robert V.; Meyer, Fred; Siddiqu, Isi A.; Leon Spaugy, E.

    2000-01-01

    California employs several area-wide pest management programmes that use the release of sterile insects to protect its commercial and dooryard agriculture. The first was developed in response to the discovery of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in Tijuana, Mexico and adjacent areas in San Diego County, California. Initially pesticide sprays of malathion and bait were applied to host plants around each fly find site. Additionally, soil sprays of diazion (0.05 kg per 93 m 2 ) were applied under every host plant around each fly find site. It soon became apparent that this approach was expensive and environmentally damaging. This led the interested parties, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the government of Mexico to develop a programme that utilises the release of sterile Mexican fruit flies over the city of Tijuana in order to prevent the establishment of a breeding population of this fly in the city. The belief is that preventing the Mexican fruit fly from breeding in Tijuana will help protect both that city and California. To date, no Mexican fruit fly larvae have been found in Tijuana or the adjacent areas of California. The second programme was developed in response to the discovery of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, in cotton in the Imperial Valley area of southern California. As the pink bollworm spread throughout the cotton growing region of southern California, it became a significant pest that threatened the 405,000 hectares of cotton grown in the San Joaquin Valley to the north. To keep this pest out of the San Joaquin Valley, the CDFA/USDA and California cotton growers use the large-scale releases of sterile pink bollworms in areas in which wild pink bollworms are captured each year. Thus far, the pink bollworm has been prevented from establishing a permanent presence in the San Joaquin Valley and the cotton growers in southern California, Arizona and

  4. PIF4 Promotes Expression of LNG1 and LNG2 to Induce Thermomorphogenic Growth in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geonhee Hwang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis plants adapt to high ambient temperature by a suite of morphological changes including elongation of hypocotyls and petioles and leaf hyponastic growth. These morphological changes are collectively called thermomorphogenesis and are believed to increase leaf cooling capacity by enhancing transpiration efficiency, thereby increasing tolerance to heat stress. The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4 has been identified as a major regulator of thermomorphogenic growth. Here, we show that PIF4 promotes the expression of two homologous genes LONGIFOLIA1 (LNG1 and LONGIFOLIA2 (LNG2 that have been reported to regulate leaf morphology. ChIP-Seq analyses and ChIP assays showed that PIF4 directly binds to the promoters of both LNG1 and LNG2. The expression of LNG1 and LNG2 is induced by high temperature in wild type plants. However, the high temperature activation of LNG1 and LNG2 is compromised in the pif4 mutant, indicating that PIF4 directly regulates LNG1 and LNG2 expression in response to high ambient temperatures. We further show that the activities of LNGs support thermomorphogenic growth. The expression of auxin biosynthetic and responsive genes is decreased in the lng quadruple mutant, implying that LNGs promote thermomorphogenic growth by activating the auxin pathway. Together, our results demonstrate that LNG1 and LNG2 are directly regulated by PIF4 and are new components for the regulation of thermomorphogenesis.

  5. Short-term LNG-markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom; Lund, Arne-Christian; Miltersen, Kristian; Rud, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The global Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) industry has experienced substantial growth in the past decades. In the traditional trade patterns of LNG the product has typically been handled within a dedicated chain of plants and vessels fully committed by long term contracts or common ownership, providing risk sharing of large investments in a non-liquid market. Increasing gas prices and substantial cost reductions in all parts of the LNG chain have made LNG projects viable even if only part of the capacity is secured by long-term contracts, opening for more flexible trade of the remainder. Increasing gas demand, especially in power generation, combined with cost reductions in the cost of LNG terminals, open new markets for LNG. For the LNG supplier, the flexibility of shifting volumes between regions represents an additional value. International trade in LNG has been increasing, now accounting for more than one fifth of the world's cross-border gas trade. Despite traditional vertical chain bonds, increased flexibility has contributed in fact to an increasing LNG spot trade, representing 8% of global trade in 2002. The focus of this paper is on the development of global short-term LNG markets, and their role with respect to efficiency and security of supply in European gas markets. Arbitrage opportunities arising from price differences between regional markets (such as North America versus Europe) are important impetuses for flexible short-term trade. However, the short-term LNG trade may suffer from problems related to market access, e.g. limited access to terminals and regulatory issues, as well as rigidities connected to vertical binding within the LNG chain. Important issues related to the role of short-term LNG-trade in the European gas market are: Competition, flexibility in meeting peak demand, security of supply and consequences of differences in pricing policies (oil-linked prices in Europe and spot market prices in North America). (Author)

  6. Safety barriers to prevent release of hydrocarbons during production of oil and gas

    OpenAIRE

    Sklet, Snorre; Hauge, Stein

    2004-01-01

    This report documents a set of scenarios related to release of hydrocarbons during production on oil and gas platforms. For each release scenario, initiating events, barrier functions aimed to prevent loss of containment, and barrier systems that realize these barrier functions are identified and described. Safety barriers to prevent release of hydrocarbons during production of oil and gas

  7. The Japanese approach to financing LNG projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Wataru

    1995-01-01

    The Japanese approach approach to financing LNG project has been what could be called a combined purchase and finance system which has been arranged mainly at the initiative of japan's Sogo Shosh (general trading companies) with the support of japanese governmental financial agencies and a purchase commitment from japanese utilities. In the QATARGAS project, despite it being the first greenfield LNG project in decade since North West Shelf Australia LNG project, financing for the LNG plant phase has been successfully arranged through Japanese financing. The structuring of the financial facilities for the QATARGAS project seems to have lessons for future development of the next generation of greenfield LNG projects. Discharge of the parties' liability, proper sharing of the risk burden and reconfirmation of the spirit of mutual understanding and trust among the parties concerned are key factors for the success of any new LNG project in the future. (Author)

  8. Dossier LNG. Liquid market move

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matla, P.

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide market for liquid natural gas is booming like never before and the end is not in sight yet. Shell is market leader among international energy companies. But where does LNG come from? And how will the fuel be used in the coming years? What role does Shell want to play in this market? These questions are addressed in a series of three articles. [nl

  9. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  10. Matrix and reservoir-type multipurpose vaginal rings for controlled release of dapivirine and levonorgestrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Peter; Fetherston, Susan M; McCoy, Clare F; Major, Ian; Murphy, Diarmaid J; Kumar, Sandeep; Holt, Jonathon; Brimer, Andrew; Blanda, Wendy; Devlin, Brid; Malcolm, R Karl

    2016-09-10

    A matrix-type silicone elastomer vaginal ring providing 28-day continuous release of dapivirine (DPV) - a lead candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) microbicide compound - has recently demonstrated moderate levels of protection in two Phase III clinical studies. Here, next-generation matrix and reservoir-type silicone elastomer vaginal rings are reported for the first time offering simultaneous and continuous in vitro release of DPV and the contraceptive progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) over a period of between 60 and 180days. For matrix-type vaginal rings comprising initial drug loadings of 100, 150 or 200mg DPV and 0, 16 or 32mg LNG, Day 1 daily DPV release values were between 4132 and 6113μg while Day 60 values ranged from 284 to 454μg. Daily LNG release ranged from 129 to 684μg on Day 1 and 2-91μg on Day 60. Core-type rings comprising one or two drug-loaded cores provided extended duration of in vitro release out to 180days, and maintained daily drug release rates within much narrower windows (either 75-131μg/day or 37-66μg/day for DPV, and either 96-150μg/day or 37-57μg/day for LNG, depending on core ring configuration and ignoring initial lag release effect for LNG) compared with matrix-type rings. The data support the continued development of these devices as multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs) for HIV prevention and long-acting contraception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of the South Hyogo earthquake on LNG facilities and damage prevention measures; Effets du tremblement de terre de Hyogo-Sud sur les installations GNL et mesures pour la prevention des degats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoichi, Fuchimoto [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd., Dept. Production (Japan); Yukiyoshi, Hasegawa [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd., Senboku LNG Terminail (Japan); Ysuhiro, Ueno; Junji, Doi [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd., Engineering Dept. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The South Hyogo Earthquake that took place in the morning of January 17, 1995, at about 5:46 A.M. registered a magnitude of 7.2 on the Richter scale with earthquake motion of 800 gal (horizontal) on the ground surface. It was the largest vertical-motion earthquake to hit a major urban area in modern days, and it struck the service area of Osaka Gas. The ground motion values monitored were 240 gal at the Senboku LNG Terminal and 189 gal at the Himeji LNG Terminal, but these terminals did not receive sufficient damage to affect their gas processing or supply functions. There were also seven gas holders operating in the worst hit area, where ground motion of 616 to 833 gal was recorded. However, these gas holders were also not damaged by the earthquake. These gas processing plants and supply facilities were constructed in compliance with the current seismic design standards, and they incorporate elastic design (capable of withstanding ground motion of 300 gal max.) in which due consideration is given to factors such as their importance and the ground characteristics. Although the South Hyogo Earthquake generated ground motion that far exceeded the design level of the gas holders, the facilities maintained their integrity without shape deformation, thus demonstrating their high level of earthquake resistance. For other gas processing facilities, Osaka Gas conducted evaluations of their resistance to an extremely large earthquake using the ultimate strength design method, and confirmed similar levels of earthquake resistance performance. According to the above examination results, it was found that design based on the current seismic design standards is capable of withstanding an earthquake of high magnitude. However, the current seismic design standards do not take into consideration earthquakes of an extremely high magnitude or specify the use of the ultimate strength design method. Therefore, The Japan Gas Association is currently examining standards that take those

  12. LNG links remote supplies and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avidan, A.A.; Gardner, R.E.; Nelson, D.; Borrelli, E.N.; Rethore, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has established a niche for itself by matching remote gas supplies to markets that both lacked indigenous gas reserves and felt threatened in the aftermath of the energy crises of the 1970s and 1980s. It has provided a cost-effective energy source for these markets, while also offering an environmentally friendly fuel long before that was fashionable. The introduction of natural-gas use via LNG in the early years (mostly into France and Japan) has also allowed LNG to play a major role in developing gas infrastructure. Today, natural gas, often supplied as LNG, is particularly well-suited for use in the combined cycle technology used in independent power generation projects (IPPs). Today, LNG players cannot simply focus on monetizing gas resources. Instead, they must adapt their projects to meet the needs of changing markets. The impact of these changes on the LNG industry has been felt throughout the value chain from finding and producing gas, gas treatment, liquefaction, transport as a liquid, receiving terminals and regasification, and finally, to consumption by power producers, industrial users, and households. These factors have influenced the evolution of the LNG industry and have implications for the future of LNG, particularly in the context of worldwide natural gas

  13. Towards a world development of LNG market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The world development of the LNG trade was the theme of the second workshop of the 7. summit of natural gas industry leaders. With the increasing development of the LNG industry, a world scale natural gas market is becoming possible and should replace the present day regional markets. This article analyzes the expected economic impacts of such a market. (J.S.)

  14. The LNG Industry in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, Jean-Yves; Demoury, Vincent; Vermeire, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The most significant event to mark the LNG trade in 2011 has been the catastrophe that hit Japan in March, in view of both its short-term effect on shifting flows and its long-term demand prospects of LNG as a source for gas-fired power generation. The role of LNG as a flexible and secure energy source as well as the prompt response to provide back-up through additional supplies and cargo diversions to compensate for the sudden loss of nuclear capacity in Japan - with sellers exercising due price restraint in view of the human tragedy - has been a credit to the industry. The increase in production capacity in 2009 and 2010, in particular from Qatar, had permitted the necessary buffer to cope much better with the demand surge than during past disruptions (such as the aftermath of the Chuetsu earthquake in late 2007). Undoubtedly, the marked shift over the last decade in the industry's prevailing business model towards global trade, destination flexibility and portfolio play has also facilitated the rapid response. As the total volume of LNG trade is very much determined by the availability of supply, 2011 has seen a growth of 9.4% over 2010, mainly as a result of the full availability of the six Qatar mega-trains over the past year. On the demand side the two traditional basins have shown a very contrasting trend: 15% higher LNG off-take in Asia (the five major markets all increasing between 37.4% and 8.9%), versus a 1.7% decrease in the Atlantic Basin. Cargo diversions and an increasing number of reloads have boosted the exports from the Atlantic Basin to Asia in 2011 to more than 14 million tons (equivalent to more than 200 large size cargoes). Remarkable is also the fast growth in new markets in Latin America and in the Middle East - albeit from a small base - with counter-seasonal but varying demand, offering attractive arbitrage opportunities to portfolio play. Not surprising then that 2011 has seen another hike in spot and short-term trade, not just in

  15. LNG market: future clouded by uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, J

    1979-12-01

    The emergence of a US national energy policy playing down the role of LNG, along with a growing trend toward unfavorable production and pricing policies by LNG-exporting nations, will limit international LNG trade to about 9-10.5 billion CF/day by 1985, instead of the 13.4-15 billion CF predicted previously. In the US, LNG now stands fifth in priority as a baseload supply source, following conventional Lower 48 supplies, Alaskan pipeline gas, imports from Canada and Mexico, and domestic synthetic gas. Despite this federal policy and the adjoined decision to apply incremental pricing to future LNG imports, two new projects will soon come on-stream in the US: one to receive 450 million CF/day of Algerian gas at Lake Charles, La., and another to receive 539 million CF/day from Indonesia and 431 million CF/day from Alaska at a terminal in California.

  16. LNG plant combined with power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, I; Kikkawa, Y [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs.

  17. LNG plant combined with power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, I.; Kikkawa, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs

  18. Panel discussion: LNG's future in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Tadahiko

    1992-01-01

    The panelists convened to: (1) identify and evaluate the role which LNG is likely to play in the changing energy scene; (2) to examine the future supply and demand structure of the LNG trade; (3) to discover the key obstacles to continued growth in LNG trade; and (4) to find solutions to these problems. The panelists identified and outlined growing opportunities for LNG utilization in Asia during the next two decades. They shared the opinion that the structure of the supply and demand balance for LNG in Asia will shift during the next decade, providing considerable room for new projects. The key obstacles to continued growth in LNG trade are the lack of: long-distance transmission networks and an efficient competitive market pricing mechanism for LNG in the Asian region. The major importers in the region are keen on developing a range of new long-term supply alternatives, not simply within the Asia-Pacific region, but also from a wider perspective. These alternatives include: financing the expansion of production from existing facilities, development of new fields, and construction of long-distance pipelines

  19. World economic growth pushing LNG use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Clary, R.

    1997-01-01

    Natural gas, especially liquefied (LNG), is in position to participate in the energy growth now being triggered by strong worldwide economic growth, increasingly open markets, and expanding international trade. Natural gas is abundant, burns cleanly, and is highly efficient in combined-cycle, gas-turbine power plants. Moreover, the comparative remoteness of much of the resource base to established and emerging markets can make LNG a compelling processing and transportation alternative. Discussed here are the resource distribution and emerging market opportunities that can make LNG attractive for monetizing natural-gas reserves

  20. First LNG deliveries from Qatar to Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty five years after the discovery of the giant North Field natural gas deposit, the Qatargas company has delivered its first LNG freight to Japan in December 1996. This paper recalls the history of the company from the discovery of the offshore North Field, its valorization and development, the LNG project with the building of the Ras Laffan harbour and its condensates processing factory and the 3 offshore production platforms. Ten methane-tanker ships will be in operation in the year 2000. Qatar's LNG exports should reach 20 to 25 Mt/year in the next ten years, when all its liquefaction factory projects will be completed. (J.S.)

  1. Antibiotic-Releasing Silk Biomaterials for Infection Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, Eleanor M.; Valentin, Thomas; Panilaitis, Bruce; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Effective treatment of infections in avascular and necrotic tissues can be challenging due to limited penetration into the target tissue and systemic toxicities. Controlled release polymer implants have the potential to achieve the high local concentrations needed while also minimizing systemic exposure. Silk biomaterials possess unique characteristics for antibiotic delivery including biocompatibility, tunable biodegradation, stabilizing effects, water-based processing and diverse material f...

  2. LNG terminal location still a tossup

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Lätti rajatava LNG terminali asukoht pole veel teada. 16. märtsil kohtus Poola president Bronislaw Komorowki Läti riigipea Valdis Zatlersiga ja kiitis selle projekti heaks. Venemaast energiasõltumatuse olulisusest

  3. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

  4. LNG: a commodity in the making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrelie, M.F

    2006-07-01

    Although still far from being a commodity, LNG is undoubtedly emerging as an essential vector for world gas expansion. The flexibility it procures in terms of supply is of prime importance for future market equilibrium. Despite a number of uncertainties and constraints liable to thwart the realisation of the most optimistic growth prospects, the LNG trade remains wedded to rapid growth of about 7%/year by 2020, boosting its share of world gas trade to some 38% by that horizon. (author)

  5. LNG: a commodity in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Although still far from being a commodity, LNG is undoubtedly emerging as an essential vector for world gas expansion. The flexibility it procures in terms of supply is of prime importance for future market equilibrium. Despite a number of uncertainties and constraints liable to thwart the realisation of the most optimistic growth prospects, the LNG trade remains wedded to rapid growth of about 7%/year by 2020, boosting its share of world gas trade to some 38% by that horizon. (author)

  6. LNG ventures raise economic, technical, partnership issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acord, H.K.

    1995-01-01

    The author feels that natural gas will remain a competitive energy alternative and the preferred fuel for many residential and industrial customers around the globe. The article attempts to explain where liquefied natural gas will fit into the global picture. The paper discusses the growth in the Asia-Pacific region; the complex interactions in a LNG project involving buyers, sellers, governments, financial institutions, and shipping companies; the cost of development of such projects; and the elements of a LNG venture

  7. LNG: a commodity in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Although still far being a commodity, LNG is undoubtedly emerging as an essential vector for world gas expansion. The flexibility it procures in terms of supply is of prime importance for future market equilibrium. Despite a number of uncertainties and constraints liable to thwart the realization of the most optimistic growth prospects, the LNG trade remains wedded to rapid growth of about 7% year by 2020, boosting its share of world gas trade to some 38% by that horizon. (author)

  8. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO. The global Floating LNG (FLNG market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  9. Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Gerald William; Melof, Brian Matthew; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Hightower, Marion Michael; Covan, John Morgan; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Irwin, Michael James; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro; Morrow, Charles W.

    2004-12-01

    While recognized standards exist for the systematic safety analysis of potential spills or releases from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) storage terminals and facilities on land, no equivalent set of standards or guidance exists for the evaluation of the safety or consequences from LNG spills over water. Heightened security awareness and energy surety issues have increased industry's and the public's attention to these activities. The report reviews several existing studies of LNG spills with respect to their assumptions, inputs, models, and experimental data. Based on this review and further analysis, the report provides guidance on the appropriateness of models, assumptions, and risk management to address public safety and property relative to a potential LNG spill over water.

  10. Fact Sheet: Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Accidental Release Prevention / Risk Management Plan Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is required to publish regulations and guidance for chemical accident prevention at facilities that pose the greatest risk of harm from accidental releases of regulated flammable and toxic substances above threshold quantities.

  11. 14 CFR 1213.106 - Preventing release of classified information to the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.106 Preventing release of classified... interviews, audio/visual) to the news media is prohibited. The disclosure of classified information to unauthorized individuals may be cause for prosecution and/or disciplinary action against the NASA employee...

  12. Russian LNG: The Long Road to Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrova, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    On December 1, 2013 a law on liquefied natural gas (LNG) export liberalization came into legal force in Russia. The law grants two categories of companies other than Russia's state gas giant Gazprom and its subsidiary companies the right to export LNG: (1) users of mineral resources that have a license to construct an LNG plant or to send their gas production for liquefaction, and (2) companies that are more than 50% owned by the Russian government, for gas produced from Russian offshore fields or under production-sharing agreements. This is-without exaggeration-a historic decision for the Russian gas industry, the path to which was certainly not easy. Recent years have seen a radical change in the global economic climate, which has changed the dynamics of the European gas market (gas demand decline and Russian gas import reduction, changing pricing mechanism for a much higher share of spot indexing, European Commission anti-trust investigations against Gazprom, etc) and is increasingly pushing Russia to diversify its gas exports. However, diversifying exports through the development of LNG has proven to be not so simple. Over the past 20 years, with the exception of the Sakhalin-2 project, structured under a project-sharing agreement (PSA) rather than in the framework of national legislation, all other projects failed to come close to completion. The Kharasavey and Baltic LNG projects were abandoned in the early stages of project evaluation, while the Shtokman project progressed to the point of the operating company being created, but in the end was postponed indefinitely. The first stage of LNG development in Russia ended in failure. However, the Russian government considers the development of LNG exports to be a priority, which can be evidenced in all official policy papers. It is believed that LNG will help in achieving a set of objectives, namely: increasing the absolute volume of exports, allowing the country to enter into previously inaccessible markets

  13. Financial structure of Korea Gas Corporation's LNG projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeongsoo Ko

    1991-01-01

    When an Indonesian LNG tanker arrived in Korea for the first time in October 1986, Korea became the seventh LNG-consuming nation in the world. The imported LNG has contributed greatly to solving pollution problems and ensuring a stable supply of energy to Korea through the diversification of energy sources. So far, the LNG supply has been confined to the Metropolitan area. The Korea Gas Corporation now plans to expand the LNG supply to cover the entire nation. This paper introduces the experience and future plan of Korea's LNG projects with a special reference to their financial structure

  14. Safety barriers on oil and gas platforms. Means to prevent hydrocarbon releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklet, Snorre

    2005-12-15

    The main objective of the PhD project has been to develop concepts and methods that can be used to define, illustrate, analyse, and improve safety barriers in the operational phase of offshore oil and gas production platforms. The main contributions of this thesis are; Clarification of the term safety barrier with respect to definitions, classification, and relevant attributes for analysis of barrier performance Development and discussion of a representative set of hydrocarbon release scenarios Development and testing of a new method, BORA-Release, for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases Safety barriers are defined as physical and/or non-physical means planned to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. The means may range from a single technical unit or human actions, to a complex socio-technical system. It is useful to distinguish between barrier functions and barrier systems. Barrier functions describe the purpose of safety barriers or what the safety barriers shall do in order to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. Barrier systems describe how a barrier function is realized or executed. If the barrier system is functioning, the barrier function is performed. If a barrier function is performed successfully, it should have a direct and significant effect on the occurrence and/or consequences of an undesired event or accident. It is recommended to address the following attributes to characterize the performance of safety barriers; a) functionality/effectiveness, b) reliability/ availability, c) response time, d) robustness, and e) triggering event or condition. For some types of barriers, not all the attributes are relevant or necessary in order to describe the barrier performance. The presented hydrocarbon release scenarios include initiating events, barrier functions introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and barrier systems realizing the barrier functions. Both technical and human

  15. Siting considerations for LNG import terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meratla, Z. [CDS Research Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Site selection criteria for liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities and terminals were reviewed in this PowerPoint presentation. Onshore and offshore sites were discussed. Typical public opposition issues were examined, including public concerns over safety and the environment. Low key consultation processes with local communities was advised to assess levels of interest and opposition during initial stages. It was suggested that desirable LNG sites should not be visible from local communities. Remoteness from built-up areas was advised, as well as ensuring that sites meet the requirements of future expansion and large LNG carriers. Issues concerning waterway drawbacks and exclusion zones were examined, as well as the relative merits of onshore and offshore terminals. It was noted that onshore terminals are accessible to personnel as well as outside emergency response resources, and are less susceptible to weather related downtime. In addition, onshore spills are generally impounded. Offshore LNG import terminals are visible from shorelines and susceptible to stray marine traffic and abnormal events. Siting considerations for offshore facilities include sensitive areas; shipping channels; foundation issues; shipping lane access; and offshore pipeline lengths. Issues concerning loading arms, remote flare systems, integral ballast and process equipment for offshore facilities were discussed. Membrane type storage systems and tank construction details were presented as well as details of self supporting storage systems. A comparison of gravity-based structures and floating facilities was presented. It was concluded that floating LNG facilities have well developed security procedures, passive protection and automatic intruder detection alarms. tabs., figs.

  16. Distribution of gas from Canaport LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, W. [New Brunswick Dept. of Energy, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Construction of the Canaport Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project will begin in 2006. Public consultations are currently being held for the 145 km pipeline from Canaport to Bailleyville, Maine. It is expected that both the facility and the pipeline will be operational by 2008. This presentation provided details of the New Brunswick (NB) Department of Energy's (DOE) regulatory oversight of the Canaport Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project. The DOE is responsible for ensuring diversity and security of supply; economic efficiency; economic development opportunities and protection of the environment. The Canaport LNG facility will provide an additional 500 to 600 temporary jobs over a 2 to 3 year period, as well as 20 full-time jobs once the plant is operational. Tax revenues, access roads and the construction of a pipeline to Bailleyville, Maine will also have positive impacts on the NB economy. The facility will provide a secure long term supply of natural gas for the region. In order to support its energy goals, the DOE has proposed amendments to provide for the distribution of gas from the plant to NB customers. A proposed LNG franchise to allow for direct distribution of gas from the LNG plant to customers was discussed. Issues concerning the Gas Distribution Act and the New Pipeline Act of 2006 were also examined. It was concluded that public consultations are currently being held for the 145 km pipeline, and that both the facility and the pipeline are expected to be operational by 2008. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Distribution of gas from Canaport LNG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.

    2006-01-01

    Construction of the Canaport Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project will begin in 2006. Public consultations are currently being held for the 145 km pipeline from Canaport to Bailleyville, Maine. It is expected that both the facility and the pipeline will be operational by 2008. This presentation provided details of the New Brunswick (NB) Department of Energy's (DOE) regulatory oversight of the Canaport Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project. The DOE is responsible for ensuring diversity and security of supply; economic efficiency; economic development opportunities and protection of the environment. The Canaport LNG facility will provide an additional 500 to 600 temporary jobs over a 2 to 3 year period, as well as 20 full-time jobs once the plant is operational. Tax revenues, access roads and the construction of a pipeline to Bailleyville, Maine will also have positive impacts on the NB economy. The facility will provide a secure long term supply of natural gas for the region. In order to support its energy goals, the DOE has proposed amendments to provide for the distribution of gas from the plant to NB customers. A proposed LNG franchise to allow for direct distribution of gas from the LNG plant to customers was discussed. Issues concerning the Gas Distribution Act and the New Pipeline Act of 2006 were also examined. It was concluded that public consultations are currently being held for the 145 km pipeline, and that both the facility and the pipeline are expected to be operational by 2008. refs., tabs., figs

  18. LNG and LPG total involvement of Pullman Kellogg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    A discussion of Pullman Kellogg activity covers a new LNG terminal in Belgium; construction of LNG 2 for Sonatrach in Algeria; an LPG recovery system in Kuwait; the Trunkline Gas Co. LNG project at Lake Charles, La.; and the Cove Point, Md., facility for Columbia Gas System Inc. and Consolidated Natural Gas Co., which will be capable of mooring two 750,000 bbl LNG tankers simultaneously.

  19. Effects of lng Mutations on LngA Expression, Processing, and CS21 Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E9034A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Rodea, Gerardo E.; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Viridiana; Espinosa-Mazariego, Karina; González-Montalvo, Martín A.; Ochoa, Sara A.; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Eslava-Campos, Carlos A.; López-Villegas, Edgar O.; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Arellano-Galindo, José; Patiño-López, Genaro; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus). This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA) and minor (LngB) structural subunit, have been characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins in the assembly of CS21 in ETEC strain E9034A. The deletion of the lngA, lngB, lngC, lngD, lngH, or lngP genes, abolished CS21 assembly in ETEC strain E9034A and the adherence to HT-29 cells was reduced 90%, compared to wild-type strain. Subcellular localization prediction of CS21 proteins was similar to other well-known type IV pili homologs. We showed that LngP is the prepilin peptidase of LngA, and that ETEC strain E9034A has another peptidase capable of processing LngA, although with less efficiency. Additionally, we present immuno-electron microscopy images to show that the LngB protein could be localized at the tip of CS21. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins are essential for CS21 assembly, as well as for bacterial aggregation and adherence to HT-29 cells. PMID:27536289

  20. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181...

  1. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193...

  2. The conception of the LNG implementation in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarczynski, S.; Zola, P.

    2006-01-01

    The main issues concerning world LNG market, technical applications and the potential growth of the market have been described in the article. The conception of introducing LNG on Polish gas market assumes that a LNG terminal will be built on the Baltic Sea shore along with the infrastructure necessary to store and transmit gas to the national gas pipeline grid. (authors)

  3. The globalization and environmental sustainability of LNG: Is LNG a fuel for the 21st century?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakmar, Susan

    2010-09-15

    As the world enters the 21st Century, policy makers around the world are grappling with issues related to energy security, energy poverty, global climate change, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while meeting an expected increase in demand for all energy sources. As a clean burning fuel, many policy leaders have suggested that LNG can play an important role as the world struggles to develop a more environmental sustainable energy future. Others claim that the safety and environmental impact of LNG, including life-cycle emissions, may nullify any clean burning benefit LNG might otherwise provide.

  4. Retail LNG handbook. Retail LNG and The Role of LNG Import Terminals. Report by the GIIGNL Technical Study Group on the possible role of LNG import terminals within the emerging Retail LNG Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) industries are changing. The influx of supply, low prices, and environmental benefits of natural gas are driving consumers to convert from other fossil fuels. Natural gas consumers on pipeline systems have the ability to benefit, but for those not connected, LNG may be the only opportunity to convert to natural gas. As this market evolves, a unique opportunity may emerge for some existing participants in the LNG market and could lead to a shift in business focus, potentially adding to or even transforming the traditional role of LNG Import Terminals. As surmised by the GIIGNL's Technical Study Group (TSG) at the outset of their endeavor, virtually every member company had historical experience with, was in the midst of expanding its services to include, or was actively engaged in the study of, Retail LNG. The market drivers, value propositions, trends and future prospects for Retail LNG that have widely been publicized were generally confirmed although in an overall more conservative outlook. As a representative body of experienced, long term LNG Import Terminal operators, GIIGNL was uniquely qualified to stress in its Handbook the importance of managing the inherent risk associated with LNG, the application of suitable codes and standards and the use of proper equipment. The study of the aspects of LNG supply and use including safety, security, staffing, equipment siting, and operations is hoped to provide an illustrative framework form which the industry can jointly move towards best practices. While Retail LNG is considered by many to be 'new' there is substantial historical experience with all aspects of the market. LNG Import Terminals, including the experience and competence of their staffing, can play a key role in not only the incubation and growth of the Retail market, but the molding and shaping of regulatory framework, applicable codes and standards and operational best practices. GIIGNL

  5. Total's LNG activities from Algeria to Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedrenne, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    In March 1995, further to an international tender, Total was awarded the leadership of the first LNG project in Yemen. On January 1997 Total announced the extension of the share-holding of the Yemen LNG Co. to include the companies with interests in the Marib area (Hunt-Exxon-Yukong). The Marib area will supply the gas to the future liquefaction plant. The ratification of these agreements confirms the role of Total as lead shareholder with 36% in the share-holding structure and guarantees gas supply from the Marib licence, operated by Hunt-Exxon. (author)

  6. Asia-Pacific focus of coming LNG trade boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region remains the centerpiece of a booming world trade in liquefied natural gas. Biggest growth in LNG demand is expected from some of the region's strongest economies such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, Key LNG exporters such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia are scrambling to implement projects to meet that expected demand growth. Uncertainties cloud the outlook for Far East LNG trade, Australia, for one, is more cautious in pressing expansion of its LNG export capacity as more competing LNG expansions spring up around the world, notably in the Middle East and Africa

  7. The Impact of Pollution Prevention on Toxic Environmental Releases from U.S. Manufacturing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Matthew; Cox, Brendan; Keenan, Cheryl; Teitelbaum, Daniel

    2015-11-03

    Between 1991 and 2012, the facilities that reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Program conducted 370,000 source reduction projects. We use this data set to conduct the first quasi-experimental retrospective evaluation of how implementing a source reduction (pollution prevention) project affects the quantity of toxic chemicals released to the environment by an average industrial facility. We use a differences-in-differences methodology, which measures how implementing a source reduction project affects a facility's releases of targeted chemicals, relative to releases of (a) other untargeted chemicals from the same facility, or (b) the same chemical from other facilities in the same industry. We find that the average source reduction project causes a 9-16% decrease in releases of targeted chemicals in the year of implementation. Source reduction techniques vary in effectiveness: for example, raw material modification causes a large decrease in releases, while inventory control has no detectable effect. Our analysis suggests that in aggregate, the source reduction projects carried out in the U.S. since 1991 have prevented between 5 and 14 billion pounds of toxic releases.

  8. The economic value of LNG in the Korean manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun-Young; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Although LNG is an important input to industrial production for manufacturing firms, its economic value has been rarely investigated in the literature. This paper attempts to estimate the economic value of LNG in Korea's manufacturing sector by employing the concept of the value of marginal product (VMP). For this, we used data on 328 firms using LNG as an input. Two types of production functions (the Cobb–Douglas and trans-log functions) are applied. The result of the specification test indicates that the trans-log function is more appropriate for estimating the data. The output elasticity and VMP of industrial LNG are estimated to be 0.1346 and KRW 6844 (USD 6.22) per m 3 , respectively. The results have important implications for various areas of industrial LNG management. For example, any cost–benefit analysis of new projects providing industrial LNG requires information on the economic value of industrial LNG. In addition, such information is useful for the Korean government's future policies on LNG pricing. - Highlights: • We estimate the economic value of LNG in the Korean manufacturing industry. • We employ the concept of the value of marginal product (VMP). • The VMP of industrial LNG is estimated to be KRW 6844 (USD 6.22) per m 3 . • It significantly outweighs the price of industrial LNG (KRW 629.4 per m 3 )

  9. LNG imports make strong recovery in 1996; exports increase also

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    LNG imports to the US jumped in 1996 as Algerian base-load plants resumed operations following major revamps. Exports from Alaska to Japan grew by nearly 4% over 1995. Total LNG imports to the US in 1996 were 40.27 bcf compared to 17.92 bcf in 1995, an increase of 124.8%. Algeria supplied 35.32 bcf; Abu Dhabi, 4.95 bcf. About 82.3% of the imported LNG was received at Distrigas Corp.'s terminal north of Boston. The remaining LNG was received at the Pan National terminal in Lake Charles, LA. LNG imports during 1995 fell to such a low level not because of depressed US demand but because of limited supply. The paper discusses LNG-receiving terminals, base-load producers, LNG pricing, and exports

  10. LNG's renaissance in the U.S. -- why now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.

    2000-01-01

    The present state and future prospects for the U.S. liquefied natural gas industry are reviewed in light of expanding opportunities for LNG export worldwide. An update on new tanker ships to transport LNG by both exporters and importers and on developments at US LNG facilities at Everett, MA, Cove Point, MD, Elba Island, GA, and at Lake Charles, LA, is provided, along with an assessment of East Coast supply sources and demand forecast. The prediction is that worldwide supply/demand for LNG will tighten, that US prices will be strong enough to support LNG, that proposed expansion of LNG liquefaction facilities in the Atlantic Basin will fill US import facilities, and that East Coast demand growth will absorb growth in LNG imports

  11. Cold recovery during regasification of LNG part one: Cold utilization far from the regasification facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rocca, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with cold recovery during LNG regasification. The applications analyzed pertain to the use in deep freezing agro food industry and in space air conditioning facilities in commercial sector (Supermarkets and Hypermarkets) of cold recovered from the regasification process. A modular LNG regasification unit is proposed having the regasification capacity of 2 BCM/year of gas and it is based on use of a Power Cycle working with Ethane, this unit allows operation of cold energy transfer, contained in LNG to be regasified, in a range of temperatures suitable for multipurpose use of cold, reducing regasification process irreversibility. Some electric energy is produced by the Power Cycle, but the purpose of the modular unit is to deliver cold suitable for industrial and commercial use in the proper temperature range utilizing Carbon dioxide as secondary fluid to transfer cold from regasification site to far end users. The subject is divided in two papers: this paper deals with facilities delivering cold released during LNG regasification and related pipeline facilities to transfer cold at far end users while the other paper pertains to analysis of end users applications. Results of a detailed thermodynamic and economic analysis demonstrate the suitability of the proposal.

  12. Education Department Effort to Prevent Colleges from Releasing Crime Records Suffers Setback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschik, Scott

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Education has suffered legal defeats in Missouri and Arkansas in its campaign to prevent colleges from publicly releasing names of students arrested by campus security. Controversy involves interpretation of a 1974 privacy-protection law, the Buckley Amendment. College officials are unsure about how to deal with the issue. (MSE)

  13. French Gas Association roundtable - May 27, 2013. Evolutions of the LNG market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, Jean-Yves; Brunero, Francois; Cotin, Pierre; Daubonne, Jean-Francois; Deybach, Frederic; Seilhan, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The LNG industry is currently facing contrasting trends, with overall decreasing consumption in 2012 compared to the previous year, large uncertainties on gas prices - energy being regarded by European and Asian customers as costly - and however very encouraging prospects, in particular regarding LNG as a fuel. This document reports on the minutes of the French Gas Association roundtable on the subject 'Evolutions of the LNG market'. Contents: 1) LNG Market Outlook, 2) LNG in Europe, 3) LNG terminals and the evolving LNG market, 4) The road-transported LNG market, 5) LNG market trends, 6) Questions and Answers

  14. 77 FR 76013 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... marketing supplies of LNG. Sempra is a customer of the Cameron Terminal. On June 22, 2012, FE issued DOE/FE... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [FE Docket No. 12-155-LNG] Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket..., by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra LNG Marketing), requesting blanket authorization to export...

  15. In-situ strain monitoring in liquid containers of LNG transporting carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Min-Cheol; Seo, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Myung-Hyun

    2008-08-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) transport carriers are exposed to a risk by the repeated bump in the LNG container during the vessel traveling over the wave in ocean. The liquid inside the container, especially when it was not fully contained, make a strong bump onto the insulation panel of the tank wall. The insulation panel consists of several layers of thick polyurethane foam (PUF) to maintain the LNG below the cryogenic temperature, -162°C. Due to the repeated shock on the PUF, a crack could be developed on the tank wall causing a tremendous disaster for LNG carriers. To prevent the accidental crack on the tank, a continuous monitoring of the strain imposed on the PUF is recommended. In this work, a fiber-optic Bragg grating was imbedded inside the PUF for monitoring the strain parallel to the impact direction. The optical fiber sensor with a small diameter of 125 μm was suitable to be inserted in the PUF through a small hole drilled after the PUF was cured. In-situ monitoring of the strain producing the change of Bragg reflection wavelength, a high speed wavelength interrogation method was employed by using an arrayed waveguide grating. By dropping a heavy mass on the PUF, we measured the strain imposed on the insulation panel.

  16. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP) annual review and update for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.; Mamatey, A.; Arnett, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP), WSRC made a commitment to conduct the following follow-up activities and actions: (1) Complete the action items developed in response to the findings and recommendation of the Environmental Release Prevention Taskteam (WSRC-RP-92-356). (2) Complete all batch and continuous release procedure revisions to incorporate the attributes that WSRC senior management required of each procedure. (3) DOE-SR Assistance Managers and WSRC counterparts to reach consensus and closure on the identified engineered solutions documented in the ERP and CP, develop and drive implementation of facility changes per the agreements. (4) Continue to analyze releases and monitor performance in accordance with the ERP and CP, and utilize the ALARA Release Guides Committee to drive improvements. (5) Conduct annual re-evaluations of the cost benefit analyses of the identified engineered solutions, and identify new options and alternatives for each outfall in response to site mission and facility changes. This report documents the efforts that have been completed over the past year in response to these commitments

  17. Portable Filtered Air Suction System for Released Radioactive Gases Prevention under a Severe Accident of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Rim, Chun T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention under a severe accident of NPP is proposed. This technology can prevent the release of the radioactive gases to the atmosphere and it can be more economical than FVCS because PoFASS can cover many NPPs with its high mobility. The conceptual design of PoFASS, which has the highest cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment condition such as wind velocity and precipitation, is suggested and the related previous research is introduced in this paper. The portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention can play a key role to mitigate the severe accident of NPP with its high cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment conditions. As further works, the detail design of PoFASS to fabricate a prototype for a demonstration will be proceeded. When released radioactive gases from the broken containment building in the severe accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs) such as the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents occur, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gases spreading in the air. In order to solve this problem, several European NPPs have adopted the filtered vented containment system (FVCS), which can avoid the containment failure through a pressure relief capability to protect the containment building against overpressure. However, the installation cost of FVCS for a NPP is more than $10 million and this system has not been widely welcomed by NPP operating companies due to its high cost

  18. Potential local use of natural gas or LNG from Hammerfest LNG plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeraas, Bengt Olav

    1999-01-01

    A base-load LNG plant is planned to be built in Norway, near by the northern most city in the world, Hammerfest. Natural gas from the Snoehvit-field will be transported by pipeline to Melkoeya, a few kilometres from Hammerfest, where the liquefaction plant is planned to be located. SINTEF Energy Research has performed a study in co-operation with the local authorities on potentials for the use of LNG and natural gas locally in the Hammerfest region. Combined power and heat production by lean-burn gas engine, low temperature freezing of high quality products by use of LNG cold and drying of fish products are some of the identified fields for the use of natural gas and LNG. The establishment of an industrial area, with fish processing industry and a central freezing storage near by Hammerfest has been suggested. The gas may be transported locally either as LNG, by tank lorry or container, or as gas in a small pipeline, depending on distance, amount and the actual use. (author)

  19. Logistics and supply chain effectiveness measure areas in lng companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the issues of logistics and supply chain measures in companies. It considers different management systems in the area of production, which evolved from isolated production activities to business connected systems. There are performed three case studies - three examples of systems proposed and implemented in the LNG industry: I-MAC, ICIMS and PMS. Data gained from these systems are the basis to create effectiveness measures for LNG companies and LNG supply chains.

  20. LNG Industry in Europe beset by uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past five years, the liquefied natural gas industry (LNG) has metamorphosed from a specialist niche business into a mainstream source of energy supply, It is currently by far the fastest-growing source of fossil fuel and growth forecasts. However, the industry's future is beset by uncertainty, not least in Europe. Supply is tight, technical skills are hard to come by, and even future demand looks uncertain

  1. Accident management to prevent containment failure and reduce fission product release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Lin, C.C.; Luckas, W.J.; Pratt, W.T.

    1991-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating accident management strategies which could help preserve containment integrity or minimize releases during a severe accident. The strategies considered make use of existing plant systems and equipment in innovative ways to reduce the likelihood of containment failure or to mitigate the release of fission products to the environment if failure cannot be prevented. Many of these strategies would be implemented during the later stages of a severe accident, i.e. after vessel breach, and sizable uncertainties exist regarding some of the phenomena involved. The identification and assessment process for containment and release strategies is described, and some insights derived from its application to specific containment types are presented. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Trading in LNG and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    We have examined the market for natural gas from a number of viewpoints, starting with the role of natural gas in the global energy market where its 20% share of primary energy demand has been captured in the space of almost as many years. In discussion regional energy markets we cover the disparities between supply and demand which give rise to trade by pipeline, and by sea in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Both have in fact increased steadily in recent years, yet even in 1991, only 12-15% of total gas production was traded across international boundaries, whereas for oil it was closer to 40%. For the moment pipeline trade remains heavily concentrated in Europe and North America, and it is in the LNG sector where the spread of projects, both existing and planned, is more global in nature. We examine the development of LNG trades and the implications for shipping. Finally, we look at transportation costs, which are likely to be an important component in the viability of many of the natural gas export schemes now under review. There is good reason to be ''bullish'' about parts of the natural gas industry but this Report suggests that there are areas of concern which could impinge on the development of the market in the 1990s. (author)

  3. Algeria's response to future LNG needs: The revamping of its LNG plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendani, A.; Rekkab, O.

    1992-01-01

    Since the beginning of the sixties, Algeria decided to participate in the international commerce of gas through its LNG. Four plants have thus been built and started in 1964, 1972, 1978 and 1981. Following the decrease in world LNG demand in the eighties, these plants built to supply 30 billion M 3 have not been operated at their full capacities. As a result, the plant equipment has suffered from this situation of partial operation (excessive shutdowns and startups). In order for SONATRACH to participate as it wishes in the expected increase in world LNG demand, two alternatives are possible to achieve this objective: Rehabilitate existing plants to enable them to operate safety and continuously to their full capacities or, build new plants. It is the first alternative that has been selected and the previous plant constructors have been selected for their renovation

  4. Design Optimization of a Low Pressure LNG Fuel Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    In 2014 there were 50 liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuelled ships in operation and around 70 on order worldwide. LNG proves to emit less pollution and considering the present and future emission regulations and optimistic gas fuel prices, LNG would be a preferable option as a marine fuel. The number of LNG fuelled ships is therefore likely to increase significantly the next five to ten years. There are many ways to configure the fuel supply system. The fuel supply system consists of a tank,...

  5. Safety and environmental aspects in LNG carrier design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Takashi [Mitsui Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    `Safety and Reliability` has been and will continue to be a key phr ase in marine transportation of LNG. Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co.,Ltd. has utilized its all expertise and state of art technologies to realize this objective, resulting in exceptionally successful operations of LNG carrier built by the Co. In line with growing global concern about environmental issues, we need to pay more attention to the environmental aspects of the design and construction of LNG carriers. Accordingly, in this paper, we present some topics related safety and environmental concerns which need to be taken into consideration in LNG carriers design and construction. (Author). 7 figs.

  6. Safety and environmental aspects in LNG carrier design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi Yoneyama

    1997-01-01

    'Safety and Reliability' has been and will continue to be a key phr ase in marine transportation of LNG. Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co.,Ltd. has utilized its all expertise and state of art technologies to realize this objective, resulting in exceptionally successful operations of LNG carrier built by the Co. In line with growing global concern about environmental issues, we need to pay more attention to the environmental aspects of the design and construction of LNG carriers. Accordingly, in this paper, we present some topics related safety and environmental concerns which need to be taken into consideration in LNG carriers design and construction. (Author). 7 figs

  7. Is LNG the way ahead for natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.; Dhellemmes, J.; Hosanski, J.M.; Goy, A.

    2004-01-01

    The topic of the last 2004 meeting of the French gas association (AFG) was the liquefied natural gas (LNG) which takes a growing up share in the international gas trade. The number of liquefaction plants and re-gasification terminals have increased and liquefied natural gas tanker fleets grown to match the development of world trade. The three major French players in the LNG field are Total, which produces gas and LNG in several countries, Gaz de France (GdF) which buys in a significant quantity of LNG, and GTT which provides engineering services for shipping. To get a better inside view of the LNG question, four specialists were invited to the last AFG meeting. This paper summarizes their opinion about the following points: the world potential LNG offer and the growing up capacities (LNG development, markets, supply and demand, companies strategy), the shipping by tanker ships (membrane insulation technology, fleet uses and perspectives), convergence of LNG markets and the role of Middle-East (shipping, increase of Middle-East LNG share in the world market, major stakes for the international companies), and the constraints and opportunities of re-gasification (terminals optimization, competition for re-gasification, terminals setting up problems, technical solutions). A summary of the questions and answers with the public concludes the article. (J.S.)

  8. The LNG industry in 2011. Press revue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    The outlook of the LNG industry in 2011 is presented as a revue of press articles: The role of LNG as a flexible and secure energy source as well as the prompt response to provide back-up through additional supplies and cargo diversions to compensate for the sudden loss of nuclear capacity in Japan - with sellers exercising due price restraint in view of the human tragedy - has been a credit to the industry. The increase in production capacity in 2009 and 2010, in particular from Qatar, had permitted the necessary buffer to cope much better with the demand surge than during past disruptions (such as the aftermath of the Chuetsu earthquake in late 2007). Undoubtedly, the marked shift over the last decade in the industry's prevailing business model towards global trade, destination flexibility and portfolio play has also facilitated the rapid response. As the total volume of LNG trade is very much determined by the availability of supply, 2011 has seen a growth of 9.4% over 2010, mainly as a result of the full availability of the six Qatar mega-trains over the past year. On the demand side the two traditional basins have shown very contrasting trends: 15% higher LNG off-take in Asia (the five major markets all increasing between 37.4% and 8.9%), versus a 1.7% decrease in the Atlantic Basin. Cargo diversions and an increasing number of reloads have boosted the exports from the Atlantic Basin to Asia in 2011 to more than 14 million tons (equivalent to more than 200 large size cargoes). Remarkable is also the fast growth in new markets in Latin America and in the Middle East - albeit from a small base - with counter-seasonal but varying demand, offering attractive arbitrage opportunities to portfolio play. Not surprising then that 2011 has seen another hike in spot and short-term trade, not just in absolute terms but also as a percentage of total trade (50% over 2010, 25.4% of total trade). The outlook for LNG is strong and its global demand prospects further

  9. Thermodynamic aspects of an LNG tank in fire and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsbosch-Dam, Corina; Atli-Veltin, Bilim; Kamperveen, Jerry; Velthuis, Han; Reinders, Johan; Spruijt, Mark; Vredeveldt, Lex

    Mechanical behaviour of a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tank and the thermodynamic behaviour of its containment under extreme heat load - for instance when subjected to external fire source as might occur during an accident - are extremely important when addressing safety concerns. In a scenario where external fire is present and consequent release of LNG from pressure relief valves (PRV) has occurred, escalation of the fire might occur causing difficulty for the fire response teams to approach the tank or to secure the perimeter. If the duration of the tank exposure to fire is known, the PRV opening time can be estimated based on the thermodynamic calculations. In this paper, such an accidental scenario is considered, relevant thermodynamic equations are derived and presented. Moreover, an experiment is performed with liquid nitrogen and the results are compared to the analytical ones. The analytical results match very well with the experimental observations. The resulting analytical models are suitable to be applied to other cryogenic liquids.

  10. Acacetin inhibits glutamate release and prevents kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yu Lin

    Full Text Available An excessive release of glutamate is considered to be a molecular mechanism associated with several neurological diseases that causes neuronal damage. Therefore, searching for compounds that reduce glutamate neurotoxicity is necessary. In this study, the possibility that the natural flavone acacetin derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Clerodendrum inerme (L. Gaertn is a neuroprotective agent was investigated. The effect of acacetin on endogenous glutamate release in rat hippocampal nerve terminals (synaptosomes was also investigated. The results indicated that acacetin inhibited depolarization-evoked glutamate release and cytosolic free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]C in the hippocampal nerve terminals. However, acacetin did not alter synaptosomal membrane potential. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of acacetin on evoked glutamate release was prevented by the Cav2.2 (N-type and Cav2.1 (P/Q-type channel blocker known as ω-conotoxin MVIIC. In a kainic acid (KA rat model, an animal model used for excitotoxic neurodegeneration experiments, acacetin (10 or 50 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally to the rats 30 min before the KA (15 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection, and subsequently induced the attenuation of KA-induced neuronal cell death and microglia activation in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The present study demonstrates that the natural compound, acacetin, inhibits glutamate release from hippocampal synaptosomes by attenuating voltage-dependent Ca(2+ entry and effectively prevents KA-induced in vivo excitotoxicity. Collectively, these data suggest that acacetin has the therapeutic potential for treating neurological diseases associated with excitotoxicity.

  11. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Clark, N. [West Virginia University (US)

    2001-01-25

    Waste Management, Inc., began operating a fleet of heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks at its Washington, Pennsylvania, facility. The objective of the project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  12. Assessing integrity and realiability of multicomposite LNG transfer hoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijde, G.D. van der; Putten, S. van der

    2012-01-01

    Reliable transfer systems are a key element in developing floating LNG and the small scale LNG market. Multi-composite hoses may prove to be a reliable and cost effective solution for offshore, near- and on-shore applications. TNO, the Dutch contract research organization, has executed an extensive

  13. Performance of cryogenic thermoelectric generators in LNG cold energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Hu Peng; Chen Zeshao; Jia Lei

    2005-01-01

    The cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is generally wasted when the LNG is extracted for utilization. This paper proposes cryogenic thermoelectric generators to recover this cold energy. The theoretical performance of the generator has been analyzed. An analytical method and numerical method of calculation of the optimum parameters of the generator have been demonstrated

  14. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) : production, storage and handling. 7. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalra, S; Jaron, K; Adragna, M; Coyle, S; Foley, C; Hawryn, S; Martin, A; McConnell, J [eds.

    2003-07-01

    This Canadian Standard on the production, storage and handling of liquefied natural gas (LNG) was prepared by the Technical Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas under the jurisdiction of the Steering Committee on Oil and Gas Industry Systems and Materials. It establishes the necessary requirements for the design, installation and safe operation of LNG facilities. The Standard applies to the design, location, construction, operation and maintenance of facilities at any location of the liquefaction of natural gas and for the storage, vaporization, transfer, handling and truck transport of LNG. The training of personnel involved is also included as well as containers for LNG storage, including insulated vacuum systems. It includes non-mandatory guidelines for small LNG facilities but does not apply to the transportation of refrigerants, LNG by rail, marine vessel or pipeline. This latest edition contains changes in working of seismic design requirements and minor editorial changes to several clauses to bring the Standard closer to the US National Fire Protection Association's Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas Standard while maintaining Canadian regulatory requirements. The document is divided into 12 sections including: general requirements; plant site provisions; process equipment; stationary LNG storage containers; vaporization facilities; piping system and components; instrumentation and electrical services; transfer of LNG and refrigerants; fire protection, safety and security; and, operating, maintenance and personnel training. This Standard, like all Canadian Standards, was subject to periodic review and was most recently reaffirmed in 2003. 6 tabs., 6 figs., 3 apps.

  15. LNG - Status in Denmark. Technology and potential. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    2012-05-15

    The interest for LNG both on a small and a large scale is increasing worldwide. The experiences and knowledge on LNG is limited in Denmark. The Danish gas companies' Technical Management Group (TCG) has asked for a status report including a technology description and an evaluation of the potential in Denmark. A survey of primarily small-scale LNG technology is done in the report. The focus is motivated by the new areas of gas utilisation that become possible with small-scale LNG. Small-scale LNG in this study is defined as LNG stored and used at the application or in an isolated gas grid. The small-scale use of LNG has today an almost negligible share of the total LNG trade but offers interesting new applications for gas utilisation. LNG on a small scale can be used primarily as: 1) Ship fuel. 2) Truck fuel (heavy duty long distance). 3) Individual users not connected to the natural gas grid. 4) Backup for upgraded biogas to individual users and vehicle fleets. 5) Security of supply or supply enhancement of heavily loaded parts of the gas grid. 6) Small-scale storage and/or peak shaving. All but the first topics are natural uses for the current Danish gas distributors. LNG as ship fuel may engage other specialized LNG companies. The report contains a technical description of the parts in primarily small-scale LNG handling and operation. Liquefaction, transport, storage, engine technologies, gas quality and safety aspects related to LNG are covered. There seem to be two more or less separate paths for LNG in Denmark, onshore and off-shore use. These are not, apparently, sharing their experiences and knowledge. Rules and regulations are also different which may create some problems in the interface, for example ship bunkering. Further studies are suggested in the area of gas quality and engine technologies and adaptation of foreign guidelines for small-scale installations to Danish conditions. These guidelines ought to be based on international standards and

  16. Helium Extraction from LNG End Flash

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Donghoi

    2014-01-01

    Helium is an invaluable element as it is widely used in industry such as cryo-genics and welding due to its unique properties. However, helium shortage is expected in near future because of increasing demand and the anxiety of sup-ply. Consequently, helium production has attracted the attention of industry. The main source of He is natural gas and extracting it from LNG end-flash is considered as the most promising way of producing crude helium. Thus, many process suppliers have proposed proc...

  17. 76 FR 53440 - Freeport LNG Development, LP; Freeport LNG Expansion, LP; FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Notice of Intent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    .... Summary of the Planned Project Freeport plans to add natural gas liquefaction and exportation capabilities to its existing liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal on Quintana Island in Brazoria County... tank, and additional LNG vaporization and natural gas send-out facilities that were previously...

  18. 77 FR 43589 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P., Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... addition, a second ship berthing area, third LNG storage tank, and additional LNG vaporization and natural... 7.3 7.3 Appurtenant Facilities beyond Terminal Site and Pretreatment 0.1 0.1 0.2 Facility site and... issues that we think deserve attention based on a preliminary review of the planned facilities and the...

  19. Ultra Structural Characterisation of Tetherin - a Protein Capable of Preventing Viral Release from the Plasma Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra K. Gupta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin is an antiviral restriction factor made by mammalian cells to protect them from viral infection. It prevents newly formed virus particles from leaving infected cells. Its antiviral mechanism appears to be remarkably uncomplicated. In 2 studies published in PLoS Pathogens electron microscopy is used to support the hypothesis that the tethers that link HIV-1 virions to tetherin expressing cells contain tetherin and are likely to contain tetherin alone. They also show that the HIV-1 encoded tetherin antagonist that is known to cause tetherin degradation, Vpu, serves to reduce the amount of tetherin in the particles thereby allowing their release.

  20. Curing agent for polyepoxides and epoxy resins and composites cured therewith. [preventing carbon fiber release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A curing for a polyepoxide is described which contains a divalent aryl radical such as phenylene a tetravalent aryl radical such as a tetravalent benzene radical. An epoxide is cured by admixture with the curing agent. The cured epoxy product retains the usual properties of cured epoxides and, in addition, has a higher char residue after burning, on the order of 45% by weight. The higher char residue is of value in preventing release to the atmosphere of carbon fibers from carbon fiber-epoxy resin composites in the event of burning of the composite.

  1. Coordination of ministerial actions regarding the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as fuel. LNG, a European component of the energy transition in road freight transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maler, Philippe; Erhardt, Jean-Bernard; Ourliac, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-01

    This report is the third of a series dealing with the coordination of ministerial actions in favor of the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as fuel in transports. LNG is an important potential substitute to diesel fuel in road transport and would allow significant abatement of nitrogen oxides emissions. Bio-LNG is ten times less polluting than fossil fuel LNG and thus important efforts are to be made in bio-LNG R and D. An important work has been carried out for adapting EU regulations and standards to LNG vehicles and LNG supply developments. This report presents, first, a summary of the report's recommendations and the aim of this coordination study, and, then, treats more thoroughly of the different coordination aspects: 1 - European framework of energy transition in the road freight transport (differences with maritime transport, CO 2 emissions abatement, trucks pollution and fuel quality standards, trucks technical specifications and equipment, fuel taxes in EU countries); 2 - European policy and national actions in favour of LNG development for road transport (LNG as alternate fuel, the Paris agreement, the French national energy plan); 3 - Environmental benefits of LNG in road transport (public health impacts, nitrogen oxides abatement, divergent views and expertise, LNG and CO 2 abatement measures, bio-LNG environmental evaluation; 4 - LNG development actors in road transport and the administrative coordination (professional organizations, public stakeholders, LNG topics information dissemination at the Ministry); 5 - LNG development in road transport at the worldwide, European and national scales; 6 - European regulations and standards allowing trucks LNG fueling and circulation (standard needs, users information, regulation works); 7 - Common rules to define and implement for personnel training; 8 - reflexion on LNG taxation; 9 - support policy for a road transport LNG supply chain (infrastructures, European financing, lessons learnt from maritime

  2. A basic study on underground storage of LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kang, Sun-Duck [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    In 1997, import of LNG was 11,378 thousand of about 2.3 billion US dollars. The demand of LNG(Liquefied Natural Gas) in Korea has been increased since 1987 with the rate of 20% annually. It is also estimated that this trend will be continued until 2010. Long-term estimation says that demand will increase with 9.1% and total demand of 2010 will be 23 million ton that is four times larger than that of 1994. Bases of unloading and store of LNG is necessary to complete the network of LNG distribution system to cover all of the country from import to final supply terminal at home. The construction plan of LNG bases with 49 tanks was published and is going on now at three bases, Pyungtaek, Incheon and Tongyoung. The total cost for this construction will be over 5,400 billion Won. All the LNG tanks are planned to build on the surface. The construction of LNG tanks on the surfaces is conventional but it damage the surface green area and is very vulnerable on safety, especially in Korea Peninsula with potentially unstable of military confrontation. And Korea is so small and limited in available land that it is not easy to find proper places for construction of more LNG tanks on surface. Underground LNG stores in rock will be a good alternative for tanks on surface in the view points of environmental and safety. It is also reported that it can be cheaper than that of on surfaces. It is well known that bed rocks in Korea is good to build underground structure like LNG stores. This report is basic research to seek for the possibility of LNG store construction in underground rocks. The important two questions on it is that whether it is possible technically and economically or not. The technical focus in this report is the stability of underground cavern for storage of LNG, energy conservation in operation, tightness against leakage of stored gas to surface and safety. Some statistic on LNG in Korea is given for this study with its future. (author). 25 refs., 36 tabs., 88 figs.

  3. Theoretical and computational analyses of LNG evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Palani Kumar; Jo, Yang Myung; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical and numerical analysis on the fluid flow and heat transfer inside a LNG evaporator is conducted in this work. Methane is used instead of LNG as the operating fluid. This is because; methane constitutes over 80% of natural gas. The analytical calculations are performed using simple mass and energy balance equations. The analytical calculations are made to assess the pressure and temperature variations in the steam tube. Multiphase numerical simulations are performed by solving the governing equations (basic flow equations of continuity, momentum and energy equations) in a portion of the evaporator domain consisting of a single steam pipe. The flow equations are solved along with equations of species transport. Multiphase modeling is incorporated using VOF method. Liquid methane is the primary phase. It vaporizes into the secondary phase gaseous methane. Steam is another secondary phase which flows through the heating coils. Turbulence is modeled by a two equation turbulence model. Both the theoretical and numerical predictions are seen to match well with each other. Further parametric studies are planned based on the current research.

  4. Research on energy efficiency design index for sea-going LNG carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Yu, Yanyun; Guan, Guan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers' reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

  5. Prevention of organ rejection in renal and liver transplantation with extended release tacrolimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reschen ME

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Reschen, Christopher A O’Callaghan Henry Wellcome Building, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom Abstract: Tacrolimus is the key immunosuppressant used to prevent allograft rejection in kidney and liver transplant recipients. Despite the efficacy of tacrolimus and adjunctive immunosuppressants, a substantial number of patients experience episodes of acute rejection and late graft loss. Nonadherence is an etiological factor in both acute rejection and graft loss. In 2007, a prolonged release version of tacrolimus became available that allows once daily administration, thus halving the pill burden compared to the standard twice-daily tacrolimus. An increasing number of studies in de novo transplantation and in treatment conversion have evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of prolonged-release tacrolimus. We have reviewed the literature on the use of prolonged-release tacrolimus and hope that this will be of value in the design of protocols for transplant immunosuppression.Keywords: immunosuppression, kidney, hepatic, allograft, adherence

  6. Novel design of LNG (liquefied natural gas) reliquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, S., E-mail: s.baek@kaist.ac.kr [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, G.; Lee, C. [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, S., E-mail: skjeong@kaist.ac.kr [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, D. [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ship/Plant System R and D Team, Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., 1, Ajoo, Koje, Kyungnam 656-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} We performed experiments with LN2 to mock up the new LNG reliquefaction process. {yields} Subcooled liquid goes to heat exchanger, heater, and phase separator. {yields} Reliquefaction occurs when vapor enters heat exchanger and verified by experiments. {yields} Reliquefaction ratio increases when subcooling degree or system pressure increases. - Abstract: This paper presents an investigation of novel LNG reliquefaction process where the cold exergy of subcooled LNG is utilized to recondense the vaporized light component of LNG after it is separated from the heavier component in a phase separator. The regeneration of cold exergy is especially effective as well as important in thermodynamic sense when a cryogenic process is involved. To verify the proposed idea, we performed an experimental study by facilitating liquid nitrogen apparatus to mock up the LNG reliquefaction process. Subcooled liquid nitrogen is produced for a commercial transportation container with a house-made atmospheric liquid nitrogen heat exchanger and then, having subooled degree of up to 19 K, it simulates the behavior of subcooled LNG in the lab-scale reliquefaction experiment. Recondensation of the vaporized gas is possible by using the cold exergy of subcooled liquid in a properly fabricated heat exchanger. Effect of heat exchanger performance factor and degree of subcooling on recondensation portion has been discussed in this paper. It is concluded that utilizing pressurized subcooled liquid that is obtained by liquid pump can surely reduce the pumping power of the vaporized natural gas and save the overall energy expenditure in LNG reliquefaction process.

  7. Project financing knits parts of costly LNG supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minyard, R.J.; Strode, M.O.

    1997-01-01

    The supply and distribution infrastructure of an LNG project requires project sponsors and LNG buyers to make large, interdependent capital investments. For a grassroots project, substantial investments may be necessary for each link in the supply chain: field development; liquefaction plant and storage; ports and utilities; ships; receiving terminal and related facilities; and end-user facilities such as power stations or a gas distribution network. The huge sums required for these projects make their finance ability critical to implementation. Lenders have become increasingly comfortable with LNG as a business and now have achieved a better understanding of the risks associated with it. Raising debt financing for many future LNG projects, however, will present new and increasingly difficult challenges. The challenge of financing these projects will be formidable: political instability, economic uncertainty, and local currency volatility will have to be recognized and mitigated. Described here is the evolution of financing LNG projects, including the Rasgas LNG project financing which broke new ground in this area. The challenges that lie ahead for sponsors seeking to finance future projects selling LNG to emerging markets are also discussed. And the views of leading experts from the field of project finance, specifically solicited for this article, address major issues that must be resolved for successful financing of these projects

  8. LNG in eastern Canada and New England : market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, B.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of the gas markets in North America and discussed the rationale for developing the liquefied natural gas (LNG) market with reference to competitive issues, challenges and global dimensions. LNG is expected to play a greater role in North American gas supplies and markets due to the decrease in conventional natural gas production in North America and the increase in demand for energy. It is expected that the overall share of the LNG gas market will increase in 2002. The construction of at least 15 new LNG receiving terminals has been proposed for location in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico, with most being located along the Gulf Coast. A novel offshore LNG receiving concept involving offshore gas pipelines and on-board-ship regasification was also discussed. As trading of LNG increases in the Atlantic, markets in eastern United States and Canada will benefit from improved gas supplies. Pricing patterns are also expected to change. It was noted that the increased energy demand will enable Arctic gas supplies to enter markets. As such, Arctic gas pipelines will enter service in the next decade and Alberta's importance as a hub will grow. It was also noted that Arctic gas will not have a significant influence on reducing LNG import volumes. figs

  9. Novel design of LNG (liquefied natural gas) reliquefaction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, S.; Hwang, G.; Lee, C.; Jeong, S.; Choi, D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We performed experiments with LN2 to mock up the new LNG reliquefaction process. → Subcooled liquid goes to heat exchanger, heater, and phase separator. → Reliquefaction occurs when vapor enters heat exchanger and verified by experiments. → Reliquefaction ratio increases when subcooling degree or system pressure increases. - Abstract: This paper presents an investigation of novel LNG reliquefaction process where the cold exergy of subcooled LNG is utilized to recondense the vaporized light component of LNG after it is separated from the heavier component in a phase separator. The regeneration of cold exergy is especially effective as well as important in thermodynamic sense when a cryogenic process is involved. To verify the proposed idea, we performed an experimental study by facilitating liquid nitrogen apparatus to mock up the LNG reliquefaction process. Subcooled liquid nitrogen is produced for a commercial transportation container with a house-made atmospheric liquid nitrogen heat exchanger and then, having subooled degree of up to 19 K, it simulates the behavior of subcooled LNG in the lab-scale reliquefaction experiment. Recondensation of the vaporized gas is possible by using the cold exergy of subcooled liquid in a properly fabricated heat exchanger. Effect of heat exchanger performance factor and degree of subcooling on recondensation portion has been discussed in this paper. It is concluded that utilizing pressurized subcooled liquid that is obtained by liquid pump can surely reduce the pumping power of the vaporized natural gas and save the overall energy expenditure in LNG reliquefaction process.

  10. The Safety Design Research of a LNG Carrier Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yi; Zhou, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    LNG is the abbreviation for liquefied natural gas, which is recognized as one of the world’s clean energies. LNG is one product at natural gas that through purification and ultra-low temperature is liquefied. The liquefied natural gas is very suitable for LNG transportation by a truck. China is a big country rich in natural resources. The use of natural gas is in favor of Chinese energy structure adjustment. It has important strategic significance to improve the ecological environment and the...

  11. Industry brief letter; Oman LNG, Indo no hatsuden mukeni kyokyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    Oman LNG (OLNG), invested by Mitui Bussan, Mitsubishi Trading and Itochu Trading, concluded a supply contract of liquefied natural gas with a private power supply enterprise of India. Contract period is 20 years, and supplies 1.6 million ton LNG per year from the fourth quarter of 2001. This is the third contract case following to Korea Gas of Korea and Osaka Gas of Japan. OLNG will establish annual production 6.6 million system by the end of 1999. With this contract, almost all LNG production will be ensured to be sold by long term contracts. (translated by NEDO)

  12. LNG (liquefied natural gas): A necessary part in China's future energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wensheng; Gu, Anzhong [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Na [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2010-11-15

    This paper presents an overview of the LNG industry in China, covering LNG plants, receiving terminals, transportation, and applications. Small and medium scale LNG plants with different liquefaction processes have already been built or are being built. China's first two LNG receiving terminals have been put into operation in Guangdong and Fujian, another one is being built in Shanghai, and more are being planned. China is now able to manufacture LNG road tanks and containers. The construction of the first two LNG carriers has been completed. LNG satellite stations have been built, and LNG vehicles have been manufactured. LNG related regulations and standards are being established. The prospects of LNG in China are also discussed in this paper. Interesting topics such as small-scale liquefiers, LNG cold energy utilization, coal bed methane liquefaction, LNG plant on board (FPSO - floating production, storage, and off-loading), and LNG price are introduced and analyzed. To meet the increasing demand for natural gas, China needs to build about 10 large LNG receiving terminals, and to import LNG at the level of more than 20 bcm (billion cubic metre) per year by 2020. (author)

  13. LNG (liquefied natural gas): A necessary part in China's future energy infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wensheng; Gu, Anzhong; Zhang, Na

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the LNG industry in China, covering LNG plants, receiving terminals, transportation, and applications. Small and medium scale LNG plants with different liquefaction processes have already been built or are being built. China's first two LNG receiving terminals have been put into operation in Guangdong and Fujian, another one is being built in Shanghai, and more are being planned. China is now able to manufacture LNG road tanks and containers. The construction of the first two LNG carriers has been completed. LNG satellite stations have been built, and LNG vehicles have been manufactured. LNG related regulations and standards are being established. The prospects of LNG in China are also discussed in this paper. Interesting topics such as small-scale liquefiers, LNG cold energy utilization, coal bed methane liquefaction, LNG plant on board (FPSO - floating production, storage, and off-loading), and LNG price are introduced and analyzed. To meet the increasing demand for natural gas, China needs to build about 10 large LNG receiving terminals, and to import LNG at the level of more than 20 bcm (billion cubic metre) per year by 2020. (author)

  14. Amoco/Environmental Protection Agency Pollution Prevention Project, Yorktown refinery. Refinery release inventory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.; Kizier, G.J.; Baloo, S.; Hockman, E.L.; Couzens-Roberts, C.

    1992-07-01

    The report volume summarizes physical data obtained during a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A multi-media sampling program was used to identify potential pollution sources within the Refinery. Sampling and analysis included air, surface water, groundwater, and solid waste data. Public perceptions about environmental issues of concern in the vicinity of the Refinery were also surveyed. The inventory showed that nearly 99 percent of the releases were airborne at the facility. Most of the remainder involved land disposal of solid wastes. Specific sources of major pollutants are identified

  15. Novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing compound, S-propargyl-cysteine, prevents STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Xin [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Li, Xinghui [Departments of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Shanghai College of Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ma, Fenfen; Luo, Shanshan [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ge, Ruowen [Departmentof Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Zhu, Yizhun, E-mail: zhuyz@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Departmentof Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-05-13

    In this work, we demonstrated for the first time that S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC, also named as ZYZ-802), a novel hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)-releasing compound, had renoprotective effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic kidney injury. SPRC treatment significantly reduced the level of creatinine, kidney to body weight ratio and in particular, markedly decreased 24-h urine microalbuminuria excretion. SPRC suppressed the mRNA expression of fibronectin and type IV collagen. In vitro, SPRC inhibited mesangial cells over-proliferation and hypertrophy induced by high glucose. Additionally, SPRC attenuated inflammation in diabetic kidneys. SPRC also reduced transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) signaling and expression of phosphorylated Smad3 (p-Smad3) pathway. Moreover, SPRC inhibited phosphorylation of ERK, p38 protein. Taken together, SPRC was demonstrated to be a potential therapeutic candidate to suppress diabetic nephropathy. - Highlights: • We synthesized a novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing compound, S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC). • SPRC was preliminarily demonstrated to prevent STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN). • SPRC may exert potential therapeutic candidate to suppress DN.

  16. Novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing compound, S-propargyl-cysteine, prevents STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Xin; Li, Xinghui; Ma, Fenfen; Luo, Shanshan; Ge, Ruowen; Zhu, Yizhun

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrated for the first time that S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC, also named as ZYZ-802), a novel hydrogen sulfide (H_2S)-releasing compound, had renoprotective effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic kidney injury. SPRC treatment significantly reduced the level of creatinine, kidney to body weight ratio and in particular, markedly decreased 24-h urine microalbuminuria excretion. SPRC suppressed the mRNA expression of fibronectin and type IV collagen. In vitro, SPRC inhibited mesangial cells over-proliferation and hypertrophy induced by high glucose. Additionally, SPRC attenuated inflammation in diabetic kidneys. SPRC also reduced transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) signaling and expression of phosphorylated Smad3 (p-Smad3) pathway. Moreover, SPRC inhibited phosphorylation of ERK, p38 protein. Taken together, SPRC was demonstrated to be a potential therapeutic candidate to suppress diabetic nephropathy. - Highlights: • We synthesized a novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing compound, S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC). • SPRC was preliminarily demonstrated to prevent STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN). • SPRC may exert potential therapeutic candidate to suppress DN.

  17. The Pacific Basin LNG trade: a return to fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharuddin, H.

    1991-01-01

    The LNG business in the Pacific Region is unique because there is no other source of energy in which seller and buyer sign contracts for 20-year periods. This long-term relationship is based on mutual buyer/seller cooperation, and mutual buyer/seller recognition of the financial and commercial challenges faced by all links in the LNG Supply Chain. However, there are now concerns that those involved in the LNG business were ignoring the fundamentals of the trade. The buyer expected the seller to absorb higher transportation costs, easing take or pay terms, more flexibility, evergreen options on uncommitted capacity, etc. On the other side, sellers expected larger baseload quantities, equitable sharing of LNG chain risks with consumers. (author)

  18. LNG peakshaving plant on the Maasvlakte, The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijl, P

    1975-06-01

    N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie presents the situation which led to its decision to construct a LNG peakshaving plant on the Maasvlakte. The discussion includes peaks in gas transport, the effect of peakshaving upon transportation costs, the selection of the peakshaving method, and the LNG peakshaving plant ultimately chosen. The liquefaction cycle uses 2 loops, the first an open loop obtainin g refrigeration from expansion of natural gas through a turboexpander, the second a closed loop using nitrogen as refrigerant.

  19. Future of gas. LNG between feast and famine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, A.

    2009-05-15

    Between now and 2012, a new wave of LNG (liquid natural gas) supply will wash over markets, with Qatar accounting for half the growth as six new 'mega-trains' come on stream. It will arrive just as gas demand is being hit by the economic crisis. Beyond 2012, the situation will reverse, with growth constrained by lack of new supply. The LNG industry is facing a turbulent decade.

  20. A novel intravaginal ring to prevent HIV-1, HSV-2, HPV, and unintended pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugaonkar, Shweta R; Wesenberg, Asa; Wilk, Jolanta; Seidor, Samantha; Mizenina, Olga; Kizima, Larisa; Rodriguez, Aixa; Zhang, Shimin; Levendosky, Keith; Kenney, Jessica; Aravantinou, Meropi; Derby, Nina; Grasperge, Brooke; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Kumar, Narender; Roberts, Kevin; Robbiani, Melissa; Fernández-Romero, José A; Zydowsky, Thomas M

    2015-09-10

    Women urgently need a self-initiated, multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) that simultaneously reduces their risk of acquiring HIV-1, HSV-2, and HPV (latter two associated with increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition) and prevents unintended pregnancy. Here, we describe a novel core-matrix intravaginal ring (IVR), the MZCL IVR, which effectively delivered the MZC combination microbicide and a contraceptive. The MZCL IVR contains four active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs): MIV-150 (targets HIV-1), zinc acetate (ZA; targets HIV-1 and HSV-2), carrageenan (CG; targets HPV and HSV-2), and levonorgestrel (LNG; targets unintended pregnancy). The elastomeric IVR body (matrix) was produced by hot melt extrusion of the non-water swellable elastomer, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA-28), containing the hydrophobic small molecules, MIV-150 and LNG. The solid hydrophilic core, embedded within the IVR by compression, contained the small molecule ZA and the macromolecule CG. Hydrated ZA/CG from the core was released by diffusion via a pore on the IVR while the MIV-150/LNG diffused from the matrix continuously for 94 days (d) in vitro and up to 28 d (study period) in macaques. The APIs released in vitro and in vivo were active against HIV-1ADA-M, HSV-2, and HPV16 PsV in cell-based assays. Serum LNG was at levels associated with local contraceptive effects. The results demonstrate proof-of-concept of a novel core-matrix IVR for sustained and simultaneous delivery of diverse molecules for the prevention of HIV, HSV-2 and HPV acquisition, as well as unintended pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Asia Pacific LNG trade: Status and technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdestad, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Asia Pacific Region is experiencing a period of sustained economic expansion. Economic growth has led to an increasing demand for energy that has spurred a rapid expansion of baseload liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in this region. This is illustrated by the fact that seven of the ten baseload facilities in existence provide LNG for markets in the Asia Pacific region. With the three exceptions having been initially commissioned in 1972 and earlier, it is fair to observed that most advances in LNG technology have been developed and applied for this market. The paper presents the current status and identified future trends for the Asia Pacific LNG trade. Technology development in terms of application to onstream production, processing and transportation facilities, including LNG tankers, is presented. The potential of future advances to applied technology and operational practices to improve the cost-effectiveness of new and existing facilities is discussed. Current design data and methods as actually used are examined in terms of identifying where fundamental research and basic physical data are insufficient for optimization purposes. These findings are then summarized and presented in terms of the likely evolution of future and existing LNG projects in the Asia Pacific region

  2. LNG : its potential impact on North American markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, B.

    2003-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is expected to play a greater role in North American gas supplies and markets due to the decrease in conventional natural gas production in North America accompanied by an increase in demand for energy. It is expected that the overall share of the LNG gas market will rise from about 1.4 per cent in 2002 to more than 5 per cent by 2020, and potentially up to 15 per cent by that year. The construction of at least 15 new LNG receiving terminals has been proposed for location in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. In addition, El Paso has proposed a novel offshore LNG receiving concept involving offshore gas pipelines and on-board-ship regasification. As trading of LNG increases in the Atlantic, markets in eastern United States and Canada will benefit from improved gas supplies, but pricing patterns are expected to change. Basis differentials along the Atlantic coastline will probably diminish, potentially reducing the value of Sable Island gas and the pipeline system that runs north to south along the eastern coast of North America. It was noted that Middle Eastern suppliers of LNG will play an important potential role in North American markets. 19 figs

  3. Challenges of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas Carriers in 21" Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zanne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is relatively cheap, environmentally friendlyand energetically efficient fossil fuel that is gaining in attractivenessdaily as it can be used in many sectors. As not all consumerscan be reached by pipelines the technique of transp01tingnatural gas in the liquefied form has been developed at the beginningof 20th century but it was only in 1959 that the firstoverseas transport of liquefied natural gas ( LN G occurred. Inthe fifty years of operation LNG shipping has shown immaculatesafety records. LNG tankers can be described only in superlatives;they are without any doubt the most sophisticated and·expensive ships that sail around the globe, they demand specialattention when navigating to or out of harbours and need to bemanned with the most educated and experienced crew. LNGmarket is expanding and changing; demand is surpassing theproductivity, new importing and exporting countries appear,LNG fleet is growing in capacity and number at high pace, exploitationcontracts for the ships are being modified giving theopportunity for new companies to enter( . .. . The paper givesan overview on liquefied natural gas market and the historic developmentof LNG shipping. It focuses on the recent boom inLNG shipping and emphasises questions concerning the safety,crewing and exploitation of the LNG tankers in the future.

  4. Going global: LNG could open up gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, D.

    2004-01-01

    The probability of liquefied natural gas becoming a major source of energy in North America is discussed. Although the safety of the technology of transporting LNG was proven more than 40 years ago, there are considerable hurdles to be overcome when it comes to establishing LNG terminals. Industry insiders contend that the obstacles to finding suitable sites are primarily NIMBY (not-in-my-backyard) or BANANA (build-absolutely-nothing-anywhere-near-anyone) issues that will be overcome in time with better public information as to what the real hazards are, but the time is not yet ripe for any serious LNG development. Proposed LNG projects in Malaysia, Nigeria, Angola are reviewed, in addition to four projects in the United States, one in the Gulf of Mexico, and three along the American east coast. A Canadian project at Bear Head near Point Tupper, Nova Scotia, which has support from the business community, government and industry, and would provide the shortest distance to eastern North American markets for Atlantic basin shippers is also reviewed. LNG technological and transportation issues apart, there is also direct competition from the long-proposed Alaska pipeline which, if and when built, will provide long-term steady supply of gas for the U. S. market. Alaskan natural gas is clearly the preferred alternative to LNG at the present time

  5. LNG pool fire spectral data and calculation of emissive power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Phani K.

    2007-01-01

    Spectral description of thermal emission from fires provides a fundamental basis on which the fire thermal radiation hazard assessment models can be developed. Several field experiments were conducted during the 1970s and 1980s to measure the thermal radiation field surrounding LNG fires. Most of these tests involved the measurement of fire thermal radiation to objects outside the fire envelope using either narrow-angle or wide-angle radiometers. Extrapolating the wide-angle radiometer data without understanding the nature of fire emission is prone to errors. Spectral emissions from LNG fires have been recorded in four test series conducted with LNG fires on different substrates and of different diameters. These include the AGA test series of LNG fires on land of diameters 1.8 and 6 m, 35 m diameter fire on an insulated concrete dike in the Montoir tests conducted by Gaz de France, a 1976 test with 13 m diameter and the 1980 tests with 10 m diameter LNG fire on water carried out at China Lake, CA. The spectral data from the Montoir test series have not been published in technical journals; only recently has some data from this series have become available. This paper presents the details of the LNG fire spectral data from, primarily, the China Lake test series, their analysis and results. Available data from other test series are also discussed. China Lake data indicate that the thermal radiation emission from 13 m diameter LNG fire is made up of band emissions of about 50% of energy by water vapor (band emission), about 25% by carbon dioxide and the remainder constituting the continuum emission by luminous soot. The emissions from the H 2 O and CO 2 bands are completely absorbed by the intervening atmosphere in less than about 200 m from the fire, even in the relatively dry desert air. The effective soot radiation constitutes only about 23% during the burning period of methane and increases slightly when other higher hydrocarbon species (ethane, propane, etc.) are

  6. DIDS prevents ischemic membrane degradation in cultured hippocampal neurons by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Pamenter

    prevented stimulus-evoked release of von Willebrand Factor from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We conclude that DIDS inhibits MMP exocytosis and through this mechanism preserves neuronal membrane integrity during pathological stress.

  7. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  8. How do levonorgestrel-only emergency contraceptive pills prevent pregnancy? Some considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzanega, Bruno; Cosmi, Erich

    2011-06-01

    Controversial opinions exist about the possible mechanisms throughout emergency contraception prevents pregnancy. Recently, the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics and the International Consortium for Emergency Contraception released a Joint Statement declaring that 'inhibition or delay of ovulation should be their primary and possibly only mechanism of action'. They still added that 'Review of the evidence suggests that LNG-ECPs cannot prevent implantation'. Concerning levonorgestrel-only emergency contraceptive pills effects on ovulation, the Statement based on seven reference papers which considered a total of only 142 patients, divided into still different subgroups. Basing on their same references we got quite different conclusions.

  9. Cost-benefit analysis of alternative LNG vapor-mitigation measures. Topical report, September 14, 1987-January 15, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atallah, S.

    1992-01-01

    A generalized methodology is presented for comparing the costs and safety benefits of alternative hazard mitigation measures for a large LNG vapor release. The procedure involves the quantification of the risk to the public before and after the application of LNG vapor mitigation measures. In the study, risk was defined as the product of the annual accident frequency, estimated from a fault tree analysis, and the severity of the accident. Severity was measured in terms of the number of people who may be exposed to 2.5% or higher concentration. The ratios of the annual costs of the various mitigation measures to their safety benefits (as determined by the differences between the risk before and after mitigation measure implementation), were then used to identify the most cost-effective approaches to vapor cloud mitigation

  10. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin

    2017-06-01

    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  11. File list: DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 DNase-seq Lung Lung adenocarcinoma http://...dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Lung adenocarcinoma ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  13. LNG trade preparations are a decade too soon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timm, S [Mar. Week; Faridany, E; Mitchell, P

    1979-03-01

    A discussion of papers delivered at the 6th International LNG/LPG, Gastech 78, Conference (Monte Carlo 11/7-10/78) covers an estimate by E. Faridany (Ocean Phoenix Transp. Inc.) that in 1981-85, world trade in LNG would increase by 1775 million cu ft/day (Mcfd) over the current 2720 Mcfd, but of this increment only the 460 Mcfd Panhandle project using Lake Charles, La., as a regasification terminal will be into the U.S. while all other trade will be to Europe. Of the present LNG trade, 48Vertical Bar3< goes to Japan from the Brunei (535 Mcfd, the world's largest) and Abu Dhabi projects, and only 20Vertical Bar3< goes to the U.S. Faridany's estimates of U.S. LNG imports in 1990 vary from the 8215 Mcfd ''high'' to the ''median'' forecast of 2930 Mcfd; he predicted that the proportion of incremental sources of gas supply taken up by LNG in 1990 is only 20-40Vertical Bar3< for the U.S., compared with 25Vertical Bar3< for Europe and 90Vertical Bar3< for Japan. According to P. Mitchell (Poten and Partners), world demand for LPG could rise from 9 million to 38 million tons in 1979-85.

  14. LNG As an Alternative Energy Supply in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Jens [Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lund (Sweden)

    2008-11-15

    As well as summarising the possible alternatives, environmental aspects and uses of LNG, this study aims to investigate the cost involved in the import of LNG to Sweden, from well to user. In Sweden, Natural Gas is used to cover 2 % of the total energy input. The pipeline network stretches from Malmoe to Stenungsund and Gnosjoe, which means some of the most densely populated areas are covered, but there is still 1200 km of the country left, including larger cities such as Stockholm, Uppsala and Linkoeping as well as areas that host some of the most energy demanding industries, e.g. Sundsvall, Umeaa, Luleaa and Kiruna. The absence of Natural Gas typically causes these regions to rely on fuel oil, coke or coal. If these sources of energy could be replaced by Natural Gas, great environmental benefits could be achieved. Research shows that the use of Natural Gas adds 20 % less CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere than oil and also mean lower emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particles, making it the better alternative from both local and global perspectives. LNG is potentially a fire and an explosion hazard, but in the last 45 years of usage, no major accidents have occurred. Major exporters of LNG are Indonesia, Quatar, Australia and Algeria. Some of the largest importers are Japan, USA, France and Spain. Japan imports nearly 100 % of their Natural Gas as LNG. The available LNG liquefaction capacity increased by 60 % between 2002 and 2007. The total import cost for LNG includes the purchase cost from the producer, the transport cost, be it sea, railroad or road transport, and the cost for the terminal which receives and stores LNG. The study of different routes, volumes and means of transport creates a picture of how the total cost varies in proportion to these parameters. In the calculation of these costs, sources from the industry or estimations of purchase prices, transport costs and terminal costs are used. The uncertainties in this study are especially high when it

  15. LNG As an Alternative Energy Supply in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Jens (Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    As well as summarising the possible alternatives, environmental aspects and uses of LNG, this study aims to investigate the cost involved in the import of LNG to Sweden, from well to user. In Sweden, Natural Gas is used to cover 2 % of the total energy input. The pipeline network stretches from Malmoe to Stenungsund and Gnosjoe, which means some of the most densely populated areas are covered, but there is still 1200 km of the country left, including larger cities such as Stockholm, Uppsala and Linkoeping as well as areas that host some of the most energy demanding industries, e.g. Sundsvall, Umeaa, Luleaa and Kiruna. The absence of Natural Gas typically causes these regions to rely on fuel oil, coke or coal. If these sources of energy could be replaced by Natural Gas, great environmental benefits could be achieved. Research shows that the use of Natural Gas adds 20 % less CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere than oil and also mean lower emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particles, making it the better alternative from both local and global perspectives. LNG is potentially a fire and an explosion hazard, but in the last 45 years of usage, no major accidents have occurred. Major exporters of LNG are Indonesia, Quatar, Australia and Algeria. Some of the largest importers are Japan, USA, France and Spain. Japan imports nearly 100 % of their Natural Gas as LNG. The available LNG liquefaction capacity increased by 60 % between 2002 and 2007. The total import cost for LNG includes the purchase cost from the producer, the transport cost, be it sea, railroad or road transport, and the cost for the terminal which receives and stores LNG. The study of different routes, volumes and means of transport creates a picture of how the total cost varies in proportion to these parameters. In the calculation of these costs, sources from the industry or estimations of purchase prices, transport costs and terminal costs are used. The uncertainties in this study are especially high when it

  16. Modeling Turkey’s future LNG supply security strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efe Biresselioglu, Mehmet; Hakan Demir, Muhittin; Kandemir, Cansu

    2012-01-01

    Turkey was among those countries which decided to increase its natural gas consumption in the 1990s, due to its relative low cost and lack of impact on the environment. However, a heavy dependence on imports, from Algeria, Qatar and Nigeria, respectively, creates a threat to energy security, both in terms of source and supply diversity. Accordingly, we follow an analytical approach to identify the accuracy of our assumption, considering the current economic, political and security risk. To this end, we formulate and solve a mixed integer programming model that determines the optimal sourcing strategy for Turkey’s increasing LNG demand. This model demonstrates a number of alternative policy options for LNG supply. Furthermore, we consider that increasing the proportion of LNG in the overall gas supply will contribute to the aim of improving Turkey’s level of energy security. - Highlights: ► Turkey’s best policy option is to increase the share of LNG. ► Turkey’s main suppliers of LNG will be Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, and Trinidad and Tobago. ► Norway, Libya, and Oman contribute to the supply with rather smaller shares. ► With high risk scenario Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria and Libya will not be suppliers. ► Oman and Qatar will cover; even though they are high-cost suppliers.

  17. Treatment of Women With an Endometrial Polyp and Heavy Menstrual Bleeding: A Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine Device or Hysteroscopic Polypectomy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Myrthe M.; van Hanegem, Nehalennia; de Lange, Maria E.; Timmermans, Anne

    2015-01-01

    We performed a literature review of reports comparing a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) with transcervical polyp resection (TCRP) as a treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Our second objective was to investigate the effectiveness of LNG-IUD and TCRP in reducing

  18. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device versus dydrogesterone for management of endometrial hyperplasia without atypia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Behery, Manal M; Saleh, Hend S; Ibrahiem, Moustafa A; Kamal, Ebtesam M; Kassem, Gamal A; Mohamed, Mohamed El Sayed

    2015-03-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) with dydrogesterone applied for the same duration in patients having endometrial hyperplasia (EH) without atypia. One hundred thirty eight women aged between 30 and 50 years with abnormal uterine bleeding and diagnosed as EH by transvaginal ultrasound were randomized to receive either LNG-IUD or dydrogesterone for 6 months. Primary outcome measures were regression of hyperplasia after 6 months of therapy. Secondary outcome measures were occurrence of side effects during treatment or recurrence of hyperplasia during follow-up period. After 6 months of treatment, regression of EH occurs in 96% of women in the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) group versus 80% of women in the oral group (P < .001). Adverse effects were relatively common with minimal differences between the 2 groups. Intermenstrual vaginal spotting and amenorrhea were more common in the LNG-IUD group (P value .01 and .0001). Patient satisfaction was significantly higher in the LNG-IUS group (P value .0001). Hysterectomy rates were lower in the LNG-IUS group than in the oral group (P = .001). Recurrence rate was 0% in the LNG-IUD group compared to 12.5% in the oral group. In management of EH without atypia, LNG-IUS achieves a higher regression and a lower hysterectomy rate than oral progesterone and could be used as a first-line therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. 75 FR 51989 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application August 16, 2010. Take notice that on August 4, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), Post Office Box 2563, Birmingham, Alabama 35202-2563, filed in the above.... Sheffield, Director--Rates and Regulatory, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C., 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501...

  20. 75 FR 53688 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RP10-829-000] Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference August 25, 2010. Take notice that Commission Staff will... Street, NE., Washington, DC 20426. On June 7, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG) filed a...

  1. LNG Market: Developments in 2014 and 2015 Outlook. Enerdata Gas/LNG and Power Consulting - January 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Enerdata power and gas expert held a webinar on the important developments happened in the LNG market in 2014 and provided insight on the LNG market outlook for 2015. 2015 is the year of uncertainty for the LNG industry. We will continue to experience low LNG prices driven by temporary liquefaction over capacity. The 2015 low prices environment will continue to support domestic gas price reforms in countries such as India, China, Malaysia and Indonesia. National economies of high LNG consumers such as Japan, Korea and Taiwan will benefit from low energy cost. Import terminal operators will see their utilization rates drop at concerning levels where the balance between operating cost and revenue starts to move on the red zone. Project developers will continue to delay their FID until they can see the light out of the tunnel. Those negotiating long term contracts have the big dilemma of shall it be oil-linked or not oil-linked. Never as before the importance to have a good insight of the future will differentiate losers from winners

  2. Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battelle

    1999-07-01

    Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

  3. Developments in the safe design of LNG tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, N. J.; Slatter, M. D.

    The objective of this paper is to discuss how the gradual development of design concepts for liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage systems has helped to enhance storage safety and economy. The experience in the UK is compared with practice in other countries with similar LNG storage requirements. Emphasis is placed on the excellent record of safety and reliability exhibited by tanks with a primary metal container designed and constructed to approved standards. The work carried out to promote the development of new materials, fire protection, and monitoring systems for use in LNG storage is also summarized, and specific examples described from British Gas experience. Finally, the trends in storage tank design world-wide and options for future design concepts are discussed, bearing in mind planned legislation and design codes governing hazardous installations.

  4. Exergy recovery during LNG regasification: Electric energy production - Part two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, Celidonio; Dispenza, Giorgio; Rocca, Vincenzo La; Panno, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    In liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification facilities, for exergy recovery during regasification, an option could be the production of electric energy recovering the energy available as cold. In a previous paper, the authors propose an innovative process which uses a cryogenic stream of LNG during regasification as a cold source in an improved combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Considering the LNG regasification projects in progress all over the World, an appropriate design option could be based on a modular unit having a mean regasification capacity of 2 x 10 9 standard cubic meters/year. This paper deals with the results of feasibility studies, developed by the authors at DREAM in the context of a research program, on ventures based on thermodynamic and economic analysis of improved CHP cycles and related innovative technology which demonstrate the suitability of the proposal

  5. Guanabara Bay and Pecem LNG flexible metering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Vinicus Roberto C.; Carvalho, Gustavo L.A.; Bruel, Edson L.; Santana, Jose P.C. de; Vidal, Lud C.C.N. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    This work presents to the community the metering systems installed in the Liquefied Natural (LNG) Gas Flexible Terminals of the Pecem Port and Guanabara Bay. A brief description of the Terminals facilities and its operation is firstly made to provide a background of the systems discussed. Then, the LNG custody transfer metering system, the operational control metering system, the energy balance of the LNG transferring system and the Natural Gas custody transfer metering system - that are our systems of interest - are described in detail. It is intended to use the philosophy adopted in the Guanabara Bay and Pecem Flexible Terminals design as a standard to future installations, integrated with improvements brought by the operation experience that will be obtained in those terminals. (author)

  6. [Changes of menstruation patterns and adverse effects during the treatment of LNG-IUS for symptomatic adenomyosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Leng, J H; Zhang, J J; Jia, S Z; Li, X Y; Shi, J H; Dai, Y; Zhang, J R; Li, T; Xu, X X; Liu, Z Z; You, S S; Chang, X Y; Lang, J H

    2016-09-25

    Objective: To investigate the changes of mestruation patterns and adverse effects during the treatment of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system(LNG-IUS)for symptomatic adenomyosis in a prospective cohort study. Methods: From December, 2006 to December, 2014, patients of symptomatic adenomyosis diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were given LNG-IUS. Before and after placement of IUS, all patients' parameters were recorded, including carrying status of IUS, symptoms and scores of dysmenorrhea, menstruation scores, biochemical indicators, physical parameters, menstruation patterns and adverse effects. Risk factors for changes of menstruation patterns and adverse effects, and their impact on treatment effects were analyzed. Results: Totally 1 100 cases met inclusion criteria, with median age 36 years(range 20-44 years), median follow-up 35 months(range 1 -108 months). During follow-up changes of menstruation patterns increased significantly with amenorrhea and shortened-menstruation being the most common manifestations. On 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after the placement of LNG-IUS, 0, 5.8%(43/744), 6.9%(47/682), 10.1%(60/595), 17.3%(87/502), 27.2%(104/383)and 29.6%(82/277)patients achieved amenorrhea respectively( P 12 months after placement, abdominal pain and body weight increasing ≥5 kg/year were the most common adverse effects. Changes of menstruation patterns, total and subclassifications of adverse effects were neither dependent on patient parameters, treatment modes and treatment effects, nor could predict future LNG-IUS carrying status(all P > 0.05). After taking out of LNG-IUS, most changes of menstruation and adverse effects disappeared. Conclusions: During the treatment of LNG-IUS for symptomatic adenomyosis, changes of menstruation patterns increase gradually with amenorrhea and shortened-menstruation being the most common manifestations, while adverse effects decrease significantly. Changes of

  7. Conceptual Design of Portable Filtered Air Suction Systems For Prevention of Released Radioactive Gas under Severe Accidents of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Yim, Man S.; Rim, Chun T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It becomes evident that severe accidents may occur by unexpected disasters such as tsunami, heavy flood, or terror. Once radioactive material is released from NPP through severe accidents, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gas spreading in the air. As a remedy for this problem, the idea on the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for the prevention of released radioactive gas under severe accidents was proposed. In this paper, the conceptual design of a PoFASS focusing on the number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are proposed. In order to design a flexible robot suction nozzle, mathematical models for the gaps which represent the lifted heights of extensible covers for given convex shapes of pipes and for the covered areas are developed. In addition, the system requirements for the design of the robot arms of PoFASS are proposed, which determine the accessible range of leakage points of released radioactive gas. In this paper, the conceptual designs of the flexible robot suction nozzle and robot arm have been conducted. As a result, the minimum number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are defined to be four and three, respectively. For further works, extensible cover designs on the flexible robot suction nozzle and the application of the PoFASS to the inside of NPP should be studied because the radioactive gas may be released from connection pipes between the containment building and auxiliary buildings.

  8. More LNG ship orders for GD (General Dynamics Corp. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    General Dynamics Corp. has been awarded a contract for two LNG tankers to transport LNG from Algeria to Lake Charles, La., with the U.S. Maritime Administration funding 25.5% of the $155 million cost of each vessel. The two ships are being built for Lachmar Inc., of Delaware, a partnership composed of Morgas Inc., Pantheon Inc., and Pelmar Inc., subsidiaries respectively of Moore-McCormack Bulk Transport Inc., General Dynamics Corp., and Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Co. Upon completion in Dec. 1979 and Mar. 1980, the ships will be operated by Gastrans Inc. of Delaware, which is also a subsidiary of Moore-McCormack.

  9. Northwest Asia - gas market outlook: LNG vs. pipeline gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keun Wook Paik

    1996-01-01

    The share of natural gas in Northeast Asia's energy mix is quite low despite that the region currently dominates the world LNG trade. In the long term, the region's rapid expansion of gas demand in the coming decades looks very likely, but the LNG dominance in the region's gas market will collapse in parallel with the introduction of a long distance pipeline gas. The most likely timing of pipeline gas introduction in Northeast Asian gas market seems to be during the second half of the next decade. (Author)

  10. Pac-Rim LNG project : final project report specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    PAC-RIM LNG Inc. has submitted a proposal to the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office, to develop a liquefied natural gas project which would purchase pipeline quality natural gas from sources in northeast British Columbia and Alberta and transport it via a dedicated pipeline system to a LNG processing plant on tidewater on the Pacific coast. The project would include storage and processing facilities and a marine loading terminal. This document sets out the final project report specifications prepared by the Project Committee on the basis of input received from the public, First Nations and federal, provincial and local governments

  11. China's energy and environmental quandary: is LNG the answer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.F.; King, B.S.

    1996-01-01

    Economic growth in China has inevitably lead to an increased energy demand to fuel industrial production, infrastructural and domestic needs. To date much of China's generating capacity has been coal-based, without flue gas desulphurisation. The serious environmental effects of such a policy are being reexamined in the light of rapid growth in demand. This paper argues that power generation by combined cycle gas turbines and fuelled by natural gas, supplied as LNG could provide a solution. Imported LNG to fuel such turbines could, it is argued, be used to generate electricity at prices competitive with imported coal and other sources of domestic gas. (UK)

  12. Thermodynamic aspects of an LNG tank in fire and experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulsbosch-Dam Corina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical behaviour of a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG tank and the thermodynamic behaviour of its containment under extreme heat load – for instance when subjected to external fire source as might occur during an accident - are extremely important when addressing safety concerns. In a scenario where external fire is present and consequent release of LNG from pressure relief valves (PRV has occurred, escalation of the fire might occur causing difficulty for the fire response teams to approach the tank or to secure the perimeter. If the duration of the tank exposure to fire is known, the PRV opening time can be estimated based on the thermodynamic calculations. In this paper, such an accidental scenario is considered, relevant thermodynamic equations are derived and presented. Moreover, an experiment is performed with liquid nitrogen and the results are compared to the analytical ones. The analytical results match very well with the experimental observations. The resulting analytical models are suitable to be applied to other cryogenic liquids.

  13. 75 FR 13755 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Delaware limited partnership with one general partner, Freeport LNG-GP, Inc., a Delaware corporation, which...). Freeport LNG's limited partners are: (1) Freeport LNG Investments, LLLP, a Delaware limited liability limited partnership, which owns a 45% limited partnership interest in Freeport LNG; (2) Cheniere FLNG, L.P...

  14. Implementation of the HNS Convention in the LNG Industry: Singularities, Stakes, Issues and GIIGNL Proposed Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The International Group of Liquefied Natural Gas Importers (GIIGNL) is a non-profit organization founded in December of 1971. It is composed of 56 member companies from 18 different countries across the world and involved in the importation of Liquefied Natural Gas. The main objective of the GIIGNL is to promote the development of activities related to LNG: purchasing, importing, processing, transportation, handling, re-gasification and various uses of LNG. For this purpose, the GIIGNL is particularly involved in promoting the state-of-the art technology in the LNG industry, in communicating about the economic fundamentals of the industry, in enhancing facility operations, in diversifying contractual techniques, and in developing industry positions to be taken in international agencies. As a member of the IOPC Fund since June 2007, the GIIGNL prepared this LNG overview in order to offer a better understanding to state delegations about this specific product and its market and to contribute to the debate on the implementation of the HNS Convention. the first chapter constitutes an introduction to the LNG Industry: presentation of an LNG Chain, overview of the global LNG trade and its growth rate, type of contracts, LNG tankers and technical transportation constraints, liquefaction and re-gasification plants around the world. The second chapter focuses on some singularities of the LNG industry that differentiate LNG from other Hazardous and Noxious Substances: LNG, a clean and unique product and activity, high standards and firm regulations concerning security and maritime safety, high level of investment required for an LNG chain, DES and FOB, the fundamental Incoterms of LNG sales and purchase. The third chapter presents the HNS Convention as potentially applicable to the LNG market: a two tier compensation regime - a new perspective for the LNG industry, a potential impact on LNG sales and purchase agreements, the importance of global HNS ratification within LNG

  15. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 3 -- Greenfield options: Prospects for LNG use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Pezeshki, S.; Wu, K.

    1993-12-01

    This paper begins with an overview of the Asia-Pacific LNG market, its major players, and the likely availability of LNG supplies in the region. The discussion then examines the possibilities for the economic supply of LNG to Hawaii, the potential Hawaiian market, and the viability of an LNG project on Oahu. This survey is far from a complete technical assessment or an actual engineering/feasibility study. The economics alone cannot justify LNG`s introduction. The debate may continue as to whether fuel diversification and environmental reasons can outweigh the higher costs. Several points are made. LNG is not a spot commodity. Switching to LNG in Hawaii would require a massive, long-term commitment and substantial investments. LNG supplies are growing very tight in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the environmental benefits of LNG are not entirely relevant in Hawaii because Hawaii`s air quality is generally excellent. Any air quality benefits may be more than counterbalanced by the environmental hazards connected with large-scale coastal zone construction, and by the safety hazards of LNG carriers, pipelines, etc. Lastly, LNG is not suitable for all energy uses, and is likely to be entirely unsuitable for neighbor island energy needs.

  16. Life-cycle greenhouse gas analysis of LNG as a heavy vehicle fuel in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteconi, A.; Brandoni, C.; Evangelista, D.; Polonara, F.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the life cycle, in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of diesel and liquefied natural gas (LNG) used as fuels for heavy-duty vehicles in the European market (EU-15). A literature review revealed that the numerous studies conducted have reported different results when the authors departed from different baseline assumptions and reference scenarios. For our study, we concentrated on the European scenario and on heavy-duty road transport vehicles, given their important incidence on the global emissions of GHG. Two possible LNG procurement strategies were considered i.e. purchasing it directly from the regasification terminal (LNG-TER) or producing LNG locally (at the service station) with small-scale plants (LNG-SSL). We ascertained that the use of LNG-TER enables a 10% reduction in GHG emissions by comparison with diesel, while the emissions resulting from the LNG-SSL solution are comparable with those of diesel.

  17. LNG development across Europe: Infrastructural and regulatory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorigoni, Susanna; Portatadino, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a cross-section infrastructural and regulatory analysis of the European LNG sector is presented. The LNG chain is maintained as being a good tool to enlarge the number of natural gas exporters to Europe, adding in this way to competition and to the achievement of the targets of the liberalisation process, which is a decrease in price for final customers and security of supply. The main reason for this is to be identified in the minor specificity of the regasification-plant-related investment compared with pipeline transportation. As a matter of fact, as the infrastructural analysis will show, the construction of new LNG receiving terminals is likely to bring about an increase in the number of importers fostering competition among them and shrinking their margins among the value chain. In this context, regulation is meant to play a key role in promoting investments without hindering competition. Nevertheless it is questionable whether LNG will be able to introduce competition beyond the European border (that is among producers) according to the forecasted supply and demand balance that is leading to a seller's market in the upstream sector. In this case, a huger part of the rent would go to the exporters leaving minor scope for competition down the European border. (author)

  18. Designing a decision support model for the LNG market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Steve; Dullaert, Wout

    2010-01-01

    As the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) market is supply-driven and subject to longterm contracts, both liquefaction companies and shipowners need to make strategic decisions on fleet chartering requirements. These planning decisions become ever more difficult in light of the transformations permeating

  19. A dispersion safety factor for LNG vapor clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vílchez, Juan A. [TIPs – Trámites, Informes y Proyectos, SL, Llenguadoc 10, 08030 Barcelona (Spain); Villafañe, Diana [Centre d’Estudis del Risc Tecnològic (CERTEC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Casal, Joaquim, E-mail: joaquim.casal@upc.edu [Centre d’Estudis del Risc Tecnològic (CERTEC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► We proposed a new parameter: the dispersion safety factor (DSF). ► DSF is the ratio between the distance reached by the LFL and that reached by the visible cloud. ► The results for the DSF agree well with the evidence from large scale experiments. ► Two expressions have been proposed to calculate DSF as a function of H{sub R}. ► The DSF may help in indicating the danger of ignition of a LNG vapor cloud. -- Abstract: The growing importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to global energy demand has increased interest in the possible hazards associated with its storage and transportation. Concerning the event of an LNG spill, a study was performed on the relationship between the distance at which the lower flammability limit (LFL) concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of LNG vapor clouds. A parameter called the dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been defined as the ratio between these two lengths, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. During an emergency, the DSF can be a helpful parameter to indicate the danger of cloud ignition and flash fire.

  20. A dispersion safety factor for LNG vapor clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vílchez, Juan A.; Villafañe, Diana; Casal, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We proposed a new parameter: the dispersion safety factor (DSF). ► DSF is the ratio between the distance reached by the LFL and that reached by the visible cloud. ► The results for the DSF agree well with the evidence from large scale experiments. ► Two expressions have been proposed to calculate DSF as a function of H R . ► The DSF may help in indicating the danger of ignition of a LNG vapor cloud. -- Abstract: The growing importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to global energy demand has increased interest in the possible hazards associated with its storage and transportation. Concerning the event of an LNG spill, a study was performed on the relationship between the distance at which the lower flammability limit (LFL) concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of LNG vapor clouds. A parameter called the dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been defined as the ratio between these two lengths, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. During an emergency, the DSF can be a helpful parameter to indicate the danger of cloud ignition and flash fire

  1. LNG, Competition and Security of Supply: the Role of Shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorigoni, S.; Mazzei, L.; Pontoni, F.; Sileo, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, one of the main concerns of European Union in the energetic field has been that of facilitating the safeguard of raw materials' security of supply, especially that of natural gas. Import through LNG chain, that is, through the employment of LNG tankers for gas transportation, has been identified by the European Council as one of the instruments to achieve these goals. In fact, import via LNG does not require, for the importer, such investments as to determine an indissoluble physical tie between producer and buyer, as happens for transport via pipeline (Chernyavska et al., 2002). In other words, investments in pipelines are very specific. Moreover, as they are made in order to support specific transactions, contracts usually take the form of long-term agreements with minimum off take requirements (take or pay clauses): such contracts definitely contribute to the cartelization of the market, hindering competition. Unlike investments in pipelines, those in the LNG chain present a much lower degree of specificity: in fact, even though the construction of a re gasification plant is generally tied to the stipulation of a long-term agreement (with take or pay clause), LNG chain costs have significantly decreased over time (until a few years ago) and, moreover, it is getting increasingly common that part of plant capacity is made available for spot transactions. What's more, once the contract is expired and the investment is sunk, the importer may satisfy his gas supply needs on the basis of his relative gains. As far as LNG import contractual practices are concerned, significant changes have started to take places in the last few years, both in terms of agreements' length average duration has significantly decreased and in terms of price indexation in the most developed markets LNG price is tied to gas spot price (IEA, 2006). One of the many possible advantages of transport via LNG is that liquefied gas enables European importers to widen their gas

  2. Investigation of propulsion system for large LNG ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R. P.; Nik, Wan Mohd Norsani Wan

    2012-09-01

    Requirements to move away from coal for power generation has made LNG as the most sought after fuel source, raising steep demands on its supply and production. Added to this scenario is the gradual depletion of the offshore oil and gas fields which is pushing future explorations and production activities far away into the hostile environment of deep sea. Production of gas in such environment has great technical and commercial impacts on gas business. For instance, laying gas pipes from deep sea to distant receiving terminals will be technically and economically challenging. Alternative to laying gas pipes will require installing re-liquefaction unit on board FPSOs to convert gas into liquid for transportation by sea. But, then because of increased distance between gas source and receiving terminals the current medium size LNG ships will no longer remain economical to operate. Recognizing this business scenario shipowners are making huge investments in the acquisition of large LNG ships. As power need of large LNG ships is very different from the current small ones, a variety of propulsion derivatives such as UST, DFDE, 2-Stroke DRL and Combined cycle GT have been proposed by leading engine manufacturers. Since, propulsion system constitutes major element of the ship's capital and life cycle cost, which of these options is most suited for large LNG ships is currently a major concern of the shipping industry and must be thoroughly assessed. In this paper the authors investigate relative merits of these propulsion options against the benchmark performance criteria of BOG disposal, fuel consumption, gas emissions, plant availability and overall life cycle cost.

  3. Investigation of propulsion system for large LNG ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R P; Wan Nik, Wan Mohd Norsani

    2012-01-01

    Requirements to move away from coal for power generation has made LNG as the most sought after fuel source, raising steep demands on its supply and production. Added to this scenario is the gradual depletion of the offshore oil and gas fields which is pushing future explorations and production activities far away into the hostile environment of deep sea. Production of gas in such environment has great technical and commercial impacts on gas business. For instance, laying gas pipes from deep sea to distant receiving terminals will be technically and economically challenging. Alternative to laying gas pipes will require installing re-liquefaction unit on board FPSOs to convert gas into liquid for transportation by sea. But, then because of increased distance between gas source and receiving terminals the current medium size LNG ships will no longer remain economical to operate. Recognizing this business scenario shipowners are making huge investments in the acquisition of large LNG ships. As power need of large LNG ships is very different from the current small ones, a variety of propulsion derivatives such as UST, DFDE, 2-Stroke DRL and Combined cycle GT have been proposed by leading engine manufacturers. Since, propulsion system constitutes major element of the ship's capital and life cycle cost, which of these options is most suited for large LNG ships is currently a major concern of the shipping industry and must be thoroughly assessed. In this paper the authors investigate relative merits of these propulsion options against the benchmark performance criteria of BOG disposal, fuel consumption, gas emissions, plant availability and overall life cycle cost.

  4. Preventing Buoyant Displacement Gas Release Events in Hanford Double-Shell Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the predictive methods used to ensure that waste transfer operations in Hanford waste tanks do not create waste configurations that lead to unsafe gas release events. The gas release behavior of the waste in existing double-shell tanks has been well characterized, and the flammable gas safety issues associated with safe storage of waste in the current configuration are being formally resolved. However, waste is also being transferred between double-shell tanks and from single-shell tanks into double-shell tanks by saltwell pumping and sluicing that create new wastes and waste configurations that have not been studied as well. Additionally, planning is underway for various waste transfer scenarios to support waste feed delivery to the proposed vitrification plant. It is critical that such waste transfers do not create waste conditions with the potential for dangerous gas release events.

  5. Study on Calculation of Liquid Level And Storage of Tanks for LNG-fueled Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Guoqing; Liu, Chang

    2018-01-01

    As the ongoing development of the application of LNG as a clean energy in waterborne transport industry, the fleet scale of LNG-fueled vessels enlarged and the safety operation has attracted more attention in the industry. Especially the accurate detection of liquid level of LNG tanks is regarded as an important issue to ensure a safe and stable operation of LNG-fueled ships and a key parameter to keep the proper functioning of marine fuel storage system, supply system and safety control system. At present, detection of LNG tank liquid level mainly adopts differential pressure detection method. Liquid level condition could be found from the liquid level reference tables. However in practice, since LNG-fueled vessels are generally not in a stationary state, liquid state within the LNG tanks will constantly change, the detection of storage of tanks only by reference to the tables will cause deviation to some extent. By analyzing the temperature under different pressure, the effects of temperature change on density and volume integration calculation, a method of calculating the liquid level and storage of LNG tanks is put forward making the calculation of liquid level and actual storage of LNG tanks more accurately and providing a more reliable basis for the calculation of energy consumption level and operation economy for LNG-fueled vessels.

  6. LNG REGASIFICATION TERMINALS ACCESS CAPACITY ANALYSIS FOR SECURITY OF EUROPEAN NATURAL GAS SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Veselić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing natural gas consumption, declining North Sea gas reserves, increased production costs and the deregulation of European gas and electricity markets have all combined to create new opportunities for LNG in Europe. In these circumstances, LNG represents an opportunity for many European countries to diversify their natural gas supply, while decreasing their dependence on Russian natural gas import at the same time. The largest exporters of LNG to Europe are Qatar, Algeria, Nigeria, Trinidad & Tobago, Egypt and Oman. Spain, Great Britain and France are the largest European importers of LNG. Spain has six LNG regasification terminals, followed by four in Great Britain, three in France, two in Italy and Turkey and finally Greece and Portugal with one terminal each. New LNG regasification terminals are currently under construction in Italy, Spain, Sweden and Netherlands. In addition, more than 30 new LNG terminal projects have been proposed around Europe. Italy plans to construct as many as 10 new regasification terminals, due to the strong orientation of its national energy policy towards LNG. Many European countries are strongly considering participating in the LNG chain for the first time, namely Albania, Cyprus, Ireland, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, Romania, Ukraine and Croatia. This paper focuses on a specific aspect of the LNG supply chain: the import facility (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1997-07-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

  8. Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1998-02-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

  9. US North Slope gas and Asian LNG markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for export of liquified natural gas (LNG) from Alaska's North Slope are assessed. Projected market conditions to 2010 show that new LNG capacity beyond announced expansions will be needed to meet regional demand and that supplies will probably come from outside the region. The estimated delivered costs of likely suppliers show that Alaska North Slope gas will not be competitive. The alternative North Slope gas development strategies of transport and sale to the lower 48 states and use on the North Slope for either enhanced oil recovery or conversion to liquids are examined. The alternative options require delaying development until US gas prices increase, exhaustion of certain North Slope oil fields, or advances occur in gas to liquid fuels conversion technology. ?? 1995.

  10. LNG: in Asia, the demand should double by 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In a well-documented study, ''Asia Gas Study'', published by the end of the first semester of 1996, the International Energy Agency (IEA) anticipated the doubling of the LNG demand from Asia, because of a more rapid growth of gas industry than for other energy industries. The regional gas trade should even triple by 2010. This study is the first from IEA about Asia and focusses on 6 key-countries: Brunei-Darussalam, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. About 7% of the worldwide natural gas reserves belong to Asia but this self-sufficiency will fall rapidly. This paper summarizes the forecasting and uncertainties of natural gas demand from Japan, South Korea, China and India by the year 2010. LNG producers such as Brunei and Australia but also Papua-New Guinea, Vietnam, Alaska and Middle East are ready to supply the Asian demand. (J.S.)

  11. The Evolving Role of LNG in the Gas Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, D.; Van der Linde, C.; Smeenk, T.

    2010-09-15

    The global energy scene is changing rapidly. Producing countries are tightening their grip on the development of their resources, emerging (and other) economies are taking a direct political interest in securing supplies, politics and business are increasingly integrated in international energy deals, and energy is on the political agenda of every government. Compounding this, prices of energy skyrocketed over the four years leading up to August 2008. As a result more gas resources became economical to develop, creating more supply potential than before. However, the severe crisis in international financial markets and national banking systems is now changing this outlook. Prices have come down, and this, combined with the current decline in economic activity, is likely to affect the timing of investment decisions on new pipeline and liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects. The impact on national economies on energy demand, and on the relative position of gas in the energy market could be considerable. At the same time, some consuming countries are also reviewing the environmental effect of their energy policies and the security of their energy supply. Any change in these policies could affect the place of gas in the energy mix. These developments are still unfolding; it is difficult to say at this stage in what ways and to what extent the position of natural gas will change. Nevertheless, some expect further globalization of the gas business, with different market structures, more fragmented value chains, more flexibility in supplies to markets, and shorter term contracts. In this respect, LNG is regarded as the major potential game changer. Indeed the LNG business model has been changing over recent years into one of greater flexibility, promising producers higher rewards, albeit in return for higher risks. More recently the perspective of high rewards in a market hungry for supplies has changed radically, at least for the next few years. A global crisis, lower oil

  12. Kalimantan field development hikes gas supply for LNG export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharmoko, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of Tambora and Tunu gas fields in Kalimantan that have increased available gas supply for the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Indonesia. The demand for LNG is increasing in the energy thirsty Far East market. And Indonesia, the world's largest exporter, is keeping pace by expanding the Bontang liquefaction plant in East Kalimantan. A fifth train, with a capacity of around 2.5 million tons/year, began operating in January 1990. Start-up of a sixth train, of identical capacity, is planned for January 1994. The Bontang plant is operated by PT Badak on behalf of Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil and gas mining company. The feed to the fifth train comes primarily from the first-phase development of Total Indonesie's two gas fields, Tambora and Tunu. The sixth train will be fed by a second-phase development of the Tunu field

  13. The Evolving Role of LNG in the Gas Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, D.; Van der Linde, C.; Smeenk, T.

    2010-01-01

    The global energy scene is changing rapidly. Producing countries are tightening their grip on the development of their resources, emerging (and other) economies are taking a direct political interest in securing supplies, politics and business are increasingly integrated in international energy deals, and energy is on the political agenda of every government. Compounding this, prices of energy skyrocketed over the four years leading up to August 2008. As a result more gas resources became economical to develop, creating more supply potential than before. However, the severe crisis in international financial markets and national banking systems is now changing this outlook. Prices have come down, and this, combined with the current decline in economic activity, is likely to affect the timing of investment decisions on new pipeline and liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects. The impact on national economies on energy demand, and on the relative position of gas in the energy market could be considerable. At the same time, some consuming countries are also reviewing the environmental effect of their energy policies and the security of their energy supply. Any change in these policies could affect the place of gas in the energy mix. These developments are still unfolding; it is difficult to say at this stage in what ways and to what extent the position of natural gas will change. Nevertheless, some expect further globalization of the gas business, with different market structures, more fragmented value chains, more flexibility in supplies to markets, and shorter term contracts. In this respect, LNG is regarded as the major potential game changer. Indeed the LNG business model has been changing over recent years into one of greater flexibility, promising producers higher rewards, albeit in return for higher risks. More recently the perspective of high rewards in a market hungry for supplies has changed radically, at least for the next few years. A global crisis, lower oil

  14. Using of polyamide in construction of supporting blocks of cryogenic tanks on example of LNG container

    OpenAIRE

    E. Lisowski; W. Czyżycki; K. Łazarczyk

    2010-01-01

    Interest in using of cryogenic gases is increasing recently. It particularly applies to LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), which is relatively inexpensive and environmental friendly. In the liquefied form this gas is highly compressed. One cubic meter of liquefied LNG can be expanded to 660 cubic meters of normal usable gas. At the atmospheric pressure, the liquefaction temperature of LNG is under minus 160 Celsius degrees. Therefore, there is a necessity to store it in a cryogenic tank. A system o...

  15. Investments in the LNG Value Chain: A Multistage Stochastic Optimization Model focusing on Floating Liquefaction Units

    OpenAIRE

    Røstad, Lars Dybsjord; Erichsen, Jeanette Christine

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we have developed a strategic optimization model of investments in infrastructure in the LNG value chain. The focus is on floating LNG production units: when they are a viable solution and what value they add to the LNG value chain. First a deterministic model is presented with focus on describing the value chain, before it is expanded to a multistage stochastic model with uncertain field sizes and gas prices. The objective is to maximize expected discounted profits through op...

  16. Radiation scanning aids tower diagnosis at Arun LNG plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naklie, M.M.; Pless, L.; Gurning, T.P.; Hyasak, M.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation scanning has been used effectively to troubleshoot the treating towers of the Arun LNG plant in Sumatra, Indonesia. The plant is one of the world's largest such facilities. The analysis was part of an investigation aimed at increasing the capacity of the treater section of the plant. Radiation scanning is a tool which, in addition to tower differential pressure and product purity, can aid in diagnosing tower performance

  17. Knockout Serum Replacement Promotes Cell Survival by Preventing BIM from Inducing Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishii

    Full Text Available Knockout serum replacement (KOSR is a nutrient supplement commonly used to replace serum for culturing stem cells. We show here that KOSR has pro-survival activity in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML cells transformed by the BCR-ABL oncogene. Inhibitors of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase kill CML cells by stimulating pro-apoptotic BIM and inhibiting anti-apoptotic BCL2, BCLxL and MCL1. We found that KOSR protects CML cells from killing by BCR-ABL inhibitors--imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib. The protective effect of KOSR is reversible and not due to the selective outgrowth of drug-resistant clones. In KOSR-protected CML cells, imatinib still inhibited the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase, reduced the phosphorylation of STAT, ERK and AKT, down-regulated BCL2, BCLxL, MCL1 and up-regulated BIM. However, these pro-apoptotic alterations failed to cause cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. With mitochondria isolated from KOSR-cultured CML cells, we showed that addition of recombinant BIM protein also failed to cause cytochrome c release. Besides the kinase inhibitors, KOSR could protect cells from menadione, an inducer of oxidative stress, but it did not protect cells from DNA damaging agents. Switching from serum to KOSR caused a transient increase in reactive oxygen species and AKT phosphorylation in CML cells that were protected by KOSR but not in those that were not protected by this nutrient supplement. Treatment of KOSR-cultured cells with the PH-domain inhibitor MK2206 blocked AKT phosphorylation, abrogated the formation of BIM-resistant mitochondria and stimulated cell death. These results show that KOSR has cell-context dependent pro-survival activity that is linked to AKT activation and the inhibition of BIM-induced cytochrome c release from the mitochondria.

  18. Alternative natural gas contract and pricing structures and incentives for the LNG industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Gas conversion to liquefied gas (LNG) and transport by LNG tankers is one option for meeting expanding gas consumption and for gas traded internationally. This paper examines the impact of the traditional gas contract provisions of indefinite pricing, market out price ceilings, and take-or-pay requirements on the profitability of LNG projects in the context of markets characterized by price and quantity uncertainty. Simulation of experiments are used to examine and calibrate the effects of those provisions. The results provide guidance to operators, host countries and purchasers in structuring such contracts. The paper also assesses prospects of future expansion of world LNG capacity. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  19. Optimization of tenofovir release from mucoadhesive vaginal tablets by polymer combination to prevent sexual transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notario-Pérez, Fernando; Cazorla-Luna, Raúl; Martín-Illana, Araceli; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Tamayo, Aitana; Rubio, Juan; Veiga, María-Dolores

    2018-01-01

    The use of sustained-release mucoadhesive vaginal tablets of antiretroviral drugs as microbicidal formulations can be an effective strategy for reducing the sexual transmission of HIV from men to women, which is a main problem particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Different polymers (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), chitosan, guar gum and Eudragit ® RS) have proven some good features for this purpose. At this work, these polymers have been combined in pairs in different proportions to enhance the advantages offered by each one individually. The in vitro release of tenofovir from the matrices, ex vivo mucoadhesive capacity (evaluated on vaginal mucosa) and the degree of swelling in simulated vaginal fluid have been assessed. A multimodal pore size distribution is observed in porosimetry studies -carried out with swelling witnesses-, due to the contribution of polymers with different swelling behaviour to the pore formation, and it is corroborated by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction technique confirms the changes in crystallinity of the formulation after swelling. We can report that the combination of HPMC and chitosan in the same formulation may be useful for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV, since tablets can be obtained that remain adhered to the vaginal mucosa for 96h, so the drug is released in a sustained manner for 72h. When the formulation contains more chitosan than HPMC the swelling is moderate, making it more comfortable for women to apply. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Evaluasi dan Analisis Dampak Program Corporate Social Responsibility Badak LNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanes Utama

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Program CSR Badak LNG telah melibatkan masyarakat dalam proses perencanaan, pelaksanaan, sampai pada proses monitoring dan evaluasi. Hal ini tentu berdampak pada peningkatan kualitas program serta meningkatkan peran partisipasi masyarakat sebagai kelompok sasaran penerima program CSR. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengukur tingkat kepuasan masyarakat terhadap program CSR yang telah dijalankan dan mengevaluasi dampak program CSR yang telah dilakukan. Adapun metode yang digunakan adalah  melalui pendekatan kajian input, output, outcome dan impact melalui analisis Indeks Kepuasan Masyarakat, Importance Performance Analysis, dan Compass Sustainability Analysis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan secara keseluruhan kepuasan masyarakat terhadap pelayanan program CSR Badak LNG menunjukkan parameter sangat baik. Tingkat kesesuaian antara kepuasan kinerja dengan tingkat kepentingan masyarakat masuk dalam kategori sangat baik. Indikator kejelasan petugas pendamping,  tanggung jawab petugas pendamping, kemampuan petugas pendamping,  kesopanan petugas pendamping, dan kepastian biaya pelayanan adalah indikator yang memiliki harapan tinggi dari masyarakat penerima manfaat, dan perusahaan memiliki kinerja yang sangat baik dalam hal tersebut. Dampak positif yang diterima dari  kegiatan CSR pada dimensi nature, wellbeing, economy, social di Kota Bontang sangat tinggi, di antaranya terjadinya peningkatan kualitas lingkungan, pemanfaatan potensi alam, peningkatan pendapatan masyarakat, pengentasan kemiskinan, peningkatan kemandirian UMKM, semakin dikenalnya kebudayaan masyarakat, dan tingginya tingkat kepuasan masyarakat terhadap kegiatan-kegiatan CSR Badak LNG. The CSR program from Badak LNG has been involving the society in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation process. It has an impact to the improvement quality program and increase peoples participation as a CSR awardee. This research aims to measure the peoples satisfactory towards CSR

  1. Design optimization of ORC systems for waste heat recovery on board a LNG carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffiato, Marco; Frangopoulos, Christos A.; Manente, Giovanni; Rech, Sergio; Lazzaretto, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ORC systems are one of the most promising options to recover low temperature heat. • Design of ORC systems on board a LNG carrier is optimized using the Heatsep method. • Simple, regenerative and two-stage, subcritical and supercritical ORCs are considered. • Three engine cooling systems layouts are found to supply heat to the ORCs. • The highest net power output is achieved by the two-stage ORC configuration. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology may represent an interesting way to exploit the low grade waste heat rejected by the ship power generation plant. This option is investigated here to recover the heat available from three of the four engines of a real electrically driven Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. A detailed analysis of the engines operation is first performed to evaluate all thermal streams released by the engines. Heat associated with the jacket water, lubricating oil and charge air cooling of the engines is found to be available for the ORC, while the heat from the exhaust gases is already used to generate low pressure steam for ship internal use. Simple, regenerative and two-stage ORC configurations are compared using six different organic fluids that are selected as the most suitable for this application. The thermal matching that maximizes the net power output of the total system composed by engine cooling circuits and ORC cycle is then found by searching for the optimum heat transfer between thermal streams independently of the structure/number of the heat exchangers. Three layouts of the engine cooling systems are compared. Results show that the maximum net power output (820 kW) achieved by the two-stage ORC configuration almost doubles the simple cycle and regenerative ones (430–580 kW), but structure complexity and reliability issues may give different indications in terms of economic feasibility

  2. Local sustained-release delivery systems of the antibiofilm agent thiazolidinedione-8 for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenderovich, Julia; Feldman, Mark; Kirmayer, David; Al-Quntar, Abed; Steinberg, Doron; Lavy, Eran; Friedman, Michael

    2015-05-15

    Thiazolidinedione-8 (TZD-8) is an anti-quorum-sensing molecule that has the potential to effectively prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections, a major healthcare challenge. Sustained-release drug-delivery systems can enhance drugs' therapeutic potential, by maintaining their therapeutic level and reducing their side effects. Varnishes for sustained release of TZD-8 based on ethylcellulose or ammonio methacrylate copolymer type A (Eudragit(®) RL) were developed. The main factors affecting release rate were found to be film thickness and presence of a hydrophilic or swellable polymer in the matrix. The release mechanism of ethylcellulose-based systems matched the Higuchi model. Selected varnishes were retained on catheters for at least 8 days. Sustained-release delivery systems of TZD-8 were active against Candida albicans biofilms. The present study demonstrates promising results en route to developing applications for the prevention of catheter-associated infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biodegradable rifampicin-releasing coating of surgical meshes for the prevention of bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinbold J

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Jochen Reinbold,1 Teresa Hierlemann,1 Lukas Urich,1 Ann-Kristin Uhde,1 Ingrid Müller,2 Tobias Weindl,3 Ulrich Vogel,4 Christian Schlensak,1 Hans Peter Wendel,1 Stefanie Krajewski1 1Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Albstadt-Sigmaringen University of Applied Science, Albstadt, 3Aimecs® GmbH Medical Solutions, Pfarrkirchen, 4Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Tübingen, Germany Abstract: Polypropylene mesh implants are routinely used to repair abdominal wall defects or incisional hernia. However, complications associated with mesh implantation, such as mesh-related infections, can cause serious problems and may require complete surgical removal. Hence, the aim of the present study was the development of a safe and efficient coating to reduce postoperative mesh infections. Biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid microspheres loaded with rifampicin as an antibacterial agent were prepared through single emulsion evaporation method. The particle size distribution (67.93±3.39 µm for rifampicin-loaded microspheres and 64.43±3.61 µm for unloaded microspheres was measured by laser diffraction. Furthermore, the encapsulation efficiency of rifampicin (61.5%±2.58% was detected via ultraviolet–visible (UV/Vis spectroscopy. The drug release of rifampicin-loaded microspheres was detected by UV/Vis spectroscopy over a period of 60 days. After 60 days, 92.40%±3.54% of the encapsulated rifampicin has been continuously released. The viability of BJ fibroblasts after incubation with unloaded and rifampicin-loaded microspheres was investigated using an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, which showed no adverse effects on the cells. Furthermore, the antibacterial impact of rifampicin-loaded microspheres and mesh implants, coated with the antibacterial microspheres, was investigated using an agar diffusion

  4. LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

  5. Cask for radioactive material and method for preventing release of neutrons from radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, M.F.; Shaffer, P.T.

    1981-01-01

    A cask for radioactive material, such as nuclear reactor fuel or spent nuclear reactor fuel, includes a plurality of associated walled internal compartments for containing such radioactive material, with neutron absorbing material present to absorb neutrons emitted by the radioactive material, and a plurality of thermally conductive members, such as longitudinal copper or aluminum castings, about the compartment and in thermal contact with the compartment walls and with other such thermally conductive members and having thermal contact surfaces between such members extending, preferably radially, from the compartment walls to external surfaces of the thermally conductive members, which surfaces are preferably in the form of a cylinder. The ends of the shipping cask also preferably include a neutron absorber and a conductive metal covering to dissipate heat released by decay of the radioactive material. A preferred neutron absorber utilized is boron carbide, preferably as plasma sprayed with metal powder or as particles in a matrix of phenolic polymer, and the compartment walls are preferably of stainless steel, copper or other corrosion resistant and heat conductive metal or alloy. The invention also relates to shipping casks, storage casks and other containers for radioactive materials in which a plurality of internal compartments for such material, e.g., nuclear reactor fuel rods, are joined together, preferably in modular construction with surrounding heat conductive metal members, and the modules are joined together to form a major part of a finished shipping cask, which is preferably of cylindrical shape. Also within the invention are methods of safely storing radioactive materials which emit neutrons, while dissipating the heat thereof, and of manufacturing the present shipping casks

  6. Exergetic Analysis, Optimization and Comparison of LNG Cold Exergy Recovery Systems for Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Dorosz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas shares in the global energy market is steadily increasing. One possible application of LNG is as a fuel for transportation. Stricter air pollution regulations and emission controls have made the natural gas a promising alternative to liquid petroleum fuels, especially in the case of heavy transport. However, in most LNG-fueled vehicles, the physical exergy of LNG is destroyed in the regasification process. This paper investigates possible LNG exergy recovery systems for transportation. The analyses focus on “cold energy” recovery systems as the enthalpy of LNG, which may be used as cooling power in air conditioning or refrigeration. Moreover, four exergy recovery systems that use LNG as a low temperature heat sink to produce electric power are analyzed. This includes single-stage and two-stage direct expansion systems, an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle system, and a combined system (ORC + direct expansion. The optimization of the above-mentioned LNG power cycles and exergy analyses are also discussed, with the identification of exergy loss in all components. The analyzed systems achieved exergetic efficiencies in the range of 20 % to 36 % , which corresponds to a net work in the range of 214 to 380 kJ/kg L N G .

  7. LNG. Practice and policy. Meeting report NeVER, November 20, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhauer, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Report is given of a meeting of the Netherlands Association for Energy Legislation (NeVER), which was held November 16, 2006, in Amsterdam, on the subject of LNG. More in particular third party access to LNG-terminals and related exemption regulations in Europe and the Netherlands [nl

  8. File list: Pol.Lng.10.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.10.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase II Lung SRX1...43816,SRX062976,SRX020252 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.10.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: Pol.Lng.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Lung S...RX016555,SRX150101,SRX150102 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Lng.05.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Lng.05.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.05.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase II Lung SRX0...62976,SRX143816,SRX020252 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.05.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Lng.20.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.20.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase II Lung SRX0...62976,SRX143816,SRX020252 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.20.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  12. Spot sale of uncommitted LNG from Middle East: Japan or the UK?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikhalat-Jahromi, Hamed; Bell, Michael G.H.; Fontes, Dalila B.M.M.; Cochrane, Robert A.; Angeloudis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is rising as demand for it grows rapidly and steadily due to growth in energy demand, the transition to a low carbon economy and the longer distances over which natural gas is now traded. Given its importance, this work proposes an optimization model that assists to decide on when and where LNG should be delivered by coordinating tanker type, assignment and routing, inventory management, contract obligations, arbitrage and uncommitted LNG. The model maximizes the profit mainly by taking advantage of price differences between different markets. The contributions of this work are twofold. First, following the analysis of expenses and revenues, a new mixed integer programming model for LNG liquefaction and shipping is proposed from a corporate finance perspective. Furthermore, a solution approach for it is implemented and tested. Second, the model is used to derive a short term trade policy for the Middle Eastern LNG producers regarding the spot sale of their uncommitted product to Japan or to the UK, namely to: dispatch to whichever market has the higher current spot price, regardless of the variability of the transport expenses. - Highlights: •The cash-flow of an LNG producer in operational planning is examined. •An LNG inventory routing problem for EBITDA maximization is formulated. •A project in Middle East for studying the spot sale of uncommitted LNG is created. •In sale to Japan and the UK the market with the higher price should be picked.

  13. File list: InP.Lng.50.AllAg.WI-38 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.50.AllAg.WI-38 hg19 Input control Lung WI-38 SRX268879,SRX189085,SRX189086,...SRX199883,SRX750674,SRX204161,SRX204170,SRX190006,SRX199875,SRX190028 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Lng.50.AllAg.WI-38.bed ...

  14. File list: DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 DNase-seq Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  15. File list: DNS.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 DNase-seq Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  16. File list: Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 Unclassified Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 TFs and others Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 Histone Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung SRX10...91778,SRX1091782,SRX1091783,SRX1091781,SRX1091784,SRX1091779,SRX1091785,SRX1091780 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  19. File list: Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 RNA polymerase Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  2. File list: DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 DNase-seq Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Lng.20.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  3. Panorama 2016 - LNG in transportation: what is its potential for the sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Louis

    2015-12-01

    With low emissions and competitive pricing, liquefied natural gas (LNG) appears to have significant advantages to emerge as an alternative or supplement to traditional fossil fuels. Although LNG has significant potential for growth over the long term, it will have to eliminate some uncertainties, especially those related to supply infrastructure. (author)

  4. File list: Pol.Lng.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Lung S...RX016555,SRX150101,SRX150102 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Lng.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  5. File list: Pol.Lng.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Lung SRX... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Lng.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  6. File list: Pol.Lng.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Lung S...RX016555,SRX150101,SRX150102 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Lng.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  7. File list: Pol.Lng.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Lung SRX... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Lng.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Lng.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Lng.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Lung SRX... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Lng.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.Lng.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.05.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Lung SRX062977,SRX...SRX213837,SRX213846,SRX213842 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Lng.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  10. File list: InP.Lng.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.20.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Lung SRX502813,SR...1772,SRX734236,SRX188957,SRX1004561,SRX497257,SRX497258 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Lng.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Lung SRX213845,SRX...RX213842,SRX213846,SRX1528654 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Lung SRX502813,SR...74812,SRX016558,SRX734236,SRX038682,SRX497257,SRX497258 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Lng.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.Lng.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.05.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Lung SRX502813,SR...88957,SRX093320,SRX038682,SRX502807,SRX497258,SRX497257 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Lng.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Lng.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.50.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Lung SRX502813,SR...89952,SRX080360,SRX734236,SRX038683,SRX093320,SRX038682 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Lng.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma mm9 All antigens Lung Lung adenocarcinoma SRX2...RX213848 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Lng.05.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma.bed ...

  16. Hydrogen sulphide-releasing diclofenac derivatives inhibit breast cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and prevent osteolysis ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzias, J; Logan, J G; Mollat, P; Sparatore, A; Del Soldato, P; Ralston, S H; Idris, A I

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) and prostaglandins are both involved in inflammation, cancer and bone turnover, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and H(2)S donors exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties. H(2)S-releasing diclofenac (S-DCF) derivatives are a novel class of NSAIDs combining the properties of a H(2)S donor with those of a conventional NSAID. We studied the effects of the S-DCF derivatives ACS15 and ACS32 on osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation and activity in vitro, human and mouse breast cancer cells support for osteoclast formation and signalling in vitro, and osteolysis ex vivo. The S-diclofenac derivatives ACS15 and ACS32 inhibited the increase in osteoclast formation induced by human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 and mouse 4T1 breast cancer cells without affecting breast cancer cell viability. Conditioned media from human MDA-MB-231 cells enhanced IκB phosphorylation and osteoclast formation and these effects were significantly inhibited following treatment by ACS15 and ACS32, whereas the parent compound diclofenac had no effects. ACS15 and ACS32 inhibited receptor activator of NFκB ligand-induced osteoclast formation and resorption, and caused caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in mature osteoclasts via a mechanism dependent on IKK/NFκB inhibition. In calvaria organ culture, human MDA-MB-231 cells caused osteolysis, and this effect was completely prevented following treatment with ACS15 and ACS32. S-diclofenac derivatives inhibit osteoclast formation and activity, suppress breast cancer cell support for osteoclastogenesis and prevent osteolysis. This suggests that H(2)S-releasing diclofenac derivatives exhibit anti-resorptive properties, which might be of clinical value in the treatment of osteolytic bone disease. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. 76 FR 77814 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed BOG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    .... Summary of the Proposed Project Cameron LNG plans to construct and operate facilities necessary to liquefy boil-off gas (BOG) at its existing liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal in Cameron Parish, Louisiana... sufficient LNG in each of the terminal's storage tanks. Currently, BOG is sent out via delivery into the...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... and outbound transits through Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N...

  19. The Pseudo signal peptide of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2A prevents receptor oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Anke; Rutz, Claudia; Kreuchwig, Annika; Krause, Gerd; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schülein, Ralf

    2012-08-03

    N-terminal signal peptides mediate the interaction of native proteins with the translocon complex of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and are cleaved off during early protein biogenesis. The corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2a (CRF(2(a))R) possesses an N-terminal pseudo signal peptide, which represents a so far unique domain within the large protein family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In contrast to a conventional signal peptide, the pseudo signal peptide remains uncleaved and consequently forms a hydrophobic extension at the N terminus of the receptor. The functional consequence of the presence of the pseudo signal peptide is not understood. Here, we have analyzed the significance of this domain for receptor dimerization/oligomerization in detail. To this end, we took the CRF(2(a))R and the homologous corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF(1)R) possessing a conventional cleaved signal peptide and conducted signal peptide exchange experiments. Using single cell and single molecule imaging methods (fluorescence resonance energy transfer and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy, respectively) as well as biochemical experiments, we obtained two novel findings; we could show that (i) the CRF(2(a))R is expressed exclusively as a monomer, and (ii) the presence of the pseudo signal peptide prevents its oligomerization. Thus, we have identified a novel functional domain within the GPCR protein family, which plays a role in receptor oligomerization and which may be useful to study the functional significance of this process in general.

  20. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-05

    This project evolved from a 1995, DOE-NETL competitive solicitation for practical CMM capture and utilization concepts. Appalachian Pacific was one of three companies selected to proceed with the construction and operation of a cost-shared demonstration plant. In the course of trying to proceed with this demonstration plant, AP examined several liquefaction technologies, discussed obtaining rights to coal mine methane with a number of coal companies, explored marketing potential with a wide variety of customers in many sections of the United States, studied in great detail the impact of a carbon credit exchange, and developed a suite of analytical tools with which to evaluate possible project options. In the end, the newness of the product, reluctance on the part of the coal companies to venture away from time tested practices, difficulty with obtaining financing, the failure of a carbon credit market to develop and the emergence of shale derived gas production prevented a demonstration plant from being built.

  1. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): emerging control; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): controle de emergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardinelli, Ricardo Porto; Correa, Kleber Macedo; Moura Filho, Nelson Barboza de; Matos, Jose Eduardo Nogueira de; Fernandez, Carlos Antonio [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude

    2008-07-01

    The operation to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is innovative for the PETROBRAS System. PETROBRAS Transporte - TRANSPETRO will operate two LNG flexible terminals. In accordance with the health, safety and environmental policy - training, education and awareness action plans were formulated by TRANSPETRO to assure the operational safety for the activity. Part of this action plan includes the training of LNG spill control and fire suppression. The training was carried out in 20 hours and divided into two parts: theoretical and practice. In the practice part, 3.000 gallons of LNG were unloaded and the students could verify the behaviour of the LNG and the effectiveness of the resources available for the emergency control. The knowledge was introduced in the company to create specific procedures, local emergency plans and develop internal instructors. (author)

  2. Economics of LNG and pipeline gas export from GC C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the economic and non-economic considerations underlying gas exports from the GC C and the Arabian Peninsula in general. It addresses four themes: policy issues, political risks, technical risks and economics. It examines the distance between the regional resource areas and the major gas markets in the Far East and Europe, and examines the implications for moving gas to those markets in liquid form or by pipeline, in terms of number of LNG vessels required, and capital costs. (Author)

  3. Comparison of two insulin assays for first-phase insulin release in type 1 diabetes prediction and prevention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Jeffrey L; Beam, Craig A; Marcovina, Santica M; Boulware, David C; Palmer, Jerry P; Winter, William E; Skyler, Jay S; Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2011-11-20

    Detection of below-threshold first-phase insulin release or FPIR (1+3 minute insulin concentrations during an intravenous glucose tolerance test [IVGTT]) is important in type 1 diabetes prediction and prevention studies including the TrialNet Oral Insulin Prevention Trial. We assessed whether an insulin immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) could replace the less practical but current standard of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for FPIR. One hundred thirty-three islet autoantibody positive relatives of persons with type 1 diabetes underwent 161 IVGTTs. Insulin concentrations were measured by both assays in 1056 paired samples. A rule classifying FPIR (below-threshold, above-threshold, uncertain) by the IEMA was derived and validated against FPIR by the RIA. The insulin IEMA-based rule accurately classified below- and above-threshold FPIRs by the RIA in 110/161 (68%) IVGTTs, but was uncertain in 51/161 (32%) tests for which FPIR by RIA is needed. An uncertain FPIR by the IEMA was more likely among below-threshold vs above-threshold FPIRs by the RIA (64% [30/47] vs. 18% [21/114], respectively; pTrialNet is limiting the insulin RIA for FPIR to the latter given the practical advantages of the more specific IEMA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The importance of LNG for natural gas consumption in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metelska Klaudia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The World market of liquefied natural gas (LNG is growing rapidly. In 2015 LNG production exceeded 333 bcm with its predicted increase up to 450 bcm in 2019. The analysis of LNG role in natural gas import to the EU in recent years shows variability: LNG share in overall import reached 25% in 2011 and it went down to 15% in 2014. The smaller demand for natural gas including LNG in the EU can be due to, among others, a slower economic growth and a dynamic development of the use of renewable energy sources. The article shows the role of natural gas in the structure of consumption of primary energy as well as the changes in demand for natural gas in the years 2007–2014 for the main groups of end users: industry, energy production and individual households. The biggest fall in demand for natural gas has been observed in energy production sector in recent years. This publication continues to analyse the structure of natural gas supplies to the EU, with special emphasis on the directions of LNG import to the countries such as: The UK, Spain, France, Greece, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, Lithuania and The Netherlands. The significance of LNG in the balance of consumption of natural gas in these countries has been presented as well as the infrastructure connected with LNG and plans of development of regasification terminals. In the summary the most important conclusions have been drawn and a chance of the increase in significance of the role of LNG in the balance of natural gas supplies has been pointed out, which is due to the steep fall of LNG prices which has taken place in recent years.

  5. The role of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, A.

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role that Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) might play in the future EU gas market. LNG imports are not likely to have a place in the Netherlands soon, but they could make an important contribution to the volume and diversity of Europe's gas supplies. An important characteristic of LNG is its inherently high costs, throughout the whole chain, from the wellhead to the market. These costs are considerably higher than the costs of bringing oil to the market. Cost considerations, in combination with the rigidity of the gas market, have led to the use of long-term contracts as a basis for the business, as is the case for the long haul pipeline gas business. Costs have come down considerably and further cost reductions are 'in the pipeline'. While this does not alter the fundamentals of the business it has nonetheless helped to extend the reach of LNG. LNG from the Middle East to Europe has now become economically feasible. The high gas prices of recent years have further fuelled the expansion of the LNG business. Supported by a rapidly growing global economy at the turn of this century, many prospects are under development. The positive economic outlook has seen more speculative positioning in every segment of the LNG chain, while more vertical integration has been industry's response to market liberalisation. The more recent slowdown of the market economies has created a surplus of LNG, which is finding its way onto the markets through short-term and spot transactions. The short-term business will grow over the next few years as more LNG and shipping capacity comes on-stream. However, given underlying high costs and limited flexibility, it should be expected that new projects, currently under consideration, will only be developed on the basis of long-term contracts, thus returning to a balance between supply and demand. For these same reasons, LNG will not likely develop the same the liquidity as that of the oil market. The global

  6. Comparison of Therapeutic Efficacies of Norethisterone, Tranexamic Acid and Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System for the Treatment of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseli, Mine; Kayikcioglu, Fulya; Evliyaoglu, Ozlem; Haberal, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to compare the therapeutic efficacies of norethisterone acid (NETA), tranexamic acid and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in treating idiopathic heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Women with heavy uterine bleeding were randomized to receive NETA, tranexamic acid or LNG-IUS for 6 months. The primary outcome was a decrease in menstrual bleeding as assessed by pictorial blood loss assessment charts and hematological parameters analyzed at the 1st, 3rd and 6th months. Health-related quality of life (QOL) variables were also recorded and analyzed. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled in each treatment group, but the results of only 62 were evaluated. NETA, tranexamic acid, and LNG-IUS reduced menstrual blood loss (MBL) by 53.1, 60.8, and 85.8%, respectively, at the 6th month. LNG-IUS was more effective than NETA and tranexamic acid in decreasing MBL. LNG-IUS was also more efficient than tranexamic acid in correcting anemia related to menorrhagia. Satisfaction rates were comparable among the NETA (70%), tranexamic acid (63%) and LNG-IUS (77%) groups. QOL in physical aspects increased significantly in the tranexamic acid and LNG-IUS groups. The positive effect of LNG-IUS on QOL parameters, as well as its high efficacy, makes it a first-line option for HMB. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device potentiates stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleknaviciute, Jurate; Tulen, Joke H M; De Rijke, Yolanda B; Bouwkamp, Christian G; van der Kroeg, Mark; Timmermans, Mirjam; Wester, Vincent L; Bergink, Veerle; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Tiemeier, Henning; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Kooiman, Cornelis G; Kushner, Steven A

    2017-06-01

    The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) is currently recommended as a first-line contraceptive with an exclusively local intrauterine influence. However, recent clinical trials have identified side effects of LNG-IUD that appear to be systemically mediated, including depressed mood and emotional lability. We performed two experimental studies and a cross-sectional study. For each study, women were included from three groups: LNG-IUD (0.02mg/24h), oral ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel (0.03mg/0.15mg; EE30/LNG) and natural cycling (NC). Study 1-Salivary cortisol was measured at baseline and at defined intervals following the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Heart rate was monitored continuously throughout the TSST. Study 2-Salivary cortisol and serum total cortisol were evaluated relative to low-dose (1μg) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration. Study 3-Hair cortisol was measured as a naturalistic index of long-term cortisol exposure. Women using LNG-IUD had an exaggerated salivary cortisol response to the TSST (24.95±13.45 nmol/L, 95% CI 17.49-32.40), compared to EE30/LNG (3.27±2.83 nmol/L, 95% CI 1.71-4.84) and NC (10.85±11.03nmol/L, 95% CI 6.30-15.40) (Pcontraception induces a centrally-mediated sensitization of both autonomic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsivity. LNG-IUD sensitization of HPA axis responsivity was observed acutely under standardized laboratory conditions, as well as chronically under naturalistic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Brady, Patrick Dennis; Jernigan, Dann A.; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Nissen, Mark R.; Lopez, Carlos; Vermillion, Nancy; Hightower, Marion Michael

    2014-02-01

    At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.

  9. Optimization control of LNG regasification plant using Model Predictive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, A.; Adicandra, F. F.

    2018-03-01

    Optimization of liquified natural gas (LNG) regasification plant is important to minimize costs, especially operational costs. Therefore, it is important to choose optimum LNG regasification plant design and maintaining the optimum operating conditions through the implementation of model predictive control (MPC). Optimal tuning parameter for MPC such as P (prediction horizon), M (control of the horizon) and T (sampling time) are achieved by using fine-tuning method. The optimal criterion for design is the minimum amount of energy used and for control is integral of square error (ISE). As a result, the optimum design is scheme 2 which is developed by Devold with an energy savings of 40%. To maintain the optimum conditions, required MPC with P, M and T as follows: tank storage pressure: 90, 2, 1; product pressure: 95, 2, 1; temperature vaporizer: 65, 2, 2; and temperature heater: 35, 6, 5, with ISE value at set point tracking respectively 0.99, 1792.78, 34.89 and 7.54, or improvement of control performance respectively 4.6%, 63.5%, 3.1% and 58.2% compared to PI controller performance. The energy savings that MPC controllers can make when there is a disturbance in temperature rise 1°C of sea water is 0.02 MW.

  10. Thermodynamic and heat transfer analysis of LNG energy recovery for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, A; Casarosa, C

    2014-01-01

    An important option to transport the gas is to convert it into liquid natural gas (LNG) and convey it using insulated LNG tankers. At receiving terminals, the LNG is offloaded into storage tanks and then pumped at the required pressure and vaporized for final transmission to the pipeline. The LNG production process consumes a considerable amount of energy, while the cold availability, as also known as cold energy, has been stored in LNG. At a receiving terminal, LNG needs to be evaporated into gas at environmental temperature before fed into the gas distribution system. Seawater is commonly used for the regasification process of the LNG. In the present paper, after a general analysis of the perspectives of the various thermodynamic schemes proposed for power production from the regasification, a detailed analysis of enhanced direct expansion system is carried out in order to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered. The analysis outlines that power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ/kg) can be obtained with direct expansion solutions

  11. Evolving framework of the LNG industry: Expected growth and continuing importance of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiyama, Ichiro

    1992-01-01

    A major increase in LNG trade, expected from the 1990s onwards, is quite significant in that a new framework will be developed. These changes and developments may well prove to be some of the most notable that have ever occurred in the 30-year history of the LNG industry. All over the world, new buyers and sellers are entering the scene, while in Japan, small and medium-size businesses are switching to LNG. Transporters and LNG carriers are also expecting an increase in their numbers. We are about to see a wide-ranging diversification in terms of the geography and the size of the companies that deal with LNG. Safety continues to be the main issue in promoting the development of the LNG market. The wider the spread of LNG, the greater the need will be for further development of the systems and organizations for transferring safety technology and skills. In addition to enhancing safety, it will be necessary to seek harmony with the social environment. This paper discusses measures for the future based on the author's many years of experience, particularly in the field of receiving terminals

  12. Development and industrial tests of the first LNG hydraulic turbine system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cryogenic hydraulic turbine can be used to replace the conventional J–T valve for LNG or mixed refrigerant throttling and depressurization in a natural gas liquefaction plant. This advanced technology is not only to enhance the efficiency of the liquefaction plant, but to usher a new trend in the development of global liquefaction technologies. China has over 136 liquefaction plants, but the cryogenic hydraulic turbines have not been deployed in industrial utilization. In addition, these turbines cannot be manufactured domestically. In this circumstance, through working on the key technologies for LNG hydraulic turbine process & control system development, hydraulic model optimization design, structure design and manufacturing, the first domestic cryogenic hydraulic turbine with a flow rate of 40 m3/h was developed to recover the pressure energy from the LNG of cold box. The turbine was installed in the CNOOC Zhuhai Natural Gas Liquefaction Plant for industrial tests under multiple working conditions, including start-stop, variable flow rates and variable rotation speeds. Test results show that the domestic LNG cryogenic hydraulic turbine has satisfactory mechanical and operational performances at low temperatures as specified in design. In addition, the process & control system and frequency-conversion power-generation system of the turbine system are designed properly to automatically and smoothly replace the existing LNG J–T valve. As a result, the domestic LNG cryogenic hydraulic turbine system can improve LNG production by an average of 2% and generate power of 8.3 kW.

  13. Life-cycle greenhouse gas analysis of LNG as a heavy vehicle fuel in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteconi, A.; Brandoni, C.; Evangelista, D.; Polonara, F. [Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Dipartimento di Energetica, Via Brecce Bianche, 1-60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to compare the life cycle, in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of diesel and liquefied natural gas (LNG) used as fuels for heavy-duty vehicles in the European market (EU-15). A literature review revealed that the numerous studies conducted have reported different results when the authors departed from different baseline assumptions and reference scenarios. For our study, we concentrated on the European scenario and on heavy-duty road transport vehicles, given their important incidence on the global emissions of GHG. Two possible LNG procurement strategies were considered i.e. purchasing it directly from the regasification terminal (LNG-TER) or producing LNG locally (at the service station) with small-scale plants (LNG-SSL). We ascertained that the use of LNG-TER enables a 10% reduction in GHG emissions by comparison with diesel, while the emissions resulting from the LNG-SSL solution are comparable with those of diesel. (author)

  14. Thermodynamic and heat transfer analysis of LNG energy recovery for power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A.; Casarosa, C.

    2014-11-01

    An important option to transport the gas is to convert it into liquid natural gas (LNG) and convey it using insulated LNG tankers. At receiving terminals, the LNG is offloaded into storage tanks and then pumped at the required pressure and vaporized for final transmission to the pipeline. The LNG production process consumes a considerable amount of energy, while the cold availability, as also known as cold energy, has been stored in LNG. At a receiving terminal, LNG needs to be evaporated into gas at environmental temperature before fed into the gas distribution system. Seawater is commonly used for the regasification process of the LNG. In the present paper, after a general analysis of the perspectives of the various thermodynamic schemes proposed for power production from the regasification, a detailed analysis of enhanced direct expansion system is carried out in order to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered. The analysis outlines that power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ/kg) can be obtained with direct expansion solutions.

  15. LNG trumped : the burst of enthusiasm for shale gas could put LNG on the sidelines of global gas trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie-Brown, P.

    2010-01-01

    The growing interest in shale gas is largely due to rapid innovation in down-hole technologies such as horizontal drilling, better bit design, coil tubing, down-hole motors, geosteering, microseismic, measurement while drilling tools and more powerful fracing systems. Despite these advances in shale gas technology, price will be the deciding factor in the competition between liquefied natural gas (LNG) and shale gas. This article discussed the 3 sources of gas that are of interest to North American producers. The first is the great success of shale gas production in the United States and Canada. The second is the evolution of a global market for LNG. This development has eliminated the need for pipelines to tie stranded gas into the world's industrial markets. For example, Qatar is developing liquefaction facilities for an offshore reservoir with more than a quadrillion cubic feet of proved reserves. The gas industry's third area of interest lies in the huge conventional gas reserves in Alaska and the Northwest Territories. However, there is doubt that any proposed pipelines to deliver the resources to southern markets will be built, particularly since shale gas formations like the Montney and Horn River have great potential and are located right next to existing infrastructure. 2 figs.

  16. Is radiation-induced ovarian failure in rhesus monkeys preventable by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists?: Preliminary observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataya, K.; Pydyn, E.; Ramahi-Ataya

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of cancer therapy, increasing numbers of cancer patients are achieving long term survival. Impaired ovarian function after radiation therapy has been reported in several studies. Some investigators have suggested that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) can prevent radiation-induced ovarian injury in rodents. Adult female rhesus monkeys were given either vehicle or Leuprolide acetate before, during, and after radiation. Radiation was given in a dose of 200 rads/day for a total of 4000 rads to the ovaries. Frequent serum samples were assayed for estradiol (E 2 ) and FSH. Ovariectomy was performed later. Ovaries were processed and serially sectioned. Follicle count and size distribution were determined. Shortly after radiation started, E 2 dropped to low levels, at which it remained, whereas serum FSH level, which was low before radiation, rose soon after starting radiation. In monkeys treated with a combination of LHRHa and radiation, FSH started rising soon after the LHRHa-loaded minipump was removed (after the end of radiation). Serum E 2 increased after the end of LHRHa treatment in the non-irradiated monkey, but not in the irradiated monkey. Follicle counts were not preserved in the LHRHa-treated monkeys that received radiation. The data demonstrated no protective effect of LHRHa treatment against radiation-induced ovarian injury in this rhesus monkey model. 58 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Private sector tuberculosis prevention in the US: Characteristics associated with interferon-gamma release assay or tuberculin skin testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbridge, Erica L; Miller, Thaddeus L; Carlson, Erin K; Ho, Christine

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether latent tuberculosis infection risk factors are associated with an increased likelihood of latent tuberculosis infection testing in the US private healthcare sector. A national sample of medical and pharmacy claims representing services rendered January 2011 through December 2013 for 3,997,986 commercially insured individuals in the US who were 0 to 64 years of age. We used multivariable logistic regression models to determine whether TB/LTBI risk factors were associated with an increased likelihood of Interferon-Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) or Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) testing in the private sector. 4.31% (4.27-4.34%) received at least one TST/IGRA test between 2011 and 2013 while 1.69% (1.67-1.72%) received a TST/IGRA test in 2013. Clinical risk factors associated with a significantly increased likelihood of testing included HIV, immunosuppressive therapy, exposure to tuberculosis, a history of tuberculosis, diabetes, tobacco use, end stage renal disease, and alcohol use disorder. Other significant variables included gender, age, asthma, the state tuberculosis rate, population density, and percent of foreign-born persons in a county. Private sector TST/IGRA testing is not uncommon and testing varies with clinical risk indicators. Thus, the private sector can be a powerful resource in the fight against tuberculosis. Analyses of administrative data can inform how best to leverage private sector healthcare toward tuberculosis prevention activities.

  18. Boil off gas (BOG) management in Spanish liquid natural gas (LNG) terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, E.; Gonzalez-Regueral, B.; Garcia-Torrent, J.; Garcia-Martinez, M.J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Combustibles, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c. Alenza 4, 28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Spain is a country with six LNG terminals in operation and three more scheduled for 2011. At the same time an increasing number of LNG tanks are under construction to compensate the Spanish lack of underground storage. A method for evaluating the daily boil off generated is presented in this paper. This method is applied to evaluate the increase of BOG to be handle by LNG terminals in 2016, studying the best commercially available solution to be installed. Finally, as a solution to tackle with the BOG a cogeneration plant is suggested. This option will reduce terminal's operational costs increasing its availability. (author)

  19. Maritime prerequisites for development of infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG / LBG); Maritima foerutsaettningar foer utbyggnad av infrastruktur foer flytande gas (LNG/LBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahnstroem, Johan; Molitor, Edvard; Raggl, Karl-Johan; Sandkvist, Jim [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    This study has provided an initial picture of where the most interesting ports and areas available for future expansion of a maritime infrastructure for LNG. On the basis of supplying vessels with LNG as fuel, from a long term perspective, we recommend locating LNG terminals in or near major ports and around the big ship routes. Given the current age distribution of ships operating waters of the Baltic Sea, almost 20% of the vessels are 30-40 years old and likely to be replaced by 2015 - 2020. Thus, there is a potential for newly built ships will be equipped with LNG operation. Selected criteria s; Size of the LNG terminal and hence the need for the size of the fairway and the area of land. Proximity to traffic routes with much ship traffic. Proximity to the major port. Proximity to consumers on the land side. On the basis of selected criteria and analyzed for possible location of the terminal it can be noted that a number of Swedish ports are found suitable. For example, ports of Sundsvall, Gothenburg and Helsingborg has been identified as suitable, but with different starting point and different types and sizes of terminals possible.

  20. Qatar chooses Snam to market LNG in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Qatar has chosen Italy's Snam SpA as its European partner to sell liquefied natural gas to Europe from a $4.8 billion joint venture project involving supergiant North offshore gas field. State owned Qatar General petroleum Corp. (QGPC) and Snam signed an agreement in Doha to create a joint company owned 65% by QGPC and the remainder by Snam. Italy's state electricity monopoly, ENEL, which is seeking Qatari gas a fuel for its power plants, may later acquire part of Snam's interest in the project. The joint venture will transport and market North LNG to Europe. Exports to Europe by Snam via Italy, to begin in 1997, are expected to be 283 bcf/year at first and may climb to 459 bcf/year, depending upon demand

  1. Waiting for the Next Train? An Assessment of the Emerging Canadian LNG Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Jordan, Louis

    2015-03-01

    In February 2015, Canada counted 22 LNG liquefaction plant projects - of which 17 are located in British Columbia - representing a total design capacity of 325 mmtpa. Canada has the potential to become a major LNG exporter but no project has received Final Investment Decision (FID) so far. Competition with US brown field projects with innovative business models have limited the commercial appeal of many Canadian projects relying on oil indexing. More recently, plummeting oil prices have put into question their profitability and lead to several postponements of FID reviews. This paper discusses the potential for Canada to export LNG, looking at the initial enthusiasm and wide support by public authorities and local communities but also at the economic challenges and commercial issues that are slowing the progress of these projects. In 2013, Canada owned 2,028 Bcm of proved natural gas reserves and in 2012, remaining marketable gas resources were estimated to exceed 30,000 Bcm, located mainly in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. In 2013, natural gas consumption grew due to higher demand from the tar sands industry and reached 90 Bcm, while marketed production rebounded slightly to 145 Bcm after 10 years of continuous decline. Net exports to the United States, the only export market for Canadian gas, kept decreasing to 55 Bcm. In the future, consumption is expected to grow at a slower rate than production and net exports to the United States to keep declining. As a consequence, LNG appears to be an ideal solution to monetize gas and to unlock these large resources. However, CEDIGAZ does not expect material LNG exports to start before 2021, but they could reach 34 mmtpa by 2035. Since the very beginning of the wave of LNG project proposals, Canadian federal and provincial authorities have appeared very supportive. At the provincial level, the government of British Columbia has multiplied initiatives to favor the emergence of a LNG industry, including by lowering

  2. Guidance on Biogas used to Produce CNG or LNG under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides EPA’s interpretation of biogas quality and RIN generation requirements that apply to renewable fuel production pathways involving the injection into a commercial pipeline of biogas for use in producing renewable CNG or renewable LNG.

  3. LNG [liquefied natural gas]: Fueling energy demand in the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the supply and demand outlook for liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the far east, and the basic elements of an LNG supply project in Japan. Power generation is the primary market for LNG in the far east, due to a preference for energy supply diversity, large undeveloped gas resources, drastic improvements in power generation technology, and environmental advantages of natural gas. India and mainland China represent huge potential markets, and projects are under discussion to bring gas by pipeline from Iran or Qatar to both Pakistan or India. The economics of LNG plant development in Japan, including large ($4 billion for field and plant development) capital costs, long-term contracts, government involvement, and gas prices are discussed. Falling yen/dollar exchange rates have substantially bettered the Japanese economy in terms of gas prices. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Monitoring and analysis of liquid storage in LNG tank based on different support springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hua; Sun, Jianping; Li, Ke; Wu, Zheng; Chen, Qidong; Chen, Guodong; Cao, Can

    2018-04-01

    With the rapid development of social modernization, LNG vehicles are springing up in daily life. However, it is difficult to monitor and judge the liquid storage tanks accurately and quickly. Based on this, this paper presents a new method of liquid storage monitoring, LNG tank on-line vibration monitoring system. By collecting the vibration frequency of LNG tank and tank liquid and supporting spring system, the liquid storage quality in the tank can be calculated. In this experiment, various vibration modes of the tank spring system are fully taken into account. The vibration effects of different types of support springs on the LNG tank system were investigated. The results show that the spring model has a great influence on the test results. This study provides a technical reference for the selection of suitable support springs for liquid storage monitoring.

  5. Efficacy of long-acting release octreotide for preventing chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Deng, Bo; Jia, Liqun; Tan, Huangying

    2017-06-21

    Diarrhoea is a common adverse effect induced by chemotherapy that can reduce the dose of chemotherapeutic drugs or interrupt the chemotherapy schedule. The current treatment strategies have various limitations. It has been shown that long-acting release octreotide (octreotide LAR) can decrease the occurrence and severity of diarrhoea, yet the efficacy of octreotide LAR in preventing chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea (CID) remains to be assessed. The main objective of this paper was to draw up a protocol for systematic review to evaluate the protective effects of octreotide LAR on CID. We searched Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and the VIP Database without language restrictions from inception until 1 September 2016. The references of relevant studies were also manually searched. Two investigators independently accessed the selected studies, extracted data and assessed the reliability of the studies. Any discrepancies were resolved by a third investigator. The effect size of the selected studies was assessed by different measures based on the type of data. The selected studies were descriptively analysed. We then chose a fixed-effect model or a random-effect model based on statistical homogeneity, and pooled data from the studies for meta-analysis, if possible. The primary outcome was the incidence of diarrhoea. The secondary outcomes were the duration of diarrhoea, incidence of diarrhoea-associated symptoms, physical function and quality of life. All statistical analyses were performed by Review Manager V.5.3. This systematic review did not require ethics approval, because it included aggregated published data, and not individual patient data. The review was published in a peer-reviewed journal. This systematic review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD 42016048573). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  6. Numerical investigation of supercritical LNG convective heat transfer in a horizontal serpentine tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chang-Liang; Ren, Jing-Jie; Dong, Wen-Ping; Bi, Ming-Shu

    2016-09-01

    The submerged combustion vaporizer (SCV) is indispensable general equipment for liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving terminals. In this paper, numerical simulation was conducted to get insight into the flow and heat transfer characteristics of supercritical LNG on the tube-side of SCV. The SST model with enhanced wall treatment method was utilized to handle the coupled wall-to-LNG heat transfer. The thermal-physical properties of LNG under supercritical pressure were used for this study. After the validation of model and method, the effects of mass flux, outer wall temperature and inlet pressure on the heat transfer behaviors were discussed in detail. Then the non-uniformity heat transfer mechanism of supercritical LNG and effect of natural convection due to buoyancy change in the tube was discussed based on the numerical results. Moreover, different flow and heat transfer characteristics inside the bend tube sections were also analyzed. The obtained numerical results showed that the local surface heat transfer coefficient attained its peak value when the bulk LNG temperature approached the so-called pseudo-critical temperature. Higher mass flux could eliminate the heat transfer deteriorations due to the increase of turbulent diffusion. An increase of outer wall temperature had a significant influence on diminishing heat transfer ability of LNG. The maximum surface heat transfer coefficient strongly depended on inlet pressure. Bend tube sections could enhance the heat transfer due to secondary flow phenomenon. Furthermore, based on the current simulation results, a new dimensionless, semi-theoretical empirical correlation was developed for supercritical LNG convective heat transfer in a horizontal serpentine tube. The paper provided the mechanism of heat transfer for the design of high-efficiency SCV.

  7. Increased LNG into North America may threaten northern/Arctic gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, P.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2000, liquefied natural gas (LNG) has attracted considerable attention in response to record high price, high demand and tight supply of natural gas. LNG trade is expected to be 18 per cent of North American gas supply by 2020. The natural gas market is also affected by demand dominated by gas-fired power generation. The balance between supply and demand, combined with external factors of economic upsets and weather, has resulted in a volatile market place. LNG can currently be landed in North American at prices that compete with the average continental well head price. In January 2006, there were more than 60 competing LNG regasification projects proposed to access the North American gas market. This presentation listed the proposed facilities to import LNG and emphasized the need for a comprehensive analysis of gas development, given the degree of uncertainty regarding significant investment in gas supply, demand, pipelines and LNG projects. While only a few of the proposed projects will actually be constructed, they will more than double the existing output by 2010. The many possible changes in regional marketplace conditions were discussed with particular attention to the effects on the economic viability of natural gas developments; the impacts of LNG imports on capacities and flows in natural gas pipeline corridors; and, the influence of increased natural gas supplies on local and regional prices. It was noted that since conventional resources in Canada and the United States have reached a plateau, the next logical supply sources are Alaska, the Beaufort Sea, the Mackenzie Delta and the Arctic Islands. However, the development of northern and Arctic gas resources may be delayed if the level of LNG imports is sufficient to fill the deficiency in supply and demand. tabs., figs

  8. Analysis of constraints to the introduction of LNG plants in the Brazilian electric sector; Analise dos condicionantes para a introducao de plantas a GNL no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, Tatiane Moraes Pestana

    2010-03-15

    This work aims analyze the constraints to the introduction of LNG in the Brazilian energy matrix. Therefore, considers the current regulatory framework and the investments recently made by PETROBRAS to acquire LNG in the international market in order to supply power plants in the country. In order to assess the current status of the LNG plants in the electricity sector, factors are analyzed in terms of the natural gas industry and electric power industry, such as: storage, LNG contracts, operating dispatch, LNG plants pricing and operational flexibility. Despite the increase in LNG international trade and the prospect of using this product in Brazil, there are some challenges for the effective use of LNG plants by Brazilian electric sector. Some of the challenges are the need to review the methodology of calculating the cost benefit of LNG power plants. Another important challenge is to examine the use of underground storage and its influence in the operating dispatch of LNG plants. (author)

  9. The emergency contraceptive drug, levonorgestrel: a review of post-coital oral and peri-coital vaginal administration for prevention of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, N N

    2011-11-01

    The objective of our study was the evaluation and elucidation of levonorgestrel (LNG) as emergency contraception (EC) administered through oral and vaginal routes. Data regarding post-coital oral and peri-coital vaginal application of LNG were extracted from the literature through MEDLINE database service for years 2001-2010. It was found that a single dose of 1.5 mg LNG or two doses of 0.75 mg LNG 12 h apart were used for EC. Currently, LNG is also on trial for vaginal application as EC in Carraguard gel for 'dual protection'. The oral or vaginal dose of 1.5 mg LNG resulted in peak plasma concentration, C(max) 19.2 or 3.21 ng/ml, with shorter time, T(max) 1.4 or 6.6 h, and greater AUC, 152.7 or 52.5 ng.h/ml, with shorter half-life, 25 or 32 h, respectively. LNG EC inhibited mid-cycle LH surge and delayed or prevented ovulation when administered before ovulation. Mechanism of action of LNG EC appeared to inhibit or delay ovulation. The risk of pregnancy was 4.12%. A single dose of 1.5 mg LNG could reduce the pregnancy rate to 0.7%. Occurrence of ectopic pregnancy following failure of LNG EC was reported. This EC caused no serious adverse effects but was associated with menstrual disturbance. Although widely acceptable, the cost and short-supply to rural areas pose a barrier to access EC for the poor and rural-dwellers, respectively. It was concluded that unlike post-coital oral administration, peri-coital vaginal application of 1.5 mg LNG needs further study to be an alternative option for women to use it for prevention of pregnancy.

  10. Techno-economic Analysis of Acid Gas Removal and Liquefaction for Pressurized LNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Seo, Y. K.; Chang, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    This study estimated the life cycle cost (LCC) of an acid gas removal and a liquefaction processes for Pressurized LNG (PLNG) production and compared the results with the cost of normal LNG production. PLNG is pressurized LNG that is liquefied at a higher pressure and temperature than normal LNG. Due to the high temperature, the energy for liquefaction is reduced. The allowable CO2 concentration in PLNG is increased up to 3 mol% when the product pressure 25 bar. An amine process with 35 wt% of diethanolamine (DEA) aqueous solution and a nitrogen expansion cycle were selected for the acid gas removal and the liquefaction processes, respectively. Two types of CO2 concentration in the feed gas were investigated to analyze their impacts on the acid gas removal unit. When the CO2 concentration was 5 mol%, the acid gas removal unit was required for both LNG and PLNG production. However, the acid gas removal unit was not necessary in PLNG when the concentration was 0.5 mol% and the pressure was higher than 15 bar. The results showed that the LCC of PLNG was reduced by almost 35% relative to that of LNG when the PLNG pressure was higher than 15 bar.

  11. Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaciak, Mariusz

    2013-06-01

    The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na świecie powoduje, że produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje się coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem związanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze około 111K pod ciśnieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezbędny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciekłej w gazową dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umożliwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do różnych zastosowań, między innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znaną techniką analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na określenie dystrybucji, źródła i wielkości nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a więc ustalić wytyczne dotyczące efektywnego zużycia energii. Ponieważ zarówno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego są energochłonne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezbędny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

  12. Clean sailing. LNG terminals. Maritime infrastructure for liquefied natural gas; Sauber auf See. LNG-Terminals. Maritime Infrastruktur fuer fluessiges Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-09-01

    Ports act as essential hubs in the global economy. But the rise in maritime traffic is taking a toll on the quality of air in ports and out at sea. From 2015 onwards, threshold governing harmful emissions are being tightened in a bid to clear the air. All of which is driving interest in more environmentally sound fuels. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is the perfect fit, more than complying with the upcoming regulations. To enable its widespread adoption, Linde is working full steam ahead to create a network of LNG terminals in Europe. (orig.)

  13. Synergistic activity of tenofovir and nevirapine combinations released from polycaprolactone matrices for potential enhanced prevention of HIV infection through the vaginal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Nhung T T; Sivakumaran, Haran; Harrich, David; Shaw, Paul N; Davis-Poynter, Nicholas; Coombes, Allan G A

    2014-10-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) matrices were simultaneously loaded with the antiviral agents, tenofovir (TFV) and nevirapine (NVP), in combination to provide synergistic activity in the prevention of HIV transmission through the vaginal route. TFV and NVP were incorporated in PCL matrices at theoretical loadings of 10%TFV-10% NVP, 5%TFV-5%NVP and 5%TFV-10%NVP, measured with respect to the PCL content of the matrices. Actual TFV loadings ranged from 2.1% to 4.2% equating to loading efficiencies of about 41-42%. The actual loadings of NVP were around half those of TFV (1.2-1.9%), resulting in loading efficiencies ranging from 17.2% to 23.5%. Approximately 80% of the initial content of TFV was released from the PCL matrices into simulated vaginal fluid (SVF) over a period of 30 days, which was almost double the cumulative release of NVP (40-45%). The release kinetics of both antivirals over 30 days were found to be described most satisfactorily by the Higuchi model. In vitro assay of release media containing combinations of TFV and NVP released from PCL matrices confirmed a potential synergistic/additive effect of the released antivirals on HIV-1 infection of HeLa cells. These findings indicate that PCL matrices loaded with combinations of TFV and NVP provide an effective strategy for the sustained vaginal delivery of antivirals with synergistic/additive activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 14 CFR 1213.107 - Preventing unauthorized release of sensitive but unclassified (SBU) information/material to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../material to the news media. (a) All NASA SBU information requires accountability and approval for release... sensitive but unclassified (SBU) information/material to the news media. 1213.107 Section 1213.107 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND...

  15. The gas century: worldwide LNG developments may deal death blow to Alaskan pipeline dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    2004-01-01

    The growing interest in liquefied natural gas (LNG), which casts doubt on the viability of the Alaska gas pipeline, and the potential impacts on Canadian gas exports to the United States are discussed. There is currently a proposal before Congress for an Alaskan LNG project, and consensus appears to be building among American energy experts and law-makers that building a multitude of LNG facilities would be more flexible and cheaper than building the proposed Alaska pipeline. As further proof of the growing popularity of LNG, U.S. industry lobbyists are said to be rapidly gaining congressional support for the idea of building eight to ten billion cubic feet per day of LNG capacity along the U. S. coast. Either development, -- LNG facilities or the Alaska pipeline -- have the potential to seriously impact Canadian natural gas exports. If the Alaska pipeline is built, the addition of five billion cubic feet per day of new gas on the market would cause gas prices to fall; if the U.S. decides to subsidize its gas industry, Canadian gas would be put at a serious disadvantage. Conversely, if the Alaskan LNG proposal were to succeed, the potential demise of the Alaska pipeline would mean the loss of about 12,000 jobs that would be created during the Canadian construction phase of the pipeline, as well as the loss of tariffs. Industry experts predict that by 2005 LNG terminals will dot the periphery of the U. S. coast line; to prepare for these eventualities, Canadian companies, such as Irving Oil, TransCanada Pipelines and EnCana are taking note, and are scrambling not to be left out of the game. As proof of the seriousness of their concern, Irving Oil is adding a Can$500 million LNG facility to its Canaport terminal on the Scotian shelf; TCPL is working to supply an LNG terminal offshore Massachusetts, and EnCana is refurbishing a Louisiana salt cavern to prepare for storage of gas delivered to the Gulf Coast

  16. Improving sustainability of maritime transport through utilization of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) for propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burel, Fabio; Taccani, Rodolfo; Zuliani, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Today, most merchant vessels use Heavy Fuel Oils (HFOs) for ship propulsion. These fuels are cost effective but they produce significant amounts of noxious emissions. In order to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) rules, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is becoming an interesting option for merchant ships. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to analyse the economic upturn that can result from the use of LNG as fuel for merchant ships and to assess the effects of its utilization in terms of environmental impact. In the first part of the study, a statistical analysis of maritime traffic is carried out in order to identify which merchant ship types could most benefit from using LNG as fuel for ship propulsion. Traffic data of world ships related to the months of May 2008, 2009 and 2010 are analysed. Roll-on/Roll-off vessels (RoRo) and tanker ships spend most of their sailing time in Emission Control Areas (ECA) consequently appear to be the best candidates for LNG use. In particular, the use of LNG is most profitable for tanker ships in the range of 10,000–60,000 DWT (deadweight). In the second part of the study, operational costs and pollutant emission reduction, following LNG implementation, are calculated for a 33,000 DWT tanker ship. Results show that LNG leads to a reduction of 35% of operational costs and 25% of CO 2 emissions. The possibility of improving energy efficiency on board is analysed considering that combustion gases, produced by LNG, are cleaner, thus simplifying the introduction of exhaust gas heat recovery. Two options are considered: simple heat recovery and heat recovery to drive a turbine (ORC). The results show that it is possible to achieve a reduction in fuel consumption of up to 15%. - Highlights: • Ship propulsion accounts for a large amount of noxious emissions in costal/harbour areas. • Today price differential between fuel oil and natural gas is increasing. • The use of Liquefied Natural Gas as fuel

  17. Demand management of city gas per season and study of estimating proper size of LNG storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Y.H.; Kim, S.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    LNG storage facilities are indispensable to satisfy demand throughout the year by saturating the time difference of supply and demand that appears due to seasonal factors. The necessity of storage facilities is more important in a country like Korea where LNG is not produced at all and imports are relied upon. The problem of deciding how much storage facilities to keep and in what pattern to import LNG is a question to solve in order to minimize the costs related to the construction of LNG storage facilities while not causing any problem in the supply and demand of LNG. This study analyzes how the import of LNG and the consumption pattern of LNG for power generation affect the decision on the size of storage facilities. How the shipping control, and how LNG demand for power generation affect the decision of requirement of storage facilities, and why the possibility of shipping control should be investigated in the aspect of costs is investigated. As a result of this study, I presented necessary basic data for drafting a policy by assessing the minimum requirements of storage facilities needed for balancing the supply and demand with the various shipping control and LNG consumption patterns through simulation up to the year 2010. 10 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  18. Implementation of the Clean Air Act, Title III, Section 112(r) Prevention of Accidental Release Rule requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Title III, Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to promulgate regulations to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances and to reduce the severity of those releases that do occur. The final EPA rule for Risk Management Programs under Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA, promulgated June 20, 1996, applies to all stationary sources with processes that contain more than a threshold quantity of any of 139 regulated substances listed under 40 CFR 68.130. All affected sources will be required to prepare a risk management plan which must be submitted to EPA and be made available to state and local governments and to the public. This paper will provide details of initiatives underway at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of the Prevention of Accidental Release Rule. The ORR encompasses three DOE Facilities: the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the K-25 Site. The Y-12 Plant manufactures component parts for the national nuclear weapons program; the ORNL is responsible for research and development activities including nuclear engineering, engineering technologies, and the environmental sciences; and the K-25 Site conducts a variety of research and development activities and is the home of a mixed waste incinerator. ORR activities underway and soon to be undertaken toward implementation of the Prevention of Accidental Release Rule include: compilation of inventories of regulated substances at all processes at each of the three ORR Facilities for determination of affected processes and facilities; plans for inventory reduction to levels below threshold quantities, where necessary and feasible; determination of the overlap of processes subject to the OSHA PSM Standard and determination of parallel requirements; preparation of Risk Management Plans and Programs for affected processes and facilities including detailed requirements

  19. Influence of Chitosan Swelling Behaviour on Controlled Release of Tenofovir from Mucoadhesive Vaginal Systems for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notario-Pérez, Fernando; Martín-Illana, Araceli; Cazorla-Luna, Raúl; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Bedoya, Luis-Miguel; Tamayo, Aitana; Rubio, Juan; Veiga, María-Dolores

    2017-01-01

    The main challenges facing efforts to prevent the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the lack of access to sexual education services and sexual violence against young women and girls. Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Vaginal mucoadhesive tablets can be developed by including natural polymers that have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, such as chitosan or guar gum, semisynthetic polymers such as hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, or synthetic polymers such as Eudragit® RS. This paper assesses the potential of chitosan for the development of sustained-release vaginal tablets of Tenofovir and compares it with different polymers. The parameters assessed were the permanence time of the bioadhesion—determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate—the drug release profiles from the formulation to the medium (simulated vaginal fluid), and swelling profiles in the same medium. Chitosan can be said to allow the manufacture of tablets that remain adhered to the vaginal mucosa and release the drug in a sustained way, with low toxicity and moderate swelling that ensures the comfort of the patient and may be useful for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV. PMID:28230790

  20. Influence of Chitosan Swelling Behaviour on Controlled Release of Tenofovir from Mucoadhesive Vaginal Systems for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notario-Pérez, Fernando; Martín-Illana, Araceli; Cazorla-Luna, Raúl; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Bedoya, Luis-Miguel; Tamayo, Aitana; Rubio, Juan; Veiga, María-Dolores

    2017-02-21

    The main challenges facing efforts to prevent the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the lack of access to sexual education services and sexual violence against young women and girls. Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Vaginal mucoadhesive tablets can be developed by including natural polymers that have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, such as chitosan or guar gum, semisynthetic polymers such as hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, or synthetic polymers such as Eudragit ® RS. This paper assesses the potential of chitosan for the development of sustained-release vaginal tablets of Tenofovir and compares it with different polymers. The parameters assessed were the permanence time of the bioadhesion-determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate-the drug release profiles from the formulation to the medium (simulated vaginal fluid), and swelling profiles in the same medium. Chitosan can be said to allow the manufacture of tablets that remain adhered to the vaginal mucosa and release the drug in a sustained way, with low toxicity and moderate swelling that ensures the comfort of the patient and may be useful for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV.

  1. Influence of Chitosan Swelling Behaviour on Controlled Release of Tenofovir from Mucoadhesive Vaginal Systems for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Notario-Pérez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main challenges facing efforts to prevent the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are the lack of access to sexual education services and sexual violence against young women and girls. Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Vaginal mucoadhesive tablets can be developed by including natural polymers that have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, such as chitosan or guar gum, semisynthetic polymers such as hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, or synthetic polymers such as Eudragit® RS. This paper assesses the potential of chitosan for the development of sustained-release vaginal tablets of Tenofovir and compares it with different polymers. The parameters assessed were the permanence time of the bioadhesion—determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate—the drug release profiles from the formulation to the medium (simulated vaginal fluid, and swelling profiles in the same medium. Chitosan can be said to allow the manufacture of tablets that remain adhered to the vaginal mucosa and release the drug in a sustained way, with low toxicity and moderate swelling that ensures the comfort of the patient and may be useful for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV.

  2. Consensual decision-making model based on game theory for LNG processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Luis; Dorao, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A Decision Making (DM) approach for LNG projects based on game theory is presented. ► DM framework was tested with two different cases, using analytical models and a simple LNG process. ► The problems were solved by using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) binary coding and Nash-GA. ► Integrated models from the design and optimization of the process could result in more realistic outcome. ► The major challenge in such a framework is related to the uncertainties in the market models. - Abstract: Decision-Making (DM) in LNG projects is a quite complex process due to the number of actors, approval phases, large investments and capital return in the long time. Furthermore, due to the very high investment of a LNG project, a detailed and efficient DM process is required in order to minimize risks. In this work a Decision-Making (DM) approach for LNG projects is presented. The approach is based on a consensus algorithm to address the consensus output over a common value using cost functions within a framework based on game theory. The DM framework was tested with two different cases. The first case was used for evaluating the performance of the framework with analytical models, while the second case corresponds to a simple LNG process. The problems were solved by using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) binary coding and Nash-GA. The results of the DM framework in the LNG project indicate that considering an integrated DM model and including the markets role from the design and optimization of the process more realistic outcome could be obtained. However, the major challenge in such a framework is related to the uncertainties in the market models.

  3. European gas markets and Russian LNG. Prospects for the development of European gas markets and model simulations of possible new LNG supplies from year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldegard, Tom [Foundation for Research in Economics and Business Administration, Bergen (Norway)

    1996-07-01

    The study aims at clarifying the framework for possible LNG exports from Northern Russia and focuses on the European natural gas markets. The first stage provides general background information on the market structure and related topics. In the second stage this information is used to develop a formal market model and subject it to simulations with various assumptions of the future gas supply. The model is described and results from simulations are given. In the first stage facts from the history of the European natural gas market are outlined. Underlying conditions for the development of natural gas markets in Europe are addressed. The EU has been promoting trade liberalisation in the energy sector but most counties resist freer gas trade across the boarders. New infrastructure development for natural gas are either underway or planned. Some important projects are mentioned. Gas in a global perspective is discussed. The cost structure of the LNG chain is mentioned and an overview of existing LNG export capacities world-wide and major reception terminals in Europe and the USA is given. The second stage employs a scenario analysis to evaluate the economic effects of hypothetical LNG deliveries from Northern Russia. The model is developed for the analysis of West European natural gas markets and designed to allow users to create a structural system of interconnected producers and market regions. Basic assumptions for the evolution of natural gas markets till 2005 is developed and base case scenarios calculated for the years 2000 and 2005 and used as a point of reference for the alternative scenarios considered. According to the analysis the introduction of a new LNG supplier in the European gas market will inflict a substantial loss upon all the existing producers. The primary keys to this result are the assumptions made for gas demand and supply capacity. The LNG alternative will hardly be approved for purely economic reasons as long as the Russians maintain

  4. European gas markets and Russian LNG. Prospects for the development of European gas markets and model simulations of possible new LNG supplies from year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom

    1996-01-01

    The study aims at clarifying the framework for possible LNG exports from Northern Russia and focuses on the European natural gas markets. The first stage provides general background information on the market structure and related topics. In the second stage this information is used to develop a formal market model and subject it to simulations with various assumptions of the future gas supply. The model is described and results from simulations are given. In the first stage facts from the history of the European natural gas market are outlined. Underlying conditions for the development of natural gas markets in Europe are addressed. The EU has been promoting trade liberalisation in the energy sector but most counties resist freer gas trade across the boarders. New infrastructure development for natural gas are either underway or planned. Some important projects are mentioned. Gas in a global perspective is discussed. The cost structure of the LNG chain is mentioned and an overview of existing LNG export capacities world-wide and major reception terminals in Europe and the USA is given. The second stage employs a scenario analysis to evaluate the economic effects of hypothetical LNG deliveries from Northern Russia. The model is developed for the analysis of West European natural gas markets and designed to allow users to create a structural system of interconnected producers and market regions. Basic assumptions for the evolution of natural gas markets till 2005 is developed and base case scenarios calculated for the years 2000 and 2005 and used as a point of reference for the alternative scenarios considered. According to the analysis the introduction of a new LNG supplier in the European gas market will inflict a substantial loss upon all the existing producers. The primary keys to this result are the assumptions made for gas demand and supply capacity. The LNG alternative will hardly be approved for purely economic reasons as long as the Russians maintain

  5. LNG pool fire simulation for domino effect analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masum Jujuly, Muhammad; Rahman, Aziz; Ahmed, Salim; Khan, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire has been performed using ANSYS CFX-14. The CFD model solves the fundamental governing equations of fluid dynamics, namely, the continuity, momentum and energy equations. Several built-in sub-models are used to capture the characteristics of pool fire. The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equation for turbulence and the eddy-dissipation model for non-premixed combustion are used. For thermal radiation, the Monte Carlo (MC) radiation model is used with the Magnussen soot model. The CFD results are compared with a set of experimental data for validation; the results are consistent with experimental data. CFD results show that the wind speed has significant contribution on the behavior of pool fire and its domino effects. The radiation contours are also obtained from CFD post processing, which can be applied for risk analysis. The outcome of this study will be helpful for better understanding of the domino effects of pool fire in complex geometrical settings of process industries. - Highlights: • Simulation of pool fire using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. • Integration of CFD based pool fire model with domino effect. • Application of the integrated CFD based domino effect analysis

  6. Freeze desalination of seawater using LNG cold energy

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian; Zuo, Jian; Lu, Kang-Jia; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    With the aid of cold energy from regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG), freeze desalination (FD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination because of its low energy characteristics and insensitivities to fouling problems. This work aims to investigate the major operating parameters of FD such as coolant temperature, freezing duration, supercooling, seeding, agitation, crystallizer material and subsequent washing procedure on ice production and water quality. It was found that the optimal freezing duration per batch was 1 h for an iron crystallizer and 1.5 h for a glass crystallizer. The optimal coolant temperature should be around −8 °C. The optimal amount of washing water to clean the raw ice was about 50 wt% of the raw ice. Over 50 wt% of the feed could be recovered as raw ice within 1 h, which means an overall ice recovery rate of higher than 25% (of the original seawater), considering the consumption of washing water. Both artificial and real seawater were tested under the optimized conditions. The total dissolved solid in the product ice was around 300 ppm, which met the World Health Organization (WHO) potable water salinity standard of 500 ppm. Therefore, the process parameters optimized in this study can be directly used for the freeze desalination of seawater.

  7. Freeze desalination of seawater using LNG cold energy

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian

    2016-06-23

    With the aid of cold energy from regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG), freeze desalination (FD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination because of its low energy characteristics and insensitivities to fouling problems. This work aims to investigate the major operating parameters of FD such as coolant temperature, freezing duration, supercooling, seeding, agitation, crystallizer material and subsequent washing procedure on ice production and water quality. It was found that the optimal freezing duration per batch was 1 h for an iron crystallizer and 1.5 h for a glass crystallizer. The optimal coolant temperature should be around −8 °C. The optimal amount of washing water to clean the raw ice was about 50 wt% of the raw ice. Over 50 wt% of the feed could be recovered as raw ice within 1 h, which means an overall ice recovery rate of higher than 25% (of the original seawater), considering the consumption of washing water. Both artificial and real seawater were tested under the optimized conditions. The total dissolved solid in the product ice was around 300 ppm, which met the World Health Organization (WHO) potable water salinity standard of 500 ppm. Therefore, the process parameters optimized in this study can be directly used for the freeze desalination of seawater.

  8. LNG shipping at 50, SIGTTO at 35 and GIIGNL at 43. A commemorative SIGTTO/GIIGNL publication 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corkhill, Mike; Harris, Syd; Clifton, Andrew; Wayne, Bill; Robin, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Jointly sponsored by SIGTTO and GIIGNL, LNG Shipping at 50 is a celebration of the first half century of commercial LNG carrier and terminal operations. The publication also marks the 35. and 43. anniversaries of the Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators (SIGTTO) and the International Group of LNG Importers (GIIGNL), respectively. The two organisations and their memberships have done a sterling job of developing guidance on safe operations; promulgating industry best practice; and providing forums for the airing of concerns and discussion of topical issues. The exemplary safety record built up by the LNG shipping and terminal industry over the past five decades owes much to the central roles played by SIGTTO and GIIGNL. The LNG industry has an exceptional story to tell and LNG Shipping at 50 contributes to the telling of that story. The publication starts with a review of the early days to show how the industry developed the innovative solutions needed to ensure the safe transport of LNG by sea. The articles in this section then describe how these solutions were then continuously improved upon as more countries turned to seaborne natural gas imports to meet their energy needs. Pioneering people, ships, shipyards, containment systems, class societies and equipment suppliers are reviewed to highlight the key role they played in facilitating the safe and smooth operation of the LNG supply chain, including at the critical ship/shore interface. Safety is the No 1 priority in the LNG industry and the safety regime section of the magazine examines the cornerstones that underpin an unparalleled safety record. Quite aside from the IGC Code and the work of SIGTTO and GIIGNL, there are the contributions of class, training establishments, vetting programmes and escort tug services. LNG Shipping at 50's survey of progress to date is followed by a look at the many innovations introduced by the industry in more recent years, not least floating LNG

  9. Current status and future projections of LNG demand and supplies: A global prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Satish; Kwon, Hyouk-Tae; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Hyun Cho, Jae; Lim, Wonsub; Moon, Il

    2011-01-01

    An unceasing growth of gas consumption in domestic households, industry, and power plants has gradually turned natural gas into a major source of energy. Main drivers in this development are the technical and economic advantages of natural gas. It is a clean, versatile, and easily controllable fuel. On this basis, natural gas is often considered the form of energy that will be the 'bridging fuel' to a sustainable energy system, sometime after 2050. Unlike other main sources of energy, such as oil and coal, gas is not traded on an actual world market. This paper provides an overview on demand and supplies of natural gas (LNG) in the past as a function of gas prices, gas technology (gas sweetening, liquefaction, shipping and re-gasification), and gas market and how they have changed recently. It also discusses the likely developments in global LNG demand for the period to the year 2030. - Highlights: → This study provides an overview on demand and supplies of LNG in the past and future. → Outlook for LNG demand in Asia pacific region is very robust. → In past decade the shale gas production in USA has increased fivefold. → The future of European gas supply depends largely on the geopolitical environments. → Within the gas sector LNG is playing an ever increasing role in gas transportation.

  10. Flexible LNG supply, storage and price formation in a global natural gas market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Mark Hanley

    The body of work included in this dissertation explores the interaction of the growing, flexible liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade with the fundamentals of pipeline gas supply, gas storage, and gas consumption. By nature of its uses---largely for residential heating and electric power generation---the consumption of natural gas is highly variable both seasonally and on less predictable daily and weekly timescales. Flexible LNG trade will interconnect previously isolated regional gas markets, each with non-correlated variability in gas demand, differing gas storage costs, and heterogeneous institutional structures. The dissertation employs a series of analytical models to address key issues that will affect the expansion of the LNG trade and the implications for gas prices, investment and energy policy. First, I employ an optimization model to evaluate the fundamentals of seasonal LNG swing between markets with non-correlated gas demand (the U.S. and Europe). The model provides insights about the interaction of LNG trade with gas storage and price formation in interconnected regional markets. I then explore how random (stochastic) variability in gas demand will drive spot cargo movements and covariation in regional gas prices. Finally, I analyze the different institutional structures of the gas markets in the U.S. and Europe and consider how managed gas markets in Europe---without a competitive wholesale gas market---may effectively "export" supply and price volatility to countries with more competitive gas markets, such as the U.S.

  11. Optimal LNG (liquefied natural gas) regasification scheduling for import terminals with storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotter, Ian M.; Gomes, Marília Fernandes Maciel; Braga, Marcelo José; Brochmann, Bjørn; Lie, Ole Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    We describe a stochastic dynamic programming model for maximising the revenue generated by regasification of LNG (liquefied natural gas) from storage tanks at importation terminals in relation to a natural gas spot market. We present three numerical resolution strategies: a posterior optimal strategy, a rolling intrinsic strategy and a full option strategy based on a least-squares Monte Carlo algorithm. We then compare model simulation results to the observed behaviour of three LNG importation terminals in the UK for the period April 2011 to April 2012, and find that there was low correlation between the observed regasification decisions of the operators and those suggested by the three simulated strategies. However, the actions suggested by the model simulations would have generated significantly higher revenues, suggesting that the facilities might have been operated sub-optimally. A further numerical experiment shows that increasing the storage and regasification capacities of a facility can significantly increase the achievable revenue, even without altering the amount of LNG received, by allowing operators more flexibility to defer regasification. - Highlights: • We present a revenue maximisation model for LNG (liquefied natural gas) storage tanks at import terminals. • Three resolution strategies: posterior optimal, rolling intrinsic and full option. • The full option strategy is based on a least-squares Monte Carlo algorithm. • Model simulations show potential for higher revenue in three UK LNG terminals. • Numerical experiments show how storage and regasification capacities affect revenue.

  12. Seismic analysis of a LNG storage tank isolated by a multiple friction pendulum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruifu; Weng, Dagen; Ren, Xiaosong

    2011-06-01

    The seismic response of an isolated vertical, cylindrical, extra-large liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank by a multiple friction pendulum system (MFPS) is analyzed. Most of the extra-large LNG tanks have a fundamental frequency which involves a range of resonance of most earthquake ground motions. It is an effective way to decrease the response of an isolation system used for extra-large LNG storage tanks under a strong earthquake. However, it is difficult to implement in practice with common isolation bearings due to issues such as low temperature, soft site and other severe environment factors. The extra-large LNG tank isolated by a MFPS is presented in this study to address these problems. A MFPS is appropriate for large displacements induced by earthquakes with long predominant periods. A simplified finite element model by Malhotra and Dunkerley is used to determine the usefulness of the isolation system. Data reported and statistically sorted include pile shear, wave height, impulsive acceleration, convective acceleration and outer tank acceleration. The results show that the isolation system has excellent adaptability for different liquid levels and is very effective in controlling the seismic response of extra-large LNG tanks.

  13. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc; Mannan, M. Sam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reveal the existence of blocking effect of high expansion foam on an LNG pool. • Study the blanketing effect of high expansion foam quantitatively. • Correlate heat flux for vaporization with foam breaking rate. • Propose the physical mechanism of blanketing effect. - Abstract: With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect

  14. LNG Regasification Terminals: The Role of Geography and Meteorology on Technology Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randeep Agarwal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied natural gas (LNG projects are regulated by host countries, but policy and regulation should depend on geography and meteorology. Without considering the role of geography and meteorology, sub-optimal design choices can result, leading to energy conversion efficiency and capital investment decisions that are less than ideal. A key step in LNG is regasification, which transforms LNG back from liquid to the gaseous state and requires substantial heat input. This study investigated different LNG regasification technologies used around the world and benchmarked location and meteorology-related factors, such as seawater temperatures, ambient air temperatures, wind speeds and relative humidity. Seawater vaporizers are used for more than 95% of locations subject to water quality. Ambient air conditions are relatively better for South America, India, Spain and other Asian countries (Singapore, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand and provide a much cleaner regasification technology option for natural and forced draft systems and air-based intermediate fluid vaporizers. On a global basis, cold energy utilization currently represents <1% of the total potential, but this approach could deliver nearly 12 Gigawatt (GW per annum. Overall, climate change is expected to have a positive financial impact on the LNG regasification industry, but the improvement could be unevenly distributed.

  15. Study of Volatility of New Ship Building Prices in LNG Shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bangar Raju

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural gas market has been expanding in size and has attracted particular attention across the global energy market. Although most natural gas transportation is carried out through pipelines, almost one third of it is done with the help of merchant vessels, capable of carrying liquefied natural gas. These LNG carriers have a special design and thus can be treated as a separate class of global fleet. New vessels are huge capital investments by vessel owning companies and just like other vessel classes; the new shipbuilding prices for the LNG segment continue to be a key aspect in the decision making of business players. Additionally these prices can be volatile as new ship building prices fluctuate with time. This paper attempts to analyse the volatility of new ship building prices of LNG carriers. For the study, the average ship building prices for all the LNG carriers having volume carrying capacity is between 160,000 – 173,000 cbm to be delivered between 2016 – 2019 were taken into account. For the analysis, GARCH and EGARCH methods were applied on the data set. The analysis concluded that there is a great deal of volatility in the new ship building prices of LNG vessels. It was also identified that negative shocks were more persistent the positive shocks.

  16. Structural response of cargo containment systems in LNG carriers under ice loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.; Yu, H.; Basu, R.; Lee, H.; Kwon, J.C.; Jeon, B.Y.; Kim, J.H.; Daley, C.; Kendrick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Gas exploration has been extended into the Arctic region such as in the Russian Arctic area, because of the increasing demand for energy resources. As a result, shipping in ice-covered seas is also increasing. Many technical issues are involved in ensuring the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) ships during the transportation. This paper discussed an investigation of ship-ice interaction scenarios for possible operation routes in Arctic areas. Six scenarios were selected to study the structural response of cargo containment systems (CCS) in both membrane and spherical types of LNG ships. For selected ship-ice interaction scenarios, ice loads and loading areas in the hull structure were determined based on the energy theory. The configurations of LNG carriers were discussed and illustrated. The paper also outlined the assessment criteria and structure analysis procedures. It was concluded that the strength of the CCS of membrane-type LNG carrier and the strength of the skirt structure of spherical-type LNG carrier were strong enough under the design ice loads. 13 refs., 9 tabs., 18 figs

  17. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center - Qatar, Texas A and M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Mannan, M. Sam, E-mail: mannan@tamu.edu [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Reveal the existence of blocking effect of high expansion foam on an LNG pool. • Study the blanketing effect of high expansion foam quantitatively. • Correlate heat flux for vaporization with foam breaking rate. • Propose the physical mechanism of blanketing effect. - Abstract: With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect.

  18. Concept for a LNG Gas Handling System for a Dual Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rachow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, ships are using LNG as main engine fuel because based on the facts that LNG has no sulphur content, and its combustion process, LNG produces low NOx content compared to heavy fuel oil and marine diesel oil. LNG is not only produces low gas emission, but may have economic advantages. In the engine laboratory of maritime studies department in Warnemunde, Germany, there is a diesel engine type MAN 6L23/30 A, where the mode operation of these engine would be changed to dual fuel engine mode operation. Therefore, in this thesis, the use dual fuel engine will be compared where it will utilize natural gas and marine diesel oil and select the required components for fuel gas supply system. By conducting the process calculation, engine MAN 6L23/30 A requires the capacity natural gas of 12.908  for 5 days at full load. A concept for LNG supply system would be arranged from storage tank until engine manifold. Germanischer Lloyd and Project Guide of dual fuel engine will be used as a guidelines to develop an optimal design and arrangement which comply with the regulation.

  19. Future forecast for life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of LNG and city gas 13A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Tomohito; Furukawa, Michinobu; Ishitani, Hisashi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the most up-to-date data available on total greenhouse-gas emissions of a LNG fuel supply chain and life-cycle of city gas 13A based on surveys of the LNG projects delivering to Japan, which should provide useful basic-data for conducting life-cycle analyses of other product systems as well as future alternative energy systems, because of highly reliable data qualified in terms of its source and representativeness. In addition, the life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of LNG and city-gas 13A in 2010 were also predicted, taking into account not only the improvement of technologies, but also the change of composition of LNG projects. As a result of this analysis, the total amount of greenhouse-gas emissions of the whole city-gas 13A chain at present was calculated to be 61.91 g-CO 2 /MJ, and the life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of LNG and city-gas 13A in 2010 could be expected to decrease by about 1.1% of the current emissions

  20. LNG as vehicle fuel and the problem of supply: The Italian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteconi, A.; Polonara, F.

    2013-01-01

    The transport sector represents a major item on the global balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Natural gas is considered the alternative fuel that, in the short-medium term, can best substitute conventional fuels in order to reduce their environmental impact, because it is readily available at a competitive price, using technologies already in widespread use. It can be used as compressed gas (CNG) or in the liquid phase (LNG), being the former more suitable for light vehicles, while the latter for heavy duty vehicles. The purpose of this paper is to outline the potential of LNG as vehicle fuel, showing positive and negative aspects related to its introduction and comparing the different supply options with reference to the Italian scenario, paying particular attention to the possibility of on site liquefaction. The analysis has highlighted that purchasing LNG at the regasification terminal is convenient up to a terminal distance of 2000 km from the refuelling station. The liquefaction on site, instead, asks for liquefaction efficiency higher than 70% and low natural gas price and, as liquefaction technology, the let-down plants at the pressure reduction points along the pipeline are the best option to compete with direct supply at the terminal. -- Highlights: •LNG potential as vehicles fuel is analysed. •A SWOT analysis for LNG introduction in the Italian market is presented. •An economic comparison of different supply options is performed. •Possible micro-scale liquefaction technologies are evaluated

  1. Meeting the energy needs of the northeast : the role for LNG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Put, J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation outlined the role of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in meeting the energy requirements of the northeastern regions of the United States and Canada, as seen from the perspective of TransCanada. The need for LNG to meet projected growth in natural gas demand was presented in the context of a business model for TransCanada's entry into the LNG market. A plan for the successful siting and construction of import terminals in various strategic locations in the Northeast was presented. Issues surrounding supply and demand for LNG in North America, with specific reference to the Northeastern regions, were examined. Tables of existing import terminals were presented. Forecasts of demand growth were provided as well as details of natural gas transmission and power assets. A detailed description of the Fairwinds Project included existing and proposed pipelines, site descriptions and an outline of a stakeholder engagement campaign with examples of support and opposition as well as community impacts of the project. A behavioral guideline suggested that specific commitments should be made rather than generalized promises. A list of lessons learned from the Fairwinds project was also included. The potential to land LNG in Quebec was examined, with details of the rationale behind the proposed projects, shipping distance advantages and ice management. 16 figs

  2. Process safety management implementation in Pertamina - Badak LNG plant; Mise en pratique de la gestion de la securite Pertamina - usine de PT Badak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsyari, M.; Sunarmo, J. [PT Badak NGL (Indonesia)

    2000-07-01

    The Badak LNG Plant is located in Bontang, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and owned by Pertamina (Indonesian Government Oil Company). The total production is about 18.00 million tones per annum of LNG. In the year 2000 the total LNG production of the Badak LNG Plant will be about 21.64 million tones per annum, produced from eight LNG Trains. These company milestones and other achievements are based on the Pertamina initiatives in 1977 to build two LNG Trains in Bontang. In order to maintain continuous supply of LNG to the buyers, Badak LNG Plant Management has established The Company Philosophy i.e. To Operate the Badak LNG Plant Safely, Reliably and Efficiently. Process Safety Management has been implemented in the Badak LNG Plant to fulfill The Company Policy. Management of Change, one of the Process Safety Management elements, is considered the most important element in the support of the Plant operations of the Badak LNG Plant. This paper will explore the Badak LNG Plant Experiences to apply Management Of Change starting with the initial implementation. The Badak LNG Plant Management Of Change is divided into three stages i.e. Evaluation/Study Stage, Safety Review Stage and Documentation Stage. These three stages are combined into a single component referred to as the 'Project Flow Of Work'. In order to ensure that the Safety Review Stage can be conducted in a timely manner to support the 'Project Flow of Work', the Badak LNG Plant has developed and established a 'Hazops Committee'. This group consists of multi disciplined members and is chaired by the Process Engineering Section Head. A high commitment and consistent application of Management Of Change has helped the Badak LNG Plant succeed to fulfill the Company Philosophy especially related to Safety. Up to the end of July 1999, the Badak LNG Plant had achieved 50 Million Working Hours without a lost time accident. (authors)

  3. Process safety management implementation in Pertamina - Badak LNG plant; Mise en pratique de la gestion de la securite Pertamina - usine de PT Badak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsyari, M; Sunarmo, J [PT Badak NGL (Indonesia)

    2000-07-01

    The Badak LNG Plant is located in Bontang, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and owned by Pertamina (Indonesian Government Oil Company). The total production is about 18.00 million tones per annum of LNG. In the year 2000 the total LNG production of the Badak LNG Plant will be about 21.64 million tones per annum, produced from eight LNG Trains. These company milestones and other achievements are based on the Pertamina initiatives in 1977 to build two LNG Trains in Bontang. In order to maintain continuous supply of LNG to the buyers, Badak LNG Plant Management has established The Company Philosophy i.e. To Operate the Badak LNG Plant Safely, Reliably and Efficiently. Process Safety Management has been implemented in the Badak LNG Plant to fulfill The Company Policy. Management of Change, one of the Process Safety Management elements, is considered the most important element in the support of the Plant operations of the Badak LNG Plant. This paper will explore the Badak LNG Plant Experiences to apply Management Of Change starting with the initial implementation. The Badak LNG Plant Management Of Change is divided into three stages i.e. Evaluation/Study Stage, Safety Review Stage and Documentation Stage. These three stages are combined into a single component referred to as the 'Project Flow Of Work'. In order to ensure that the Safety Review Stage can be conducted in a timely manner to support the 'Project Flow of Work', the Badak LNG Plant has developed and established a 'Hazops Committee'. This group consists of multi disciplined members and is chaired by the Process Engineering Section Head. A high commitment and consistent application of Management Of Change has helped the Badak LNG Plant succeed to fulfill the Company Philosophy especially related to Safety. Up to the end of July 1999, the Badak LNG Plant had achieved 50 Million Working Hours without a lost time accident. (authors)

  4. 75 FR 57269 - Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-477-000] Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting September 13, 2010. The staff of the Federal Energ...

  5. 77 FR 48145 - Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC, Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. PF12-12-000; PF12-13-000] Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC, Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Cameron Pipeline Expansion Project and Cameron LNG Liquefaction Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues,...

  6. 77 FR 7568 - Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... that is sufficient to supply domestic demand for a century, even with significant exports of LNG. FLEX... is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. The Application is filed independent of, and in addition to... application in Docket 10-161-LNG is 2.8 Bcf/d. FLEX further states that demand for liquefaction capacity has...

  7. 77 FR 32962 - Gulf Coast LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... supply domestic demand for a century, even with significant exports of LNG. Gulf Coast contends that the... is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. Gulf Coast seeks to export this LNG on its own behalf and...-going carrier, and with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. In the alternative, Gulf...

  8. File list: NoD.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 No description Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Lng.05.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 Input control Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lung... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Lng.50.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  10. File list: NoD.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung mm9 No description Lung Carcinoma, Lewis Lun...g http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Lng.10.AllAg.Carcinoma,_Lewis_Lung.bed ...

  11. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO 2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG.

  12. 76 FR 4885 - Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC Application for Long-Term Authorization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... order dated September 26, 2006 \\1\\: (1) A second marine berthing dock; (2) A third LNG storage tank; and... world.\\7\\ FLEX states that many natural gas and LNG supply contracts in European and Asian markets are... public interest. First, FLEX contends that the project will cause direct and indirect job creation...

  13. File list: His.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma_cell_lines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma_cell_lines hg19 Histone Lung Lung adenocarcino...ma cell lines SRX1143596,SRX1143597,SRX1143598,SRX1143599 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Lng.20.AllAg.Lung_adenocarcinoma_cell_lines.bed ...

  14. Techno-economic feasibility study of a system for the transfer of refrigeration capacity from LNG regasification plants to industrial assets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pineda Quijano, Diego; Infante Ferreira, C.A.; Duivenvoorden, Wil; Mieog, Juriaan; van der Noortgaete, Tom; van Velpen, Bart

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of cold energy during the regasification of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) has gained attention in recent years due to the fast growth of the LNG trade market and the increasing importance that governments are giving to energy efficiency and sustainability. Near 200 kWh/ton of LNG are

  15. A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

    2005-05-31

    This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher

  16. Advanced exergy-based analyses applied to a system including LNG regasification and electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morosuk, Tatiana; Tsatsaronis, George; Boyano, Alicia; Gantiva, Camilo [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) will contribute more in the future than in the past to the overall energy supply in the world. The paper discusses the application of advanced exergy-based analyses to a recently developed LNG-based cogeneration system. These analyses include advanced exergetic, advanced exergoeconomic, and advanced exergoenvironmental analyses in which thermodynamic inefficiencies (exergy destruction), costs, and environmental impacts have been split into avoidable and unavoidable parts. With the aid of these analyses, the potentials for improving the thermodynamic efficiency and for reducing the overall cost and the overall environmental impact are revealed. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate (a) the potential for generating electricity while regasifying LNG and (b) some of the capabilities associated with advanced exergy-based methods. The most important subsystems and components are identified, and suggestions for improving them are made. (orig.)

  17. Casting a cold eye on LNG : the real possibilities and pitfalls for Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenberger, A.T.; Crowley, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    The factors that drive the economic viability of a proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) project in Atlantic Canada were discussed along with its impact on the region's energy future. The proximity of Atlantic Canada to the high-priced US northeast energy market and the accessibility of its ports gives the region a competitive advantage to become North America's first mover for LNG. Three proposed LNG projects in Atlantic Canada are located in industrial areas where local support is strong. The projects represent more than $5 billion in direct investment. These include the Irving Oil/Repsol terminal at Canaport in Saint John, New Brunswick; Anadarko's terminal at Bear Head, Nova Scotia and Keltic Petrochemical's proposed integrated petrochemical plant and LNG terminal at Goldboro, Nova Scotia. The market issues that must be addressed prior to any LNG project include long-term supply contracts, market response and pipeline capacity. The issues will ultimately be decided by markets and regulatory processes. This document emphasized the significance of the first-mover advantage, and noted that those who gain an early market share will profit from higher prices, access to better customers and potential economies of scale from a well-established presence. Short-term benefits include the jobs created by the construction and operation of a terminal, and the municipal tax revenues it would generate. Long-term benefits include transportation cost savings from pipeline expansion; access to additional gas supplies; and gains for regional prosperity. The final factors in support of LNG projects in Atlantic Canada include the need to strengthen trade ties with the New England States and access to the US gas markets. refs., tabs., figs

  18. Using of polyamide in construction of supporting blocks of cryogenic tanks on example of LNG container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lisowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in using of cryogenic gases is increasing recently. It particularly applies to LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas, which is relatively inexpensive and environmental friendly. In the liquefied form this gas is highly compressed. One cubic meter of liquefied LNG can be expanded to 660 cubic meters of normal usable gas. At the atmospheric pressure, the liquefaction temperature of LNG is under minus 160 Celsius degrees. Therefore, there is a necessity to store it in a cryogenic tank. A system of reloading port terminals is built in several UE countries, as Spain, Italy. The LNG is delivered to these terminals using the adequately equipped ships. However, there are significant problems with delivering LNG to recipients not connected to the gas network directly. Delivering of liquefied LNG to recipients using the road or rail transport is one of the simplest solutions of this problem. This kind of transport is possible only with using suitable tanks with the adequate insulation and fulfilling the transport requirements. Many scientific research centers carry out investigations on high insulating-power materials. The problem to design and build universal container for road and rail transport was taken on by Cracow University of Technology together with the company Chemet from Tarnowskie Góry. Designed cryogenic tank is a two-walledconstruction with the vacuum between them. Distance between walls is provided by system of supporting blocks made of plastic. Thispaper presents problem of heat transfer between the walls through the supporting blocks. The investigations were carried out both:numerically, using the finite element method and experimentally, using the especially designed and built laboratory test stand, whichallowed to determine heat transfer coefficient.

  19. Application tests of a new-type LNG rapid gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied natural gas (LNG is stored under low temperature and high pressure. It has to be gasified before it is used. Therefore, LNG gasification unit is essential and it is vital to the high-efficiency utilization of LNG. In this paper, a new-type LNG rapid gasification unit was developed. Adopted in this unit are some innovative technologies authorized with the national patent of invention, such as the umbrella-shape gas flow circle unit, the flue gas circulation system and the water feeding system, which help to guarantee its operation safety and increase its operation efficiency. After it was justified in lab test, the unit for industrial application was designed and manufactured and then tested to verify its design rationality. The results show that the new-type LNG rapid gasification unit meets the design requirements in the aspect of efficiency, exhaust gas loss, radiation loss and fuel gas consumption rate; at a load of 1800–2200 m3/h, its efficiency is over 95%; at a load of 1976.0 m3/h which is close to the design value of 2000 m3/h, its efficiency is 96.34% or even up to 2800 m3/h. This new-type LNG rapid gasification unit is adaptable to a large range of loads and can adapt to the rapid increase of external load. Its fuel gas consumption rate is only 1.5%, which is in the range of energy conservation. It presents the advantages of high heating efficiency, rapid startup, high gasification rate, compact structure, small land occupation and invulnerability to the environment, therefore, it is applicable to the middle and small independent regions which cannot be connected to the natural gas supply pipeline networks due to various reasons.

  20. Timing of insertion of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Pahh; Geomini, Pmaj; Herman, M C; Veersema, S; Bongers, M Y

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess whether patient-perceived pain during the insertion of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) depends on the timing during the menstrual cycle. DESIGN: A stratified two-armed non-inferiority randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Large

  1. LNG or not LNG?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John.

    1997-01-01

    Despite the fact that Egypt now has excess to natural gas deposits in the Nile Basin and is keen to export, and that Turkey is keen to import gas from non-Russian sources, the solution of supplier meeting demand is fraught with political wrangling. Political unrest in the Middle East makes an overland pipeline unacceptable. Gas production companies, such as Italy's ENI and AMOCO from the USA are suggesting other routes for Egyptian gas to reach Turkey, such as a subsea pipeline or transfer by sea using tankers, after the fuels conversion to Liquefied Natural Gas. Both companies are linked closely with the exploitation of Nile Delta gas resources and the future is, as yet, unclear. (UK)

  2. Advanced evacuation model managed through fuzzy logic during an accident in LNG terminal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovicj, Goran; Petelin, Stojan [Faculty for Maritime Studies and Transport, University of Ljubljana, Portorozh (Sierra Leone); others, and

    2014-07-01

    Evacuation of people located inside the enclosed area of an LNG terminal is a complex problem, especially considering that accidents involving LNG are potentially very hazardous. In order to create an evacuation model managed through fuzzy logic, extensive influence must be generated from safety analyses. A very important moment in the optimal functioning of an evacuation model is the creation of a database which incorporates all input indicators. The output result is the creation of a safety evacuation route which is active at the moment of the accident. (Author)

  3. Simulation of a Novel Single-column Cryogenic Air Separation Process Using LNG Cold Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jieyu, Zheng; Yanzhong, Li; Guangpeng, Li; Biao, Si

    In this paper, a novel single-column air separation process is proposed with the implementation of heat pump technique and introduction of LNG coldenergy. The proposed process is verifiedand optimized through simulation on the Aspen Hysys® platform. Simulation results reveal that thepower consumption per unit mass of liquid productis around 0.218 kWh/kg, and the total exergy efficiency of the systemis 0.575. According to the latest literatures, an energy saving of 39.1% is achieved compared with those using conventional double-column air separation units.The introduction of LNG cold energy is an effective way to increase the system efficiency.

  4. Project risk perspective on using LNG, CNG, and GTL concepts to monetise offshore stranded gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsen, Hans Kristian; Blikom, Lars Petter

    2010-09-15

    This paper discusses technology maturity and the key risks involved in establishing LNG, CNG, and GTL value chains in order to monetise offshore stranded and associated gas. The paper uses Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the economics of the various concepts and the impact of uncertainty. The conclusion is that LNG offers the most flexible value chain with the lowest level of risk exposure. CNG may offer better economics as long as the distance to market is fairly short. GTL must overcome significant technological challenges before becoming available for offshore use and also offers higher uncertainty in economic terms.

  5. LNG businesses evaluation: strategic positioning; Avaliacao de negocios de GNL: posicionamento estrategico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toste, Ana Cristina Leitao Goncalves; Frozza, Eduardo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Given the global development of the LNG industry and the changes it has suffered along the recent years, companies must evaluate how they should better position themselves towards this business, in order to optimize resources and maximize gains. The present work discusses three fictitious cases, in an effort to delineate and understand the several issues that impact a business decision in the LNG industry. In each case, business evaluation is performed taking into consideration project economics, as well as risk and strategy issues. (author)

  6. Preconditions for the development of land-based infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG / LBG); Foerutsaettningar foer utbyggnad av landbaserad infrastruktur foer flytande gas (LNG/LBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, Maria; Paradis, Hanna; Haraldsson, Kristina; Beijer, Ronja; Stensson, Peter (AaF Industry AB(Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The conversion potential to replace oil in the energy intensive industries and diesel in heavy transport is estimated in the study to 6.8 TWh and 10 TWh per year, respectively. Several alternative fuels compete for this conversion potential. What fuels will take market share depends on several factors such as price, availability of fuel, availability of process technology and vehicles, technology development and possible future technological advances. For liquid methane to compete a new infrastructure is required that in a cost effective manner makes it possible to distribute the liquid methane to the regions where the need is the greatest. With today's distribution system, including truck delivery from import terminals in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad, virtually the entire southern Sweden is within reach of LNG deliveries. The study points out three nodes, Gaevle, Sundsvall and Luleaa, which is suitable for distribution of liquid methane to the central and northern Sweden. The three hubs are suitable for freight transfer to trucks as well as rail and shipping. A strategic nationwide network of refueling stations is also proposed, with a total of 18 new stations, in addition to the filling stations in southern and central Sweden that are already planned or in operation. Both the availability and use of liquid methane in Sweden today is limited. Liquid natural gas, LNG (liquefied natural gas), is primarily used as a backup to biogas plants, in a few industries and as supply for a few filling stations for compressed gas. The availability of LNG and also liquid biogas (LBG liquefied biogas), will increase in coming years. In 2011, two new LNG import terminals are put into operation in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad in Norway and two additional import terminals are planned in Gothenburg and Lysekil. Furthermore, two production plants for liquid biogas production have started, and four additional plants are planned, which together will produce around 0.5 TWh LBG annually

  7. Sustained Dorzolamide Release Prevents Axonal and Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in a Rat Model of IOP-Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitha, Ian; Kimball, Elizabeth C; Oglesby, Ericka N; Pease, Mary Ellen; Fu, Jie; Schaub, Julie; Kim, Yoo-Chun; Hu, Qi; Hanes, Justin; Quigley, Harry A

    2018-04-01

    To determine if one injection of a sustained release formulation of dorzolamide in biodegradable microparticles (DPP) reduces retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss in a rat model of glaucoma. We injected either DPP or control microparticles intravitreally in rats. Two days later, unilateral ocular hypertension was induced by translimbal, diode laser treatment by a surgeon masked to treatment group. IOP and clinical exams were performed until sacrifice 6 weeks after laser treatment. RGC loss was measured by masked observers in both optic nerve cross-sections and RGC layer counts from retinal whole mounts. Cumulative IOP exposure was significantly reduced by DPP injection (49 ± 48 mm Hg × days in treated versus 227 ± 191 mm Hg × days in control microparticle eyes; P = 0.012, t -test). While control-injected eyes increased in axial length by 2.4 ± 1.7%, DPP eyes did not significantly enlarge (0.3 ± 2.2%, difference from control, P = 0.03, t -test). RGC loss was significantly less in DPP eyes compared with control microparticle injection alone (RGC axon count reduction: 21% vs. 52%; RGC body reduction: 25% vs. 50% [beta tubulin labeling]; P = 0.02, t -test). A single injection of sustained release DPP protected against RGC loss and axial elongation in a rat model of IOP glaucoma. Sustained release IOP-lowering medications have the potential to stop glaucoma progression.

  8. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  9. A chlorhexidine-releasing epoxy-based coating on titanium implants prevents Staphylococcus aureus experimental biomaterial-associated infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riool, M.; Dirks, A. J.; Jaspers, V.; de Boer, L.; Loontjens, T. J.; van der Loos, C. M.; Florquin, S.; Apachitei, I.; Rijk, L. N.; Keul, H. A.; Zaat, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Prevention of biomaterial-associated infections (BAI) remains a challenging problem, in particular due to the increased risk of resistance development with the current antibiotic-based strategies. Metallic orthopaedic devices, such as non-cemented implants, are often inserted under high mechanical

  10. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Release and Suppression of Caspases by Gamma-Tocotrienol Prevent Apoptosis and Delay Aging in Stress-Induced Premature Senescence of Skin Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Makpol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the molecular mechanism of γ-tocotrienol (GTT in preventing cellular aging by focusing on its anti-apoptotic effect in stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS model of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs. Results obtained showed that SIPS exhibited senescent-phenotypic characteristic, increased expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal and promoted G0/G1 cell cycle arrest accompanied by shortening of telomere length with decreased telomerase activity. Both SIPS and senescent HDFs shared similar apoptotic changes such as increased Annexin V-FITC positive cells, increased cytochrome c release and increased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P<0.05. GTT treatment resulted in a significant reduction of Annexin V-FITC positive cells, inhibited cytochrome c release and decreased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P<0.05. Gene expression analysis showed that GTT treatment down regulated BAX mRNA, up-regulated BCL2A1 mRNA and decreased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression (P<0.05 in SIPS. These findings suggested that GTT inhibits apoptosis by modulating the upstream apoptosis cascade, causing the inhibition of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria with concomitant suppression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. In conclusion, GTT delays cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts through the inhibition of intrinsic mitochondria-mediated pathway which involved the regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes and proteins.

  11. White paper: Preliminary assessment of LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety issues (Revision 1). Topical report, April-August 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powars, C.; Lucher, D.; Moyer, C.; Browning, L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the potential of LNG as a vehicle fuel, to determine market niches, and to identify needed technology improvements. The white paper is being issued when the work is approximately 30 percent complete to preview the study direction, draw preliminary conclusions, and make initial recommendations. Interim findings relative to LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety are presented. It is important to decide if heavier hydrocarbons should be allowed in LNG vehicle fuel. Development of suitable refueling couplings and vehicle fuel supply pressure systems are recommended. Initial economics analyses considered transit buses and pickup and delivery trucks fueled via onsite liquefiers and imported LNG. Net user costs were more than (but in some cases close to) those for diesel fuel and gasoline. Lowering the cost of small-scale liquefiers would significantly improve the economics of LNG vehicles. New emissions regulations may introduce considerations beyond simple cost comparisons. LNG vehicle safety and available accident data are reviewed. Consistent codes for LNG vehicles and refueling facilities are needed

  12. Is a 125,000 M3 class ship always an optimum for LNG carriers 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grill, A.

    1992-01-01

    When making the inventory of LNG carriers built up to the present day, one can see that ships of 125 to 130,000 m 3 may be considered as a real standard. An increase of ship's size, together with a reduction of the number of ships required on a given trade, must lead to a reduction of transportation cost. It must also be possible to obtain a better correlation between available energy during voyage and propulsion needs by adjusting boil-off rate and adapting the tanks insulation coefficient. The presentation shows the possibility to significantly reduce LNG transportation cost by an optimization of the size for future ships. The study is based on a certain number of typical trades being able to be met when taking into account future foreseeable needs for LNG. The influence of parameters such as type of containment system and number of tanks, type of propulsion, influence of size restrictions, ability to deliver a given amount of LNG per year even in case of one ship temporary out of order is also considered

  13. 77 FR 788 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... a new 2,500 horsepower electric- driven compressor unit at its liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal... referenced docket pursuant to section 3(a) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 153 of the Federal Energy... to allow boil-off gas generated naturally within its storage tanks to be delivered to the downstream...

  14. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.105 Layout and...

  15. Creating an LNG Ready Worker: British Columbia's Blueprint for Extraction Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Since 2011, the government of British Columbia (BC) has focused on building the Canadian province's economy through the development of a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) sector. In service of this endeavour, the government launched the "Skills for Jobs Blueprint," which attempts to more clearly align BC's education system with resource…

  16. Calculation models for prediction of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ageing during ship transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miana, Mario; Hoyo, Rafael del; Rodrigalvarez, Vega; Valdes, Jose Ramon [Instituto Tecnologico de Aragon, Area de Investigacion, Desarrollo y Servicios Tecnologicos, Maria de Luna 7, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Llorens, Raul [ENAGAS SA, Direccion de Ingenieria y Tecnologia del Gas, Autovia A - 2, km. 306.4, 50012 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    A group of European gas transportation companies within the European Gas Research Group launched in 2007 the 'MOLAS' Project to provide a software program for the analysis of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ageing process during ship transportation. This program contains two different modeling approaches: a physical algorithm and an 'intelligent' model. Both models are fed with the same input data, which is composed of the ship characteristics (BOR and capacity), voyage duration, LNG composition, temperature, pressure, and volume occupied by liquid phase at the port of origin, together with pressure at the port of destination. The results obtained are the LNG composition, temperature and liquid volume at the port of destination. Furthermore, the physical model obtains the evolution over time of such variables en route as it is based on unsteady mass balances over the system, while the i-model applies neural networks to obtain regression coefficients from historical data composed only of origin and destination measurements. This paper describes both models and validates them from previous published models and experimental data measured in ENAGAS LNG regasification plants. (author)

  17. 75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... states that when natural gas supplies are in balance with domestic demand, LNG will be imported and used... prohibited by U.S. law or policy, over a two-year period commencing on the date of the authorization. The... Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000...

  18. A combined power cycle utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xiaojun; Che Defu

    2009-01-01

    This paper has proposed a combined power system, in which low-temperature waste heat can be efficiently recovered and cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be fully utilized as well. This system consists of an ammonia-water mixture Rankine cycle and an LNG power generation cycle, and it is modelled by considering mass, energy and species balances for every component and thermodynamic analyses are conducted. The results show that the proposed combined cycle has good performance, with net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency of 33% and 48%, respectively, for a typical operating condition. The power output is equal to 1.25 MWh per kg of ammonia-water mixture. About 0.2 MW of electrical power for operating sea water pumps can be saved. Parametric analyses are performed for the proposed combined cycle to evaluate the effects of key factors on the performance of the proposed combined cycle through simulation calculations. Results show that a maximum net electrical efficiency can be obtained as the inlet pressure of ammonia turbine increases and the peak value increases as the ammonia mass fraction increases. Exergy efficiency goes up with the increased ammonia turbine inlet pressure. With the ammonia mass fraction increases, the net electrical efficiency increases, whereas exergy efficiency decreases. For increasing LNG turbine inlet pressure or heat source temperature, there is also a peak of net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency. With the increase of LNG gas turbine outlet pressure, exergy efficiency increases while net electrical efficiency drops

  19. LNG as a strategy to establish developing countries' gas markets: The Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberto Rechelo Neto, Carlos; Sauer, Ildo Luis

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate, from a Brazilian case study, if the natural gas trade can be viewed as a good opportunity for developing countries located geographically close to Western Europe and North America gas markets. Initially, the paper presents an overview of the Brazilian natural gas industry and evaluates the balance between supply and demand in each main region of Brazil. Then, it analyzes the evolution of the international gas trade, which is expected to increase rapidly (LNG particularly). Finally, the paper analyses the financial viability of the Brazilian LNG project in a context of high volatility of natural gas prices in the international market. To take this uncertainty into account, North-American natural gas prices are modelled according to the ORNSTEIN-UHLENBECK process (with EIA data over the period 1985-2003). By using an approach based on Monte-Carlo simulations and under the assumption that imports are guaranteed since the North American gas price would be higher than the breakeven of the Brazilian project, the model aims to test the hypothesis that export can promote the development of the Brazilian Northeastern gas market. LNG project is here compared to the Petrobras pipelines project, which is considered as the immediate solution for the Northeastern gas shortage. As a conclusion, this study shows that the LNG export will be vulnerable to the risks associated to the natural gas prices volatility observed on the international market

  20. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration... announce they have received an application for the licensing of a natural gas deepwater port and the...

  1. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration... application describes an offshore natural gas deepwater port facility that would be located approximately 16.2...

  2. Failure analysis of storage tank component in LNG regasification unit using fault tree analysis method (FTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyana, Cukup; Muhammad, Fajar; Saad, Aswad H.; Mariah, Riveli, Nowo

    2017-03-01

    Storage tank component is the most critical component in LNG regasification terminal. It has the risk of failure and accident which impacts to human health and environment. Risk assessment is conducted to detect and reduce the risk of failure in storage tank. The aim of this research is determining and calculating the probability of failure in regasification unit of LNG. In this case, the failure is caused by Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) and jet fire in LNG storage tank component. The failure probability can be determined by using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). Besides that, the impact of heat radiation which is generated is calculated. Fault tree for BLEVE and jet fire on storage tank component has been determined and obtained with the value of failure probability for BLEVE of 5.63 × 10-19 and for jet fire of 9.57 × 10-3. The value of failure probability for jet fire is high enough and need to be reduced by customizing PID scheme of regasification LNG unit in pipeline number 1312 and unit 1. The value of failure probability after customization has been obtained of 4.22 × 10-6.

  3. A NEW METHOD FOR CHARACTERIZING THE KNOCK RESISTANCE OF LNG FUELS USED IN THE TRANSPORTATION MARKET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsky, Howard; Gersen, Sander; van Essen, Martijn; van Dijk, Gerco

    2014-01-01

    To ensure that the engines to be used in LNG-fueled vehicles are matched with the expected variations in fuel composition, the knock resistance of the fuel must be determined unambiguously. Rather than rely on empirical methods using gas mixtures and “standard” engines traditionally employed for

  4. Overview of the LNG world market; Panorama mundial do mercado de GNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao; Costa, Julia Rotstein Smith da Silva; Moreira, Tathiany Rodrigues [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The commercialization of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) has been gaining great prominence worldwide and in Brazil, in recent days, due to the ever-increasing need for diversification of energy sources and for flexibilization of gas offer, in order to ensure the importing countries' supply. In this scenario, LNG has been positioning itself, around the world, as an important alternative, especially in cases where there is uncertainty concerning the fulfillment of delivery contracts, the transportation network is still incipient or inexistent, the gas pipelines operate at full capacity and the country's gas demand is met by more than one exporting source, sometimes by different transport modals. In the case of Brazil, the recent restrictions to the gas offer bring to the agenda the search for better solutions in energy policy in order to appropriately meet the totality of national demand. This article presents the current situation of the LNG market and identifies the main agents involved in its commerce, drawing attention to, in light of the originality of LNG projects in Brazil, the need for perfecting the regulation in order to boost the development of the national gas industry. (author)

  5. Improved processes of light hydrocarbon separation from LNG with its cryogenic energy utilized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Ting; Lin Wensheng; Gu Anzhong

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We propose two new light hydrocarbon separation processes utilizing LNG cold energy. → Both processes produce liquefied ethane and LPG with high ethane recovery rate. → CH 4 -riched gas from the high pressure process is compressed to final pressure. → Re-liquefied CH 4 -riched gas from the low pressure one is pumped to final pressure. → Both processes have good performance; the low pressure one is economically better. -- Abstract: Liquefied natural gas (LNG) often consists of some kinds of light hydrocarbons other than methane, such as ethane, propane and butane, which are of high additional value. By efficiently utilization of LNG cryogenic energy, these light hydrocarbons (C 2 + ) can be separated from LNG with low power consumption and LNG is gasified meanwhile. Two novel light hydrocarbon separation processes are proposed in this paper. The first process uses a demethanizer working at higher pressure (about 4.5 MPa). The methane-riched natural gas from the demethanizer can be compressed to pipeline pressure with low power consumption. The other one uses a demethanizer working at lower pressure (about 2.4 MPa). By cascade utilization of LNG cryogenic energy, the methane-riched natural gas from the demethanizer is entirely re-liquefied. Then the liquid product is pressurized to pipeline pressure by pumps instead of compressors, reducing the power consumption greatly. By both of the two processes, liquefied ethane and LPG (liquefied petroleum gas, i.e. C 3 + ) at atmosphere pressure can be obtained directly, and high ethane recovery rate can be gained. On the basis of one typical feed gas composition, the effects of the ethane content and the ethane price to the economics of the light hydrocarbon separation plants are studied, and the economics are compared for these two processes. The results show that recovering light hydrocarbons from LNG can gain great profits by both of the two processes, and from the view of economics, the

  6. Developing safe and reliable LNG supply chains in teh new global environment: experience and lessons from six continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ernst; Danielsen, Hans Kristian; Dweck, Jacob; Mareino, Vince; Eriksen, Remi

    2007-07-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of risk management in the context of specific recent experiences in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) business. The paper notes the overall success of the LNG business in ensuring safety and reliability, and highlights the opportunities and dangers of recent business growth. Risks are organised by theme, with focuses on politics and regulation, safety and security, environmental impact, public perception, technological innovation, cost and time management, competence and quality of assets, and harsh climates. Developers and other stakeholders are encouraged to draw lessons from these experiences when attempting to model the interplay of social, commercial and technical factors in LNG project development. (auth)

  7. Third party access to LNG terminals. GIIGNL - Commercial Study Group Topic 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    This report has been elaborated in the context of the GIIGNL Commercial Study Group (CSG) activities, which include as one of its topics the 'Third Party Access to LNG terminals' (Topic 8), led by Enagas. The 2010 edition is the third update to the report presented during the meeting of the GIIGNL Commercial Study Group in Tokyo, Japan, in September 2007. - Section 1 includes a review of the regulatory TPA regimes of LNG terminals in operation in Europe. The existing regime in each country, or for each terminal, is reviewed following a number of subsections. Each subsection follows the same structure in order to better understand the different arrangements and facilitate comparisons. - Section 2 shows data on effective usage and TPA access to each LNG terminal since 2000. Three main data are shown where available: number of cargoes delivered, volumes unloaded / sent-out, and the part of these cargoes/volumes that correspond to third parties. - Section 3 includes a tariff comparison for TPA to LNG terminals in Europe, taking into account the terms and conditions in force as of July 2010. - A description of the regulatory situation in the US in Sections 4. Access conditions to the three terminals under regulated TPA have been included for the first time: Lake Charles, Cove Point and Elba Island. An overview of Mexico and Canada is also reported. - An overview of the regulatory situation in Japan is provided in Section 5. The information required for the elaboration of this report has been collected from official web sites (LNG operators, regulatory authorities and industry associations), public reports and industry and statistical data Enagas deems to be reliable. For the adoption of certain hypothesis in Section 3 Enagas has also relied in information directly provided by operators

  8. Desain Rantai Pasok Gas Alam Cair (LNG untuk Kebutuhan Pembangkit Listrik di Indonesia Bagian Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Arya Satya Dharma Putra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan negara yang memiliki gas alam yang melimpah, namun kurangnya kesadaran masyarakat Indonesia untuk memanfaatkan gas tersebut untuk kebutuhan listrik di Indonesia yang sekarang sedang dalam krisis terutama di Indonesia Timur. Salah satu penyebab krisis tenaga listrik yang terjadi di Indonesia adalah tingginya nilai harga bahan bakar minyak, dimana High Speed Diesel Oil merupakan bahan bakar utama bagi pembangkit listrik di Indonesia. Gas alam cair atau Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG dapat menjadi solusi alternatif bahan bakar bagi pembangkit listrik di Indonesia.Studi kali ini bertujuan untuk pemanfaatan gas alam cair (LNG untuk kebutuhan pembangkit listrik di Indonesia Timur dengan menentukan pola distribusi LNG dengan menggunakan Blok Masela sebagai sumber LNG dan menggunakan kapal untuk mendistribusikannya. Terdapat 39 pembangkit yang tersebar di 4 pulau yaitu Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, dan Papua. Kapal yang digunakan untuk mendistribusikan terdapat 5 kapal dengan ukuran 2500 m3, 7500 m3, 10000 m3, 19500 m3, 23000 m3. Untuk mendapatkan rute distribusi, studi ini menggunakan metode Linear Programing dan dalam Vehicle Routing Problem. Hasil optimasi pada distribusi ini adalah rute dan kapal yang optimal / terbaik dengan biaya ekonomi yang minimal.Dari hasil penelitian ini pembangkit akan dibagi menjadi 5 cluster dimana terdapat 5 rute yang terpilih dengan menggunakan 6 kapal yaitu 5 kapal ukuran 2500 m3 dan 1 kapal dengan ukuran 7500m3. Biaya total yang diperlukan dalam mendistribusikan LNG sebesar US$ 111,863,119.15 untuk Opex dan US$ 283,967,000.00 untuk Capex. Hasil dari kajian ekonomi menunjukan bahwa margin penjualan yang terpilih adalah antara US$ 3.5 sampai US$ 3.9 dengan payback period selama 6.8 – 4.7 tahun tahun dari waktu operasi 20 tahun.

  9. Federal cabinet minister from N.B joins opponents to LNG terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.

    2005-08-25

    This article addressed the debate regarding the United States' proposal to construct liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities on a pristine bay between New Brunswick and Maine. Two LNG projects are currently being promoted for Passamaquoddy Bay, and 2 more proposals are expected to be announced in the near future. However, the proponents have not yet submitted any formal applications to the Canadian government. A federal cabinet minister from New Brunswick has joined the growing opposition to the proposed project, claiming that the location on the Maine side of Passamaquoddy Bay, a large inlet off the Bay of Fundy, poses too many risks to the habitat of several endangered or at-risk species, including the North Atlantic Right Whale. The proposed sites in Maine are directly across a narrow bay where tourism and fishing are prime industries in New Brunswick. The cabinet minister claims that with over 2,000 miles of coastline on the eastern seaboard, another location can be found for the LNG facilities that would not present navigational difficulties. The Canadian federal government has the jurisdiction to stop the project by not allowing the supertankers to cross Canadian waters to enter the Bay. The waters are known for their treacherous navigation. The premier of New Brunswick has also stepped in to ensure that the governor of Maine is made aware of Canada's opposition to the project. Officials with Downeast LNG and Quoddy Bay LLC claim there would not be any safety or environmental risks associated with the LNG project.

  10. H_2 production by the steam reforming of excess boil off gas on LNG vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Ignacio Arias; Gómez, Manuel Romero; Gómez, Javier Romero; López-González, Luis M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • BOG excess in LNG vessels is burned in the GCU without energy use. • The gas management plants need to be improved to increase efficiency. • BOG excess in LNG vessels is used for H_2 production by steam reforming. • The availability of different fuels increases the versatility of the ship. - Abstract: The gas management system onboard LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) vessels is crucial, since the exploitation of the BOG (Boil Off Gas) produced is of utmost importance for the overall efficiency of the plant. At present, LNG ships with no reliquefaction plant consume the BOG generated in the engines, and the excess is burned in the GCU (Gas Combustion Unit) without any energy use. The need to improve the gas management system, therefore, is evident. This paper proposes hydrogen production through a steam reforming plant, using the excess BOG as raw material and thus avoiding it being burned in the GCU. To test the feasibility of integrating the plant, an actual study of the gas management process on an LNG vessel with 4SDF (4 Stroke Dual Fuel) propulsion and with no reliquefaction plant was conducted, along with a thermodynamic simulation of the reforming plant. With the proposed gas management system, the vessel disposes of different fuels, including H_2, a clean fuel with zero ozone-depleting emissions. The availability of H_2 on board in areas with strict anti-pollution regulations, such as ECAs (Emission Control Area), means that the vessel may be navigated without using fossil fuels which generate CO_2 and SO_X emissions. Moreover, while at port, Cold Ironing is avoided, which entails high costs. Thus it is demonstrated that the installation of a reforming plant is both energetically viable and provides greater versatility to the ship.

  11. Spermidine Suppresses Age-Associated Memory Impairment by Preventing Adverse Increase of Presynaptic Active Zone Size and Release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun K Gupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Memories are assumed to be formed by sets of synapses changing their structural or functional performance. The efficacy of forming new memories declines with advancing age, but the synaptic changes underlying age-induced memory impairment remain poorly understood. Recently, we found spermidine feeding to specifically suppress age-dependent impairments in forming olfactory memories, providing a mean to search for synaptic changes involved in age-dependent memory impairment. Here, we show that a specific synaptic compartment, the presynaptic active zone (AZ, increases the size of its ultrastructural elaboration and releases significantly more synaptic vesicles with advancing age. These age-induced AZ changes, however, were fully suppressed by spermidine feeding. A genetically enforced enlargement of AZ scaffolds (four gene-copies of BRP impaired memory formation in young animals. Thus, in the Drosophila nervous system, aging AZs seem to steer towards the upper limit of their operational range, limiting synaptic plasticity and contributing to impairment of memory formation. Spermidine feeding suppresses age-dependent memory impairment by counteracting these age-dependent changes directly at the synapse.

  12. Efficacy of controlled-release capsules containing monensin for the prevention of subclinical ketosis in pasture-fed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C W R; Young, L; McDougall, S

    2015-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of intra-rumenal controlled release capsules (CRC) containing 32 g of monensin administered pre-calving to reduce the cumulative incidence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in mainly pasture-fed dairy cows. Cows (n=837) due to calve in the first 6 weeks of the spring calving period were enrolled from four commercial herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand in a blinded, randomised, negative-controlled field trial. Three weeks before the start of the calving period cows were randomly allocated to receive either no treatment (control) or a single CRC containing monensin and then blood sampled on two occasions, 7 days apart within 12 days following calving for measurement of concentrations of beta hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood. Cows were diagnosed with SCK if the concentration of BHBA in blood in either of these samples was ≥1.2 mmol/L. Fewer treated cows were diagnosed with SCK within 12 days post-calving than control cows (144/340 (42.4%) vs. 192/336 (57.1%); p10 days prior to calving reduced the cumulative incidence of SCK of pasture-based dairy cows in commercial dairy herds within 12 days post-calving. Administration pre-calving of an intra-rumenal bolus containing monensin can be considered as one of a range of management options for the control of SCK in early lactation.

  13. Vortex-Concept for Radioactivity Release Prevention at NPP: Development of Computational Model of Lab-Scale Experimental Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sana; Sung, Yim Man; Park, Jin Soo; Sung Hyung Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The experimental validation of the vortex-like air curtain concept and use of an appropriate CFD modelling approach for analyzing the problem becomes crucial. A lab-scale experimental setup is designed to validate the proposed concept and CFD modeling approach as a part of validation process. In this study, a computational model of this lab-scale experiment setup is developed using open source CFD code OpenFOAM. The computational results will be compared with experimental data for validation purposes in future, when experimental data is available. 1) A computation model of a lab-scale experimental setup, designed to validate the concept of artificial vortex-like airflow generation for application to radioactivity dispersion prevention in the event of severe accident, was developed. 2) The mesh sensitivity study was performed and a mesh of about 2 million cells was found to be sufficient for this setup.

  14. Blockade of Toll-like receptor 2 prevents spontaneous cytokine release from rheumatoid arthritis ex vivo synovial explant cultures

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nic An Ultaigh, Sinead

    2011-02-23

    Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blocking Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial cells. Methods RA synovial tissue biopsies, obtained under direct visualization at arthroscopy, were established as synovial explant cultures ex vivo or snap frozen for immunohistology. Mononuclear cell cultures were isolated from peripheral blood and synovial fluid of RA patients. Cultures were incubated with the TLR1\\/2 ligand, Pam3CSK4 (200 ng, 1 and 10 μg\\/ml), an anti-TLR2 antibody (OPN301, 1 μg\\/ml) or an immunoglobulin G (IgG) (1 μg\\/ml) matched control. The comparative effect of OPN301 and adalimumab (anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha) on spontaneous release of proinflammatory cytokines from RA synovial explants was determined using quantitative cytokine MSD multiplex assays or ELISA. OPN301 penetration into RA synovial tissue explants cultures was assessed by immunohistology. Results Pam3CSK4 significantly upregulated interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in RA peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), RA synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) and RA synovial explant cultures (P < 0.05). OPN301 significantly decreased Pam3CSK4-induced cytokine production of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-8 compared to IgG control in RA PBMCs and SFMCs cultures (all P < 0.05). OPN301 penetration of RA synovial tissue cultures was detected in the lining layer and perivascular regions. OPN301 significantly decreased spontaneous cytokine production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-8 from RA synovial tissue explant cultures (all P < 0.05). Importantly, the inhibitory effect of OPN on spontaneous cytokine secretion was comparable to inhibition by anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody adalimumab. Conclusions These findings further support targeting TLR2 as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of RA.

  15. Efficacy of amiodarone and lidocaine for preventing ventricular fibrillation after aortic cross-clamp release in open heart surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Gu, Qiang; Chen, Hong-Wu; Peng, Huai-Ming; Jia, Dong-Yu; Zhou, Yu; Xiang, Mei-Xiang

    The relative preventative efficacy of amiodarone and lidocaine for ventricular fibrillation (VF) after release of an aortic cross-clamp (ACC) during open heart surgery has not been determined. This meta-analysis was designed to systematically evaluate the influence of amiodarone, lidocaine, or placebo on the incidence of VF after ACC. Prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the VF-preventative effects of amiodarone with lidocaine, or amiodarone or lidocaine with placebo were included. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant RCTs. Fixed or randomized effect models were applied according to the heterogeneity of the data from the selected studies. We included eight RCTs in the analysis. Pooled results suggested that the preventative effects of amiodarone and lidocaine were comparable (relative risk (RR)=1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70 to 1.80, P=0.63), but both were superior to the placebo (amiodarone, RR=0.71, 95% CI: 0.51 to 1.00, P=0.05; lidocaine, RR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.88, P=0.006). The percentage of patients requiring electric defibrillation counter shocks (DCSs) did not differ significantly among patients administered amiodarone (RR=0.21, 95% CI: 0.04 to 1.19, P=0.08), lidocaine (RR=2.44, 95% CI: 0.13 to 44.02, P=0.55), or the placebo (RR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.25 to 1.25, P=0.16). Amiodarone and lidocaine are comparably effective in preventing VF after ACC, but the percentage of patients who subsequently require DCSs does not differ among those administered amiodarone, lidocaine, or placebo.

  16. Activation of microglial cells triggers a release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inducing their proliferation in an adenosine A2A receptor-dependent manner: A2A receptor blockade prevents BDNF release and proliferation of microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to control microglial responses in neuropathic pain. Since adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) control neuroinflammation, as well as the production and function of BDNF, we tested to see if A2AR controls the microglia-dependent secretion of BDNF and the proliferation of microglial cells, a crucial event in neuroinflammation. Methods Murine N9 microglial cells were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL) in the absence or in the presence of the A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM), as well as other modulators of A2AR signaling. The BDNF cellular content and secretion were quantified by Western blotting and ELISA, A2AR density was probed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry and cell proliferation was assessed by BrdU incorporation. Additionally, the A2AR modulation of LPS-driven cell proliferation was also tested in primary cultures of mouse microglia. Results LPS induced time-dependent changes of the intra- and extracellular levels of BDNF and increased microglial proliferation. The maximal LPS-induced BDNF release was time-coincident with an LPS-induced increase of the A2AR density. Notably, removing endogenous extracellular adenosine or blocking A2AR prevented the LPS-mediated increase of both BDNF secretion and proliferation, as well as exogenous BDNF-induced proliferation. Conclusions We conclude that A2AR activation plays a mandatory role controlling the release of BDNF from activated microglia, as well as the autocrine/paracrine proliferative role of BDNF. PMID:23363775

  17. 78 FR 17189 - Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... National Environmental Policy Act requirements had bee satisfied fully. See e.g. Trunkline LNG Company, LLC... the United States will not rise to the levels observed in other parts of the world.\\15\\ TLNG Export...

  18. Refloating stranded gas. Floating LNG-factory to become the largest ship on the world seas; Gestrand gas vlot trekken. Drijvende LNG-fabriek wordt grootste schip op wereldzeeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wit, P.

    2010-09-15

    Great effort is currently put in the upcoming construction of a gigantic floating LNG plant that will be deployed by Shell. The enormous vessel will be used for the production of gas fields that are so far away from the coast that it is uneconomical to bring the gas to land by means of gas pipes, where it is converted into liquid natural gas (LNG). According to recent plans the first floating LNG plant will be used at the Prelude gas field northwest of Australia. [Dutch] Momenteel wordt hard gewerkt aan de aanstaande bouw van een gigantisch drijvende LNG-fabriek die door Shell ingezet gaat worden. Het enorme vaartuig wordt gebruikt voor de productie van gasvelden die zo ver uit de kust liggen dat het oneconomisch is om het gas met pijpleidingen aan land te brengen om het daar om te zetten in vloeibaar aardgas, LNG. Volgens de huidige plannen wordt de eerste drijvende LNG-fabriek gebruikt voor het Prelude gasveld ten noord-westen van Australie.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel power plant with LNG (liquefied natural gas) cold exergy exploitation and CO_2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Gómez, Manuel; Romero Gómez, Javier; López-González, Luis M.; López-Ochoa, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    The LNG (liquefied natural gas) regasification process is a source of cold exergy that is suitable to be recovered to improve the efficiency of thermal power plants. In this paper, an innovative power plant with LNG (liquefied natural gas) exergy utilisation and the capture of CO_2 proceeding from the flue gases is presented. It is characterised by the recovery of LNG cold exergy in a closed Brayton cycle and through direct expansion in an expander coupled to an electrical generator. Moreover, this novel power plant configuration allows CO_2 capture, through an oxy-fuel combustion system and a Rankine cycle that operates with the flue gases themselves and in quasi-critical conditions. The greatest advantage of this plant is that all the recoverable LNG exergy is used to increase the efficiency of the CBC (closed Brayton cycle) and in direct expansion whereas, in other power cycles found in literature that associate LNG regasification and CO_2 capture, part of the LNG exergy is used for condensing flue gas CO_2 for its subsequent capture. As a result, a high efficiency power plant is achieved, exceeding 65%, with almost zero greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: • LNG cold exergy can be recovered to improve the efficiency of power plants. • High efficiency power plant with almost zero greenhouse gas emissions. • CO_2 capture through an oxy-fuel combustion system and a Rankine cycle. • Sensitivity analysis of key parameters to evaluate the effect on the efficiency. • The exergy available in the LNG represents 34.79% of the fuel exergy.

  20. Natural Gas and CO2 Price Variation: Impact on the Relative Cost-Efficiency of LNG and Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Øverland, Indra; Ulvestad, Marte

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carri...

  1. A structural and stochastic optimal model for projections of LNG imports and exports in Asia-Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kompas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asia-Pacific region, the largest and fastest growing liquefied natural gas (LNG market in the world, has been undergoing radical changes over the past few years. These changes include considerable additional supplies from North America and Australia, and a recent LNG price slump resulting from an oil-linked pricing mechanism and demand uncertainties. This paper develops an Asia-Pacific Gas Model (APGM, based on a structural, stochastic and optimising framework, providing a valuable tool for the projection of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region. With existing social-economic conditions, the model projects that Asia-Pacific LNG imports are expected to increase by 49.1 percent in 2020 and 95.7 percent in 2030, compared to 2013. Total LNG trade value is estimated to increase to US$127.2 billion in 2020 and US$199.0 billion in 2030. Future LNG trade expansion is mainly driven by emerging and large importers (i.e., China and India, and serviced, most importantly, by new supplies from Australia and the USA. The model's projected results are sensitive to changes in expected oil prices, pricing mechanisms, economic growth and energy policies, as well as unexpected geopolitical-economic events.

  2. The influence of the technologically advanced evacuation models on the risk analyses during accidents in LNG terminal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovicj, Goran; Petelin, Stojan [Faculty for Maritime Studies and Transport, University of Ljubljana, Portorozh (Sierra Leone); others, and

    2014-07-01

    The evacuation of people located in different safety zones of an LNG terminal is a complex problem considering that the accidents involving LNG are very hazardous and post the biggest threat to the safety of the people located near the LNG leakage. The safety risk criteria define the parameters which one LNG terminal should meet in terms of safety. Those criteria also contain an evacuation as an evasive action with the objective to mitigate the influence of the LNG accident on the people at risk. Till date, not a lot of attention has been paid to technologically advanced evacuations intended for LNG terminals. Creating the technologically advanced evacuation influences directly on the decrease of the probability of fatalities P{sub f,i}, thus influencing the calculation of the individual risk as well as the societal risk which results in the positioning of the F-N curve in the acceptable part of the ALARP zone. With this paper, we aim to present the difference between the safety analyses in cases when conservative data for P{sub f,i} is being used while calculating the risk, and in cases when real data for P{sub f,i} is been used. (Author)

  3. Carbon Dioxide Flush of an Integrated Minimized Perfusion Circuit Prior to Priming Prevents Spontaneous Air Release Into the Arterial Line During Clinical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehouwer, Marco C; de Vroege, Roel; Hoohenkerk, Gerard J F; Hofman, Frederik N; Kelder, Johannes C; Buchner, Bas; de Mol, Bastian A; Bruins, Peter

    2017-11-01

    an integrated cardiopulmonary bypass system prior to priming may prevent spontaneous air release and is strongly recommended to secure patient safety. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding in adolescents with Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia: illustrated case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meiqiu; Yang, Xin

    2018-02-27

    Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia (GT) is an inherited genetic disorder caused by defects in the platelet membrane glycoproteins IIb/IIIA, and is associated with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). HMB is a common complication in female patients, and many adolescent girls with this disease have issues with HMB beginning at menarche. The available treatment modalities including anti-fibrinolytics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and hormonal therapies though are effective, their associated side effects, limited efficacy and the poor compliance is a challenge in management of HMB. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) has been a potential alternative to overcome this challenge. The use of the LNG-IUS for the management of HMB in adolescents with GT is explored in this case series. Two adolescents diagnosed with GT and received the LNG-IUS as treatment modality for management of HMB is discussed in this case series. For patients with poor compliance to oral hormonal therapies, the use of LNG-IUS is associated with a significant reduction of menstrual blood loss along with improved quality of life. These findings support the use of LNG-IUS to control adolescent GT-related HMB.

  5. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project: a tax overview; Projeto Gas Natural Liquefeito (GNL): uma abordagem tributaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Claudia W.M.; Faria, Viviana C.S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the second semester of 2008, the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) will be introduced in the Brazilian energy matrix, it will be done through an innovator project according technical and tax points of view. Mentioned the enormous effort of adapting the federal legislation approved for this new activity which begins in the country, uncharged both the admission of the vessel as the import of the commodity in the incidence of federal taxes. The market for LNG demand simplified customs procedures in order to benefit from the dynamism that this industry offers, and in addition, a tax burden that encourages the use of a competitive and compatible with the precepts of sustainable development of the country. (author)

  6. What role for LNG in Europe? Outlook for supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valais, M.; Roze, J.

    1992-01-01

    The current development of natural gas in Europe reflects all the technical, economic, environmental or political factors that make it one of the best energy options for the future. However, the sustained expansion of its demand must cope with a decline in domestic production in most European countries, which is resulting in a sharp rise in imports. Furthermore, because of the large volumes required, traditional exporters by pipeline to European markets could progressively come up against limits in the growth of the amounts they can supply. LNG could thus play an increasing role in the European gas balance. Europe is geographically well situated in relation to potential LNG exporting countries. The abundance of the resources and the regional diversity of these countries will be an additional guarantee of the reliability of supplies. However, any new projects can be carried out only under economic conditions that are viable for the gas industry and compatible with the development of European markets

  7. Financing of LNG projects in developing countries and the role of the World Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitsky, M.; Nore, P.

    1992-01-01

    The future quantities of capital required by the LNG industry will be very large. However, the continued rapid development of the industry is justified by the economic and environmental benefits of increased natural gas use. It is likely that the World Bank will continue to play a modest absolute role in supplying capital to the industry. The Bank can, however, play a crucial role in assisting governments in formulating appropriate energy policies and project development strategies and thereby creating the right policy and financial climate. The Bank can also provide a relatively modest amount of financial backing to projects, which nonetheless can help to generate larger volumes of finance from other sources. In the long run, LNG projects which are well structured and which operate within an appropriate policy environment should succeed in attracting financing even in today's more competitive environment

  8. Gas and LNG pricing and trading hub in East Asia: An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunpeng Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the four papers in the special issues on ‘Gas and LNG pricing and trading hub in East Asia’. The papers examine lessons and experience from European hub development, other commodity, the Japanese history on developing of futures markets and inter-fuel substitution in East Asia. The papers finds that liquid futures market is the key to formulate benchmark prices while a well-developed spot market is the foundation; political will and strong leadership are required to overcome the power of incumbents and to restructure the gas market that impede the the development of competitive markets; and East Asia needs to develop its indigenous gas or LNG trading hubs even in low oil prices period and its developing market allows easier changes in new contracts than in existing ones. This hub development requires governments to go through tough domestic market reforms, including liberalization and cooperation with each other and with gas exporters.

  9. Development and industrial tests of the first LNG hydraulic turbine system in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Chen; Yihuai Hua; Qingbo Su; Xueli Wan; Zhenlin Li

    2016-01-01

    The cryogenic hydraulic turbine can be used to replace the conventional J–T valve for LNG or mixed refrigerant throttling and depressurization in a natural gas liquefaction plant. This advanced technology is not only to enhance the efficiency of the liquefaction plant, but to usher a new trend in the development of global liquefaction technologies. China has over 136 liquefaction plants, but the cryogenic hydraulic turbines have not been deployed in industrial utilization. In addition, these ...

  10. Design and construction of a lNG storage tank in Huelva, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial, Equipo

    1989-01-01

    This issue contains a number of articles; contents of which are summarized below, giving an overall idea of this outstanding engineering accomplishment. The National Gas Scheme intends to duplicate the consumption of natural gas during the period 1985-1992 to reach 6 % participation in the provision of primary energy by 1992. It is essential a great effort to meet the requirements of this scheme. Among the activities included in the Scheme, we shall mention the construction of a LNG Termin...

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of direct expansion configurations for electricity production by LNG cold energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Alessandro; Casarosa, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, after a brief review of the perspectives of the various schemes proposed for electricity generation from the regasification of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), a detailed analysis of two particular direct expansion solutions is proposed. The purpose is to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered with the aim of electricity production, using configurations with direct expansion. The analysis developed resorting to a simplified thermodynamic model, shows that using a direct expansion configurations with multistage turbine, values of power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ for each kg of natural gas that flows through the plant) can be obtained. The development of a direct expansion plant with multistage turbine and internal heat recovery systems could permit to approach the production of more than 160 kJ for each kg of flowing liquefied natural gas. Considering values of the mass flow rate typical of LNG gas stations (e.g. 70 kg/s); this corresponds to an output power ranging between 8.3 MW and 11.4 MW. - Highlights: • Recovery of the cold energy contained in Liquefied Natural Gas. • Thermodynamic analysis of systems for electricity generation in regasification. • Direct expansion solutions with multistage expansion. • Comparison of direct expansion solutions with conventional ORC systems. • Power output in conditions typical of existing LNG regasification terminals

  12. Energetic recovery from LNG gasification plant : cold energy utilization in agro-alimentary industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, A.; Panno, D.

    2009-01-01

    It is known how the complete gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can return about 230 kWh/t of energy. Nevertheless out of 51 gasification plants in the world, only 31 of them are equipped with systems for the partial recovery of the available energy. At the moment most of these plants mainly produce electric energy; however the employment of the cold energy results very interesting, in fact, it can be recovered for agrofood transformation and conservation as well as for some loops in the cold chain. Cold energy at low temperatures requires high amounts of mechanical energy and it unavoidably increases as the required temperature diminishes. Cold energy recovery from LNG gasification would allow considerable energy and economic savings to these applications, as well as environmental benefits due to the reduction of climate-changing gas emissions. The task of this work is to assess the possibility to create around a gasification plant an industrial site for firms working on the transformation and conservation of agrofood products locally grown. The cold recovered from gasification would be distributed to those firms through an opportune liquid Co 2 network distribution capable of supplying the cold to the different facilities. A LNG gasification plant in a highly agricultural zone in Sicily would increase the worth of the agrofood production, lower transformation and conservation costs when compared to the traditional systems and bring economic and environmental benefits to the interested areas. [it

  13. A combined cycle utilizing LNG and low-temperature solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Wen-Ji; Zhao, Liang-Ju; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Mo-Geng

    2013-01-01

    This paper has proposed a combined cycle, in which low-temperature solar energy and cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be effectively utilized together. Comparative analysis based on a same net work output between the proposed combined cycle and separated solar ORC and LNG vapor system has been done. The results show that, for the combined cycle, a decrease of nearly 82.2% on the area of solar collector is obtained and the area of heat exchanger decreases by 31.7%. Moreover, exergy efficiency is higher than both two separated systems. This work has also dealt with the thermodynamic analyses for the proposed cycle. The results show that R143a followed by propane and propene emerges as most suitable fluid. Moreover, with a regenerator added in the cycle, performance improvement is obtained for the reduction on area of solar collector and increase on system efficiency and exergy efficiency. -- Highlights: • A combined cycle utilizing low-temperature solar energy and LNG together is proposed. • Five objection functions are used to decide the best working fluids. • Cycle with a regenerator has good performance

  14. Evolving natural gas markets: LNG possibilities for a hydrothermal power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Tiago B.; Resende, Joao P.; Costa, Agnes M. [Brazilian Ministry of Mines and Energy, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The latest advancements in the natural gas - NG industry have brought new opportunities for the resource's application, especially in the power industry. On the one hand, rapid growth in demand and falling costs of transportation over long distances, particularly as liquefied natural gas - LNG, should lead to a more integrated NG world market. On the other, the deregulation of electricity markets and the growth of independent power producers - IPPs using NG as a fuel for generating peak load power have increased the demand for more flexible NG supply contracts. These factors have allowed a shift in the timing of investment and contract negotiation in NG market. Traditionally, firms searched for trading partners and signed long-term contracts before investing in infrastructure. In the evolving LNG market, producers invest in infrastructure before they have buyers for all their expected outputs, while buyers undertake investment before having firm contracts for all their expected NG needs. These technological and market changes may foster greater participation of a fully flexible NG power plants in the Brazilian electricity market. Nowadays, thermal power long-term capacity contracts customized and negotiated in the local electricity pool (ACR) require power producer to award guarantees of NG firm supply, substantially increasing their cost. A combination of flexible LNG supply contracts and electricity pool contracts may present a solution to the lack of competitiveness of NG power plants in the Brazilian power industry. (author)

  15. Studi Awal Desain LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas Plant Dari Coal Bed Methane (CBM Dengan Kapasitas Feed 40 MMSCFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian ini telah dilakukan perancangan Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG Plant dari CBM degan kapasitas feed 40 MMSCFD dan waktu operasi 24 jam/hari dan 330 hari/tahun. Perancangan LNG plant dari CBM ini bertujuan untuk membantu usaha Negara dalam melakukan diversifikasi energi untuk mengatasi krisis energi. Salah satu contoh diversifikasi energi adalah mengganti bahan bakar pembangkit listrik High Speed Diesel (HSD menjadi LNG yang harganya relative lebih murah. Penelitian ini didasarkan pada simulasi dengan Aspen HYSYS, dimana terdapat batasan penelitian yakni gas alam yang dicairkan dengan cara didinginkan pada temperatur sekitar -161.3oC dan pada tekanan 1.06 bar. Tujuan pabrik LNG ini adalah Provinsi Bali hal ini dikarenakan elektrifikasi daerah tersebut cukup rendah. Dengan konsumsi minyak HSD yang tinggi tetapi elektrifikasi yang rendah maka diperlukan sumber energi alternatif untuk meningkatkan daya yang dihasilkan dan area distribusi sehingga tingkat elektrifikasi akan menjadi lebih tinggi. Pabrik LNG ini didirikan di Muara Enim, Sumatera Selatan pada tahun 2016. Penentuan lokasi pabrik berorientasi pada ketersediaan sumber bahan baku CBM. Menurut data DITJEN MIGAS Muara enim memiliki potensi CBM sebesar 0.5 TCF. Potensi sebesar ini dapat digunakan selama 60 tahun dengan kapasitas feed LNG plant sebesar 40 MMSCFD Proses pembuatan LNG dari gas alam ini menggunakan Proses On-Shore LNG menggunakan beberapa rangkaian proses yaitu : Unit Penghilang CO2 dan H2S : menggunakan Amine Cycle, Unit Dehidrasi : menggunakan molecular sieve, Unit Refrigeran dan Pencairan : menggunakan MCR Coldbox Sumber dana investasi berasal dari modal sendiri sebesar 20 % biaya investasi dan pinjaman jangka pendek sebesar 80 % biaya investasi dengan bunga sebesar 12 % per tahun. Dari analisa perhitungan ekonomi didapat hasil-hasil sebagai berikut : Investasi : 163,557 MUSD, Internal Rate of Return : 25.66 %, POT : 3.26 tahun, BEP : 58.86 %, NPV 10 year   :120

  16. Glutamate-induced apoptosis in primary cortical neurons is inhibited by equine estrogens via down-regulation of caspase-3 and prevention of mitochondrial cytochrome c release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang YueMei

    2005-02-01

    absence of 17β-estradiol or Δ8, 17β-estradiol (10 nM-10 μM resulted in the prevention of cell death and was associated with a significant dose-dependent decrease in caspase-3 protein levels, with Δ8, 17β-E2 being more potent than 17β-E2. Protein levels of Fas receptor remained unchanged in the presence of glutamate. In contrast, treatment with glutamate induced, in a time-dependent manner, the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Cytosolic cytochrome c increased as early as 1.5 h after glutamate treatment and these levels were 5 fold higher after 6 h, compared to levels in the untreated cells. Concomitant with these changes, the levels of cytochrome c in mitochondria decreased significantly. Both 17β-E2 and Δ8, 17β-E2 reduced the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol and this decrease in cytosolic cytochrome c was associated with inhibition of glutamate-induced cell death. Conclusion In the primary cortical cells, glutamate-induced apoptosis is accompanied by up-regulation of caspase-3 and its activity is blocked by caspase protease inhibitors. These effects of glutamate on caspase-3 appear to be independent of changes in Fas receptor, but are associated with the rapid release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, which precedes changes in caspase-3 protein levels leading to apoptotic cell death. This process was differentially inhibited by estrogens with the novel equine estrogen Δ8, 17β-E2 being more potent than 17β-E2. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that equine estrogens can prevent glutamate-induced translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol in rat primary cortical cells.

  17. Pharmacological hypothesis: Nitric oxide-induced inhibition of ADAM-17 activity as well as vesicle release can in turn prevent the production of soluble endothelin-converting enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Rajapakse, Niwanthi W; Parkington, Helena C; Smith, Ian

    2017-10-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) are two highly potent vasoactive molecules with opposing effects on the vasculature. Endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) catalyse the production of ET-1 and NO, respectively. It is well established that these molecules play a crucial role in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases and have therefore become targets of therapy. Many studies have examined the mechanism(s) by which NO regulates ET-1 production. Expression and localization of ECE-1 is a key factor that determines the rate of ET-1 production. ECE-1 can either be membrane bound or be released from the cell surface to produce a soluble form. NO has been shown to reduce the expression of both membrane-bound and soluble ECE-1. Several studies have examined the mechanism(s) behind NO-mediated inhibition of ECE expression on the cell membrane. However, the precise mechanism(s) behind NO-mediated inhibition of soluble ECE production are unknown. We hypothesize that both exogenous and endogenous NO, inhibits the production of soluble ECE-1 by preventing its release via extracellular vesicles (e.g., exosomes), and/or by inhibiting the activity of A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease-17 (ADAM17). If this hypothesis is proven correct in future studies, these pathways represent targets for the therapeutic manipulation of soluble ECE-1 production. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    Volume 2 consists of 19 reports describing technical effort performed by Government Contractors in the area of LNG Safety and Environmental Control. Report topics are: simulation of LNG vapor spread and dispersion by finite element methods; modeling of negatively buoyant vapor cloud dispersion; effect of humidity on the energy budget of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapor cloud; LNG fire and explosion phenomena research evaluation; modeling of laminar flames in mixtures of vaporized liquefied natural gas (LNG) and air; chemical kinetics in LNG detonations; effects of cellular structure on the behavior of gaseous detonation waves under transient conditions; computer simulation of combustion and fluid dynamics in two and three dimensions; LNG release prevention and control; the feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards; safety assessment of gelled LNG; and a four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors.

  19. Long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate versus oral paliperidone extended release: a comparative analysis from two placebo-controlled relapse prevention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Michael; Fu, Dong-Jing; Levitan, Bennett; Gopal, Srihari; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Alphs, Larry

    2013-07-11

    Increasing availability and use of long-acting injectable antipsychotics have generated a need to compare these formulations with their oral equivalents; however, a paucity of relevant data is available. This post hoc comparison of the long-term efficacy, safety and tolerability of maintenance treatment with paliperidone palmitate (PP) versus oral paliperidone extended release (ER) used data from two similarly designed, randomised, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled schizophrenia relapse prevention trials. Assessments included measures of time to relapse, symptom changes/functioning and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Time to relapse between treatment groups was evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Between-group differences for continuous variables for change scores during the DB phase were assessed using analysis of co-variance models. Categorical variables were evaluated using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. Approximately 45% of enrolled subjects in both trials were stabilised and randomised to the DB relapse prevention phase. Risk of relapse was higher in subjects treated with paliperidone ER than in those treated with PP [paliperidone ER/PP hazard ratio (HR), 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.46-4.35; p 70, both approximately 58.5%; p = 1.000] compared with a 10.9% decrease for paliperidone ER (58.5% vs 47.6%, respectively; p = 0.048). The least squares mean change for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at DB end point in these previously stabilised subjects was 3.5 points in favour of PP (6.0 vs 2.5; p = 0.025). The rates of TEAEs and AEs of interest appeared similar. This analysis supports maintenance of effect with the injectable compared with the oral formulation of paliperidone in patients with schizophrenia. The safety profile of PP was similar to that of paliperidone ER. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  20. A conceptual demonstration of freeze desalination-membrane distillation (FD-MD) hybrid desalination process utilizing liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-09-01

    The severe global water scarcity and record-high fossil oil price have greatly stimulated the research interests on new desalination technologies which can be driven by renewable energy or waste energy. In this study, a hybrid desalination process comprising freeze desalination and membrane distillation (FD-MD) processes was developed and explored in an attempt to utilize the waste cold energy released from re-gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The concept of this technology was demonstrated using indirect-contact freeze desalination (ICFD) and direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configurations. By optimizing the ICFD operation parameters, namely, the usage of nucleate seeds, operation duration and feed concentration, high quality drinkable water with a low salinity ∼0.144 g/L was produced in the ICFD process. At the same time, using the optimized hollow fiber module length and packing density in the DCMD process, ultra pure water with a low salinity of 0.062 g/L was attained at a condition of high energy efficiency (EE). Overall, by combining FD and MD processes and adopting the optimized operation parameters, the hybrid FD-MD system has been successfully demonstrated. A high total water recovery of 71.5% was achieved, and the water quality obtained met the standard for drinkable water. In addition, with results from specific energy calculation, it was proven that the hybrid process is an energy-saving process and utilization of LNG cold energy could greatly reduce the total energy consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Plant Polyphenols and Exendin-4 Prevent Hyperactivity and TNF-α Release in LPS-Treated In vitro Neuron/Astrocyte/Microglial Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gullo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports a decisive role for neuroinflammation in the neurodegenerative process of several central nervous system (CNS disorders. Microglia are essential mediators of neuroinflammation and can regulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses by releasing reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, proteases, excitatory amino acids, and cytokines. We have recently shown that also in ex-vivo cortical networks of neurons, astrocytes and microglia, an increased level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α was detected a few hours after exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Simultaneously, an atypical “seizure-like” neuronal network activity was recorded by multi-electrode array (MEA electrophysiology. These effects were prevented by minocycline, an established anti-inflammatory antibiotic. We show here that the same inhibitory effect against LPS-induced neuroinflammation is exerted also by natural plant compounds, polyphenols, such as curcumin (CU, curcuma longa, crocin (CR, saffron, and resveratrol (RE, grape, as well as by the glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (EX-4. The drugs tested also caused per-se early transient (variable changes of network activity. Since it has been reported that LPS-induced neuroinflammation causes rearrangements of glutamate transporters in astrocytes and microglia, we suggest that neural activity could be putatively increased by an imbalance of glial glutamate transporter activity, leading to prolonged synaptic glutamatergic dysregulation.

  2. Hypothesis of a nuclear accident to the nuclear power plant of Gravelines with important radioactive release out of the site: risks prevention, intervention strategies. Evaluation of the sensitization to the nuclear risk of the physician practicing near the site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraovic, Th.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis has for hypothesis a nuclear accident at the nuclear power plant of Gravelines with radioactive release out of the site: the risks prevention and the strategies of intervention are studied. An evaluation of the sensitization to a nuclear risk is made for the general practitioner that practices near the site. (N.C.)

  3. Vaginal flora changes on Pap smears after insertion of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Berger, Judith; Heuninckx, Hélène; Bellen, Gert; Cornelis, Ann

    2011-04-01

    The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) combines a uterine foreign body and the continuous release of low-dose levonorgestrel for contraception. Its influence on the rate of vulvovaginal infections and flora disturbance is insufficiently known, but important for contraceptive advice in women, especially those who develop recurrent vaginosis or Candida vulvovaginitis. Slides of 286 women who had a Pap smear taken before and 1 to 2 years after placement of a LNG-IUS were blindly reviewed for the presence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV) and Candida vaginitis (CV). Prior to insertion, there were no differences in vaginal flora abnormalities between women using different kinds of contraception. LNG-IUS users did not have different rates of AVF, BV, AV or CV, but the general risk to develop any infection was increased. Uterine bleeding after insertion did not seem to predict a different flora type. We found that Pap smears suggested more vaginal infections after 1 year of LNG-IUS use than prior to insertion of the device. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of extended release naltrexone to prevent relapse among criminal justice-involved individuals with a history of opioid use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean M; Polsky, Daniel; Lee, Joshua D; Friedmann, Peter D; Kinlock, Timothy W; Nunes, Edward V; Bonnie, Richard J; Gordon, Michael; Chen, Donna T; Boney, Tamara Y; O'Brien, Charles P

    2017-08-01

    Criminal justice-involved individuals are highly susceptible to opioid relapse and overdose-related deaths. In a recent randomized trial, we demonstrated the effectiveness of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX; Vivitrol ® ) in preventing opioid relapse among criminal justice-involved US adults with a history of opioid use disorder. The cost of XR-NTX may be a significant barrier to adoption. Thus, it is important to account for improved quality of life and downstream cost-offsets. Our aims were to (1) estimate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained for XR-NTX versus treatment as usual (TAU) and evaluate it relative to generally accepted value thresholds; and (2) estimate the incremental cost per additional year of opioid abstinence. Economic evaluation of the aforementioned trial from the taxpayer perspective. Participants were randomized to 25 weeks of XR-NTX injections or TAU; follow-up occurred at 52 and 78 weeks. Five study sites in the US Northeast corridor. A total of 308 participants were randomized to XR-NTX (n = 153) or TAU (n = 155). Incremental costs relative to incremental economic and clinical effectiveness measures, QALYs and abstinent years, respectively. The 25-week cost per QALY and abstinent-year figures were $162 150 and $46 329, respectively. The 78-week figures were $76 400/QALY and $16 371/abstinent year. At 25 weeks, we can be 10% certain that XR-NTX is cost-effective at a value threshold of $100 000/QALY and 62% certain at $200 000/QALY. At 78 weeks, the cost-effectiveness probabilities are 59% at $100 000/QALY and 76% at $200 000/QALY. We can be 95% confident that the intervention would be considered 'good value' at $90 000/abstinent year at 25 weeks and $500/abstinent year at 78 weeks. While extended-release naltrexone appears to be effective in increasing both quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and abstinence, it does not appear to be cost-effective using generally accepted value

  5. Public consultation by the French Energy Regulatory Commission of 14 September 2016 relating to the new tariffs for the use of regulated LNG terminals. Evolution of the ATM5 offer Proposals from Elengy and Fosmax LNG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this public consultation is to gather input from the market regarding the options envisaged by the CRE for the ATTM5 tariffs. These concern the tariff regulation framework, the level of tariffs and the structure of the tariff offerings of the LNG terminals. Items from the tariff documentation sent to the CRE by Elengy and Fosmax LNG would lead to a change in unit tariffs of -0.7% for Montoir, -13.9% for Fos Tonkin and -11.9% for Fos Cavaou. At this stage, with regard to the requests from Elengy and Fosmax LNG, the CRE is planning: - to adjust the trajectories of the net operational charges requested by the LNG terminal operators; - to decide on a weighted average cost of capital (WACC) equal to that of the transmission network operators, within a range from 4.75% to 5.5% actual before tax, plus a bonus reflecting the specific risks to LNG terminals, within a range from 1.0% to 2.4%. Depending on the rate of remuneration applied, and the direction of the net operational charges selected, the change in the ATTM5 tariff may be between -2.5% and -10.6% inclusive for Montoir, between -14.4% and -18.5% inclusive for Fos Tonkin and between -14.8% and -26.1% inclusive on average per year for Fos Cavaou. The CRE is planning the following schedule for drawing up the ATTM5 tariff and its entry into force: - this public consultation is open up to 14 October 2016; - the CRE's tariff deliberation, having consulted the French Higher Energy Council (CSE), will be adopted at the end of 2016; - the ATTM5 tariff will enter into force on 1 April 2017. At the same time as this public consultation, the CRE is publishing an audit of the request from LNG terminal operators on the rate of remuneration for the period of the ATTM5

  6. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system vs. usual medical treatment for menorrhagia: an economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Sanghera

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To undertake an economic evaluation alongside the largest randomised controlled trial comparing Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device ('LNG-IUS' and usual medical treatment for women with menorrhagia in primary care; and compare the cost-effectiveness findings using two alternative measures of quality of life. METHODS: 571 women with menorrhagia from 63 UK centres were randomised between February 2005 and July 2009. Women were randomised to having a LNG-IUS fitted, or usual medical treatment, after discussing with their general practitioner their contraceptive needs or desire to avoid hormonal treatment. The treatment was specified prior to randomisation. For the economic evaluation we developed a state transition (Markov model with a 24 month follow-up. The model structure was informed by the trial women's pathway and clinical experts. The economic evaluation adopted a UK National Health Service perspective and was based on an outcome of incremental cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY estimated using both EQ-5D and SF-6D. RESULTS: Using EQ-5D, LNG-IUS was the most cost-effective treatment for menorrhagia. LNG-IUS costs £100 more than usual medical treatment but generated 0.07 more QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for LNG-IUS compared to usual medical treatment was £1600 per additional QALY. Using SF-6D, usual medical treatment was the most cost-effective treatment. Usual medical treatment was both less costly (£100 and generated 0.002 more QALYs. CONCLUSION: Impact on quality of life is the primary indicator of treatment success in menorrhagia. However, the most cost-effective treatment differs depending on the quality of life measure used to estimate the QALY. Under UK guidelines LNG-IUS would be the recommended treatment for menorrhagia. This study demonstrates that the appropriate valuation of outcomes in menorrhagia is crucial.

  7. Comparison between reverse Brayton and Kapitza based LNG boil-off gas reliquefaction system using exergy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunni, Sarun Kumar; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-02-01

    LNG boil-off gas (BOG) reliquefaction systems in LNG carrier ships uses refrigeration devices which are based on reverse Brayton, Claude, Kapitza (modified Claude) or Cascade cycles. Some of these refrigeration devices use nitrogen as the refrigerants and hence nitrogen storage vessels or nitrogen generators needs to be installed in LNG carrier ships which consume space and add weight to the carrier. In the present work, a new configuration based on Kapitza liquefaction cycle which uses BOG itself as working fluid is proposed and has been compared with Reverse Brayton Cycle (RBC) on sizes of heat exchangers and compressor operating parameters. Exergy analysis is done after simulating at steady state with Aspen Hysys 8.6® and the comparison between RBC and Kapitza may help designers to choose reliquefaction system with appropriate process parameters and sizes of equipment. With comparable exergetic efficiency as that of an RBC, a Kaptiza system needs only BOG compressor without any need of nitrogen gas.

  8. Epidermal growth factor inhibits rat pancreatic cell proliferation, causes acinar cell hypertrophy, and prevents caerulein-induced desensitization of amylase release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, J; Larose, L; Korc, M

    1989-06-01

    The in vivo effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on pancreatic growth and digestive enzyme concentrations were compared with the actions of the pancreatic secretagogue caerulein in the adult rat. EGF (10 micrograms/kg BW) did not alter pancreatic weight or protein content. However, this concentration of EGF inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA by 44%, decreased DNA content by 20%, and increased the concentrations of amylase, chymotrypsinogen, and protein by 106%, 232%, and 42%, respectively. Pancreatic acini prepared from EGF-treated rats exhibited a characteristic secretory response to caerulein that was superimposable to that obtained in acini from saline-treated rats. In both groups of acini half-maximal and maximal stimulation of amylase release occurred at approximately 5 pM and 50 pM caerulein, respectively. In contrast to EGF, caerulein (1 microgram/kg BW) increased pancreatic weight by 29% and protein content by 59%, and enhanced [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA by 70%. Although caerulein increased the concentrations of pancreatic amylase and chymotrypsinogen by 38% and 297%, respectively, pancreatic acini prepared from caerulein-treated rats were less sensitive to the actions of caerulein in vitro when compared with acini from control rats. Indeed, the EC50 was shift from 4.8 pM to 9.8 pM after 4 days of treatment. EGF potentiated the actions of caerulein on pancreatic weight, protein content, and chymotrypsinogen concentration, and prevented the caerulein-induced alteration in the secretory responsiveness of the acinar cell. Conversely, caerulein reversed the inhibitory effect of EGF on thymidine incorporation. These findings suggest that EGF may modulate the trophic effects of certain gastrointestinal hormones, and may participate in the regulation of pancreatic exocrine function in vivo.

  9. Enhancement of the efficiency of the Open Cycle Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.F.M.; Nabih, H.I.; El-Nigeily, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Expanders replaced JT valves in the Phillips Optimized Cascade liquefaction process. • Improvement in plant liquefaction efficiency was evaluated in presence of expanders. • Comparison of the different optimum cases for the liquefaction process was presented. - Abstract: This study aims to improve the performance of the Open Cycle Phillips Optimized Cascade Process for the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) through the replacement of Joule–Thomson (JT) valves by expanders. The expander has a higher thermodynamic efficiency than the JT valve. Moreover, the produced shaft power from the expander is integrated into the process. The study is conducted using the Aspen HYSYS-V7 simulation software for simulation of the Open Cycle Phillips Optimized Cascade Process having the JT valves. Simulation of several proposed cases in which expanders are used instead of JT valves at different locations in the process as at the propane cycle, ethylene cycle, methane cycle and the upstream of the heavies removal column is conducted. The optimum cases clearly indicate that expanders not only produce power, but also offer significant improvements in the process performance as shown by the total plant power consumption, LNG production, thermal efficiency, plant specific power and CO_2 emissions reduction. Results also reveal that replacing JT valves by expanders in the methane cycle has a dominating influence on all performance criteria and hence, can be considered as the main key contributor affecting the Phillips Optimized Cascade Process leading to a notable enhancement in its efficiency. This replacement of JT valves by liquid expanders at different locations of the methane cycle encounters power savings in the range of 4.92–5.72%, plant thermal efficiency of 92.64–92.97% and an increase in LNG production of 5.77–7.04%. Moreover, applying liquid expanders at the determined optimum cases for the different cycles, improves process performance and

  10. Gas and LNG pricing and trading hub in East Asia: An introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Xunpeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the four papers in the special issues on ‘Gas and LNG pricing and trading hub in East Asia’. The papers examine lessons and experience from European hub development, other commodity, the Japanese history on developing of futures markets and inter-fuel substitution in East Asia. The papers finds that liquid futures market is the key to formulate benchmark prices while a well-developed spot market is the foundation; political will and strong leadership are required to over...

  11. Public summaries of feasibility studies conducted for the trinidad LNG project. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The study, conducted by The M. W. Kellog Company, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the National Gas Company of Trinidad and Tobago. It shows the results of Project Definition Phase which was implemented as a follow-up to two previous feasibility studies which were conducted for a LNG plant in Trinidad. The objective of this report is to develop a project design basis and implementation plan plus a cost estimate. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Project Design Basis; (3) Seismic Hazard Assessment; (4) Geotechnical; and (5) Environmental Assessment.

  12. The effects of LNG imports on the North American natural gas market and the economy of Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, P.H.; Kralovic, P.; McColl, D.C.; Mutysheva, D.; Stogran, M.; Ryan, P.C.; Brown, M.; Gardner, M.; Hanrahan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to a point that it condenses in a liquid state. As such, it is economical to transport over long distances in specially designed double-hulled tankers. With record high price, high demand and tight supply of natural gas, LNG has attracted considerable attention in recent years, and trade is expected to be 18 per cent of North American gas supply by 2020. Volatility in North American natural gas markets is felt strongly along the east coast, with demand dominated by gas-fired power generation. There are 5 facilities proposed to import LNG into the Maritimes and the province of Quebec. These include the Bear Head and Keltic facilities in Nova Scotia, Canaport in New Brunswick and the Rabaska and Cacouna facilities in the province of Quebec. There is a need for a comprehensive analysis of east coast gas development, given the degree of uncertainty regarding significant investment in gas supply, demand, pipelines and LNG projects. This report examined many possible changes in regional marketplace conditions with particular attention to the effects on the economic viability of natural gas developments in Atlantic Canada; the impacts of LNG imports on capacities and flows in natural gas pipeline corridors; and, the influence of increased natural gas supplies on local and regional prices. In order to examine the impact of LNG imports on the development of the natural gas industry, this report provided a 15-year natural gas flow and price simulation for Atlantic Canada, New England and the Mid-Atlantic region. It considered how LNG imports may influence the development of compressed natural gas and the impact that CNG may have on regional markets and infrastructure. It was concluded that the most direct impacts the LNG facilities will have on Atlantic Canada, other than the impacts of terminal construction, jobs and tax revenue, will be the security of supply to area residents and the availability of gas

  13. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions

  14. Capital structure in LNG infrastructures and gas pipelines projects: Empirical evidences and methodological issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierru, Axel; Roussanaly, Simon; Sabathier, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG infrastructures and gas pipeline projects, by using data relating to projects whose financial close occurred between June 2004 and March 2011. Most results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. Especially, the projects located in risky countries and larger projects tend to exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. In addition, regasification projects appear to have a more diluted equity ownership. Methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects are also examined from a capital-budgeting perspective. In particular, the equity residual method, usually used by industrial practitioners to value these projects, should be adjusted. - Highlights: • This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG and gas pipeline infrastructures. • Most of our results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. • Projects located in risky countries exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. • Larger projects and regasification projects also have less concentrated equity ownerships. • From a capital-budgeting viewpoint, we examine methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects

  15. Design optimization of single mixed refrigerant LNG process using a hybrid modified coordinate descent algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qyyum, Muhammad Abdul; Long, Nguyen Van Duc; Minh, Le Quang; Lee, Moonyong

    2018-01-01

    Design optimization of the single mixed refrigerant (SMR) natural gas liquefaction (LNG) process involves highly non-linear interactions between decision variables, constraints, and the objective function. These non-linear interactions lead to an irreversibility, which deteriorates the energy efficiency of the LNG process. In this study, a simple and highly efficient hybrid modified coordinate descent (HMCD) algorithm was proposed to cope with the optimization of the natural gas liquefaction process. The single mixed refrigerant process was modeled in Aspen Hysys® and then connected to a Microsoft Visual Studio environment. The proposed optimization algorithm provided an improved result compared to the other existing methodologies to find the optimal condition of the complex mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction process. By applying the proposed optimization algorithm, the SMR process can be designed with the 0.2555 kW specific compression power which is equivalent to 44.3% energy saving as compared to the base case. Furthermore, in terms of coefficient of performance (COP), it can be enhanced up to 34.7% as compared to the base case. The proposed optimization algorithm provides a deep understanding of the optimization of the liquefaction process in both technical and numerical perspectives. In addition, the HMCD algorithm can be employed to any mixed refrigerant based liquefaction process in the natural gas industry.

  16. LNG in the next decade the changing face of the industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, M. [BG International (United Kingdom); Morin, P.; Laupretre, J.M. [Elf Aquitaine, Dir. du Gaz Naturel, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2000-07-01

    This paper considers the changes in the LNG industry over the past five years, and looks at how the industry might evolve by 2010.The current shape of the industry is a product of recent changes in cost structures, contracting issues, shipping and the emergence of new suppliers and new markets. In describing the possible evolution of the industry over the coming decade, two contrasting scenarios have been considered, for each of two regions of the world. The first scenario is entitled 'Continuity', and envisages that buyers and sellers will not materially change their approach towards LNG projects, in spite of the new business environment. The second scenario, entitled 'New Approach', foresees innovative solutions to technical, commercial and financial questions, in all parts of the value chain. The two world regions covered are the Atlantic - Mediterranean Basin and the Pacific-India Rim. The paper concludes that the industry is at a crossroads and that much will depend upon buyers and sellers dividing up risk in an acceptable way to meet the market and competitive challenges. (authors)

  17. Increasing efficiency of TPP fuel suply system due to LNG usage as a reserve fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigulina, E. V.; Khromchenkov, V. G.; Mischner, J.; Yavorovsky, Y. V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the analysis of fuel economy efficiency increase possibility at thermal power plants (TPP) due to the transition from the use of black oil as a reserve fuel to liquefied natural gas (LNG) produced at the very station. The work represents the technical solution that allows to generate, to store and to use LNG as the reserve fuel TPP. The annual amounts of black oil and natural gas that are needed to ensure the reliable operation of several power plants in Russia were assessed. Some original schemes of the liquefied natural gas production and storing as alternative reserve fuel generated by means of application of expansion turbines are proposed. The simulation results of the expansion process for two compositions of natural gas with different contents of high-boiling fractions are presented. The dependences of the condensation outlet and power generation from the flow initial parameters and from the natural gas composition are obtained and analysed. It was shown that the choice of a particular circuit design depends primarily on the specific natural gas composition. The calculations have proved the effectiveness and the technical ability to use liquefied natural gas as a backup fuel at reconstructed and newly designed gas power station.

  18. The future of US LNG imports: A look at changing North American supply trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, the majority of United States gas consumption has been supplied by Gulf Coast and Midcontinent oil and gas fields. Increasingly, producers are discovering smaller, less economic fields as these areas mature. Expectations are for this trend to continue which will cause finding costs to rise. As gas prices rise, large supplies of remote western U.S. gas will become economic, shifting the locus of supply westward. Simultaneously, gas markets are opening up in the eastern United States driven by the demand for new electric generating capacity and Clean Air Act legislation. Natural gas markets will increasingly be supplied by western gas that is more expensive to find, develop and transport. LNG will become more competitive in the U.S. because (1) future gas demand will outpace domestic supply, and (2) a large portion of the incremental domestic supply in the future will be more expensive due to higher finding and transportation costs. Using the supply economics of modified Arps-Roberts find-rate equations, this paper will share our understanding of the location, timing and economic sensitivities of potential supply and markets and the role LNG can play in them

  19. Cooperative strategies in the LNG industry: is the rationalisation argument grounded?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massol, O.; Tchung-Ming, St.

    2009-02-01

    The authors are commenting the emergence of cooperative strategies between 12 LNG (liquefied natural gas) exporting countries which are part of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF). In this economic study, they more particularly examine the often evoked scenario of a cooperation only aimed at a logistic rationalisation, which has no impact of LNG prices. Using a simple static model calibrated with data from 2007, they assess the benefit of this cooperation. Numerical results suggest that, in absence of a redistribution policy, this cooperative strategy is likely not to be adopted. Without any redistribution, choosing cooperation would not be rational for some exporters. The issue of sharing this collective benefit is then formulated by using concepts of the cooperative game theory. Several redistribution policies are then studied, including the Shapley value and several concepts based on the nucleolus. The results reveal a relatively restrained choice for the redistribution policy. Among the used methods, only the 'per capita nucleolus', a rather sophisticated one, matches the both desirable properties: to belong to the cooperative game core and a monotony with respect to the aggregate

  20. Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline capacity : ensuring adequate pipeline infrastructure to meet incoming LNG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitwham, R.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of natural gas demand in the United States and Canada was presented with reference to demand growth, tight supply versus demand, high levels of volatility, and new frontier and nonconventional supplies. Graphs illustrating natural gas demand for use in power generation, industry, commerce and the residential sector were presented. A supply forecast indicates that the decline in conventional supply will be offset by non-conventional sources. Canadian production is expected to remain flat through 2015, while imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) are expected to grow to 15 per cent by 2015. New sources are forecasted to reach 45 per cent of gas supply by 2015. The issue of rising natural gas prices and its influence on the strength of northeast markets was discussed. A profile of the northeast market was also included along with supply opportunities in the Maritimes and New England States. The critical success factors for LNG include supply availability, source country risk factors, shipping capacity, siting approvals and competition. Capital costs, operating costs, maintenance costs and reliability were listed as the factors that should be considered in pipeline expansion projects. figs

  1. Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) Improves Neurogenesis: Increase of Neuronal Differentiation Yield by Preventing Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana S; Soares, Nuno L; Vieira, Melissa; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Vieira, Helena L A

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases lead to impairment or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Stem cell based therapies are promising strategies currently under investigation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous product of heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) activity. Administration of CO at low concentrations produces several beneficial effects in distinct tissues, namely anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory. Herein the CO role on modulation of neuronal differentiation was assessed. Three different models with increasing complexity were used: human neuroblastoma SH-S5Y5 cell line, human teratocarcinoma NT2 cell line and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC). Cell lines were differentiated into post-mitotic neurons by treatment with retinoic acid (RA) supplemented with CO-releasing molecule A1 (CORM-A1). CORM-A1 positively modulated neuronal differentiation, since it increased final neuronal production and enhanced the expression of specific neuronal genes: Nestin, Tuj1 and MAP2. Furthermore, during neuronal differentiation process, there was an increase in proliferative cell number (ki67 mRNA expressing cells) and a decrease in cell death (lower propidium iodide (PI) uptake, limitation of caspase-3 activation and higher Bcl-2 expressing cells). CO supplementation did not increase the expression of RA receptors. In the case of SH-S5Y5 model, small amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation emerges as important signaling molecules during CO-promoted neuronal differentiation. CO's improvement of neuronal differentiation yield was validated using OHSC as ex vivo model. CORM-A1 treatment of OHSC promoted higher levels of cells expressing the neuronal marker Tuj1. Still, CORM-A1 increased cell proliferation assessed by ki67 expression and also prevented cell death, which was followed by increased Bcl-2 expression, decreased levels of active caspase-3 and PI uptake. Likewise, ROS signaling emerged as key factors in CO

  2. The influence of chemical composition of LNG on the supercritical heat transfer in an intermediate fluid vaporizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuangqing; Chen, Xuedong; Fan, Zhichao; Chen, Yongdong; Nie, Defu; Wu, Qiaoguo

    2018-04-01

    A three-dimensional transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been established for the simulations of supercritical heat transfer of real liquefied natural gas (LNG) mixture in a single tube and a tube bundle of an intermediate fluid vaporizer (IFV). The influence of chemical composition of LNG on the thermal performance has been analyzed. The results have also been compared with those obtained from the one-dimensional steady-state calculations using the distributed parameter model (DPM). It is found that the current DPM approach can give reasonable prediction accuracy for the thermal performance in the tube bundle but unsatisfactory prediction accuracy for that in a single tube as compared with the corresponding CFD data. As benchmarked against pure methane, the vaporization of an LNG containing about 90% (mole fraction) of methane would lead to an absolute deviation of 5.5 K in the outlet NG temperature and a maximum relative deviation of 11.4% in the tube side HTC in a bundle of about 816 U tubes at the inlet pressure of 12 MPa and mass flux of 200 kg·m-2·s-1. It is concluded that the influence of LNG composition on the thermal performance should be taken into consideration in order to obtain an economic and reliable design of an IFV.

  3. 78 FR 38024 - Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF13-9-000] Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Magnolia Liquefied Natural Gas Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting The staff of...

  4. 77 FR 59601 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF12-16-000] Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Cove Point Liquefaction Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, Notice of On- Site Environmental Review, and Notice of Public Scoping Meetings The...

  5. 77 FR 59603 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Oregon LNG Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF12-18-000; Docket No. PF12-20-000] Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Oregon LNG Export Project and Washington Expansion Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meetings [[Page 59604

  6. Application of the Stirling engine driven with cryogenic exergy of LNG (liquefied natural gas) for the production of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczygieł, Ireneusz; Stanek, Wojciech; Szargut, Jan

    2016-01-01

    LNG (liquefied natural gas) delivered by means of sea-ships is pressurized and then regasified before its introduction to the system of pipelines. The utilization of cryogenic exergy of LNG for electricity production without combustion of any its portion is analyzed. For the conversion of LNG cryogenic exergy into electricity, the Stirling engine is proposed to be applied. The theoretical thermodynamic model of Stirling engine has been applied. This model is used to investigate the influence of pinch temperature in heat exchangers, engine compression ratio and dead volumes ratios on the thermodynamic parameters of the Stirling engine. The results of simulation represent the input data for investigations of thermodynamic performance of the proposed system. In order to evaluate the thermodynamic performance of the proposed process, an exergy analysis has been applied. The exergy efficiency and influence of design and operational parameters on exergy losses are determined for each of the proposed system configurations. The obtained results represent the background for advanced exergy-based analyses, including thermo-ecological cost. - Highlights: • Application of Stirling engine in LNG regasification. • Thermodynamic model of Stirling engine for cryogenic exergy recovery is applied. • Sensitivity analysis of operational parameters on system behaviour is applied. • Exergy analysis is conducted.

  7. 77 FR 55197 - LNG Development Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... particularly shale, gas-bearing formations in the United States and Canada. Oregon LNG states that improvements in drilling and extraction technologies have coincided with rapid diffusion in the natural gas...-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Canadian and Domestic Natural Gas...

  8. 77 FR 63806 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... prohibited by U.S. law or policy. The source of the LNG will be from direct connects with the interstate... Corporation, and the indirect connects with interstate pipelines of Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company..., notices of intervention, and written comments are invited. DATES: Protests, motions to intervene or...

  9. 76 FR 76698 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application To Export Domestic Liquefied Natural Gas to Non-Free...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ..., allegedly dwarfs the amount of LNG that DCP proposes to export. Second, based on a sector-by-sector outlook... economic benefits, as detailed in the ICF Consulting Study (Appendix C of the Application): A. An... oil in other countries, thereby reducing global greenhouse gas emissions significantly over the...

  10. The stress characteristics of plate-fin structures at the different operation parameters of LNG heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hongqiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the stresses of plate-fin structures at the different operation parameters were analyzed in actual operation process of LNG plate-fin heat exchanger based on finite element method and thermal elastic theory. Stress characteristics of plate-fin structures were investigated at the different operation parameters of that. The results show that the structural failure of plate-fin structures is mainly induced by the maximum shear stress at the brazing filler metal layer between plate and fin while by the maximum normal stress in the region of brazed joint near the fin side. And a crack would initiate in brazed joint near the fin side. The maximum normal stress is also main factor to result in the structural failure of plate-fin structures at the different temperature difference (between Natural Gas (NG and Mixture Refrigerant (MR, MR temperature and NG pressure of LNG heat exchanger. At the same time, the peak stresses obviously increase as the temperature difference, MR temperature and NG pressure increase. These results will provide some constructive instructions in the safe operation of LNG plate-fin heat exchanger in a large-scale LNG cold-box.

  11. LNG terminal võib tulla ka igasse Balti riiki. Arutlused esialgu jätkuvad / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Balti peaministrid pole üksmeelel, kas ja kuhu rajada veeldatud gaasi terminal. Lepiti kokku, et kõik kolm riiki teevad vedelgaasi terminali tasuvusuuringu. Leedu kavatseb rajada oma riigi vajadusteks LNG ujuvterminali, kuid see ei välista osalemist suurema terminali projektis

  12. Cold recovery during regasification of LNG part two: Applications in an Agro Food Industry and a Hypermarket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rocca, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the cold energy available during LNG regasification, which can be recovered and utilized both inside the LNG regasification area and at a distance, such as in deep freezing agro food industry facilities and for space conditioning in the commercial and residential sector (e.g. Supermarkets and Hypermarkets). The feasibility study of this kind of application has been carried out at DREAM, Palermo University, within the framework of a research program. The results of a feasibility study of the kind of venture proposed, starting from its conceptual design and with a thorough thermodynamic and economic analysis, demonstrated the suitability and the profitability of the applications proposed. They seem very attractive due to expected wide future exploitation of LNG regasification in the World. -- Highlights: → Proposal pertaining cold recovery during LNG regasification. → Cold utilization far from the regasification site. → Transfer of liquid/gaseous carbon dioxide pipeline. → Exergetic and economic analysis of venture pertaining applications proposed. → Results of venture economic analysis.

  13. 76 FR 33746 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ..., China and/or Taiwan.\\5\\ This blanket authorization was later amended to permit exports to Canada, Mexico... imported into the United States from foreign sources on a short-term or spot market basis. The LNG would be... liability company and wholly owned subsidiary of Zachary American Infrastructure, LLC, which owns a 55...

  14. Thermodynamic performance analysis of a combined power cycle using low grade heat source and LNG cold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of a combined cycle using a low grade heat source and LNG cold energy was carried out. The combined cycle consisted of an ammonia–water Rankine cycle with and without regeneration and a LNG Rankine cycle. A parametric study was conducted to examine the effects of the key parameters, such as ammonia mass fraction, turbine inlet pressure, condensation temperature. The effects of the ammonia mass fraction on the temperature distributions of the hot and cold streams in heat exchangers were also investigated. The characteristic diagram of the exergy efficiency and heat transfer capability was proposed to consider the system performance and expenditure of the heat exchangers simultaneously. The simulation showed that the system performance is influenced significantly by the parameters with the ammonia mass fraction having largest effect. The net work output of the ammonia–water cycle may have a peak value or increase monotonically with increasing ammonia mass fraction, which depends on turbine inlet pressure or condensation temperature. The exergy efficiency may decrease or increase or have a peak value with turbine inlet pressure depending on the ammonia mass fraction. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis was performed for a combined cycle utilizing LNG cold energy. • Ammonia–water Rankine cycle and LNG Rankine cycle was combined. • A parametric study was conducted to examine the effects of the key parameters. • Characteristics of the exergy efficiency and heat transfer capability were proposed. • The system performance was influenced significantly by the ammonia mass fraction

  15. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any Operation...

  16. Working fluid selection for an Organic Rankine Cycle utilizing high and low temperature energy of an LNG engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Sinian; Chang, Huawei; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Shu, Shuiming; Duan, Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study proposed a combined Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system utilizing exhaust waste as its heat source and liquid natural gas (LNG) as its heat sink to provide alternative power for an LNG-fired vehicle. This system, consisting of a regenerator and a dual heat source composite heat exchanger, was designed to efficiently recover the engine waste heat (EWH) and to guarantee vaporizing LNG steadily. Five potential applicable organic working fluids are analyzed: C4F10, CF3I, R236EA, R236FA and RC318. Each fluid was analyzed at various evaporation temperatures and condensation temperatures using a thermodynamic model, and a self-made MATLAB program based on the physical properties on REFPROP data was applied to run the simulation. Analytical results showed that fluid R236FA has the highest thermal efficiency η_t_h of 21.6%, and that of the others are also around 21%. Based on a twelve-cylinder four stroke stationary natural gas engine, the simulated calculations show that the selected five working fluids can improve the fuel economy by more than 14.7% compared to that without ORC. - Highlights: • We design an ORC utilizing LNG cold energy and engine waste heat. • Five working fluids are examined at various working conditions. • The maximum thermal efficient of our proposed cycle can reach 20.3%–21.6%. • This system can decrease the brake specific fuel consumption by more than 14.7%.

  17. Electric power generation and LNG evaporation with the aid of gas turbines within a closed-cycle process. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, D

    1978-01-01

    LNG, after being pumped to customary pipeline pressure, has a high working potential which can be technically utilized. Thus, in a modern large-size terminal, a power potential in the order of magnitude of several hundred MW is available. In the course of rising power prices the question becomes important if this potential continues to be wasted or if conversion to electric power is economical. In the proposed process the working fluid of a gas turbine plant with a closed circuit is cooled to -140/sup 0/C with LNG before entering the compressor and heated to +720/sup 0/C before entering the turbine by means of external heat gained by burning natural gas. With a 1 million m/sup 3//h throughput of LNG in its normal state, 237 MW of electric power can be generated with 53% efficiency with this simple circuit, which can be further developed. In a combination of closed gas turbine and diesel generator, almost 289 MW of electric power can be produced per 1 million m/sup 3//h LNG with an efficiency of 60%.

  18. 75 FR 20591 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...] AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity... revised draft Final General Conformity Determination (GCD) for Pennsylvania to assess the potential air... the above-referenced dockets. In accordance with the General Conformity Regulations under the Code of...

  19. Studi Pemilihan Sistem Supply Listrik Dengan Pendekatan Topsis Dan Desain Sistem Kelistrikan Pada Onshore Receiving Facility LNG Di Celukan Bawang, Buleleng, Bali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilla Indrayuni Prastyasari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Liqueafied Natural Gas (LNG merupakan gas alam yang sudah dikonversi menjadi fase cair pada kisaran temperatur -161°C pada tekanan atmosfer. Konversi ini mereduksi volume 600 kali lebih kecil dari volume gas alam sehingga LNG lebih bernilai ekonomis untuk disimpan dan ditransportasikan. LNG dapat menjadi solusi alternatif bahan bakar bagi pembangkit listrik di Indonesia. Disamping kelebihan dari LNG, hanya sedikit gas yang dimanfaatkan langsung oleh Indonesia karena kurangnya sarana dan prasarana yang mendukung. Salah satu sarana yang dapat mendukung pendistribusian LNG adalah terminal penerima LNG dan sistem pendukungnya, kapal LNG dan dermaga, unit regasifikasi, dan yang lainnya. Studi ini bertujuan untuk memilih sistem supply listrik menggunakan metode TOPSIS dan selanjutnya mendesain sistem kelistrikan untuk ORF di Celukan Bawang – Buleleng. LNG didistribusikan menuju ke tiga pembangkit listrik yang ada di Bali: Pesanggaran, Gilimanuk, dan Pemaron. Beberapa peralatan utama dari ORF yang dipertimbangkan adalah tangki penyimpanan, kompresor BOG, recondenser, pompa kriogenik, loading arm dan lainnya, dengan total kebutuhan daya sebesar 214,6 kW. Peralatan tersebut membutuhkan sistem supply listrik yang dapat memenuhi kebutuhan listrik dari seluruh peralatan di ORF. Terdapat tiga alternatif dari sumber listrik, yaitu diesel engine generator, gas engine generator, dan supply listrik dari PLN (Perusahaan Listrik Negara. Alternatif terbaik kemudian akan dipilih menggunakan metode TOPSIS dengan dua metode pembobotan yang berbeda. Studi ini menunjukkan bahwa alternatif terbaik adalah supply listrik dari PLN. Dengan menggunakan hasil seleksi, akan dibuat desain sistem kelistrikan untuk ORF dan setiap terminal penerima LNG mini di setiap pembangkit listrik yang terdiri dari wiring diagram dan oneline diagram.

  20. Disruption of lolCDE, Encoding an ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter, Is Lethal for Escherichia coli and Prevents Release of Lipoproteins from the Inner Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Kimie; Matsuyama, Shin-ichi; Tokuda, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter LolCDE was previously identified, by using reconstituted proteoliposomes, as an apparatus catalyzing the release of outer membrane-specific lipoproteins from the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. Mutations resulting in defective LolD were previously shown to be lethal for E. coli. The amino acid sequences of LolC and LolE are similar to each other, but the necessity of both proteins for lipoprotein release has not been proved. Moreover, previous reconstituti...

  1. Effectiveness of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in the treatment of adenomyosis diagnosed and monitored by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragheto, Aristides M; Caserta, Nelson; Bahamondes, Luis; Petta, Carlos A

    2007-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) on adenomyotic lesions diagnosed and monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). LNG-IUS was inserted during menstrual bleeding in 29 women, 24 to 46 years of age, with MRI-diagnosed adenomyosis associated with menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea. Clinical evaluations were carried out at baseline and at 3 and 6 months postinsertion. MRI was performed at baseline and at 6 months postinsertion and was used to calculate junctional zone thickness (in mm), to define the junctional zone borders, to identify the presence of high-signal foci on T(2)-weighted images and to calculate uterine volume (in mL). A significant reduction of 24.2% in junctional zone thickness was observed (puterine volume was observed (142.6 mL vs. 136.4 mL; p=.2077) between baseline and the 6-month evaluation. A significant decrease in pain score was observed at 3 and 6 months after insertion (p3 at 6 months of observation. At 3 months of use, the most common bleeding pattern was spotting, and at 6 months of observation, oligomenorrhea was the most common pattern observed, although spotting was present in one third of the women. The insertion of an LNG-IUS led to a reduction in pain and abnormal bleeding associated with adenomyosis. MRI was useful for monitoring response of adenomyotic lesions to the LNG-IUS.

  2. The dependencies for determining the cargo capacity of lng carriers with spherical tanks and membrane tanks at the initial stages of design

    OpenAIRE

    Xinshuo, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The boiling point of liquefied natural gas (LNG) reaches –163 °c, it means that it is necessary to use the special cargo tanks for the LNG carriers to ensure the safety of transport. In this article, the general classification of the cargo system in the LNG carriers at the first time of their operation is demonstrated. And the author summarizes the process of development of the two most common type of cargo tanks: the spherical Moss types and the membrane types. Moreover, the cargo capacity a...

  3. How the Norwegian Maritime Sector can succeed in internationalizing LNG-technology to Southeast Asia: A Case Study of Rolls-Royce Marine

    OpenAIRE

    Tveten, Rolf Erik; Løset, Gaute Dag

    2012-01-01

    The future potential of LNG as a bunker fuel in the Southeast Asian market is huge, although it is still immature. An emerging market for LNG-propulsion in the region creates a business opportunity for Norwegian companies delivering relevant products and services. This is a summary of the strategy that will yield the highest return on a foreign market entry with focus on export of LNG-technology in the Southeast Asian region. This thesis has assessed the gas producing and consuming countries,...

  4. Natural gas for ship propulsion in Denmark - Possibilities for using LNG and CNG on ferry and cargo routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Nielsen, Jesper B. (LITEHAUZ, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Odgaard, T.; Birkeland, M. (IncentivePartners, Birkeroed (Denmark)); Winter Graugaard, C.; Blikom, L.P. (DNV, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Muro-Sun, N.; Andersen, Morten; OEvlisen, F. (Ramboell Oil and Gas, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The project's main task was to review logistical, technical and economic feasibility for using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as fuel for ship propulsion and the supply of LNG or CNG to Danish ports from existing natural gas lines, trucks or by ship. The following key findings are related to the use of natural gas as fuel for ships in Denmark: Natural gas as propulsion fuel in ships: 1) Advantages: Provide solution to present air emission challenges 2) Barriers: Capital investments large 3) Synergies: Developments in Norway and Baltic Sea area 4) Economy: Positive case for operation for large consumers 5) Future: Develop bunkering options for short sea shipping LNG: 6) Propulsion technology in ships is mature and proven 7) Distribution network not yet developed for use in ships 8) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 9) Can enter existing bunkering value chain CNG: 10) Well developed for land based transport, not yet for shipping 11) Distribution network for natural gas exists in Denmark 12) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 13) No seaborne CNG value chains in operation An immediate focus on the ferry sector in Denmark will reap benefits on a relatively short time scale. For the short sea shipping sector away to promote the conversion to natural gas is to support the development of storage and bunkering facilities in main ports. Given the general expectations in the shipping community LNG will presumably be the de facto choice at least for the 5-10 years ahead and the demand for facilities and bunkers will be for LNG. (LN)

  5. Enhancement of LNG plant propane cycle through waste heat powered absorption cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, P.; Mortazavi, A.; Eveloy, V.; Al-Hashimi, S.; Hwang, Y.; Radermacher, R.

    2012-01-01

    In liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants utilizing sea water for process cooling, both the efficiency and production capacity of the propane cycle decrease with increasing sea water temperature. To address this issue, several propane cycle enhancement approaches are investigated in this study, which require minimal modification of the existing plant configuration. These approaches rely on the use of gas turbine waste heat powered water/lithium bromide absorption cooling to either (i) subcool propane after the propane cycle condenser, or (ii) reduce propane cycle condensing pressure through pre-cooling of condenser cooling water. In the second approach, two alternative methods of pre-cooling condenser cooling water are considered, which consist of an open sea water loop, and a closed fresh water loop. In addition for all cases, three candidate absorption chiller configurations are evaluated, namely single-effect, double-effect, and cascaded double- and single-effect chillers. The thermodynamic performance of each propane cycle enhancement scheme, integrated in an actual LNG plant in the Persian Gulf, is evaluated using actual plant operating data. Subcooling propane after the propane cycle condenser is found to improve propane cycle total coefficient of performance (COP T ) and cooling capacity by 13% and 23%, respectively. The necessary cooling load could be provided by either a single-effect, double-effect or cascaded and single- and double-effect absorption refrigeration cycle recovering waste heat from a single gas turbine operated at full load. Reducing propane condensing pressure using a closed fresh water condenser cooling loop is found result in propane cycle COP T and cooling capacity enhancements of 63% and 22%, respectively, but would require substantially higher capital investment than for propane subcooling, due to higher cooling load and thus higher waste heat requirements. Considering the present trend of short process enhancement payback periods in the

  6. Working Inside for Smoking Elimination (Project W.I.S.E. study design and rationale to prevent return to smoking after release from a smoke free prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarcerated individuals suffer disproportionately from the health effects of tobacco smoking due to the high smoking prevalence in this population. In addition there is an over-representation of ethnic and racial minorities, impoverished individuals, and those with mental health and drug addictions in prisons. Increasingly, prisons across the U.S. are becoming smoke free. However, relapse to smoking is common upon release from prison, approaching 90% within a few weeks. No evidence based treatments currently exist to assist individuals to remain abstinent after a period of prolonged, forced abstinence. Methods/Design This paper describes the design and rationale of a randomized clinical trial to enhance smoking abstinence rates among individuals following release from a tobacco free prison. The intervention is six weekly sessions of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy initiated approximately six weeks prior to release from prison. The control group views six time matched videos weekly starting about six weeks prior to release. Assessments take place in-person 3 weeks after release and then for non-smokers every 3 months up to 12 months. Smoking status is confirmed by urine cotinine. Discussion Effective interventions are greatly needed to assist these individuals to remain smoke free and reduce health disparities among this socially and economically challenged group. Trial Registration NCT01122589

  7. Intersecting epidemics of HIV, HCV, and syphilis among soon-to-be released prisoners in Kyrgyzstan: Implications for prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbel, Lyuba; Polonsky, Maxim; Wegman, Martin; Shumskaya, Natalya; Kurmanalieva, Ainura; Asanov, Akylbek; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-11-01

    Central Asia is afflicted with increasing HIV incidence, low antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage and increasing AIDS mortality, driven primarily by people who inject drugs (PWID). Reliable data about HIV, other infectious diseases, and substance use disorders in prisoners in this region is lacking and could provide important insights into how to improve HIV prevention and treatment efforts in the region. A randomly sampled, nationwide biobehavioural health survey was conducted in 8 prisons in Kyrgyzstan among all soon-to-be-released prisoners; women were oversampled. Consented participants underwent computer-assisted, standardized behavioural health assessment surveys and testing for HIV, HCV, HBV, and syphilis. Prevalence and means were computed, and generalized linear modelling was conducted, with all analyses using weights to account for disproportionate sampling by strata. Among 381 prisoners who underwent consent procedures, 368 (96.6%) were enrolled in the study. Women were significantly older than men (40.6 vs. 36.5; p=0.004). Weighted prevalence (%), with confidence interval (CI), for each infection was high: HCV (49.7%; CI: 44.8-54.6%), syphilis (19.2%; CI: 15.1-23.5%), HIV (10.3%; CI: 6.9-13.8%), and HBV (6.2%; CI: 3.6-8.9%). Among the 31 people with HIV, 46.5% were aware of being HIV-infected. Men, compared to women, were significantly more likely to have injected drugs (38.3% vs.16.0%; p=0.001). Pre-incarceration and within-prison drug injection, primarily of opioids, was 35.4% and 30.8%, respectively. Independent correlates of HIV infection included lifetime drug injection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=38.75; p=0.001), mean number of years injecting (AOR=0.93; p=0.018), mean number of days experiencing drug problems (AOR=1.09; p=0.025), increasing duration of imprisonment (AOR=1.08; p=0.02 for each year) and having syphilis (AOR=3.51; p=0.003), while being female (AOR=3.06; p=0.004) and being a recidivist offender (AOR=2.67; p=0.008) were independently

  8. Short- and long-term influence of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena®) on vaginal microbiota and Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert Gerard Ghislain; Bellen, G; Ruban, Kateryna; Van Bulck, Ben

    2018-03-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal infections are a frequent complaint in young women in need of contraception. However, the influence of the contraceptive method on the course of the disease is not well known. To investigate the influence of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine-system (LNG-IUS) on the vaginal microflora. Short-term (3 months) and long-term (1 to 5 years) changes of vaginal microbiota were compared with pre-insertion values in 252 women presenting for LNG-IUS insertion. Detailed microscopy on vaginal fluid was used to define lactobacillary grades (LBGs), bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV) and the presence of Candida. Cultures for enteric aerobic bacteria and Candida were used to back up the microscopy findings. Fisher's test was used to compare vaginal microbiome changes pre- and post-insertion. Compared to the pre-insertion period, we found a temporary worsening in LBGs and increased rates of BV and AV after 3 months of LNG-IUS. After 1 and 5 years, however, these changes were reversed, with a complete restoration to pre-insertion levels. Candida increased significantly after long-term carriage of LNG-IUS compared to the period before insertion [OR 2.0 (CL951.1-3.5), P=0.017]. Short-term use of LNG-IUS temporarily decreases lactobacillary dominance, and increases LBG, AV and BV, but after 1 to 5 years these characteristics return to pre-insertion levels, reducing the risk of complications to baseline levels. Candida colonization, on the other hand, is twice as high after 1 to 5 years of LNG-IUS use, making it less indicated for long-term use in patients with or at risk for recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis.

  9. Experimental study on flow boiling heat transfer of LNG in a vertical smooth tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Shi, Yumei

    2013-10-01

    An experimental apparatus is set up in this work to study the upward flow boiling heat transfer characteristics of LNG (liquefied natural gas) in vertical smooth tubes with inner diameters of 8 mm and 14 mm. The experiments were performed at various inlet pressures from 0.3 to 0.7 MPa. The results were obtained over the mass flux range from 16 to 200 kg m-2 s-1 and heat fluxes ranging from 8.0 to 32 kW m-2. The influences of quality, heat flux and mass flux, tube diameter on the heat transfer characteristic are examined and discussed. The comparisons of the experimental heat transfer coefficients with the predicted values from the existing correlations are analyzed. The correlation by Zou et al. [16] shows the best accuracy with the RMS deviation of 31.7% in comparison with the experimental data.

  10. Static equilibrium analysis for pipeline protection design in Iran LNG port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdollahi, A.S.; Vakili, R. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alielahi, H. [Islamic Azad Univ., Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the protection design for an intake seawater pipeline that will be built for a liquefied natural gas (LNG) project. The limit equilibrium approach was used to estimate the geometry of the protection layer with respect to the holding capacity of the drag anchors in cohesionless soil, incorporating a more realistic 3-dimensional failure pattern in the soil as well as the force acting on the back of the fluke. The study addressed all technical and executive points related to the pipeline construction, including anchor type, ship load, geotechnical properties of the protected zone and the underlying seabed, and the procedure to calculate the geometry of the protection layer. The protection layer must account for the complexity of interactions among anchor, anchor chain, sea bed, and rock armour. This analytical method provided logical results more quickly and at a lower cost than model testing. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  11. DsbA-L prevents obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance by suppressing the mtDNA release-activated cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue plays a key role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying obesity-induced inflammation remain elusive. Here we show that obesity promotes mtDNA release into the cytosol, where it triggers inflammatory responses by activating the...

  12. The heparin-binding domain of HB-EGF mediates localization to sites of cell-cell contact and prevents HB-EGF proteolytic release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, Robin N.; Schreiter, Eric R.; Zou, Peng; Wiley, H. S.; Ting, Alice Y.; Lee, Richard T.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2010-07-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a ligand for EGF receptor (EGFR) and possesses the ability to signal in juxtacrine, autocrine and/or paracrine mode, with these alternatives being governed by the degree of proteolytic release of the ligand. Although the spatial range of diffusion of released HB-EGF is restricted by binding heparan-sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in the extracellular matrix and/or cellular glycocalyx, ascertaining mechanisms governing non-released HB-EGF localization is also important for understanding its effects. We have employed a new method for independently tracking the localization of the extracellular EGFlike domain of HB-EGF and the cytoplasmic C-terminus. A striking observation was the absence of the HB-EGF transmembrane proform from the leading edge of COS-7 cells in a wound-closure assay; instead, this protein localized in regions of cell-cell contact. A battery of detailed experiments found that this localization derives from a trans interaction between extracellular HSPGs and the HBEGF heparin-binding domain, and that disruption of this interaction leads to increased release of soluble ligand and a switch in cell phenotype from juxtacrine-induced growth inhibition to autocrine-induced proliferation. Our results indicate that extracellular HSPGs serve to sequester the transmembrane pro-form of HB-EGF at the point of cell-cell contact, and that this plays a role in governing the balance between juxtacrine versus autocrine and paracrine signaling.

  13. Brazil's insertion in the international LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) route; A insercao do Brasil na rota internacional de GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueng, Stephan de Carvalho; Bastos, Filipe Sant' Ana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the late 1990's, PETROBRAS began considering diversifying its energy sources. This included the possibility of importing LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), making it one additional source for gas supply in Brazil. There is a belief that the imported LNG is the cheapest, quickest and most efficient option in terms of infrastructure compared to other transportation, such as pipelines. This will permit an increase in gas supply, given the growing demand for this energy source in the domestic market. The current international LNG trading market is adjusting itself to the world integration, where short-term (spot) agreements prevail. These agreements have many advantages, such as: lowering fixed trading costs; the possibility to diversify suppliers; minimizing gas supply risk; and facilitating import market supply adjustment. In Brazil, the main objective to import LNG is to supply natural gas (NG) to thermal plants, supplementing the hydroelectric - gas integration of the electric system. For the accomplishment of this project, it is forecasted the construction of LNG offloading terminals, together with the construction of gas distribution networks. Therefore, LNG transportation will guarantee security in supply, permit the diversification of the NG supply source and enable the increased use of NG in the Brazilian energy grid. (author)

  14. LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): the natural gas becoming a world commodity and creating international price references; GNL (Gas Natural Liquefeito): o gas natural se tornando uma commodity mundial e criando referencias de preco internacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demori, Marcio Bastos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Comercializacao de Gas e GNL; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    The transportation of large quantities of natural gas through long distances has been done more frequently by Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The increase of natural gas demand and the distance of major reserves, allied to technological improvements and cost reduction through LNG supply chain, have triggered the expressive increase of LNG world market This paper tries to evaluate the influence that LNG should cause on natural gas world market dynamic, analyzing the tendency of gas to become a world commodity, creating international price references, like oil and its derivates. For this, are shown data as natural gas world reserves, the participation of LNG in natural gas world market and their increase. Furthermore, will be analyzed the interaction between major natural gas reserves and their access to major markets, still considering scheduled LNG projects, the following impacts from their implementation and price arbitrage that should be provoked on natural gas markets. (author)

  15. LNG vapor dispersion prediction with the DEGADIS dense-gas dispersion model. Topical report, April 1988-July 1990. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havens, J.; Spicer, T.

    1990-09-01

    The topical report is one of a series on the development of methods for LNG vapor dispersion prediction for regulatory application. The results indicate that the DEGADIS model is superior both phenomenologically and in performance to the Gaussian line source model promulgated in 49 CFR 193 for LNG vapor dispersion simulation. Availability of the DEGADIS model for VAX and IBM-PC formats provides for wider use of the model and greater potential for industry and regulatory acceptance. The acceptance is seen as an important interim objective while research continues on vapor dispersion estimation methods which provide for effects of vapor detention systems, turbulence induced by plant structure, and plant/area topographical features

  16. THE USE OF GENERATING SETS WITH lNG GAS ENGINES IN “SHORE TO SHIP” SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz TARNAPOWICZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main sources of air pollution in ports are ships, on which electrical energy is produced in the autonomous gener-ating sets Diesel-Generator. The most effective way to reduce harmful exhaust emissions from ships is to exclude marine generating sets and provide the shore-side electricity in “Shore to Ship” system. The main problem in the implementa-tion of power supply for ships from land is connected with matching parameters of voltage in onshore network with marine network. Currently, the recommended solution is to supply ships from the onshore electricity network with the use of power electronic converters. This article presents an analysis of the „Shore to Ship” system with the use of gener-ating sets with LNG gas engines. It shows topologies with LNG – Generator sets, environmental benefits of such a solu-tion, advantages and disadvantages.

  17. New economical concept of maritime terminal for LNG; Nouveau concept de terminal maritime a cout reduit pour le GNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, B. [EURODIM S.A. (France)

    2000-07-01

    This series of slides present a new concept of marine terminal for LNG tanker-ships that requires less investments and offers a better adaptability to loading/unloading sites with a bad accessibility. This concept uses flexible cryogenic flow-lines developed by Coflexip Stena Offshore, double-envelope submarine pipes with a reinforced thermal insulation and the multi-purpose cryogenic connection module developed by Eurodim S.A. (J.S.)

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel dual-loop organic Rankine cycle for engine waste heat and LNG cold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Taehong; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel dual ORC system is designed for engine waste heat and LNG cold. • Exhaust gas and jacket cooling water are considered as heat sources. • LNG and boil-off gas are considered as heat sinks. • ORC loops are optimized to produce the maximum net work output. - Abstract: The marine sector produces a large portion of total air pollution, so the emissions of the engines used must be improved. This can be achieved using a new eco-friendly engine and waste-heat recovery system. A dual-fuel (DF) engine has been introduced for LNG carriers that is eco-friendly and has high thermal efficiency since it uses natural gas as fuel. The thermal efficiency could be further improved with the organic Rankine cycle (ORC). A novel dual-loop ORC system was designed for DF engines. The upper ORC loop recovers waste heat from the exhaust gas, and the bottom ORC loop recovers waste heat from the jacket cooling water and LNG cold. Both ORC loops were optimized to produce the maximum net work output. The optimum simple dual-loop ORC with n-pentane and R125 as working fluids produces an additional power output of 729.1 kW, which is 4.15% of the original engine output. Further system improvement studies were conducted using a recuperator and preheater, and the feasibility of using boil-off gas as a heat sink was analyzed. Optimization of the system configuration revealed that the preheater and recuperator with n-pentane and R125 as working fluids increase the maximum net work output by 906.4 kW, which is 5.17% of the original engine output.

  19. Enhancement of energy performance in a boil-off gas re-liquefaction system of LNG carriers using ejectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Hongbo; Zhao, Qingxuan; Sun, Nannan; Li, Yanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An ejector-enhanced LNG boil-off gas (BOG) re-liquefaction system is proposed. • The new system has an improvement of 28% in COP over the existing system. • The specific energy consumption of the new system is reduced to 0.59 kW h/kg(BOG). • The power consumption of 754.1 kW is saved in the case study. - Abstract: An ejector-enhanced Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) boil-off gas (BOG) re-liquefaction system is proposed to improve the energy efficiency of the existing system. In the new system, two ejectors are respectively used to reduce the energy loss in the expansion of the pressurized BOG and inject a part of fuel BOG into the compression system, and a recuperator is employed to recover the cold energy of the BOG exited from LNG tank. The performance improvement of the proposed system is analysed on the basis of the simulation in Aspen HYSYS. In the case of the re-liquefaction capacity of 4557.6 kg/h, the coefficient of performance (COP) and exergy efficiency can be increased by 28%, and the specific energy consumption (SEC) reduced from 0.756 to 0.59 kW h/kg(BOG) compared to the conventional BOG re-liquefaction system. Correspondingly, the power consumption of 754.1 kW is saved. This means that applying ejectors can effectively improve the energy efficiency of the existing BOG re-liquefaction system for LNG carriers.

  20. Effect of BMI and body weight on pregnancy rates with LNG as emergency contraception: analysis of four WHO HRP studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festin, Mario Philip R; Peregoudov, Alexandre; Seuc, Armando; Kiarie, James; Temmerman, Marleen

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the effect of increased body weight and body mass index (BMI) on pregnancy rates with levonorgestrel (LNG) 1.5mg used as emergency contraception (EC). The study reviewed data from 6873 women in four WHO-HRP randomized trials on EC conducted between 1993 and 2010. Participants took either 1.5mg of LNG as a single dose or in two doses 12h apart, up to 120h of unprotected intercourse. Contraceptive efficacy (pregnancy rates) at different weight and BMI categories was evaluated. Overall pregnancy rate was low at 1.2%. Pregnancy rates were also low in women weighing over 80kg (0.7%) and who were obese (BMI over 30kg/m 2 ) (2.0%). The pooled analyses for pregnancy demonstrated that BMI over 30kg/m 2 decreased efficacy significantly (odds ratio 8.27, 95% confidence interval = 2.70-25.37) when compared to women in lower BMI categories, mainly influenced by pregnancies in obese women from one study site. Sensitivity analyses excluding that site showed that obesity was no longer a risk factor; however, the other studies included too few obese women in the sample to exclude a substantial decrease in efficacy. Pregnancy rates with use of LNG 1.5mg for EC were low at less than 3% across different weight and BMI categories. Pooled analyses showed an increase in pregnancy rates among obese women (BMI more than 30kg/m 2 ) compared to women with normal BMI levels, influenced by pregnancies all coming from one study site. Access to LNG as EC should still be promoted to women who need them, and not be restricted in any weight or BMI category, with additional attention for counselling and advice for obese women. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. On the conceptual design of pre-cooling stage of LNG plants using propane or an ethane/propane mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, L.; Dorao, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► LNG technologies are differentiated by heat exchanger type, compressor/driver, refrigerant type and others. ► The design of the pre-cooling system on the LNG technologies should start by compressor definition. ► Thermodynamically, pre-cooling based on a C3 has higher advantages than C 2 /C 3 mixed refrigerant cycle. ► The pre-cooling system needs to consider aspects: equipment number, costs, plot area, safety. ► A proper model is required for selection of the pre-cooling, including all aspects that could affect the costs. - Abstract: Today, LNG technologies are based on pure and mixed refrigerants cycles on the pre-cooling system, but the advantages and disadvantages of considering a mixed refrigerant or pure refrigerant cycle in the pre-cooling stage is not well understood. In this work an analysis of the compressors and the refrigerants in the pre-cooling system is carried out. The most relevant aspect of the evaluation is to establish some thermodynamical criteria for the selecting of the suitable refrigerant for the pre-cooling stage. For final decision-making process of the selection of the pre-cooling stage, a proper model is required which should take into account all aspects that could affect the capital and operation costs.

  2. A new boil-off gas re-liquefaction system for LNG carriers based on dual mixed refrigerant cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hongbo; Shan, Siyu; Nie, Yang; Zhao, Qingxuan

    2018-06-01

    A new boil-off gas (BOG) re-liquefaction system for LNG carriers has been proposed to improve the system energy efficiency. Two cascade mixed refrigerant cycles (or dual mixed refrigerant cycle, DMR) are used to provide the cooling capacity for the re-liquefaction of BOG. The performance of the new system is analysed on the basis of the thermodynamic data obtained in the process simulation in Aspen HYSYS software. The results show that the power consumed in the BOG compressor and the high-temperature mixed refrigerant compressor could be saved greatly due to the reduced mass flow rates of the processed fluids. Assuming the re-liquefaction capacity of the investigated system is 4557.6 kg/h, it is found that the total power consumption can be reduced by 25%, from 3444 kW in the existing system to 2585.8 kW in the proposed system. The coefficient of performance (COP) of 0.25, exergy efficiency of 41.3% and the specific energy consumption (SEC) of 0.589 kWh/kg(LNG) could be achieved in the new system. It exhibits 33% of improvement in the COP and exergy efficiency in comparison with the corresponding values of the existing system. It indicates that employing the DMR based BOG re-liquefaction system could improve the system energy efficiency of LNG carriers substantially.

  3. Knowledge based decision making method for the selection of mixed refrigerant systems for energy efficient LNG processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Mohd Shariq; Lee, Sanggyu; Rangaiah, G.P.; Lee, Moonyong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Practical method for finding optimum refrigerant composition is proposed for LNG plant. • Knowledge of boiling point differences in refrigerant component is employed. • Implementation of process knowledge notably makes LNG process energy efficient. • Optimization of LNG plant is more transparent using process knowledge. - Abstract: Mixed refrigerant (MR) systems are used in many industrial applications because of their high energy efficiency, compact design and energy-efficient heat transfer compared to other processes operating with pure refrigerants. The performance of MR systems depends strongly on the optimum refrigerant composition, which is difficult to obtain. This paper proposes a simple and practical method for selecting the appropriate refrigerant composition, which was inspired by (i) knowledge of the boiling point difference in MR components, and (ii) their specific refrigeration effect in bringing a MR system close to reversible operation. A feasibility plot and composite curves were used for full enforcement of the approach temperature. The proposed knowledge-based optimization approach was described and applied to a single MR and a propane precooled MR system for natural gas liquefaction. Maximization of the heat exchanger exergy efficiency was considered as the optimization objective to achieve an energy efficient design goal. Several case studies on single MR and propane precooled MR processes were performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The application of the proposed method is not restricted to liquefiers, and can be applied to any refrigerator and cryogenic cooler where a MR is involved

  4. The antiviral drug tenofovir, an inhibitor of Pannexin-1-mediated ATP release, prevents liver and skin fibrosis by downregulating adenosine levels in the liver and skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Feig

    Full Text Available Fibrosing diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and, therefore, there is a need for safe and effective antifibrotic therapies. Adenosine, generated extracellularly by the dephosphorylation of adenine nucleotides, ligates specific receptors which play a critical role in development of hepatic and dermal fibrosis. Results of recent clinical trials indicate that tenofovir, a widely used antiviral agent, reverses hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Belonging to the class of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates, tenofovir is an analogue of AMP. We tested the hypothesis that tenofovir has direct antifibrotic effects in vivo by interfering with adenosine pathways of fibrosis using two distinct models of adenosine and A2AR-mediated fibrosis.Thioacetamide (100mg/kg IP-treated mice were treated with vehicle, or tenofovir (75mg/kg, SubQ (n = 5-10. Bleomycin (0.25U, SubQ-treated mice were treated with vehicle or tenofovir (75mg/kg, IP (n = 5-10. Adenosine levels were determined by HPLC, and ATP release was quantitated as luciferase-dependent bioluminescence. Skin breaking strength was analysed and H&E and picrosirus red-stained slides were imaged. Pannexin-1expression was knocked down following retroviral-mediated expression of of Pannexin-1-specific or scrambled siRNA.Treatment of mice with tenofovir diminished adenosine release from the skin of bleomycin-treated mice and the liver of thioacetamide-treated mice, models of diffuse skin fibrosis and hepatic cirrhosis, respectively. More importantly, tenofovir treatment diminished skin and liver fibrosis in these models. Tenofovir diminished extracellular adenosine concentrations by inhibiting, in a dose-dependent fashion, cellular ATP release but not in cells lacking Pannexin-1.These studies suggest that tenofovir, a widely used antiviral agent, could be useful in the treatment of fibrosing diseases.

  5. Medicare Program; Revisions to Payment Policies Under the Physician Fee Schedule and Other Revisions to Part B for CY 2017; Medicare Advantage Bid Pricing Data Release; Medicare Advantage and Part D Medical Loss Ratio Data Release; Medicare Advantage Provider Network Requirements; Expansion of Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program Model; Medicare Shared Savings Program Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    This major final rule addresses changes to the physician fee schedule and other Medicare Part B payment policies, such as changes to the Value Modifier, to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services, as well as changes in the statute. This final rule also includes changes related to the Medicare Shared Savings Program, requirements for Medicare Advantage Provider Networks, and provides for the release of certain pricing data from Medicare Advantage bids and of data from medical loss ratio reports submitted by Medicare health and drug plans. In addition, this final rule expands the Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program model.

  6. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  7. Technology qualification of an ambient pressure subsea cryogenic pipeline for offshore LNG loading and receiving terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Afzal; Viteri, Martha; D' Angelo, Luis [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Prescott, Neal; Zhang, Jeff [Fluor Corporation, Irving, TX (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A project that deploys new technologies need to be confident that the technology can be implemented successfully and will perform reliably as designed. New technology is critical to industry, especially where such technology is a project enable without the existence of a backup solution, but also for projects where such technologies bring potential benefits such as technical, economic, schedule, and environmental improvements. DNV developed and has been implementing for many years a systematic, risk based technology qualification process as described in DNV RP-A203, qualification procedures for new technology. One of the major objectives of a formal technology qualification process is to ensure that risks are properly addressed. The DNV process includes several levels of technology qualification and review, starting with a statement of feasibility and concluding with a Certificate of Fitness for Service. Fluor Corporation (Fluor) has developed a new subsea cryogenic pipe-in-pipe configuration for offshore LNG loading and receiving terminals. The configuration uses a highly efficient thermal nano-porous insulation in the annular space between the inner and outer pipes. This material is kept in an ambient pressure environment, which is produced through sealing by metal bulkheads. The bulkheads transfer the contraction induced axial compression load on the inner cryogenic carrier pipe to the external jacket pipe. The resulting pipeline bundle is a structural element, which addresses the thermal contraction and expansion loads without the use of expansion bellows or ultra-low thermal contraction alloys. Fluor has followed the DNV technology qualification process to achieve the defined milestones therein which culminated in DNV issuing a certificate of fitness for service. Particular focus was put on the new aspects of the design. The certificate of fitness for service for the Fluor subsea LNG pipe technology provides project management with the confidence that this

  8. DsbA-L prevents obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance by suppressing the mtDNA release-activated cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Juli; Cervantes, Christopher; Liu, Juan; He, Sijia; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhang, Bilin; Cai, Huan; Yin, Dongqing; Hu, Derong; Li, Zhi; Chen, Hongzhi; Gao, Xiaoli; Wang, Fang; O'Connor, Jason C; Xu, Yong; Liu, Meilian; Dong, Lily Q; Liu, Feng

    2017-11-14

    Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue plays a key role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying obesity-induced inflammation remain elusive. Here we show that obesity promotes mtDNA release into the cytosol, where it triggers inflammatory responses by activating the DNA-sensing cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway. Fat-specific knockout of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), a chaperone-like protein originally identified in the mitochondrial matrix, impaired mitochondrial function and promoted mtDNA release, leading to activation of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway and inflammatory responses. Conversely, fat-specific overexpression of DsbA-L protected mice against high-fat diet-induced activation of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway and inflammation. Taken together, we identify DsbA-L as a key molecule that maintains mitochondrial integrity. DsbA-L deficiency promotes inflammation and insulin resistance by activating the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway. Our study also reveals that, in addition to its well-characterized roles in innate immune surveillance, the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway plays an important role in mediating obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction.

  9. Dose-dependent sustained local release of dexamethasone from biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogel of PEG-PLGA-PEG triblock copolymers in the possible prevention of TMJ re-ankylosis (Arakeri's TMJ release technique).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Brennan, Peter A

    2012-05-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a devastating anatomico-pathological condition which severely affects the quality of human health. Over the last 70 years various treatments have been described to treat this distressing condition. But no single method has uniformly produced successful results. Although various surgical techniques have been improved periodically, the treatment results remain inefficient due to its recurrence as TMJ re-adhesion. Since recurrence remains as a problem in many cases, the TMJ ankylosis presents a major therapeutic challenge in head and neck surgery. The re-ankylosis is a unique phenomenon that so far has defied a full and logical explanation, based upon biological and mechanical factors that are linked together in a coherent fashion. Many factors have been implicated in the development of re-adhesion following TMJ surgery. But still the mechanism by which the TMJ re-adhesion develops is unclear. Hence, TMJ ankylosis demands an alternative effective treatment modality to prevent its recurrence as re-ankylosis. This paper postulates some critical biological factors responsible for re-ankylosis based on which a novel treatment modality is also proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Deliberation of the French Energy Regulatory Commission of 18 January 2017 forming a decision on the tariffs for the use of regulated LNG terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Philippe de; Chauvet, Christine; Edwige, Catherine; Gassin, Helene; Sotura, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The new tariffs for the use of regulated LNG terminals in Montoir-de-Bretagne (Montoir) and Fos Tonkin, which are operated by Elengy, and for the Fos Cavaou terminal, which is operated by Fosmax LNG, known as 'ATTM51', take effect on 1 April 2017 for a period of approximately four years. They were adopted after a broad consultation of stakeholders and following studies that were made public. The ATTM5 tariffs offer all stakeholders visibility on the changes to tariffs between 2017 and 2021, and provide incentive to LNG terminal operators to improve their efficiency in terms of both cost control and the service quality provided to the users of their terminals. The ATTM5 tariffs show a significant reduction compared to the ATTM4 tariffs: the decrease of the average unit tariff for the ATTM5 period is of 6.5 % for Montoir, 18.2 % for Fos Tonkin, and 18.6 % for Fos Cavaou. These decreases are mainly due to the lower return on assets. To a lesser extent, the reduced operating expenses reinforce the tariff reduction. They can be partly explained by the reduced expenditure related to the decrease in activity, and by the higher productivity achieved by Elengy and Fosmax LNG over the ATTM4 period, enabling the LNG terminal users to benefit from this. The ATTM5 tariffs introduce a change to the structure of the services offer. They create in particular a basic service, the main offer of the LNG terminal operators, which can be supplemented by the subscription to a uniform option. They extend several experimental services initiated during the ATTM4 tariff period. They increase the flexibility available to the terminal's clients on their subscriptions. Finally, they give Fosmax LNG the possibility to offer over the long-term the 10 % capacity previously restricted to the short-term subscriptions

  11. Technological Innovation in the downstream gas market: Studying the economics of LNG distribution systems with a focus on Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, Reinhard; Jarlsby, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Prospects for the market diffusion of natural gas, apart from other factors, depend strongly on the limitations set by the supply infrastructure. One of these limitations is determined by the economic viability of extending the distribution infrastructure, which can vary widely depending on the technology chosen and the prevailing local circumstances. While large-scale pipeline-based systems benefit from economies of scale, they require huge initial capital investments and may in certain cases not be economical at all, or only after excessively long payback periods, especially when end-use energy densities are low, growth in demand slow, and the topography difficult. This paper focuses on the economics of adoption and diffusion of innovative small- and medium-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) distribution systems, as compared to large pipeline-based distribution systems, with a particular focus on the situation in Norway. We address issues such as scale economies, learning effects, technological lock-in, niche market formation, and flexibility. Besides, we look at both the complementarity and competition among grid-based and LNG-based gas distribution systems. Finally, we briefly touch upon tax issues and political considerations. In Norway, the debate on natural gas extension has become controversial and politicized in recent years. On the one hand, certain stakeholders lobby for heavy, state-sponsored investment into one or more pipelines, which would bring large quantities of natural gas to industrial centers, at least some of which have struggled to maintain their market position in the past. On the other hand, there are stakeholders that have argued for the promotion of modular and more flexible small-scale LNG technology systems that could enhance competition in the gas market, and provide end-users with natural gas that would otherwise not be connected to the grid. Under present regulatory and market conditions in Norway, LNG supply to end users is

  12. Can Lactobacillus fermentum LF10 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA02 in a slow-release vaginal product be useful for prevention of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis?: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murina, Filippo; Graziottin, Alessandra; Vicariotto, Franco; De Seta, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the association of 2 specific strains, Lactobacillus fermentum LF10 (DSM 19187) and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA02 (DSM 21717), specifically formulated in slow-release effervescent tablets, in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. The study was a clinical trial of 58 women diagnosed with recurrent VVC (≥4 culture-confirmed episodes in a 12-mo period). All patients were given 200 mg of fluconazole orally as an induction dose for 3 alternate days during the first treatment week. Afterward, the patients were given a new product formulated in slow-release vaginal tablets containing at least 0.4 billion live cells of each of lactobacillus L. fermentum LF10 and L. acidophilus LA02 (first phase of the prophylactic period), on alternate days for 10 consecutive nights. Patients who were still free of symptoms were given 1 vaginal tablet every week for the next 10 weeks (second phase of the prophylactic period). Patients asymptomatic after the total duration of the observation phase (7 mo) were considered as responders. During the second 10-week prophylactic phase, 49 of 57 (86.0%) patients remained free of clinical recurrence, whereas symptomatic VVC occurred in 8 patients (14.0%). During the 7-month follow-up, 42 patients of 49 (85.7%) were symptom free at the end of the protocol, whereas clinical recurrences occurred in 7 women (14.3%). Overall, 42 of 58 women enrolled in the study (72.4%) experienced no clinical recurrence throughout the 7-month observation phase (responders). This study strengthens the evidence supporting the use of specific lactobacilli with well-demonstrated activities associated with the creation and maintenance of a vaginal biofilm that hinders the persistence of an infection caused by Candida.

  13. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  14. Indicaxanthin inhibits NADPH oxidase (NOX)-1 activation and NF-κB-dependent release of inflammatory mediators and prevents the increase of epithelial permeability in IL-1β-exposed Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriere, L; Attanzio, A; Allegra, M; Gentile, C; Livrea, M A

    2014-02-01

    Dietary redox-active/antioxidant phytochemicals may help control or mitigate the inflammatory response in chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, the anti-inflammatory activity of indicaxanthin (Ind), a pigment from the edible fruit of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica, L.), was shown in an IBD model consisting of a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Caco-2 cells) stimulated by IL-1β, a cytokine known to play a major role in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory activity in IBD. The exposure of Caco-2 cells to IL-1β brought about the activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX-1) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to activate intracellular signalling leading to the activation of NF-κB, with the over-expression of inflammatory enzymes and release of pro-inflammatory mediators. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind, at a nutritionally relevant concentration (5-25 μM), and IL-1β prevented the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, PGE2 and NO, the formation of ROS and the loss of thiols in a dose-dependent manner. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind and IL-1β also prevented the IL-1β-induced increase of epithelial permeability. It was also shown that the activation of NOX-1 and NF-κB was prevented by Ind and the expression of COX-2 and inducible NO synthase was reduced. The uptake of Ind in Caco-2 cell monolayers appeared to be unaffected by the inflamed state of the cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the dietary pigment Ind may have the potential to modulate inflammatory processes at the intestinal level.

  15. Development of a 1200 KW/CYL low pressure dual fuel engine for LNG carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosshans, G. [S.E.M.T.-Pielstick, Thermodynamical Project Dept. (France)

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes the design and feasibility tests of a 570 mm bore 4 stroke low pressure (L.P.) dual fuel engine rated at 20.9 bar BMEP meant for the propulsion of LNG carriers. The basic design features which are to be in accordance with classification societies safety rules are described: individual electro hydraulic valves located in the air manifold ducts, pilot injection, monitoring system etc. The engine capability to burn variable liquid/gas fuel proportions have been investigated with diesel oil and heavy fuel and possible running zones are defined. This ensures the possibility of the engine to cope with the different boil off gas quantity emanating from the ship`s tank during her loaded - and ballast - journeys. With the very lean setting of this engine, no adverse influence of the high ash lube-oil additives were found during the tests. Further tests are necessary to confirm that possible more significant fouling of the combustion chamber is still acceptable. (au)

  16. Distillation Calculation for the Separation of {sup 13}CH{sub 4} from LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K.M.; Son, S.H.; Kim, K.S.; Lee, S.K. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    For the purpose of {sup 13}CH{sub 4} production from LNG, the theoretical number of stages and the number of distillation column required for the separation of {sup 13}CH{sub 4} from {sup 12}CH{sub 4}/{sup 13}CH{sub 4} mixture of containing 1%-{sup 13}CH{sub 4} are calculated. Assuming the ideal liquid mixture of containing 1%-{sup 13}CH{sub 4} are calculated. Assuming the ideal liquid mixture of {sup 12}CH{sub 4} and {sup 13}CH{sub 4}, the theoretical number of stages are calculated by smoker equation and FUG method. Using the correlation between the minimum theoretical number of stages and the optimum theoretical number of stages, the number of distillation groups is calculated. From this calculation, we know that 6 groups of distillation tower with 600 stages per one column are needed for the production of 90%-{sup 13}CH{sub 4}. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. The functional improvement and reduction of operators' work at LNG receiving terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Tokyo Gas Negishi Terminal has undergone a series of major changes since starting operation in 1966, including a change in the main feedstock from oil to LNG, and expansion of processing volume and scale. Control of the terminal has been in the form of centralized control and monitoring from a central control room. High technical levels have been maintained, this being one of the first terminals to adopt direct digital control (DDC) as the technology became available. In 1995, a distributed control system (DCS) was introduced as part of a large-scale redevelopment project at the Negishi Terminal, extending the scope of operations and monitoring by operators by full automation of controls, and improvement of functions including integration and upgrading of monitoring. The result has been a significant reduction in the workload on operators. The installation of these functions required further investment of around 1 billion yen, in addition to the cost of renewal of the facility. In spite of the major expansion of the range of facilities under control, the number of operators working 24-hours shifts has been reduced, and over 15 years cost reductions equivalent to around twice the investment cost are expected to be made. (au)

  18. A Novel Multicriteria Evaluation of Small-Scale LNG Supply Alternatives: The Case of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Strantzali

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas as fuel for electricity production has significant advantages, such as the reduction of environmental emissions and the lower operational cost. Due to the flexibility of gas engines, the exploitation of renewable energy sources in an area, can be maximized. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the possibility of LNG supply for sustainable electricity production in insular small-scale electricity systems. A novel multicriteria evaluation model has been developed, based on the methods of Additive Value Model, PROMETHEE and Simos approach. A set of coherent criteria has been selected, that fits perfectly with the demands of this type of problem. The proposed methodology has been implemented in four Greek islands (as they are the most indicative examples and with future perspectives to use natural gas for electricity production and in one power plant in the mainland (as another typical example of small-scale electricity production. The evaluation process included four supply alternatives that cover the annual fuel demands of the examined regions. The obtaining ranking showed that the development of a network supplying individual small-scale terminals in a roundtrip is preferable, compared to the separate supply of each terminal.

  19. Leakage analysis of fuel gas pipe in large LNG carrier engine room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEN Zhuolun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] The electric propulsion dual-fuel engine is becoming dominant in newly built Liquefied Natural Gas(LNGcarriers. To avoid the potential risks that accompany the use of flammable and explosive boil-off gas,the performance of precise safety and reliability assessments is indispensable. [Methods] This research concerns the engine rooms of large LNG carriers which are propelled electrically by a dual-fuel engine. Possible fuel gas(natural gasleak cases in different areas of the engine room are simulated and analyzed. Five representative leak cases defined by leak form,leak location and leak rate are entered into a Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFDsimulation,in which the Reynolds stress model of Fluent software is adopted as the turbulence model. The results of the leaked gas distribution and ventilation velocity field are analyzed in combination to obtain the diffusion tendency and concentration distribution of leaked gas in different areas.[Results] Based on an analysis of the results,an optimized arrangement of flammable gas detectors is provided for the engine room, and the adoption of an explosion-proof exhaust fan is proven to be unnecessary.[Conclusions] These analysis methods can provide a reference for similar gas leakage scenarios occurring in confined ventilated spaces. In addition, the simulation results can be used to quantitatively assess potential fire or explosion damage in order to guide the design of structural reinforcements.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of raising HDL cholesterol by adding prolonged-release nicotinic acid to statin therapy in the secondary prevention setting: a French perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze, S; Ferrières, J; Bruckert, E; Van Ganse, E; Chapman, M J; Liens, D; Renaudin, C

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with add-on nicotinic acid in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and low HDL-C, from the French healthcare system perspective. Computer simulation economic modelling incorporating two decision analytic submodels was used. The first submodel generated a cohort of 2000 patients and simulated lipid changes using baseline characteristics and treatment effects from the ARterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing cholesterol (ARBITER 2) study. Prolonged-release (PR) nicotinic acid (1 g/day) was added in patients with HDL-C costs were accounted from a third party payer perspective [2004 Euros (euro)] and discounted by 3%. Addition of PR nicotinic acid to statin therapy resulted in substantial health gain and increased life expectancy, at a cost well within the threshold (cost-effective in France at a level considered to represent good value for money by reimbursement authorities in Europe. This strategy was highly cost-effective in CHD patients with type 2 diabetes.

  1. Intrathecal application of the nimodipine slow-release microparticle system eg-1962 for prevention of delayed cerebral ischemia and improvement of outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminan, Nima; Macdonald, R Loch; Davis, Cara; Burton, Kevin; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The effective reduction of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), a main contributor for poor outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), remains challenging. Previous clinical trials on systemic pharmaceutical treatment of SAH mostly failed to improve outcome, probably because of insensitive pharmaceutical targets and outcome measures, small sample size, insufficient subarachnoid drug concentrations and also detrimental, systemic effects of the experimental treatment per se. Interestingly, in studies that are more recent, intrathecal administration of nicardipine pellets following surgical aneurysm repair was suggested to have a beneficial effect on DCI and neurological outcome. However, this positive effect remained restricted to patients who were treated surgically for a ruptured aneurysm. Because of the favorable results of the preclinical data on DCI and neurological outcome in the absence of neurotoxicity or systemic side effects, we are initiating clinical trials. The PROMISE (Prolonged Release nimOdipine MIcro particles after Subarachnoid hemorrhage) trial is designed as an unblinded, nonrandomized, single-center, single-dose, dose-escalation safety and tolerability phase 1 study in patients surgically treated for aSAH and will investigate the effect of intracisternal EG-1962 administration. The NEWTON (Nimodipine microparticles to Enhance recovery While reducing TOxicity after subarachNoid hemorrhage) trial is a phase 1/2a multicenter, controlled, randomized, open-label, dose-escalation, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic study comparing EG-1962 and nimodipine in patients with aneurysmal SAH.

  2. GYY4137, an H2S Slow-Releasing Donor, Prevents Nitrative Stress and α-Synuclein Nitration in an MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoou Hou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuromodulator hydrogen sulfide (H2S was shown to exert neuroprotection in different models of Parkinson’s disease (PD via its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. In this study, we evaluated the effect of an H2S slow-releasing compound GYY4137 (GYY on a mouse PD model induced by acute injection with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP. GYY was intraperitoneally (i.p. injected once daily into male C57BL/6J mice 3 days before and 2 weeks after MPTP (14 mg/kg, four times at 2-h intervals, i.p. administration. Saline was given as a control. Behavioral tests (rotarod, balance beam, and grid walking showed that 50 mg/kg GYY significantly ameliorated MPTP-caused motor impairments. At lower doses (12.5 and 25 mg/kg GYY exhibited a less obvious effect. Consistent with this, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis demonstrated that 50 mg/kg GYY attenuated the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH positive neurons in the substantia nigra and the decrease of TH expression in the striatum of MPTP-treated mice. Moreover, at this regimen GYY relieved the nitrative stress, as indicated by the decreases in nitric oxide (NO generation and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS upregulation elicited by MPTP in the striatum. The suppression of GYY on nNOS expression was verified in vitro, and the results further revealed that Akt activation may participate in the inhibition by GYY on nNOS upregulation. More important, GYY reduced the nitrated modification of α-synuclein, a PD-related protein, in MPTP-induced mice. Overall, our findings suggest that GYY attenuated dopaminergic neuron degeneration and reduced α-synuclein nitration in the midbrain, thus exerting neuroprotection in MPTP-induced mouse model of PD.

  3. GYY4137, an H2S Slow-Releasing Donor, Prevents Nitrative Stress and α-Synuclein Nitration in an MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoou; Yuan, Yuqing; Sheng, Yulan; Yuan, Baoshi; Wang, Yali; Zheng, Jiyue; Liu, Chun-Feng; Zhang, Xiaohu; Hu, Li-Fang

    2017-01-01

    The neuromodulator hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) was shown to exert neuroprotection in different models of Parkinson's disease (PD) via its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. In this study, we evaluated the effect of an H 2 S slow-releasing compound GYY4137 (GYY) on a mouse PD model induced by acute injection with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). GYY was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected once daily into male C57BL/6J mice 3 days before and 2 weeks after MPTP (14 mg/kg, four times at 2-h intervals, i.p.) administration. Saline was given as a control. Behavioral tests (rotarod, balance beam, and grid walking) showed that 50 mg/kg GYY significantly ameliorated MPTP-caused motor impairments. At lower doses (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) GYY exhibited a less obvious effect. Consistent with this, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis demonstrated that 50 mg/kg GYY attenuated the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurons in the substantia nigra and the decrease of TH expression in the striatum of MPTP-treated mice. Moreover, at this regimen GYY relieved the nitrative stress, as indicated by the decreases in nitric oxide (NO) generation and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) upregulation elicited by MPTP in the striatum. The suppression of GYY on nNOS expression was verified in vitro , and the results further revealed that Akt activation may participate in the inhibition by GYY on nNOS upregulation. More important, GYY reduced the nitrated modification of α-synuclein, a PD-related protein, in MPTP-induced mice. Overall, our findings suggest that GYY attenuated dopaminergic neuron degeneration and reduced α-synuclein nitration in the midbrain, thus exerting neuroprotection in MPTP-induced mouse model of PD.

  4. Atorvastatin prevents age-related and amyloid-β-induced microglial activation by blocking interferon-γ release from natural killer cells in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Rachael

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglial function is modulated by several factors reflecting the numerous receptors expressed on the cell surface, however endogenous factors which contribute to the age-related increase in microglial activation remain largely unknown. One possible factor which may contribute is interferon-γ (IFNγ. IFNγ has been shown to increase in the aged brain and potently activates microglia, although its endogenous cell source in the brain remains unidentified. Methods Male Wistar rats were used to assess the effect of age and amyloid-β (Aβ on NK cell infiltration into the brain. The effect of the anti-inflammatory compound, atorvastatin was also assessed under these conditions. We measured cytokine and chemokine (IFNγ, IL-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and IFNγ-induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10, expression in the brain by appropriate methods. We also looked at NK cell markers, CD161, NKp30 and NKp46 using flow cytometry and western blot. Results Natural killer (NK cells are a major source of IFNγ in the periphery and here we report the presence of CD161+ NKp30+ cells and expression of CD161 and NKp46 in the brain of aged and Aβ-treated rats. Furthermore, we demonstrate that isolated CD161+ cells respond to interleukin-2 (IL-2 by releasing IFNγ. Atorvastatin, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, attenuates the increase in CD161 and NKp46 observed in hippocampus of aged and Aβ-treated rats. This was paralleled by a decrease in IFNγ, markers of microglial activation and the chemokines, MCP-1 and IP-10 which are chemotactic for NK cells. Conclusions We propose that NK cells contribute to the age-related and Aβ-induced neuroinflammatory changes and demonstrate that these changes can be modulated by atorvastatin treatment.

  5. Atorvastatin prevents age-related and amyloid-beta-induced microglial activation by blocking interferon-gamma release from natural killer cells in the brain

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyons, Anthony

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Microglial function is modulated by several factors reflecting the numerous receptors expressed on the cell surface, however endogenous factors which contribute to the age-related increase in microglial activation remain largely unknown. One possible factor which may contribute is interferon-γ (IFNγ). IFNγ has been shown to increase in the aged brain and potently activates microglia, although its endogenous cell source in the brain remains unidentified. Methods Male Wistar rats were used to assess the effect of age and amyloid-β (Aβ) on NK cell infiltration into the brain. The effect of the anti-inflammatory compound, atorvastatin was also assessed under these conditions. We measured cytokine and chemokine (IFNγ, IL-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IFNγ-induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10)), expression in the brain by appropriate methods. We also looked at NK cell markers, CD161, NKp30 and NKp46 using flow cytometry and western blot. Results Natural killer (NK) cells are a major source of IFNγ in the periphery and here we report the presence of CD161+ NKp30+ cells and expression of CD161 and NKp46 in the brain of aged and Aβ-treated rats. Furthermore, we demonstrate that isolated CD161+ cells respond to interleukin-2 (IL-2) by releasing IFNγ. Atorvastatin, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, attenuates the increase in CD161 and NKp46 observed in hippocampus of aged and Aβ-treated rats. This was paralleled by a decrease in IFNγ, markers of microglial activation and the chemokines, MCP-1 and IP-10 which are chemotactic for NK cells. Conclusions We propose that NK cells contribute to the age-related and Aβ-induced neuroinflammatory changes and demonstrate that these changes can be modulated by atorvastatin treatment.

  6. Pre-commissioning, commissioning, start-up and operation of a major extension to an LNG manufacturing facility in Bintulu, Sarawak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, T.

    1997-01-01

    In 1989, a decision was taken by the Shareholders of Malaysia LNG Sdn Bhd (MLNG) to expand their existing LNG manufacturing facility of some 8.0 million tonnes per annum, and to minimise the capital investment by maximizing the use of available off-plot facilities and utilities, together with the introduction of proven technological enhancements. Accordingly a new Company (MLNG Dua) was set up to own and manage this project and joint venture between existing shareholders. This paper describes the organisation, planning, and execution of the precommissioning, commissioning, start-up, and operation of the off-plot facilities, integrated utilities, and the first new process module, such that on-grade LNG rundown into MLNG's existing storage capacity was achieved within 26 days of the process module being signed off as Ready for Start-up (RFSU). (au)

  7. Low temperature techniques for natural gas purification and LNG production: An energy and exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccanelli, Margaret; Langé, Stefano; Rocco, Matteo V.; Pellegrini, Laura A.; Colombo, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-temperature processes for of high CO_2 content natural gas have been modelled. • Energy and exergy analyses have been performed. • The Dual Pressure distillation scheme has the best thermodynamic performances. • There is a synergy between cryogenic natural gas purification and LNG production. - Abstract: Due to the rapid increase of the World’s primary energy demand of the last decades, low-temperature processes for the purification of natural gas streams with high carbon dioxide content has gained interest, since they allow to make profitable exploitation of low-quality gas reserves. Low temperature purification processes allow the direct production of a methane stream at high purity and at low-temperature, suitable conditions for the direct synergistic integration with natural gas cryogenic liquefaction processes, while CO_2 is obtained in liquid phase and under pressure. In this way, it can be pumped for transportation, avoiding significant compression costs as for classical CO_2 capture units (where carbon dioxide is discharged in gas phase and at atmospheric pressure), and further uses such as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) or underground storage. In this paper, the three most common natural gas low-temperature purification techniques have been modelled and their performances have been evaluated through energy and exergy analyses. Specifically, the dual pressure low-temperature distillation process, the anti-sublimation process and a hybrid configuration have been considered. It is found that the dual pressure low-temperature distillation scheme reach the highest thermodynamic performances, resulting in the best values of exergy efficiency and equivalent methane requirements with respect to the other configurations. This is mainly due to the distributed temperature profile along a distillation column, resulting in a less irreversible heat exchanging process.

  8. Mycobacterium abscessus glycopeptidolipid prevents respiratory epithelial TLR2 signaling as measured by HβD2 gene expression and IL-8 release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B Davidson

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium abscessus has emerged as an important cause of lung infection, particularly in patients with bronchiectasis. Innate immune responses must be highly effective at preventing infection with M. abscessus because it is a ubiquitous environmental saprophyte and normal hosts are not commonly infected. M. abscessus exists as either a glycopeptidolipid (GPL expressing variant (smooth phenotype in which GPL masks underlying bioactive cell wall lipids, or as a variant lacking GPL which is immunostimulatory and invasive in macrophage infection models. Respiratory epithelium has been increasingly recognized as playing an important role in the innate immune response to pulmonary pathogens. Respiratory epithelial cells express toll-like receptors (TLRs which mediate the innate immune response to pulmonary pathogens. Both interleukin-8 (IL-8 and human β-defensin 2 (HβD2 are expressed by respiratory epithelial cells in response to toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 receptor stimulation. In this study, we demonstrate that respiratory epithelial cells respond to M. abscessus variants lacking GPL with expression of IL-8 and HβD2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this interaction is mediated through TLR2. Conversely, M. abscessus expressing GPL does not stimulate expression of IL-8 or HβD2 by respiratory epithelial cells which is consistent with "masking" of underlying bioactive cell wall lipids by GPL. Because GPL-expressing smooth variants are the predominant phenotype existing in the environment, this provides an explanation whereby initial M. abscessus colonization of abnormal lung airways escapes detection by the innate immune system.

  9. Defibrotide prevents the activation of macrovascular and microvascular endothelia caused by soluble factors released to blood by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Marta; Diaz-Ricart, Maribel; Rovira, Montserrat; Escolar, Ginés; Carreras, Enric

    2011-04-01

    Endothelial activation and damage occur in association with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Several of the early complications associated with HSCT seem to have a microvascular location. Through the present study, we have characterized the activation and damage of endothelial cells of both macro (HUVEC) and microvascular (HMEC) origin, occurring early after autologous HSCT, and the potential protective effect of defibrotide (DF). Sera samples from patients were collected before conditioning (Pre), at the time of transplantation (day 0), and at days 7, 14, and 21 after autologous HSCT. Changes in the expression of endothelial cell receptors at the surface, presence and reactivity of extracellular adhesive proteins, and the signaling pathways involved were analyzed. The expression of ICAM-1 at the cell surface increased progressively in both HUVEC and HMEC. However, a more prothrombotic profile was denoted for HMEC, in particular at the time of transplantation (day 0), reflecting the deleterious effect of the conditioning treatment on the endothelium, especially at a microvascular location. Interestingly, this observation correlated with a higher increase in the expression of both tissue factor and von Willebrand factor on the extracellular matrix, together with activation of intracellular p38 MAPK and Akt. Previous exposure and continuous incubation of cells with DF prevented the signs of activation and damage induced by the autologous sera. These observations corroborate that conditioning treatment in autologous HSCT induces a proinflammatory and a prothrombotic phenotype, especially at a microvascular location, and indicate that DF has protective antiinflammatory and antithrombotic effects in this setting. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of market changes on long-term take-or-pay export contracts for LNG and pipeline gas from Mena regions: lessons from Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, Morten

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the contracting structures and prices of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and gas pipeline projects, pricing arrangements in Great Britain, the continental West European gas price adjustment formula, and pricing of LNG transport by ship. The price review introduced in Continental North West European contracts, gas liberalisation and price shocks in Great Britain, the demise of British Gas, and gas liberalisation in continental Europe are discussed. Gas suppliers and European market liberalisation are considered, and MENA (Middle East and North Africa) gas supply arrangements, European buyers, and future price adjustment methods are addressed. (uk)

  11. Thermoeconomic optimization of a cryogenic refrigeration cycle for re-liquefaction of the LNG boil-off gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Babaelahi, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering-Energy Division, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box: 19395-1999, No. 15-19, Pardis Str., Mollasadra Ave., Vanak Sq., Tehran 1999 143344 (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    The development of the liquefaction process for the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) boil-off re-liquefaction plants will be addressed to provide an environmentally friendly and cost effective solution for the gas transportation. In this manner, onboard boil-off gas (BOG) re-liquefaction system as a cryogenic refrigeration cycle is utilized in order to re-liquefy the BOG and returns it to the cargo tanks instead of burning it. In this paper, a thermoeconomic optimization of the LNG-BOG liquefaction system is performed. A thermoeconomic model based on energy and exergy analyses and an economic model according to the total revenue requirement (TRR) are developed. Minimizing of the unit cost of the refrigeration effect as a product of BOG re-liquefaction plant is performed using the genetic algorithm. Results of thermoeconomic optimization are compared with corresponding features of the base case system. Finally, sensitivity of the total cost of the system product with respect to the variation of some operating parameters is studied. (author)

  12. Prevention IS Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-26

    This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  13. Energy efficiency estimation of a steam powered LNG tanker using normal operating data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rajendra Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A ship’s energy efficiency performance is generally estimated by conducting special sea trials of few hours under very controlled environmental conditions of calm sea, standard draft and optimum trim. This indicator is then used as the benchmark for future reference of the ship’s Energy Efficiency Performance (EEP. In practice, however, for greater part of operating life the ship operates in conditions which are far removed from original sea trial conditions and therefore comparing energy performance with benchmark performance indicator is not truly valid. In such situations a higher fuel consumption reading from the ship fuel meter may not be a true indicator of poor machinery performance or dirty underwater hull. Most likely, the reasons for higher fuel consumption may lie in factors other than the condition of hull and machinery, such as head wind, current, low load operations or incorrect trim [1]. Thus a better and more accurate approach to determine energy efficiency of the ship attributable only to main machinery and underwater hull condition will be to filter out the influence of all spurious and non-standard operating conditions from the ship’s fuel consumption [2]. The author in this paper identifies parameters of a suitable filter to be used on the daily report data of a typical LNG tanker of 33000 kW shaft power to remove effects of spurious and non-standard ship operations on its fuel consumption. The filtered daily report data has been then used to estimate actual fuel efficiency of the ship and compared with the sea trials benchmark performance. Results obtained using data filter show closer agreement with the benchmark EEP than obtained from the monthly mini trials . The data filtering method proposed in this paper has the advantage of using the actual operational data of the ship and thus saving cost of conducting special sea trials to estimate ship EEP. The agreement between estimated results and special sea trials EEP is

  14. FY1995 research report on the survey of cryogenic energy utilization systems for environmentally friendly energy community project. Case studies of LNG cryogenic energy cascade-wise utilization; 1995 nendo kankyo chowagata energycommunity jigyo ni kakawaru reinetsu riyo system kento chosa hokokusho. LNG reinetsu no cascade teki riyo case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Japan's import of LNG (liquefied natural gas) has increased in these 15 years from 13-million tons to 43-million tons at a high rate of 2-million tons a year. At present LNG is used only in power generation and town gas business, and its cryogenic feature which may be useful in various fields is not being utilized. In this survey, factors impeding the wider application of the cryogenic energy are investigated, methods for using the energy more widely and mechanisms required therefor are studied, and discussion is made about the feasibility of the utilization of the energy in a cascade-wise form under the environmentally friendly energy community project. Researches are conducted and the results are evaluated in a study carried out on the comprehensive utilization of LNG cryogenic energy. These researches involve the actualities and trends of LNG cryogenic energy utilization in Japan; current status and prospect of the involvement of LNG bases with their neighboring industries and communities; technological measures for cryogenic energy utilization; technological measures related to low-temperature media and cold heat transportation systems; technological measures for the cascade-wise multidirectional utilization of cryogenic energy; and case studies on assumed local models. (NEDO)

  15. FY1995 research report on the survey of cryogenic energy utilization systems for environmentally friendly energy community project. Case studies of LNG cryogenic energy cascade-wise utilization; 1995 nendo kankyo chowagata energycommunity jigyo ni kakawaru reinetsu riyo system kento chosa hokokusho. LNG reinetsu no cascade teki riyo case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Japan's import of LNG (liquefied natural gas) has increased in these 15 years from 13-million tons to 43-million tons at a high rate of 2-million tons a year. At present LNG is used only in power generation and town gas business, and its cryogenic feature which may be useful in various fields is not being utilized. In this survey, factors impeding the wider application of the cryogenic energy are investigated, methods for using the energy more widely and mechanisms required therefor are studied, and discussion is made about the feasibility of the utilization of the energy in a cascade-wise form under the environmentally friendly energy community project. Researches are conducted and the results are evaluated in a study carried out on the comprehensive utilization of LNG cryogenic energy. These researches involve the actualities and trends of LNG cryogenic energy utilization in Japan; current status and prospect of the involvement of LNG bases with their neighboring industries and communities; technological measures for cryogenic energy utilization; technological measures related to low-temperature media and cold heat transportation systems; technological measures for the cascade-wise multidirectional utilization of cryogenic energy; and case studies on assumed local models. (NEDO)

  16. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  17. A Monte Carlo approach to the ship-centric Markov decision process for analyzing decisions over converting a containership to LNG power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kana, A.A.; Harrison, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    A Monte Carlo approach to the ship-centric Markov decision process (SC-MDP) is presented for analyzing whether a container ship should convert to LNG power in the face of evolving Emission Control Area regulations. The SC-MDP model was originally developed as a means to analyze uncertain,

  18. Landfill Gas Conversion to LNG and LCO{sub 2}. Phase II Final Report for January 25, 1999 - April 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W. R.; Cook, W. J.; Siwajek, L. A.

    2000-10-20

    This report summarizes work on the development of a process to produce LNG (liquefied methane) for heavy vehicle use from landfill gas (LFG) using Acrion's CO{sub 2} wash process for contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery.

  19. Hydraulic release oil tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mims, M.G.; Mueller, M.D.; Ehlinger, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a hydraulic release tool. It comprises a setting assembly; a coupling member for coupling to drill string or petroleum production components, the coupling member being a plurality of sockets for receiving the dogs in the extended position and attaching the coupling member the setting assembly; whereby the setting assembly couples to the coupling member by engagement of the dogs in the sockets of releases from and disengages the coupling member in movement of the piston from its setting to its reposition in response to a pressure in the body in exceeding the predetermined pressure; and a relief port from outside the body into its bore and means to prevent communication between the relief port and the bore of the body axially of the piston when the piston is in the setting position and to establish such communication upon movement of the piston from the setting position to the release position and reduce the pressure in the body bore axially of the piston, whereby the reduction of the pressure signals that the tool has released the coupling member

  20. Long-term contracts for European gas supply - an empirical analysis of the changing nature of pipeline and LNG-contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, Anne

    2005-01-01

    As the structure of the European natural gas market is evolving towards more competition and more diverse market structures than before, the nature of the long-term contracts for European natural gas supply is also undergoing change. Experience from other liberalization processes, such as in the U.S. or the UK, suggests that the importance of long-term contracts diminishes over time, but that they remain an important element of supply. In Europe long-term contracts are still considered as a firm basis for investment and financing of capital-intensive infrastructure with a high degree of asset and relationship-specificity. Literature on institutional economics also suggests that long-term contracts act as a device to overcome the ''hold-up'' problem of relationship-specific investments in infrastructure (Klein, Crawford, and Alchian, 1987; Williamson, 1975, 1985). On the other hand, Hartley and Brito (2002) show that more flexible markets also imply a lower degree of asset specificity, thus requiring less fixed contracts. This paper explores the changing nature of long-term contracts for European natural gas supply, with a particular focus on differences between contracts for pipeline gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Traditionally, Europe relied on very long-term contracts for pipeline gas (Russia, Norway, Algeria). More recently, increasing LNG supplies are contemplated as a more flexible source of natural gas: The international LNG market is becoming more flexible, LNG can be sourced from a variety of sellers, and the cost of LNG supplies and infrastructure is coming down rapidly (Jensen, 2004). Thus, the evaluation of investing in LNG infrastructure (and the so bought flexibility and possibility of arbitraging profits) may be higher than committing to fixed/predetermined flows of pipeline gas. We ask whether this is reflected in the observed contracts. The paper is based on standard contract theory (Bolton and Dewatripont, 2005). We apply a microeconomic