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Sample records for liverwort lophocolea heterophylla

  1. Using essential oils to control moss and liverwort in containers

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    Nabil Khadduri

    2011-01-01

    Liverwort and moss are economically significant weeds across a range of US container production sites, including forest seedling greenhouse culture in the Pacific Northwest. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of essential oils, or distilled plant extracts, in controlling liverwort and moss container weeds over three seasons of trials. When applied at the...

  2. Data to the Malaysian liverwort flora, I

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    Pócs Tamás

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 120 liverwort specimens collected in peninsular Malaysia for oil body studies belonged to 80 species, 6 of which (Frullania subocellata S. Hatt., Chiloscyphus integerrimus Schiffn., Bazzania assamica (Steph. S. Hatt., Bazzania bilobata Kitag., Telaranea quadriseta (Steph. J. Engel & G. L. Merrill and Radula assamica Steph. proved to be new for Malaysia and 9 to its peninsular part or to Selangor or Pahang states. The most interesting occurrences were of Frullania subocellata, hitherto known only from Seram Island, Chiloscyphus integerrimus, known from Java, and Telaranea quadriseta, an Australian element. The majority of the collected species are of Indomalesian distribution. Microphotos and distribution maps of the more interesting species are provided.

  3. Biological activities of Suaeda heterophylla and Bergenia stracheyi

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    Iftikhar Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, antiglycative, and xanthine oxidase activities of different extracts of Suaeda heterophylla (S. heterophylla and Bergenia stracheyi (B. stracheyi. Methods: The extracts of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi were evaluated for antioxidant, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, antiglycative, and xanthine oxidase activities using standard experimental methods. Results: The overall antioxidant potential of ethyl acetate extract of S. heterophylla was the strongest, followed by chloroform extract, methanolic extract and n-hexane extract. It is interesting to note that ethyl acetate fraction showed 94.98% inhibition at concentration of 60 µg/mL while standard ascorbic acid showed 98.49% inhibition at same concentration. The crude methanol extracts of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi showed significant phytotoxic activity at the highest dose. Moreover, methanol extract of B. stracheyi possessed strong activity in xanthine oxidase enzyme inhibition. Conclusions: Antioxidant, phytotoxic, and xanthine oxidase activities of different fractions of S. heterophylla and B. stracheyi clearly demonstrate that these fractions possess great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  4. Increased diversification rates follow shifts to bisexuality in liverworts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenen, Benjamin; Machac, Antonin; Gradstein, S Robbert; Shaw, Blanka; Patiño, Jairo; Désamoré, Aurélie; Goffinet, Bernard; Cox, Cymon J; Shaw, A Jonathan; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Shifts in sexual systems are one of the key drivers of species diversification. In contrast to angiosperms, unisexuality prevails in bryophytes. Here, we test the hypotheses that bisexuality evolved from an ancestral unisexual condition and is a key innovation in liverworts. We investigate whether shifts in sexual systems influence diversification using hidden state speciation and extinction analysis (HiSSE). This new method compares the effects of the variable of interest to the best-fitting latent variable, yielding robust and conservative tests. We find that the transitions in sexual systems are significantly biased toward unisexuality, even though bisexuality is coupled with increased diversification. Sexual systems are strongly conserved deep within the liverwort tree but become much more labile toward the present. Bisexuality appears to be a key innovation in liverworts. Its effects on diversification are presumably mediated by the interplay of high fertilization rates, massive spore production and long-distance dispersal, which may separately or together have facilitated liverwort speciation, suppressed their extinction, or both. Importantly, shifts in liverwort sexual systems have the opposite effect when compared to angiosperms, leading to contrasting diversification patterns between the two groups. The high prevalence of unisexuality among liverworts suggests, however, a strong selection for sexual dimorphism. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Upper petal lip colour polymorphism in Collinsia heterophylla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding the genetics of a polymorphic trait is important to predict its likely evolution. In Collinsia heterophylla, the upper petal lip colour can be either be white or white with a purple band, while the lower petal lip colour is invariably purple. Because the corolla is only partly polymorphic, the polymorphism can not have ...

  6. Upper petal lip colour polymorphism in Collinsia heterophylla ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    logically important traits i.e., traits that influence fitness within a natural .... Collinsia heterophylla is a self-compatible diploid (2n = ... During this period the stigma becomes receptive and the style ... imately from 50 maternal plants (1–20 plants per maternal .... lar parent) to be able to perform the G-test. ...... assessment.

  7. Increased diversification rates follow shifts to bisexuality in liverworts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenen, Benjamin; Machac, Antonin; Gradstein, S. Robbert

    2016-01-01

    on diversification are presumably mediated by the interplay of high fertilization rates, massive spore production and long-distance dispersal, which may separately or together have facilitated liverwort speciation, suppressed their extinction, or both. Importantly, shifts in liverwort sexual systems have...... shifts in sexual systems influence diversification using hidden state speciation and extinction analysis (HiSSE). This new method compares the effects of the variable of interest to the best-fitting latent variable, yielding robust and conservative tests. We find that the transitions in sexual systems...

  8. Interaction of Pseudostellaria heterophylla with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mediated by its root exudates in a consecutive monoculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongpo; Wu, Linkun; Chu, Leixia; Yang, Yanqiu; Li, Zhenfang; Azeem, Saadia; Zhang, Zhixing; Fang, Changxun; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-02-03

    In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the amount of Fusarium oxysporum, an important replant disease pathogen in Pseudostellaria heterophylla rhizospheric soil. Moreover, HPLC was used to identify phenolic acids in root exudates then it was further to explore the effects of the phenolic acid allelochemicals on the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla. The amount of F. oxysporum increased significantly in P. heterophylla rhizosphere soil under a consecutive replant system as monitored through qPCR analysis. Furthermore, the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium was enhanced by root exudates with a maximum increase of 23.8%. In addition, the number of spores increased to a maximum of 12.5-fold. Some phenolic acids promoted the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium and spore production. Our study revealed that phenolic acids in the root secretion of P. heterophylla increased long with its development, which was closely related to changes in rhizospheric microorganisms. The population of pathogenic microorganisms such as F. oxysporum in the rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla also sharply increased. Our results on plant-microbe communication will help to better clarify the cause of problems associated with P. heterophylla under consecutive monoculture treatment.

  9. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory compounds from Gymnosporia heterophylla aerial parts.

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    Ochieng, Charles O; Opiyo, Sylvia A; Mureka, Edward W; Ishola, Ismail O

    2017-06-01

    Gymnosporia heterophylla (Celastraceae) is an African medicinal plants used to treat painful and inflammatory diseases with partial scientific validation. Solvent extractions followed by repeated chromatographic purification of the G. heterophylla aerial parts led to the isolation of one new β-dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene alkaloid (1), and two triterpenes (2-3). In addition, eight known compounds including one β-dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene alkaloid (4), and six triterpenes (5-10) were isolated. All structures were determined through extensive analysis of the NMR an MS data as well as by comparison with literature data. These compounds were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activities against COX-1 and -2 inhibitory potentials. Most of the compound isolated showed non selective COX inhibitions except for 3-Acetoxy-1β-hydroxyLupe-20(29)-ene (5), Lup-20(29)-ene-1β,3β-diol (6) which showed COX-2 selective inhibition at 0.54 (1.85), and 0.45 (2.22) IC 50 , in mM (Selective Index), respectively. The results confirmed the presence of anti-inflammatory compounds in G. heterophylla which are important indicators for development of complementary medicine for inflammatory reactions; however, few could be useful as selective COX-2 inhibitor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cluster formation in liverwort-associated methylobacteria and its implications

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    Kutschera, U.; Thomas, J.; Hornschuh, M.

    2007-08-01

    Pink-pigmented methylotropic bacteria of the genus Methylobacterium inhabit the surfaces of plant organs. In bryophytes, these methylobacteria enhance cell growth, but the nature of this plant-microbe interaction is largely unknown. In this study, methylobacteria were isolated from the upper surface of the free-living thalli of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. Identification of one strain by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other data show that these microbes represent an undescribed species of the genus Methylobacterium ( Methylobacterium sp.). The growth-promoting activity of these wild-type methylobacteria was tested and compared with that of the type strain Methylobacterium mesophilicum. Both types of methylobacteria stimulated surface expansion of isolated gemmae from Marchantia polymorpha by about 350%. When suspended in water, the liverwort-associated bacteria ( Methylobacterium sp.) formed dense clusters of up to 600 cells. In liquid cultures of Methylobacterium mesophilicum, single cells were observed, but no clustering occurred. We suggest that the liverwort-associated methylobacteria are co-evolved symbionts of the plants: Cluster formation may be a behavior that enhances the survival of the epiphytic microbes during periods of drought of these desiccation-tolerant lower plants.

  11. New Localities of Rare Liverworts in the Central Poland

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    Staniaszek-Kik Monika

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports new localities of four liverwort species, i.e., Fossombronia foveolata Lindb., Gymnocolea inflata (Huds. Dumort., Leiomylia anomala (Hook. J.J. Engel & Braggins and Odontoschisma denudatum (Mart. Dumort., found in Central Poland. The new sites are situated in peat bog habitats and swamp forest in the depression cone of lignite opencast mine near Bełchatów in Central Poland. All of the reported species are very rare and have only few localities in Central Poland.

  12. Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus senegalensis, two traditional herbal medicines.

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    da Silva, G; Serrano, R; Silva, O

    2011-01-01

    Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine.

  13. Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus senegalensis, two traditional herbal medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, G.; Serrano, R.; Silva, O.

    2011-01-01

    Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine. PMID:22470236

  14. Transcriptome analysis of Pseudostellaria heterophylla in response to the infection of pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xianjin; Wu, Hongmiao; Chen, Jun; Wu, Linkun; Lin, Sheng; Khan, Muhammad Umar; Boorboori, Mohammad Reza; Lin, Wenxiong

    2017-09-18

    Pseudostellaria heterophylla (P. heterophylla), a herbaceous perennial, belongs to Caryophyllaceae family and is one of the Chinese herbal medicine with high pharmacodynamic value. It can be used to treat the spleen deficiency, anorexia, weakness after illness and spontaneous perspiration symptoms. Our previous study found that consecutive monoculture of Pseudostellaria heterophylla could lead to the deterioration of the rhizosphere microenvironment. The specialized forms of pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.Sp. heterophylla (F. oxysporum) in rhizosphere soils of P. heterophylla plays an important role in the consecutive monoculture of P. heterophylla. In this study, F. oxysporum was used to infect the tissue culture plantlets of P. heterophylla to study the responding process at three different infection stages by using RNA-sequencing. We obtained 127,725 transcripts and 47,655 distinct unigenes by de novo assembly and obtained annotated information in details for 25,882 unigenes. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis and the real-time quantitative PCR results suggest that the calcium signal system and WRKY transcription factor in the plant-pathogen interaction pathway may play an important role in the response process, and all of the WRKY transcription factor genes were divided into three different types. Moreover, we also found that the stimulation of F. oxysporum may result in the accumulation of some phenolics in the plantlets and the programmed cell death of the plantlets. This study has partly revealed the possible molecular mechanism of the population explosion of F. oxysporum in rhizosphere soils and signal response process, which can be helpful in unraveling the role of F. oxysporum in consecutive monoculture problems of P. heterophylla.

  15. Interferência de Euphorbia heterophylla no crescimento e acúmulo de macronutrientes da soja Interference of Euphorbia heterophylla in the growth and macronutrient accumulation of soybean

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    L.B. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O grau de interferência depende da densidade de plantas daninhas que infestam a soja. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características de crescimento e nutrição mineral da soja mantida em convivência com densidades crescentes de Euphorbia heterophylla. O experimento foi conduzido em Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil, entre outubro e dezembro de 2008, em vasos mantidos em campo aberto. Os tratamentos consistiram em submeter uma planta de soja por vaso à convivência com 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 plantas de E. heterophylla por vaso, da semeadura até o início do florescimento. Nesse período, avaliaram-se, apenas na soja, a altura e o número de trifólios, e em ambas as espécies, a matéria seca e o acúmulo de macronutrientes. Observou-se variação na altura de plantas e redução no número de trifólios e no acúmulo de matéria seca e macronutrientes da soja devido ao maior acúmulo de matéria seca e macronutrientes por densidades crescentes de E. heterophylla. Conclui-se que a soja mantida em convivência com E. heterophylla teve o crescimento e o acúmulo de macronutrientes reduzidos em razão da interferência imposta pela planta daninha.The degree of weed interference depends on the density of the weeds infesting the soybean crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and mineral nutrition characteristics in soybean maintained in coexistence with increasing densities of Euphorbia heterophylla. The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, from October through December 2008, in pots maintained under open field conditions. The treatments consisted in submitting one soybean plant per pot to coexistence with 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 plants of E. heterophylla per pot, from sowing until the beginning of soybean flowering. At this period, only height and number of leaves were evaluated in soybean, while dry matter and macronutrient accumulation were evaluated in both species. Variation in plant height and reduction in the

  16. Analysis of soil microbial community structure and enzyme activities associated with negative effects of pseudostellaria heterophylla consecutive monoculture on yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S.; Lin, W.X.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudostellaria heterophylla is an important medicinal plant in China. However, cultivation of P. heterophylla using consecutive monoculture results in significant reductions in yield and quality. In this study, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and measurement of soil enzyme activities were used to investigate the regulation of soil micro-ecology to identify ways to overcome the negative effects of P. heterophylla consecutive monoculture. T-RFLP analysis showed that rice/P. heterophylla (RP) and bean/P. heterophylla (BP) crop rotation systems increased the number and diversity of microbial groups in P. heterophylla rhizosphere soil. In particular, the RP and BP crop rotations increased the number and abundance of beneficial bacterial species compared with two-year consecutive monoculture of P. heterophylla. The presence of these beneficial bacteria was positively correlated with soil enzyme activities which increased in rhizosphere soils of the RP and BP crop rotation systems. The results indicated that crop rotation systems could increase activities of key soil enzymes and beneficial microbial groups and improve soil health. This study could provide a theoretical basis to resolve the problems associated with P. heterophylla consecutive monoculture. (author)

  17. Isolated or combined application of diuron, oxyfluorfen and prometryn for Euphorbia heterophylla control

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira JR, R.S; Carneiro, J.C; Constantin, J; Santos, G; Martini, P.E; Francischini, A.C; Osipe, J.B

    2011-01-01

    A aplicação em pré-emergência no início do ciclo do algodoeiro é prática consagrada entre os produtores. Embora os herbicidas diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne sejam opções para uso nessa cultura, há informações limitadas referentes à eficácia desses herbicidas no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a curva de dose-resposta de diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne para o controle de E. heterophylla, bem como analisar a eficiência biológica de misturas ...

  18. Species of leafy liverworts in protected forest of simancik 1, regency of deli serdang, north sumatera

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    Pasaribu, Nursahara; Sartina Siregar, Etti; Rahmi, Wardatur

    2018-03-01

    Data and information of leafy liverworts diversity in Sumatera, especially North Sumatera, are still less reported. Research is conducted in order to invent and describe the morphological character of leafy liverworts in Protected Forest of Simancik I, regency of Deli Serdang, North Sumatera. Samples were collected along the hiking tracks of study site. Twenty two spesies belonging to 12 genera and 6 families were found. They were only one species of Frullaniaceae, eleven species of Lejeuneaceae, two species of Lepidoziaceae, two species of Lophocoleaceae, four species of Plagiochilaceae and two species of Radulaceae. Those species were found as epiphyte on the tree truck and some on the decaying wood. The highest diversity of leafy liverworts was from Lejeuneaceae which consisted of two subfamilies: Lejeuneoideaea and Ptychanthoideae and seven genera which are Lejeunea, Archilejeunea, Lopholejeunea, Dendrolejeunea, Ptychantus, Mastigolejeunea and Thysananthus while the lowest diversity was from Frullaniaceae.

  19. From dusk till dawn: nocturnal and diurnal pollination in the epiphyte Tillandsia heterophylla (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Rodríguez, P A; Krömer, T; García-Franco, J G; MacSwiney G, M C

    2016-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators, we studied the reproductive biology and pollinators of Tillandsia heterophylla E. Morren, an epiphytic tank bromeliad endemic to southeastern Mexico. Since anthesis in T. heterophylla is predominantly nocturnal but lasts until the following day, we hypothesised that this bromeliad would receive visits from both diurnal and nocturnal visitors, but that nocturnal visitors would be the most effective pollinators, since they arrive first to the receptive flower, and that bats would be the most frequent nocturnal visitors, given the characteristics of the nectar. Flowering of T. heterophylla began in May and lasted until July. The species is fully self-compatible, with an anthesis that lasts for ca. 15-16 h. Mean volume of nectar produced per flower was 82.21 μl, with a mean sugar concentration of 6.33%. The highest volume and concentration of nectar were found at 20:00 h, with a subsequent decline in both to almost zero over the following 12-h period. T. heterophylla has a generalist pollination system, since at least four different morphospecies of visitors pollinate its flowers: bats, moths, hummingbirds and bees. Most of the pollinating visits corresponded to bats and took place in the early evening, when stigma receptivity had already begun; making bats the probable pollinator on most occasions. However, diurnal pollinators may be important as a 'fail-safe' system by which to guarantee the pollination of T. heterophylla. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Atividade residual de diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla Residual activity of diuron, oxyfluorfen, and prometryne for Euphorbia heterophylla control

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Oliveira Jr.; J.C. Carneiro; J. Constantin; G. Santos; A.C. Francischini; A.M. Oliveira Neto

    2012-01-01

    As aplicações de herbicidas em pré-emergência têm por finalidade a obtenção da atividade residual no início do ciclo das culturas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade residual dos herbicidas diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne, aplicados isoladamente ou em misturas, no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla. Oito experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação, aplicando-se doses dos herbicidas ou das misturas aos 30, 20, 10 e 0 dias antes da semeadura da planta daninha (DAS)...

  1. Influence de quelques facteurs environnementaux sur la germination d'Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Euphorbiaceae

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    Ipou Ipou, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of some Environmental Factors on Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Euphorbiaceae Seeds Germination. In Ivory Coast, Euphorbia heterophylla appears as a weed in cotton fields. Effects of temperature, light and burying levels on its seed germination were tested. Temperature effects were monitored by means of 4 procedures, using a range of temperatures between 20 and 35 °C. The germination latency period can vary between 1 and 2 days, according to the temperature. After 4 days, germination rates were not longer related to temperature and were very similar. Germination can not happen without light. In order to measure the effect of burying levels, six series of 100 seeds were buried; the first at ground level, the others respectively 2, 4, 6, 8 and 9 cm deeper. Optimal germination rates were found for seeds that were buried between 0 and 6 cm.

  2. [Study on seed quality test and quality standard of Pesudostellaria heterophylla].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cheng-Hong; Zhou, Tao; Jiang, Wei-Ke; Chen, Min; Xiong, Hou-Xi; Liao, Ming-Wu

    2014-08-01

    Referring to the rules for agricultural seed testing (GB /T 3543-1995) issued by China, the test of sampling, seed purity, weight per 1 000 seeds, seed moisture, seed viability and germination rate had been studied for screening seed quality test methods of Pesudostellaria heterophylla. The seed quality from different collection areas was measured. The results showed that at least 6.5 g seeds should be sampled and passed through 10-mesh sieve for purity analysis. The weight of 1 000 seeds was determined by using the 500-seed method. The phenotypic observation and size measurement were used for authenticity testing. The seed moisture was determined under the higher temperature (130 ± 2) degrees C for 5 hours. The seeds were dipped into 0.2% TTC sustaining 1 hour at 40 degrees C, then the viability could be determined. The break dormancy seeds were cultured on sand at 10 degrees C. K cluster analysis was applied for the data analysis, the seed quality from different collection areas grading of P. Heterophylla was described as three grades. The seed quality of each grade should reach following requirements: for first grade seeds, germination rate ≥ 86%, 1 000-grain weight ≥ 2.59 g, purity ≥ 87%, moisture ≤ 13.1%; for second grade seeds, germination rate ≥ 70%, 1 000-grain weight ≥ 2.40 g, purity ≥ 77%, moisture ≤ 14.3%; for third grade seeds, germination rate ≥ 41%, 1 000-grain weight ≥ 2.29 g, purity ≥ 76%, moisture ≤ 15.8%. The seed testing methods for quality items of P. heterophylla had been initially established, as well as the primary P. heterophylla seed quality classification standard.

  3. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in an aquatic liverwort as possible bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation

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    Arroniz-Crespo, M.; Nunez-Olivera, E. [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain); Martinez-Abaigar, J. [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain)], E-mail: javier.martinez@unirioja.es

    2008-01-15

    We examined, under laboratory conditions, the physiological responses of the aquatic liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia to artificially enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation for 82 days, especially considering the responses of five hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. This species lives in mountain streams, where it is exposed to low temperatures and high UV levels, and this combination is believed to increase the adverse effects of UV. Enhanced UV radiation hardly caused any change in several physiological variables indicative of vitality, such as F{sub v}/F{sub m} and chlorophylls/phaeopigments ratio (OD430/OD410). Thus, this liverwort seemed to be tolerant to UV radiation, probably due to the accumulation of three UV-absorbing hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives: p-coumaroylmalic acid, 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxycoumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid, and 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxy-7-O-{beta}-glucosyl-coumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid. These compounds might serve as bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation. - Several hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of an aquatic liverwort are induced by enhanced UV radiation and might serve as bioindicators of changes in UV levels.

  4. Biosorption of Cd+2 by green plant biomass, Araucaria heterophylla: characterization, kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarada, B.; Krishna Prasad, M.; Kishore Kumar, K.; Murthy, Ch V. R.

    2017-11-01

    The present study attempted to analyze the biosorption behavior of novel biosorbent, Araucaria heterophylla (green plant) biomass, to remove Cd+2 from solutions against various parameters, i.e., initial metal ion concentration, pH, temperature, sorbent dosage and biomass particle size. The maximum biosorption was found to be 90.02% at pH 5.5 and biosorption capacity ( q e) of Cd+2 is 9.2506 mg g-1. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium adsorption isotherms were studied and it was observed that Freundlich model is the best fit than the Langmuir model with correlation co-efficient of 0.999. Kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption process of Cd+2 well followed the pseudo-second-order model with R 2 0.999. Thermodynamic studies observed that the process is exothermic (Δ H ° negative). Free energy change (Δ G °) with negative sign reflected the feasibility and spontaneous nature of the process. The chemical functional -OH groups, CH2 stretching vibrations, C=O carbonyl group of alcohol, C=O carbonyl group of amide, P=O stretching vibrations and -CH groups were involved in the biosorption process. The XRD pattern of the A. heterophylla was found to be mostly amorphous in nature. The SEM studies showed Cd+2 biosorption on selective grains of the biosorbent. It was concluded that A. heterophylla leaf powder can be used as an effective, low-cost, and environmentally friendly biosorbent for the removal of Cd+2 from aqueous solution.

  5. Differential effects of lichens versus liverworts epiphylls on host leaf traits in the tropical montane rainforest, Hainan Island, China.

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    Zhou, Lingyan; Liu, Fude; Yang, Wenjie; Liu, Hong; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Zhongsheng; An, Shuqing

    2014-01-01

    Epiphylls widely colonize vascular leaves in moist tropical forests. Understanding the effects of epiphylls on leaf traits of host plants is critical for understanding ecological function of epiphylls. A study was conducted in a rain forest to investigate leaf traits of the host plants Photinia prunifolia colonized with epiphyllous liverworts and foliicolous lichens as well as those of uncolonized leaves. Our results found that the colonization of lichens significantly decreased leaf water content (LWC), chlorophyll (Chl) a and a + b content, and Chl a/b of P. prunifolia but increased Chl b content, while that of liverworts did not affect them as a whole. The variations of net photosynthetic rates (P n ) among host leaves colonized with different coverage of lichens before or after removal treatment (a treatment to remove epiphylls from leaf surface) were greater than that colonized with liverworts. The full cover of lichens induced an increase of light compensation point (LCP) by 21% and a decrease of light saturation point (LSP) by 54% for their host leaves, whereas that of liverworts displayed contrary effects. Compared with the colonization of liverworts, lichens exhibited more negative effects on the leaf traits of P. prunifolia in different stages of colonization. The results suggest that the responses of host leaf traits to epiphylls are affected by the epiphyllous groups and coverage, which are also crucial factors in assessing ecofunctions of epiphylls in tropical forests.

  6. Growth in liverworts of the Marchantiales is promoted by epiphytic methylobacteria

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    Kutschera, U.; Koopmann, V.

    2005-07-01

    Liverworts, the most basal lineage of extant land plants, have been used as model systems in the reconstruction of adaptations to life on land. In this study, we used gemmae (specialized propagules) that were isolated from mature gemma cups of two distantly related species of liverworts, Marchantia polymorpha L. and Lunularia cruciata L. (order Marchantiales). We show that methylobacteria (genus Methylobacterium), microbes that inhabit the surfaces of land plants where they secrete phytohormones (cytokinines), promote the growth of isolated gemmae cultivated on agar plates. As a control, two species of higher plants, maize (Zea mays L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were raised aseptically from sterile seeds (i.e., caryopses, achenes). Inoculation of these propagules with methylobacteria was without effect on growth in the above-ground phytosphere (expansion of stems and leaves). We conclude that normal development in Marchantia and Lunularia is dependent on (and possibly regulated by) epiphytic methylobacteria, whereas representative higher plants grow at optimal rates in the absence of these prokaryotic epiphytes.

  7. Hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharides with different molecular weight of Pseudostellaria heterophylla

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Abstracts Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the antidiabetic activity and to detect molecular size of Pseudostellaria heterophylla polysaccharide (PHP). Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a medicine extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine formulas to treat diabetes and its complications. Methods Molecular weight of PHP was determined by gel permeation chromatography combined with phenol-sulphuric acid method and the monosaccharides composition was determined by HPLC with a precolumn derivatization. Four polysaccharides with different molecular weight were compared for hypoglycemic active on two animal models both high does alloxan induced type1 diabetic mellitus (T1DM) and high-fat/lower does streptozotocin induced type2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM). Blood sugar, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance were detected. Rat serum IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, Leptin, TNF-α, Acrp30 and CRP were also analyzed by sandwich-ELISA approaches to preliminary probe the hypoglycemic mechanism of PHP. Results The hypoglycemic effects related to molecular size of polysaccharide were more effective against T2DM than T1DM. PHP comprise four monosaccharides of galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinos. T2DM rats daily receiving oral dose of polysaccharide(100 ~ 400 mg/kg) with 50 ~ 210 kDa molecular weight (PF40) could not only significantly lower blood sugar but also reduce total triglyceride level in serum. PF40 improves in insulin tolerance inhibited the expression of some biomarkers including inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and elevated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, regulated adiponectin Acrp30 and leptin. Conclusions PF40 prevent the cascade of inflammatory events in the treatment of T2DM to block overweight progresses to obesity. PMID:24131482

  8. [Effects of different amendments on contents of phenolic acids and specific microbes in rhizosphere of Pseudostellaria heterophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin Kun; Wu, Hong Miao; Zhu, Quan; Chen, Jun; Wang, Juan Ying; Wu, Yan Hong; Lin, Sheng; Lin, Wen Xiong

    2016-11-18

    Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a perennial herbaceous plant in the family Caryophyllaceae. The tuberous roots of P. heterophylla are highly valued in traditional Chinese medicine and have a high market demand. However, extended monoculture of P. heterophylla results in a significant decline in the biomass and quality, and escalates disease and pest problems. Therefore, it is important to understand the underlying mechanism and biocontrol methods for consecutive monoculture problems. With "Zheshen 2" as an experimental material, the changes in the contents of main nutrients in soil, phenolic acids and specific microbes under monoculture and different amendments were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and qPCR. The results showed that consecutive monoculture of P. heterophylla led to a decrease in yield by 43.5% while the microbial fertilizer treatment and the paddy-upland rotation could relieve the consecutive monoculture problems. Available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and total potassium were significantly higher in the consecutively monocultured soils than in the newly planted soils. But consecutive monoculture resulted in soil acidification. HPLC analysis showed that conse-cutive monoculture of this plant did not lead to a consistent accumulation of soil phenolic acids. At middle stage of root expansion and at harvest stage, most of phenolic acids were even higher in the newly planted soils than in the consecutively monocultured soils. Furthermore, qPCR analysis showed that the amounts of three specific pathogens identified previously (i.e. Fusarium oxysporum, Talaromyces helicus, Kosakonia sacchari) were significantly higher in the consecutively monocultured soils than in the newly planted soils. However, the microbial fertilizer treatment and the paddy-upland rotation resulted in a significant decline in the population of these specific pathogens and improved the soil environment. In conclusion, the

  9. Atividade residual de diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla Residual activity of diuron, oxyfluorfen, and prometryne for Euphorbia heterophylla control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Oliveira Jr.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As aplicações de herbicidas em pré-emergência têm por finalidade a obtenção da atividade residual no início do ciclo das culturas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade residual dos herbicidas diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne, aplicados isoladamente ou em misturas, no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla. Oito experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação, aplicando-se doses dos herbicidas ou das misturas aos 30, 20, 10 e 0 dias antes da semeadura da planta daninha (DAS. Com o diuron e prometryne, foram observados controles satisfatórios até 20 DAS nas doses a partir de 1,07 e 1,6 kg ha-1, respectivamente. Quanto ao oxyfluorfen, foi registrado um período residual inferior, obtendo-se controle mínimo de 80% até 10 DAS nas doses a partir de 0,324 kg ha-1. Em relação às misturas dos herbicidas, a mistura diuron+prometryne promoveu controle superior a 85% por períodos de até 30 dias, quando aplicada na menor dose (1+2 kg ha-1, e de 20 dias, quando aplicada na dose de 2+1 kg ha-1. Visando obter esse mesmo patamar de controle por 30 dias, foi necessário 1+0,288 kg ha-1 da mistura diuron+oxyfluorfen. A mistura prometryne+oxyfluorfen apresentou um mínimo de 80% de controle no período de 10 dias, quando utilizada a dose de 1+0,192 kg ha-1.Pre-emergence herbicide applications are designed to obtain residual activity at the beginning of the crop cycle. The objective of this study was to evaluate the residual activity of diuron, oxyfluorfen, and prometryne, applied alone or in mixture, to control Euphorbia heterophylla. Eight experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions, by applying herbicide doses or mixtures at 30, 20, 10, and 0 days before weed sowing (DBWS.With diuron and prometryne, satisfactory controls were observed at doses up to 20 DBWS, from 1.07 to 1.6 kg ha-1, respectively. As for oxyfluorfen, a lower residual period was verified, with a minimum gaining control of at least 80% being obtained

  10. Resistence of Euphorbia Heterophylla L. to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in soybean Resistência de Euphorbia Heterophylla L. aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS na cultura da soja

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    Gerson Augusto Gelmini

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides are widely used in soybean for weed control, and the selection pressure attributed to the repeated use of herbicides with similar modes of action on the same site has caused selection for resistant biotypes within and among previously susceptible species, such as Euphorbia heterophylla L., in relation to ALS enzyme inhibitors, in the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and São Paulo, Brazil. Seeds of E. heterophylla were collected to examine possible new cases of resistant populations and to test alternative herbicide treatments to manage these populations, in the Caarapó region, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in areas where plants of this species have survived continuous herbicide applications. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, where biotypes with a history of suspected resistance were compared with a known susceptible biotype. Several post-emergence herbicides were sprayed at zero, one, two, four, and eight times the recommended field application rates. Twenty days after application, plants were harvested, and control percentage and fresh weight were determined to establish dose-response curves, in the aim to obtain the resistance factor using CD50 and RD50 data. The chlorimuron-ethyl resistance factor values for the control percentage and fresh weight parameters were higher than 16.5 and 16.9, respectively, while imazethapyr showed resistance factors higher than 25.0 and 23.5, respectively. The resistant biotype showed different resistance levels to chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr, showing cross-resistance to the sulfonylurea and imidazolinone groups. Nevertheless, this biotype was effectively controlled by fomesafen (250 g ha-1, lactofen (120 g ha-1, flumiclorac-pentyl (40 g ha-1, glufosinate-ammonium (150 g ha-1, and glyphosate (360 g ha-1.Os herbicidas constituem a principal medida de controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja, mas através da pressão de seleção, o uso contínuo e

  11. Characterization of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Takahashi, Koji; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2012-06-01

    The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase generates an electrochemical gradient of H(+) across the plasma membrane that provides the driving force for solute transport and regulates pH homeostasis and membrane potential in plant cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in H(+)-ATPase and subsequent binding of a 14-3-3 protein is the major common activation mechanism for H(+)-ATPase in vascular plants. However, there is very little information on the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in nonvascular plant bryophytes. Here, we show that the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, which is the most basal lineage of extant land plants, expresses both the penultimate threonine-containing H(+)-ATPase (pT H(+)-ATPase) and non-penultimate threonine-containing H(+)-ATPase (non-pT H(+)-ATPase) as in the green algae and that pT H(+)-ATPase is regulated by phosphorylation of its penultimate threonine. A search in the expressed sequence tag database of M. polymorpha revealed eight H(+)-ATPase genes, designated MpHA (for M. polymorpha H(+)-ATPase). Four isoforms are the pT H(+)-ATPase; the remaining isoforms are non-pT H(+)-ATPase. An apparent 95-kD protein was recognized by anti-H(+)-ATPase antibodies against an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) isoform and was phosphorylated on the penultimate threonine in response to the fungal toxin fusicoccin in thalli, indicating that the 95-kD protein contains pT H(+)-ATPase. Furthermore, we found that the pT H(+)-ATPase in thalli is phosphorylated in response to light, sucrose, and osmotic shock and that light-induced phosphorylation depends on photosynthesis. Our results define physiological signals for the regulation of pT H(+)-ATPase in the liverwort M. polymorpha, which is one of the earliest plants to acquire pT H(+)-ATPase.

  12. Phenology, natural enemies, and efficacy of horticultural oil for control of Chionaspis heterophyllae (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on Christmas tree plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondren, Kirsten M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2005-10-01

    Pine needle scale, Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch), and Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley are important pests of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L., and other conifers in much of North America. On Christmas tree plantations, these insects are typically controlled by spraying broad-spectrum insecticides when the vulnerable immature stages are present. However, effective control of bivoltine populations can be difficult to achieve due to asynchronous hatch and development of the second generation. Our objectives were to 1) determine the phenology of the second generation of C. heterophyllae in Michigan; 2) characterize the natural enemy complex; and 3) assess the effectiveness of horticultural oil for control of C. heterophyllae on P. sylvestris Christmas tree plantations. We monitored scale populations in three counties in lower Michigan for 3 yr. Scale phenology was consistently associated with cumulative degree-days base 10 degrees C (DD(10 degrees C)). Second-generation egg hatch began at approximately 1230-1300 DD(10 degrees C), and continued for approximately 3 wk. The peak of the second instar coincided with 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees C). Common predators included the coccinellids Chilocorus stigma (Say) and Microweisia misella (LeConte). On average, 70% of the C. heterophyllae population in unsprayed fields was killed by predators in 1999. Two endoparasitic wasps, Encarsia bella Gahan and Marietta mexicana Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), also were recovered. In 2000 and 2001, we applied a highly refined horticultural spray oil with a backpack mist blower at 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees). Scale mortality on trees treated with oil ranged from 66 to 80% and was similar to control achieved using conventional insecticides in both years.

  13. A novel experimental system using the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and its fungal endophytes reveals diverse and context-dependent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jessica M; Hauser, Duncan A; Hinson, Rosemary; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    Fungal symbioses are ubiquitous in plants, but their effects have mostly been studied in seed plants. This study aimed to assess the diversity of fungal endophyte effects in a bryophyte and identify factors contributing to the variability of outcomes in these interactions. Fungal endophyte cultures and axenic liverwort clones were isolated from wild populations of the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. These collections were combined in a gnotobiotic system to test the effects of fungal isolates on the growth rates of hosts under laboratory conditions. Under the experimental conditions, fungi isolated from M. polymorpha ranged from aggressively pathogenic to strongly growth-promoting, but the majority of isolates caused no detectable change in host growth. Growth promotion by selected fungi depended on nutrient concentrations and was inhibited by coinoculation with multiple fungi. The M. polymorpha endophyte system expands the resources for this model liverwort. The experiments presented here demonstrate a wealth of diversity in fungal interactions even in a host reported to lack standard mycorrhizal symbiosis. In addition, they show that some known pathogens of vascular plants live in M. polymorpha and can confer benefits to this nonvascular host. This highlights the importance of studying endophyte effects across the plant tree of life. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Phytotoxin produced by Bipolaris euphorbiae in-vitro is effective against the weed Euphorbia heterophylla

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    Barbosa Aneli M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Four virulent strain isolates of the fungus, Bipolaris euphorbiae (previously identified as a Helminthosporium sp., isolated from host plants in four states within Brazil were screened for the production of phytotoxins that promoted wilting and defoliation of the Brazilian weed, Euphorbia heterophylla, commonly found growing among soyabean crops. Only one isolate, B. euphorbiae Strain I (EUPH petropar from Mato Grosso state, produced phytotoxin in-vitro when grown in stationary culture for 7 d at 28 ° C on minimum salts medium supplemented with 1.5 % glucose as the sole carbon source. Phytotoxin was also produced when the fungal strain was grown on fructose, galactose, mannose, xylose and sucrose. The addition of nitrogen source (yeast extract, peptone or malt extract to the culture medium did not influence phytotoxin production. The phytotoxin produced by Strain I was most active at pH 6.0, stable between pH 3-9, and was highly thermostable, remaining fully active when heated at 90 ° C for 1 h.

  15. Aplicações isoladas ou associadas de diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne para o controle de Euphorbia heterophylla Isolated or combined application of diuron, oxyfluorfen and prometryn for Euphorbia heterophylla control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S Oliveira JR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação em pré-emergência no início do ciclo do algodoeiro é prática consagrada entre os produtores. Embora os herbicidas diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne sejam opções para uso nessa cultura, há informações limitadas referentes à eficácia desses herbicidas no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a curva de dose-resposta de diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne para o controle de E. heterophylla, bem como analisar a eficiência biológica de misturas desses herbicidas no manejo dessa espécie. O trabalho foi composto por seis experimentos conduzidos simultaneamente em casa de vegetação, sendo três deles com doses crescentes de cada herbicida aplicado isoladamente e três compostos por misturas dos herbicidas dois a dois. A curva de dose-resposta foi ajustada para os dados das avaliações de porcentagem de redução de massa seca aos 28 dias após a aplicação. Determinoaram-se as doses I80 e I95, que correspondem ao controle de 80% e 95%, respectivamente, de controle visual ou redução da massa seca. Diuron, oxyfluorfen e prometryne, aplicados isoladamente, mostraram-se eficientes, dentro do intervalo de doses utilizado, no controle de E. heterophylla. As misturas contendo oxyfluorfen apresentaram-se, de modo geral, como aditivas ou antagonísticas, ao passo que misturas de diuron+prometryne foram aditivas ou sinergísticas. Das três combinações de produtos possíveis, oxyfluorfen+prometryne foi a associação que resultou em menor número de tratamentos que promoveram controle aceitável do leiteiro.Pre-emergence herbicide application at the beginning of the crop cycle is a consecrated practice among cotton farmers. Although herbicides, such as diuron, oxyfluorfen and prometryn, are options for this crop, not much is known about their effect on Euphorbia heterophylla. This work aimed to elaborate dose-response curves for diuron, oxyfluorfen and prometryn in relation to E

  16. Aplicações seqüenciais de flumicloracpentil para o controle de Euphorbia heterophylla na cultura da soja = Sequential application of flumicloracpentil for Euphorbia heterophylla control in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubem Silvério de Oliveira Jr

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia heterophylla destacase como a principal planta daninha na cultura da soja no Estado do Paraná, não só pela sua disseminação, mas também pela natural dificuldade de controle e pela ocorrência de biótipos que apresentam resistência. Em face de tais problemas, buscou se avaliar a eficácia de aplicações seqüenciais em pós emergência de flumicloracpentil no controle dessa planta daninha. As aplicações seqüenciais de flumicloracpentil foram superiores, em termos de eficácia, às doses recomendadas em aplicação única, promovendo no mínimo 86% de controle aos 24 dias após a aplicação dasegunda etapa das seqüenciais. Todas as combinações de doses de flumicloracpentil avaliadas promoveram controle adequado de E. heterophylla, desde que aplicadas no estádio de duas folhas verdadeiras. Comparando se os resultados obtidos em casadevegetaçãoe em estufa, observou se que, em condições de campo, o sombreamento imposto pela soja auxilia no nível de controle final da planta daninha.Wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla is one the most importantweeds in soybean fields in the state of Paraná, not only for its dissemination, but also due to its natural difficulty of controlling features by herbicides and to occurrence of resistant biotypes. Facing those problems, an evaluation of the field and greenhouse trials was carried out in order to check the efficacy of postemergencesequential application of flumicloracpentil to control this weed. Sequential applications of flumicloracpentil were more efficientthan a single application, promoting, at least, 86% of weed control on the 24th day after the second application of the sequential treatments. All the evaluated combinations of flumiclorac rates once sprayed at two true leaves stage, promoted adequate control of E. heterophylla. Comparing the greenhouse and the field results, it was concluded that, under field conditions, the canopy provided by the crop helps to improve the

  17. Expression and Functional Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factors in Chinese Wild Hazel, Corylus heterophylla Fisch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Jin; Liang, Li-Song; Ma, Qing-Hua; Chen, Xin; Zong, Jian-Wei; Wang, Gui-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Plant WRKY transcription factors are known to regulate various biotic and abiotic stress responses. In this study we identified a total of 30 putative WRKY unigenes in a transcriptome dataset of the Chinese wild Hazel, Corylus heterophylla, a species that is noted for its cold tolerance. Thirteen full-length of these ChWRKY genes were cloned and found to encode complete protein sequences, and they were divided into three groups, based on the number of WRKY domains and the pattern of zinc finger structures. Representatives of each of the groups, Unigene25835 (group I), Unigene37641 (group II) and Unigene20441 (group III), were transiently expressed as fusion proteins with yellow fluorescent fusion protein in Nicotiana benthamiana, where they were observed to accumulate in the nucleus, in accordance with their predicted roles as transcriptional activators. An analysis of the expression patterns of all 30 WRKY genes revealed differences in transcript abundance profiles following exposure to cold, drought and high salinity conditions. Among the stress-inducible genes, 23 were up-regulated by all three abiotic stresses and the WRKY genes collectively exhibited four different patterns of expression in flower buds during the overwintering period from November to April. The organ/tissue related expression analysis showed that 18 WRKY genes were highly expressed in stem but only 2 (Unigene9262 and Unigene43101) were greatest in male anthotaxies. The expression of Unigene37641, a member of the group II WRKY genes, was substantially up-regulated by cold, drought and salinity treatments, and its overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in better seedling growth, compared with wild type plants, under cold treatment conditions. The transgenic lines also had exhibited higher soluble protein content, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activiety and lower levels of malondialdehyde, which collectively suggets that Unigene37641 expression promotes cold tolerance.

  18. G-Quadruplex DNAzyme Molecular Beacon for Amplified Colorimetric Biosensing of Pseudostellaria heterophylla

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    Juan Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With an internal transcribed spacer of 18 S, 5.8 S and 26 S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA ITS as DNA marker, we report a colorimetric approach for authentication of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (PH and its counterfeit species based on the differentiation of the nrDNA ITS sequence. The assay possesses an unlabelled G-quadruplex DNAzyme molecular beacon (MB probe, employing complementary sequence as biorecognition element and 1:1:1:1 split G-quadruplex halves as reporter. In the absence of target DNA (T-DNA, the probe can shape intermolecular G-quadruplex structures capable of binding hemin to form G-quadruplex-hemin DNAzyme and catalyze the oxidation of ABTS2− to blue-green ABTS•− by H2O2. In the presence of T-DNA, T-DNA can hybridize with the complementary sequence to form a duplex structure, hindering the formation of the G-quadruplex structure and resulting in the loss of the catalytic activity. Consequently, a UV-Vis absorption signal decrease is observed in the ABTS2−-H2O2 system. The “turn-off” assay allows the detection of T-DNA from 1.0 × 10−9 to 3.0 × 10−7 mol·L−1 (R2 = 0.9906, with a low detection limit of 3.1 × 10−10 mol·L−1. The present study provides a sensitive and selective method and may serve as a foundation of utilizing the DNAzyme MB sensor for identifying traditional Chinese medicines.

  19. Insights into the Regulation of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities by Application of Bio-organic Fertilizer in Pseudostellaria heterophylla Monoculture Regime

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    Linkun Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biomass and quality of Pseudostellariae heterophylla suffers a significant decline under monoculture. Since rhizosphere microbiome plays crucial roles in soil health, deep pyrosequencing combined with qPCR was applied to characterize the composition and structure of soil bacterial community under monoculture and different amendments. The results showed compared with the first-year planted (FP, second-year monoculture of P. heterophylla (SP led to a significant decline in yield and resulted in a significant increase in Fusarium oxysporum but a decline in Burkholderia spp. Bio-organic fertilizer (MT formulated by combining antagonistic bacteria with organic matter could significantly promote the yield by regulating rhizosphere bacterial community. However, organic fertilizer (MO without antagonistic bacteria could not suppress Fusarium wilt. Multivariate statistics analysis showed a distinct separation between the healthy samples (FP and MT and the unhealthy samples (SP and MO, suggesting a strong relationship between soil microbial community and plant performance. Furthermore, we found the application of bio-organic fertilizer MT could significantly increase the bacterial community diversity and restructure microbial community with relatively fewer pathogenic F. oxysporum and more beneficial Burkholderia spp. In conclusion, the application of novel bio-organic fertilizer could effectively suppress Fusarium wilt by enriching the antagonistic bacteria and enhancing the bacterial diversity.

  20. Range size heritability and diversification patterns in the liverwort genus Radula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Jairo; Wang, Jian; Renner, Matt A M; Gradstein, S Robbert; Laenen, Benjamin; Devos, Nicolas; Shaw, A Jonathan; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Why some species exhibit larger geographical ranges than others, and to what extent does variation in range size affect diversification rates, remains a fundamental, but largely unanswered question in ecology and evolution. Here, we implement phylogenetic comparative analyses and ancestral area estimations in Radula, a liverwort genus of Cretaceous origin, to investigate the mechanisms that explain differences in geographical range size and diversification rates among lineages. Range size was phylogenetically constrained in the two sub-genera characterized by their almost complete Australasian and Neotropical endemicity, respectively. The congruence between the divergence time of these lineages and continental split suggests that plate tectonics could have played a major role in their present distribution, suggesting that a strong imprint of vicariance can still be found in extant distribution patterns in these highly mobile organisms. Amentuloradula, Volutoradula and Metaradula species did not appear to exhibit losses of dispersal capacities in terms of dispersal life-history traits, but evidence for significant phylogenetic signal in macroecological niche traits suggests that niche conservatism accounts for their restricted geographic ranges. Despite their greatly restricted distribution to Australasia and Neotropics respectively, Amentuloradula and Volutoradula did not exhibit significantly lower diversification rates than more widespread lineages, in contrast with the hypothesis that the probability of speciation increases with range size by promoting geographic isolation and increasing the rate at which novel habitats are encountered. We suggest that stochastic long-distance dispersal events may balance allele frequencies across large spatial scales, leading to low genetic structure among geographically distant areas or even continents, ultimately decreasing the diversification rates in highly mobile, widespread lineages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Variabilidade genética em biotipos de leiteiro de Londrina/PR Genetic variability among Euphorbia heterophylla

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    Maria José V. de Vasconcelos

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia heterophylla, também conhecida como amendoim-bravo ou leiteira, é considerada planta invasora importante em mais de 56 países, inclusive no Brasil, tendo acarretado perdas de até 33 % na cultura da soja. Fenotipicamente, é uma espécie de características variáveis, especialmente em relação ao formato do limbo foliar. Esta variabilidade fenotípica tem sido utilizada para diferenciar e classificar as plantas, sugerindo a vários autores que a leiteira seria, de fato, constituída por diferentes espécies. Para estudar a variabilidade genética a nível de DNA entre plantas de Euphorbia heterophylla, que apresentam folhas morfologicamente diferentes, foram analisadas dez plantas diferentes coletadas em campos de soja, em Londrina/PR. As plantas foram transplantadas para casa-devegetação e o DNA das folhas foi extraído para análise pela técnica de RAPD. Vinte seis diferentes "primers", de dez nucleotídeos de sequência aleatória, geraram total de 102 bandas de DNA, sendo 38 delas polimórficas. A distância genética entre os indivíduos foi calculada em função da presença e da ausência das bandas, variando de 1 a 39% entre plantas. A análise de agrupamento dividiu as plantas em dois grupos, considerando limite de distância relativa de 22%. Os grupos gerados separaram nitidamente as plantas quanto ao formato do limbo foliar (estreito ou arredondado e quanto á ramificação (densa ou normal.Euphorbia heterophylla is an important weed affecting the performance of annual and perennial crops. It is native from tropical and subtropical regions in the American continent, and has been detected at high densities in 20 different countries worldwide, and at low densities in other 40 countries. In Brazil, it has been inclued among the ten most important weeds affecting different crops, causing yield losses up to 33% in soybean fields. Phenotypically, this species is extremely variable, especially in relation to leaf shape and

  2. Retrospective bioindication of stratospheric ozone and ultraviolet radiation using hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of herbarium samples of an aquatic liverwort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, Saul [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain); Nunez-Olivera, Encarnacion, E-mail: encarnacion.nunez@unirioja.e [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain); Martinez-Abaigar, Javier; Tomas, Rafael [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain); Huttunen, Satu [Department of Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 Finland (Finland)

    2009-08-15

    We analyzed bulk UV absorbance of methanolic extracts and levels of five UV-absorbing compounds (hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) in 135 herbarium samples of the liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia from northern Europe. Samples had been collected in 1850-2006 (96% in June-August). Both UV absorbance and compound levels were correlated positively with collection year. p-Coumaroylmalic acid (C1) was the only compound showing a significant (and negative) correlation with stratospheric ozone and UV irradiance in the period that real data of these variables existed. Stratospheric ozone reconstruction (1850-2006) based on C1 showed higher values in June than in July and August, which coincides with the normal monthly variation of ozone. Combining all the data, there was no long-term temporal trend from 1850 to 2006. Reconstructed UV showed higher values in June-July than in August, but again no temporal trend was detected in 1918-2006 using the joint data. This agrees with previous UV reconstructions. - On the basis of the levels of p-coumaroylmalic acid in liverwort samples, reconstructions of both ozone and UV radiation showed no significant temporal trend in, respectively, 1850-2006 and 1918-2006.

  3. Abscisic acid induces biosynthesis of bisbibenzyls and tolerance to UV-C in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Akito; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku

    2015-09-01

    Environmental stresses are effective triggers for the biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites in plants, and phytohormones such as jasmonic acid and abscisic acid are known to mediate such responses in flowering plants. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the regulation of secondary metabolism in bryophytes remains unclear. In this study, the induction mechanism of secondary metabolites in the model liverwort Marchantia polymorpha was investigated. Abscisic acid (ABA) and ultraviolet irradiation (UV-C) were found to induce the biosynthesis of isoriccardin C, marchantin C, and riccardin F, which are categorized as bisbibenzyls, characteristic metabolites of liverworts. UV-C led to the significant accumulation of ABA. Overexpression of MpABI1, which encodes protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) as a negative regulator of ABA signaling, suppressed accumulation of bisbibenzyls in response to ABA and UV-C irradiation and conferred susceptibility to UV-C irradiation. These data show that ABA plays a significant role in the induction of bisbibenzyl biosynthesis, which might confer tolerance against UV-C irradiation in M. polymorpha. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Retrospective bioindication of stratospheric ozone and ultraviolet radiation using hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of herbarium samples of an aquatic liverwort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, Saul; Nunez-Olivera, Encarnacion; Martinez-Abaigar, Javier; Tomas, Rafael; Huttunen, Satu

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed bulk UV absorbance of methanolic extracts and levels of five UV-absorbing compounds (hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) in 135 herbarium samples of the liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia from northern Europe. Samples had been collected in 1850-2006 (96% in June-August). Both UV absorbance and compound levels were correlated positively with collection year. p-Coumaroylmalic acid (C1) was the only compound showing a significant (and negative) correlation with stratospheric ozone and UV irradiance in the period that real data of these variables existed. Stratospheric ozone reconstruction (1850-2006) based on C1 showed higher values in June than in July and August, which coincides with the normal monthly variation of ozone. Combining all the data, there was no long-term temporal trend from 1850 to 2006. Reconstructed UV showed higher values in June-July than in August, but again no temporal trend was detected in 1918-2006 using the joint data. This agrees with previous UV reconstructions. - On the basis of the levels of p-coumaroylmalic acid in liverwort samples, reconstructions of both ozone and UV radiation showed no significant temporal trend in, respectively, 1850-2006 and 1918-2006.

  5. Molecular and Morphological Evidence Challenges the Records of the Extant Liverwort Ptilidium pulcherrimum in Eocene Baltic Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Scheben, Armin; Lee, Gaik Ee; Váňa, Jiří; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Krings, Michael; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of liverworts in amber, a fossilized tree resin, is often exquisite. Twenty-three fossil species of liverworts have been described to date from Eocene (35-50 Ma) Baltic amber. In addition, two inclusions have been assigned to the extant species Ptilidium pulcherrimum (Ptilidiales or Porellales). However, the presence of the boreal P. pulcherrimum in the subtropical or warm-temperate Baltic amber forest challenges the phytogeographical interpretation of the Eocene flora. A re-investigation of one of the fossils believed to be P. pulcherrimum reveals that this specimen in fact represents the first fossil evidence of the genus Tetralophozia, and thus is re-described here as Tetralophozia groehnii sp. nov. A second fossil initially assigned to P. pulcherrimum is apparently lost, and can be reassessed only based on the original description and illustrations. This fossil is morphologically similar to the extant North Pacific endemic Ptilidium californicum, rather than P. pulcherrimum. Divergence time estimates based on chloroplast DNA sequences provide evidence of a Miocene origin of P. pulcherrimum, and thus also argue against the presence of this taxon in the Eocene. Ptilidium californicum originated 25-43 Ma ago. As a result, we cannot rule out that the Eocene fossil belongs to P. californicum. Alternatively, the fossil might represent a stem lineage element of Ptilidium or an early crown group species with morphological similarities to P. californicum.

  6. Eficácia de herbicidas em diferentes quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla Efficacy of herbicides in different amounts of sugar cane straw on Euphorbia heterophylla control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Monquero

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar, colhida sem queima prévia do canavial, sobre a eficácia de alguns herbicidas recomendados para esta cultura. O experimento foi conduzido em campo no Centro de Ciências Agrárias/UFSCar, em Araras, SP. Os tratamentos consistiram dos herbicidas trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn (1.463 + 37 g i.a ha-1, imazapic (84 g i.a ha-1, imazapyr (200 g i.a ha-1, ¹diuron + hexazinone (1.170 + 330 g i.a ha-1 e ²diuron + hexazinone (1.330 + 160 g i.a ha-1 aplicados em pré-emergência de Euphorbia heterophylla e sobre cinco quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 t ha-1. A eficácia de controle das plantas daninhas foi avaliada aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAT. A palha (15 e 20 t ha-1 reduziu a população de E. heterophylla. À medida que se aumentou a quantidade de palha, houve redução na eficácia dos herbicidas; com 15 t ha-1 de palha, o controle foi considerado satisfatório (90% apenas para os tratamentos ¹diuron + hexazinone e trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn. Com 20 t ha-1, nenhum herbicida foi eficaz; entretanto, a palha foi eficiente na supressão dessa espécie, verificando-se que o número de plantas emergidas foi menor mesmo na testemunha.This work aimed to study the effect of different amounts of sugar cane straw, collected unburned, on the efficacy of some herbicides recommended for this culture. The experiment was carried out in the field, at the Centro de Ciências Agrárias/UFSCar, Araras, SP. The treatments consisted of herbicides trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn (1,463 + 37 g a.i ha-1, imazapic (84 g a.i ha-1, imazapyr (200 g a.i ha-1, diuron + hexazinone (1,170 + 330 g a.i ha ¹ and ²diuron + hexazinone (1,330 + 160 g a.i ha-1 applied in pre emergence of Euphorbia heterophylla and five increasing amounts of sugar cane straw ( 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1.Weed

  7. AgarTrap: a simplified Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for sporelings of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboyama, Shoko; Kodama, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. is being developed as an emerging model plant, and several transformation techniques were recently reported. Examples are biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods. Here, we report a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sporelings, and it is termed Agar-utilized Transformation with Pouring Solutions (AgarTrap). The procedure of the AgarTrap was carried out by simply exchanging appropriate solutions in a Petri dish, and completed within a week, successfully yielding sufficient numbers of independent transformants for molecular analysis (e.g. characterization of gene/protein function) in a single experiment. The AgarTrap method will promote future molecular biological study in M. polymorpha.

  8. Moss and liverwort xyloglucans contain galacturonic acid and are structurally distinct from the xyloglucans synthesized by hornworts and vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Maria J; Darvill, Alan G; Eberhard, Stefan; York, William S; O'Neill, Malcolm A

    2008-11-01

    Xyloglucan is a well-characterized hemicellulosic polysaccharide that is present in the cell walls of all seed-bearing plants. The cell walls of avascular and seedless vascular plants are also believed to contain xyloglucan. However, these xyloglucans have not been structurally characterized. This lack of information is an impediment to understanding changes in xyloglucan structure that occurred during land plant evolution. In this study, xyloglucans were isolated from the walls of avascular (liverworts, mosses, and hornworts) and seedless vascular plants (club and spike mosses and ferns and fern allies). Each xyloglucan was fragmented with a xyloglucan-specific endo-glucanase and the resulting oligosaccharides then structurally characterized using NMR spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF and electrospray mass spectrometry, and glycosyl-linkage and glycosyl residue composition analyses. Our data show that xyloglucan is present in the cell walls of all major divisions of land plants and that these xyloglucans have several common structural motifs. However, these polysaccharides are not identical because specific plant groups synthesize xyloglucans with unique structural motifs. For example, the moss Physcomitrella patens and the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha synthesize XXGGG- and XXGG-type xyloglucans, respectively, with sidechains that contain a beta-D-galactosyluronic acid and a branched xylosyl residue. By contrast, hornworts synthesize XXXG-type xyloglucans that are structurally homologous to the xyloglucans synthesized by many seed-bearing and seedless vascular plants. Our results increase our understanding of the evolution, diversity, and function of structural motifs in land-plant xyloglucans and provide support to the proposal that hornworts are sisters to the vascular plants.

  9. Evolution of a pseudogene: exclusive survival of a functional mitochondrial nad7 gene supports Haplomitrium as the earliest liverwort lineage and proposes a secondary loss of RNA editing in Marchantiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth-Malonek, Milena; Wahrmund, Ute; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Knoop, Volker

    2007-04-01

    Gene transfer from the mitochondrion into the nucleus is a corollary of the endosymbiont hypothesis. The frequent and independent transfer of genes for mitochondrial ribosomal proteins is well documented with many examples in angiosperms, whereas transfer of genes for components of the respiratory chain is a rarity. A notable exception is the nad7 gene, encoding subunit 7 of complex I, in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, which resides as a full-length, intron-carrying and transcribed, but nonspliced pseudogene in the chondriome, whereas its functional counterpart is nuclear encoded. To elucidate the patterns of pseudogene degeneration, we have investigated the mitochondrial nad7 locus in 12 other liverworts of broad phylogenetic distribution. We find that the mitochondrial nad7 gene is nonfunctional in 11 of them. However, the modes of pseudogene degeneration vary: whereas point mutations, accompanied by single-nucleotide indels, predominantly introduce stop codons into the reading frame in marchantiid liverworts, larger indels introduce frameshifts in the simple thalloid and leafy jungermanniid taxa. Most notably, however, the mitochondrial nad7 reading frame appears to be intact in the isolated liverwort genus Haplomitrium. Its functional expression is shown by cDNA analysis identifying typical RNA-editing events to reconstitute conserved codon identities and also confirming functional splicing of the 2 liverwort-specific group II introns. We interpret our results 1) to indicate the presence of a functional mitochondrial nad7 gene in the earliest land plants and strongly supporting a basal placement of Haplomitrium among the liverworts, 2) to indicate different modes of pseudogene degeneration and chondriome evolution in the later branching liverwort clades, 3) to suggest a surprisingly long maintenance of a nonfunctional gene in the presumed oldest group of land plants, and 4) to support the model of a secondary loss of RNA-editing activity in marchantiid

  10. High selfing capability and low pollinator visitation in the hummingbird-pollinated epiphyte Pitcairnia heterophylla (Bromeliaceae) at a Costa Rican mountain forest

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos, Luis D.; Cascante-Marín, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    AbstractPitcairnioideae is the second most diverse subfamily of bromeliads (Bromeliaceae), a group exclusive to tropical regions of the New World. Pitcairnioid bromeliads have floral traits assumed to promote outcrossing through biotic pollination systems; however, the reproductive biology of most of the species of this group has not been documented. Pitcairnia heterophylla is an epiphytic (seldom saxicolous) bromeliad occurring from Southern Mexico, into the Northern Andes. We studied the po...

  11. Water stress on the performace of herbicides and biochemical characteristics of Euphorbia heterophyllaDéficit hídrico na eficiência de herbicidas e nas características bioquímicas de Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Ferraz Campos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate conditions the effectiveness of acetolactate synthase (ALS and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PROTOX inhibitors in the Bidens pilosa control under two water deficit conditions, as well as to determine the action under the content of soluble carbohydrates and protein and free amino acids of weed. The experimental design was randomized completely design, with four replications, with the treatments setup in a factorial scheme 4x2, with four herbicides (fomesafen lactofen, chlorimuron-ethyl and imazethapyr, and two soil water conditions (-0.5 MPa and –0.01MPa. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application (DAA, was assessed visually control efficiency of herbicides. For the determination of organic solutes plants were collected at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after application (HAA, except for the amino acids were analyzed 48, 72 e 96 HAA. Herbicides fomesafen and lactofen were efficient to control E. heterophylla, while the ALS inhibitors (chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr provided an unsatisfactory control. Water deficit altered the efficiency of herbicides, mainly chlorimuronethyl. Lactofen provided a smaller content of soluble carbohydrates, in the same way, the protein ranged in the 72 HAA, the lower value observed for imazethapyr e lactofen respectively. Herbicide lactofen increased the concentration of free amino acids, while the imposition of water deficit caused an increase in soluble carbohydrate content.O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS e protoporfirinogênio oxidase (PROTOX no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla sob duas condições hídricas, bem como determinar a ação destes sob o conteúdo de carboidratos e proteínas solúveis e aminoácidos livres da planta daninha. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 4x2, sendo quatro

  12. HPLC-ESI-MS(n) Analysis, Fed-Batch Cultivation Enhances Bioactive Compound Biosynthesis and Immune-Regulative Effect of Adventitious Roots in Pseudostellaria heterophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Li, Jing; Li, Hongfa; Wu, Xiaolei; Gao, Wenyuan

    2015-09-01

    A electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) analysis was performed in order to identify the active composition in Pseudostellaria heterophylla adventitious roots. Pseudostellarin A, C, D, and G were identified from P. heterophylla adventitious roots on the basis of LC-MS(n) analysis. The culture conditions of adventitious roots were optimized, and datasets were subjected to a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), in which the growth ratio and some compounds showed a positive correlation with an aeration volume of 0.3 vvm and inoculum density of 0.15 %. Fed-batch cultivation enhanced the contents of total saponin, polysaccharides, and specific oxygen uptaker rate (SOUR). The maximum dry root weight (4.728 g l(-1)) was achieved in the 3/4 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium group. PLS-DA showed that polysaccharides contributed significantly to the clustering of different groups and showed a positive correlation in the MS medium group. The delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction on the mice induced by 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) was applied to compare the immunocompetence effects of adventitious roots (AR) with field native roots (NR) of P. heterophylla. As a result, AR possessed a similar immunoregulation function as NR.

  13. Evaluation of volatiles from Ampelopsis brevipedunculata var. heterophylla using GC-olfactometry, GC-MS and GC-pulsed flame photometric detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Atsuhiko; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Ampelopsis brevipedunculata var. heterophylla is extensively cultivated in Asia, and the dried leaves and branches have a characteristic odor and have been used as a tea. To investigate the odorants contributing to the characteristic odor of A. brevipedunculata var. heterophylla, the aroma extraction dilution analysis method was performed through gas chromatography olfactometry. In addition, volatile sulfur compounds were evaluated using pulsed flame photometric detector. As a result, 86 compounds were identified in the oils of leaves and 78 in branches, accounting for 80.0% and 68.3%, respectively, of the compounds identified. The main compounds in the essential oil of leaves were palmitic acid (12.5%), phenylacetaldehyde (4.1%) and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (3.9%). On the other hand, the essential oil of branches contained palmitic acid (12.7%), terpinen-4-ol (4.4%) and α-cadinol (3.7%). The total number of odor-active compounds identified in the leaf and branch oils was 39. The most odorous compounds of leaves and branches of A. brevipedunculata var. heterophylla were (E, Z)-2,6-nonadienal (melon, green odor), (E)-2-nonenal (grassy odor), phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) and (E)-linalool oxide (woody odor).

  14. Interferência de populações de Euphorbia heterophylla e Ipomoea ramosissima isoladas ou em misturas sobre a cultura de soja Interference of populations of Euphorbia heterophylla and Ipomoea ramosissima isolated or in mixture in soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rizzardi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as principais espécies daninhas que infestam as lavouras de soja do sul do Brasil, destacam-se Euphorbia heterophylla (leiteira e, mais recentemente, Ipomoea ramosissima (corda-de-viola. Objetivou-se avaliar a habilidade competitiva relativa entre espécies daninhas e soja e quantificar a interferência de infestações mistas de leiteira e corda-de-viola quando em convivência com plantas de soja. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, comparando associações de leiteira ou corda-de-viola com soja, utilizando-se cinco proporções de plantas de leiteira e soja ou corda-de-viola e soja (0:8; 2:6; 4:4; 6:2; 8:0. Em um terceiro experimento, mantiveram-se constantes quatro plantas de soja por vaso e utilizaram-se cinco proporções de plantas de leiteira e corda-de-viola (0:8; 2:6; 4:4; 6:2; 8:0, estabelecidas em duas épocas de emergência das plantas daninhas em relação à soja. Verificou-se que a redução na biomassa da soja é mais intensa quando em presença de corda-de-viola do que de leiteira e, principalmente, em situações nas quais a planta daninha se estabelece antes que a cultura. Quando em infestação mista, corda-de-viola é mais competitiva do que leiteira.Euphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia, and, more recently, Ipomoea ramosissima (morningglory are among the main weeds infesting soybean crop in southern Brazil. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of wild poinsettia and morningglory as single or mixed populations in coexistence with soybean. Two experimentswere conducted to compare associations of wild poinsettia or moningglory with soybean, using five ratios of wild poinsettia plants and soybean or morningglory (0:8, 2:6, 4:4, 6:2 and 8:0. In a third experiment, four soybean plants per pot were kept constant and five ratios of of wild poinsettia and moningglory plants were used (0:8, 2:6, 4:4, 6:2 and 8:0, established in two weed emergence periods related to the soybean. The results indicated that a higher

  15. Ingestion et digestibilité in vivo du Panicum maximum associé à trois compléments: tourteau de Jatophra curcas, tourteau de coton Gossypium hirsutum et Euphorbia heterophylla chez le cobaye Cavia porcellus L

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    N'G.D.V. Kouakou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Intake and the in vivo Digestibility of Panicum maximum Associated with Three Supplements: Jatophra curcas Cake, Gossypium hirsutum Cake and Euphorbia heterophylla (Euph in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.. The intake and the in vivo digestibility of Panicum maximum associated with three supplements: Jatropha curcas cake, Gossypium hirsutum cake and Euphorbia heterophylla (Euph in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus L. pigs, its association with Panicum maximum could be popularized wherever its abundance has been reported. In order used weed Euphorbia heterophylla in guinea pigs diet, comparative study of the intake and the in vivo digestibility of four treatments, Panicum maximum (Pan, Panicum maximum and Gossypium hirsutum cake (Pancoton, Panicum maximum and Euphorbia heterophylla (Paneuph and Panicum maximum and Jatropha curcas cake (Panjatro, in male guinea pigs were conducted in Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast. The means of the intake (g DM/d were 64.8 ± 12.5; 74.3 ± 12.9; 73.7 ± 17.8 and 69.1 ± 12.3 respectively for Pan, Pancoton, Paneuph and Panjatro. Pancoton and Paneuph were significantly better ingested than Pan and Panjatro. Euphorbia heterophylla was significantly better ingested than the other two supplements (P< 0.05 and the mean daily weight gain with its association with Panicum maximum of 3.1 ± 0.6 g/d. The rate of substitution of Panicum maximum by Euphorbia heterophylla was nearly to one (1. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC for dry (68.0 ± 10.5% and organic matter (84.1 ± 5.2% of Paneuph were significantly higher (P< 0.05 than the ADC's for the other three treatments. Given the nutritional value of Euphorbia heterophylla in guinea pigs, its association with Panicum maximum could be popularized wherever its abundance has been reported.

  16. Resistência de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla l. Aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima ALS utilizados na cultura de soja Resistance of Euphorbia heterophylla l. Biotypes to ALS enzyme inhibitor herbicides used in soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERSON AUGUSTO GELMINI

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os herbicidas constituem-se na principal medida de controle de plantas daninhas na cultura de soja; no entanto, a pressão de seleção causada pelo uso contínuo de produtos com o mesmo mecanismo de ação pode provocar a seleção de biótipos resistentes, como ocorreu com Euphorbia heterophylla L., que se mostrou resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS em áreas dos Estados do Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul. Para comprovar possíveis novos casos, bem como alternativas para prevenção e manejo, coletaram-se sementes de plantas de E. heterophylla L., na região de Assis (SP, que sobreviveram a tratamentos, em que esses herbicidas foram sistematicamente aplicados nos últimos anos. Desenvolveu-se o experimento em casa de vegetação, comparando-se o biótipo resistente ao suscetível, quando submetido aos diversos herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência. Aplicaram-se quando as plantas encontravam-se no estádio de duas a quatro folhas verdadeiras, nas doses zero, uma, duas, quatro e oito vezes a recomendada. Aos 20 dias após a aplicação, avaliaram-se os parâmetros relativos ao controle e produção de fitomassa epígea visando ao estabelecimento de curvas de doses-resposta, à obtenção dos fatores de resistência com base nos valores da DL50 e GR50, e à verificação da ocorrência de resistência múltipla. O biótipo resistente apresentou diferentes níveis de resistência aos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr, demonstrando resistência cruzada aos inibidores da ALS dos grupos das sulfoniluréias e imidazolinonas. No entanto, foi eficientemente controlado nos tratamentos com fomesafen (250 g.ha-1, lactofen (120 g.ha-1, flumiclorac-pentil (40 g.ha-1, glufosinato de amônio (150 g.ha-1 e glyphosate (360 g.ha-1.Herbicides are the main tool for weed control in soybean crop, but the selection pressure attributed to the repeated application of the same herbicides and the same mechanism of action can

  17. Retrospective bioindication of stratospheric ozone and ultraviolet radiation using hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of herbarium samples of an aquatic liverwort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Saúl; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Tomás, Rafael; Huttunen, Satu

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed bulk UV absorbance of methanolic extracts and levels of five UV-absorbing compounds (hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) in 135 herbarium samples of the liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia from northern Europe. Samples had been collected in 1850-2006 (96% in June-August). Both UV absorbance and compound levels were correlated positively with collection year. p-Coumaroylmalic acid (C1) was the only compound showing a significant (and negative) correlation with stratospheric ozone and UV irradiance in the period that real data of these variables existed. Stratospheric ozone reconstruction (1850-2006) based on C1 showed higher values in June than in July and August, which coincides with the normal monthly variation of ozone. Combining all the data, there was no long-term temporal trend from 1850 to 2006. Reconstructed UV showed higher values in June-July than in August, but again no temporal trend was detected in 1918-2006 using the joint data. This agrees with previous UV reconstructions.

  18. Deciphering the Evolution and Development of the Cuticle by Studying Lipid Transfer Proteins in Mosses and Liverworts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina A. Salminen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When plants conquered land, they developed specialized organs, tissues, and cells in order to survive in this new and harsh terrestrial environment. New cell polymers such as the hydrophobic lipid-based polyesters cutin, suberin, and sporopollenin were also developed for protection against water loss, radiation, and other potentially harmful abiotic factors. Cutin and waxes are the main components of the cuticle, which is the waterproof layer covering the epidermis of many aerial organs of land plants. Although the in vivo functions of the group of lipid binding proteins known as lipid transfer proteins (LTPs are still rather unclear, there is accumulating evidence suggesting a role for LTPs in the transfer and deposition of monomers required for cuticle assembly. In this review, we first present an overview of the data connecting LTPs with cuticle synthesis. Furthermore, we propose liverworts and mosses as attractive model systems for revealing the specific function and activity of LTPs in the biosynthesis and evolution of the plant cuticle.

  19. Methylobacterium marchantiae sp. nov., a pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium isolated from the thallus of a liverwort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, S; Kämpfer, P; Wellner, S; Spröer, C; Kutschera, U

    2011-04-01

    A pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium, designated strain JT1(T), was isolated from a thallus of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. and was analysed by using a polyphasic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed the strain in a clade with Methylobacterium adhaesivum AR27(T), Methylobacterium fujisawaense DSM 5686(T), Methylobacterium radiotolerans JCM 2831(T) and Methylobacterium jeotgali S2R03-9(T), with which it showed sequence similarities of 97.8, 97.7, 97.2 and 97.4 %, respectively. However, levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain JT1(T) and these and the type strains of other closely related species were lower than 70 %. Cells of JT1(T) stained Gram-negative and were motile, rod-shaped and characterized by numerous fimbriae-like appendages on the outer surface of their wall (density up to 200 µm(-2)). Major fatty acids were C(18 : 1)ω7c and C(16 : 0). Based on the morphological, physiological and biochemical data presented, strain JT1(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Methylobacterium, for which the name Methylobacterium marchantiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JT1(T) ( = DSM 21328(T)  = CCUG 56108(T)).

  20. Ciprofloxacin vs. temperature: Antibiotic toxicity in the free-floating liverwort Ricciocarpus natans from a climate change perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; de Brito, Júlio César Moreira; Bicalho, Elisa Monteze; Silva, Janaína Guernica; de Fátima Gomides, Maria; Garcia, Queila Souza; Figueredo, Cleber Cunha

    2018-07-01

    The physiological responses of the aquatic liverwort Ricciocarpus natans to ciprofloxacin (Cipro) exposure under different growth temperatures were investigated. Cipro appears to act as an inhibitor of mitochondrial Complex III by blocking the oxidation of quinol, resulting in the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). H 2 O 2 accumulation upon Cipro exposure is responsible for decreased photosynthesis in plants. The amount of H 2 O 2 in plants is kept under control by antioxidant enzymes, whose activities are central to the responses of plants to Cipro yet are influenced by temperature. Increased temperature favored Cipro uptake by plants as well as its deleterious effects on mitochondrial activity; however, it also favored the activity of antioxidant enzymes, thereby preventing the exacerbation of the deleterious effects of Cipro. The uptake of Cipro by plants appears to be largely a passive process, although some uptake must be driven by an energy-consuming process. Ricciocarpus natans should be considered for programs aimed at the reclamation of Cipro since this plant exhibits high Cipro-tolerance, the capacity for accumulation and increased uptake rates of the antibiotic with increasing temperatures (from 20 to 30 °C). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geological and climatic changes in quaternary shaped the evolutionary history of Calibrachoa heterophylla, an endemic South-Atlantic species of petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäder, Geraldo; Fregonezi, Jéferson N; Lorenz-Lemke, Aline P; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B

    2013-08-29

    The glacial and interglacial cycles that characterized the Quaternary greatly affected the distribution and genetic diversity of plants. In the Neotropics, few phylogeographic studies have focused on coastal species outside of the Atlantic Rainforest. Climatic and sea level changes during the Quaternary played an important role in the evolutionary history of many organisms found in coastal regions. To contribute to a better understanding of plant evolution in this environment in Southern South America, we focused on Calibrachoa heterophylla (Solanaceae), an endemic and vulnerable wild petunia species from the South Atlantic Coastal Plain (SACP). We assessed DNA sequences from two cpDNA intergenic spacers and analyzed them using a phylogeographic approach. The present phylogeographic study reveals the influence of complex geologic and climatic events on patterns of genetic diversification. The results indicate that C. heterophylla originated inland and subsequently colonized the SACP; the data show that the inland haplogroup is more ancient than the coastal one and that the inland was not affected by sea level changes in the Quaternary. The major diversification of C. heterophylla that occurred after 0.4 Myr was linked to sea level oscillations in the Quaternary, and any diversification that occurred before this time was obscured by marine transgressions that occurred before the coastal sand barrier's formation. Results of the Bayesian skyline plot showed a recent population expansion detected in C. heterophylla seems to be related to an increase in temperature and humidity that occurred at the beginning of the Holocene. The geographic clades have been formed when the coastal plain was deeply dissected by paleochannels and these correlate very well with the distributional limits of the clades. The four major sea transgressions formed a series of four sand barriers parallel to the coast that progressively increased the availability of coastal areas after the

  2. Adsorption and inhibitive properties of methanol extract of Eeuphorbia Heterophylla for the corrosion of copper in 0.5 M nitric acid solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouda A. S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption and the inhibitive properties of methanol extract of Euphorbia heterophylla on copper in 0.5 M HNO3 have been studied by weight loss method at different temperatures (30-50°C, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM techniques. Also, the surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing extract doses and decreased with increasing temperature. The polarization data revealed that this extract acts as mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption process was more favored at lower temperatures with larger negative standard free energy. The extract was adsorbed physically on the copper surface followed Frumkin isotherm.

  3. Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... dans l'alimentation des lapins (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) dont la récolte non contrôlée des ... Effect of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with ..... fed to Guinea pigs in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa.

  4. Avaliação de cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merril em competição com Euphorbia heterophylla L. sob três densidades e dois períodos de ocorrência Evaluation of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill cultivars in competition with Euphorbia heterophylla L. in three densities and two periods of occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Chemale

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, conduzido durante o ano agrícola de 1979/80 na Estação Experimental Agronômica de UFRGS, em Guaíba, RS, apresentou como objetivo testar quatro cultivares de soja (Paraná, Prata, Hood e IAS-4 quanto à sua habilidade em concorrer com Euphorbia heterophylla L. (leiteira, amendoim-bravo estabelecida em três densidades (0, 12 e 54 plan-tas/m2, em média e dois períodos de duração da competição (45 e 115 dias após a emergência da soja. Constatou-se que houve redução no rendimento de grãos de soja por efeito dos dois períodos de competição e das densidades de E. heterophylla L. referidas. Também os números de grãos e de legumes por área foram consideravelmente reduzidos pela presença da planta daninha associada ao período mais prolongado de competição. A espessura do caule e o número de nós das plantas de soja decresceram apenas sob o efeito da maior densidade da Euphorbia; entretanto, o número de ramos e o índice de área foliar, este aos 75 dias após a emergência da cultura, sofreram redução com a infestação de 12 plantas de Euphorbia por m2.A field experiment was performed at the Agronomy Experimental Station of UFRGS, in Guaíba, RS, Brazil, during the 1979/80 growing season, in order to test four soybean cultivars (Paraná, Prata, Hood e IAS-4 in competition with Euphorbia heterophylla L. established in three densities (0, 12 and 54 plants/m2 during two periods (45 and 115 days after soybean emergence. It was observed that soybean cultivars presented reduction of seed yields under the effect of the pe riods of competition and densities of Euphorbia heterophylla L. The number of seeds and pods per area were considerably reduced in the presence of the weed associated with the longest competition period. The stem diameter and number of nodes were reduced only by competition of the highest Euphorbia density; however, the number of branches and leaf area index, this after a period of 75 days

  5. Eficácia de herbicidas aplicados nas épocas seca e úmida para o controle de Euphorbia heterophylla na cultura da cana-de-açúcar Efficacy of herbicides applied during the dry and wet seasons for Euphorbia heterophylla control in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M Correia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito de herbicidas aplicados em pré e pós-emergência, isolados e em combinações nas épocas seca e úmida, para o controle de leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla na cultura de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi desenvolvido no período de agosto de 2008 a junho de 2009, em área de produção comercial de cana-de-açúcar localizada no município de Jaboticabal-SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcela subdividida. Na época seca foram avaliados os herbicidas amicarbazone (1.400 g ha-1, imazapic (147 g ha-1 e sulfentrazone (900 g ha-1, aplicados em 1º/8/2008 após a colheita da cana, e testemunha sem manejo prévio das plantas daninhas. Os herbicidas utilizados na época úmida foram: mesotrione isolado (192 g ha-1 e em mistura (120 g ha-1 com ametryn (1.500 gha-1, atrazine (1.500 gha-1 ou diuron + hexazinone (702 + 198 g ha-1, aplicados em 14/11/2008, além de testemunha capinada e outra sem manejo das plantas daninhas. A aplicação de imazapic na época seca foi eficaz no controle de E. heterophylla, dispensando a complementação de manejo na época úmida. No entanto, para os herbicidas amicarbazone e sulfentrazone houve necessidade da aplicação de mesotrione, isolado ou em mistura com ametryn, atrazine ou diuron + hexazinone, para a manutenção do controle de E. heterophylla na época úmida (de 105 a 230 dias após a aplicação na época seca. Quando não foi realizada a aplicação de herbicida na época seca, constatou-se melhor controle de E. heterophylla na época úmida com o herbicida mesotrione associado a ametryn, atrazine ou diuron + hexazinone do que quando aplicado isoladamente. Apesar dos sintomas visuais de fitointoxicação ocasionados pelos tratamentos mesotrione + ametryn e mesotrione + (diuron + hexazinone pulverizados na época úmida, nenhum dos manejos adotados ou combinações entre eles interferiu no número de colmos vi

  6. Estudos anatômicos de folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla Leaf anatomical studies in weed species widely common in Brazil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ferreira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é apresentado um estudo da anatomia das folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla, visando melhor compreensão das barreiras que cada espécie impõe à penetração dos herbicidas e outros compostos utilizados em aplicações foliares. As folhas completamente expandidas do terceiro ao quinto nó foram coletadas de plantas de ocorrência espontânea no campo. Das folhas de cada espécie foram obtidas três amostras da região mediana, com aproximadamente 1 cm², as quais foram utilizadas em estudos da estrutura, clarificação e em observações em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Todas as espécies avaliadas são anfiestomáticas. As principais barreiras foliares potenciais à penetração de herbicidas observadas nas plantas daninhas A. deflexus e A. spinosus foram, respectivamente, grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial e da cutícula das duas faces. Já em relação a A. tenella, grande espessura da cutícula das duas faces, elevado teor de cera epicuticular e alta densidade tricomática foram os principais obstáculos potenciais detectados. E. heterophylla apresentou como possíveis principais barreiras foliares à penetração de agroquímicos o alto teor de cera epicuticular, a elevada densidade de laticíferos e a grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial.This research aimed to study the leaf anatomy of the weed species Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla, widely known in Brazil, to acquire a better understanding of the barriers each species imposes to herbicide penetration, and to other substances used for leaf spraying. Completely expanded leaves from the third to the fifth nodes were collected from spontaneous plants in the field. Three samples approximately 1cm², were removed from the medium portion of the leaves, from each

  7. Etude comparative de la digestibilité in vivo de l'herbe de guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée aux feuilles et tiges de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (régime Panipo) ou à l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) (régime Paneuph) chez le lapin (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) et le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kouakou, NGDV.; Kouba, M.; Thys, E.

    2016-01-01

    Digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (Panipo diet) or poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) (Paneuph diet) in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) and in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.). A comparative study of in vivo digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (Panipo diet) or with poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L.)...

  8. Spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds in an aquatic liverwort and their usefulness as biomarkers of current and past UV radiation: A case study in the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monforte, Laura; Tomás-Las-Heras, Rafael; Del-Castillo-Alonso, María-Ángeles; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2015-01-01

    The spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds (UVACs) in the freshwater liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia was studied in mid-latitudes (the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition) across a wide lati-altitudinal gradient, with the aim of testing the usefulness of UVACs as biomarkers of current ambient levels of UV radiation. We analysed 17 samples from streams located in the main mountain ranges of the Iberian Peninsula, differentiating methanol-soluble (SUVACs, mainly located in the vacuoles) and methanol-insoluble (IUVACs, bound to cell walls) compounds, since they represent different manners to cope with UV radiation. In both fractions, the bulk level of UVACs and the concentrations of several individual compounds were measured. In addition, we measured F v /F m , DNA damage and sclerophylly index (SI) as possible additional UV biomarkers. UVACs showed a high variability, probably due not only to the gradients of macroenvironmental factors (UV radiation, PAR, and water temperature), but also to microenvironmental factors inherent to the dynamic nature of mountain streams. Two soluble coumarins were positively correlated with UV levels and could be used for ambient UV biomonitoring in the spatial scale. In contrast to the variability in UVACs, the relatively homogeneous values of F v /F m and the lack of any DNA damage made these variables useless for ambient UV biomonitoring, but suggested a strong acclimation capacity of this liverwort to changing environmental conditions (in particular, to UV levels). Finally, UVACs of fresh samples of the liverwort were compared to those of herbarium samples collected in the same lati-altitudinal gradient. SUVACs were significantly higher in fresh samples, whereas IUVACs generally showed the contrary. Thus, IUVACs were more stable than SUVACs and hence more adequate for retrospective UV biomonitoring. In conclusion, UVAC compartmentation should be taken into account for bryophyte-based UV

  9. Spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds in an aquatic liverwort and their usefulness as biomarkers of current and past UV radiation: A case study in the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monforte, Laura; Tomás-Las-Heras, Rafael; Del-Castillo-Alonso, María-Ángeles; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier, E-mail: javier.martinez@unirioja.es; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2015-06-15

    The spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds (UVACs) in the freshwater liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia was studied in mid-latitudes (the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition) across a wide lati-altitudinal gradient, with the aim of testing the usefulness of UVACs as biomarkers of current ambient levels of UV radiation. We analysed 17 samples from streams located in the main mountain ranges of the Iberian Peninsula, differentiating methanol-soluble (SUVACs, mainly located in the vacuoles) and methanol-insoluble (IUVACs, bound to cell walls) compounds, since they represent different manners to cope with UV radiation. In both fractions, the bulk level of UVACs and the concentrations of several individual compounds were measured. In addition, we measured F{sub v}/F{sub m}, DNA damage and sclerophylly index (SI) as possible additional UV biomarkers. UVACs showed a high variability, probably due not only to the gradients of macroenvironmental factors (UV radiation, PAR, and water temperature), but also to microenvironmental factors inherent to the dynamic nature of mountain streams. Two soluble coumarins were positively correlated with UV levels and could be used for ambient UV biomonitoring in the spatial scale. In contrast to the variability in UVACs, the relatively homogeneous values of F{sub v}/F{sub m} and the lack of any DNA damage made these variables useless for ambient UV biomonitoring, but suggested a strong acclimation capacity of this liverwort to changing environmental conditions (in particular, to UV levels). Finally, UVACs of fresh samples of the liverwort were compared to those of herbarium samples collected in the same lati-altitudinal gradient. SUVACs were significantly higher in fresh samples, whereas IUVACs generally showed the contrary. Thus, IUVACs were more stable than SUVACs and hence more adequate for retrospective UV biomonitoring. In conclusion, UVAC compartmentation should be taken into account for bryophyte

  10. Identification of Volatile Components of Liverwort (Porella cordaeana Extracts Using GC/MS-SPME and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabetta Guerzoni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical constituents of liverwort (Porella cordaeana extracts have been identified using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS. The methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts were rich in terpenoids such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (53.12%, 51.68%, 23.16%, and monoterpene hydrocarbons (22.83%, 18.90%, 23.36%, respectively. The dominant compounds in the extracts were β-phellandrene (15.54%, 13.66%, 12.10% and β-caryophyllene (10.72%, 8.29%, 7.79%, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated against eleven food microorganisms using the microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC varied from 0.50 to 2.00 mg/mL for yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 635, Zygosacharomyces bailii 45, Aerobasidium pullulans L6F, Pichia membranaefaciens OC 71, Pichia membranaefaciens OC 70, Pichia anomala CBS 5759, Pichia anomala DBVPG 3003 and Yarrowia lipolytica RO13, and from 1.00 to 3.00 mg/mL for bacterial strains (Salmonella enteritidis 155, Escherichia coli 555 and Listeria monocytogenes 56Ly. Methanol extract showed better activity in comparison with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. High percentages of monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons could be responsible for the better antimicrobial activity.

  11. Análise de crescimento de biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla resistentes e suscetível aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Growth analysis of resistant and susceptible wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes to ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em condições de casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de analisar comparativamente o crescimento de três biótipos de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla - EPHHL resistentes (R (Passo Fundo, Não-Me-Toque e Rio Pardo e um suscetível (S (Porto Alegre aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, por meio do cálculo da taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR e dos índices que a compõem. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com três repetições e tratamentos organizados em fatorial 2 x 4 x 4, em que o fator A correspondeu às duas estações de crescimento (outono e primavera, o fator B aos quatro biótipos de EPHHL e o fator C às quatro épocas de determinação dos índices de crescimento das plantas de leiteira - no primeiro experimento, aos 15, 25, 35 e 45, e, no segundo, aos 23, 33, 43 e 53 dias após a emergência (DAE. No experimento realizado no outono não houve interação entre época de avaliação e biótipo nem efeito simples de biótipo. No experimento realizado na primavera, a razão de peso foliar (RPF do biótipo de Não-Me-Toque foi superior em média à dos demais biótipos; a razão de área foliar (RAF foi superior no biótipo de Não-Me-Toque aos 23 e 53 DAE; e não houve diferenças da TAL e TCR entre os biótipos. Esses resultados sugerem produtividade semelhante entre os biótipos R e S e, portanto, sua equivalência competitiva.Two trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to compare the development of three ALS inhibitor herbicides resistant (R wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes (Passo Fundo, Não-Me-Toque and Rio Pardo - RS - Brazil and one susceptible (S (Porto Alegre - RS - Brazil using relative growth rate (RGR and related indices. The experiment was arranged as a completely randomized design, with three replications, in a 2 x 4 x 4 factorial, where factor A was two growth seasons (fall and spring; factor B, four biotypes of wild poinsettia

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Girardinia heterophylla

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Bedi; Neayti Thakur; Balvinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to prepare the crude extracts of leaves and stem of ‘Girardinia heterophylla’ by using various solvents like petroleum ether, ethanol and double distilled water. The samples were given the code NGLS 1, NGLS 2, NGLS 3 and NGSS 1, NGSS 2 and NGSS 3 respectively. All the extracts were used to study their antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria e.g. Bacillus subtilis, gram negative bacteria e.g. E. coli and K. pneumonia and antifungal ac...

  13. Etude comparative de la digestibilité in vivo de l'herbe de guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq. associée aux feuilles et tiges de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (régime Panipo ou à l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (régime Paneuph chez le lapin (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. et le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouakou, NGDV.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (Panipo diet or poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Paneuph diet in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. and in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.. A comparative study of in vivo digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (Panipo diet or with poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Paneuph diet was conducted involving 16 rabbits and 16 weaned guinea pigs fed ad libitum. Paneuph was significantly better ingested (P0.05 for guinea pigs. Poison milk was better ingested than the leaves and stems of sweet potato (P0.05. The ADC of DM, OM and MAT of Paneuph exceeded 80% and were higher than those of Panipo in rabbits and guinea pigs (P<0.05. Based on the results obtained, the effects of the distribution of the Guinea grass associated with the poison milk during rabbits growing have to be further studied before recommending this new diet to farmers in areas where poison milk and Guinea grass are present and rabbit breeding enough developed.

  14. Criblage phytochimique et potentiel érectile de Turraea heterophylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2 sept. 2013 ... Phytochemical screening and erectile potential of Turraea ... At this plant commonly used by healers to treat erection problems in ... Criblage phytochimique : les tests phytochimiques ... de l'activité contractile de l'aorte de cobaye (Laboratoire de Nutrition et ..... végétale (Yohimbine, Papavérine, Berbérine,.

  15. Sex differences and plasticity in dehydration tolerance: insight from a tropical liverwort

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, Rose A.; Burton, James F.; McLetchie, D. Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Adaptations allowing plants to cope with drying are particularly relevant in the light of predicted climate change. Dehydration tolerance (DhT, also dehydration-tolerant) is one such adaptation enabling tissue to survive substantial drying. A great deal of work has been conducted on highly DhT species. However, bryophytes showing less intense and variable DhT are understudied, despite the potential for these species to provide an informative link between highly tolerant an...

  16. Parboiled rice hull mulch in containers reduces liverwort and bittercress growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of preemergence herbicides for weed control is not always possible; some crops and many enclosed production sites are not labeled for herbicide applications. The objective of this research was to determine the utility of parboiled rice hull mulch for controlling two of the most common weeds in ...

  17. Diversity and habitat differentiation of mosses and liverworts in the cloud forest of. Monteverde, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradstein S. Rob

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of the understory and canopy of 4 ha oflower montane cloud forest at Monteverde, Costa Rica, yielded 190 bryophyte species: 133 hepatics, 56 mosses and 1 homwort. Thick branches of the lower canopy were by far the richest habitat in terms of number of species (99, trunks from 1m upwards had 65 species, lianas, shrubs, saplings, or living leaves in the understory had about 36-46 species each, and 16 species were found on rotten logs. The figures are illustrative of the great diversification of microhabitats of bryophytes in a tropical montane cloud forest. About 36% ofthe species, including more than half ofthe corticolous ones, occurred exclusively in the canopy. It appeared thatthe percentage ofbryophyte species restricted to the canopy may be the same in lowland and montane rain forests, in spite of the great differences in species abundance and composition in the two kinds of forest.  Ciento noventa especies de briofitas (133 hepáticas, 56 musgos, 1 antocerote fueron encontradas en un inventario hecho en 4 hectáreas del sotobosque y el dosel en el bosque nublado (1500 m de Monteverde, Costa Rica. Las ramas gruesas del dosel fueron la porción más rica en termino de numero de especies (99, en troncos había 65 especies, lianas, arbustos, árboles juveniles o hojas vivas en el sotobosque tenían entre 36-46 especies cada una, y 16 especies fueron encontradas en troncos en descomposición. Las cifras ilustran la gran diversidad de microhabitats de briofitas en el bosque nublado. Cerca de 36% de las especies, incluyendo mas de la mitad de los corticolos, se presentaron exclusivamente en el dosel. Parece que el porcentaje de especies de briofitas restringidas al dosel podría ser el mismo en bosques de tierras bajas y en bosques nublados, a pesar de la gran diferencia en abundancia y composición taxonómica de las briofitas en las dos clases de bosque.

  18. Antimicrobial Potential and Chemical Characterization of Serbian Liverwort (Porella arboris-vitae: SEM and TEM Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of Porella arboris-vitae extracts was determined by solid phase microextraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME GC-MS, and 66 constituents were identified. The dominant compounds in methanol extract of P. arboris-vitae were β-caryophyllene (14.7%, α-gurjunene (10.9%, α-selinene (10.8%, β-elemene (5.6%, γ-muurolene (4.6%, and allo-aromadendrene (4.3% and in ethanol extract, β-caryophyllene (11.8%, α-selinene (9.6%, α-gurjunene (9.4%, isopentyl alcohol (8.8%, 2-hexanol (3.7%, β-elemene (3.7%, allo-aromadendrene (3.7%, and γ-muurolene (3.3% were the major components. In ethyl acetate extract of P. arboris-vitae, undecane (11.3%, β-caryophyllene (8.4%, dodecane (6.4%, α-gurjunene (6%, 2-methyldecane (5.1%, hemimellitene (4.9%, and D-limonene (3.9% were major components. The antimicrobial activity of different P. arboris-vitae extracts was evaluated against selected food spoilage microorganisms using microbroth dilution method. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC varied from 0.5 to 1.5 mg/mL and 1.25 to 2 mg/mL for yeast and bacterial strains, respectively. Significant morphological and ultrastructural alterations due to the effect of methanolic and ethanolic P. arboris-vitae extracts on S. Enteritidis have also been observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The results provide the evidence of antimicrobial potential of P. arboris-vitae extracts and suggest its potential as natural antimicrobial agents for food preservation.

  19. Marchantin A, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl ether, isolated from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, inhibits protozoal growth in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sophie; Omarsdottir, Sesselja; Bwalya, Angela Gono

    2012-01-01

    recombinant enzymes (PfFabI, PfFabG and PfFabZ) of the PfFAS-II pathway of P. falciparum for malaria prophylactic potential and showed moderate inhibitory activity against PfFabZ (IC(50)=18.18µM). In addition the cytotoxic effect of marchantin A was evaluated. This is the first report describing...

  20. Phytochemical Constituents, Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Properties of a Liverwort, Lepidozia borneensis Stephani from Mount Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of 80% methanol extract of Lepidozia borneensis. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were analysed using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using FRAP, ABTS, and DPPH assays while the effects of L. borneensis on the proliferation of MCF-7 cell line were evaluated by using MTT assay. The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 12.42 ± 0.47 mg GAE/g and 9.36 ± 1.29 mg CE/g, respectively. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of at least 35 compounds. The extract was found to induce cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cell line with IC50 value of 47.33 ± 7.37 µg/mL. Cell cycle analysis showed that the extract induced significant arrest at G0/G1 at 24 hours of treatment. After 72 hours of treatment, the proportion of cells in G0/G1 and G2-M phases had decreased significantly as compared to their control. Apoptosis occurred during the first 24 hours and significantly increased to 30.8% after 72 hours of treatment. No activation of caspase 3 was observed. These findings suggest that L. borneensis extract has the potential as natural antioxidant and anticancer agents.

  1. Occurrence of coccinellids that prey on Diaphorinia citri (Hemiptera:Liviidae) on Euphorbia heterophylla (Euphorbiacea) and Chamaecrista fasciculata (Fabaceae) in a south Florida residential area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adding plant-based nutritional resources to a landscape may help to recruit and retain predaceous and parasitic arthropods. As a first step in determining whether the addition of nectary plants can increase the abundance and diversity of biocontrol agents of Diaphorina citri and psyllid suppression ...

  2. Impacts of dwarf mistletoe on the physiology of host Tsuga heterophylla trees as recorded in tree-ring C and O stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Marias; F. C. Meinzer; D. R. Woodruff; D. C. Shaw; S. L. Voelker; Steven W. Oak; William J. Otrosina; William D. Smith; Kamal J.K. Gandhi

    2014-01-01

    Dwarf mistletoes, obligate, parasitic plants with diminutive aerial shoots, have long-term effects on host tree water relations, hydraulic architecture and photosynthetic gas exchange and can eventually induce tree death. To investigate the long-term (1886–2010) impacts of dwarf mistletoe on the growth and gas exchange characteristics of host western hemlock, we...

  3. Impacts of dwarf mistletoe on the physiology of host Tsuga heterophylla trees as recorded in tree ring C and O stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    • Dwarf mistletoes, obligate, parasitic plants with diminutive aerial shoots, have long-term effects on host tree water relations, hydraulic architecture, and photosynthetic gas exchange and can eventually induce tree death. • To investigate long-term impacts of dwarf mistletoe...

  4. Inhibition of intestinal adenoma formation in APC(Min/+ mice by Riccardin D, a natural product derived from liverwort plant Dumortiera hirsuta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutation of tumor suppressor gene, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC, is the primary molecular event in the development of most intestinal carcinomas. Animal model with APC gene mutation is an effective tool for study of preventive approaches against intestinal carcinomas. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Riccardin D, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl compound, as a chemopreventive agent against intestinal adenoma formation in APC(Min/+ mice. METHODS: APC(Min/+ mice were given Riccardin D by p.o. gavage for 7 weeks. Mice were sacrificed, and the number, size and histopathology of intestinal polyps were examined under a microscope. We performed immunohistochemical staining, western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in intestinal polyps to investigate the mechanism of chemopreventive effect of Riccardin D. RESULTS: Riccardin D treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of intestinal adenoma formation, showing a reduction of polyp number by 41.7%, 31.1% and 44.4%, respectively, in proximal, middle and distal portions of small intestine. The activity of Riccardin D against polyp formation was more profound in colon, wherein Riccardin D decreased polyp number by 79.3%. Size distribution analysis revealed a significant reduction in large-size polyps (2-3 mm by 40.0%, 42.5% and 33.3%, respectively, in proximal, middle and distal portions of small intestine, and 77.8% in colon. Histopathological analysis of the intestinal polyps revealed mostly hyperplastic morphology without obvious dysplasia in Riccardin D-treated mice. Molecular analyses of the polyps suggested that the inhibitory effect of Riccardin D on intestinal adenoma formation was associated with its abilities of reduction in cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antiangiogenesis, inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway and suppression of inflammatory mediators in polyps. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that Riccardin D exerts its chemopreventive effect against intestinal adenoma formation through multiple mechanisms including anti-proliferative, apoptotic, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  5. Novas ocorrências de hepáticas (Marchantiophyta para o estado da Bahia, Brasil New records of liverworts (Marchantiophyta from Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia de Brito Valente

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Na Serra da Jibóia, foram registradas 13 espécies de novas ocorrências, sendo oito para a região Nordeste: Bazzania aurescens Spruce, Calypogeia peruviana Nees & Mont., Cephalozia crassifolia (Lindenb. & Gottsche Fulford, Lepidozia cupressina (Sw. Lindenb., Pallavicinia lyellii (Hook. S.F. Gray, Plagiochilla diversifolia Lindenb. & Gottsche, Radula kegelli Gottsche ex Steph. e Riccardia fucoidea (Sw. Schiffin., e cinco espécies referidas pela primeira vez para o Estado: Metzgeria albinea Spruce, Plagiochila gymnocalycina (Lehm. & Lindenb. Mont., P. simplex (Sw. Lindenb., Riccardia amazonica (Spruce S.W. Arnell e Symphyogyna aspera Steph. Para cada espécie são fornecidos comentários taxonômicos, ecológicos e distribuição geográfica mundial e no Brasil, além de indicação de literatura contendo descrição e ilustração. Foram realizadas ilustrações para algumas espécies.In Serra da Jibóia were recorded 13 species of new ocurrence wich are eight species from region Northeastern: Bazzania aurescens Spruce, Calypogeia peruviana Nees & Mont., Cephalozia crassifolia (Lindenb. & Gottsche Fulford, Lepidozia cupressina (Sw. Lindenb., Pallavicinia lyellii (Hook. S.F. Gray, Plagiochilla diversifolia Lindenb. & Gottsche, Radula kegelli Gottsche ex Steph. and Riccardia fucoidea (Sw. Schiffin., and five are recorded for the first time from Bahia, State: Metzgeria albinea Spruce, Plagiochila gymnocalycina (Lehm. & Lindenb. Mont., P. simplex (Sw. Lindenb., Riccardia amazonica (Spruce S.W. Arnell and Symphyogyna aspera Steph. from Bahia, State. For each specie are provided taxonomics and ecological comments, geographical general and in Brazil distribution, and indication of literature with description and ilustration. Some species were ilustrated.

  6. Studies in the liverwort genus Fossombronia (Metzgeriales from southern Africa. 6. New species from Lesotho, Swaziland and Mpumalanga and new records from Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Perold

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Fossombronia are described: F. angulifolia Perold from Lesotho and F. swaziensis Perold from Swaziland and Mpumalanga. F. angulifolia is characterised by erect or semi-erect, 2-4-lobed, angular leaves, by mostly incompletely reticulate spores and by rather short elaters  F.  swaziensis can be recognised by large, rounded or sometimes shallowly notched leaves, which are rather stiff and bi- to multistratose basally, by quite large perigonial bracts in the male plants and by spores which have irregular areolae containing tubercular inclusions

  7. Toxic effects of coastal and marine plant extracts on mosquito larvae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Solimabi; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Petroleum-ether and chloroform soluble fractions of methanolic extracts of mangrove/plants (Derris heterophylla, Salvadora persica, Sonneratia caseolaris, Clerodendron inerme), seaweeds (Acanthophora muscoides, Microdictyon pseudohapteron), seagrass...

  8. Landscape- vs gap-level controls on the abundance of a fire-sensitive, late-successional tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Wimberly; Thomas A. Spies

    2002-01-01

    Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock), a fire-sensitive, late-successional tree species, is an important component of old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest, USA. In the Oregon Coast Range, however, T. heterophylla occurs at low densities in or is completely absent from many conifer stands. We used a cellular automata-based...

  9. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science - Vol 20 (1987)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary study of pre-harvest insect infestation and storability of four Ghanaian ... Seed germination and growth of Eleucine indica and Euphorbia heterophylla as ... Lambing and neonatal behaviour of Djallonke x Sahel crossbred sheep.

  10. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardic glycoside distribution in ten medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Cleome nutidosperma, Emilia coccinea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Physalis angulata, ...

  11. Diversité floristique et dégré d\\'infestation par les mauvaises herbes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative floristic analysis shows that the more frequent species are Chromolaena odorata, Panicum laxum, Pouzolzia guineensis, Solanum erianthum, Lapotea aestuens, Spigelia anthelmia and Mariscus cylindristachyus and the weeds that more cause damage are Chromolaena odorata, Euphorbia heterophylla, ...

  12. Difference in photosynthetic performance among three peach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... Difference in photosynthesis rate (Pn) and stoma morphology among ... At 80% PPFD, the variation pattern of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase ..... frequency and size during elongation of tsuga heterophylla needles.

  13. Responses of southeast Alaska understory species to variation in light and soil environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Hanley; Bernard T. Bormann; Jeffrey C. Barnard; S. Mark Nay

    2014-01-01

    Aboveground growth rates of seedlings of bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.), oval-leaf blueberry (Vaccinium ovalifolium Sm.), salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis Pursh), devilsclub (Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq.), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) were...

  14. Botanical species lists for Moor House National Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Rawes, M.

    1981-01-01

    This Occasional Paper brings together published work, Reserve Records and field information on flowering plants, ferns, mosses, liverworts, lichens, fungi and algae. It is an update of the 1978 version.

  15. Bryophytes of beach forests in Chon Buri Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiangphak Sukkharak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of bryophyte diversity of three beach forests including Had Tung Prong, Had Tein Talay, and the beach forest in Thai Island and Sea Natural History Museum in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, was carried out. From 137 enumerated specimens, 16 species (6 mosses, 10 liverworts in 12 genera (5 mosses, 7 liverworts and eight families (5 mosses, 3 liverworts were found. Among those the most common families of mosses are Fissidentaceae (2 species and the most common families of liverwort are Lejeuneaceae (8 species. A comparison of species richness among the three areas revealed that the highest species richness of bryophytes was found in Had Tung Prong. Moreover, of all bryophyte species found, Weissia edentula Mitt. was the most common one.

  16. A comparison of alpha and beta diversity patterns of ferns, bryophytes and macrolichens in tropical montane forests of southern Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Mandl, N A; Lehnert, M; Kessler, M; Gradstein, S R

    2010-01-01

    We present a first comparison of patterns of alpha and beta diversity of ferns, mosses, liverworts and macrolichens in neotropical montane rainforests, and explore the question whether specific taxa may be used as surrogates for others. In three localities in southern Ecuador, we surveyed terrestrial and epiphytic species assemblages in ridge and slope forests in 28 plots of 400 m² each. The epiphytic habitat was significantly richer in ferns, liverworts, and macrolichens than the terrestrial...

  17. Phytohormone Profiling across the Bryophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Záveská Drábková

    Full Text Available Bryophytes represent a very diverse group of non-vascular plants such as mosses, liverworts and hornworts and the oldest extant lineage of land plants. Determination of endogenous phytohormone profiles in bryophytes can provide substantial information about early land plant evolution. In this study, we screened thirty bryophyte species including six liverworts and twenty-four mosses for their phytohormone profiles in order to relate the hormonome with phylogeny in the plant kingdom.Samples belonging to nine orders (Pelliales, Jungermanniales, Porellales, Sphagnales, Tetraphidales, Polytrichales, Dicranales, Bryales, Hypnales were collected in Central and Northern Bohemia. The phytohormone content was analysed with a high performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.As revealed for growth hormones, some common traits such as weak conjugation of both cytokinins and auxins, intensive production of cisZ-type cytokinins and strong oxidative degradation of auxins with abundance of a major primary catabolite 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid were pronounced in all bryophytes. Whereas apparent dissimilarities in growth hormones profiles between liverworts and mosses were evident, no obvious trends in stress hormone levels (abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid were found with respect to the phylogeny.The apparent differences in conjugation and/or degradation strategies of growth hormones between liverworts and mosses might potentially show a hidden link between vascular plants and liverworts. On the other hand, the complement of stress hormones in bryophytes probably correlate rather with prevailing environmental conditions and plant survival strategy than with plant evolution.

  18. Activity-guided isolation of cytotoxic bis-bibenzyl constituents from Dumortiera hirsuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Masao; Ikeda, Risa; Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    Activity-guided fractionation of the ether extract of Dumortiera hirsute (Japanese liverwort), using cytotoxicity testing with cultured HL 60 and KB cells, resulted in the isolation of a new cytotoxic bis-bibenzyl compound, along with the two known bis-bibenzyls: isomarchantin C and isoriccardin C. The structural determination of the new bis-bibenzyl through extensive NMR spectral data indicated a derivative of marchantin A, which has been isolated from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. The cytotoxicity of the bis-bibenzyls was evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-di-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay using cultured HL 60 and KB cells.

  19. Horse Rock Ridge Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan B. Curtis

    2003-01-01

    Horse Rock Ridge Research Natural Area (HRR RNA) was established in June 1995 to protect the best remaining example of a grassy “bald” (treeless area) on the western margin of the Cascade Range and its associated botanical, wildlife, and scenic values. This bald is surrounded by old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii/Tsuga heterophylla...

  20. Multi-decadal establishment for single-cohort Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Freund; Jerry F. Franklin; Andrew J. Larson; James A. Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The rate at which trees regenerate following stand-replacing wildfire is an important but poorly understood process in the multi-century development of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forests. Temporal patterns of Douglas-fir establishment reconstructed from old-growth forests (>450 year) have...

  1. Oryctolagus cuniculus L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mars 2016 ... heterophylla) associated to Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) Lam. in semi-intensive ... une stratégie de réduction du coût de l'alimentation des lapins ..... gain in guinea pigs fed diets containing different fiber sources.

  2. Cherry Creek Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Jennie Sperling; Tim Rodenkirk

    2011-01-01

    This guidebook describes Cherry Creek Research Natural Area, a 239-ha (590-ac) area that supports old-growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock (Pseudotsuga menziesii- Tsuga heterophylla) forest occurring on sedimentary materials in the southern Oregon Coast Range. Major plant associations present within the area include the western hemlock/Oregon oxalis...

  3. Growth and yield of all-aged Douglas-fir -- western hemlock forest stands: a matrix model with stand diversity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing Liang; Joseph Buonglorno; Robert A. Monserud

    2005-01-01

    A density-dependent matrix model was developed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) -- western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forest stands in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The model predicted the number and volume of trees for 4 species groups and 19 diameter classes. The parameters...

  4. Developing Biomass Equations for Western Hemlock and Red Alder Trees in Western Oregon Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Poudel; Hailemariam Temesgen

    2016-01-01

    Biomass estimates are required for reporting carbon, assessing feedstock availability, and assessing forest fire threat. We developed diameter- and height-based biomass equations for Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) trees in Western Oregon. A system of component biomass...

  5. Preliminary test of two stump surface protectants against Fomes annosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.E. Nelson; C.Y. Li

    1980-01-01

    Two materials, monolaurin (at two concentrations) and an unidentified species of the genus Streptomyces, were tested along with borax for ability to protect freshly cut stump surfaces of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) from colonization by Fomes annosus. Protectants were significantly (P...

  6. Spatial and population characteristics of dwarf mistletoe infected trees in an old-growth Douglas-fir - western hemlock forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Shaw; Jiquan Chen; Elizabeth A. Freeman; David M. Braun

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the distribution and severity of trees infected with western hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosendahl) G.N. Jones subsp. tsugense) in an old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) - western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.)...

  7. Application of artificial seeds in rapid multiplication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl user 3

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... In this study, a method which produces artificial seeds of Pseudostellaria heterophylla was presented. The micro-tubers ... traditional herb used for hundreds of years in China to .... One of the advantages of artificial seed production is that it is not ... neration system, relative cost of a specific application for.

  8. Development of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce following thinning and pruning in south-east Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; R. James Barbour; Michael H. McClellan; Dean L. Parry

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and size of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were assessed in five 23-29 year-old mixed Sitka spruce-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands that were uniformly thinned and pruned to 2.4, 3.7 and 5.2 m lift heights. Six to nine years after treatment sprouts were...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 72 of 72 ... Vol 12 (2008), Suspension Properties Of Binary Mixtures Of Tragacanth Gum And Irvingia gabonensis Gum, Abstract. MA Momoh, JI Ogbonna, UE Nwachi, EC Ibezim. Vol 14 (2010), The Anti-Sickling Properties of Ethanol Extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla and Moringa oleifera Leaves, Abstract.

  10. Development of Sirococcus shoot blight following thinning in western hemlock regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Shaw; Thomas H. Laurent; Spencer. Israelson

    1981-01-01

    Shoot mortality from Sirococcus strobilinus Preuss. and other causes was recorded by crown position from April 1978 through October 1979 in younggrowth western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) crop trees released in a 1977 thinning at Thomas Bay, Alaska. All study trees contained some infected shoots, but no terminal...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angbo-Kouakou, Cho Euphrasie Monique. Vol 9, No 4 (2015) - Articles Essai préliminaire de production d'oeufs des poules pondeuses (ISA Warren) enrichis en acides gras polyinsaturés oméga 3 avec les graines de Euphorbia heterophylla L. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traore, Gnantro Cheick. Vol 9, No 4 (2015) - Articles Essai préliminaire de production d'oeufs des poules pondeuses (ISA Warren) enrichis en acides gras polyinsaturés oméga 3 avec les graines de Euphorbia heterophylla L. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  13. Effet de l'herbe de Guinée ( Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée à l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet de l'herbe de Guinée ( Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée à l'herbe de lait ( Euphorbia heterophylla L.) ou aux feuilles de patate douce ( Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) sur la croissance des lapins ( Oryctolagus cuniculus L.)

  14. 2466-IJBCS-Article-Kouakou N'goran D V

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    In Africa, notion of nutritional quality of layers' eggs seems to be abstract. To remedy it, this study aims to determining the effect of a diet supplemented with seeds of Euphorbia heterophylla on the nutritional quality of layers' eggs. For this purpose, twenty-four hens (ISA Warren) 1,4 kg for 28 days received either a control diet ...

  15. Bedrock type significantly affects individual tree mortality for various conifers in the inland Northwest, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Moore; David A Hamilton; Yu Xiao; John Byrne

    2004-01-01

    Individual tree mortality models for western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.), western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex. D. Don), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), and western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) were developed using data...

  16. Diameter Growth of Juvenile Trees after Gap Formation in a Bolivian Rain Forest: Responses are Strongly Species-specific and Size-dependent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliz-Gamboa, C.C.; Sandbrink, A.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated growth responses to gap formation for juvenile individuals of three canopy rain forest species: Peltogyne cf. heterophylla, Clarisia racemosa and Cedrelinga catenaeformis. Gaps were formed during selective logging operations 7 yr before sampling in a Bolivian rain forest. We collected

  17. Effect of rice hull mulch on nutrient concentration of fertilized irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parboiled rice hulls are an effective mulch for controlling weeds in nursery containers. A layer of rice hulls between 1.25 and 2.5 cm deep has been shown to provide effective control of liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha), bittercress (Cardamine flexuosa), and creeping woodsorrel (Oxalis corniculata...

  18. Species richness and distribution of understorey bryophytes in different forest types in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, J.C.; Duque, A.J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The first bryophyte survey results from Colombian Amazonia are presented. Bryophyte species, differentiated into mosses and liverworts, and further into four life-form classes, were sampled in 0.1-ha plots. These plots were distributed over four landscape units in the middle Caquetá area:

  19. A review of the taxonomical and ecological studies on Netherlands’ Algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.

    1939-01-01

    The earliest account of the Netherlands’ Algae appeared in 1781 in D. de Gorter, Flora VII Prov. Belgii foederati indigen. Here, however, in the Algae lichens and liverworts have been incorporated. The true Algae, of which 35 are enumerated, are principally marine, though also aërophytical and

  20. Studies on Colombian Cryptogams. VIII. The genus Jensenia Lindb. (Hepaticae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gronde, van der Keympe

    1980-01-01

    A study of recent material of the dendroid thallose liverwort genus Jensenia (Metzgeriales) from the Colombian Andes revealed the existence of three taxa in the area: J. erythropus (Gott.) Grolle var. erythropus, J. erythropus var. nobandae van der Gronde var. nov. and J. florschuetzii van der

  1. Studies on Colombian Cryptogams IV. A catalogue of the Hepaticae of Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S.R.; Hekking, W.H.A.

    1979-01-01

    □ The main purpose of this catalogue is to provide a complete listing of the species of liverworts hitherto known from Colombia and to summarize our present knowledge of species distribution within the country. It was prepared parallel to a catalogue of the mosses (Musci), which is being published

  2. bryophyte extracts with activity against plant pathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: The effects of extracts from 17 different bryophyte species were investigated against economically important plant pathogenic fungi ... remedies of diseases in various forms. Similarly, before the discovery of the synthetic ... and divided into the classes Anthocerotae (horn- worts), Hepaticae (liverworts) and Musci ...

  3. GLOBAL JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES VOL 15, NO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada

    P. grisea is lichen found on walls, rocks, and trees, attached by short threads which grow from the underside ... obtained from the back of Dialum guinense tree in. Ezimo, Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State. ..... Nicholson, B. E., 1966. The Oxford Book of Flowerless. Plants: Ferns, Fungi, Mosses and Liverworts,.

  4. Biological Soil Crust Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    www.soilcrust.org Crust 101 Advanced Gallery References CCERS site Links Biological Soil Crusts Textbook Corrections Level of Development Index Biological soil crusts are the community of organisms , mosses, liverworts and lichens. A Field Guide to Biological Soil Crusts of Western U.S. Drylands: Common

  5. Structural characterization of rubber from jackfruit and euphorbia as a model of natural rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkriengkrai, Dararat; Ute, Koiichi; Swiezewska, Ewa; Chojnacki, Tadeusz; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Sakdapipanich, Jitladda T

    2004-01-01

    A structural study of low molecular weight rubbers from Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Painted spurge (Euphorbia heterophylla) was carried out as model compounds of natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis. The rubber content of latex from Jackfruit was 0.4-0.7%, which is very low compared with that of 30-35% in the latex from Hevea tree. The rubber from Jackfruit latex was low molecular weight with narrow unimodal molecular weight distribution (MWD), whereas that obtained from E. heterophylla showed very broad MWD. The 1H and 13C NMR analyses showed that Jackfruit rubber consists of a dimethylallyl group and two trans-isoprene units connected to a long sequence of cis-isoprene units. The alpha-terminal group of Jackfruit rubber was presumed to be composed of a phosphate group based on the presence of 1H NMR signal at 4.08 ppm corresponding to the terminal =CH-CH2OP group.

  6. Growth analysis of three species weeds Euphorbia genus = Análise de crescimento de espécies daninhas do gênero Euphorbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Teresa Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane plantations, species of the genus Euphorbia are reported as weeds able to reduce productivity by up to 85%. Planning the correct strategies for controlling these plants requires knowledge of their biology and growth. The aim of this work therefore, was to evaluate the growth of three weed species of the genus Euphorbia occurring in sugarcane plantations. The study was carried out in a greenhouse, using a completely randomised experimental design in a scheme of lots subdivided over time, with five replications. The factors were three species of Euphorbia (E. heterophylla, E. hyssopifolia and E. hirta and 13 periods of evaluation 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91 and 98 days after sowing (DAS. Each evaluation measured plant height (PH, leaf area (LA, number of leaves (NL and total dry matter (TDM. From the mean values for shoot dry matter (SDM, TDM and LA, the absolute growth rate (AGR and relative growth rate (RGR, leaf area ratio (LAR, and leaf weight ratio (LWR were calculated. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and non-linear regression. E. heterophylla displayed greater PH up to 63 DAS, from this point E. hyssopifolia obtained greater height among the species under study. E. heterophylla was noteworthy for having a greater accumulation of LA, TDM and AGR among the studied species, followed by E. hyssopifolia and E. hirta. Maximum growth in the species under evaluation was at 77 DAS. Among the species, E. heterophylla displays greater growth and development. = Nos canaviais, espécies do gênero Euphorbia são relatadas como plantas daninhas capazes de reduzir a produtividade em até 85%. Para traçar estratégias corretas de controle dessas plantas é necessário o conhecimento tanto da sua biologia quanto do seu crescimento. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o crescimento de três espécies daninhas do gênero Euphorbia ocorrentes nos canaviais. O estudo foi realizado em casa de vegeta

  7. Phytotoxic potential of Drimys brasiliensis Miers for use in weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoni Anese

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the phytotoxicity potential of leaf and root extracts of Drimys brasiliensis on the germination and seedling growth of Panicum maximum and Euphorbia heterophylla and its influence on metaxylem cell size in the seedling roots of the latter specie. The leaf and root extracts were fractionated by partition chromatography, and the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions obtained from each organ were evaluated at different concentrations for phytotoxic activity in several bioassays. In seedling growth tests, we compared the effects of these fractions with the herbicide oxyfluorfen. The hexane fraction of the root extracts showed a higher inhibitory potential on the germination and growth of weeds and reduced the average size of the metaxylem cells of E. heterophylla roots by more than 50%.The inhibitory effects of the root hexane fraction on seedling growth was similar to the herbicide, indicating that D. brasiliensis is a possible alternative form of control for the weed species examined.

  8. Threatened Vertebrate Species Occurring or Believed to Occur in the Floodplains of the Mississippi River between Cairo, Illinois, and Minneapolis, Minnesota, and of the Illinois Waterway between Grafton, Illinois, and Chicago, Illinois,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    heterophylla), and black willow (Salix nigra), with swamp white oak ( Quercus bicolor) and pin oak (p. valustri3) also important. Skorepa and Ozment (1968...of its original prairie habitat has seen destroyed. GREAT PLAINS RAT SNAKE Elaphe guttata emoryi (Baird and Girard) (Ill. -Rare) The Great Plains Rat...forficatus 119 F Clemmys guttata 41, 117 Elaphe guttata emoryi 49, 118 Cnemidophorus sexlineatus 43, 44, 117 Elassoma zonatum. 27, 114 Colinus virginianus

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Réduction des coûts alimentaires des lapins (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) par la distribution de l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla (L.) Klotz. & Garcke) associée à l'herbe de Guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq.) Lam... Abstract PDF · Vol 101 (2016) - Articles Effet d'un aliment commercial de poules pondeuses sur la teneur ...

  10. Flora and Fauna on Backs of Large Papuan Moss-Forest Weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressitt, J L; Sedlacek, J; Szent-Ivany, J J

    1965-12-31

    Large, living, flightless weevils feeding on leaves of woody plants high moss forest on various New Guinea mountain ranges have plant growth on their backs. Fungi and algae have been found on 11 species of Gymnopholus, lichens on six species, and liverworts on one species. In other genera of weevils, on the same mountains, there are additional specific associations with fungi, algae, lichens, and liverworts. The fungi and lichens, at least, are inhabited by oribatid mites of a new family, which may spread the plants from beetle to beetle. Also, nematodes, rotifers, psocids, and diatoms occur among the plants. Specialized scales or hairs, and a secretion, in depressions on the weevils' backs, appear to be associated with cpcouragement of the plant growth. Mutualistic symbiotic relationships seem to be clearly indicated.

  11. Fertile Prototaxites taiti: a basal ascomycete with inoperculate, polysporous asci lacking croziers

    OpenAIRE

    Honegger, R.; Edwards, Dianne; Axe, Lindsey; Strullu-Derrien, C.

    2018-01-01

    The affinities of Prototaxites have been debated ever since its fossils, some attaining tree-trunk proportions, were discovered in Canadian Lower Devonian rocks in 1859. Putative assignations include conifers, red and brown algae, liverworts and fungi (some lichenised). Detailed anatomical investigation led to the reconstruction of the type species, P. logani, as a giant sporophore (basidioma) of an agaricomycete (= holobasidiomycete), but evidence for its reproduction remained elusive. Tissu...

  12. Geographical, Temporal and Environmental Determinants of Bryophyte Species Richness in the Macaronesian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Silvia C.; Gabriel, Rosalina; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Santos, Ana M. C.; de Azevedo, Eduardo Brito; Patiño, Jairo; Hortal, Joaquín; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2014-01-01

    Species richness on oceanic islands has been related to a series of ecological factors including island size and isolation (i.e. the Equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography, EMIB), habitat diversity, climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation) and more recently island ontogeny (i.e. the General Dynamic Model of oceanic island biogeography, GDM). Here we evaluate the relationship of these factors with the diversity of bryophytes in the Macaronesian region (Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde). The predictive power of EMIB, habitat diversity, climate and the GDM on total bryophyte richness, as well as moss and liverwort richness (the two dominant bryophyte groups), was evaluated through ordinary least squares regressions. After choosing the best subset of variables using inference statistics, we used partial regression analyses to identify the independent and shared effects of each model. The variables included within each model were similar for mosses and liverworts, with orographic mist layer being one of the most important predictors of richness. Models combining climate with either the GDM or habitat diversity explained most of richness variation (up to 91%). There was a high portion of shared variance between all pairwise combinations of factors in mosses, while in liverworts around half of the variability in species richness was accounted for exclusively by climate. Our results suggest that the effects of climate and habitat are strong and prevalent in this region, while geographical factors have limited influence on Macaronesian bryophyte diversity. Although climate is of great importance for liverwort richness, in mosses its effect is similar to or, at least, indiscernible from the effect of habitat diversity and, strikingly, the effect of island ontogeny. These results indicate that for highly vagile taxa on oceanic islands, the dispersal process may be less important for successful colonization than the availability of suitable ecological

  13. Plant-Associated Methylobacteria as Co-Evolved Phytosymbionts: A Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kutschera, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Due to their wall-associated pectin metabolism, growing plant cells emit significant amounts of the one-carbon alcohol methanol. Pink-pigmented microbes of the genus Methylobacterium that colonize the surfaces of leaves (epiphytes) are capable of growth on this volatile C1-compound as sole source of carbon and energy. In this article the results of experiments with germ-free (gnotobiotic) sporophytes of angiosperms (sunflower, maize) and gametophytes of bryophytes (a moss and two liverwort sp...

  14. Genetic Diversity of Nostoc Symbionts Endophytically Associated with Two Bryophyte Species

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, José-Luis; Paulsrud, Per; Rikkinen, Jouko; Lindblad, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The diversity of the endophytic Nostoc symbionts of two thalloid bryophytes, the hornwort Anthoceros fusiformis and the liverwort Blasia pusilla, was examined using the tRNALeu (UAA) intron sequence as a marker. The results confirmed that many different Nostoc strains are involved in both associations under natural conditions in the field. The level of Nostoc diversity within individual bryophyte thalli varied, but single DNA fragments were consistently amplified from individual symbiotic col...

  15. Correlates of monoicy and dioicy in hornworts, the apparent sister group to vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Renner, Susanne S

    2013-11-02

    Whether male and female gametes are produced by single or separate individuals shapes plant mating and hence patterns of genetic diversity among and within populations. Haploid-dominant plants ("bryophytes": liverworts, mosses and hornworts) can have unisexual (dioicous) or bisexual (monoicous) gametophytes, and today, 68% of liverwort species, 57% of moss species, and 40% of hornwort species are dioicous. The transitions between the two sexual systems and possible correlations with other traits have been studied in liverworts and mosses, but not hornworts. Here we use a phylogeny for 98 of the 200 species of hornworts, the sister group to vascular plants, representing roughly equal proportions of all monoicous and all dioicous species, to test whether transitions in sexual systems are predominantly from monoicy to dioicy as might be expected based on studies of mosses. We further investigate possible correlations between sexual system and spore size, antheridium number, ploidy level, and diversification rate, with character selection partly based on findings in mosses and liverworts. Hornworts underwent numerous transitions between monoicy and dioicy. The transition rate from dioicy to monoicy was 2× higher than in the opposite direction, but monoicous groups have higher extinction rates; diversification rates do not correlate with sexual system. A correlation important in mosses, that between monoicy and polyploidy, apparently plays a small role: of 20 species with chromosome counts, only one is polyploid, the monoicous Anthoceros punctatus. A contingency test revealed that transitions to dioicy were more likely in species with small spores, supporting the hypothesis that small but numerous spores may be advantageous for dioicous species that depend on dense carpets of gametophytes for reproductive assurance. However, we found no evidence for increased antheridium-per-chamber numbers in dioicous species. Sexual systems in hornworts are labile, and the higher

  16. Historical review of bryological research in Fruška Gora Mt. (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Miloš M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruška Gora is a mountain located in the southern part of Pannonian plane and it is poorly bryologicaly investigated as well as most parts of Serbia. First data on bryophytes, for this region, were published in 1949 by Teodor Soška in his paper Pregled mahovina i lišajeva u okolini Beograda (Review of mosses and lichens in the vicinity of Belgrade. Soška listed 34 species of mosses and 8 liverworts species for this region. Later, in 1955, Zlatko Pavletić in his capital work Prodromus flore briofita Jugoslavije (Prodromus of Yugoslavian bryophyte flora, stated 26 moss species and 3 liverwort species, without indicating specific localities, but all of them were Soška’s original results. In 1966, the second botanist with original findings of bryophytes on Fruška Gora was Popović, who recorded 2 liverwort and 19 moss species, for this mountain, also without specific localities. By far, the most comprehensive data were given by Cvetić and Sabovljević in 2004. Their study A contribution to the bryophyte flora of Fruška Gora (Vojvodina, Serbia counted total number of 118 mosses and 14 liverworts, on 16 localities within National park Fruška Gora. The latest study on bryophytes of Fruška Gora was in 2013, and it is the first and so far, the last study of bryophyte assemblages on grasslands. Authors of this paper recorded 18 species of mosses from 29 releveé. Complete bryophyte flora of Fruška Gora is still unknown. Considering the fact that this is the region with high biodiversity, dense hydrological network and a rather complex geology, Fruška Gora certainly deserves further bryological researches.

  17. Biocrusts modulate warming and rainfall exclusion effects on soil respiration in a semi-arid grassland

    OpenAIRE

    Escolar, Cristina; Maestre, Fernando T.; Rey, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Soil surface communities composed of cyanobacteria, algae, mosses, liverworts, fungi, bacteria and lichens (biocrusts) largely affect soil respiration in dryland ecosystems. Climate change is expected to have large effects on biocrusts and associated ecosystem processes. However, few studies so far have experimentally assessed how expected changes in temperature and rainfall will affect soil respiration in biocrust-dominated ecosystems. We evaluated the impacts of biocrust development, increa...

  18. On the occurrence of bryophytes and macrolichens in different lowland rain forest types at Mabura Hill, Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, J. Hans C.; Gradstein, Stephan Robbert

    1990-01-01

    A floristic and ecological study of bryophytes and macrolichens in different lowland rain forest types around Mabura Hill, Guyana, South America, yielded 170 species: 52 mosses, 82 liverworts and 36 macrolichens. Lejeuneaceae account for about 30% of the species and are the dominant cryptogamic family of the lowland rain forest. Special attention was paid to the flora of the forest canopy, by using mountaineering techniques. It appeared that 50% of the bryophyte species and 86% of the macroli...

  19. Moose von Inselbergen in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Frahm, Jan-Peter; Porembski, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    Acht Leber- und zehn Laubmoosarten werden von Inselbergen aus Benin angegeben. Fünf der Lebermoose (Acrolejeunea emergens, Riccia atropurpurea, R. congoana, R. discolor, R. moenkemeyeri) und alle Laubmoose (Archidium ohioense, Brachymenium acuminatum, B. exile, Bryum arachnoideum, B. argenteum, Bryum deperssum, Garckea moenkemeyeri, Hyophila involuta, Philonotis mniobryoides und Weissia cf. edentula) werden neu für Benin angegeben. Eight liverworts and ten mosses are reported from inselber...

  20. Bryophyte diversity patterns in flooded and tierra firme forests in the Araracuara Region, Colombian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides, Juan C.; Idarraga, Alvaro; Alvarez, Esteban

    2004-01-01

    We investigated patterns of bryophyte species richness and composition in two forest types of Colombian Amazonia, non-flooded tierra firme forest and floodplain forest of the Caquetá River. A total of 109 bryophyte species were recorded from 14 0.2 ha plots. Bryophyte life forms and habitats were analyzed, including the canopy and epiphylls. Bryophyte species did not show significant differences between landscapes but mosses and liverworts were different and with opposite responses balancing ...

  1. Multigene phylogeny of land plants with special reference to bryophytes and the earliest land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickrent, D L; Parkinson, C L; Palmer, J D; Duff, R J

    2000-12-01

    A widely held view of land plant relationships places liverworts as the first branch of the land plant tree, whereas some molecular analyses and a cladistic study of morphological characters indicate that hornworts are the earliest land plants. To help resolve this conflict, we used parsimony and likelihood methods to analyze a 6, 095-character data set composed of four genes (chloroplast rbcL and small-subunit rDNA from all three plant genomes) from all major land plant lineages. In all analyses, significant support was obtained for the monophyly of vascular plants, lycophytes, ferns (including PSILOTUM: and EQUISETUM:), seed plants, and angiosperms. Relationships among the three bryophyte lineages were unresolved in parsimony analyses in which all positions were included and weighted equally. However, in parsimony and likelihood analyses in which rbcL third-codon-position transitions were either excluded or downweighted (due to apparent saturation), hornworts were placed as sister to all other land plants, with mosses and liverworts jointly forming the second deepest lineage. Decay analyses and Kishino-Hasegawa tests of the third-position-excluded data set showed significant support for the hornwort-basal topology over several alternative topologies, including the commonly cited liverwort-basal topology. Among the four genes used, mitochondrial small-subunit rDNA showed the lowest homoplasy and alone recovered essentially the same topology as the multigene tree. This molecular phylogeny presents new opportunities to assess paleontological evidence and morphological innovations that occurred during the early evolution of terrestrial plants.

  2. Distribution of rare earths, thorium and uranium in bryophytes and soils in Tripui Ecological Station, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Nalini Junior, Herminio A.; Friese, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs), thorium and uranium were determined in liverworts (Noteroclada confluens (Tayl.) and Dumortirea hirsute (Sw.) Nees), in mosses (Leucobryum martianum (Hornsh.) Hampe, Vesicularia vesicularis (Schwaegr.) Broth., Pyrrhobruym spiniforme (Hedw.) Mitt. and Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw.) Mitt.) and in the soil upon which they were growing. The samples were collected on the margins of the main streams of the Tripui Ecological Station, located in the valley of the Tripui stream near the town of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For decades, this Station has been the object of interest of many studies due to its historical, ecological and environmental importance. Analyses in bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and in the soil samples by using neutron activation analysis (NAA), specifically the k 0 -standardization method and the energy dispersive spectrometry technique (EDS). Lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) and neodymium (Nd) were present in higher concentrations in soils and bryophytes than other REEs. It was observed that in all the collected bryophytes species the elements Th, U, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Yb were transferred from the soil water to these plants. These bryophytes presented different capacities of accumulating these elements with the liverworts (Noteroclada confluens and Dumortirea hirsute) and the moss Leucobryum martianum showing a more efficient accumulation capacity than the other bryophyte species. (author)

  3. The biogeochemistry and occurrence of unusual plant species inhabiting acidic, metal-rich water, Red Mountain, Bonnifield district, Alaska Range: Chapter J in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Larry P.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents results on the occurrence and biogeochemistry of unusual plant species, and of their supporting sediment, in an undisturbed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Tintina Gold Province (see fig. 1 of Editors’ Preface and Overview). The extraordinary plant assemblage found growing in the acidic metal-rich waters that drain the area is composed predominantly of bryophytes (liverworts and mosses). Ferricrete-cemented silty alluvial sediments within seeps and streams are covered with the liverwort Gymnocolea inflata, whereas the mosses Polytrichum commune and P. juniperinum inhabit the area adjacent to the water and within the splash zone. Both the liverwort-encrusted sediment and Polytrichum thalli have high concentrations of major- and trace-metal cations (for example, Al, As, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Pb, and Zn). Soils in the area do not reflect the geochemical signature of the mineral deposit, and we suspect that they are most influenced by the chemistry of airborne dust (aeolian material) derived from outside the area.

  4. Crown Group Lejeuneaceae and Pleurocarpous Mosses in Early Eocene (Ypresian Indian Amber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Heinrichs

    Full Text Available Cambay amber originates from the warmest period of the Eocene, which is also well known for the appearance of early angiosperm-dominated megathermal forests. The humid climate of these forests may have triggered the evolution of epiphytic lineages of bryophytes; however, early Eocene fossils of bryophytes are rare. Here, we present evidence for lejeuneoid liverworts and pleurocarpous mosses in Cambay amber. The preserved morphology of the moss fossil is inconclusive for a detailed taxonomic treatment. The liverwort fossil is, however, distinctive; its zig-zagged stems, suberect complicate-bilobed leaves, large leaf lobules, and small, deeply bifid underleaves suggest a member of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Lejeuneinae (Harpalejeunea, Lejeunea, Microlejeunea. We tested alternative classification possibilities by conducting divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of Lejeuneinae using the age of the fossil for corresponding age constraints. Consideration of the fossil as a stem group member of Microlejeunea or Lejeunea resulted in an Eocene to Late Cretaceous age of the Lejeuneinae crown group. This reconstruction is in good accordance with published divergence time estimates generated without the newly presented fossil evidence. Balancing available evidence, we describe the liverwort fossil as the extinct species Microlejeunea nyiahae, representing the oldest crown group fossil of Lejeuneaceae.

  5. Crown Group Lejeuneaceae and Pleurocarpous Mosses in Early Eocene (Ypresian) Indian Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Scheben, Armin; Bechteler, Julia; Lee, Gaik Ee; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Hedenäs, Lars; Singh, Hukam; Pócs, Tamás; Nascimbene, Paul C; Peralta, Denilson F; Renner, Matt; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2016-01-01

    Cambay amber originates from the warmest period of the Eocene, which is also well known for the appearance of early angiosperm-dominated megathermal forests. The humid climate of these forests may have triggered the evolution of epiphytic lineages of bryophytes; however, early Eocene fossils of bryophytes are rare. Here, we present evidence for lejeuneoid liverworts and pleurocarpous mosses in Cambay amber. The preserved morphology of the moss fossil is inconclusive for a detailed taxonomic treatment. The liverwort fossil is, however, distinctive; its zig-zagged stems, suberect complicate-bilobed leaves, large leaf lobules, and small, deeply bifid underleaves suggest a member of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Lejeuneinae (Harpalejeunea, Lejeunea, Microlejeunea). We tested alternative classification possibilities by conducting divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of Lejeuneinae using the age of the fossil for corresponding age constraints. Consideration of the fossil as a stem group member of Microlejeunea or Lejeunea resulted in an Eocene to Late Cretaceous age of the Lejeuneinae crown group. This reconstruction is in good accordance with published divergence time estimates generated without the newly presented fossil evidence. Balancing available evidence, we describe the liverwort fossil as the extinct species Microlejeunea nyiahae, representing the oldest crown group fossil of Lejeuneaceae.

  6. Levantamento de plantas infestantes em lavouras de milho 'safrinha'no estado de São Paulo Weed survey in autumn corn crops in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aildson P. Duarte

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se o levantamento da flora infestante na lavoura do milho "safrinha" nas duas principais regiões de plantio no Estado de São Paulo, em 1995. Foram visitadas 85 lavouras na Região do Médio Vale do Paranapanema e 29 na Região Norte. Nesta, em quatro lavouras fez-se a semeadura na palha e em 25, em solo com preparo de gradagem simples, todos sem herbicida. Naquela, a semeadura na palha foi em 68 lavouras, em 11 fez-se gradagem simples e, em seis, gradagem dupla, havendo aplicação de herbicidas de POS em algumas áreas. As espécies que ocorreram, segundo a sua freqüência, foram, na Região Norte: Glycine max> Amaranthus retroflexus> Acanthospermum hispidum = Bidens pilosa = Alternanthera tenella > Cenchrus echinatus > Euphorbia heterophylla > Ipomoea spp. > Commelina benghalensis > Sida spp. = Eleusine indica; e, na Região do Médio Vale do Paranapanema: Euphorbia heterophylla = Glycine max = Commelina benghalensis > Bidens pilosa = Raphanus sativus > Cenchrus echinatus = Acanthospermum hispidum > Brachiaria plantaginea > Sida spp. = Coronopus didymus > Eleusine indica > Digitaria horizontalis > Amaranthus retroflexus. O preparo do solo com gradagem dupla, resultou em menor índice de ocorrência de alta infestação, seguida da gradagem simples. O uso de herbicidas, de modo geral, também reduziu esse índice. As espécies Commelina benghalensis, Digitaria horizontalis, Sida spp., Eleusine indica e Amaranthus hibridus ocorreram apenas com a semeadura direta na Região do Paranapanema. Na Região Norte, Ipomoea spp. e Euphorbia heterophylla só ocorreram nas áreas com gradagem simples.A weed infestation survey was carried out in the two main cultivation regions of autumn corn crops in the State of São Paulo. In the Médio Vale do Paranapanema 85 plantations were visited and in the Região Norte 29 plantations. In this region four crops were sowed directly and 25 after soil preparation with a single harrowing, all without herbicides

  7. Características fisiológicas das culturas de soja e feijão e de três espécies de plantas daninhas Physiological caracteristics of soybean and common bean crops and three weed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Procópio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os características fisiológicas taxa de fotossíntese líquida (A, taxa de transpiração (E, condutância estomática (gs e eficiência do uso da água (WUE e os índices de crescimento biomassa seca total (Wt e índice de área foliar (L para as culturas de soja (Glycine max e feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris e para as das plantas daninhas Bidens pilosa, Desmodium tortuosum e dois biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla (um suscetível e outro resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, em duas épocas de avaliação: 39 e 67 dias após a semeadura (DAS. O experimento foi conduzido a campo em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, fase terraço, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas, sendo o fator da parcela principal as espécies vegetais e o da subparcela as épocas de avaliação, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Foi observado maior Wt da soja em relação às plantas daninhas. As culturas de soja e feijão apresentaram maior L do que as plantas daninhas. Os biótipos de E. heterophylla apresentaram a maior A, bem como a maior gs. Com exceção de D. tortuosum, as plantas daninhas apresentaram maior WUE em relação às culturas nos estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento. Não foram observadas diferenças em relação a qualquer parâmetro fisiológico avaliado entre os biótipos de E. heterophylla.This work aimed to evaluate the physiological caracteristics net photosynthesis (A, transpiration rate (E, stomatal conductance (gs and water use efficiency (WUE and growth indexes of total dry matter (Wt and leaf area index (L for soybean (Glycine max, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and weeds Bidens pilosa, Desmodium tortuosum and two biotypes of Euphorbia heterophylla (one susceptible and other resistant to ALS inhibitor herbicides during two periods of evaluation, 39 and 67 days after sowing (DAS. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in a Red

  8. Leaf development of soybean and bean crops and weeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procopio, Sergio de Oliveira; Santos, Jose Barbosa do; Silva, Antonio Alberto da; Costa, Luiz Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the emission rate and expansion of the leaves, duration of the leaf area (DLA) and the extinction coefficient (k) for the crops soybean and of the bean, and for the weeds Euphorbia heterophylla sensitive and Euphorbia heterophylla resistant to the herbicides inhibiting of the ALS enzyme, Bidens pilosa and Desmodium tortuosum. The experiment was developed in the field, in soil classified as Red-Yellow Claysoil, in the period of october of 2000 to march of 2001. Each plant species consisted of a treatment. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The mensurations of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were accomplished in two points of the plants: above and bellow the canopy, by means of a light ceptometer. The emission rate and the expansion of leaves was calculated at the end of the cycle of the crops. The DLA and k were calculated before and after the plant flowering. It was not observed differences in the development of the biotypes of E. heterophylla with relation to the rate of appearance of leaves, expansion rate, DLA or k. Among the cultures, the bean presented smaller leaf emission rate (0.591 / day) compared to the soybean (0.933 / day). Among the weeds, the largest leaf emission rate was with D. tortuosum (0.699 / day). The leaf expansion rate observed by the soybean was superior to all the other species (6.77 cm 2 .day-1). All plant species presented larger value for DLA after the flowering compared before flowering. The soybean presented larger value of k (before and after the flowering 0.52 and 0.93, respectively) compared to the other species, demonstrating high potential of interception of solar radiation. (author)

  9. Leaf development of soybean and bean crops and weeds; Desenvolvimento foliar das culturas da soja e do feijao e de plantas daninhas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procopio, Sergio de Oliveira; Santos, Jose Barbosa do; Silva, Antonio Alberto da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia]. E-mail: procopio@alunos.ufv.br; jbarbosa2000@yahoo.com.br; aasilva@mail.ufv.br; Costa, Luiz Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola]. E-mail: l.costa@mail.ufv.br

    2003-03-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the emission rate and expansion of the leaves, duration of the leaf area (DLA) and the extinction coefficient (k) for the crops soybean and of the bean, and for the weeds Euphorbia heterophylla sensitive and Euphorbia heterophylla resistant to the herbicides inhibiting of the ALS enzyme, Bidens pilosa and Desmodium tortuosum. The experiment was developed in the field, in soil classified as Red-Yellow Claysoil, in the period of october of 2000 to march of 2001. Each plant species consisted of a treatment. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The mensurations of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were accomplished in two points of the plants: above and bellow the canopy, by means of a light ceptometer. The emission rate and the expansion of leaves was calculated at the end of the cycle of the crops. The DLA and k were calculated before and after the plant flowering. It was not observed differences in the development of the biotypes of E. heterophylla with relation to the rate of appearance of leaves, expansion rate, DLA or k. Among the cultures, the bean presented smaller leaf emission rate (0.591 / day) compared to the soybean (0.933 / day). Among the weeds, the largest leaf emission rate was with D. tortuosum (0.699 / day). The leaf expansion rate observed by the soybean was superior to all the other species (6.77 cm{sup 2}.day-1). All plant species presented larger value for DLA after the flowering compared before flowering. The soybean presented larger value of k (before and after the flowering 0.52 and 0.93, respectively) compared to the other species, demonstrating high potential of interception of solar radiation. (author)

  10. Diet of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata, Aves, Columbidae in a sugar-cane colony in South-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. RANVAUD

    Full Text Available Farmers in the Paranapanema Valley (São Paulo, Brazil have reported problems with flocks of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata eating sprouting soybeans. In this region these birds breed colonially in sugar-cane, and eat four crop seeds, using 70% of the dry weight, in the following order of importance: maize, wheat, rice, and soybeans. Three weeds (Euphorbia heterophylla, Brachiaria plantaginea, and Commelina benghalensis were important. This information suggests that the doves adapted particularly well to the landscape created by the agricultural practices in the region, exploiting many available foods.

  11. NOVEDADES EN CALIBRACHOA (SOLANACEAE Y NOTAS TAXONÓMICAS SOBRE EL GÉNERO PARA LA ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián A. Greppi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra una nueva subespecie de Calibrachoa para Argentina y Brasil: C. linoides subsp. furcata. Se excluye a C. heterophylla de la flora argentina. Se consideran a C. linearis y a Petunia thymifolia f. gracilis como nuevos sinónimos de C. thymifolia y se esclarecen interpretaciones erróneas de dos especies (C. pubescens y C. humilis, previamente citadas para Argentina. Se designan lectotipos para Fabiana thymifolia, Petunia thymifolia f. gracilis y Salpiglossis linearis (= C. thymifolia.

  12. The mossy north

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Ruben G.; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe

    2016-01-01

    , as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness...... and turnover in the north and in the south, respectively, indicating species exclusion towards the north and increased opportunities for speciation in the south. Liverworts exhibit the highest levels of nestedness, suggesting that they represent the most sensitive group to the impact of past climate change...

  13. Contribution to the Diatom flora of Southern Africa. II. Diatoms from the Hog's Back Region of the Amatola Mountains, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malcolm, HG

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available roots of trees i~ the stream: 9 forms. Finn 26. The same: from liverworts [Aneura (Riccardia) fast igiata L. and L.] on Rhoj stones in running water: 48 forms. an 27. The same: from surface of mud in pools upstream: 35 forms. 28. The same: from... figures of the girdle view (Kieselalg. 2: 170. F. 678), of the typical form are unlike those seen in my material where they are groggily obese, having an intercalary band three to four times as wide as the valve. Similar girdle ~iews are seen in Fray...

  14. Biosynthetic routes of hydroxylated carotenoids (xanthophylls) in Marchantia polymorpha, and production of novel and rare xanthophylls through pathway engineering in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Miho; Maoka, Takashi; Misawa, Norihiko

    2015-03-01

    MpBHY codes for a carotene β-ring 3(,3')-hydroxylase responsible for both zeaxanthin and lutein biosynthesis in liverwort. MpCYP97C functions as an ε-ring hydroxylase (zeinoxanthin 3'-hydroxylase) to produce lutein in liverwort. Xanthophylls are oxygenated or hydroxylated carotenes that are most abundant in the light-harvesting complexes of plants. The plant-type xanthophylls consist of α-xanthophyll (lutein) and β-xanthophylls (zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin and neoxanthin). The α-xanthophyll and β-xanthophylls are derived from α-carotene and β-carotene by carotene hydroxylase activities, respectively. β-Ring 3,3'-hydroxylase that mediates the route of zeaxanthin from β-carotene via β-cryptoxanthin is present in higher plants and is encoded by the BHY (BCH) gene. On the other hand, CYP97A (or BHY) and CYP97C genes are responsible for β-ring 3-hydroxylation and ε-ring 3'-hydroxylation, respectively, in routes from α-carotene to lutein. To elucidate the evolution of the biosynthetic routes of such hydroxylated carotenoids from carotenes in land plants, we identified and functionally analyzed carotenoid hydroxylase genes of liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. Three genes homologous to higher plants, BHY, CYP97A, and CYP97C, were isolated and named MpBHY, MpCYP97A, and MpCYP97C, respectively. MpBHY was found to code for β-ring hydroxylase, which is responsible for both routes starting from β-carotene and α-carotene. MpCYP97C functioned as an ε-ring hydroxylase not for α-carotene but for zeinoxanthin, while MpCYP97A showed no hydroxylation activity for β-carotene or α-carotene. These findings suggest the original functions of the hydroxylation enzymes of carotenes in land plants, which are thought to diversify in higher plants. In addition, we generated recombinant Escherichia coli cells, which produced rare and novel carotenoids such as α-echinenone and 4-ketozeinoxanthin, through pathway engineering using bacterial carotenogenic genes

  15. Brioflora del parque natural de la Albufera de Valencia

    OpenAIRE

    Gimeno, C.; Puche, Fernando

    1995-01-01

    [ES] Se ha confeccionado el catálogo de los táxones recolectados dentro de los límites del Parque Natural de la Albufera de Valencia, así como los citados en la bibliografía. Incluye un total de cuarenta y ocho briófitos de los cuales treinta y siete son musgos y once hepáticas. [EN] In this work a list of bryophytes from Albufera de Valencia Natural Park (SE Spain) is given, with 48 taxa, 37 mosses and 11 liverworts.

  16. Capture and utilization of solar radiation by the soybean and common bean crops and by weeds; Captacao e aproveitamento da radiacao solar pelas culturas da soja e do feijao e por plantas daninhas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Barbosa dos; Procopio, Sergio de Oliveira; Silva, Antonio Alberto da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). FItotecnia; Costa, Luiz Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), 36571-000, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2003-07-01

    Aiming to develop techniques for the establishment of a Weed Integrated Management Program, the performance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) and of weeds Bidens pilosa L., Euphorbia heterophylla L. (two biotypes), sensitive and resistant to ALS inhibitor - herbicides and [ Desmodium tortuosum (SW.) DC.], was evaluated in relation to their efficiency in capturing and utilizing solar radiation.The following indices were calculated: total dry biomass production rate (Ct), leaf dry biomass production rate (Cf), radiation efficient use (x), net assimilation rate (EA), specific leaf area (SA), leaf area index (L), leaf matter ratio (FW) and leaf area ratio (FA). No difference was observed for all characteristics evaluated among E. heterophylla biotypes. Soybean showed the highest rate of total dry biomass production along its cycle and also the highest leaf area index, indicating its greater capacity in capturing light and providing shade to competitive plants. Especially after flowering, common bean was the most efficient in draining its photoassimilates for leaf formation. Soybean showed greater efficiency in converting radiation intercepted in the biomass. (author)

  17. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of four Myrtaceae species on three weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Imatomi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on allelopathic interactions can be useful in the search for phytotoxins produced by plants that may be employed as natural herbicides. The aim of this study was to assess the phytotoxic action of aqueous leaf extract of Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Myrcia multiflora, Myrcia splendens and Myrcia tomentosa on the germination and development of three weeds. The working hypothesis was that leaf extracts of Myrtaceae may negatively influence the development of weed species. Aqueous leaf extracts at 5 and 10% (g mL-1 were tested on the germination and growth of Euphorbia heterophylla, Echinochloa crus-galli and Ipomoea grandifolia and compared with the herbicide oxyfluorfen and distilled water (control. The most extracts caused pronounced delays in seed germination and inhibited the growth of seedlings of E. heterophylla; I. grandifolia and E. crus-galli, with the last target species had no growth shoot inhibited by the extracts. In this study, the potential and efficiency of the tested aqueous leaf extracts were evident because they were more phytotoxic to the weeds than the herbicide. Thus, the aqueous extracts of leaves from Myrtaceae species show potential for the isolation of active compounds that can be used for the production of natural herbicides in the future.

  18. Diurnal variation in soil respiration under different land uses on Taihang Mountain, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Qihong; Chang, Jianguo; Hou, Ke

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the diurnal variation in soil respiration under different land use types on Taihang Mountain, North China, and to understand its response to environmental factors (e.g., soil temperature and moisture) and forest management. Diurnal variations in soil respiration from plantations (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujuba), naturally regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla), grasslands (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and farmlands (winter wheat/summer maize) were measured using an LI-8100 automated soil CO2 flux system from May 2012 to April 2013. The results indicated that land use type had a significant effect on the diurnal variation of soil respiration. The diurnal soil respiration from farmlands was highest, followed by Ziziphus jujube, R. pseudoacacia, P. granatum, the lower soil CO2 efflux was found from B. ischaemum and V. negundo var. heterophylla. The diurnal soil respiration across different land use types was significantly affected by soil temperature and moisture, and their interaction. Precipitation-stimulated soil respiration increased more in soil with low water content and less in soil with high water content. The lower diurnal soil respiration from naturally regenerated forests suggests that naturally regenerated vegetation is the optimal vegetation type for reducing global warming.

  19. Capture and utilization of solar radiation by the soybean and common bean crops and by weeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jose Barbosa dos; Procopio, Sergio de Oliveira; Silva, Antonio Alberto da; Costa, Luiz Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Aiming to develop techniques for the establishment of a Weed Integrated Management Program, the performance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) and of weeds Bidens pilosa L., Euphorbia heterophylla L. (two biotypes), sensitive and resistant to ALS inhibitor - herbicides and [ Desmodium tortuosum (SW.) DC.], was evaluated in relation to their efficiency in capturing and utilizing solar radiation.The following indices were calculated: total dry biomass production rate (Ct), leaf dry biomass production rate (Cf), radiation efficient use (x), net assimilation rate (EA), specific leaf area (SA), leaf area index (L), leaf matter ratio (FW) and leaf area ratio (FA). No difference was observed for all characteristics evaluated among E. heterophylla biotypes. Soybean showed the highest rate of total dry biomass production along its cycle and also the highest leaf area index, indicating its greater capacity in capturing light and providing shade to competitive plants. Especially after flowering, common bean was the most efficient in draining its photoassimilates for leaf formation. Soybean showed greater efficiency in converting radiation intercepted in the biomass. (author)

  20. Water pollution causes ultrastructural and functional damages in Pellia neesiana (Gottsche) Limpr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Adriana; Sorbo, Sergio; Lentini, Marco; Conte, Barbara; Esposito, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of freshwater pollution in the heavily contaminated Sarno River (Campania, South Italy), using Pellia neesiana (Pelliaceae Metzgeriales) in order to propose this liverwort as a potential bioindicator, able to record the effects of water pollution, particularly the one related to metal (loid) contamination. Samples of P. neesiana in nylon bags were disposed floating for one week on the waters of Sarno River in three sites characterised by an increasing pollution. As control, some specimens were cultured in vitro in Cd- and Pb-added media, at the same pollutants' levels as measured in the most polluted site. P. neesiana cell ultrastructure was modified and severe alterations were observed in chloroplasts from samples exposed in the most polluted site, and Cd- and Pb-cultured samples. Concurrently, a strong increase in the occurrence of Heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) was detected in gametophytes following the pollution gradient. In conclusion, ultrastructural damages can be directly related to HSP 70 occurrence in liverwort tissues, and proportional to the degree of pollution present in the river; thus our study suggests P. neesiana as an affordable bioindicator of freshwaters pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Plant-associated methylobacteria as co-evolved phytosymbionts: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich

    2007-03-01

    Due to their wall-associated pectin metabolism, growing plant cells emit significant amounts of the one-carbon alcohol methanol. Pink-pigmented microbes of the genus Methylobacterium that colonize the surfaces of leaves (epiphytes) are capable of growth on this volatile C1-compound as sole source of carbon and energy. In this article the results of experiments with germ-free (gnotobiotic) sporophytes of angiosperms (sunflower, maize) and gametophytes of bryophytes (a moss and two liverwort species) are summarized. The data show that methylobacteria do not stimulate the growth of these angiosperms, but organ development in moss protonemata and in thalli of liverworts is considerably enhanced. Since methylobacteria produce and secrete cytokinins and auxin, a model of plant-microbe-interaction (symbiosis) is proposed in which the methanol-consuming bacteria are viewed as coevolved partners of the gametophyte that determine its growth, survival and reproduction (fitness). This symbiosis is restricted to the haploid cells of moisture-dependent "living fossil" plants; it does not apply to the diploid sporophytes of higher embryophytes, which are fully adapted to life on land and apparently produce sufficient amounts of endogenous phytohormones.

  2. Structural evolution of the 4/1 genes and proteins in non-vascular and lower vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Sergey Y; Milyutina, Irina A; Bobrova, Vera K; Ryazantsev, Dmitry Y; Erokhina, Tatiana N; Zavriev, Sergey K; Agranovsky, Alexey A; Solovyev, Andrey G; Troitsky, Alexey V

    2015-12-01

    The 4/1 protein of unknown function is encoded by a single-copy gene in most higher plants. The 4/1 protein of Nicotiana tabacum (Nt-4/1 protein) has been shown to be alpha-helical and predominantly expressed in conductive tissues. Here, we report the analysis of 4/1 genes and the encoded proteins of lower land plants. Sequences of a number of 4/1 genes from liverworts, lycophytes, ferns and gymnosperms were determined and analyzed together with sequences available in databases. Most of the vascular plants were found to encode Magnoliophyta-like 4/1 proteins exhibiting previously described gene structure and protein properties. Identification of the 4/1-like proteins in hornworts, liverworts and charophyte algae (sister lineage to all land plants) but not in mosses suggests that 4/1 proteins are likely important for plant development but not required for a primary metabolic function of plant cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  3. Plant-Associated Methylobacteria as Co-Evolved Phytosymbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Due to their wall-associated pectin metabolism, growing plant cells emit significant amounts of the one-carbon alcohol methanol. Pink-pigmented microbes of the genus Methylobacterium that colonize the surfaces of leaves (epiphytes) are capable of growth on this volatile C1-compound as sole source of carbon and energy. In this article the results of experiments with germ-free (gnotobiotic) sporophytes of angiosperms (sunflower, maize) and gametophytes of bryophytes (a moss and two liverwort species) are summarized. The data show that methylobacteria do not stimulate the growth of these angiosperms, but organ development in moss protonemata and in thalli of liverworts is considerably enhanced. Since methylobacteria produce and secrete cytokinins and auxin, a model of plant-microbe-interaction (symbiosis) is proposed in which the methanol-consuming bacteria are viewed as coevolved partners of the gametophyte that determine its growth, survival and reproduction (fitness). This symbiosis is restricted to the haploid cells of moisture-dependent “living fossil” plants; it does not apply to the diploid sporophytes of higher embryophytes, which are fully adapted to life on land and apparently produce sufficient amounts of endogenous phytohormones. PMID:19516971

  4. Composition and distribution patterns of bryophytes at a reclaimed surface mine in Grundy County, Illinois, with a list of vascular plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastorfer, J.R.

    1981-12-01

    Bryological surveys and collections were made in order to assess the natural colonization of mosses (and liverworts) on acid minesoils of a reclamation demonstration site located adjacent to Goose Lake Prairie State Park in northeastern Illinois. Four types of fine-textured mineral soils were recognized within the site; these were designated as abandoned (cultivated) field soil, oil minesoil (spoil), reclaimed minesoil 1972 to 1973, and reclaimed minesoil 1975 to 1976. The two reclaimed minesoils were distinguished by reclamation efforts begun in 1972 and 1975. Thirty moss taxa and one liverwort species were found on the site, and two additional moss species were found in areas adjacent to the site. Of the 33 bryophyte taxa recognized, 14 species of mosses were new reports for Grundy County. Comparative distribution patterns indicate that the major pioneer species of mosses on reclaimed minesoil were Barbula unguiculata, Ceratodon purpureus, Ditrichum pallidum, and Funaria hygrometrica. On the other hand, Bryum caespiticium and Weissia controversa were considered later seral species rather than primary invaders. Distribution patterns also indicate that mosses were generally unable to colonize unshaded bare reclaimed minesoil. However, moss colonization was successful in those areas where the harsh microhabitat conditions were ameliorated by vascular vegetation. Shoots of both living and dead higher plants most likely affect the proliferation of mosses by shading the soil surface, which results in increased moisture and decreased temperature at the soil surface in contrast to conditions of fully exposed soil.

  5. Antibacterial activity of some bryophytes used traditionally for the treatment of burn infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Singh, Shweta; Nath, Virendra; Sahu, Vinay; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh

    2011-05-01

    Plagiochasma appendiculatum L. & L. (Aytoniaceae), Conocephalum conicum (L.) Necker (Conocephalaceae), Bryum argenteum Hedw. (Bryaceae), and Mnium marginatum (With.) P. Beauv. (Mniaceae) are bryophytes (liverworts and mosses) used by traditional healers for the treatment of burn, cuts, wounds, and skin disorders. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of four bryophytes against some common bacteria responsible for burn infections. Different fractions of bryophytes were screened using the disc diffusion (qualitative) and broth microdilution (quantitative) methods, according to the guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical and Laboratory Standards. Chloroform fractions of liverworts were more active against Gram negative strains while butanol fractions of mosses had significant activity against Gram positive bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive strain of those tested with the butanol fraction of M. marginatum (moss), with the strongest inhibition zone of 102.92% and minimum inhibitory concentration of 30 μg mL(-1). Our findings support the use of the bryophytes in traditional medicine for burn infections because of their significant antibacterial activity.

  6. Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

    2000-06-29

    An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of

  7. Recominant Pinoresino-Lariciresinol Reductase, Recombinant Dirigent Protein And Methods Of Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fujita, Masayuki , Gang; David R. , Sarkanen; Simo , Ford; Joshua D.

    2003-10-21

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided from source species Forsythia intermedia, Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla, Eucommia ulmoides, Linum usitatissimum, and Schisandra chinensis, which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  8. Dynamique d'infestation de la forêt classée de Sanaimbo par les adventices à partir des agro-écosystèmes environnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touré, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of Infestation in the Sanaimbo Protected Forest by Weeds from Surrounding Agro-ecosystems. The infestation dynamics of the Sanaimbo Protected Forest by weeds was evaluated with the aim to quantify the impact of weeds on the original flora of this locality. Floristic and phytosociological surveys samples were carried out on plots located inside and outside the forest. The frequency and proportion of biological types is different in plots located outside and within the classified forest. Chromolaena odorata (L. King & H.E. Robins has a high degree of infestation whatever the plot location. Euphorbia heterophylla L., Ageratum conyzoides L. and Panicum laxum Sw. show high levels of infestation in the plots out of the forest and start invading slowly the plots within the forest.

  9. Isogermacrene A, a proposed intermediate in sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Thomas; König, Wilfried A; Muhle, Hermann

    2004-08-01

    In the essential oil of the liverwort Saccogyna viticulosa, collected on the island of Madeira, the new sesquiterpene hydrocarbons isogermacrene A (5) and its Cope rearrangement product iso-beta-elemene (6) were identified. 5 is proposed to act as the biogenetic precursor of several new sesquiterpenes identified in the volatiles of S. viticulosa. These include iso-alpha-humulene, alpha-gorgonene, gorgona-1,4(15), 11-triene and gorgon- 11-en-4-ol. In addition, the Cope product of zierene, isozierene, allo-aromadendra-4(15),10(14)-diene, aromadendra-4(15),10(14)-dien-1-ol and a prenylguaiane diterpene alcohol, named viticulol, were identified as new natural products.

  10. A contribution to the bryoflora of the Western Ghats in Karnataka State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Uwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on fieldtrips of the authors in 2012, a list of species collected in a small area of the Western Ghats (Coorg District, state of Karnataka is presented. It includes 18 species of liverworts and hornworts as well as 76 species of mosses. 27 species of mosses are newly reported for the state of Karnataka, 6 species are new for Coorg province. Holomitrium javanicum Dozy & Molk. is reported as new to India. Campylopus sedgwickii Dix. described from Sri Lanka and so far only known from the type locality is a new synonym of C. recurvus Mitt. The list gives a rough inventory of the bryoflora in altitudes between 900 m and 1750 m and can be regarded as typical for the northern Western Ghats.

  11. Radioimmunoassay for the determination of free and conjugated abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    The characterization and application of a radioimmunoassay specific for free and conjugated abscisic acid (ABA) is reported, The antibodies produced against a bovine serum albumin-(+-)-ABA conjugate have a high affinity for ABA (Ka= 1.3 x 10 9 l mol -1 ). Trans, trans-ABA and related compounds, such as xanthoxin, phaseic acid, dihydrophaseic acid, vomifoliol or violaxanthin do not interfere with the assay. The detection limit of this method is 0.25 x 10 -12 mol ABA, the measuring range extends to 20 x 10 -12 mol, and average recoveries are 103%. Because of the high specificity of this immunoassay, no extract purification steps are required prior to analysis. Several hundred plants can be analyzed per day in a semi-automatic assay performance. ABA has been detected in all higher plant families examined, but was absent in the blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis, the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, and two species of fungi. (orig.) [de

  12. Ring strain and total syntheses of modified macrocycles of the isoplagiochin type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Speicher

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocycles of the bisbibenzyl-type are natural products that are found exclusively in bryophytes (liverworts. The molecular framework of the subtype “isoplagiochin” is of substantial structural interest because of the chirality of the entire molecule, which arises from two biaryl axes in combination with two helical two-carbon units in a cyclic arrangement. From a structural as well as a synthetic point of view we report on the total synthesis of compounds which possess more rigid two-carbon biaryl bridges like stilbene (E or Z or even tolane moieties which were introduced starting with a Sonogashira protocol. The McMurry method proved to be a powerful tool for the cyclization to these considerably ring-strained macrocycles.

  13. The evolution of plant secretory structures and emergence of terpenoid chemical diversity.

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    Lange, Bernd Markus

    2015-01-01

    Secretory structures in terrestrial plants appear to have first emerged as intracellular oil bodies in liverworts. In vascular plants, internal secretory structures, such as resin ducts and laticifers, are usually found in conjunction with vascular bundles, whereas subepidermal secretory cavities and epidermal glandular trichomes generally have more complex tissue distribution patterns. The primary function of plant secretory structures is related to defense responses, both constitutive and induced, against herbivores and pathogens. The ability to sequester secondary (or specialized) metabolites and defense proteins in secretory structures was a critical adaptation that shaped plant-herbivore and plant-pathogen interactions. Although this review places particular emphasis on describing the evolution of pathways leading to terpenoids, it also assesses the emergence of other metabolite classes to outline the metabolic capabilities of different plant lineages.

  14. [Diversity of Plants Belonging to the Genus Ligularia (Asteraceae) Based on Terpenoids and Synthetic Studies on Some Terpenoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tori, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    The terpenoid constituents of Ligularia virgaurea (30 samples), Ligularia pleurocaulis (8 samples), Ligularia dictyoneura (8 samples), Ligularia brassicoides (5 samples), Ligularia lingiana (1 sample), and Ligularia liatroides (1 sample)(all belonging to section Senecillis of Ligularia, Asteraceae and collected in Yunnan, Sichuan, Qinghai, and Gansu provinces, China), from which 220 compounds were isolated, including 113 novel ones, are reviewed. Five chemotypes were identified in L. virgaurea based on their chemical constituents, while three clades were detected from the base sequences. Although intra-specific diversity was found in L. virgaurea, more samples were needed of other species in order to reach a definite conclusion. Inter-specific diversity was also examined in section Senecillis but was restricted due to the scarcity of samples. Synthetic studies on chiral natural products to determine their absolute configurations, especially those of riccardiphenols A and B as well as crispatanolide, which were all isolated from the liverwort, are briefly reviewed.

  15. Evolution of heavy metal tolerance in bryophytes II. An ecological and experimental investigation of the copper moss, Scopelophila cataractae (Pottiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA))

    1987-06-01

    About six bryophyte species (including both mosses and liverworts) are generally thought to be restricted to copper-enriched substrates and are consequently known as copper mosses. One of these, Scopelophila cataractae (Pottiaceae), is known from several sites in southern Arizona and occurs at six localities in the Eastern US. Chemical analyses of substrates from the eastern US localities showed that all but one population grew on copper-enriched soil. The one substrate sample low in copper was very high in iron. Plants from five of the six eastern US localities for S. cataractae were grown experimentally on four soil types ranging from highly to not contaminated, and all grew best on the soil contaminated with copper, lead, and zinc. There was no significant variation in growth between populations on the four soil treatments. This lack of population differentiation is in contrast to flowering plants and may be related to the absence of sexual reproduction in S. cataractae in North America.

  16. Development of schizogenous intercellular spaces in plants

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    Kimitsune eIshizaki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas exchange is essential for multicellular organisms. In contrast to the circulatory systems of animals, land plants have tissues with intercellular spaces (ICSs, called aerenchyma, that are critical for efficient gas exchange. Plants form ICSs by two different mechanisms: schizogeny, where localized cell separation creates spaces; and lysogeny, where cells die to create intercellular spaces. In schizogenous ICS formation, specific molecular mechanisms regulate the sites of cell separation and coordinate extensive reorganization of cell walls. Emerging evidence suggests the involvement of extracellular signaling, mediated by peptide ligands and leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases, in the regulation of cell wall remodeling during cell separation. Recent work on the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has demonstrated a critical role for a plasma membrane-associated plant U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase in ICS formation. In this review, I discuss the mechanism of schizogenous ICS formation, focusing on the potential role of extracellular signaling in the regulation of cell separation.

  17. ent-Jungermannenone C Triggers Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Cell Differentiation in Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zongwei; Xiao, Xinhua; Wu, Jinbao; Zhou, Xiaozhou; Liu, Weilong; Liu, Yaxi; Li, Houhua; Chen, Guoqiang; Wu, Yingli; Lei, Xiaoguang

    2018-02-23

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematologic malignancy that is characterized by clonal proliferation of myeloid blasts. Despite the progress that has been made in the treatment of various malignant hematopoietic diseases, the effective treatment of AML remains very challenging. Differentiation therapy has emerged as a promising approach for leukemia treatment, and new and effective chemical agents to trigger the differentiation of AML cells, especially drug-resistant cells, are urgently required. Herein, the natural product jungermannenone C, a tetracyclic diterpenoid isolated from liverworts, is reported to induce cell differentiation in AML cells. Interestingly, the unnatural enantiomer of jungermannenone C (1) was found to be more potent than jungermannenone C in inducing cell differentiation. Furthermore, compound 1 targets peroxiredoxins I and II by selectively binding to the conserved cysteine residues and leads to cellular reactive oxygen species accumulation. Accordingly, ent-jungermannenone C (1) shows potential for further investigation as an effective differentiation therapy against AML.

  18. A primary survey on bryophyte species reveals two novel classes of nucleotide-binding site (NBS genes.

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    Jia-Yu Xue

    Full Text Available Due to their potential roles in pathogen defense, genes encoding nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain have been particularly surveyed in many angiosperm genomes. Two typical classes were found: one is the TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL class and the other is the CC-NBS-LRR (CNL class. It is seldom known, however, what kind of NBS-encoding genes are mainly present in other plant groups, especially the most ancient groups of land plants, that is, bryophytes. To fill this gap of knowledge, in this study, we mainly focused on two bryophyte species: the moss Physcomitrella patens and the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, to survey their NBS-encoding genes. Surprisingly, two novel classes of NBS-encoding genes were discovered. The first novel class is identified from the P. patens genome and a typical member of this class has a protein kinase (PK domain at the N-terminus and a LRR domain at the C-terminus, forming a complete structure of PK-NBS-LRR (PNL, reminiscent of TNL and CNL classes in angiosperms. The second class is found from the liverwort genome and a typical member of this class possesses an α/β-hydrolase domain at the N-terminus and also a LRR domain at the C-terminus (Hydrolase-NBS-LRR, HNL. Analysis on intron positions and phases also confirmed the novelty of HNL and PNL classes, as reflected by their specific intron locations or phase characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis covering all four classes of NBS-encoding genes revealed a closer relationship among the HNL, PNL and TNL classes, suggesting the CNL class having a more divergent status from the others. The presence of specific introns highlights the chimerical structures of HNL, PNL and TNL genes, and implies their possible origin via exon-shuffling during the quick lineage separation processes of early land plants.

  19. Effect of Serjania lethalis ethanolic extract on weed control Efeito do extrato etanólico de Serjania lethalis no controle de plantas daninhas

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    P.U. Grisi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Serjania lethalis leaves and stems on the diaspore germination and seedling growth of wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli. The crude ethanolic extract was prepared from 100 g of dry plant material dissolved in 500 ml of ethanol. The extracts were solubilized in a buffer solution containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO at concentrations of 10.0, 7.5, 5.0 and 2.5 mg mL-1. The effect of these extracts was compared with herbicide oxyfluorfen in bioassays. The ethanolic extracts of S. lethalis leaves and stems inhibited the germination and seedling growth of barnyardgrass and wild poinsettia in a concentration-dependent manner. The reduction in the root length of E. heterophylla seedlings might be attributed to the reduced elongation of metaxylem cells. The phytotoxicity of the extracts ranged according to the receptor species, and for some variables, the inhibitory effect was similar, and even superior, to that of the commercial herbicide. Thus, S. lethalis extracts might be a promising alternative for sustainable weed management.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do extrato etanólico de folhas e caules de Serjania lethalis sobre a germinação dos diásporos e crescimento de plântulas de amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla e capim-arroz (Echinochloa crus-galli. O extrato bruto etanólico foi preparado na proporção de 100 g de material vegetal seco para 500 mL de etanol. A partir deste, os extratos foram solubilizados em solução tampão e dimetil sulfóxido (DMSO nas concentrações 10,0, 7,5, 5,0 e 2,5 mg mL-1. Nos bioensaios comparou-se o efeito desses extratos com o herbicida oxyfluorfen. Os extratos etanólicos de folhas e caules de S. lethalisexerceram atividade inibitória no processo de germinação e no crescimento das plântulas de capim-arroz e amendoim-bravo, com efeito dependente da concentra

  20. Eficácia de glyphosate em plantas de cobertura Efficacy of glyphosate in cover crops

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    P.C. Timossi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar a eficácia de três dosagens do herbicida glyphosate para a dessecação de Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu e vegetação espontânea, visando a adoção do sistema plantio direto. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com quatro repetições. Testaram-se três tipos de cobertura vegetal e três dosagens de glyphosate (1,44, 2,16 e 2,88 kg ha-1. Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA, foram feitas avaliações visuais da porcentagem de controle das coberturas vegetais e, aos 45 DAA, avaliações visuais da porcentagem de reinfestação da área. Conclui-se que, para as espécies que compunham a vegetação espontânea, o uso de 1,44 kg ha-1 proporcionou bom controle, sem no entanto evitar rebrotes de Digitaria insularis. Para as braquiárias, a mesma taxa de controle foi observada a partir de 2,16 kg ha-1. A camada de palha das braquiárias sobre o solo não foi capaz de suprimir a emergência de Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa e Euphorbia heterophylla.This work aimed to compare rates of glyphosate to desiccate Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu and spontaneous plants (weeds, aiming to adopt the no-tillage system. A randomized block experimental design in a factorial scheme was used (3x3, with four replications. The factors consisted of three species of cover crops and three rates of glyphosate (1.44, 2.16 and 2.88 kg ha-1. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application of the herbicide, visual evaluations of the percentage of cover crop control were carried out and at 45 days of the reinfestation percentage of the area. It was concluded that the spontaneous plants presented a good control at 1.44 kg ha-1, without, however, preventing Digitaria insularis sprouts. The same control rate starting at 2.16 kg ha-1 was observed for the Brachiaria species. The straw layer of these cover crops on the soil

  1. Cadastramento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas na cultura de girassol Phytosociological census of weeds in the sunflower crop

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    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento das plantas daninhas infestantes na précolheita da cultura de girassol em lavouras dos municípios do sudoeste goiano (Chapadão do Céu, Jataí e Montividiu e em Chapadão do Sul, MS. Foram amostradas, no período de maio a junho de 2002, 51 propriedades dos quatro municípios, totalizando uma área de 583 m². As espécies daninhas foram identificadas e contadas mediante a aplicação de um quadrado de 1,0x1,0 m, colocado ao acaso dentro da área ocupada pelas lavouras. Foram obtidos os valores de freqüência, densidade, abundância e índice de importância relativa. Plantas voluntárias de soja e de milho fazem parte da flora daninha infestante de lavouras de girassol dessa região. As famílias Poaceae, Asteraceae e Euphorbiaceae são as que apresentam maior número de espécies. As principais plantas daninhas infestantes na região são, em ordem decrescente, Ageratum conyzoides, Chamaesyce hirta, Cenchrus echinatus, Bidens sp., Euphorbia heterophylla e Commelina benghalensis.The objective of this work was to survey the weeds in the preharvest of the sunflower crop in growers field of the southwest regions of Goiás State (Chapadão do Céu, Jataí and Montividiu and Chapadão do Sul, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Fifty one farms were evaluated, during the period of May to June, 2002, in a total of 583 m² of area. The weeds were identified and counted inside a square (1.0x1.0 m, applied in each area, in order to determine the frequency, density, abundance and relative importance. Volunteer soybean (Glycine max and corn (Zea mays are part of the weed species in sunflower crop in the area. The botanical families Poaceae, Asteraceae and Euphorbiaceae present larger number of species. The main weeds found in the area are, in decreasing order, Ageratum conyzoides, Chamaesyce hirta, Cenchrus echinatus, Bidens sp., Euphorbia heterophylla and Commelina benghalensis.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Chloroplast psbD Promoters in Terrestrial Plants

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    Shuichi Shimmura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The transcription of photosynthesis genes encoded by the plastid genome is mainly mediated by a prokaryotic-type RNA polymerase called plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (PEP. Standard PEP-dependent promoters resemble bacterial sigma-70-type promoters containing the so-called -10 and -35 elements. On the other hand, an unusual light- and stress-responsive promoter (psbD LRP that is regulated by a 19-bp AAG-box immediately upstream of the -35 element has been mapped upstream of the psbD-psbC operon in some angiosperms. However, the occurrence of the AAG-box containing psbD LRP in plant evolution remains elusive. We have mapped the psbD promoters in eleven embryophytes at different evolutionary stages from liverworts to angiosperms. The psbD promoters were mostly mapped around 500–900 bp upstream of the psbD translational start sites, indicating that the psbD mRNAs have unusually long 5′-UTR extensions in common. The -10 elements of the psbD promoter are well-conserved in all embryophytes, but not the -35 elements. We found that the AAG-box sequences are highly conserved in angiosperms and gymnosperms except for gnetaceae plants. Furthermore, partial AAG-box-like sequences have been identified in the psbD promoters of some basal embryophytes such as moss, hornwort, and lycophyte, whereas liverwort has the standard PEP promoter without the AAG-box. These results suggest that the AAG-box sequences of the psbD LRP may have evolved from a primitive type of AAG-box of basal embryophytes. On the other hand, monilophytes (ferns use another type of psbD promoter composed of a distinct cis-element upstream of the potential -35 element. Furthermore, we found that psbD expression is not regulated by light in gymnosperms or basal angiosperms, although they have the well-conserved AAG-box sequences. Thus, it is unlikely that acquisition of the AAG-box containing psbD promoter is directly associated with light-induced transcription of the psb

  3. Changes in epiphyte communities as the shrub, Acer circinatum, develops and ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchty, A.M.; Rosso, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest tall shrub Acer circinatum (vine maple) can host diverse and abundant epiphyte communities. A chronosequence approach revealed that these communities gradually shift in composition as the shrub progresses through its life cycle. Different epiphytic life forms occupy different spatial and temporal niches on shrub stems. These life forms generally shift upwards along the shrub stem as the stem ages and develops, in accordance with the similar gradient hypothesis. We postulate the following sequence of events. An initial wave of colonization occurs as new substrate is laid down. Over time, superior competitors gradually engulf and overgrow competitively inferior primary colonizers. Concurrently, shrub stem microclimate changes as shrub stems grow, age, and layer, causing the processes of competition and colonization to shift in favor of different epiphytic life forms during different life stages of the shrub stem. We define four separate shrub stem life stages: life classes 1a??4 describe, respectively, young upright a??whipsa??; vigorous, upright, mature stems; declining stems beginning to bend towards the forest floor; and horizontal, decadent stems. As space on the shrub stem is filled through growth and colonization, interspecific competition intensifies. Successful competitors persist and spread, while poor competitors are increasingly restricted to the stem tips, where interspecific competition is less intense. In these forests, Usnea, green-algal foliose lichens, and moss tufts excel as the primary colonizers and become common on the outer portions of shrub stems over time, as long as the overstory is not too dense. Moss mats are also good primary colonizers, but excel as secondary colonizers, often coming to dominate decadent shrub stems. Although all life forms can be primary colonizers, the remaining forms (cyanolichens, liverworts, and Antitrichia curtipendula) are effective secondary colonizers. Liverworts are also effective

  4. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Carrara, Paul E.; Smith, Jane L.; Anne, Victoria; Johnson, Joni

    2010-03-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ˜12,900 cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400 cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (˜12,900 cal yr BP) was pine woodland ( Pinus contorta) with alder ( Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ˜12,240 cal yr BP, Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ˜11,200 cal yr BP, mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ˜10,180 cal yr BP, when western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ˜7100 cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  5. Tree species and soil nutrient profiles in old-growth forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Alison; Perakis, Steven S.

    2011-01-01

    Old-growth forests of the Pacific Northwest provide a unique opportunity to examine tree species – soil relationships in ecosystems that have developed without significant human disturbance. We characterized foliage, forest floor, and mineral soil nutrients associated with four canopy tree species (Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh)) in eight old-growth forests of the Oregon Coast Range. The greatest forest floor accumulations of C, N, P, Ca, Mg, and K occurred under Douglas-fir, primarily due to greater forest floor mass. In mineral soil, western hemlock exhibited significantly lower Ca concentration and sum of cations (Ca + Mg + K) than bigleaf maple, with intermediate values for Douglas-fir and western redcedar. Bigleaf maple explained most species-based differences in foliar nutrients, displaying high concentrations of N, P, Ca, Mg, and K. Foliar P and N:P variations largely reflected soil P variation across sites. The four tree species that we examined exhibited a number of individualistic effects on soil nutrient levels that contribute to biogeochemical heterogeneity in these ecosystems. Where fire suppression and long-term succession favor dominance by highly shade-tolerant western hemlock, our results suggest a potential for declines in both soil Ca availability and soil biogeochemical heterogeneity in old-growth forests.

  6. Spatially nonrandom tree mortality and ingrowth maintain equilibrium pattern in an old-growth Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, James A; Larson, Andrew J; Furniss, Tucker J; Donato, Daniel C; Freund, James A; Swanson, Mark E; Bible, Kenneth J; Chen, Jiquan; Franklin, Jerry F

    2014-08-01

    Mortality processes in old-growth forests are generally assumed to be driven by gap-scale disturbance, with only a limited role ascribed to density-dependent mortality, but these assumptions are rarely tested with data sets incorporating repeated measurements. Using a 12-ha spatially explicit plot censused 13 years apart in an approximately 500-year-old Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forest, we demonstrate significant density-dependent mortality and spatially aggregated tree recruitment. However, the combined effect of these strongly nonrandom demographic processes was to maintain tree patterns in a state of dynamic equilibrium. Density-dependent mortality was most pronounced for the dominant late-successional species, Tsuga heterophylla. The long-lived, early-seral Pseudotsuga menziesii experienced an annual stem mortality rate of 0.84% and no new recruitment. Late-seral species Tsuga and Abies amabilis had nearly balanced demographic rates of ingrowth and mortality. The 2.34% mortality rate for Taxus brevifolia was higher than expected, notably less than ingrowth, and strongly affected by proximity to Tsuga. Large-diameter Tsuga structured both the regenerating conspecific and heterospecific cohorts with recruitment of Tsuga and Abies unlikely in neighborhoods crowded with large-diameter competitors (P old-growth forests.

  7. Development and testing of a snow interceptometer to quantify canopy water storage and interception processes in the rain/snow transition zone of the North Cascades, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kael A.; Van Stan, John T.; Dickerson-Lange, Susan E.; Lutz, James A.; Berman, Jeffrey W.; Gersonde, Rolf; Lundquist, Jessica D.

    2013-06-01

    Tree canopy snow interception is a significant hydrological process, capable of removing up to 60% of snow from the ground snowpack. Our understanding of canopy interception has been limited by our ability to measure whole canopy water storage in an undisturbed forest setting. This study presents a relatively inexpensive technique for directly measuring snow canopy water storage using an interceptometer, adapted from Friesen et al. (2008). The interceptometer is composed of four linear motion position sensors distributed evenly around the tree trunk. We incorporate a trunk laser-mapping installation method for precise sensor placement to reduce signal error due to sensor misalignment. Through calibration techniques, the amount of canopy snow required to produce the measured displacements can be calculated. We demonstrate instrument performance on a western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) for a snow interception event in November 2011. We find a snow capture efficiency of 83 ± 15% of accumulated ground snowfall with a maximum storage capacity of 50 ± 8 mm snow water equivalent (SWE). The observed interception event is compared to simulated interception, represented by the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. The model generally underreported interception magnitude by 33% using a leaf area index (LAI) of 5 and 16% using an LAI of 10. The interceptometer captured intrastorm accumulation and melt rates up to 3 and 0.75 mm SWE h-1, respectively, which the model failed to represent. While further implementation and validation is necessary, our preliminary results indicate that forest interception magnitude may be underestimated in maritime areas.

  8. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

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    Xiao-Yan Song

    Full Text Available Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples, Laminaceae (10, Brassicaceae (12, Rosaceae (12, Moraceae (13, Rhamnaceae (15, Asteraceae (17, and Fabaceae (19. In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples, Robinia pseudoacacia (3, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2, Sophora japonica (1, Ailanthus altissima (1, Asteraceae type (1, and Fabaceae type (1. The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains, 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000, and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000. The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption.

  9. [Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase from Pseudostellariae Radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Long, Deng-Kai; Zhou, Tao; Ding, Ling; Zheng, Wei; Jiang, Wei-Ke

    2016-07-01

    Abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase was one of key enzymes genes in the metabolism of abscisic acid (ABA). Seven menbers of abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase were identified from Pseudostellaria heterophylla transcriptome sequencing results by using sequence homology. The expression profiles of these genes were analyzed by transcriptome data. The coding sequence of ABA8ox1 was cloned and analyzed by informational technology. The full-length cDNA of ABA8ox1 was 1 401 bp,with 480 encoded amino acids. The predicated isoelectric point (pI) and relative molecular mass (MW) were 8.55 and 53 kDa,respectively. Transmembrane structure analysis showed that there were 21 amino acids in-side and 445 amino acids out-side. High level of transcripts can detect in bark of root and fibrous root. Multi-alignment and phylogenetic analysis both show that ABA8ox1 had a high similarity with the CYP707As from other plants,especially with AtCYP707A1 and AtCYP707A3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. These results lay a foundation for molecular mechanism of tuberous root expanding and response to adversity stress. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Evidence for millennial-scale climate change during marine isotope stages 2 and 3 at Little Lake, Western Oregon, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, L.D.; Whitlock, C.; Dean, W.E.

    2001-01-01

    Pollen and geochemical data from Little Lake, western Oregon, suggest several patterns of millennial-scale environmental change during marine isotope stage (MIS) 2 (14,100-27,600 cal yr B.P.) and the latter part of MIS 3 (27,600-42,500 cal yr B.P.). During MIS 3, a series of transitions between warm- and cold-adapted taxa indicate that temperatures oscillated by ca. 2??-4??C every 1000-3000 yr. Highs and lows in summer insolation during MIS 3 are generally associated with the warmest and coldest intervals. Warm periods at Little Lake correlate with warm sea-surface temperatures in the Santa Barbara Basin. Changes in the strength of the subtropical high and the jet stream may account for synchronous changes at the two sites. During MIS 2, shifts between mesic and xeric subalpine forests suggest changes in precipitation every 1000-3000 yr. Increases in Tsuga heterophylla pollen at 25,000 and 22,000 cal yr B.P. imply brief warmings. Minimum summer insolation and maximum global ice-volumes during MIS 2 correspond to cold and dry conditions. Fluctuations in precipitation at Little Lake do not correlate with changes in the Santa Barbara Basin and may be explained by variations in the strength of the glacial anticyclone and the position of the jet stream. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  11. Begomoviruses infecting weeds in Cuba: increased host range and a novel virus infecting Sida rhombifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Martínez-Zubiaur, Yamila

    2012-01-01

    As a result of surveys conducted during the last few years to search for wild reservoirs of begomoviruses in Cuba, we detected a novel bipartite begomovirus, sida yellow mottle virus (SiYMoV), infecting Sida rhombifolia plants. The complete genome sequence was obtained, showing that DNA-A was 2622 nucleotides (nt) in length and that it was most closely related (87.6% nucleotide identity) to DNA-A of an isolate of sida golden mosaic virus (SiGMV) that infects snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Florida. The DNA-B sequence was 2600 nt in length and shared the highest nucleotide identity (75.1%) with corchorus yellow spot virus (CoYSV). Phylogenetic relationship analysis showed that both DNA components of SiYMoV were grouped in the Abutilon clade, along with begomoviruses from Florida and the Caribbean islands. We also present here the complete nucleotide sequence of a novel strain of sida yellow vein virus found infecting Malvastrum coromandelianum and an isolate of euphorbia mosaic virus that was found for the first time infecting Euphorbia heterophylla in Cuba.

  12. Tree host range and world distribution of the extomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, D H

    1977-03-01

    The natural occurrence of Pisolithus tinctorius has been confirmed in 33 countries of the world and in 38 states in the United States. This ectomycorrhizal fungus is found associated with various tree species in nurseries, urban areas, orchards, forests, and strip-mined spoils. Experiments have proved that this fungal symbiont forms ectomycorrhizae with Abies procera, Betula pendula, Carya illnoensis, 11 species of Eucalyptus, 30 species of Pinus, Pseudotsuga menziesii var. meniziesii, 2 species of Quercus, and Tsuga heterophylla. Pisolithus has also been reported growing under natural conditions in association with three additional species of Betula, two species of Eucalyptus, nine species of Pinus, and eight species of Quercus, Populus tremuloides, Pseudotsuga grandidenta, and Salix humilis. This fungal symbiont has great potential in forestation efforts because of (1) the availability of practical techniques for artificially introducing in into nursery soils; (2) its ability to improve tree survival and growth in the nursery and the field; (3) its near worldwide distribution on a variety of sites; and (4) its broad host range encompassing many of the world's most important tree species.

  13. Tree-ring stable isotopes record the impact of a foliar fungal pathogen on CO(2) assimilation and growth in Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffell, Brandy J; Meinzer, Frederick C; Voelker, Steven L; Shaw, David C; Brooks, J Renée; Lachenbruch, Barbara; McKay, Jennifer

    2014-07-01

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a fungal disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) that has recently become prevalent in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest. We used growth measurements and stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in tree-rings of Douglas-fir and a non-susceptible reference species (western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla) to evaluate their use as proxies for variation in past SNC infection, particularly in relation to potential explanatory climate factors. We sampled trees from an Oregon site where a fungicide trial took place from 1996 to 2000, which enabled the comparison of stable isotope values between trees with and without disease. Carbon stable isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C) of treated Douglas-fir tree-rings was greater than that of untreated Douglas-fir tree-rings during the fungicide treatment period. Both annual growth and tree-ring Δ(13)C increased with treatment such that treated Douglas-fir had values similar to co-occurring western hemlock during the treatment period. There was no difference in the tree-ring oxygen stable isotope ratio between treated and untreated Douglas-fir. Tree-ring Δ(13)C of diseased Douglas-fir was negatively correlated with relative humidity during the two previous summers, consistent with increased leaf colonization by SNC under high humidity conditions that leads to greater disease severity in following years. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Seletividade e eficácia de controle de plantas daninhas pela associação entre óleo fúsel e herbicidas em cana-de-açúcar Selectivity and weed control efficacy of fusel oil and herbicide association in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Pizzo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a seletividade da associação de óleo fúsel e herbicidas sobre cana-de-açúcar, cultivar IAC93-3046, e a eficácia de controle sobre as espécies Panicum maximum, Amaranthus deflexus, Ipomoea quamoclit, Brachiaria decumbens e Euphorbia heterophylla. O experimento foi instalado no Centro de Cana do Instituto Agronômico, localizado em Ribeirão Preto-SP, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com 10 tratamentos e quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas de seis linhas de cana-de-açúcar com 4 m de comprimento, espaçadas de 1,50 m (36 m², sendo metade semeada com plantas daninhas, para avaliação de controle, e a outra metade mantida no limpo, para avaliação da seletividade. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por herbicidas e sua associação com o óleo fúsel, sendo diuron+hexazinone (1.170+330 g ha-1; diuron+hexazinone (1.170+330 g ha-1 + óleo fúsel (25,0 L ha-1; diuron+hexazinone (819+231 g ha-1 + óleo fúsel (25,0 L ha-1; metribuzin (1.920 g ha-1; metribuzin (1.920 g ha-1 + óleo fúsel (25,0 L ha-1; metribuzin (1.344 g ha-1 + óleo fúsel (25,0 L ha-1; amicarbazone (1.400 g ha-1; amicarbazone (1.400 g ha-1 + óleo fúsel (25,0 L ha-1; amicarbazone (980 g ha-1 + óleo fúsel (25,0 L ha-1 e ausência de herbicidas. A aplicação dos tratamentos foi realizada com equipamento costal pressurizado e volume de calda correspondente a 250 L ha-1, em pós-emergência da cultura (30 cm e plantas daninhas (até 20 cm. Os herbicidas diuron+hexazinone, metribuzin e amicarbazone isolados foram eficazes no controle de todas as espécies, mas, em dose completa e 70% da dose associados com óleo fúsel, não apresentaram controle satisfatório apenas às espécies I. quamoclit e E. heterophylla. Esses mesmos tratamentos foram seletivos ao cultivar IACSP 93-3046, ao comparar com a testemunha as variáveis altura, estande, diâmetro e produção de colmos, assim como aos atributos qualitativos

  15. Comparisons between conventional, ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted methods for extraction of anthraquinones from Heterophyllaea pustulata Hook f. (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera Vázquez, M F; Comini, L R; Martini, R E; Núñez Montoya, S C; Bottini, S; Cabrera, J L

    2014-03-01

    This work reports a comparative study about extraction methods used to obtain anthraquinones (AQs) from stems and leaves of Heterophyllae pustulata Hook (Rubiáceae). One of the conventional procedures used to extract these metabolites from a vegetable matrix is by successive Soxhlet extractions with solvents of increasing polarity: starting with hexane to eliminate chlorophylls and fatty components, following by benzene and finally ethyl acetate. However, this technique shows a low extraction yield of total AQs, and consumes large quantities of solvent and time. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) have been investigated as alternative methods to extract these compounds, using the same sequence of solvents. It was found that UAE increases the extraction yield of total AQs and reduces the time and amount of solvent used. Nevertheless, the combination UAE with benzene, plus MAE with ethyl acetate at a constant power of 900 W showed the best results. A higher yield of total AQs was obtained in less time and using the same amount of solvent that UAE. The optimal conditions for this latter procedure were UAE with benzene at 50 °C during 60 min, followed by MAE at 900 W during 15 min using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Free-living ciliates from epiphytic tank bromeliads in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Ramírez, Carlos Alberto; García-Franco, José Guadalupe; Foissner, Wilhelm; Mayén-Estrada, Rosaura

    2015-02-01

    The ciliate diversity of Mexican bromeliads is poorly known. We studied the ciliate community of two species of epiphytic tank bromeliads from 48 individuals of Tillandsia heterophylla and four of T. prodigiosa. The bromeliads occurred on over 22 tree host species. Samples were collected during 2009 and 2010 in a mountain cloud forest and in two coffee plantations and in a pine-oak forest. The ciliates were identified in live and protargol preparations. We recorded 61 ciliate species distributed in 39 genera grouped in eight classes. Ten species were frequent in the 52 samples (20 ± 3.2) and Leptopharynx bromeliophilus was the most frequent recorded in 25 samples. Thirty-three species are new for the fauna of Mexico, 24 species have been recorded for the first time in tank bromeliads. The classes Spirotrichea, Oligohymenophorea and Colpodea presented the highest number of species, 16, 14, and 12, respectively. Colpoda was the most species-rich genus being present with six species. A low similarity between areas and seasons was obtained with Jaccard's index. We conclude that the two bromeliads species host a rich ciliate diversity whose knowledge contributes to the question of ciliate distribution and specifically, in tank bromeliads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec., a gonostomatid ciliate (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) with de novo originating dorsal kineties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissner, Wilhelm; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec. was discovered in the tanks of the Mexican bromeliad Tillandsia heterophylla. Its morphology, ontogenesis, and 18S rDNA were studied with standard methods. Cotterillia has many cirral rows on both sides of the body. Uniquely, and thus used to diagnose the new genus Cotterillia, it has dorsal kineties originating de novo, producing neokinetal waves where the parental dorsal kineties reorganize to "combined rows", consisting of dorsal bristles anteriorly and of cirri posteriorly. Thus, up to four generations of bristles and cirri occur on the dorsal body surface. Cotterillia bromelicola has a gonostomatid body and adoral zone of membranelles, while the dense ciliature and the neokinetal waves resemble kahliellid hypotrichs. However, the de novo origin of anlage 1 and the molecular analyses show convincingly that Cotterillia belongs to the GonostomatidaeSmall and Lynn, 1985, for which an improved diagnosis is provided. Thus, neokinetal waves originated several times independently. The molecular differences between Trachelostyla, Gonostomum, and Cotterillia are small (≤ 5%) compared to their distinct morphologies and ontogeneses, suggesting that the 18S rDNA underestimates generic diversity. Our study emphasizes the need of combined morphological, ontogenetic, and molecular investigations to unravel the complex phylogeny and evolution of hypotrich ciliates. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Absorção e utilização do fósforo pelas culturas da soja e do feijão e por plantas daninhas Absorption and use of phosphorus by soybean and common bean crops and by weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de Oliveira Procópio

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de fertilizantes pode, em determinadas situações, beneficiar mais as plantas daninhas do que as próprias culturas. O manejo de fertilizantes em sistemas agrícolas pode ser um importante componente em programas de manejo integrado das culturas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência na absorção e utilização do P pelas culturas da soja e do feijão e por espécies de plantas daninhas. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, no período de agosto a novembro de 2002. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com três repetições; os tratamentos originaram-se de esquema fatorial 6 x 4, sendo seis espécies vegetais: soja (Glycine max, feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, dois biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla (suscetível e resistente aos herbicidas inibidores de ALS, Bidens pilosa e Desmodium tortuosum; e quatro doses de P (0,00 12,00; 24,00 e 48,00 mg dm-3, aplicadas na semeadura sob a forma de superfosfato simples. A soja foi a espécie que revelou maior aumento na sua massa seca de raízes com o incremento do fornecimento de P. D. tortuosum, soja e B. pilosa apresentaram maior resposta à adição de doses crescentes de P em relação ao acúmulo de massa seca. O maior teor de P foi constatado para o feijão, independente da dose de P aplicada, contudo D. tortuosum foi a única espécie a ter seu teor de P aumentado em quase três vezes, quando cultivado com o dobro da dose aplicada (48,00 mg dm-3, com base nas necessidades da cultura do feijão. Até a avaliação realizada no início do florescimento, as plantas de soja e D. tortuosum foram as espécies que acumularam a maior quantidade de P em seus tecidos, porém, durante a fase reprodutiva foi D. tortuosum a qual, juntamente com feijão, apresentaram variações quanto à eficiência de suas raízes em absorver P, de acordo com a dose desse nutriente, enquanto as demais espécies mantiveram a mesma eficiência radicular

  19. Evaluation of the antimicrobial potential of two flavonoids isolated from limnophila plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Mandal, Narayan C; Jash, Shyamal K; Roy, Rajiv; Mandal, Lalan C; Mukhopadhyay, Arijit; Behera, Biswajit; Majhi, Sasadhar; Mondal, Avijit; Gangopadhyay, Arindam

    2011-06-01

    The antimicrobial potential of two bioflavonoids, i.e., 5,7-dihydroxy-4',6,8-trimethoxyflavone (1) and 5,6-dihydroxy-4',7,8-trimethoxyflavone (2), isolated from Limnophila heterophylla Benth. and L. indica (Linn.) Druce (Scrophulariaceae), respectively, were evaluated against the microbial strains Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Alternaria solani, and Candida albicans. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate but broad antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and also against the fungal pathogens. Moreover, the mechanism of action of 1 and 2 on the cellular functions or structures of some of the microorganisms was studied. Compound 1 showed a bactericidal effect against E. coli and S. aureus (MICs of 200 and 250 μg/ml, resp.), while compound 2 was found to effectively kill B. subtilis by cell lysis. The growth of A. solani and C. albicans was inhibited by compounds 1 and 2, respectively. The effects of the flavonoids on the cellular structures and the carbohydrate metabolic pathways were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the treated cells and by assessing the specific activity of key enzymes of the pathways, respectively. At sublethal doses, they enhanced the activity of gluconeogenic fructose bisphosphatase, but decreased the activity of phosphofructokinase and isocitrate dehydrogenase, the key enzymes of the EmbdenMeyerhofParnas pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  20. Characterization of terpenoid volatiles from cultivars of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagalante, Anthony F; Montgomery, Michael E; Calvosa, Frank C; Mirzabeigi, Michael N

    2007-12-26

    The volatile terpenoid fraction from needles in 13 cultivars of Tsuga canadensis L. (Carriere) was analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of this study are considered along with previously reported results for foliar terpenoid levels of the Asian (T. sieboldii, T. chinensis, T. diversifolia), western North American (T. mertensiana, T. heterophylla), and eastern North American species (T. canadensis, T. caroliniana) of hemlock to draw conclusions about the potential of cultivar host resistance to the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand). It is suggested that hemlocks in eastern North America have adapted their terpenoid chemistry for protection against endemic defoliators and that this has made them vulnerable to non-native, sucking pests such as adelgids and scales. Some cultivars of T. canadensis have a terpenoid profile that resembles that of the resistant noneastern North American species and are candidates for biological screening for resistance. Among the cultivars, the variation in terpenoid chemistry did not absolutely correspond with the considerable differences in morphological characters observed, indicating that the terpenoid chemistry is not definitively coupled with hemlock morphology.

  1. Vegetation mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (south-west Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Ahmadreza; Naqinezhad, Alireza; Mahiny, Abdolrassoul Salman; Mostafavi, Hossein; Liaghati, Homan; Kouchekzadeh, Mohsen

    2009-03-01

    Arid regions of the world occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions, vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of arid regions is necessary and modern vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps. Sixteen map units covering 12 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata, Salicornia europaea-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced.

  2. Geographical influences on content of 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid in royal jelly in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wen-Ting; Hu, Yuan-Qiang; Zheng, Huo-Qing; Cao, Lian-Fei; Hu, Fu-Liang; Hepburn, H Randall

    2013-10-01

    The content of 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), a marker compound in royal jelly (RJ), is the most important criterion in grading RJ for commercial trade and varies with its origin. To identify the effect of geographical origin on 10-HDA content in RJ, 138 samples were collected from 19 provinces of China (divided into three groups) produced by either Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, 1806 or a hybrid of A. m. ligustica and Apis mellifera carnica Pollman, 1879 and analyzed for moisture, sugar, crude protein, ash, acid, and 10-HDA concentration. The results show that RJ from western China has a significantly higher 10-HDA level (2.01 +/- 0.05%) than those from northeastern (1.87 +/- 0.05%) and eastern (1.75 +/- 0.03%) China. RJ secreted by hybrid bees contained more 10-HDA (1.89 +/- 0.03%) than that secreted by A. m. ligustica (1.78 +/- 0.03%). The 10-HDA content of RJ produced during flowering of rape (Brassica campestris L.), lime (Tilia amurensis Ruprecht), and vitex (Vitex negundo L. variety heterophylla (Franch.) Rehder) was 1.92, 1.80, and 1.68%, respectively. The results would be helpful during the process of price determination of RJ by providing some basis of geographical, bee strain, and botanical information for commercial trade.

  3. Building Resilience into Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. Forests in Scotland in Response to the Threat of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Cameron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that a warming climate will have an impact on the future productivity of European spruce forests. In Scotland, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. dominates the commercial forestry sector and there is growing pressure to develop alternative management strategies to limit potential economic losses through climate change. This review considers management options to increase the resilience of Sitka spruce dominated forests in Scotland. Given the considerable uncertainty over the potential long-term impacts of climate change, it is recommended that Sitka spruce should continue to be planted where it already grows well. However, new planting and restocking should be established in mixtures where silviculturally practicable, even if no-thin regimes are adopted, to spread future risks of damage. Three potentially compatible species with Sitka spruce are western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg., grand fir (Abies grandis (Lamb. Lindl. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and all form natural mixtures in its native range in North America. The predicted windier climate will require a range of management inputs, such as early cutting of extraction racks and early selective thinning, to improve stability. The potential to improve resilience to particularly abiotic damage through transforming even-aged stands into irregular structures and limiting the overall size of the growing stock is discussed.

  4. Levantamento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol Phytosociological survey of weeds in sunflower crop

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    F.S Adegas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O levantamento fitossociológico da comunidade de plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol foi realizado em duas épocas distintas: no desenvolvimento inicial da cultura (entre 20 e 40 dias após a semeadura e na pré-colheita do girassol. As espécies de plantas daninhas foram identificadas e quantificadas pelo método do quadrado inventário (1,0 x 1,0 m, com amostragem de 12 m² por área. Os levantamentos foram realizados em 54 propriedades de seis municípios da região do cerrado e em 38 propriedades de oito municípios da região dos pampas, que são as duas principais regiões produtoras brasileiras. Foram registrados a frequência, a frequência relativa, a densidade, a densidade relativa, a abundância, a abundância relativa, o índice de importância relativa e o índice de similaridade. No total, foram identificadas 60 espécies de plantas daninhas, sendo 17 presentes em ambas as regiões. Asteraceae e Poaceae foram as duas principais famílias, entre as 16 encontradas. As principais espécies presentes no cerrado foram Euphorbia heterophylla, Chamaesyce hirta, Ageratum conyzoides, Commelina benghalensis, Zea mays e Bidens sp. As principais espécies presentes no Rio Grande do Sul foram Bidens sp., Raphanus raphanistrum, Lolium multiflorum, Gnaphalium spicatum, Sonchus oleraceus, Euphorbia heterophylla, Sida rhombifolia, Digitaria sp. e Ipomea sp. A densidade das plantas daninhas foi maior na fase de pré-colheita do que no desenvolvimento inicial da cultura, em ambas as regiões, sendo de 30,84 plantas m-2 e 23,58 plantas m-2, respectivamente, para o cerrado, e de 23,19 plantas m-2e 21,41 plantas m-2, para o Rio Grande do Sul. O índice de similaridade dentro das regiões foi de 0,91 para os levantamentos do cerrado e de 0,79 para os do Rio Grande do Sul. Entretanto, entre as regiões, os índices ficaram abaixo de 0,5, mostrando similaridade mediana entre a flora daninha do cerrado e a do Rio Grande do Sul, na cultura do girassol

  5. Light brown apple moth in California: a diversity of host plants and indigenous parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Levy, Karmit; Mills, Nicholas J; Daane, Kent M

    2012-02-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), an Australia native tortricid, was found in California in 2006. A field survey of host plants used by E. postvittana was conducted in an urban region of the San Francisco Bay Area. An inspection of 152 plant species (66 families), within a 23-ha residential community, found E. postvittana on 75 species (36 families). Most (69 species) host plants were not Australian natives, but had a wide geographic origin; 34 species were new host records for E. postvittana. Heavily infested species were the ornamental shrubs Myrtus communis L., Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) W.T. Aiton, Euonymus japonicus Thunb., and Sollya heterophylla Lindl. To survey for parasitoids, four urban locations were sampled, with E. postvittana collected from five commonly infested plants [M. communis, P. tobira, E. japonicus, Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Genista monspessulana (L.) L.A.S. Johnson]. Twelve primary parasitoid species and two hyperparasitoids were reared; the most common were the egg parasitoid Trichogramma fasciatum (Perkins), the larval parasitoids Meteorus ictericus Nees, and Enytus eureka (Ashmead), and the pupal parasitoid Pediobius ni Peck. Meteorus ictericus accounted for >80% of the larval parasitoids, and was recovered from larvae collected on 39 plant species. Across all samples, mean parasitism was 84.4% for eggs, 43.6% for larvae, and 57.5% for pupae. The results are discussed with respect to the potential for resident parasitoid species to suppress E. postvittana populations.

  6. Phytotoxicity of leaf aqueous extract of Rapanea umbellata (Mart. Mez (Primulaceae on weeds - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.16166

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    Paula Novaes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic substances can be used to develop weed control alternatives based on natural products. The objective of this study was to compare the phytotoxic activity of aqueous leaf extracts of Rapanea umbellata with the toxicity of a synthetic herbicide on the germination and growth of weed species. The weeds species barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli, wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla and morning glory (Ipomoea grandifolia were used. The effects of the aqueous leaf extract of R. umbellata at concentrations of 10% and 5% (g mL-1 were compared to the control (distilled water and to the synthetic herbicide oxyfluorfen. The average weed germination time was significantly lower (p < 0.05 in control than in extract and herbicide treatments. The herbicide had more significant effects than the extract on the initial growth of the aerial part. However, the initial growth of the root part was significantly more affected by the leaf extract than by the herbicide. The extract also caused many disorders in weed root anatomy. Therefore, the leaf aqueous extract of R. umbellata showed important results that indicate that it should be bioprospected and that its allelochemicals should be purified for the discovery of natural-origin herbicides.

  7. Review of potential environmental impacts of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B; Spadotto, Claudio A

    2007-01-01

    Transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) have been commercialized and grown extensively in the Western Hemisphere, including Brazil. Worldwide, several studies have shown that previous and potential effects of glyphosate on contamination of soil, water, and air are minimal, compared to those caused by the herbicides that they replace when GRS are adopted. In the USA and Argentina, the advent of glyphosate-resistant soybeans resulted in a significant shift to reduced- and no-tillage practices, thereby significantly reducing environmental degradation by agriculture. Similar shifts in tillage practiced with GRS might be expected in Brazil. Transgenes encoding glyphosate resistance in soybeans are highly unlikely to be a risk to wild plant species in Brazil. Soybean is almost completely self-pollinated and is a non-native species in Brazil, without wild relatives, making introgression of transgenes from GRS virtually impossible. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil is related to weed resistance. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. These include Chamaesyce hirta (erva-de-Santa-Luzia), Commelina benghalensis (trapoeraba), Spermacoce latifolia (erva-quente), Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca), and Ipomoea spp. (corda-de-viola). Four weed species, Conyza bonariensis, Conyza Canadensis (buva), Lolium multiflorum (azevem), and Euphorbia heterophylla (amendoim bravo), have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil and have great potential to become problems.

  8. Therapeutic potential of bryophytes and derived compounds against cancer

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    Abhijit Dey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bryophytes, taxonomically placed between the algae and the pteridophytes, are divided into three classes such as Liverworts, Hornworts and Mosses. Indigenous use involves this small group of plants to treat various diseases. Bryophytes have been investigated pharmacologically for active biomolecules. Several constituents with therapeutic potential have been isolated, characterized and investigated for antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidative, antiinflamatory and anticancerous efficacy. The present review deals with the literature covering the anticancerous potential of bryophytes. Apart from the examples of the compounds and the containing bryophyte genera, the authors have tried to include the examples of cancer cell lines on which the efficacy have been tested and the mode of action of certain cytotoxic agents. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from bryophytes were found to possess potent cytotoxic properties. Different types of terpenoids and bibenzyls have been reported among the most potent cytotoxic compounds. Most of these compounds were found to induce apoptosis by activating a number of genes and enzymes. Biochemical markers such as DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, proteolysis of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase, activation of caspases, inhibition of antiapoptotic nuclear transcriptional factor-kappaB, activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase etc. have been found to be associated with apoptotic and necrotic response. This review summarizes recent scientific findings and suggests further investigations to evaluate the cytotoxic efficacy of bryophytes.

  9. Total flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province (China: Phylogeny and ecological factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available The flavonoids in bryophytes may have great significance in phylogeny and metabolism research. However, to date there has been little research on bryophyte metabolites, especially flavonoids. To redress this somewhat, we determined flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain through a colorimetric assay and considered the factors influencing the results. This is the first time that the flavonoid contents of bryophytes have been examined in detail. The results revealed a range of total flavonoid concentrations in 90 samples collected from Tianmu Mountain from 1.8 to 22.3 mg/g (w/w. The total flavonoid contents of liverworts were generally higher than those of mosses; acrocarpous mosses had generally higher values than that of pleurocarpous mosses. The total flavonoid contents of bryophytes growing at lower light levels were general higher than those growing in full-sun. The total flavonoid contents of epiphytic bryophytes were highest, while those of aquatic bryophytes were the lowest. Total flavonoid contents of species growing at low-latitudes were much higher than those at high-latitude individuals. In conclusion, total flavonoid contents of bryophytes have some connection with plant phylogeny; more flavonoids might be contained in relatively primitive bryophytes. Meanwhile, the effects of ecological factors on total flavonoid contents of bryophytes exist; light and habitat (especially tree habitat and river habitat might be representative factor.

  10. Identification, expression, and taxonomic distribution of alternative oxidases in non-angiosperm plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimanis, Karina; Staples, James F; Hüner, Norman P A; McDonald, Allison E

    2013-09-10

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a terminal ubiquinol oxidase present in the respiratory chain of all angiosperms investigated to date, but AOX distribution in other members of the Viridiplantae is less clear. We assessed the taxonomic distribution of AOX using bioinformatics. Multiple sequence alignments compared AOX proteins and examined amino acid residues involved in AOX catalytic function and post-translational regulation. Novel AOX sequences were found in both Chlorophytes and Streptophytes and we conclude that AOX is widespread in the Viridiplantae. AOX multigene families are common in non-angiosperm plants and the appearance of AOX1 and AOX2 subtypes pre-dates the divergence of the Coniferophyta and Magnoliophyta. Residues involved in AOX catalytic function are highly conserved between Chlorophytes and Streptophytes, while AOX post-translational regulation likely differs in these two lineages. We demonstrate experimentally that an AOX gene is present in the moss Physcomitrella patens and that the gene is transcribed. Our findings suggest that AOX will likely exert an influence on plant respiration and carbon metabolism in non-angiosperms such as green algae, bryophytes, liverworts, lycopods, ferns, gnetophytes, and gymnosperms and that further research in these systems is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Abscisic acid (ABA) and key proteins in its perception and signaling pathways are ancient, but their roles have changed through time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmilch, Frances C; Atallah, Nadia M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Banks, Jo Ann; McAdam, Scott A M

    2017-09-02

    Homologs of the Arabidopsis core abscisic acid (ABA) signaling component OPEN STOMATA1 (OST1) are best known for their role in closing stomata in angiosperm species. We recently characterized a fern OST1 homolog, GAMETOPHYTES ABA INSENSITIVE ON ANTHERDIOGEN 1 (GAIA1), which is not required for stomatal closure in ferns, consistent with physiologic evidence that shows the stomata of these plants respond passively to changes in leaf water status. Instead, gaia1 mutants reveal a critical role in ABA signaling for spore dormancy and sex determination, in a system regulated by antagonism between ABA and the gibberellin (GA)-derived fern hormone antheridiogen (A CE ). ABA and key proteins, including ABA receptors from the PYR/PYL/RCAR family and negative regulators of ABA-signaling from Group A of the type-2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), in addition to OST1 homologs, can be found in all terrestrial land plant lineages, ranging from liverworts that lack stomata, to angiosperms. As land plants have evolved and diversified over the past 450 million years, so too have the roles of this important plant hormone and the genes involved in its signaling and perception.

  12. Dero (Allodero lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925 (Anura: Hylidae from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil

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    FH. Oda

    Full Text Available Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A. lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A. lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species.

  13. Quantification of complex modular architecture in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb, Catherine; Kaandorp, Jaap; Jansson, Fredrik; Puillandre, Nicolas; Dubuisson, Jean-Yves; Cornette, Raphaël; Jabbour, Florian; Coudert, Yoan; Patiño, Jairo; Flot, Jean-François; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2018-04-01

    Morphometrics, the assignment of quantities to biological shapes, is a powerful tool to address taxonomic, evolutionary, functional and developmental questions. We propose a novel method for shape quantification of complex modular architecture in thalloid plants, whose extremely reduced morphologies, combined with the lack of a formal framework for thallus description, have long rendered taxonomic and evolutionary studies extremely challenging. Using graph theory, thalli are described as hierarchical series of nodes and edges, allowing for accurate, homologous and repeatable measurements of widths, lengths and angles. The computer program MorphoSnake was developed to extract the skeleton and contours of a thallus and automatically acquire, at each level of organization, width, length, angle and sinuosity measurements. Through the quantification of leaf architecture in Hymenophyllum ferns (Polypodiopsida) and a fully worked example of integrative taxonomy in the taxonomically challenging thalloid liverwort genus Riccardia, we show that MorphoSnake is applicable to all ramified plants. This new possibility of acquiring large numbers of quantitative traits in plants with complex modular architectures opens new perspectives of applications, from the development of rapid species identification tools to evolutionary analyses of adaptive plasticity. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. DNA barcoding, ecology and geography of the cryptic species of Aneura pinguis and their relationships with Aneura maxima and Aneura mirabilis (Metzgeriales, Marchantiophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bączkiewicz, Alina; Szczecińska, Monika; Sawicki, Jakub; Stebel, Adam; Buczkowska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Aneura pinguis is a thalloid liverwort species with broad geographical distribution. It is composed of cryptic species, however, the number of cryptic species within A. pinguis is not known. Five cpDNA regions (matK, rbcL, rpoC1, trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF) and the entire nuclear ITS region were studied in 130 samples of A. pinguis from different geographical regions. The relationships between the cryptic species of A. pinguis, A. maxima and A. mirabilis were analyzed. All of the examined samples were clustered into 10 clades corresponding to 10 cryptic species of A. pinguis (marked A to J). Aneura mirabilis and A. maxima were nested among different cryptic species of A. pinguis, which indicates that A. pinguis is a paraphyletic taxon. Subgroups were found in cryptic species A, B, C and E. As single barcodes, all tested DNA regions had 100% discriminant power and fulfilled DNA barcode criteria for species identification; however, the only combination detected in all subgroups was trnL-trnF with trnH-psbA or ITS2. The distances between cryptic species were 11- to 35-fold higher than intraspecific distances. In all analyzed DNA regions, the distances between most pairs of cryptic A. pinguis species were higher than between A. maxima and A. mirabilis. All cryptic species of A. pinguis clearly differed in their habitat preferences, which suggests that habitat adaptation could be the main driving force behind cryptic speciation within this taxon.

  15. Volatile compounds in cryptic species of the Aneura pinguis complex and Aneura maxima (Marchantiophyta, Metzgeriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Rafał; Wasiak, Wiesław; Bączkiewicz, Alina; Buczkowska, Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Aneura pinguis is one of the liverwort species complexes that consist of several cryptic species. Ten samples collected from different regions in Poland are in the focus of our research. Eight of the A. pinguis complex belonging to four cryptic species (A, B, C, E) and two samples of closely related species Aneura maxima were tested for the composition of volatile compounds. The HS-SPME technique coupled to GC/FID and GC/MS analysis has been applied. The fiber coated with DVB/CAR/PDMS has been used. The results of the present study, revealed the qualitative and quantitative differences in the composition of the volatile compounds between the studied species. Mainly they are from the group of sesquiterpenoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The statistical methods (CA and PCA) showed that detected volatile compounds allow to distinguish cryptic species of A. pinguis. All examined cryptic species of the A. pinguis complex differ from A. maxima. Species A and E of A. pinguis, in CA and PCA, form separate clusters remote from two remaining cryptic species of A. pinguis (B and C) and A. maxima. Relationship between the cryptic species appeared from the chemical studies are in accordance with that revealed on the basis of DNA sequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microtubule dynamics of the centrosome-like polar organizers from the basal land plant Marchantia polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Henrik; Holtmannspötter, Michael; Borchers, Agnes; O'Donoghue, Martin-Timothy; Zachgo, Sabine

    2016-02-01

    The liverwort Marchantia employs both modern and ancestral devices during cell division: it forms preprophase bands and in addition it shows centrosome-like polar organizers. We investigated whether polar organizers and preprophase bands cooperate to set up the division plane. To this end, two novel green fluorescent protein-based microtubule markers for dividing cells of Marchantia were developed. Cells of the apical notch formed polar organizers first and subsequently assembled preprophase bands. Polar organizers were formed de novo from multiple mobile microtubule foci localizing to the nuclear envelope. The foci then became concentrated by bipolar aggregation. We determined the comet production rate of polar organizers and show that microtubule plus ends of astral microtubules polymerize faster than those found on cortical microtubules. Importantly, it was observed that conditions increasing polar organizer numbers interfere with preprophase band formation. The data show that polar organizers have much in common with centrosomes, but that they also have specialized features. The results suggest that polar organizers contribute to preprophase band formation and in this way are involved in controlling the division plane. Our analyses of the basal land plant Marchantia shed new light on the evolution of plant cell division. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Arabinogalactan proteins occur in the free-living cyanobacterium genus Nostoc and in plant-Nostoc symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Owen; Taylor, Oliver; Adams, David G; Knox, J Paul

    2012-10-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) are a diverse family of proteoglycans associated with the cell surfaces of plants. AGP have been implicated in a wide variety of plant cell processes, including signaling in symbioses. This study investigates the existence of putative AGP in free-living cyanobacterial cultures of the nitrogen-fixing, filamentous cyanobacteria Nostoc punctiforme and Nostoc sp. strain LBG1 and at the symbiotic interface in the symbioses between Nostoc spp. and two host plants, the angiosperm Gunnera manicata (in which the cyanobacterium is intracellular) and the liverwort Blasia pusilla (in which the cyanobacterium is extracellular). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated that three AGP glycan epitopes (recognized by monoclonal antibodies LM14, MAC207, and LM2) are present in free-living Nostoc cyanobacterial species. The same three AGP glycan epitopes are present at the Gunnera-Nostoc symbiotic interface and the LM2 epitope is detected during the establishment of the Blasia-Nostoc symbiosis. Bioinformatic analysis of the N. punctiforme genome identified five putative AGP core proteins that are representative of AGP classes found in plants. These results suggest a possible involvement of AGP in cyanobacterial-plant symbioses and are also suggestive of a cyanobacterial origin of AGP.

  18. A Genetic and Chemical Perspective on Symbiotic Recruitment of Cyanobacteria of the Genus Nostoc into the Host Plant Blasia pusilla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Liaimer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Liverwort Blasia pusilla L. recruits soil nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria of genus Nostoc as symbiotic partners. In this work we compared Nostoc community composition inside the plants and in the soil around them from two distant locations in Northern Norway. STRR fingerprinting and 16S rDNA phylogeny reconstruction showed a remarkable local diversity among isolates assigned to several Nostoc clades. An extensive web of negative allelopathic interactions was recorded at an agricultural site, but not at the undisturbed natural site. The cell extracts of the cyanobacteria did not show antimicrobial activities, but four isolates were shown to be cytotoxic to human cells. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were mapped by MALDI-TOF MS, and the most prominent ions were further analysed by Q-TOF for MS/MS aided identification. Symbiotic isolates produced a great variety of small peptide-like substances, most of which lack any record in the databases. Among identified compounds we found microcystin and nodularin variants toxic to eukaryotic cells. Microcystin producing chemotypes were dominating as symbiotic recruits but not in the free-living community. In addition, we were able to identify several novel aeruginosins and banyaside-like compounds, as well as nostocyclopeptides and nosperin.

  19. The importance of ecological constraints on the control of multi-species treeline dynamics in eastern Nunavik, Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour-Tremblay, Geneviève; De Vriendt, Laurent; Lévesque, Esther; Boudreau, Stéphane

    2012-10-01

    Treelines are temperature-sensitive ecotones that should be able to expand in response to global warming; however, they are also controlled by ecological constraints. These constraints can create bottlenecks for tree regeneration, hindering treeline advances. Near Kangiqsualujjuaq (Nunavik, subarctic Québec), previous studies suggested successful recruitment of Larix laricina above the altitudinal treeline, while Picea mariana establishment remains scarce. We studied regeneration of both species to identify factors responsible for such contrasting responses. • We measured seeds and wings to evaluate species dispersal potential. We compared seed viability and tolerance to shrub leachates with germination trials. To evaluate seedbed preferences, we compared seedling occurrence on the different seedbeds with seedbed relative abundance in the field. • Seed germination was similar between L. laricina and P. mariana, whereas dispersal potential was higher for the latter. Germination of P. mariana seeds was more strongly inhibited by shrub leachates than were L. laricina seeds. In the field, we found only a few Picea seedlings, but numerous seedlings of Larix had established disproportionally on several seedbeds. While Betula glandulosa, mosses, and Vaccinium uliginosim impeded Larix establishment, numerous seedlings were found on lichens, mineral soil, and liverworts. The low occurrence of suitable seedbeds for Picea, mainly mineral soil, could explain the seedling scarcity of this species. • This study highlighted that allelopathy and unsuitable seedbeds could contribute to regeneration failure of P. mariana in eastern Nunavik and emphasizes the need to consider ecological preferences of species before predicting treeline expansion under a warmer climate.

  20. The origin and evolution of phototropins

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    Fay-Wei eLi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant phototropism, the ability to bend toward or away from light, is predominantly controlled by blue-light photoreceptors, the phototropins. Although phototropins have been well-characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, their evolutionary history is largely unknown. In this study, we complete an in-depth survey of phototropin homologs across land plants and algae using newly available transcriptomic and genomic data. We show that phototropins originated in an ancestor of Viridiplantae (land plants + green algae. Phototropins repeatedly underwent independent duplications in most major land-plant lineages (mosses, lycophytes, ferns, and seed plants, but remained single-copy genes in liverworts and hornworts—an evolutionary pattern shared with another family of photoreceptors, the phytochromes. Following each major duplication event, the phototropins differentiated in parallel, resulting in two specialized, yet partially overlapping, functional forms that primarily mediate either low- or high-light responses. Our detailed phylogeny enables us to not only uncover new phototropin lineages, but also link our understanding of phototropin function in Arabidopsis with what is known in Adiantum and Physcomitrella (the major model organisms outside of flowering plants. We propose that the convergent functional divergences of phototropin paralogs likely contributed to the success of plants through time in adapting to habitats with diverse and heterogeneous light conditions.

  1. Inter- and interspecific serological relationships in Pellia epiphylla complex

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    Aleksandra Wojnicka-Półtorak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antigenic proteins were used as markers for the study of relationships between three liverwort species from P. epiphylla complex. It has recently been shown that the electrophoretic phenotypes of this species suggested an amphiploid origin of P. borealis. Two sibling species: P. epiphylla -species S and -species N could have probably represented the parental species for P. borealis. We examined three clones of P. borealis from different localities using immunodiffusion. Then we compared them with P. epiphylla species S and N as well as with the mixture of proteins of P. epiphylla S and N samples. The results indicate that polyploid P. borealis shows an identical immunological pattern to that of the mixture of proteins of putative parental species. Only in one case the result resembled much more the pattern of P. epiphylla S proteins. The sibling species P. epiphylla S and N showed antigenic difference but the nature of the differences requires further studies. Antigenic pro-perties of proteins from P. epiphylla S and N and of their allopolyploid - P. borealis, indicated some specifity of the protein spectrum in each of the parental species and intermediate character of proteins in the polyploid forms.

  2. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Yume; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2011-10-22

    The Lepidoptera represent one of the most successful radiations of plant-feeding insects, which predominantly took place within angiosperms beginning in the Cretaceous period. Angiosperm colonization is thought to underlie the evolutionary success of the Lepidoptera because angiosperms provide an enormous range of niches for ecological speciation to take place. By contrast, the basal lepidopteran lineage, Micropterigidae, remained unassociated with angiosperms since Jurassic times but nevertheless achieved a modest diversity in the Japanese Archipelago. We explored the causes and processes of diversification of the Japanese micropterigid moths by performing molecular phylogenetic analysis and extensive ecological surveying. Phylogenetic analysis recovered a monophyletic group of approximately 25 East Asian endemic species that feed exclusively on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, suggesting that niche shifts hardly played a role in their diversification. Consistent with the low flying ability of micropterigid moths, the distributions of the Conocephalum specialists are each localized and allopatric, indicating that speciation by geographical isolation has been the major process shaping the diversity of Japanese Micropterigidae. To our knowledge, this is the largest radiation of herbivorous insects that does not accompany any apparent niche differentiation. We suggest that the significance of non-ecological speciation during the diversification of the Lepidoptera is commonly underestimated.

  3. Biostimulation of inoculation with Glomus proliferum and application of humic acid in the in vitro growth of Lunularia cruciata

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    Camila Pinheiro Nobre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the growth of the liverwort Lunularia cruciata, inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF Glomus proliferum (15 spores per Petri dish, in Strullu-Romand Variant (SRV medium modified and enriched with humic acid (HA at different concentrations (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg C L−1, as well as the sporulation of the AMF. We assessed the absolute growth rate (AGR and relative growth rate (RGR at inoculation, as well as at 7, 14, 21, 28, 43, 52 and 60 days after inoculation (DAI, whereas we assessed sporulation at 25, 43, 60 and 70 DAI. The main determinant of L. cruciata growth was the presence of AMF. With and without G. proliferum inoculation, respectively, the AGR peaked at 39 and 42 DAI, and the RGR was 0.0474 and 0.0387 cm² cm−2 d−1. Doses of 20 and 80 mg C L−1 of HA had a positive influence on the growth of L. cruciata. With and without HA, respectively, the AGR peaked at 38 and 39 DAI, and the RGR was 0.0484 and 0.0422 cm² cm−2 d−1. The sporulation of G. proliferum, which was as high as 199 spores plate−1, was influenced by HA, especially at 20 and 80 mg C L−1.

  4. The Mechanism Forming the Cell Surface of Tip-Growing Rooting Cells Is Conserved among Land Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Suvi; Jones, Victor A S; Morieri, Giulia; Champion, Clement; Hetherington, Alexander J; Kelly, Steve; Proust, Hélène; Saint-Marcoux, Denis; Prescott, Helen; Dolan, Liam

    2016-12-05

    To discover mechanisms that controlled the growth of the rooting system in the earliest land plants, we identified genes that control the development of rhizoids in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. 336,000 T-DNA transformed lines were screened for mutants with defects in rhizoid growth, and a de novo genome assembly was generated to identify the mutant genes. We report the identification of 33 genes required for rhizoid growth, of which 6 had not previously been functionally characterized in green plants. We demonstrate that members of the same orthogroup are active in cell wall synthesis, cell wall integrity sensing, and vesicle trafficking during M. polymorpha rhizoid and Arabidopsis thaliana root hair growth. This indicates that the mechanism for constructing the cell surface of tip-growing rooting cells is conserved among land plants and was active in the earliest land plants that existed sometime more than 470 million years ago [1, 2]. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Atractiellomycetes belonging to the ‘rust’ lineage (Pucciniomycotina) form mycorrhizae with terrestrial and epiphytic neotropical orchids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottke, Ingrid; Suárez, Juan Pablo; Herrera, Paulo; Cruz, Dario; Bauer, Robert; Haug, Ingeborg; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2010-01-01

    Distinctive groups of fungi are involved in the diverse mycorrhizal associations of land plants. All previously known mycorrhiza-forming Basidiomycota associated with trees, ericads, liverworts or orchids are hosted in Agaricomycetes, Agaricomycotina. Here we demonstrate for the first time that Atractiellomycetes, members of the ‘rust’ lineage (Pucciniomycotina), are mycobionts of orchids. The mycobionts of 103 terrestrial and epiphytic orchid individuals, sampled in the tropical mountain rainforest of Southern Ecuador, were identified by sequencing the whole ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and part of 28S rDNA. Mycorrhizae of 13 orchid individuals were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Simple septal pores and symplechosomes in the hyphal coils of mycorrhizae from four orchid individuals indicated members of Atractiellomycetes. Molecular phylogeny of sequences from mycobionts of 32 orchid individuals out of 103 samples confirmed Atractiellomycetes and the placement in Pucciniomycotina, previously known to comprise only parasitic and saprophytic fungi. Thus, our finding reveals these fungi, frequently associated to neotropical orchids, as the most basal living basidiomycetes involved in mycorrhizal associations of land plants. PMID:20007181

  6. Bryological exploration: field-trip based learning to develop competencies of science teacher candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisanti; Astriani, D.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was analyze the competencies of science teacher candidate after the bryological exploration. The intended competence of science teacher candidate was the ability to apply the concept and science ability to explore plant diversity that could be found around the environment.This field trip was conducted by exploring liverworts, hornworts, and mosses as well. This descriptive research was conducted during March until April 2017 at Universitas Negeri Surabaya (UNESA) and Sumber Brantas Arboretum in Malang, as the location of exploration. The subjects of this study were 76 candidate of teachers from science educations department, which is divided into three classes. The competences observed on this study were describing, identifying, collecting specimens, furthermore. The research instruments were observation sheets, product assessment sheets, and response questionnaire. The data were analyzed descriptive-quantitatively, in percentage and then categorized. The results of this study indicated that: the describing skill was categorized as ‘good’ identifying skill and collecting bryophytes was categorized as ‘very good’ and communicating skills was categorized ‘good’. In addition, the teacher candidates gave a very good response to field-trip-based learning. It can be concluded that the bryological exploration can develop the competences of science teacher candidates of Science Education Department of UNESA.

  7. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

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    Yordanka G. Hristeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type, mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The recorded bryophytes species refer to 7 families and 12 genera. The most frequently distributed species was Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw. Warnst., followed by Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw. Spruce and Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw. Dixon, Brachythecium rivulare Schimp. and Hygroamblystegium tenax (Hedw. Jenn. The recorded 60 species of vascular plants refer to 25 families and 43 genera. The most common hydrophyte species was Lemna minor L., followed by Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix, Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Potamogeton nodosus Poir. The most abundant species from the group of helophytes and amphiphytes was Mentha aquatica L., followed by Agrostis stolonifera L. Mentha spicata L., Berula erecta (Huds. Coville, Juncus effusus L., Lycopus europaeus L., Lythrum salicaria L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Ranunculus repens L., Sparganium erectum L., Typha latifolia L., and Veronica anagalis-aquatica L. The majority of studied rivers sites were sunny, with moderate velocity, stony bottom, average depth up to 0.3 m and altitude between 100 and 500 m a.s.l.

  8. Methylobacteria isolated from bryophytes and the 2-fold description of the same microbial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, S; Kutschera, U

    2013-02-01

    On the surface of healthy land plants (embryophytes), numerous non-pathogenic bacteria have been discovered and described. Among these epiphytic microbes, pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic microbes of the genus Methylobacterium are of special significance, because these microorganisms consume methanol emitted via the stomatal pores and secrete growth-promoting phytohormones. Methylobacterium funariae, Schauer and Kutschera 2011, a species isolated in our lab from the common cord moss, described as a nova species in this journal, was recently characterized for a second time as a "new taxon" under a different name, "M. bullatum." Based on a phylogenetic analysis, we show that these taxa are identical. In addition, we provide novel information on the exact cell size, and describe the correct type locality of this bacterial species, which was classified as a phytosymbiont. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis that certain methylobacteria may preferentially colonize bryophytes. With reference to our recent discovery that thalli of ferns form, like liverworts and moss protonemata, associations with methylobacteria, we argue that the haploid phase of cryptogames are preferred host organisms of these pink-pigmented microbial phytosymbionts.

  9. Bryophytes and revegetation of coal spoils in southern Iowa. [14 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvey, K.; Farrar, D.R.; Glenn-Lewin, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Strip mining of coal in southern Iowa has left many scattered areas of coal spoils which provide a type of habitat unique to the region. The occurrence and distribution of 29 mosses and 2 liverworts on these spoils was determined and related to the general process of spoil revegetation. The spoil bryophyte flora was compared with Conard's (1956) list of bryophytes for the region. An increase in per cent cover and in species diversity of bryophytes was observed with increasing age of spoils, and was correlated with increased vascular plant cover. Dicranella heteromalla and Ceratodon purpureus were found to be common throughout the spoils, whereas all other species were limited to more protected sites, especially on north-facing slopes. Mosses did not appear to colonize very exposed areas on the spoils, but were limited to areas with some protection provided, especially by vascular plants. Several disjunct or highly localized moss populations were found including one new state record and thirteen new county records.

  10. Bryophytes from Tuxedni Wilderness area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    The bryoflora of two small maritime islands, Chisik and Duck Island (2,302 ha), comprising Tuxedni Wilderness in western lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, was examined to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. The field study was conducted from sites selected to represent the totality of environmental variation within Tuxedni Wilderness. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare the bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 286 bryophytes were identified: 230 mosses and 56 liverworts. Bryum miniatum, Dichodontium olympicum, and Orthotrichum pollens are new to Alaska. The annotated list of species for Tuxedni Wilderness expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Central Pacific Coast district. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Tuxedni Wilderness primarily includes taxa of boreal (61%), montane (13%), temperate (11%), arctic-alpine (7%), cosmopolitan (7%), distribution; 4% of the total moss flora are North America endemics. A brief summary of the botanical exploration of the general area is provided, as is a description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types of Chisik and Duck Islands.

  11. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  12. Ecology and functional roles of biological soil crusts in semi-arid ecosystems of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Cantón, Yolanda; Castillo-Monroy, Andrea P.; Cortina, Jordi; Escolar, Cristina; Escudero, Adrián; Lázaro, Roberto; Martínez, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs), composed of lichens, cyanobacteria, mosses, liverworts and microorganisms, are key biotic components of arid and semi-arid ecosystems worldwide. Despite they are widespread in Spain, these organisms have been historically understudied in this country. This trend is beginning to change as a recent wave of research has been identifying BSCs as a model ecological system. Many studies and research projects carried out in Spain have explored the role of BSCs on water, carbon and nitrogen fluxes, the interactions between BSCs and vascular plants, their dynamics after disturbances, and their response to global change, among other topics. In this article we review the growing body of research on BSCs available from semi-arid areas of Spain, highlighting its importance for increasing our knowledge on this group of organisms. We also discuss how it is breaking new ground in emerging research areas on the ecology of BSCs, and how it can be use to guide management and restoration efforts. Finally, we provide directions for future research on the ecology of BSCs in Spain and abroad. PMID:25908884

  13. A Genetic and Chemical Perspective on Symbiotic Recruitment of Cyanobacteria of the Genus Nostoc into the Host Plant Blasia pusilla L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaimer, Anton; Jensen, John B.; Dittmann, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Liverwort Blasia pusilla L. recruits soil nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria of genus Nostoc as symbiotic partners. In this work we compared Nostoc community composition inside the plants and in the soil around them from two distant locations in Northern Norway. STRR fingerprinting and 16S rDNA phylogeny reconstruction showed a remarkable local diversity among isolates assigned to several Nostoc clades. An extensive web of negative allelopathic interactions was recorded at an agricultural site, but not at the undisturbed natural site. The cell extracts of the cyanobacteria did not show antimicrobial activities, but four isolates were shown to be cytotoxic to human cells. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were mapped by MALDI-TOF MS, and the most prominent ions were further analyzed by Q-TOF for MS/MS aided identification. Symbiotic isolates produced a great variety of small peptide-like substances, most of which lack any record in the databases. Among identified compounds we found microcystin and nodularin variants toxic to eukaryotic cells. Microcystin producing chemotypes were dominating as symbiotic recruits but not in the free-living community. In addition, we were able to identify several novel aeruginosins and banyaside-like compounds, as well as nostocyclopeptides and nosperin. PMID:27847500

  14. Light-induced modification of plant plasma membrane ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, I; Deeken, R; Hedrich, R; Roelfsema, M R G

    2010-09-01

    Light is not only the driving force for electron and ion transport in the thylakoid membrane, but also regulates ion transport in various other membranes of plant cells. Light-dependent changes in ion transport at the plasma membrane and associated membrane potential changes have been studied intensively over the last century. These studies, with various species and cell types, revealed that apart from regulation by chloroplasts, plasma membrane transport can be controlled by phytochromes, phototropins or channel rhodopsins. In this review, we compare light-dependent plasma membrane responses of unicellular algae (Eremosphaera and Chlamydomonas), with those of a multicellular alga (Chara), liverworts (Conocephalum), mosses (Physcomitrella) and several angiosperm cell types. Light-dependent plasma membrane responses of Eremosphaera and Chara are characterised by the dominant role of K(+) channels during membrane potential changes. In most other species, the Ca(2+)-dependent activation of plasma membrane anion channels represents a general light-triggered event. Cell type-specific responses are likely to have evolved by modification of this general response or through the development of additional light-dependent signalling pathways. Future research to elucidate these light-activated signalling chains is likely to benefit from the recent identification of S-type anion channel genes and proteins capable of regulating these channels.

  15. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae): loss of an inverted repeat region and comparative analysis with related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhen; Ma, Ji; Yang, Bingxian; Li, Ruyi; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Lianli; Tian, Jingkui; Zhang, Lin

    2014-05-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae) is a domestic variety of yew species in local China. This plant is one of the sources for paclitaxel, which is a promising antineoplastic chemotherapy drugs during the last decade. We have sequenced the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of T. chinensis var. mairei. The T. chinensis var. mairei cp genome is 129,513 bp in length, with 113 single copy genes and two duplicated genes (trnI-CAU, trnQ-UUG). Among the 113 single copy genes, 9 are intron-containing. Compared to other land plant cp genomes, the T. chinensis var. mairei cp genome has lost one of the large inverted repeats (IRs) found in angiosperms, fern, liverwort, and gymnosperm such as Cycas revoluta and Ginkgo biloba L. Compared to related species, the gene order of T. chinensis var. mairei has a large inversion of ~110kb including 91 genes (from rps18 to accD) with gene contents unarranged. Repeat analysis identified 48 direct and 2 inverted repeats 30 bp long or longer with a sequence identity greater than 90%. Repeated short segments were found in genes rps18, rps19 and clpP. Analysis also revealed 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and almost all are composed of A or T. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Patterns of bryophyte diversity in arable fields of Lithuania

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    Danguolė Andriušaitytė

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research data on bryophyte diversity in arable land throughout the territory of Lithuania. The bryoflora was analyzed regarding systematic structure and morphological forms, life-history strategies, mode of reproduction and frequency of species. Bryophyte diversity in arable fields of Lithuania was compared with that of Slovakia and the British Isles, which are positioned in different geographical regions of Europe. A total of 97 species of bryophytes of 25 families and 48 genera were ascertained. Dominance of acrocarpous mosses and thalloid liverworts, high representation of Pottiaceae, Bryaceae, Mielichhoferiaceae and Ricciaceae families as well as Bryum, Dicranella, Pohlia and Riccia genera, wide distribution of annual shuttles and ephemeral colonists, high reproduction effort of the species (frequent sporophytes and asexual propagules were specific features of the bryophytes of the studied habitats as a result of adaptations to regular disturbances. The distribution of species into six frequency groups seemed to be uneven. The most abundant group of species with the lowest frequency (1–3 records covered 53.6% of all species. The group contained about 90% of all many-year potential life span species recorded in the habitat. Species with short life span were distributed quite evenly throughout frequency groups. No regionally-specific species were ascertained in the studied habitat. Most of arable-land-specific species recorded in Lithuania is distributed throughout different regions of Europe.

  17. Major new sources of biological ice nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, B. F.; Hill, T.; Henderson-Begg, S. K.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all research on biological ice nucleation has focussed on a limited number of bacteria. Here we characterise several major new sources of biogenic ice nuclei. These include mosses, hornworts, liverworts and cyanobacteria. Ice nucleation in the eukaryotic bryophytes appears to be ubiquitous. The temperature at which these organisms nucleate is that at which the difference in vapour pressure over ice and water is at or close to its maximum. At these temperatures (-8 to -18 degrees C) ice will grow at the expense of supercooled water. These organisms are dependent for their water on occult precipitation - fog, dew and cloudwater which by its nature is not collected in conventional rain gauges. Therefore we suggest that these organism produce ice nuclei as a water harvesting mechanism. Since the same mechanism would also drive the Bergeron-Findeisen process, and as moss is known to become airborne, these nuclei may have a role in the initiation of precipitation. The properties of these ice nuclei are very different from the well characterised bacterial nuclei. We will also present DNA sequence data showing that, although related, the proteins responsible are only very distantly related to the classical bacterial ice nuclei.

  18. Efeito da densidade e da distância de caruru-de-mancha e amendoim-bravo na cultura do feijoeiro Effect of the density and distance of slender amaranth and milkweed on the common bean (Phaseolus vulgari

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    A.A.M. Barroso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência causada pelo caruru-demancha (Amaranthus viridis e amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla, em função das densidades e distâncias, no feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar Pérola. Como recipientes, foram utilizadas caixas de cimento-amianto, com capacidade para 50 litros, preenchidas com LatossoloVermelho-Escuro. As mudas foram formadas em bandejas de 128 células preenchidas com substrato hortícola; quando as plântulas atingiram o estádio V2, foram transplantadas para as caixas, sendo as de feijoeiro numa linha central, reproduzindo a semeadura em campo, e as das plantas daninhas nas densidades de 8, 16 e 32 plantas m-2, distanciadas de 0, 12 e 24 cm das plantas de feijão e igualmente entre si. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 3x3+2T, com quatro repetições, constituindo as parcelas experimentais. Foram avaliadas características de crescimento e de produtividade da cultura e das plantas daninhas. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F, e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. Observou-se que as plantas daninhas obtiveram maior desenvolvimento quando em maior distância da cultura. O caruru-de-mancha causou reduções no número de vagens e na produtividade estimada do feijoeiro. Para o caruru-de-mancha, o aumento da densidade só causou redução na produtividade da cultura quando as plantas estavam distanciadas em pelo menos 12 cm. A 0 cm, o feijoeiro tornou-se mais competitivo e não sofreu interferência das plantas daninhas, independentemente da densidade destas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference caused by Slender amaranth (Amaranthus viridis and Milkweed (Euphorbia heterophylla at different densities and distances in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pérola. The experiment was carried out using asbestos cement boxes

  19. Crescimento e esporulação de Bipolaris euphorbiae cultivado sob diferentes condições nutricionais Growth and sporulation of Bipolaris euphorbiae cultivated under different nutritional conditions

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    Mara Cristina Penariol

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de ser considerado um potencial bioagente de controle do amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla L. em cultivos de soja no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as características nutricionais do fungo Bipolaris euphorbiae Muchovej & Carvalho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes fontes de carbono (glicose, amido, sacarose, lactose e maltose, de nitrogênio (nitrato de sódio, nitrato de amônio, sulfato de amônio, fosfato de amônio dibásico, cloreto de amônio, de fósforo (fosfato de potássio monobásico, fosfato de potássio bibásico, fosfato de cálcio, fosfato de sódio, ácido fosfórico, fosfato de amônio e a suplementação do meio de cultivo com fontes orgânicas de macro e micronutrientes, para o crescimento e a esporulação de B. euphorbiae. O amido proporcionou o maior crescimento, sendo também considerada a fonte de carbono mais favorável para a esporulação. O melhor crescimento e esporulação de B. euphorbiae foram obtidos usando o nitrato de sódio como fonte de nitrogênio e fosfato de potássio monobásico e fosfato de cálcio como fonte de fósforo, embora as demais fontes de fósforo analisadas, exceto o ácido fosfórico, tenham igualmente favorecido a esporulação. A suplementação do meio de cultivo com peptona e extrato de levedura resultou em melhor crescimento e esporulação do fungo e a adição de vitaminas favoreceu a produção de conídios.Bipolaris euphorbiae Muchovej & Carvalho is considered a potential bioagent for control of selvage peanuts (Euphorbia heterophylla L. on soybean crops in Brazil. However, little is known about the nutritional characteristics of this fungus. The main objective of this research was to evaluate different sources of carbon (glucose, starch, sucrose, lactose and maltose, of nitrogen (sodium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, bi-basic ammonium phosphate, ammonium chloride, of phosphorus (monobasic potassium phosphate, bi-basic potassium phosphate

  20. Efeito da prevenção de produção de sementes pelas plantas daninhas e da aplicação de herbicida em jato dirigido na densidade de infestação na cultura do milho em anos sucessivos Effect of weed seed production prevention and 10-year herbicide direct spray on weed density in corn during sucessive years

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    F. Skóra Neto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento com dez anos de duração foi realizado em Ponta Grossa-PR para avaliar o efeito da prevenção de produção de sementes pelas plantas daninhas e da aplicação de herbicida em jato dirigido na densidade de infestação em plantios direto e convencional. As plantas daninhas predominantes na área foram capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea, capim-colchão (Digitaria ciliaris, amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla, poaia-branca (Richardia brasiliensis e guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia. O controle da frutificação das plantas daninhas durante dez anos reduziu a densidade das espécies presentes em mais de 99%. A redução foi variável entre as espécies, mas em todas elas foi mais intensa nos primeiros anos. A densidade populacional em anos subseqüentes, quando se permitia a reinfestação da área após o controle inicial das plantas daninhas (testemunha, variou conforme as condições climáticas e culturais. A aplicação de herbicida em jato-dirigido foi uma prática eficiente no controle da frutificação das plantas daninhas suscetíveis aos herbicidas, mas selecionou o capim-colchão quando o controle desta espécie foi insatisfatório. A equação que descreve o comportamento dos tratamentos sem ressemeadura e com jato dirigido foi do tipo exponencial negativa. Os resultados obtidos por meio da densidade de plantas emergidas são confirmados pela avaliação do banco de sementes em cada tratamento.A ten-year corn field experiment was conducted at Ponta Grossa (Parana, Brazil to evaluate the effect of weed seed production prevention and herbicide direct spray on weed density in successive years, under two different tillage treatments (conventional and no-till. The main weeds in the area were Alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea, crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris, wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla, pusley (Richardia brasiliensis and arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia. The prevention of weed seed production during ten years

  1. Comportamento do herbicida metribuzin, aplicado isolado e em mistura com outros herbicidas, no controle de plantas daninhas em cafeeiros novos por dois anos consecutivos Effect of metribuzin, sprayed alone or in mixture with another herbicides, for weed control on young coffee trees, during two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S.P. Cruz

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Para se conhecer o comportamento do herbicida metribuzin, aplicado isolaso ou em mistura com outros herbicidas residuais (napropamide, pendimethalin, alchlor, oryzalin e diuron no controle de plantas daninhas que comumente infestam cafeeiros em formação, foi conduzido um experimento de campo onde esse herbicida a 0,28; 0,42; 0,56 e 0,70 kg/ha em mistura com napropamide a 4,00 kg/ha pendimethalin a 1,00 kg/ha, alachlor a 2,40kg/ha, oryzalin a 1,50 kg/ha ou com diuron a 1,20 kg/ha, comparado com duas testemunhas , onde, em uma, o mato foi mantido a níveis não competitivos com a cultura, por meios mecânicos, e outra onde o mato foi deixado desenvolver-se naturalmente, sem nenhuma interferência. Foi incluído também um tratamento com diuron a 1,20 kg/ha. A infestação natural de plantas daninhas da área do experimento era formada pelas gramínas, capim-de-colçhão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop, capim - marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link. Hitch capim-pé-de-galinha (Elcusine indica (L. Gaertn., Capim-favorito (Rhynchelitrum roseum (Nees Stapf eet Hubb, e pelas dicotiledôneas beldroega (Portulaca oleracea L., picão-branco (Galinsoga parviflora Cav., caruru-de-mancha (Amarantus virides L., amendoim bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla L., picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., mentruz (Lepidium virginicum L., quebra-pedra (Phyllantus cordovadensis, Muell Arg. e falsa-serralha (Emilia sachifolia DC. Os resultados dos dois anos foram semelhantes para cada tratamento. Metribuzin a 0,28 kg/ha em mistura com napropamide a 4,00 kg/ha, apresentam períodos de ação maior, seguidos da mistura de metribuzin, naquela mesma dose, com oryzalin a 1,50 kg/ha. Não foi contatado a presença de qualquer sintoma de intoxicação nos cafeeiros, em todos os tratamentos, até a última observação, realizada 210 dias após a segunda aplicação dos herbicidas.This paper reports on two years field trials carried out in Araras, SP, Brazil, on coffee tress with twenty

  2. DISTRIBUSI HUTAN BAKAU DI LAGUNA PANTAI SELATAN YOGYAKARTA (Mangrove Distribution at the Lagoons in the Southern Coast of Yogyakarta

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    Tjut Sugandawaty Djohan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Kehadiran sisa hutan bakau di laguna Bogowonto, pantai selatan Yogyakarta menunjukkan bahwa pada masa lalu laguna tersebut didominasi oleh hutan bakau, sehingga penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari kehadiran vegetasi bakau di laguna-laguna dan muara sungai di pantai selatan tersebut. Ada empat laguna di pantai Selatan Yogyakarta, laguna Bogowonto, Serang, Progo, Opak, dan satu muara sungai, Kali Baron. Laguna tersebut merupakan laguna internitten, artinya pada musim kemarau, mulut sungainya tertutup gumuk pasir dan laguna didominasi oleh perairan tawar dan merupakan ekosistem tergenang. Sebaliknya di musim hujan mulut sungai terbuka, laguna bersifat sebagai ekosistem pasang surut. Data vegetasi dicuplik dengan menggunakan kuadrat plot berukuran 10m x 20m dengan ulangan dua kali. Kuadrat plot ditempatkan pada pusat distribusi mangrovenya, yang dipilih mulai dari rawa burit ke arah muara sungai. Tekstur tanah, hara tanah, salinitas air dan hara air juga dikaji. Kehadiran hutan bakau di laguna dibatasi oleh tekstur tanah. Tekstur pasir, 60-99 %, mendominasi laguna Serang, Progo, Opak dan muara kali Baron. Komunitas bakau hanya ditemukan di laguna Bogowonto, yang tersusun atas 5 jenis bakau, Sonneratia alba, Nypa fruticans, Acanthus ilicifolius, Acrosticum sp., dan Derris heterophylla, dan dua jenis spesies peralihan, Pandanus sp. dan Cynodon dactylon. Pola distribusi komunitasnya mengelompok (clump, mempunyai tipe riverine mangrove,dan tidak membentuk zonasi. Sonneratia hadir mulai dari muara sungai sampai di rawa burit. Ketika air surut salinitas berkisar antara 0-6,5 %. Nypa hanya ditemukan satu kelompok di kaki gumuk. Distribusi Sonneratia tidak ditentukan oleh tinggi genangan, akan tetapi tinggi pneumatophor mengikuti pola tinggi genangan air. Di laguna Bogowonto, spesies bakau tidak mempunyai zonasi dan beradaptasi pada sistem ekologinya.   ABSTRACT  The presence of mangrove remnant at the lagoon of Bogowonto River in the southern

  3. Uso do novo sistema Clearfield® na cultura do girassol para o controle de plantas daninhas dicotiledóneas Use of the new Clearfield® system in sunflower culture to control dicotyledonous weeds

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    G. Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de plantas daninhas dicotiledóneas tem limitado o aumento da área de cultivo de girassol no Brasil, devido ao seu impacto sobre a produtividade. Isso se deve à escassez de produtos registrados para a cultura com amplo espectro de ação. Em razão disso, desenvolveram-se dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de herbicidas do grupo das imidazolinonas aplicados em pós-emergência de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas na cultura do girassol Clearfield®. Os experimentos foram instalados no campo, em Iguatemi, distrito de Maringá-PR. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de duas testemunhas sem aplicação de herbicida, sendo uma sem capina e outra capinada, sulfentrazone (200,00 g ha-1 aplicado em pré-emergência e imazapic+imazapyr aplicados em pós-emergência nas doses de [36,75+12,25], [52,5+17,5], [12,25+36,75] e [17,5+52,5] g ha-1. Foram feitas avaliações de controle para Euphorbia heterophylla, Conyza bonariensis, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa, Ipomoea grandifolia e Portulaca oleracea. Também foram realizadas avaliações de intoxicação do girassol Clearfield®, estande e produtividade em kg ha-1. De acordo com os resultados, verificou-se que o uso do sistema Clearfield® mostrou-se uma ótima opção para áreas com infestação de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas, pois possibilita a aplicação de herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS; os controles obtidos variaram de medianos a excelentes, além de ele não provocar injúrias à cultura e manter o estande inicial e a produtividade.The occurrence of dicotyledonous weeds has limited the increase of the area of sunflower cultivation in Brazil, due to their impact on crop yield. This is a result of a shortage of products registered for the crop with broad-spectrum control. Thus, two experiments were installed to evaluate the efficacy and selectivity of the imidazolinone herbicides applied on post

  4. Atividade relativa da catalase de losna-branca (Parthenium hysterophorus comparada à de outras espécies daninhas Catalase relative activity of ragweed (Parthenium hysterophorus compared to that of other weed species

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    S.J.P. Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade relativa da catalase em extrato aquoso de losna-branca (Parthenium hysterophorus, bem como comparála à atividade da catalase de outras espécies daninhas. O trabalho constou de três fases, que envolveram a padronização do método, comparação da atividade relativa da catalase de plantas da família Asteraceae e comparação com outras 11 espécies daninhas, sendo estas: Euphorbia heterophylla, Alternanthera tenella, Cenchrus echinatus, Panicum maximum, Amaranthus viridis, Ipomoea hederifolia, Galinsoga parviflora, Bidens pilosa, Sonchus oleraceus, Cyperus rotundus e Commelina benghalensis. Observou-se resposta linear crescente da reação entre extrato aquoso de losna-branca e peróxido de hidrogênio, em razão da concentração do extrato vegetal. Em todas as fases, a atividade relativa da catalase de extrato de losna-branca foi superior à atividade da catalase das demais espécies daninhas. Com os dados obtidos nas três fases, conclui-se que a maior atividade relativa observada para a catalase da losnabranca contribui significativamente para a tolerância dessa espécie ao herbicida paraquat. Essa maior atividade pode ser consequência da maior concentração enzimática nas células ou devido à maior atividade intrínseca da enzima (afinidade enzima-substrato, havendo necessidade de estudos mais precisos para essa conclusão.This work was carried out to evaluate catalase relative activity of ragweed (Parthenium hysterophorus aqueous extract, as well as to compare it with catalase activity of other weed species. It consisted of three phases, involving method standardization, comparison of the catalase relative activity in Asteraceae family plants and that of ragweed catalase activity with the following 11 weed species: Euphorbia heterophylla, Alternanthera tenella, Cenchrus echinatus, Panicum maximum, Amaranthus viridis, Ipomoea hederifolia, Galinsoga parviflora

  5. OCORRÊNCIA DE PLANTAS DANINHAS NA CULTURA DO MILHO (Zea mays L. EM SUCESSÃO A CULTURAS DE SAFRINHA NO SISTEMA PLANTIO DIRETO WEEDS IN THE DOUBLE CROPPING WITH CORN (Zea mays L. UNDER NO-TILLAGE

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    Antônio Pasqualetto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Objetivou-se avaliar a ocorrência de espécies daninhas na cultura do milho após diversas culturas de safrinha, no sistema plantio direto. As culturas de safrinha foram milho, soja, milheto, girassol, sorgo, aveia e guandu. As plantas daninhas foram avaliadas aos 30 dias após a semeadura, por meio de amostragens ao acaso na parcela, utilizando um quadro de 0,45 m2 (1,5 m x 0,3 m, colocado perpendicularmente às linhas de semeadura e recolhendo-se todo o material verde de plantas daninhas existentes na amostra, classificando-o por espécie vegetal, agrupando as principais monocotiledôneas, principais dicotiledôneas e outras plantas daninhas. Os resultados demonstraram maior ocorrência das espécies Digitaria horizontalis e Commelina benghalensis na cultura do milho, independentemente da sucessão estabelecida. C. benghalensis predominou na sucessão milho-milho, e D. horizontalis na sucessão soja-milho. A menor infestação de plantas daninhas foi observada na área em que a cultura do girassol antecede a cultura do milho. Utilizando-se o milheto como cultura de safrinha, há maior ocorrência de espécies dicotiledôneas na cultura do milho, especialmente a Euphorbia heterophylla.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Sucessões de culturas; milho; plantas daninhas.

    It was observed to evaluate the occurrence of the weeds, after 3 years of cultivation with successions of double cropping cultures with the culture of the corn. The double cropping cultures were: corn, soybean, pearl millet, sunflower, sorghum, oat and pigeon pea. The weeds were appraised to the 30 days after the sowing, by means of sampling to the maybe in the portion, using a icture of 0.45 m2 (1.5 m x 0.3 m, placed in a perpendicular way to the plantation lines

  6. Mistura em tanque de boro e herbicidas em semeadura convencional de girassol Tank-mix of boron and herbicides on conventional sunflower sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castro

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste experimento foi avaliar a resposta do girassol às aplicações de boro (B, isoladas ou em mistura com herbicidas, e o controle de plantas daninhas por meio de experimento conduzido na Embrapa Soja, Londrina-PR. Os tratamentos foram acetochlor (1,92 kg i.a. ha-1, oxyfluorfen (0,36 kg i.a. ha-1, sulfentrazone (0,35 kg i.a.ha-1, trifluralin (1,80 kg i.a. ha-1 e as testemunhas capinada e sem capina. Todos os tratamentos foram aplicados, isoladamente ou em mistura, com 2 kg ha-1 de B (Na2B4O7.10H2 0 - bórax e H3BO3 - ácido bórico. O tratamento mais eficiente foi acetochlor mais ácido bórico; essa combinação resultou em solução mais homogênea da calda de pulverização, quando comparada com os herbicidas mais bórax. O herbicida acetochlor aplicado isoladamente ou em mistura com as duas fontes de B foi eficiente no controle da trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis, do picão-preto (Bidens pilosa e da corda-de-viola (Ipomoea grandifolia. Os herbicidas oxyfluorfen e sulfentrazone, aplicados isoladamente ou em misturas com as duas fontes de B, foram eficientes no controle do amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla e da corda-de-viola, respectivamente. É viável a aplicação de boro juntamente com os herbicidas testados nesta pesquisa em mistura em tanque, evitando a deficiência desse micronutriente e controlando as plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol.The objectives of this study were to determine the response of sunflower to application of boron (B fertilizer and herbicides, alone or in combination, and to determine its weed control. A field experiment was carried out at Embrapa Soja, Londrina, Parana, Brazil. The treatments were acetochlor (1.92 kg a.i. ha-1, oxyfluorfen (0.36 kg a.i. ha-1, sulfentrazone (0.35 kg a.i. ha-1, trifluralin (1.80 kg a.i. ha-1 and two controls (with and without hoeing. All treatments were applied alone or in combination with 2 kg ha-1 of B (Na2B4O7.10H2 0 - borax and H3BO3 - boric acid

  7. Structural and compositional controls on transpiration in 40- and 450-year-old riparian forests in western Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Georgianne W; Bond, Barbara J; Jones, Julia A; Phillips, Nathan; Meinzer, Federick C

    2004-05-01

    Large areas of forests in the Pacific Northwest are being transformed to younger forests, yet little is known about the impact this may have on hydrological cycles. Previous work suggests that old trees use less water per unit leaf area or sapwood area than young mature trees of the same species in similar environments. Do old forests, therefore, use less water than young mature forests in similar environments, or are there other structural or compositional components in the forests that compensate for tree-level differences? We investigated the impacts of tree age, species composition and sapwood basal area on stand-level transpiration in adjacent watersheds at the H.J. Andrews Forest in the western Cascades of Oregon, one containing a young, mature (about 40 years since disturbance) conifer forest and the other an old growth (about 450 years since disturbance) forest. Sap flow measurements were used to evaluate the degree to which differences in age and species composition affect water use. Stand sapwood basal area was evaluated based on a vegetation survey for species, basal area and sapwood basal area in the riparian area of two watersheds. A simple scaling exercise derived from estimated differences in water use as a result of differences in age, species composition and stand sapwood area was used to estimate transpiration from late June through October within the entire riparian area of these watersheds. Transpiration was higher in the young stand because of greater sap flux density (sap flow per unit sapwood area) by age class and species, and greater total stand sapwood area. During the measurement period, mean daily sap flux density was 2.30 times higher in young compared with old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees. Sap flux density was 1.41 times higher in young red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) compared with young P. menziesii trees, and was 1.45 times higher in old P. menziesii compared with old western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf

  8. Efeitos de períodos de permanência de clomazone + hexazinona no solo e na palha de cana-de-açúcar antes da ocorrência de chuvas na eficácia de controle de plantas daninhas Effects of different periods of clomazone + hexazinona permanence in soil and sugarcane mulch before the occurrence of rain on weed control efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Carbonari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficácia da mistura formulada de clomazone e hexazinona aplicada sobre o solo e em associação com a palha de cana-de-açúcar, após diferentes períodos de permanência sem a ocorrência de chuvas. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos em casa de vegetação, no município de Botucatu-SP. Os vasos foram preenchidos com solo, e as sementes de plantas daninhas (Brachiaria decumbens, Ipomoea grandifolia, Ipomoea hederifolia e Euphorbia heterophylla foram semeadas superficialmente e, em seguida, cobertas ou não com palha de cana-de-açúcar, dependendo do tratamento utilizado. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em um esquema fatorial 3 x 6, sendo os fatores seis períodos sem ocorrência de chuvas (0, 3, 7, 15, 30 e 60 dias e três posicionamentos do produto (sobre o solo sem palha, sobre e sob a palha de cana. Foram realizadas avaliações de controle aos 10, 21, 35 e 42 dias após a ocorrência da chuva. A mistura de clomazone + hexazinona promoveu excelentes resultados de controle para todas as espécies estudadas quando aplicada sobre, sob ou na ausência de palha de cana-de-açúcar. No entanto, observou-se tendência de redução nos níveis de controle para períodos superiores a 60 dias sem ocorrência de chuva.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of the formulated mixture clomazone and hexazinone applied in soil or combined with sugarcane mulch, after different periods of permanence without the occurrence of rain. The experiment was carried out in vases under greenhouse conditions in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. The weeds Brachiaria decumbens, Ipomoea grandifolia, Ipomoea hederifolia and Euphorbia heterophylla were sown and covered or not with sugarcane mulch. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design with four repetitions. The treatments were displaced in a 3x6

  9. Plants promote mating and dispersal of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus.

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    Deborah J Springer

    Full Text Available Infections due to Cryptococcus are a leading cause of fungal infections worldwide and are acquired as a result of environmental exposure to desiccated yeast or spores. The ability of Cryptococcus to grow, mate, and produce infectious propagules in association with plants is important for the maintenance of the genetic diversity and virulence factors important for infection of animals and humans. In the Western United States and Canada, Cryptococcus has been associated with conifers and tree species other than Eucalyptus; however, to date Cryptococcus has only been studied on live Arabidopsis thaliana, Eucalyptus sp., and Terminalia catappa (almond seedlings. Previous research has demonstrated the ability of Cryptococcus to colonize live plants, leaves, and vasculature. We investigated the ability of Cryptococcus to grow on live seedlings of the angiosperms, A. thaliana, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Colophospermum mopane, and the gymnosperms, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir, and Tsuga heterophylla (Western hemlock. We observed a broad-range ability of Cryptococcus to colonize both traditional infection models as well as newly tested conifer species. Furthermore, C. neoformans, C. deneoformans, C. gattii (VGI, C. deuterogattii (VGII and C. bacillisporus (VGIII were able to colonize live plant leaves and needles but also undergo filamentation and mating on agar seeded with plant materials or in saprobic association with dead plant materials. The ability of Cryptococcus to grow and undergo filamentation and reproduction in saprobic association with both angiosperms and gymnosperms highlights an important role of plant debris in the sexual cycle and exposure to infectious propagules. This study highlights the broad importance of plants (and plant debris as the ecological niche and reservoirs of infectious propagules of Cryptococcus in the environment.

  10. Elevated Annual Runoff Ratios in Pacific Northwest Catchments Impacted by Epidemic Foliage Disease of Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladon, K. D.; Bywater-Reyes, S.; LeBoldus, J. M.; Segura, C.; Ritokova, G.; Shaw, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Catchments in the Western United States are undergoing unprecedented levels of tree die-off and/or reduced vigor due to increased severity of wildfire, drought, insect outbreaks, and disease. In the U.S. Pacific Northwest, Swiss needle cast (SNC) is the most damaging foliar disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), physically obstructing stomata and preventing CO2 uptake and transpiration. A recent analysis in coastal Oregon indicated a substantial increase in area affected by the disease, from 530.5 km2 in 1996 to 2,387.1 km2 in 2015. Deforestation or reduced tree vigor can have profound impacts on catchment hydrology, in theory, producing increased streamflow due to reduced interception and transpiration. However, these increases have not always been detectable as impacts also depend on factors such as climate and vegetation composition. Moreover, press disturbances, such as insect outbreaks or disease, often do not result in complete removal of understorey or canopy vegetation. We analyzed trends in annual runoff ratios (quotient of discharge divided by precipitation) from 1990-2015 in 12 catchments (183-1,744 km2) in western Oregon. In general, runoff ratios increased by 10-27% in catchments with a total area of SNC >10%, with the most substantial runoff increases in catchments with SNC impacting >25% of the area. Interestingly, the most severely impacted catchment ( 90.5% SNC) showed a decrease in runoff. This is consistent with a potential compensatory response from understory western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) trees, a phenomenon observed in the most severely impacted sites. Findings from this study are important for assessing the impacts of biotic forest disturbances on water supply and aquatic ecosystem health.

  11. Agricultural impacts of glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B

    2011-06-08

    In the 2009/2010 growing season, Brazil was the second largest world soybean producer, followed by Argentina. Glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) are being cultivated in most of the soybean area in South America. Overall, the GRS system is beneficial to the environment when compared to conventional soybean. GRS resulted in a significant shift toward no-tillage practices in Brazil and Argentina, but weed resistance may reduce this trend. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil and South America is related to weed resistance due to use of glyphosate. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. Five weed species, in order of importance, Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist, Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist, Lolium multiflorum Lam., Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman, and Euphorbia heterophylla L., have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil. Conyza spp. are the most difficult to control. A glyphosate-resistant biotype of Sorghum halepense L. has evolved in GRS in Argentina and one of D. insularis in Paraguay. The following actions are proposed to minimize weed resistance problem: (a) rotation of GRS with conventional soybeans in order to rotate herbicide modes of action; (b) avoidance of lower than recommended glyphosate rates; (c) keeping soil covered with a crop or legume at intercrop intervals; (d) keeping machinery free of weed seeds; and (d) use of a preplant nonselective herbicide plus residuals to eliminate early weed interference with the crop and to minimize escapes from later applications of glyphosate due to natural resistance of older weeds and/or incomplete glyphosate coverage.

  12. Resource Utilization by Native and Invasive Earthworms and Their Effects on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Puerto Rican Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resource utilization by earthworms affects soil C and N dynamics and further colonization of invasive earthworms. By applying 13C-labeled Tabebuia heterophylla leaves and 15N-labeled Andropogon glomeratus grass, we investigated resource utilization by three earthworm species (invasive endogeic Pontoscolex corethrurus, native anecic Estherella sp, and native endogeic Onychochaeta borincana and their effects on soil C and N dynamics in Puerto Rican soils in a 22-day laboratory experiment. Changes of 13C/C and 15N/N in soils, earthworms, and microbial populations were analyzed to evaluate resource utilization by earthworms and their influences on C and N dynamics. Estherella spp. utilized the 13C-labeled litter; however, its utilization on the 13C-labeled litter reduced when cultivated with P. corethrurus and O. borincana. Both P. corethrurus and O. borincana utilized the 13C-labeled litter and 15C-labeled grass roots and root exudates. Pontoscolex corethrurus facilitated soil respiration by stimulating 13C-labeled microbial activity; however, this effect was suppressed possibly due to the changes in the microbial activities or community when coexisting with O. borincana. Increased soil N mineralization by individual Estherella spp. and O. borincana was reduced in the mixed-species treatments. The rapid population growth of P. corethrurus may increase competition pressure on food resources on the local earthworm community. The relevance of resource availability to the population growth of P. corethrurus and its significance as an invasive species is a topic in need of future research.

  13. Effects of dams and geomorphic context on riparian forests of the Elwha River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Perry, Laura G; Rose, Chanoane A; Braatne, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dams affect the shifting habitat mosaic of river bottomlands is key for protecting the many ecological functions and related goods and services that riparian forests provide and for informing approaches to riparian ecosystem restoration. We examined the downstream effects of two large dams on patterns of forest composition, structure, and dynamics within different geomorphic contexts and compared them to upstream reference conditions along the Elwha River, Washington, USA. Patterns of riparian vegetation in river segments downstream of the dams were driven largely by channel and bottomland geomorphic responses to a dramatically reduced sediment supply. The river segment upstream of both dams was the most geomorphically dynamic, whereas the segment between the dams was the least dynamic due to substantial channel armoring, and the segment downstream of both dams was intermediate due to some local sediment supply. These geomorphic differences were linked to altered characteristics of the shifting habitat mosaic, including older forest age structure and fewer young Populus balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa stands in the relatively static segment between the dams compared to more extensive early-successional forests (dominated by Alnus rubra and Salix spp.) and pioneer seedling recruitment upstream of the dams. Species composition of later-successional forest communities varied among river segments as well, with greater Pseudotsuga menziesii and Tsuga heterophylla abundance upstream of both dams, Acer spp. abundance between the dams, and P. balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa and Thuja plicata abundance below both dams. Riparian forest responses to the recent removal of the two dams on the Elwha River will depend largely on channel and geomorphic adjustments to the release, transport, and deposition of the large volume of sediment formerly stored in the reservoirs, together with changes in large wood dynamics.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of subgenus vigna species using nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS: evidence of hybridization among Vigna unguiculata subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny among species belonging to subgenus Vigna (genus Vigna) was inferred based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA gene unit. Analysis showed a total of 356 polymorphic sites of which approximately 80% were parsimony informative. Phylogenetic reconstruction by neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods placed the 57 Vigna accessions (belonging to 15 species) into 5 major clades. Five species viz. Vigna heterophylla, Vigna pubigera, Vigna parkeri, Vigna laurentii, and Vigna gracilis whose position in the subgenus was previously not known were placed in the section Vigna. A single accession (Vigna unguiculata ssp. tenuis, NI 1637) harbored 2 intragenomic ITS variants, indicative of 2 different types of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat units. ITS variant type-I was close to ITS from V. unguiculata ssp. pubescens, whereas type-II was close to V. unguiculata ssp. tenuis. Transcript analysis clearly demonstrates that in accession NI 1637, rDNA repeat units with only type-II ITS variants are transcriptionally active. Evidence from sequence analysis (of 5.8S, ITS1, and ITS2) and secondary structure analysis (of ITS1 and ITS2) indicates that the type-I ITS variant probably does not belong to the pseudogenic rDNA repeat units. The results from phylogenetic and transcript analysis suggest that the rDNA units with the type-I ITS may have introgressed as a result of hybridization (between ssp. tenuis and ssp. pubescens); however, it has been epigenetically silenced. The results also demonstrate differential evolution of ITS sequence among wild and cultivated forms of V. unguiculata.

  15. Evaluation of the enter surface dose, dose in organ and E effective dose, received by personnel and patients in studies of endoscopic retrograde cholangeopancreatography in the General Hospital of Mexico; Evaluacion de la dosis de entrada superficie, dosis en organo y dosis efectiva E, recibidas por personal y pacientes en estudios de colangiopancreatografia retrograda endoscopica en el Hospital General de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S; Gama T, G [Calidad XXI SA de CV, Zacatecas 67-007 Col. Roma, 06700 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Beristain, M; Espino, H [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The ESD for patient and personal is measured: gastroenterologuist endoscopist G1, A1 Assistant and A2 instrumentist that carried out 22 independent therapeutic procedures of CPRE, in a fluoroscopy equipment Toshiba trademark with tube under the table, operated in automatic exposure mode, CAE to average tensions of 80 kVp. The measurement is carried out with film dosemeters of double emulsion Kodak Type 2 trademark, calibrated in terms of H{sup *} for the energy of the {sup 137} Cs, first it is determined the films sensitivity like function of the optical density DO, and second the ESD for the effective energy of the radiation beam (50 keV), in three different points from the dosemeter (C, D and H). The films was placed for the personnel in: right hand, front (eye), thyroid and thorax (under D and out F of the lead apron); in the case of the patient three positions were used: thorax, hepatic region and pelvis. The mean values of the ESD and it standard deviation SD in mGy units are determined by: study, personnel, film position in doctor and patient, dosemeter measurement point. The calculated doses in organ are also determined for the patient in the thorax region, liverwort and pelvis its are agreement with the NRPB SR 262 report. Finally the H{sub E} and E for medical personnel and patients are estimated demonstrating that its are not exceeded the annual dose limits for the case of the OEP. In the case of the the OEP have for the D thorax an ESD{sub max} = 0.04 mGy that one corresponds an H{sub E} = 0.02 and E = 0.01 mSv. (Author)

  16. ITS1: a DNA barcode better than ITS2 in eukaryotes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Cun; Liu, Chang; Huang, Liang; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Chen, Haimei; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Cai, Dayong; Li, Jian-Qin

    2015-05-01

    A DNA barcode is a short piece of DNA sequence used for species determination and discovery. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS/ITS2) region has been proposed as the standard DNA barcode for fungi and seed plants and has been widely used in DNA barcoding analyses for other biological groups, for example algae, protists and animals. The ITS region consists of both ITS1 and ITS2 regions. Here, a large-scale meta-analysis was carried out to compare ITS1 and ITS2 from three aspects: PCR amplification, DNA sequencing and species discrimination, in terms of the presence of DNA barcoding gaps, species discrimination efficiency, sequence length distribution, GC content distribution and primer universality. In total, 85 345 sequence pairs in 10 major groups of eukaryotes, including ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, liverworts, mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, monocotyledons, eudicotyledons, insects and fishes, covering 611 families, 3694 genera, and 19 060 species, were analysed. Using similarity-based methods, we calculated species discrimination efficiencies for ITS1 and ITS2 in all major groups, families and genera. Using Fisher's exact test, we found that ITS1 has significantly higher efficiencies than ITS2 in 17 of the 47 families and 20 of the 49 genera, which are sample-rich. By in silico PCR amplification evaluation, primer universality of the extensively applied ITS1 primers was found superior to that of ITS2 primers. Additionally, shorter length of amplification product and lower GC content was discovered to be two other advantages of ITS1 for sequencing. In summary, ITS1 represents a better DNA barcode than ITS2 for eukaryotic species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations during primary succession in recently Deglaciated areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De Los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T G Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition.

  18. Bryophyte-Feeders in a Basal Brachyceran Lineage (Diptera: Rhagionidae: Spaniinae: Adult Oviposition Behavior and Changes in the Larval Mouthpart Morphology Accompanied with the Diet Shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yume Imada

    Full Text Available Dipteran larval morphology exhibits overwhelming variety, affected by their diverse feeding habits and habitat use. In particular, larval mouthpart morphology is associated with feeding behavior, providing key taxonomic traits. Despite most larval Brachycera being carnivorous, a basal brachyceran family, Rhagionidae, contains bryophyte-feeding taxa with multiple feeding habits. To elucidate the life history, biology, and morphological evolution of the bryophyte-feeding rhagionids, the larval feeding behavior and morphology, and the adult oviposition behavior of four species belonging to three genera of Spaniinae (Spania Meigen, Litoleptis Chillcott and Ptiolina Zetterstedt are described. Moreover, changes of the larval morphology associated with the evolution of bryophyte-feeding are traced by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Spania and Litoleptis (thallus-miners of thallose liverworts share a toothed form of apical mandibular sclerite with an orifice on its dorsal surface, which contrasts to those of the other members of Rhagionidae possessing a blade-like mandibular hook with an adoral groove; whereas, Ptiolina (stem borer of mosses exhibits a weak groove on the adoral surface of mandible and highly sclerotized maxilla with toothed projections. Based on the larval feeding behavior of the thallus-miners, it is inferred that the toothed mandibles with the dorsal orifice facilitate scraping plant tissue and then imbibing it with a great deal of the sap. A phylogeny indicated that the bryophyte-feeding genera formed a clade with Spaniopsis and was sister to Symphoromyia, which presumably are detritivores. This study indicates that the loss or reduction of adoral mandibular groove and mandibular brush is coincident with the evolution of bryophyte-feeding, and it is subsequently followed by the occurrence of dorsal mandibular orifice and the loss of creeping welts accompanying the evolution of thallus-mining.

  19. Boreal bog plants: nitrogen sources and uptake of recently deposited nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordbakken, J.F.; Ohlson, M.; Hoegberg, P.

    2003-01-01

    The main goals of this study were to determine the δ 15 N signature of quantitatively important boreal bog plants as basis for discussing their N sources, and to assess the effects of five different 3 year N treatments (i.e. 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 kg N ha -1 year -1 ) on the bog plants and surface peat at different depths (i.e. 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 cm) by using 15 N as tracer. Plants and peat were analyzed for N concentration, 15 N natural abundance and 15 N at.%. From the results we draw three main conclusions: First, the relative importance of different N sources is species-specific among bog plants. Second, an annual addition of 5 kg N ha -1 year -1 was sufficient to significantly increase the N concentration in Sphagnum mosses, liverworts and shallow rooted vascular plants, and an annual addition of 40 kg N ha -1 year -1 during 3 years was not sufficient to increase the N concentration in deep rooted plants, although the 15 N content increased continuously, indicating a possible longer term effect. Third, an annual addition of 40 kg N ha -1 year -1 during 3 years increased the N content in surface peat at depths of 5 and 10 cm, but not at depths of 20 and 40 cm, indicating the capacity of the living Sphagnum mosses and the surface peat to take up deposited N, and thereby function as a filter. - Living Sphagnum mosses and surface peat function as a filter for added nitrogen

  20. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with briophytes in Brotas, State of São Paulo, Brazil Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associadas a briófitas em Brotas, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Rossi Gorni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosses and liverworts can be colonized by various invertebrates, including fresh water oligochaete worms. However, little information is available on the habits and habitats of this oligochaetes in Brazil. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the occurrence of naidids in mosses, as well as to broaden the knowledge about the habitats of these oligochaetes. Sampling of bryophytes adhered to rock substrates in the rapids of the Jacaré Pepira River (municipality of Brotas, São Paulo, Brazil and to a vertical rock wall of a waterfall near the river revealed 191 Naididae individuals of the species Naiscommunis Piguet, 1906, Pristinellajenkinae (Stephenson, 1931 and Pristinellamenoni (Aiyer, 1929. We believe this to be the first record of naidids associated with mosses in Brazil.Musgos e hepáticas podem ser colonizados por diversos invertebrados, incluindo os vermes Oligochaeta. Contudo, existe pouca informação na literatura brasielira sobre os hábitos e hábitats destes oligoquetos. Portanto, o presente trabalho foi realizado para examinar a ocorrência de naidídeos em musgos, bem como aumentar o conhecimento dos habitats destes anelídeos. A coleta de briófitas aderidas a substratos rochosos nas corredeiras do Rio Jacaré Pepira (Brotas-SP e à parede rochosa vertical de uma cachoeira localizada nas proximidades do referido rio revelou 191 indivíduos de três espécies de Naididae: Naiscommunis Piguet, 1906, Pristinellajenkinae (Stephenson, 1931 e Pristinellamenoni (Aiyer, 1929. Acredita-se que este seja o primeiro registro de Naididae vivendo em briófitas no Brasil.

  1. Dihydroptychantol A, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl derivative, induces autophagy and following apoptosis associated with p53 pathway in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xia; Wu, William K.K.; Sun Bin; Cui Min; Liu Shanshan; Gao Jian; Lou Hongxiang

    2011-01-01

    Dihydroptychantol A (DHA), a novel macrocyclic bisbibenzyl compound extracted from liverwort Asterella angusta, has antifungal and multi-drug resistance reversal properties. Here, the chemically synthesized DHA was employed to test its anti-cancer activities in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Our results demonstrated that DHA induced autophagy followed by apoptotic cell death accompanied with G 2 /M-phase cell cycle arrest in U2OS cells. DHA-induced autophagy was morphologically characterized by the formation of double membrane-bound autophagic vacuoles recognizable at the ultrastructural level. DHA also increased the levels of LC3-II, a marker of autophagy. Surprisingly, DHA-mediated apoptotic cell death was potentiated by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, suggesting that autophagy may play a protective role that impedes the eventual cell death. Furthermore, p53 was shown to be involved in DHA-meditated autophagy and apoptosis. In this connection, DHA increased nuclear expression of p53, induced p53 phosphorylation, and upregulated p53 target gene p21 Waf1/Cip1 . In contrast, cytoplasmic p53 was reduced by DHA, which contributed to the stimulation of autophagy. In relation to the cell cycle, DHA decreased the expression of cyclin B 1 , a cyclin required for progression through the G 2 /M phase. Taken together, DHA induces G 2 /M-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U2OS cells. DHA-induced apoptosis was preceded by the induction of protective autophagy. DHA-mediated autophagy and apoptosis are associated with the cytoplasmic and nuclear functions of p53.

  2. Effect of plagiochin E, an antifungal macrocyclic bis(bibenzyl), on cell wall chitin synthesis in Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-zhen WU; Ai-xia CHENG; Ling-mei SUN; Hong-xiang LOU

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of plagiochin E (PLE), an antifungal macrocyclic bis(bibenzyl) isolated from liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L, on cell wall chitin synthesis in Candida albicans. Methods: The effect of PLE on chitin synthesis in Candida albicans was investigated at the cellular and molecular lev-els. First, the ultrastructural changes were observed under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Second, the effects of PLE on chitin synthetase (Chs) activi-ties in vitro were assayed using 6-O-dansyl-N-acetylglucosamine as a fluorescent substrate, and its effect on chitin synthesis in situ was assayed by spheroplast regeneration. Finally, real-time RT-PCR was performed to assay its effect on the expression of Chs genes (CHS). Results: Observation under TEM showed that the structure of the cell wall in Candida albicans was seriously damaged, which suggested that the antifungal activity of PLE was associated with its effect on the cell wail. Enzymatic assays and spheroplast regeneration showed that PLE inhibited chitin synthesis in vitro and in situ. The results of the PCR showed that PLE significantly downregulated the expression of CHS1, and upregulated the expression of CHS2 and CHS3. Because different Chs is regulated at different stages of transcription and post-translation, the downregulation of CHS1 would decrease the level of Chs 1 and inhibit its activity, and the inhibitory effects of PLE on Chs2 and Chs3 would be at the post-translational level or by the inhibi-tion on the enzyme-active center. Conclusion: These results indicate that the antifungal activity of PLE would be attributed to its inhibitory effect on cell wall chitin synthesis in Candida albicans.

  3. Diaspore bank of bryophytes in tropical rain forests: the importance of breeding system, phylum and microhabitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel-Silva, Adaíses S; Válio, Ivany Ferraz Marques; Rydin, Håkan

    2012-02-01

    Diaspore banks are crucial for the maintenance and resilience of plant communities, but diaspore banks of bryophytes remain poorly known, especially from tropical ecosystems. This is the first study to focus on the role of diaspore banks of bryophytes in tropical rain forests. Our aim was to test whether microhabitat (substrate type) and species traits (breeding system, phylum) are important in explaining the diaspore bank composition. Using samples cultivated in the laboratory, we assessed the number of species and shoots emerging from bark, decaying wood and soil from two sites of the Atlantic rain forest (montane and sea level) in Brazil by comparing the contribution of species by phylum (mosses, liverworts) and breeding system (monoicous, dioicous). More species emerged from bark (68) and decaying wood (55) than from soil (22). Similar numbers of species were found at both sites. Mosses were more numerous in terms of number of species and shoots, and monoicous species dominated over dioicous species. Substrate pH had only weak effects on shoot emergence. Species commonly producing sporophytes and gemmae had a high contribution to the diaspore banks. These superficial diaspore banks represented the extant vegetation rather well, but held more monoicous species (probably short-lived species) compared to dioicous ones. We propose that diaspore bank dynamics are driven by species traits and microhabitat characteristics, and that short-term diaspore banks of bryophytes in tropical rain forests contribute to fast (re)establishment of species after disturbances and during succession, particularly dioicous mosses investing in asexual reproduction and monoicous mosses investing in sexual reproduction.

  4. Distribution and diversity of Tardigrada along altitudinal gradients in the Hornsund, Spitsbergen (Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Zawierucha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two transects were established and sampled along altitudinal gradients on the slopes of Ariekammen (77°01′N; 15°31′E and Rotjesfjellet (77°00′N; 15°22′E in Hornsund, Spitsbergen. In total 59 moss, lichen, liverwort and mixed moss–lichen samples were collected and 33 tardigrade species of Hetero- and Eutardigrada were found. The α diversity ranged from 1 to 8 per sample; the estimated number of species based on all analysed samples was 52±17 for the Chao 2 estimator and 41 for the incidence-based coverage estimator. According to the results of detrended canonical correspondence analysis, altitude and type of substratum were the most important factors influencing tardigrade communities in the investigated area. Macrobiotus crenulatus, M. hufelandi hufelandi and Hypsibius pallidus dominated in the lower elevations, whereas Echiniscus wendti and E. merokensis merokensis prevailed in samples from higher plots. Macrobiotus islandicus islandicus was collected most often from mosses collected from rock whereas Isohypsibius coulsoni from mosses collected from soil. Analyses of covariance were employed to test for differences in species richness between the transects in relation to altitude. Contrary to expectations, there were significant differences in species richness between the transects, but richness was not significantly related to altitude. Interestingly, significant effects of colonies of seabirds, little auk (Alle alle, on the tardigrades communities were detected. Additionally, in one of the samples first ever males of Milnesium asiaticum were found. Their measurements and microphotographs are provided herein.

  5. Jungermanniales (Marchantiophyta da Chapada da Ibiapaba, Ceará, Brasil Jungermanniales (Marchantiophyta of the Ibiapaba Plateau, Ceará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermeson Cassiano de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A Chapada da Ibiapaba, localiza-se ao norte do estado do Ceará, possuindo uma extensão de 110 km com alitudes variando entre 800 e 1100 m. No inventário florístico de briófitas realizado na área, foram encontradas 15 espécies de hepáticas folhosas, pertencentes a odaem Jungermanniales, distribuídas em oito gêneros e seis famílias. Das espécies encontradas, cinco representam novos registros para o estado do Ceará e quatro para a região Nordeste. Chiloscyphus serratus (Mitt. J.J. Engel & R.M. Schust. é citada pela segunda vez para o Brasil. São fornecidos chaves de identificação para as famílias e espécies, distribuição geográfica, comentários referentes à ambiente, substratos e caracteres taxonômicos pertinentes, além de ilustração para Heteroscyphus contortuplicatus (Nees & Mont. Grolle.The Ibiapaba Plateau, north zone of Ceara, Brazil, has a length of 110 km with altitudes between 800 and 1.100 m. In the bryophytes floristic survey conducted in the area, 15 species of liverworts were found, wich belong to the order Jungermanniales, distributed in eight genera and six families. Among the species found, five represent new records for the state of Ceara and four for the Northeast region. Chiloscyphus serratus (Mitt. J.J. Engel & R.M. Schust. is cited by the second time for Brazil. Identification keys to the families and species, geographic distribution, comments on the environment, substrate and important taxonomic characters are provided for the species found. An Illustration has been made for Heteroscyphus contortuplicatus (Nees & Mont. Grolle.

  6. Bryophyte-Cyanobacteria Associations during Primary Succession in Recently Deglaciated Areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T. G. Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G.

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g−1 bryo. d−1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g−1 bryo. d−1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition. PMID:24819926

  7. Evaluation of the enter surface dose, dose in organ and E effective dose, received by personnel and patients in studies of endoscopic retrograde cholangeopancreatography in the General Hospital of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, S.; Gama T, G.; Beristain, M.; Espino, H.

    2006-01-01

    The ESD for patient and personal is measured: gastroenterologuist endoscopist G1, A1 Assistant and A2 instrumentist that carried out 22 independent therapeutic procedures of CPRE, in a fluoroscopy equipment Toshiba trademark with tube under the table, operated in automatic exposure mode, CAE to average tensions of 80 kVp. The measurement is carried out with film dosemeters of double emulsion Kodak Type 2 trademark, calibrated in terms of H * for the energy of the 137 Cs, first it is determined the films sensitivity like function of the optical density DO, and second the ESD for the effective energy of the radiation beam (50 keV), in three different points from the dosemeter (C, D and H). The films was placed for the personnel in: right hand, front (eye), thyroid and thorax (under D and out F of the lead apron); in the case of the patient three positions were used: thorax, hepatic region and pelvis. The mean values of the ESD and it standard deviation SD in mGy units are determined by: study, personnel, film position in doctor and patient, dosemeter measurement point. The calculated doses in organ are also determined for the patient in the thorax region, liverwort and pelvis its are agreement with the NRPB SR 262 report. Finally the H E and E for medical personnel and patients are estimated demonstrating that its are not exceeded the annual dose limits for the case of the OEP. In the case of the the OEP have for the D thorax an ESD max = 0.04 mGy that one corresponds an H E = 0.02 and E = 0.01 mSv. (Author)

  8. Identification of Putative Precursor Genes for the Biosynthesis of Cannabinoid-Like Compound in Radula marginata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajammul Hussain

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The liverwort Radula marginata belongs to the bryophyte division of land plants and is a prospective alternate source of cannabinoid-like compounds. However, mechanistic insights into the molecular pathways directing the synthesis of these cannabinoid-like compounds have been hindered due to the lack of genetic information. This prompted us to do deep sequencing, de novo assembly and annotation of R. marginata transcriptome, which resulted in the identification and validation of the genes for cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway. In total, we have identified 11,421 putative genes encoding 1,554 enzymes from 145 biosynthetic pathways. Interestingly, we have identified all the upstream genes of the central precursor of cannabinoid biosynthesis, cannabigerolic acid (CBGA, including its two first intermediates, stilbene acid (SA and geranyl diphosphate (GPP. Expression of all these genes was validated using quantitative real-time PCR. We have characterized the protein structure of stilbene synthase (STS, which is considered as a homolog of olivetolic acid in R. marginata. Moreover, the metabolomics approach enabled us to identify CBGA-analogous compounds using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Transcriptomic analysis revealed 1085 transcription factors (TF from 39 families. Comparative analysis showed that six TF families have been uniquely predicted in R. marginata. In addition, the bioinformatics analysis predicted a large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. Our results collectively provide mechanistic insights into the putative precursor genes for the biosynthesis of cannabinoid-like compounds and a novel transcriptomic resource for R. marginata. The large-scale transcriptomic resource generated in this study would further serve as a reference transcriptome to explore the Radulaceae family.

  9. The first complete chloroplast genome sequence of a lycophyte,Huperzia lucidula (Lycopodiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Paul G.; Karol, Kenneth G.; Mandoli, Dina F.; Kuehl,Jennifer V.; Arumuganathan, K.; Ellis, Mark W.; Mishler, Brent D.; Kelch,Dean G.; Olmstead, Richard G.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-02-01

    We used a unique combination of techniques to sequence the first complete chloroplast genome of a lycophyte, Huperzia lucidula. This plant belongs to a significant clade hypothesized to represent the sister group to all other vascular plants. We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate the organelles, rolling circle amplification (RCA) to amplify the genome, and shotgun sequencing to 8x depth coverage to obtain the complete chloroplast genome sequence. The genome is 154,373bp, containing inverted repeats of 15,314 bp each, a large single-copy region of 104,088 bp, and a small single-copy region of 19,671 bp. Gene order is more similar to those of mosses, liverworts, and hornworts than to gene order for other vascular plants. For example, the Huperziachloroplast genome possesses the bryophyte gene order for a previously characterized 30 kb inversion, thus supporting the hypothesis that lycophytes are sister to all other extant vascular plants. The lycophytechloroplast genome data also enable a better reconstruction of the basaltracheophyte genome, which is useful for inferring relationships among bryophyte lineages. Several unique characters are observed in Huperzia, such as movement of the gene ndhF from the small single copy region into the inverted repeat. We present several analyses of evolutionary relationships among land plants by using nucleotide data, amino acid sequences, and by comparing gene arrangements from chloroplast genomes. The results, while still tentative pending the large number of chloroplast genomes from other key lineages that are soon to be sequenced, are intriguing in themselves, and contribute to a growing comparative database of genomic and morphological data across the green plants.

  10. Bryophyte communities as biomonitors of environmental factors in the Goujiang karst bauxite, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiqiang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Zhihui

    2015-12-15

    Bauxite mining on karst results in several ecological and environmental issues including heavy metal pollution, soil erosion and the destruction of vegetation. In turn, these may affect the distribution of plant communities and endanger human health. In general, bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) are pioneer plants, lacking roots, vascular systems and well-developed cuticles. Due to their high sensitivity to the environment, they are often used to monitor air and soil pollution. A total of 25 bryophyte taxa from 19 genera and 9 families were recorded on Goujiang karst bauxite near the city of Zunyi in the Guizhou Province of southwestern China. Eleven principal bryophyte communities were identified, most of which consisted of only one species (monospecific assemblage), although the proportion of these single-species communities differed at the six locations. The levels of heavy metals also differed in soil from the six locations: iron, 8748.9-10,023μg/g; zinc, 146.7-240.9μg/g; copper, 24.6-60.4μg/g; and nickel, 35.6-95.1μg/g. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the bryophyte communities and environmental variables revealed the effect of gradient (slope), altitude and heavy metals in the soil on the distribution of the principal bryophyte communities. More than 36% of bryophyte taxa identified reproduced asexually by gemmae, as gemmiferous bryophyte communities tolerate substrates with high levels of heavy metals more readily than non-gemmiferous communities do. The distribution of heavy metals in the soil is reflected in the distribution of the bryophyte communities. The distribution characteristics of the principal bryophyte communities and of the gemmiferous bryophyte communities are useful in monitoring heavy metal pollution in karst bauxite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Insights into the Evolution of Hydroxyproline-Rich Glycoproteins from 1000 Plant Transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kim L; Cassin, Andrew M; Lonsdale, Andrew; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Soltis, Douglas E; Miles, Nicholas W; Melkonian, Michael; Melkonian, Barbara; Deyholos, Michael K; Leebens-Mack, James; Rothfels, Carl J; Stevenson, Dennis W; Graham, Sean W; Wang, Xumin; Wu, Shuangxiu; Pires, J Chris; Edger, Patrick P; Carpenter, Eric J; Bacic, Antony; Doblin, Monika S; Schultz, Carolyn J

    2017-06-01

    The carbohydrate-rich cell walls of land plants and algae have been the focus of much interest given the value of cell wall-based products to our current and future economies. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), a major group of wall glycoproteins, play important roles in plant growth and development, yet little is known about how they have evolved in parallel with the polysaccharide components of walls. We investigate the origins and evolution of the HRGP superfamily, which is commonly divided into three major multigene families: the arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), extensins (EXTs), and proline-rich proteins. Using motif and amino acid bias, a newly developed bioinformatics pipeline, we identified HRGPs in sequences from the 1000 Plants transcriptome project (www.onekp.com). Our analyses provide new insights into the evolution of HRGPs across major evolutionary milestones, including the transition to land and the early radiation of angiosperms. Significantly, data mining reveals the origin of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored AGPs in green algae and a 3- to 4-fold increase in GPI-AGPs in liverworts and mosses. The first detection of cross-linking (CL)-EXTs is observed in bryophytes, which suggests that CL-EXTs arose though the juxtaposition of preexisting SP n EXT glycomotifs with refined Y-based motifs. We also detected the loss of CL-EXT in a few lineages, including the grass family (Poaceae), that have a cell wall composition distinct from other monocots and eudicots. A key challenge in HRGP research is tracking individual HRGPs throughout evolution. Using the 1000 Plants output, we were able to find putative orthologs of Arabidopsis pollen-specific GPI-AGPs in basal eudicots. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Insights into the Evolution of Hydroxyproline-Rich Glycoproteins from 1000 Plant Transcriptomes1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassin, Andrew M.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Miles, Nicholas W.; Melkonian, Michael; Melkonian, Barbara; Wu, Shuangxiu; Edger, Patrick P.; Carpenter, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    The carbohydrate-rich cell walls of land plants and algae have been the focus of much interest given the value of cell wall-based products to our current and future economies. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), a major group of wall glycoproteins, play important roles in plant growth and development, yet little is known about how they have evolved in parallel with the polysaccharide components of walls. We investigate the origins and evolution of the HRGP superfamily, which is commonly divided into three major multigene families: the arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), extensins (EXTs), and proline-rich proteins. Using motif and amino acid bias, a newly developed bioinformatics pipeline, we identified HRGPs in sequences from the 1000 Plants transcriptome project (www.onekp.com). Our analyses provide new insights into the evolution of HRGPs across major evolutionary milestones, including the transition to land and the early radiation of angiosperms. Significantly, data mining reveals the origin of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored AGPs in green algae and a 3- to 4-fold increase in GPI-AGPs in liverworts and mosses. The first detection of cross-linking (CL)-EXTs is observed in bryophytes, which suggests that CL-EXTs arose though the juxtaposition of preexisting SPn EXT glycomotifs with refined Y-based motifs. We also detected the loss of CL-EXT in a few lineages, including the grass family (Poaceae), that have a cell wall composition distinct from other monocots and eudicots. A key challenge in HRGP research is tracking individual HRGPs throughout evolution. Using the 1000 Plants output, we were able to find putative orthologs of Arabidopsis pollen-specific GPI-AGPs in basal eudicots. PMID:28446636

  13. Bryophyte species richness on retention aspens recovers in time but community structure does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldén, Anna; Ovaskainen, Otso; Kotiaho, Janne S; Laaka-Lindberg, Sanna; Halme, Panu

    2014-01-01

    Green-tree retention is a forest management method in which some living trees are left on a logged area. The aim is to offer 'lifeboats' to support species immediately after logging and to provide microhabitats during and after forest re-establishment. Several studies have shown immediate decline in bryophyte diversity after retention logging and thus questioned the effectiveness of this method, but longer term studies are lacking. Here we studied the epiphytic bryophytes on European aspen (Populus tremula L.) retention trees along a 30-year chronosequence. We compared the bryophyte flora of 102 'retention aspens' on 14 differently aged retention sites with 102 'conservation aspens' on 14 differently aged conservation sites. We used a Bayesian community-level modelling approach to estimate the changes in bryophyte species richness, abundance (area covered) and community structure during 30 years after logging. Using the fitted model, we estimated that two years after logging both species richness and abundance of bryophytes declined, but during the following 20-30 years both recovered to the level of conservation aspens. However, logging-induced changes in bryophyte community structure did not fully recover over the same time period. Liverwort species showed some or low potential to benefit from lifeboating and high potential to re-colonise as time since logging increases. Most moss species responded similarly, but two cushion-forming mosses benefited from the logging disturbance while several weft- or mat-forming mosses declined and did not re-colonise in 20-30 years. We conclude that retention trees do not function as equally effective lifeboats for all bryophyte species but are successful in providing suitable habitats for many species in the long-term. To be most effective, retention cuts should be located adjacent to conservation sites, which may function as sources of re-colonisation and support the populations of species that require old-growth forests.

  14. Bryophyte species richness on retention aspens recovers in time but community structure does not.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oldén

    Full Text Available Green-tree retention is a forest management method in which some living trees are left on a logged area. The aim is to offer 'lifeboats' to support species immediately after logging and to provide microhabitats during and after forest re-establishment. Several studies have shown immediate decline in bryophyte diversity after retention logging and thus questioned the effectiveness of this method, but longer term studies are lacking. Here we studied the epiphytic bryophytes on European aspen (Populus tremula L. retention trees along a 30-year chronosequence. We compared the bryophyte flora of 102 'retention aspens' on 14 differently aged retention sites with 102 'conservation aspens' on 14 differently aged conservation sites. We used a Bayesian community-level modelling approach to estimate the changes in bryophyte species richness, abundance (area covered and community structure during 30 years after logging. Using the fitted model, we estimated that two years after logging both species richness and abundance of bryophytes declined, but during the following 20-30 years both recovered to the level of conservation aspens. However, logging-induced changes in bryophyte community structure did not fully recover over the same time period. Liverwort species showed some or low potential to benefit from lifeboating and high potential to re-colonise as time since logging increases. Most moss species responded similarly, but two cushion-forming mosses benefited from the logging disturbance while several weft- or mat-forming mosses declined and did not re-colonise in 20-30 years. We conclude that retention trees do not function as equally effective lifeboats for all bryophyte species but are successful in providing suitable habitats for many species in the long-term. To be most effective, retention cuts should be located adjacent to conservation sites, which may function as sources of re-colonisation and support the populations of species that require old

  15. Crescimento e acúmulo de nutrientes por plantas espontâneas e por leguminosas utilizadas para adubação verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Favero

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available As espécies vegetais espontâneas, nas áreas de cultivo agrícola, têm sido tratadas como "plantas daninhas", "ervas invasoras", "inços" e outras denominações, do ponto de vista dos prejuízos que podem acarretar às espécies cultivadas. No entanto, as espontâneas podem promover os mesmos efeitos de proteção do solo e ciclagem de nutrientes que espécies cultivadas ou introduzidas para adubação verde. O crescimento e o acúmulo de nutrientes pela parte aérea de espontâneas e de leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes foram medidos em um experimento de campo em Sete Lagoas (MG, na Embrapa Milho e Sorgo. O experimento consistiu de cinco espécies de leguminosas (feijão-de-porco, feijão-bravo do Ceará, mucuna-preta, lab-lab e guandu, submetidas a duas condições de manejo (com e sem capina, e uma testemunha (somente espontâneas. No florescimento das leguminosas, foram obtidos a massa da matéria seca e o teor de nutrientes da parte aérea de cada espécie de leguminosa e das espontâneas presentes nas parcelas. O sistema com apenas as espontâneas produziu menos biomassa e acumulou menos nutrientes que os sistemas com leguminosas. Foram poucas as espontâneas que apresentaram teores de carbono, cálcio e nitrogênio próximos ou superiores aos das leguminosas. No entanto, para potássio, magnésio e fósforo, ocorreu o inverso. A maioria das espontâneas apresentou teores de potássio, magnésio e de fósforo superiores aos das leguminosas, destacando-se: Portulaca oleracea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis e Melanpodium perfoliatum.

  16. Two tropical conifers show strong growth and water-use efficiency responses to altered CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalling, James W; Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Aranda, Jorge; Garcia, Milton; Virgo, Aurelio; Cheesman, Alexander W; Baresch, Andres; Jaramillo, Carlos; Turner, Benjamin L

    2016-11-01

    Conifers dominated wet lowland tropical forests 100 million years ago (MYA). With a few exceptions in the Podocarpaceae and Araucariaceae, conifers are now absent from this biome. This shift to angiosperm dominance also coincided with a large decline in atmospheric CO 2 concentration (c a ). We compared growth and physiological performance of two lowland tropical angiosperms and conifers at c a levels representing pre-industrial (280 ppm), ambient (400 ppm) and Eocene (800 ppm) conditions to explore how differences in c a affect the growth and water-use efficiency (WUE) of seedlings from these groups. Two conifers (Araucaria heterophylla and Podocarpus guatemalensis) and two angiosperm trees (Tabebuia rosea and Chrysophyllum cainito) were grown in climate-controlled glasshouses in Panama. Growth, photosynthetic rates, nutrient uptake, and nutrient use and water-use efficiencies were measured. Podocarpus seedlings showed a stronger (66 %) increase in relative growth rate with increasing c a relative to Araucaria (19 %) and the angiosperms (no growth enhancement). The response of Podocarpus is consistent with expectations for species with conservative growth traits and low mesophyll diffusion conductance. While previous work has shown limited stomatal response of conifers to c a , we found that the two conifers had significantly greater increases in leaf and whole-plant WUE than the angiosperms, reflecting increased photosynthetic rate and reduced stomatal conductance. Foliar nitrogen isotope ratios (δ 15 N) and soil nitrate concentrations indicated a preference in Podocarpus for ammonium over nitrate, which may impact nitrogen uptake relative to nitrate assimilators under high c a SIGNIFICANCE: Podocarps colonized tropical forests after angiosperms achieved dominance and are now restricted to infertile soils. Although limited to a single species, our data suggest that higher c a may have been favourable for podocarp colonization of tropical South America 60

  17. Late Glacial-Holocene Pollen-Based Vegetation History from Pass Lake, Prince of Wales Island, Southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    A radiocarbon-dated history of vegetation development since late Wisconsin deglaciation has been reconstructed from pollen evidence preserved in a sediment core from Pass Lake on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska. The shallow lake is in the south-central part of the island and occupies a low pass that was filled by glacial ice of local origin during the late Wisconsin glaciation. The oldest pollen assemblages indicate that pine woodland (Pinus contorta) had developed in the area by ~13,715 cal yr B.P. An abrupt decline in the pine population, coinciding with expansion of alder (Alnus) and ferns (mostly Polypodiaceae) began ~12,875 yr B.P., and may have been a response to colder, drier climates during the Younger Dryas climatic interval. Mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to colonize central Prince of Wales Island by ~11,920 yr B.P. and was soon followed by Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Pollen of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to appear in Pass Lake sediments soon after 11,200 yr B.P. The abundance of western hemlock pollen in the Pass Lake core during most of the Holocene appears to be the result of wind transport from trees growing at lower altitudes on the island. The late Holocene pollen record from Pass Lake is incomplete because of one or more unconformities, but the available record suggests that a vegetation change occurred during the late Holocene. Increases in pollen percentages of pine, cedar (probably yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and heaths (Ericales) suggest an expansion of muskeg vegetation occurred in the area during the late Holocene. This vegetation change may be related to the onset of cooler, wetter climates that began as early as ~3,774 yr B.P. in the region. This vegetation history provides the first radiocarbon-dated Late Glacial-Holocene terrestrial paleoecological framework for Prince of Wales Island. An analysis of magnetic properties of core sediments from Pass Lake suggests that unconformities

  18. Attitudes and use of medicinal plants during pregnancy among women at health care centers in three regions of Mali, West-Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nergard, Cecilie Sogn; Ho, Thi Phung Than; Diallo, Drissa; Ballo, Ngolo; Paulsen, Berit Smestad; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2015-10-09

    Although, medicinal plants have been important for women's health historically, the knowledge about such use during pregnancy in developing countries is limited. This is the first quantitative, ethnobotanical study on Malian women's use of and attitudes towards the use of medicinal plants during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to describe Malian women's use of medicinal plants during pregnancy according to indications and to evaluate the potentially safety of such use. The overall aim was to preserve valuable information about medicinal plants for women's reproductive health for the future. Data was collected through structured interviews of 209 pregnant women or mothers in three health care centers in Mali. The women were interviewed about their uses of medicinal plants during pregnancy and their attitudes to such use. Nine specific medicinal plants commonly used in Mali and treatment of eleven common ailments in pregnancy were specifically queried about. In total, 79.9 % had used medicinal plants during pregnancy. Only 17 women (8.5 %) had received a recommendation from a traditional practitioner (TP). The most commonly used medicinal plants were Lippia chevalieri (55.5 %), Combretum micranthum (39.7 %), Parkia biglobosa (12.0 %) and Vepris heterophylla (8.1 %). The most common reasons for use were for well-being (37.7 %), symptoms of malaria (37.1 %) and "increased salt-elimination" (to reduce edema) (19.2 %). For treatment of symptoms of malaria and urinary tract infections during pregnancy, the women's choices of medicinal plants agreed with those previously reported from interviews with TPs. Almost 30 % believed that medicinal plants had no adverse effects for the mother. This study showed an extensive use and knowledge of medicinal plants during pregnancy in three regions in Mali. However, exclusive use of medicinal plants as treatment of malaria and urinary tract infections during pregnancy may pose a health risk for the mother and her unborn child. A

  19. Soil greenhouse gas fluxes from different tree species on Taihang Mountain, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. P.; Zhang, W. J.; Hu, C. S.; Tang, X. G.

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate seasonal variation of greenhouse gas fluxes from soils on sites dominated by plantation (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujube) and natural regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, Leptodermis oblonga, and Bothriochloa ischcemum), and to identify how tree species, litter exclusion, and soil properties (soil temperature, soil moisture, soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH) explained the temporal and spatial variation in soil greenhouse gas fluxes. Fluxes of greenhouse gases were measured using static chamber and gas chromatography techniques. Six static chambers were randomly installed in each tree species. Three chambers were randomly designated to measure the impacts of surface litter exclusion, and the remaining three were used as a control. Field measurements were conducted biweekly from May 2010 to April 2012. Soil CO2 emissions from all tree species were significantly affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, and their interaction. Driven by the seasonality of temperature and precipitation, soil CO2 emissions demonstrated a clear seasonal pattern, with fluxes significantly higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were not significantly correlated with soil temperature, soil moisture, or their interaction, and no significant seasonal differences were detected. Soil organic carbon and total N were significantly positively correlated with CO2 and N2O fluxes. Soil bulk density was significantly negatively correlated with CO2 and N2O fluxes. Soil pH was not correlated with CO2 and N2O emissions. Soil CH4 fluxes did not display pronounced dependency on soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH. Removal of surface litter significantly decreased in CO2 emissions and CH4 uptakes. Soils in six tree species acted as sinks for atmospheric CH4. With the exception of Ziziphus jujube, soils in all tree

  20. Phytotoxic Activity of Stem Bark and Leaves of Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Myrtaceae on Weeds

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    Eduardo HABERMANN

    2015-01-01

    En este estudio se evaluó la fitotoxicidad de los extractos y fracciones de las cortezas del tallo (suber y de las hojas maduras de Blepharocalyx salicifolius Kuth O. Berg sobre el crecimiento inicial de Echinochloa crus- galli L. P. Beauv. (capim-arroz y Euphorbia heterophylla L. (amendoim-bravo. Estos extractos fueron obtenidos por extracción exhaustiva y fraccionamiento por coeficiente de partición con disolventes orgánicos. Posteriormente los extractos de acetato de etilo de las hojas y de la corteza del tallo (suber fueron fraccionados por cromatografía de columna con disolventes de polaridad creciente. Tanto los extractos como las fracciones se ensayaron sobre las plantas diana en concentraciones de 0,2, 0,4 y 0,8 mg/mL, como control positivo se utilizó el herbicida comercial Sanson® disuelto en las mismas condiciones y como control negativo agua destilada con DMSO (5uL/mL. Los extractos de acetato de etilo de hojas maduras y corteza así como el extracto de hexano de la corteza mostraron los efectos inhibitorios más pronunciados sobre el crecimiento de las especies diana. De las ocho fracciones del extracto de acetato de etilo de hojas, seis inhibieron el crecimiento de las raíces de capim-arroz y cuatro fracciones inhibieron el crecimiento de las raíces y de la parte aérea de amendoin-bravo en todas las concentraciones ensayadas. De las seis fracciones del extracto de acetato de etilo de corteza, cuatro fueron fitotóxicos sobre el crecimiento de la raíz de capim-arroz en todas las concentraciones. Los extractos y fracciones de la corteza y de las hojas maduras provocaron anomalías en las especies diana. Estos resultados demostraron un efecto fitotóxico pronunciado de los extractos y fracciones de corteza y hojas maduras y su potencial uso como herbicidas naturales.

  1. Low Tree-Growth Elasticity of Forest Biomass Indicated by an Individual-Based Model

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    Robbie A. Hember

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions and silviculture fundamentally alter the metabolism of individual trees and, therefore, need to be studied at that scale. However, changes in forest biomass density (Mg C ha−1 may be decoupled from changes in growth (kg C year−1 when the latter also accelerates the life cycle of trees and strains access to light, nutrients, and water. In this study, we refer to an individual-based model of forest biomass dynamics to constrain the magnitude of system feedbacks associated with ontogeny and competition and estimate the scaling relationship between changes in tree growth and forest biomass density. The model was driven by fitted equations of annual aboveground biomass growth (Gag, probability of recruitment (Pr, and probability of mortality (Pm parameterized against field observations of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. BSP, interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn. Franco, and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg.. A hypothetical positive step-change in mean tree growth was imposed half way through the simulations and landscape-scale responses were then evaluated by comparing pre- and post-stimulus periods. Imposing a 100% increase in tree growth above calibrated predictions (i.e., contemporary rates only translated into 36% to 41% increases in forest biomass density. This corresponded with a tree-growth elasticity of forest biomass (εG,SB ranging from 0.33 to 0.55. The inelastic nature of stand biomass density was attributed to the dependence of mortality on intensity of competition and tree size, which decreased stand density by 353 to 495 trees ha−1, and decreased biomass residence time by 10 to 23 years. Values of εG,SB depended on the magnitude of the stimulus. For example, a retrospective scenario in which tree growth increased from 50% below contemporary rates up to contemporary rates indicated values of εG,SB ranging from 0.66 to 0.75. We conclude that: (1 effects of

  2. The Neogene Environment of the Beardmore Glacier, Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Cantrill, D. J.; Francis, J. E.; Roof, S. R.

    2004-12-01

    Discontinuous sequences of Neogene marine and non-marine glacigenic sequences, including the Meyer Desert Formation (MDF), occur throughout the Transantarctic Mountains. The upper 85m of the MDF, consisting of interbedded diamictites, conglomerates, sandstones and siltstones, outcrops in the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at 85° 07'S, 166° 35'E. The location is about 170 km south of the confluence of the Beardmore Glacier with the Ross Ice Shelf and about 500 km north of the South Pole The glacial, fluvioglacial and glaciolacustrine facies of the MDF represent a dynamic glacial margin which advanced and retreated on at least four occasions. On at least one occasion, the retreat was sufficiently long for plants and animals to colonize the head of a major fjord which existed in the place of the existing Beardmore Glacier. From the fossils we have identified at least 18 species of plants, 3 species of insects, 2 species of freshwater mollusks, and a species of fish. The plant fossils consist of pollen, seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, wood, and in situ plants. The plants include a cryptogamic flora of mosses and liverworts, conifers, and angiosperms in the families Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Nothofagaceae, Ranunculaceae, Hippuridaceae, ?Caryophyllaceae, and ?Chenopodiaceae or ?Myrtaceae. The plants grew in a weakly developed soil developed on a complex periglacial environment that included moraines, glacial outwash streams, well-drained gravel ridges, and poorly drained depressions in which peat and marl were being deposited. The fossil assemblage represents a mosaic tundra environment of well- and poorly-drained micro-sites, in which nutrient availability would have been patchily distributed. Antarctica has been essentially in a polar position since the Early Cretaceous and at 85° S receives no sunlight from the middle of March until the end of September. Today, the annual radiation received is about 42% that of Tierra del Fuego at 55° S. During the Neogene

  3. Temporal changes of meadow and peatbog vegetation in the landscape of a small-scale river valley in Central Roztocze

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    Bożenna Czarnecka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Szum is a right-side tributary of the Tanew River crossing the southern escarpment zone of the Central Roztocze region (SE Poland. Downstream of the strict river break in a section between the 10th and 12th km of the river course in the Szum valley, meadow and peatbog complexes have developed, associated with semi-hydrogenic and marshy soils. In an area of approx. 13 ha of the most valuable non-forest habitats, a variety of plant communities have been identified, including habitats of the Natura 2000 network and habitats that are protected under the Regulation of the Minister of the Environment (2001. These are, for instance, meadow associations Lysimachio vulgaris-Filipenduletum, Lythro-Filipenduletum, Filipendulo ulmariae-Menthetum longifoliae, Angelico-Cirsietum oleracei, and Cirsietum rivularis. The moss–sedge and sphagnum bog communities comprise noteworthy associations Caricetum limosae, Rhynchosporetum albae, Caricetum lasiocarpae, Caricetum paniceo-lepidocarpae, Caricetum davallianae, and Sphagnetum magellanici. These communities are composed of ca. 160 vascular plant species and 40 moss and liverwort species. In 1999–2014, the greatest changes occurred within macroforb meadows, i.e. small Angelico-Cirsietum oleracei and Cirsietum rivularis patches have been transformed into Lysimachio vulgaris-Filipenduletum, while some patches of the latter association have been transformed into a Caricetum acutiformis rush. Several patches of bog-spring associations Caricetum paniceo-lepidocarpae and Carici canescentis-Agrostietum caninae have been irretrievably destroyed. Sphagnetum magellanici appears to be the least stable community among the preserved peatbogs. The changes of meadow and peatbog vegetation observed for the last 15 years are a consequence of natural processes that take place in the river valley and to a large extent human activity connected with the so-called small-scale water retention as well as the presence of a beaver

  4. How biological crusts are stabilizing the soil surface? The devolpment of organo-mineral interactions in the initial phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T.; Veste, M.; Wiehe, W.; Lange, P.

    2009-04-01

    First colonizers of new land surfaces are cryptogames which often form biological soil crusts (BSC) covering the first millimetre of the top soil in many ecosystems from polar to desert ecosystems. These BSC are assemblages of cyanobacteria, green algae, mosses, liverworts, fungi and/or lichens. The development of soil surface crusts plays a major role for the further vegetation pattern through changes to the physico-chemical conditions and influencing various ecosystem processes. We studied the development of BSC on quaternary substrate of an initial artificial water catchment in Lusatia, Germany. Due to lack of organic matter in the geological substrate, photoautotrophic organisms like green algae and cyanobacteria dominated the initial phases of ecosystem development and, hence, of organo-mineral ineractions. We combined SEM/EDX and FTIR microscopy to study the contact zone of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of green algae and cyanobacteria with quartz, spars and mica on a >40 µm scale in undisturbed biological soil crusts, which had a maximum thickness of approx. 2 mm. SEM/EDX microscopy was used to determine the spatial distribution of S, Ca, Fe, Al, Si and K in the profiles, organic compounds were identified using FTIR microscopy. Exudates of crust organisms served as cementing material between sand particles. The crust could be subdivided into two horizontal layers. The upper layer, which had a thickness of approx. 200 µm, is characterized by accumulation of Al and K, but absence of Fe in microbial derived organic matter, indicating capture of weathering products of feldspars and mica by microbial exudates. The pore space between mineral particles was entirely filled with organic matter here. The underlying layer can be characterized by empty pores and organo-mineral bridges between the sand particles. Contrarily to the upper layer of the crust, Fe, Al and Si were associated with organic matter here but K was absent. Highest similarity of the FTIR

  5. Distribution and floristics of moss- and lichen-dominated soil crusts in a patterned Callitris glaucophylla woodland in eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, David J.

    1999-05-01

    The distribution and abundance of soil crust lichens and bryophytes was examined in a patterned Callitris glaucophylla woodland in eastern Australia. Twenty-one lichen species and 26 bryophyte species were collected within thirty quadrats along a sequence of runoff, interception and runoff zones. Crust cover was significantly greatest in the interception zones (79.0 %), followed by the runoff zones (24.0 %), and lowest in the groved, runon zones (6.6 %). Lichens and bryophytes were distributed across all geomorphic zones, and, although there were significantly more moss species in the interception zones (mean = 9.1) compared with either the runoff (4.2) or runon (3.2) zones, the number of lichen species did not vary between zones. Ordination of a reduced data set of 32 species revealed a separation of taxa into distinct groups corresponding to the three geomorphic zones. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the 32 species and thirteen environmental variables revealed that the most important factors associated with the distribution of species were sheet and scarp erosion, soil stability and coherence, litter cover and crust cover. Surface cracking, microtopography and plant cover were of intermediate importance. The CCA biplot revealed that the timbered runon zones (groves) were dominated by `shade-tolerant' mosses Fissidens vittatus and Barbula hornschuchiana, whilst the heavily eroded runoff zones supported sparse populations of `erosion tolerant' lichens ( Endocarpon rogersii) and mosses (Bryum argenteum and Didymodon torquatus). Interception zones supported a rich suite of `crust forming' mosses and lichens capable of tolerating moderate inundation by overland flow. Two other groups of taxa were identified by this analysis: the `pioneer' group, comprising mainly nitrogen-fixing lichens which occupy the zone of active erosion at the lower edge of the groves, and the `opportunists' dominated by liverworts, occupying the shallow depressions or bays at the

  6. Evolution of Fractal Parameters through Development Stage of Soil Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Abelardo; Florentino, Adriana; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    Soil surface characteristics are subjected to changes driven by several interactions between water, air, biotic and abiotic components. One of the examples of such interactions is provided through biological soil crusts (BSC) in arid and semi-arid environments. BSC are communities composed of cyanobacteria, fungi, mosses, lichens, algae and liverworts covering the soil surface and play an important role in ecosystem functioning. The characteristics and formation of these BSC influence the soil hydrological balance, control the mass of eroded sediment, increase stability of soil surface, and influence plant productivity through the modification of nitrogen and carbon cycle. The site of this work is located at Quibor and Ojo de Agua (Lara state, Venezuela). The Quibor Depression in Venezuela is a major agricultural area being at semi-arid conditions and limited drainage favor the natural process of salinization. Additionally, the extension and intensification of agriculture has led to over-exploitation of groundwater in the past 30 years (Méndoza et al., 2013). The soil microbial crust develops initially on physical crusts which are mainly generated since wetting and drying, being a recurrent feature in the Quíbor arid zone. The microbiotic crust is organic, composed of macro organisms (bryophytes and lichens) and microorganisms (cyanobacteria, fungi algae, etc.); growing on the ground, forming a thickness no greater than 3 mm. For further details see Toledo and Florentino (2009). This study focus on characterize the development stage of the BSC based on image analysis. To this end, grayscale images of different types of biological soil crust at different stages where taken, each image corresponding to an area of 12.96 cm2 with a resolution of 1024x1024 pixels (Ospina et al., 2015). For each image lacunarity and fractal dimension through the differential box counting method were calculated. These were made with the software ImageJ/Fraclac (Karperien, 2013

  7. Controle de dez espécies daninhas em cana-de-açúcar com o herbicida mesotrione em mistura com ametryn e metribuzin Control of ten weed species in sugarcane using mesotrione mixed with ametryn and metribuzin

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    F.T. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Existem muitas opções de herbicidas para aplicações em pré-emergência em cana-de-açúcar, mas o grande desafio atual para a cultura é o controle pós-emergente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do herbicida mesotrione em mistura com ametryn e metribuzin no controle em pós-emergência de 10 espécies daninhas semeadas em cana-de-açúcar, variedade RB 86-7515. As espécies daninhas selecionadas para o experimento foram: Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria plantaginea, Cenchrus echinatus, Digitaria horizontalis, Panicum maximum, Amaranthus deflexus, Bidens pilosa, Euphorbia heterophylla, Ipomoea nil e Sida glaziovii, semeadas nas entrelinhas após a emergência da cultura. Os herbicidas foram aplicados aos 45 dias após o plantio da cana-de-açúcar, com as plantas daninhas monocotiledôneas na fase de terceiro perfilho e as dicotiledôneas com três a quatro pares de folhas, e constaram dos seguintes tratamentos: mesotrione (120 g ha-1; ametryn (2.000 g ha-1; metribuzin (1.920 g ha-1; mesotrione + ametryn (120 g + 2.000 g ha-1; mesotrione + metribuzin (120 g + 1920 g ha-1 e testemunhas no mato e no limpo. Concluiu-se que os herbicidas isolados ou em mistura foram seletivos à cana-de-açúcar. Com relação à eficácia, observou-se que o herbicida mesotrione foi eficiente no controle de A. deflexus; ametryn, no controle de A. deflexus, B. pilosa e I. nil; metribuzin, no controle de A. deflexus, B. pilosa e S. glaziovii; mesotrione + ametryn, no controle de B. decumbens, B. plantaginea, D. horizontalis, P. maximum, A. deflexus, B. pilosa, I. nil e S. glaziovii; e mesotrione + metribuzin, no controle de B. plantaginea, D. horizontalis, P. maximum, A. deflexus, B. pilosa e S. glaziovii. Foi constatado elevado efeito sinergístico do mesotrione com os herbicidas testados, sendo o efeito mais pronunciado na mistura com o ametryn.There are many herbicide application options for sugarcane pre-emergence but, currently, post

  8. Produção de Bipolaris euphorbiae em meios de cultura sólidos e líquidos obtidos de grãos e resíduos agroindustriais Production of Bipolaris euphorbiae in solid and liquid culture media obtained from grains and agricultural industry residues

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    Mara Cristina Penariol

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Bipolaris euphorbiae como bioagente de controle de Euphorbia heterophylla é dependente da produção de conídios em grande quantidade. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se definir meios de cultura sólidos e líquidos, obtidos de grãos ou resíduos da agroindústria, eficazes para a produção de conídios de B. euphorbiae. No preparo dos meios sólidos utilizaram-se grãos de arroz, trigo e sorgo, quirelas de arroz, milho e trigo, sorgo moído, farelos de arroz, trigo e soja, cascas de mandioca e soja, casca de mandioca + farelo de soja, bagaço de cana e bagaço de cana + amido solúvel. No preparo dos meios líquidos, utilizaram-se grãos de arroz, sorgo e trigo, quirela de milho, farelos de trigo, soja e arroz, casca de mandioca e soja, vinhaça de cana e água de prensa da mandioca. Avaliaram-se a produção e a viabilidade dos conídios e a virulência do fungo e, nos meios líquidos, também a biomassa. A produção de conídios é influenciada pelo tipo de meio de cultura, sendo acentuadamente maior nos meios sólidos, destacando-se, como substratos, o sorgo em grão (474 x 10(6 conídios g-1 e a casca de soja (472 x 10(6 conídios g-1. Dentre os meios líquidos obteve-se mais produção usando-se farelo de trigo (1,33 x 10(6 conídios mL-1. A virulência e a viabilidade de B. euphorbiae não são afetadas pelo preparo de meios sólidos ou líquidos e pela composição nutricional dos meios de cultura. Na maioria dos meios sólidos ou líquidos obteve-se viabilidade de conídios maior que 98%; apenas os conídios produzidos nos meios sólidos de quirela de arroz, casca de mandioca + farelo de soja e farelo de soja estavam com viabilidade significativamente menor.The introduction of Bipolaris euphorbiae as a bioagent for Euphorbia heterophylla control depends on fungal conidia production in large amount. This work evaluate to solid and liquid culture media obtained from grains and residues from agriculture industries

  9. Plantas hospederas de los virus más importantes que infectan el melón, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae en Costa Rica

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    M.V. Sánchez

    1998-03-01

    naturally occurring in and around areas of commercial melon production serve as reservoirs for the melon viruses and ensure the survival of the viruses from one production season to the next. Several new host species of three of the melon viruses (PRSV, WMV-2 and ZYMV were identified. Previously unreported hosts of PRSV included Tridax procumbens, Cleome viscosa, Cleome spinosa, Malvaviscus arboreus and Sida rhombifolia. New hosts of WMV-2 included C. viscosa, Crotum argenteus, Musa pardisiaca and Ponsetia heterophylla. New hosts of ZYMV included Guazuma ulmifolia, Rauvolfia tetraphylla, Malachra alceifolia, Boerhavia diffusa, P. heterophylla and C. viscosa.

  10. Manejo de herbicidas na cultura da soja Roundup Ready® Herbicide management in Roundup Ready® soybean crop

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    F.A. Petter

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficácia de diferentes sistemas de manejo de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas e no desenvolvimento e produtividade de diferentes cultivares de soja Roundup Ready®. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, sendo cinco sistemas de aplicação de herbicidas [(1 glyphosate (1.080 g ha-1 + 2,4-D (241,8 g ha-1 14 dias antes da semeadura (DAS, paraquat + diuron (400 + 200 g ha-1 no dia da semeadura e glyphosate (960 g ha-1 35 dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE; (2 glyphosate (1.080 g ha-1 + 2,4-D (241,8 g ha-1 aos 14 DAS, paraquat + diuron (400 + 200 g ha-1 no dia da semeadura e glyphosate (480 g ha-1 aos 17 DAE; (3 glyphosate (1.080 g ha-1 + 2,4-D (241,8 g ha-1 aos 14 DAS e glyphosate (960 g ha-1 aos 35 DAE; (4 glyphosate (1.080 g ha-1 + 2,4-D (241,8 g ha-1 aos 14 DAS e glyphosate (480 g ha-1 17 dias após a emergência das plantas; e (5 testemunha - glyphosate (1.080 g ha-1 + 2,4-D (241,8 g ha-1 aos 14 DAS, sem aplicação de herbicidas em pós-emergência] combinados com cinco cultivares de soja RR® (M-SOY 8585, P98R91, Valiosa, CD 219 e TMG 108, formando 25 tratamentos. Todos os sistemas de aplicação de herbicidas apresentaram controle das espécies de plantas daninhas Chamaesyce hirta, Alternanthera tenella, Euphorbia heterophylla, Spermacoce latifolia e Tridax procumbens superior ao da testemunha sem aplicação de herbicidas em pós-emergência, sendo eficientes no controle dessas espécies. No entanto, no "sistema 3" observou-se menor nível de controle das espécies Spermacoce latifolia, Tridax procumbens e Chamaesyce hirta, esta última somente nas parcelas semeadas com o cultivar CD 219. Os sistemas de manejo de herbicidas influenciaram a altura das plantas de soja, sendo os menores valores verificados no cultivar TMG 108 com a aplicação do "sistema 3". A produtividade de grãos dos cultivares de soja não diferiu

  11. Aspectos biológicos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae alimentada com Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae criada em três hospedeiros Biological aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae reared in three hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se alguns aspectos biológicos de adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen oriundos de larvas alimentadas com ninfas da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B, criadas em folhas de pepino (Cucumis sativus var. caipira, couve (Brassica oleraceae var. acephala e na planta invasora leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla. Discos foliares dos hospedeiros contendo ninfas de terceiro e quarto estádios da mosca-branca foram acondicionados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água a 1%. Em cada placa foi colocada uma larva de C. externa recém-eclodida, onde permaneceram até a emergência dos adultos. Foram avaliados o peso logo após a emergência, os períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposição, efetivo de oviposição, pós-oviposição, número total de ovos produzidos por fêmea e longevidade. Avaliaram-se, também, o período embrionário e a viabilidade dos ovos, coletando-se, uma vez por semana, uma amostra de 10% do total de ovos produzidos no dia, ao longo de todo o período reprodutivo. O peso de machos e fêmeas não diferiu significativamente em função do hospedeiro da presa, sendo em média de 4,7 mg. De maneira geral, adultos de C. externa oriundos de larvas alimentadas com ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B criadas em leiteiro apresentaram performance inferior em relação àqueles oriundos do pepino e da couve. O período de oviposição foi, em média, de 49,5 dias para o pepino e a couve, e de 31,6 dias para o leiteiro. A produção de ovos foi reduzida em aproximadamente 50% em leiteiro, sendo de 293,8 ovos; no pepino e couve, a média foi de 591,3 ovos. Ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B criadas em leiteiro causaram uma redução da viabilidade dos ovos de C. externa, que foi 62,8% e 57,7% inferior ao verificado para o pepino e a couve, respectivamente.The aim was to study some biological aspects of adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, from larvae fed on nymphs of third and fourth stages of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B

  12. Plantas infestantes em lavouras de milho safrinha, sob diferentes manejos, no Médio Paranapanema Weed in second corn crops submitted to different systems in the Médio Paranapanema Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Duarte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Um levantamento de plantas daninhas foi realizado em 20 lavouras de milho safrinha em 1997 e 40 em 1998 e 1999, depois da soja, na região do Médio Paranapanema-SP. O levantamento abrangeu os municípios de Assis, Campos Novos, Cândido Mota, Cruzália, Florínea, Maracaí, Palmital, Pedrinhas Paulista e Platina. No estádio de enchimento de grãos, as lavouras foram percorridas em ziguezague, a partir de quatro pontos de entrada, de maneira a representar a área total. As lavouras foram subdivididas de acordo com as condições de manejo das culturas: semeadura direta, semeadura convencional em solo preparado com grade e semeadura de milho safrinha na palha de soja cultivada no sistema convencional. Em cada lavoura foram cadastrados o nível de infestação e as espécies daninhas. Foram coletadas informações quanto ao manejo das plantas daninhas adotado nas lavouras, assim como sobre os herbicidas empregados. As espécies de plantas daninhas mais importantes foram Cenchrus echinatus, Bidens pilosa, Euphorbia heterophylla, Raphanus sativus, Digitaria horizontalis, Commelina benghalensis, Amaranthus sp., Achyrocline satureioides, Sinapis arvensis, Sida sp., Glycine max, Avena strigosa, Eleusina indica e Sorghum halepense. Houve acentuado aumento na infestação da espécie C. echinatus nas lavouras, a qual passou a constituir-se na principal espécie infestante. R. sativus também se tornou importante e apresentou grande incremento de 1997 a 1999. Na semeadura convencional houve predomínio de alta infestação, evidenciando desempenho inferior desse sistema em relação aos demais no controle de plantas daninhas. O controle químico mais utilizado foi a mistura atrazine + óleo vegetal + 2,4-D, seguido por atrazine + óleo e atrazine isolado. De modo geral, não se efetuou o controle das plantas daninhas em 22% das lavouras, as quais apresentaram as maiores porcentagens de infestação. O nível de infestação em função do tipo de

  13. Fungal Planet description sheets: 400-468.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Richardson, D M; Le Roux, J J; Strasberg, D; Edwards, J; Roets, F; Hubka, V; Taylor, P W J; Heykoop, M; Martín, M P; Moreno, G; Sutton, D A; Wiederhold, N P; Barnes, C W; Carlavilla, J R; Gené, J; Giraldo, A; Guarnaccia, V; Guarro, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Kolařík, M; Manjón, J L; Pascoe, I G; Popov, E S; Sandoval-Denis, M; Woudenberg, J H C; Acharya, K; Alexandrova, A V; Alvarado, P; Barbosa, R N; Baseia, I G; Blanchette, R A; Boekhout, T; Burgess, T I; Cano-Lira, J F; Čmoková, A; Dimitrov, R A; Dyakov, M Yu; Dueñas, M; Dutta, A K; Esteve-Raventós, F; Fedosova, A G; Fournier, J; Gamboa, P; Gouliamova, D E; Grebenc, T; Groenewald, M; Hanse, B; Hardy, G E St J; Held, B W; Jurjević, Ž; Kaewgrajang, T; Latha, K P D; Lombard, L; Luangsa-Ard, J J; Lysková, P; Mallátová, N; Manimohan, P; Miller, A N; Mirabolfathy, M; Morozova, O V; Obodai, M; Oliveira, N T; Ordóñez, M E; Otto, E C; Paloi, S; Peterson, S W; Phosri, C; Roux, J; Salazar, W A; Sánchez, A; Sarria, G A; Shin, H-D; Silva, B D B; Silva, G A; Smith, M Th; Souza-Motta, C M; Stchigel, A M; Stoilova-Disheva, M M; Sulzbacher, M A; Telleria, M T; Toapanta, C; Traba, J M; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Watling, R; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-06-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Vermiculariopsiella eucalypti, Mulderomyces natalis (incl. Mulderomyces gen. nov.), Fusicladium paraamoenum, Neotrimmatostroma paraexcentricum, and Pseudophloeospora eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus spp., Anungitea grevilleae (on leaves of Grevillea sp.), Pyrenochaeta acaciae (on leaves of Acacia sp.), and Brunneocarpos banksiae (incl. Brunneocarpos gen. nov.) on cones of Banksia attenuata. Novel foliicolous taxa from South Africa include Neosulcatispora strelitziae (on Strelitzia nicolai), Colletotrichum ledebouriae (on Ledebouria floridunda), Cylindrosympodioides brabejum (incl. Cylindrosympodioides gen. nov.) on Brabejum stellatifolium, Sclerostagonospora ericae (on Erica sp.), Setophoma cyperi (on Cyperus sphaerocephala), and Phaeosphaeria breonadiae (on Breonadia microcephala). Novelties described from Robben Island (South Africa) include Wojnowiciella cissampeli and Diaporthe cissampeli (both on Cissampelos capensis), Phaeotheca salicorniae (on Salicornia meyeriana), Paracylindrocarpon aloicola (incl. Paracylindrocarpon gen. nov.) on Aloe sp., and Libertasomyces myopori (incl. Libertasomyces gen. nov.) on Myoporum serratum. Several novelties are recorded from La Réunion (France), namely Phaeosphaeriopsis agapanthi (on Agapanthus sp.), Roussoella solani (on Solanum mauritianum), Vermiculariopsiella acaciae (on Acacia heterophylla), Dothiorella acacicola (on Acacia mearnsii), Chalara clidemiae (on Clidemia hirta), Cytospora tibouchinae (on Tibouchina semidecandra), Diaporthe ocoteae (on Ocotea obtusata), Castanediella eucalypticola, Phaeophleospora eucalypticola and Fusicladium eucalypticola (on Eucalyptus robusta), Lareunionomyces syzygii (incl. Lareunionomyces gen. nov.) and Parawiesneriomyces syzygii (incl. Parawiesneriomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Syzygium jambos. Novel taxa from the USA include Meristemomyces arctostaphylos (on Arctostaphylos patula

  14. Ecology and behavior of the zenaida dove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Data are summarized from a 10 year study of the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) in Puerto Rico and its offshore islands. The dove displays sexual size dimorphism, with males generally larger than females: Most activities (feeding, courtship, fighting) occurred in mornings and afternoons, whereas loafing and maintenance activities were more prevalent at mid-day. I recorded 77 plant species used as food by Zenaida Doves in Puerto Rico. Major food species uncluded Scleria lithosperma, Argemone mexicana, Croton rigidus, Phyllanthus amarus, Cordia angustifolia, Zanthoxylum martinicense, Euphorbia heterophylla, and several species of legumes. Zenaida Doves have two major vocalizations: the 'Coo', or Advertisement Call, given in assertive and sexual contexts, and the Nest Call, primarily used at or near the nest. Doves nested in a wide variety of habitats, including forest edge, mangrove forest, dry scrub, and mixed agriculture-urban areas. Nests were generally placed in trees, but doves nested on the ground where certain terrestrial predators were absent. Nests were found in all months of the year, although a breeding peak occurred from March through Mayor July. Doves replaced clutches when nests were destroyed, and recycled up to four times in a season. Males selected nest sites and initiated building. Eggs (2) were laid on alternate days, beginning about two days after the nest was completed. Incubation and nestling stages averaged 13.9 :t 0.5 [SE] and 14.3 :t 0.6 days. The male attended the nest from mid-morning (X = 08:59 hr) through mid-afternoon (x = 16:53), then the female took over incubation and brooding duties for the night. Nests were continuously covered from the laying of the first egg through day seven of the nestling stage. Thereafter, adult attendance dropped steadily until day 14, when they carne to the nest only for chick feedings. Chicks (days 0-15) showed a mean daily weight gain of 18.3% and attained a fledging weight of about 120g (81% of adult weight

  15. Técnica para preparo angioarquitetônico hepático de ratos Preparation technique for angioarquitetonic liver model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitormauro Araújo da Silva

    2000-09-01

    the objective of the present study is to demonstrate the technique for accomplishment of veined corrosing casting of the rat's liver. 10 Rattus norvegicus albinus (Wistar were used, with corporal mass between 250 and 300g, to verify the functionality of the method. The technique for preparation of vascular model presents three fundamental times: catetherization of the portal vein, intra-abdominal vena cava and intra-thoracic vena cava; prepare and infusion of the solution of acrylic; erosion in hydrochloric acid and maceration of the anatomic piece. We concluded that, this technique is feasible and it presents as advantage a low cost (30 dollars and with the use of two colors different from ink it can separate the portal vascular system of the hepatic veins drainage system, therefore being capable to mold the structure vascular liverwort of rats.

  16. Evolution of RLSB, a nuclear-encoded S1 domain RNA binding protein associated with post-transcriptional regulation of plastid-encoded rbcL mRNA in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramsetty, Pradeep; Stata, Matt; Siford, Rebecca; Sage, Tammy L; Sage, Rowan F; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Albert, Victor A; Berry, James O

    2016-06-29

    RLSB, an S-1 domain RNA binding protein of Arabidopsis, selectively binds rbcL mRNA and co-localizes with Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) within chloroplasts of C3 and C4 plants. Previous studies using both Arabidopsis (C3) and maize (C4) suggest RLSB homologs are post-transcriptional regulators of plastid-encoded rbcL mRNA. While RLSB accumulates in all Arabidopsis leaf chlorenchyma cells, in C4 leaves RLSB-like proteins accumulate only within Rubisco-containing bundle sheath chloroplasts of Kranz-type species, and only within central compartment chloroplasts in the single cell C4 plant Bienertia. Our recent evidence implicates this mRNA binding protein as a primary determinant of rbcL expression, cellular localization/compartmentalization, and photosynthetic function in all multicellular green plants. This study addresses the hypothesis that RLSB is a highly conserved Rubisco regulatory factor that occurs in the chloroplasts all higher plants. Phylogenetic analysis has identified RLSB orthologs and paralogs in all major plant groups, from ancient liverworts to recent angiosperms. RLSB homologs were also identified in algae of the division Charophyta, a lineage closely related to land plants. RLSB-like sequences were not identified in any other algae, suggesting that it may be specific to the evolutionary line leading to land plants. The RLSB family occurs in single copy across most angiosperms, although a few species with two copies were identified, seemingly randomly distributed throughout the various taxa, although perhaps correlating in some cases with known ancient whole genome duplications. Monocots of the order Poales (Poaceae and Cyperaceae) were found to contain two copies, designated here as RLSB-a and RLSB-b, with only RLSB-a implicated in the regulation of rbcL across the maize developmental gradient. Analysis of microsynteny in angiosperms revealed high levels of conservation across eudicot species and for both paralogs in

  17. Tufa in Northern England: depositional facies, carbonate mineral fabrics, and role of biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, E.; Mawson, M.; Perri, E.; Tucker, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    Tufas are widely scattered in northern England, being concentrated in areas of limestone (Carboniferous and Permian), where there are springs, seepages, streams and waterfalls with waters supersatured in respect of calcite. Some deposits are clearly related to faults. Tufas have been examined in Gordale and Malham (SW Yorkshire), Teesdale and Weardale (Co. Durham), Sunderland (Tyne & Wear) and Great Asby Fell (Cumbria). A variety of tufa types are developed: spring-related pisoids and moss tufa, fluviatile barrage and waterfall tufa, and seepage and spring tufa with microbial oncoids in a paludal setting. We present preliminary data and observations on tufa in the Teesdale area, which forms along the valley-side adjacent to the River Tees. Locally here, a tiny stream draining agricultural land runs over a sandstone outcrop at the top of a 30 metre high slope; water descends the 30-60 degrees slope, creating tiny waterfalls and pools across an area reaching 10 metres wide, on the way down towards the river. Three main facies are recognizable in the tufa deposits: carbonate crusts, moss tufa and pisoids. In the upper part of the slope tufa occurs as sub-vertical 0.5-5 cm thick carbonate crusts forming "sheets" with a bulbous external surface covered by a green biofilm, with some insect larvae. Encrustations form upon surfaces of rock exposures and pebbles, and coat plant fragments (leaves, twigs, pine cones). Tufa precipitation, particularly on mosses, liverworts and leaves (moss tufa), creates a series of rimmed pools, a few decimetres across and centimetres deep. Apart from the presence of moss, which gives the tufa has a vacuolar texture, the main constituents are cyanobacteria and diatoms. The moss tufa deposit may reach a metre or more in height and several metres in width, notably towards the base of the slope, adjacent to the river. Within the small pools on the slope, pisoids and partially calcified plant remains accumulate. They also occur abundantly in the